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Mathematical Discourse Language, Symbolism and Visual Images

Kay L. O'Halloran

continuum

LONDON • NEW YORK

New York. recording or any information storage or retrieval system. NY 10010 All rights reserved. London SE1 7NX © Kay L. Bungay. Suffolk Printed and bound in Great Britain by Cromwell Press Ltd. ISBN 0-8264-6857-8 (hardback) Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the Library of Congress Typeset by RefineCatch Ltd. without permission in writing from the publishers.Continuum The Tower Building. 11 York Road. electronic or mechanical. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. including photocopying. O'Halloran 2005 15 East 26th Street. Trowbridge. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. Wilts .

1 Historical Development of Mathematical Discourse 2.2 Early Printed Mathematics Books 2.5 Contraction of Interpersonal Meaning 4.1 Mathematical Symbolism 4.2 Language-Based Approach to Mathematical Symbolism 4.2 Halliday's Social Semiotic Approach 1.3 SF Framework for Mathematical Symbolism 4.7 Language.4 Implications of a Multisemiotic View 1.7 Specification of Textual Meaning 4.6 Grammatical Metaphor and Mathematical Language 3.Contents Acknowledgements Copyright Permission Acknowledgements 1 Mathematics as a Multisemiotic Discourse 1.6 A New World Order Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and Mathematical Language 3.3 Mathematics in the Early Renaissance 2.5 Descartes' Philosophy and Semiotic Representations 2. Context and Ideology The Grammar of Mathematical Symbolism 4.6 Systemic Functional Research in Multimodality Evolution of the Semiotics of Mathematics 2.4 The Construction of Logical Meaning 3.4 Contraction and Expansion of Experiential Meaning 4.8 Discourse.9 Concluding Comments viii ix 1 1 6 10 13 17 19 22 22 24 33 38 46 57 60 60 67 75 78 81 83 88 94 94 96 97 103 114 118 121 125 128 2 3 4 .1 The Creation of Order 1.1 The Systemic Functional Model of Language 3. Grammar and Display 4.5 The Textual Organization of Language 3.3 Mathematics and the Language of Experience 3.4 Beginnings of Modern Mathematics: Descartes and Newton 2.3 Mathematics as Multisemiotic 1.5 Tracing the Semiotics of Mathematics 1.2 Interpersonal Meaning in Mathematics 3.6 A Resource for Logical Reasoning 4.

6 The Role of Visualization in Mathematics SF Framework for Mathematical Visual Images Interpersonally Orientating the Viewer Visual Construction of Experiential Meaning Reasoning through Mathematical Visual Images Compositional Meaning and Conventionalized Styles of Organization 5.3 6.1 Multisemiotic Analysis of a Contemporary Mathematics Problem 7.3 5.5 6.2 Educational Implications of a Multisemiotic Approach to Mathematics 7.7 Computer Graphics and the New Image of Mathematics 6 Intersemiosis: Meaning Across Language.5 5.6 7 The Semantic Circuit in Mathematics Intersemiosis: Mechanisms.4 The Nature and Use of Mathematical Constructions References Index 189 199 205 208 211 223 .4 6.2 5.2 6.1 5.1 6. Visual Images and Symbolism 129 133 139 142 145 146 148 158 6.3 Pedagogical Discourse in Mathematics Classrooms 7.VI 5 CONTENTS The Grammar of Mathematical Visual Images 129 5.4 5. Systems and Semantics Analysing Intersemiosis in Mathematical Texts Intersemiotic Re-Contexualization in Newton's Writings Semiotic Metaphor and Metaphorical Expansions of Meaning Reconceptualizing Grammatical Metaphor 158 163 171 177 179 184 189 Mathematical Constructions of Reality 7.

. For my brother Greg and his family. Jim O'Halloran.In memory of my father.

I thank Michael O'Toole and Frances Christie for their friendship and support. Michael O'Toole's application of systemic functional theory to displayed art provides the inspiration for the models for mathematical symbolism and visual image presented here. Faculty of Education. Our lively correspondence has contributed to the contents of this book. Umberto Ansaldo and Lisa Lim. My special thanks to Philip J. University of Manchester) for supporting my visit to JRULM. I thank Linda Thompson (Director of the Language and Literacy Studies Research Group. and I thank my past and present friends and colleagues at the National University of Singapore . My special thanks to the director and librarians from the John Rylands University Library of Manchester (JRULM) for making so readily available the mathematics manuscripts in the Mathematical Printed Collection. . Chris Stroud. Desmond Allison. Linda Thompson. Brown University) for his interest in this project. Davis (Emeritus Professor. Jay Lemke pioneered the application of systemic functional theory to science and mathematics as multisemiotic discourses.most notably Joe Foley. This work would not be possible without these founding contributions. Ed McDonald.Acknowledgements This study of mathematical discourse is based on Michael Halliday's systemic functional model of language and Jim Martin's extensive contributions to systemic theory. Applied Mathematics Division.

1535: 267) Printing counter and line calculations (Reisch.Copyright Permission Acknowledgements The author is grateful to the following organizations for the right to reproduce the images which appear in this book. © 1987 by Open Court Publishing Company The following have been reprinted by courtesy of the director and librarian.2(3) The Hindu-Arabic system versus counters and lines (Reisch. Berlin Language.3(1) Chapter 2 Plate 2. 1535: 326) . the John Rylands University Library of Manchester: Plate 2. a division of Carus Publishing Company. IL from Capitalism and Arithmetic by F. Berlin Photograph 45: Jiirgen Stumpff/Bildarchiv PreuBischer Kulturbesitz. 1987: 140) Reprinted by permission from Open Court Publishing Company. Chapter 1 Plate 1.1(1) Photographs from Beevor (2002: Chapter 24) The photographs are reprinted with kind permission from: Photograph 43: Bildarchiv PreuBischer Kulturbesitz. Visual Images and Symbolism (Kockelkoren et al. Peru. Berlin Photograph 44: Ullstein Bild. The publishers apologize for any omissions and will be pleased to rectify them at the earliest opportunity.2(2) Plate 2. Swetz. 2003: 173) Reprinted with kind permission from Elsevier Plate 1. Every effort has been made to contact copyright holders of material produced in this book.2(1) The Treviso Arithmetic (reproduced from Swetz.

4(6b) 2.4(4b) Plate 2. Reprinted with permission of Brooks/ Cole. 1682: 226) Circles and lines (Descartes. © 1999. Tacuinus (ThomasStanford. 168) Chapter 4 Plate 4. 1926: Illustration II) Plate 2.2(4b) Euclid's Elements: Venice 1505.4(7) Translation of Euclid (reproduced from Euclid.2(6) QuadraturaParaboles (Archimedes.thompsonrights. Greenstreet: London. circles and lines (Descartes.3(4) Positioning a target (Galileo. 1615: 437) Plate 2.3(3) Arithmetic calculations to hit a target (Tartaglia. 1956: 283) Removing the human body: Newton (1952: 9) Descartes' description of curves (1954: 234) Descartes' use of symbolism (1954: 186) Newton's algebraic notes on Euclid (reproduced from Cajori. 1682: 217) Plate 2. London: Plate 2. 1682: 228) Descartes' semiotic compass (1683: 54) (Book Two) Drawing the curves (Descartes. Oxford for access to the microfilm of the following manuscript held by the British Library. 1638: 67) Plate 2. 1546: 106) Plate 2. 1546: 7) Plate 2. 1993: 209) Latin edition (1655) of Barrow's Euclid (Taken from Isaac Newton: A Memorial Volume [ed.4(4a) Plate 2.4(8a) Newton's (1736: 80-81) Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series Plate 2. p.4(5a) Plate 2. Erhard Ratdolt (ThomasStanford.4(lb) 2. a division of Thompson Learning: www. 1682: 111) Plate 2.5(1) Context.4(6a) 2. 1999: 139) From Calculus: Combined Single and Multivariable 4th edition by Stewart.2(4a) Euclid's Elements: Venice 1482. 1927].X COPYRIGHT PERMISSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Plate 2.4(5b) Plate 2. 1926: Illustration IV) Plate 2. 1682: 217) Plate 2. 1683: 20) (Book Two) Illustration from Newton's (1729) The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy My thanks to the Bodleian Library.4(la) Removing the human body (Descartes.3(2) Hitting a target (Tartaglia. Fax: 800 730-2215 . WJ.com.4(8b) Newton's (1736: 100) Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series The following have been reprinted by courtesy of Dover Publications: Plate Plate Plate Plate Plate 2.4(2b) Movement in space and time: the model (Descartes.2(5) 2.3(1) Mathematical Symbolic Text (Stewart.4(2a) Movement in space and time: the stone (Descartes. J.

Brown University Providence. Davis) Reprinted with kind permission Philip J. 1974: 126) Reprinted by kind permission of T. Strauss) (Davis.7(1) Mathematical Symbolic Text (Wei and Winter. Davis (Emeritus Professor. USA) (d) Graphical and Diagrammatic Display of Patterns (Berge et al.5(1) Plate 4. Reproduced with permission from the British Library (London) which holds the original manuscript.32 . circa 1985 (courtesy of Philip J. a division of Thompson Learning: www. Banchoff and C.thompsonrights. 2003: 194) Reprinted with kind permission from Elsevier Plate 5. Applied Mathematics Division.7(1) Chapter 6 Plate 6. M.2(1) Interpretation of the Derivative as the Slope of a Tangent (Stewart. © 1999. USA) (b) MATLAB graphics. The Derivate as the Instantaneous Rate of Change (Stewart. © 1999. Davis (Emeritus Professor.COPYRIGHT PERMISSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS xi The following are reprinted with permission from Elsevier: Plate 4. Strauss through Philip J.31 Newton's (1736: 46) Procedure for Drawing Tangents Reprinted from microfilm in the Bodleian Library.thompsonrights. 1999: 132) From Calculus: Combined Single and Multivariable 4th edition by Stewart. Banchoff and C. Reprinted with permission of Brooks/ Cole.com. a division of Thompson Learning: www. Fax: 800 730-2215 Evolving Images of Computer Graphics (a) Figure 5 Stills from a computer-made movie: wrapping a rectangle to form a torus (Courtesy T. 2003: 117) Chapter 5 Plate 5. M. Brown University Providence.. Fax: 800 730-2215 Plate 6. RI. Reprinted with permission of Brooks/ Cole. Applied Mathematics Division. RI. Oxford. 2003: 159) Textual Organization of Mathematical Symbolism (Clerc. 1999: 130) From Calculus: Combined Single and Multivariable 4th edition by Stewart.com.

D. (1990) Brief Calculus with Applications. 1990: 76-77) From Burgmeier.xii COPYRIGHT PERMISSION ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Chapter 7 Plate 7. M. New York .. J.1 (1) Mathematics Example 2. W. Boisen. Reprinted with kind permission from The McGraw-Hill Publishing Company.24 (Burgmeier et al. © 1990. M. B. New York: McGraw-Hill. and Larsen.

In the past century. If they had refrained. It was wrong to declare war against the USA and Russia because they were together stronger than Germany. It was wrong to bomb England in 1940. for instance. What does not succeed is wrong. as expressed by Beevor (2002: 429). Goldhagen (1996). for example. for example. In this extract from Berlin: The Downfall 1945. What does not succeed is wrong. wrong to persecute the Jews before the war since that set the Anglo-Americans against Germany. Weitz (2003). Beevor (2002:429) summarizes the views of over three hundred pro-Nazi generals after Germany's defeat in the Second World War. the impact of which lasts for generations? .1 Mathematics as a Multisemiotic Discourse 1. Their guiding principle. one they envisaged would have worked towards victory rather than defeat. documents the unprecedented programmes of genocide which have taken place in the twentieth century. so they believe. such massive mobilizations have not been confined to Germany. But how can so many people be convinced of the necessity of such programmes.' Many millions participated in the enactment of those views. No doubt a variety of means were used incrementally over a long period of time in order to mobilize the population in the war effort. based on a report of interviews by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force in Europe (SHAEF). The German generals are seen to possess a view of events.1 The Creation of Order Success is right. Cambodia under the Khmer Rouge and the former Yugoslavia. How could so many people be persuaded to take part in the events which unfolded during the course of the Second World War? There have been a variety of responses to this question. It was wrong to treat Russian and Polish [prisoners of war] like cattle since now they will treat Germans in the same way. In these cases and many others. is 'Success is right. would have joined Hitler in the war against Russia. significant portions of the population take part in the war effort. suggests that most of the ordinary Germans involved in the holocaust were 'willing executioners' who actually believed in the events that took place. It was. including Stalin's Soviet Union. and the familiar question arises as to how this could be possible. It would have been right to postpone the anti-Jewish campaign and begin it after Germany had won the war. Great Britain.

2002: 429). whereas the finality accompanying the original cliched statement 'Success is right' is much more difficult to counteract. What does not succeed is wrong' (Beevor. Such an inclusion also provides room for argumentation and negation. These strategies included the use of the media for news reports and documentaries (involving language. the import of linguistic choices may be seen in George W. Order is maintained. often patriotic. There is a cause. nationalistic. Page (2001: 10) comments: 'There is a privilege in being raised in a time of peace. A luxury that your life is not under immediate threat. embodied action. violence commences somewhere. In a similar manner. and it somehow excuses all the pain and all the loss. and architectural features of the platform and seating arrangements). the nature of which depends upon the choices which are made. Expressed in simple terms of a relational set of circumstances.' Such a reformulation introduces in unequivocal terms the basis upon which the guiding principles are constructed. the contexts which give rise to the ordering of reality are not confined to those which are specifically designed for mass consumption in the form of 'propaganda' programmes. and particular styles of dress and the distinctive salute of the Nazi party (for example. visual images. Language functions in this way to structure the world largely in terms of categories. and in many cases. gesture. for ordinary citizens at least. The value of using language and other systems of meaning to create a world view conducive to the war effort was well recognized in Nazi Germany. This approach is not intended to downplay strategies of physical and mental coercion and abuse. it is worthwhile to consider a simple reformulation of the German generals' guiding principles 'Success is right. language. Bush's statement to the world after 11 September 2001 attacks on the United States: 'Either you are with us.com/US 20 September 2001). The simple inclusion of the beneficiary 'the Nazi party' makes clear the premise underlying the linguistic statement. where choices from the different resources combine to create particular meanings to the exclusion of others. actions and gestures). the statement becomes 'Success [for the Nazi party] is right. political speeches and rallies (for example.' The use of language and other sign systems for the structuring of thought and reality in the ways described by Page is the subject of this study. That is. the starting point is the ordering . insignias. styles of dress and so forth. if the phrase for the Nazi party is inserted. These strategies have direct parallels in existence today. War becomes something labelled as heroic. However. visual images and music).2 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE In attempting to answer such a question. What does not succeed [for the Nazi party] is wrong. Such a simple division of the world into two opposing sets of relations leaves few options for a negotiated peace settlement along other possible lines of interest. music. negotiated and challenged in every situation which involves choices from language. the dichotomy is based on pro-American interests ('with us') versus anti-American interests ('against us'). However. visual images. or you are with the terrorists' (CNN. the uniforms. and the specific interests which are being served. it is just and right.

Fairclough. In addition. photographs and maps. This is especially important in the electronic age where the ease with which pictorial representations may be reproduced is expanding. As seen in Plate 1. and a full-page photograph of Red Army officials visiting the battleground inside the Reichstag. Beevor (2002). In Beevor (2002).1(1) appear in Chapter 24 in Beevor (2002: 354—369).1(1). 1978. 1986). Lynch and Woolgar. Bourdieu. the Russian victory parade. scenes outside the Reich Chancellery. Vygotsky. critical discourse theory. 1998. and German civilians escaping across the Elbe River to American territory. Photographs 43-45 displayed in Plate 1. These choices work together to create Beevor's account of the horror of the final months of the Second World War in Germany. acts of meaning through choices from language and other sign systems. Herman and Chomsky. there are further photographs of soldiers in the streets of Berlin. 1982. and the official signing of the final surrender by General Stumpff. Gumperz. pages . German soldiers surrendering in Berlin. The photographs displayed in Plate 1. victory celebrations between delegates from the Red Army and the US Army.1(1). Field Marshal Keitel and Admiral von Friedburg in May 1945 is shown in Photograph 45. 1990. convoys of Russian-controlled armed forces. Mirzoeff. psychology and sociology (for example. Berger and Luckmann. Russian soldiers washing and civilians cooking in the streets of Berlin. van Leeuwen andjewitt. mathematics and science. Barthes. the types of meanings afforded by Beevor's (2002) photographs are investigated and compared to meanings which are made using language. communication studies. 1991. These photographs appear among a group of inserted photographs which are numbered 30-49. these pictures are preceded by photographs of Russians engaged in street fighting in Berlin.1(1) have contextual meaning within this sequence of photographs. paragraphs. that is. Beevor's (2002) linguistic account of the fall of Berlin similarly unfolds as a staged text consisting of sentences. 2001). Photograph 43 is a picture of a German teenage conscript at the end of the war. namely. The role of language for structuring thought and reality is well recognized today within a wide range of disciplines which include sociolinguistics.M A T H E M A T I C S AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 3 of reality along certain lines through semiosis. Photograph 44 shows a Russian female medical assistant attending to a wounded Russian soldier. which include the subject matter of this investigation. Immediately following Plate 1. 1991. In what follows. includes visual images in the form of black and white photographs and maps to depict the advance of the Red Army and the final collapse of the Third Reich. War is chosen as the topic to introduce this approach. the functions of visual images are increasingly taken into account (for example. The major aim of this study is to introduce a theory and approach for examining the nature and impact of semiosis in contexts which span the supposedly inane to the discourses of immense influence. for example. 1989. Berlin: The Downfall 1945 is a text or discourse constructed through choices from the English language. 1972. 1988. Halliday.

1(1) Photographs from Beevor (2002: Chapter 24) and chapters which have contextual meaning within the sequence of the narrative. there are differences in the types of meaning afforded by Beevor's linguistic and photographic account of the fall of Berlin. However. These .4 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE 44 43 45 Plate 1.

the photographs are developed and reproduced under certain conditions which include choices in terms of paper quality. experiences and the emotional and physical states of the participants in the fall of Berlin according to circumstance. a selection of photographs has been chosen to be included in Beevor (2002). in the case of war. Even if Beevor had the space to describe these dimensions. physical actions. facial expressions and the nature of the averted gazes of the human figures in the photographs are juxtaposed in what is a grotesque opposition between the devastation faced by those involved in the fighting (Photographs 43-44) and the well-fed and well-attired defiance of those taking part in the official surrender (Photograph 45). following O'Toole's (1994) framework for the analysis of paintings. the Figures (the individual people and other objects) and their Members (in terms of body parts and parts of the objects). style and condition of their respective uniforms at the rank of Figure and Member are similarly diametrically opposed. The quality. the meanings of these black and white photographs are impossible to exactly reproduce in narrative form. for example. The settings. the medical attendant and the German generals becomes evident in a glance. The situational contexts. the actions and events.M A T H E M A T I C S AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 5 differences relate to the meaning potential of language and visual images. most likely happen more by chance rather than design. each photograph in the sequence represents a set of choices made by the photographer. actions. Compositionally. The scenes. gestures. Putting aside the materiality of the medium and the production process. even the grainy quality of the street scene where the Russian medical assistant attends to the injuries suffered by a soldier (Photograph 44) is placed in stark opposition to the smooth textual quality of the photograph of the official German surrender (Photograph 45). and within those frames human figures are engaged in some form of action in a setting. including cropping and erasure. Further to this. actions and circumstance). Figure and Member. From existing photographs of the fighting and aftermath in Berlin in 1945. In turn. The photographer captures an instance of time according to the camera angle. age. The impact of these choices in the photographs displayed in Plate 1. the Episodes in each frame (the activities which are captured). For example. and the possibility for various forms of editing. Certain scenes are frozen within the frame. nationality. . This point is developed below. the contrast between the physical and emotional state of the soldiers. darkroom techniques. each photograph represents choices at the rank of the whole frame or the Work (in terms of the setting. This opposition is marked at each rank of the Work. the interplay of Episodes. the camera distance. which. Episode. the mood of the Figures realized through their embodied actions and appearance cannot be captured using words. the perspective and light conditions. A linguistic description cannot make the same meanings as Photographs 43-45.1(1) merit close attention. gender and position are thus constructed by the photographs.

embodied systems of meaning such as gesture. which was designed to function in co-operation with language and specialized forms of visual images. the political speech. with various definitions and meanings. sculptures and buildings. 2001: 259). while visual images such as photographs create order in a manner which to varying degrees accords with our dynamic perceptual experience of the world. non-verbal communication. the pop song. for instance. fullyfledged analytical method or theory'. 2001: 260) where 'Semiosis is the name given to the action of signs. 'Behind this simple definition [of semiotics] lies a universe of complexity. music.2 Halliday's Social Semiotic Approach We impose order on the world. As Cobley (2001: 259) claims. There are many schools and branches of theoretical and applied semiotics. action and stance.6 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E In the same manner. include language. The semantic realm explored in this study is not war. myth. Noth (1990).' Noth (1990) describes the diversity in theoretical and applied approaches to study of semiotics and Chandler (2002: 207) sees semiotics as 'a relatively loosely defined critical practice rather than a unified. the discourse which underlies the scientific view of the world. What does not succeed [for the Nazi party] is wrong' cannot be captured pictorially. text (for example. theatre and drama. A culture may be understood as typical configurations of choices from a variety of semiotic resources. this understanding of semiotics pertains to 'the specificity of human semiosis' (Cobley. These semiotic resources. or sign systems. This world came into being largely through the development and refinement of a new sign system. and thus the aim of this study is to understand the nature and the implications of such a view. 'Success [for the Nazi party] is right. The lecture. and that order is expressed semiotically through choices from a variety of sign systems. poetry. In simplest terms. namely mathematical symbolism. The mathematical and the scientific ways of ordering the world permeate our everyday existence. ideology and theology). rhetoric and stylistics. rather it is the world offered by mathematics. producing "signs about signs" '(Cobley. narrative. Different resources such as language and visual images have different potentials to create meaning. Michael Halliday's social-semiotic approach which informs this study is introduced. language tends to order the world in terms of categorical-type distinctions. Semiotics might therefore be understood as the study of semiosis or even as a "metasemiosis". categorizes semiotics as being concerned with the study of language and language-based codes. aesthetics and visual . Before moving to the field of mathematics. 1. the news report and the textbook are to a large extent predictable configurations of semiotic choices. and three-dimensional man-made items and objects such as clothes. paintings and other forms of visual images. In a general sense. The two types of meanings afforded by language and visual images combine in Beevor's account of the fall of Berlin and the collapse of the Third Reich.

and this view is extended to include other semiotic resources such as the maps and photographs found in Beevor (2002) and the mathematical symbolism and diagrams found in the discourse of mathematics. (iii) the interpersonal . gesture. From the Hallidayan perspective. objects.M A T H E M A T I C S AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 7 communication. a linguistic statement such as 'Success is right' does not exist as an abstract independent entity.the construction of logical relations in that world. Martin and Rose. . contexts are established semiotically. even though the form varies according to discipline and institution. together with the semiotics of disciplines such as mathematics.the construction of our experience of the world. multimedia communication. visual images. psychiatry. Noth (1990: 5-6) provides alternative subdivisions which include the semiotics of culture. Michael Halliday's (1978. The grammar is theorized according to the functions language is required to serve. Halliday (1978. the fall of Berlin is constructed by Beevor (2002) and other historians through choices from the semiotic resources of language. Halliday uses the term 'social semiotic' to explain that the meanings of the signs (the semiotic choices) depend on the context of use (the social). maps and photographs. 1994) sees language as a tool.the enactment of social relations. seating. While the basic tenets of the Hallidayan approach to language are introduced below. 1996). Thompson. the academic lecture is a typical configuration of semiotic choices from the resources of language. Similarly. anthropology. For example. For example. ethnosemiotics. The grammatical systems through which these four metafunctions of language are realized are described in Chapter 3. Martin. Rather. history and so forth. where the means through which language is used to achieve the desired results are located within the grammar. 1994. The meaning of a choice (the sign or the syntagm) is understood in relation to the other possible choices within the system networks (the paradigmatic options). meaning is thus made through choices from the metafunctionally based grammatical systems. 2004) social-semiotic theory of language known as Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) is located within the theoretical realm of what Noth (1990: 6) terms 'socio-semiotics'. The meanings arising from choices from the system networks are negotiated within the social and cultural context in which those choices are made. 1992. popular culture. In the same fashion. architecture. Eggins. (ii) the logical . Halliday (1994) identifies the 'metafunctions of language' as (i) the experiential . and other topics such as psychosemiotics.the means for organizing the message. and (iv) the textual . 1994. dress. Bloor and Bloor. more comprehensive accounts may be found elsewhere (for example. Halliday is concerned with the social interpretation of the meaning of language. socio-semiotics and semiotic sociology. lighting and so forth. The configuration of the academic lecture is recognizable by members of a culture. the statement means within a context of use. 1995. 2003. in this case in Beevor's (2002) account of the fall of Berlin.

Semiotic activity is also used for acts of resistance. lexical choice. 1997. the intertextual relations with other texts in the advertising campaign would ensure that the brand is easily identifiable. pedagogical discourse (Christie. The dynamic nature of the electronic medium is such that the distinction between the spoken and written modes becomes increasingly blurred with the variations in genre configurations. Being part of a culture means learning. 1987). these new practices eventually become in themselves standardized in much the same way that video texts in the music industry become predictable. Presumably if the logo was missing. or groups within that culture. Tannen. Certain combinations of selections function more prominently to structure reality to the exclusion of others. using and experimenting with the meaning potential of the semiotic systems to create. in the music and film industry. forthcoming b. The contextual values attached to different choices or combinations of choices from semiotic resources are socially and culturally determined. text colour and graphics. invest large amounts of money in advertising to ensure that their brands and accompanying icons maintain 'the right' social value among the other products on offer. often in the form of re-packaged commercial products. Buying the product thus means acquiring the social and cultural connotative value of that product (Barthes. Other studies of language look at typical patterns along contextual parameters such as gender (for example. O'Halloran. in the form of email messages or websites where 'standard' linguistic practices are subverted from the point of view of grammar. casual conversation (Eggins and Slade. for example. Cameron and Kulick. language choices and graphical representations. members of a culture. maintain and negotiate the reality which is socially constructed. 1995) and sexuality (for example. Advertising as such means creating an image so that the product or service is viewed as desirable by groups of members of a community. Members of a culture recognize and maintain or resist those values. 1997). 2003). In this way they seek to create and maintain a market for groups of consumers. service encounters (Ventola. the only obligatory item in a print advertisement is the company logo. which may materialize. for example. 2000. on the other . Companies such as McDonalds. Studies in Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) attempt to document and account for the typical linguistic patterns in different types of social interaction or genres. Unsworth. In one study. Human life is negotiated through semiotic exchange within the realms of situational and cultural contexts. 2000) and scientific writing (Martin. 1999. Martin and Veel. Cheong (2004) found that apart from the interpersonally salient component of an advertisement designed to attract the attention of the reader (in many cases a visual image). sport and the internet) typically become absorbed into mainstream culture. Forensic linguistics. 1993b. The resistance which some discourses initially appear to offer (for example. 1974). for example. must possess some sense of shared contextual meaning. Nike and Coca Cola. However. 1972.8 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE In order to communicate. Christie and Martin. 1998).

Bernstein (1977. selections in the form of gesture. the discourses of medicine. the walk or the look. are relatively well placed within the semantic domains which are rewarded (usually by members of that same group). Increasingly acts of meaning inscribed on and through the human body (for example. the performative action and physical creation of identity becomes a textual act. Other groups to varying degrees are marginalized. be it the talk. make-up. In the electronic medium. law. and skin and hair colour. music and so forth. the speaker needs to talk the talk (using appropriate linguistic and phonological choices).1990) identifies the disadvantages students from lower social class backgrounds face in participating in the linguistic practices rewarded in educational institutions. for example) according to the parameters established as desirable in that culture. body shape. including language. However. which is the set of acquired dispositions of an individual or group of individuals. Coulthard. body size. Semiotic capital comes into play in new ways through computer technology. Whether delivering a conference paper or giving a political speech. being 'educated' means being able to participate in certain types of 'valued' semiotic exchange. function to reinforce these divisions of inclusion and exclusion. Participation in everyday discourse includes semiotic exchange in terms of performative action. for instance. walk the walk (in terms of non-verbal behaviour and action). 1991) . physical appearance which is increasingly the product of medical procedures and other forms of practices involving drugs. science. More generally men and women are urged to identify their 'unique selling point' (USP). typically those with wealth and connections. The social-semiotic construction of reality (Berger and Luckmann. is concerned with identifying typical language patterns of the individual (for example. Bourdieu's (1991) notion of symbolic and cultural capital of the 'habitus'. social and cultural background of individuals and groups within any community. economic. Multiple identities can be established according to the limits of the electronic medium and platforms that are offered. height. may be conceptualized as semiotic capital. such as making entrance dependent on money rather than merit. music and art. the ability to make appropriate meanings in a range of contexts through the use of semiotic resources is unevenly distributed across sections of any community or culture. In a sense. and the user's ability to make use of different semiotic resources. interpret and reconstruct the world in contextually specific ways. that is. One is no longer constrained by semiosis emanating from the body and the immediate material context. that is. The reason for this unequal distribution of semiotic capital is related to the educational. hairstyle. and increasingly look the look (in terms of clothing. the ability to construct. Increasingly the market-driven practices adopted in schools and universities. 1993). For example. Certain groups within a society.M A T H E M A T I C S AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 9 hand. chemicals and so forth) often outweigh the import of other acts of meaning (the talk). stance. visual images. business. proxemics and dress.

Similarly. and (ii) there are limits to what can be selected from the existing systems. conference papers. discourses formed through choices from the functional sign systems of language. software programs and laboratory investigations. We are contained within particular semantic domains according to the limitations of the systems which are available. 'for the Nazi party'). Although perhaps pre-existing as disparate practices. although mathematical and scientific practices are not confined to these forms of semiotic activity. The basis for this scientific re-ordering of reality was the development of mathematics which offered new resources in the form of the symbolism and visual display. largely because modern mathematical symbolism is a semiotic resource which developed in written format. is directed towards multisemiosis in printed discourses of mathematics. As seen in the example of the German generals' 'guiding principles'. lectures. there are nonetheless at any one time a limited number of options available. while other possible options are left out (for example. the effects of computer technology on the nature of mathematical discourse are also . which include digital media and day-to-day three-dimensional material reality. that is. the print medium has been chosen for investigation. physical action and gesture in environments. for example. these types of semiotic activity involve spoken discourse. gender and Freud's (for example. 1954) concept of psychoanalysis are comparatively new linguistic choices. (i) there are limits to what options are selected. the introduction of these options in language led to radically new ways of conceptualizing women.10 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE is determined as much by what is included as to what is excluded. however. for example. In the second case. In the first case. In addition. In order to develop theoretical frameworks for mathematical symbolism and visual display. constantly evolve so that meaning making is a dynamic practice in which change is possible. The major line of enquiry in this study. These discourses are commonly constituted as written texts. 'success') are chosen to the exclusion of others (for example. the concepts of women's rights. In addition to the written mode. These semiotic resources combine in significant ways with language to create a new world order. These systems. There are many different 'multimodal' genres constituting mathematical and scientific practices. although systems are dynamic and constantly changing with each contextual instantiation.3 Mathematics as Multisemiotic Mathematics and science are considered as 'multisemiotic' constructions. 1. The nature of that order is investigated in this study. mathematical symbolism and visual display. 'justice' or 'freedom'). 1952. semiotic selections function as meaning through choice. Realms of meaning do not exist until they become semiotic choices. the scientific revolution in the seventeenth century introduced radically new ways of conceptualizing the physical world. and so some options (for example. however. women's roles and what has become the inner psychosexual self.

In mathematics. mathematical symbolism and visual images as displayed in Plate 1. Mathematical texts such as those displayed in Plate 1. mathematical discourse is considered inter-semiotically.3(1).3(1) contains equations (11). there are visual images in the form of mathematical graphs in the three panels labelled Fig. This feature of mathematical discourse means that the grammars of each resource must be considered in relation to each other. which he defines as 'the analytical means for . 1996. Mathematical discourse involves language. .3(1).M A T H E M A T I C S AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 11 considered in this study. 2000. 2003b. For example. Plate 1. As seen in Plate 1. that is. Anderson et al.3(1). a journal for research in dynamical systems theory. mathematical printed texts are typically organized in very specific ways which simultaneously permit segregation and integration of the three semiotic resources.is perceived to be organized according to unique discourse and grammatical systems through which meaning is realized. in terms of the meaning which arises from the relations and shifts between the three semiotic resources. . 2003a. and ledema (2003: 30) calls the process of semiotic shift as 'resemioticization'. 1999). and they also take place on a micro-scale within stretches . As seen in the graphs and linguistic and symbolic components of the mathematics text in Plate 1. which are mathematical symbolic statements spatially separated from the main body of the linguistic text. intersemiotic shifts take place on a macro-scale across stretches of text.2000). choices from the three semiotic resources function integratively. few studies exist in the field of the semiotics of mathematics (for example. In addition. Symbolic statements and elements are also embedded within the linguistic text. 1987. 1998b.3(1) represent specific semiotic choices from the available grammatical systems in each of the three resources. In addition. each semiotic resource is considered to be a functional sign system which is organized grammatically. That is. 1998b. Veel. 1998b). visual images and mathematical symbolism . 1999b. 2003.1988.1993. the linguistic text and the graphs contain symbolic elements and the symbolic text contains linguistic elements. That is. a page reproduced from Physica D.3(1). forthcoming a. 2000a. Rotman. 2 in Plate 1. With the exception of the systemic functional (SF) approach to mathematics (Lemke. 1999) refers to intersemiotic semantic relations between linguistic and visual components of a text as 'intersemiotic complementarity'. Lemke. An SF approach to mathematics as social-multisemiotic discourse means that each of the three semiotic resources . tracing how semiotics are translated from one into another as social processes unfold'. Royce (1998a.language. Mathematical written discourse may also contain tables which are forms of textual organization where the reader may access information quickly and efficiently (Baldry. The similarities and differences in the organizing principles of the three semiotic resources are considered intra-semiotically in terms of the grammars and functions of each resource. O'Halloran. (12) and (13). symbolic elements function as elements within the linguistic statements in the text located between equations (11) and (13).

3(1) Language. For example. if we use a Swift-Hohenberg equation for a system with critical wavenumber kc and bare correlation length £o. 1 with nln" = 1. The time difference between successive traces corresponds to 0. Through close examination of the meaning realized within and across the three semiotic resources. For the Swift-Hohenberg Fig. Top panel: shadowgraph trace of a propagating front in the experiments of FS for f = 0. there is another important quantity which one can calculate analytically.75/d.012 starting with a localized initial condition. The potential of intersemiotic processes to produce metaphorical construals is formulated through the notion of 'semiotic metaphor'. as obtained by interpolating the maxima of the traces in the top panel. The time difference between successive traces is 0. A.6] yields for the asymptotic wavelength A. the theoretical value is £o = 0. as explained in the text. 2003: 173) of text. The difficulty of comparing theory and experiment on the variation of the wavelength is that the only theoretically sharply defined quantity is the wavelength sufficiently far behind the front. visual images and symbolism (Kockelkoren et al. This then gives (13) As we stressed already above Xas is the wavelength far behind the front. and that one has to go beyond the lowest order Ginzburg-Landau treatment to be able to study the pattern wavelength left behind. the functions and the semantic realm of .012 [16]. The dashed line shows the analytical result (8) and the dotted curve the result of the amplitude equation simulation of Fig. so if our conjecture that the value is some 15% larger is correct.^. Note that the curves are not fitted. Kockelkoren et al.2.42/v. kc « 2. but in the relative variation of X C /X. and the distances are measured in units d (the cell height) (from [9]). we are not interested here in the absolute value. where f v is the vertical diffusion time in the experiments.as far behind the front [6]: (12) In the Rayleigh-Benard experiments. Bottom panel: velocity versus time in the experiment. the local wavelength A* measured in the leading edge of the front.385rf.4<W.42fv. only the absolute scale is affected by adjusting £o Plate 1. where d is the cell height.12 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE J. however. (11) then a node counting argument [4. for a propagating pulled front. Middle panel: similar data obtained from numerical integration of the Swift-Hohenberg equation also at e = 0. 2./Physica D 174 (2003) 16X-175 173 of the wavelength Xc of the patterns is at criticality about 13% off from the theoretical value. we get £Q ^ 0.

visual images and mathematical symbolism are considered as semiotic resources (O'Halloran. From this position. architecture and sculpture. the semantic realm with which mathematics is concerned may be appreciated. logical. Bourdieu (1989) further explains that aesthetics and art appreciation are discourses which function covertly to maintain existing social class . SFG is essentially a 'natural' grammar as it explains how language is organized to fulfil the metafunctions of language: the experiential. These grammars and a framework with systems for intersemiosis are used for discourse analyses of mathematical texts in Chapters 6 and 7. Halliday's (1994) Systemic Functional Grammar (SFG) includes documentation of the metafunctionally based systems which are the grammatical resources through which meaning is made. It must be stressed that this is not an account of the entire field of mathematics.M A T H E M A T I C S AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 13 mathematics as a discourse are tentatively formulated in this study. The SFGs for mathematical symbolism and visual images are inspired by O'Toole's (1994. where language. 1. . 1995. The discussion includes an account of the educational implications of a multisemiotic view of mathematics and the nature of pedagogical discourses in mathematics classrooms. However. . 2000.4 Implications of a Multisemiotic View The multisemiotic approach. originally stems from O'Toole's (1994. 1995) systemic frameworks for the analysis of semiosis in paintings. The SF approach to mathematics is welcomed by Rotman (2000: 42) who explains that such an approach offers 'a linguistic/semiotic framework well grounded in natural language that . The implications of viewing mathematical discourse as a multisemiotic construction are considered below. interpersonal and textual. mathematics evolved as a discourse capable of creating a world view which extends beyond that possible using linguistic resources alone. Halliday's account of the abstract language systems includes statements of how these choices are realized in text. 1994) SF approach to displayed art. This is in part achieved through a comparison of the functions of mathematics with those of language. O'Toole (1994) demonstrates how the SF frameworks may be used so that the viewer can learn to engage directly with instantiations of displayed art rather than depending on the 'knowledge' handed down by art historians and other accredited experts. 2003) early work in mathematical and scientific discourse. and Lemke's (1998b. 1999) extensions of Halliday's (1978. [is] abstract enough to include the making of meaning in mathematics'. 1996). Halliday's (1994) model of language described in Chapter 3 provides the basis for the Systemic Functional Grammars (SFG) presented for mathematical symbolism and visual images in Chapters 4 and 5 respectively. The result of that re-ordering in what is viewed as the scientific revolution is also considered in this study. Rather it is an account of the semiotic processes and the discourse and grammatical strategies through which mathematics operates to structure the world.

the main reason for this close [semiotic] engagement with the details before our eyes is that it enables everyone to sharpen their perceptions and join in the discussion as soon as they begin to recognize the systems at work in the painting. before they are expected to be able to contribute any new information to a discussion of the work in question. on the other hand. rather than producing a discursive commentary about the nature of mathematics and its intellectual achievements. And what kind of information might this be? . And everyone can say something new and insightful about the work in front of them. 1994: 171) Following O'Toole's (1994) example. The result is an appreciation and understanding of the functions of mathematical discourse and the strategies through which this is achieved. . certain views become common sense under the guise of metaphorical labels such as 'economic rationalism'. the content of that reality and the nature of the social relations which are subsequently established. Scientific language developed in certain ways as a response to the functions which were fulfilled symbolically and visually. . Art history. . 'entrepreneurship' and .14 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E distinctions. the intention behind the SF approach in this study is active engagement with mathematical text in order to understand the strategies through which the presented reality is structured. and teachers and students of mathematics. our entire linguistic repertoire has been shaped by the use of other semiotic resources. Mathematical and Scientific Language The view of mathematics as multisemiotic has implications about the ways mathematical and scientific language are understood. These ideas are revisited in Chapter 7 after the theory and approach have been developed in Chapters 2-6. Don't they in fact 'mystify' the painting and make us feel we have nothing to contribute? . 'taste' is a social and cultural product through which group and individual identities are indexed and. the highest values are accorded to those who constitute the powerful in society. requires a long apprenticeship . On a more global scale. . Needless to say. This approach also offers insights for outsiders who typically possess a limited understanding and knowledge of mathematics. the result is to build an insurmountable wall around this precious property. This is essentially a new approach to mathematics for practising mathematicians. For example. (O'Toole. with the result that many of our contemporary linguistic constructions are metaphorical in nature. different values are placed on those indices. as with all symbolic investments. Traditionally. In this view. the nature of scientific language has been viewed in isolation rather than as a semiotic resource which has been shaped through the use of mathematical symbolism and visual display. . . The implications of an SF approach to mathematics as a multisemiotic discourse are outlined below in relation to the key ideas and formulations developed in this study.

This is significant because the grammatical strategies for organizing meaning in symbolic statements differ from those found in language.MATHEMATICS AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 15 'freedom and democracy'. Visualization is undergoing a rapid resurgence due to the increasing sophistication of computer graphics which display numerical solutions generated by the computer. . Once again. the functions fulfilled by mathematical visual images are different to those achieved linguistically and symbolically. The underlying premise is that mathematical symbolism developed as a semiotic resource with a grammar which had the capacity to solve problems in a manner that is not possible with other semiotic resources. typically the use of mathematical symbolism is restricted to certain groups. The Grammar of Mathematical Symbolism An SF framework for mathematical symbolism is presented so that the grammatical strategies through which meaning is encoded symbolically can be documented. Grammar of Visual Images in Mathematics Visual images in mathematics are specialized types of visual representation. One reason for this limited access is that the grammar of mathematical symbolism is not generally well understood. statistical graphs and diagrams. visual images and other semiotic resources permits a re-evaluation of the role of language in constructing such a naturalized view of the world. most typically in the form of abstract graphs. Despite their grammatical instantiation as nouns. rather complex and dynamic sets of practices are subsumed under such labels. On the contrary. As with the vested interest behind the guiding principle. While members of a culture are capable of using language as a functional resource in various ways. The SFG of mathematical symbolism presented in Chapter 4 explains how this functionality is achieved. and how the unique grammatical strategies specifically developed in mathematical symbolism so that this semiotic could be used for the solution of mathematics problems. The new ways of manipulating and viewing data through computers are discussed in Chapter 5. An understanding of the functions of mathematical symbolism. metaphorical terms need to be critically understood in a historical and contextual manner in order to appreciate the premises behind their construction. It is important to demonstrate how mathematical meaning is organized. The systems through which the functions of abstract graphs are achieved are discussed in Chapter 5. The systemic functional framework for abstract graphs is used to explain how the systems are organized to make very specific meanings which provide a link between the linguistic description of a problem and the symbolic solution. This discussion includes insights into the changing roles of visual images in mathematics due to the impact of computer technology. these are not concrete or material objects. 'Success is right'.

Lemke (1998b) refers to this expansion of meaning as the multiplicative aspect of multisemiosis. symbolism and visual display in such a way that the semantic expansion is greater than the sum of meanings derived from each of the three resources. but also metaphorical expressions can arise with such shifts. 'measuring') may be reconstrued as an entity in a second semiotic resource (for example. This important process. As explained in Chapter 6. or meaning within one semiotic resource. 1996). Mathematical discourse thus depends on intrasemiotic activity. 2003. The intersemiotic mechanisms take place through metafunctionally based systems which are documented in Chapter 6. and intersemiotic activity. or semiosis through grammatical systems which function across the three resources. a visual line segment or a symbolical distance). one of the key elements in the success of mathematics is the metaphorical reformulation of elements across the three semiotic resources. visual images and mathematical symbolism. is developed in this study through the notion of semiotic metaphor. Intersemiotic Mechanisms. Systems and Semiotic Metaphor Intersemiotic mechanisms provide a description of the ways in which intersemiosis takes place across language. Mathematics Education The view of mathematics as a multisemiotic discourse is significant in a pedagogical context as often teachers and students do not seem to be aware . The functions of mathematics are therefore achieved through intrasemiosis and intersemiosis. O'Halloran.16 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E Intrasemiosis and Intersemiosis While the three semiotic resources in mathematics fulfil individual functions which are not replicable across the other resources (Lemke. or semiosis through choices from the grammatical systems within each resource. and meaning across the three semiotic resources where metaphor plays an important role in the expansion of meaning. however. This process means that expansions in meaning can occur when a functional element is reconstrued in a different resource. is equally important because not only is the new meaning potential of another resource accessed. meaning through each semiotic resource. the success of mathematics depends on utilizing and combining the unique meaning potentials of language. For instance. Such reconstruals permit expansions of meaning on a scale which is not possible within a single semiotic resource. which may arise in any multisemiotic discourse. Semiotic metaphor refers to the phenomenon of metaphorical construals which arise from such shifts across semiotic resources. 1998b. Intersemiosis involves reconstrual of particular elements in a second or third resource through intersemiotic shifts or 'code-switching'. an action realized through a verb in language (for example. that is. Intersemiosis. Intrasemiosis. is important because the types of meaning made by each semiotic are fundamentally different.

as exemplified by Descartes and Newton. a historical perspective is adopted in Chapter 2 to examine the semiotic unfolding of mathematics from the period of the early Renaissance to modern contemporary mathematics. is seen to lead to the creation of a mathematical and scientific reality which is located within a limited semantic domain. economics and politics is questioned from the relatively fresh perspective of the socio-semiotics of mathematics in Chapter 7. business. Contemporary thought in mathematics. prediction and prescription. The re-inscription of the supposedly 'value free' discourses of mathematics and science as universal truth into new realms of human endeavour such as the social sciences. visual images and the symbolism. their respective grammatical systems and the nature of the intersemiotic activity. at the same time. Chapter 7 includes a discussion of the nature of pedagogical discourse in mathematics. also reveals the changes in mathematical theorizations of reality. and the types of metaphorical construals which take place in mathematics texts and in the classroom. The ways in which a social-semiotic perspective can inform mathematics teaching and learning are described in Chapter 7. From this point. Although mathematics has expanded into new fields. the semiotic resources nonetheless essentially remain linguistic. 1. visual and symbolic. Significantly. the mathematical practices advocated by Descartes and Newton have been re-inscripted into new contexts in contemporary times. education. chaos and dynamical systems theory. for example.5 Tracing the Semiotics of Mathematics In order to introduce the types of meaning found in modern mathematics. An understanding of the scientific view of the world made possible through mathematics is an overriding theme because such a view is vital for an understanding of contemporary Western culture which . The beginnings of modern mathematics and science developed in what was originally conceived as a transcendental realm which necessitated the existence of God. the new contexts in which mathematics is re-inscribed are critically examined. Mathematics is thus first viewed in a historical context so the functions for which mathematics was originally designed and the context of that development may be appreciated. This discussion is based on the functions of language. the semantic expansions afforded by the visual images and mathematical symbolism permitted expansions in the form of scientific description.M A T H E M A T I C S AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 17 of the grammatical systems for mathematical symbolism and visual display. The nature of the projects of early modern mathematics. However. This discussion also contributes to an appreciation of the metaphorical nature of our semiotic constructions and the limitations of the contexts in which mathematics may be usefully applied. as seen in the discussion of Cartesian and Newtonian philosophy in Chapter 2. Computation is considered a symbolic undertaking which is instantiated in an electronic medium.

business and the political institutions can be differentiated as separate functioning bodies becomes increasingly difficult to ascertain. Through an understanding of the discourse.' The self-evident deliverables of the scientific project were underscored in the aftermath of the Second World War and. As Davis (2000: 291) claims: 'Through advanced science and technology. such progress seems to have been made for the advantage of the relatively privileged few. This is an exploration of the world view offered by mathematics and science.1972. In retrospect. The soundness of reason depends on the explicit or implicit premises upon which that reasoning is based. However. The creation of vast numbers of new mathematical theories over the past fifty years was due in considerable measure to the pressures and the financial support of the military. the US-led war in Iraq in 2003 where the destructive power of military technological innovation was widely televised. a view which dominates our everyday thinking. It is also a critique of that world view which is so often misunderstood as universal truth. equality and justice. SFGs are used to critically interpret the nature of meanings made in contemporary mathematics. the rationalist project of the eighteenth century and the consequent mathematical. business and political interests. Yet the fully enlightened earth radiates disaster triumphant. In this way.' Today the extent to which the military. As Horkheimer (1972: 3) claims: Tn the most general sense of progressive thought. 1970). The view that mathematical and scientific reasoning is constructed to order the world along certain principles which change is not new (for example. One could include universities on the list of institutions which increasingly function pragmatically along the lines of business-orientated commercial interests. advances in mathematical and scientific knowledge appear to have primarily provided the means for technological development which is directed and controlled by military. however. Kuhn. in a more recent case. the Enlightenment has always aimed at liberating men from fear and establishing their sovereignty. the much-touted aim of progress was the improvement of the human condition accompanied by freedom. and through such awareness we can understand our own positions and explore possibilities other than those directly offered. scientific and technological achievements of the modern period appeared to hold much promise for the world. As Horkheimer and Ardorno (1972) claim. The path is developed through an excursion through early printed mathematical texts to understand the context behind modern mathematics. In addition to providing the infrastructure for unequally distributed goods and services such as healthcare and education. 1970. warfare utilizes many mathematical ideas and techniques. . Looking back. Foucault. the approach adopted in this study is to understand the systems and strategies through which that ordering takes place. Derrida.18 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE materializes as a technological project shaped by the discourse of mathematics and science. the functions of these discourses may be understood. 1978.

2004. Baldry and Thibault. Lemke. 2002). Kress and van Leeuwen. Apart from the research in mathematics (Lemke. 2001. 2002. 2001. music (Callaghan and McDonald. 1. 2000. Kok. forthcoming. the Multimodal Corpus Authoring (MCA) system. of rational or 'logical' deduction. hypertext and the electronic medium (Jewitt. film and television (ledema.MATHEMATICS AS A MULTISEMIOTIC DISCOURSE 19 we may start to count the gains and costs of the mathematical and scientific view of the world. shopping displays (Ravelli. 1996. 2000). few comprehensive theoretical and practical approaches have been developed in the field of multimodality. . Baldry and Thibault. and our relations to others and the world around us. 2002). Cheong. Consequently. forthcoming a. 1999b. Kress et al. There have been attempts to construct grammatical frameworks for different semiotic resources (see Kress and van Leeuwen. 2002). film and web pages. 2004). This research field is commonly called 'multimodality'. 2004. 2000a. Thibault. with the exception of Thibault's (2001) approach to the theory and practice of multimodal transcription and Baldry and Thibault's notion of phase for the analysis of dynamic texts (Baldry. 2000. Baldry and Thibault. pushing us too hard. 2003b. of objectification. forthcoming b) of an on-line multimodal concordancer. multiliteracy (Lemke. 2004). 2003) where language is conceptualized as one resource which functions alongside other semiotic resources. 2000). Research in the field of multimodality also includes the development by Anthony Baldry et al (Baldry. Baldry. O'Halloran. biology (Guo. 2001). a meta-language for . Unsworth. TESOL (Royce. The ways in which 'mathematics is pushing us too hard' are investigated through an understanding of mathematics as a multisemiotic resource. 2003. forthcoming a). 2004. 2004a. 1996. 2001). 2001. Unsworth. 2002. O'Halloran. Kress et al. 2001. I have the conviction . forthcoming b).6 Systemic Functional Research in Multimodality This study of mathematics represents part of a growing movement in SFL (see ledema. 2001. Thibault. Only then can we begin to appreciate the ways in which this discourse and scientific order function to shape our view of ourselves. O'Halloran. 2001. In the view of Davis (2000: 291): The mathematical spirit both solves problems and creates other problems. Kress.. . or the study of 'multimodal discourse' (for example. pushing us to the edge of dehumanization. 2004. 1996. O'Halloran. that this spirit is now . forthcoming). of universal quantization. . studies have been completed in a wide range of fields including science (Baldry. Ventola et al. 2004b. 2001. of generalization. which is web-based software for the analysis of phase and transitions in dynamic texts such as television advertisements. 2004b. Levine and Scollon. of computational recipes. museum exhibitions (Pang. 2003. It claims universality and indubitability. Lemke. 2002) and advertising (for example. 2000b.. forthcoming. 1998a. 1998b. 2004a). What is the mathematical spirit? It is the spirit of abstraction. . However. forthcoming a.

The use of the term 'multimodal' is explained below. The term multisemiotic is used for texts which are constructed from more than one semiotic resource and multimodality is used for discourses which involve more than one mode of semiosis. there is confusion over the use of the terms 'mode' versus 'semiotic'. not only in culture (ink. for example. including both the tools and the materials used (for example. Partly as a consequence of this lack of a meta-theory. Any discourse that involves more than one semiotic resource is therefore termed 'multisemiotic' rather than 'multimodal'. visual or tactile. music and diegetic sound is therefore multisemiotic rather than multimodal as it involves multiple semiotic resources realized through the auditory mode of . paint. It follows that different semiotic resources are constrained in terms of possible modes through which the semiotic activity can take place. but visual images are instantiated through the visual mode in different media such as print. as a mode.' In order to maintain existing systemic terminology. consequently. combining semiotic modes. the chisel and the block of wood. but also in nature. Kress and van Leeuwen (2001: 22) see Narrative. visual images and mathematical symbolism.' From this position. These semiotic resources have unique grammatical systems through which they are organized. The term 'mode' in SFL. in this study the term mode is used to refer to the channel (auditory. medium for the material resources of the channel. As an example of mixed terminology. for example. This sense. Designs then use these resources. adopted in this study. For example. there exist problems of terminology in studies of multimodality. computers). A radio play featuring speech. On the other hand.20 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE an overarching model for the theory and practice of multimodal discourse analysis remains at a preliminary stage. Kress and van Leeuwen (2001: 22) use the term 'medium' to refer to the '[m]aterial resources used in the production of semiotic products and events. the term 'semiotic' is used to refer to semiotic resources such as language. as noted by ledema (2003: 50). visual or tactile. 'multimodal' versus 'multisemiotic'. cameras. and genre for text types such as the Narrative (which is realized through language in the spoken or written form). electronic media and three-dimensional space. Given that this field represents a relatively new area of research. is concerned with the nature of the action of semiosis. and selecting from the options which they make available according to the interests of a particular communication situation. In this study. the musical instrument and air. for example) through which semiotic activity takes place. Kress and van Leeuwen (2001: 21-22) define 'mode' as the 'semiotic resources which allow the simultaneous realization of discourses and types of (inter) action. For example. typically means the role language is playing (spoken or written) in an interaction. this is to be expected as the much needed frameworks undergo development. and. following Halliday and Hasan (1985). that is. however. whether it is auditory. They are usually specially produced for this purpose. language may be instantiated orally or visually.

The multimodal nature of mathematical pedagogical discourse is discussed in Chapter 7. The practices adopted here do not attempt to solve the problems of mixed usages of terminology. a website which contains written linguistic text and a music video clip is multisemiotic (involving language. visual images. which involves spoken discourse and other semiotic resources. music) and multimodal (visual and auditory). language. visual images and mathematical symbolism. such as the academic lecture. However. .M A T H E M A T I C S AS A M U L T I S E M I O T I C D I S C O U R S E 21 sound through the medium of the radio. rather they seek to clarify the use of the terms adopted in this study. mathematics is referred to as multisemiotic as it consists of three semiotic resources. Mathematics is considered to be primarily a written discourse produced in printed and electronic media. In this respect. There are also multimodal genres in the field of mathematics.

Newton developed Descartes' mathematical semiotic tools to provide a symbolic description of physical reality. 2003b. a method aimed at securing 'true knowledge'. It appears that this success with symbolic and visual semiotic tools was incorporated into an approach upon which Descartes could base his philosophical method. This excursion includes a discussion of the first known printed mathematics book. such as colour. Newton in fact re-admitted sense experience to the philosophical and scientific realm in such a way that made the invisible (for example. Descartes successfully used mathematical symbolism to describe and differentiate between curves. Such an examination of visual images. In particular. In the first case. Descartes' shift of emphasis from perception to what he called 'the intellect' and Newton's reformulation of nature in mathematical terms are investigated. and an examination of early mathematical and scientific printed texts from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries. Descartes (1596-1650) and Newton (1642-1727) are seen to provide important points of departure in the seventeenth century for what was to become the contemporary mathematical and scientific project. forthcoming a). and accepting only 'primary' qualities which could be dealt with through 'the mind'. In this movement.2 Evolution of the Semiotics of Mathematics 2.1 Historical Development of Mathematical Discourse A historical view of the changing nature of multisemiosis in mathematical discourse from the early Renaissance to the present is a useful method for introducing in general terms the development of the semantic realm of mathematics (O'Halloran. The scientific age and the use of experimentation and technology began in earnest with Newton. . odour and taste perceived by the bodily senses. symbolism and language in mathematical texts demonstrates how particular dimensions of meaning are incorporated to the exclusion of others. the Treviso Arithmetic 1478. much effort was expended in developing mathematical symbolism as a semiotic resource with a grammar that could directly interact with the grammars of graphs. This method involved dispensing with the 'secondary' qualities of matter. In doing so. 1996). force and attraction) visible through mathematicized symbolic description (Barry.

As Cajori (1993) explains. 1987). The reasons for the changes in the nature of mathematics are traced to the cultural. The broader view presented in this study is that algebra developed in three stages (see Joseph. In this chapter. it may be seen that only certain ranges of choice were incorporated in mathematics during different time periods. the functions which the mathematics was designed to serve and the available technology. Cajori's (1993) detailed account of the history of mathematical notation reveals that the majority of forms of mathematical symbolism became obsolete with only a few forms surviving to the present day. As Wilder (1986) claims. The last stage of the development was symbolic algebra where the mathematical symbolism developed as a semiotic resource in its own right. In other words. This discussion of the history of mathematics differs from most accounts in that the view is essentially semiotic. The implications of this re-contextualization of mathematical and scientific formulations in fields which include the arts. The second stage was syncopated algebra where quantities and operations which were used frequently were symbolized.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 23 diagrams and language. Swetz. Rather than providing a complete description of the three stages. Descartes and Newton reformulated the mathematical realm in what marks the beginning of modern science during the seventeenth century. some necessarily fragmented glimpses of these early events are traced in order to introduce the nature of meanings found in contemporary mathematics. commercial. social sciences and humanities are addressed in Chapter 7. In addition. intellectual and economic climate of the different time periods. The shifting nature of those choices becomes evident as the printed classical mathematical texts of antiquity and early practical arithmetic books were replaced with new forms of semiosis in the mathematics of the early Renaissance. First there existed rhetorical algebra which involved linguistic descriptions and solutions to problems. nor is it possible to include a discussion of the origins of algebra documented by mathematical historians (for example. political and private interests combine with advances in computer technology to determine the type of mathematics developed and the nature of scientific projects which are undertaken. the changing nature of multisemiosis in mathematics as the symbolism developed is explored. This remains true today where economic. 1968). the historical investigation into the semiotic realm of mathematics and science takes the form of a discussion of the illustrations and diagrams which appear in early printed mathematical texts. out of the possible options within the different sign systems for language. Klein. To make this undertaking more accessible. the history of the development of mathematical symbolism is complex and involves rivalry among mathematicians. today that mathematical realm functions in different contexts from that which supported the original mathematical formulations. visual images and symbolism. . observations concerning the different forms of symbolism in these texts are made. 1991. These developments are not included in the account presented here. However.

The book is concerned with practical arithmetic for calculations in trade and commerce. Following this line of argument. views of the changing nature of the semiotics of mathematics are oudined in relation to the cultural and situational contexts which gave rise to those discourses. These institutions were popular places to learn the mathematics necessary for the expanding merchant trade. Swetz (1987) explains that the content is typical of the earliest known mathematics books in Europe. The majority of the books were written by masters in reckoning schools and guilds which flourished in Italy during the fifteenth century. Consequently. Although Swetz (1987) is an English translation of an Italian text. the breakthrough which led to the scientific revolution was a new way of conceptualizing the world using new forms of semiosis. like other forms of discourse. but in doing so has the potential to solve problems which would be impossible to solve using other semiotic resources. The style is rhetorical algebra where unknown quantities are realized as entities such as 'profit' rather than symbolic quantities such as 'P'. The author of the original manuscript is unknown and the title arises from the date and place of publication. Seen in this light. rational advance along a straight descending line.2(1). it is politically motivated. This is basically the position developed in the following discussion of the evolution of modern mathematics. the Italian town of Treviso. following Koestler (1959) and later philosophers of science such as Kuhn (1970). numerical symbols and particular forms of drawings. mathematics is seen to deal with a limited semantic field in limited ways.2 Early Printed Mathematics Books The first known printed Western mathematical book is the Treviso Arithmetic 1478. and there are drawings to demonstrate how the calculations are performed. According to Swetz (1987). that the kind of mathematics used is selected from a range of possible choices and that in this process very few problems are answered. in the late fifteenth century some Italian writers were starting to use syncopated algebra with forms of abbreviations for recurring terms and mathematical operations. In explaining the effectiveness of mathematics. the development of mathematics and science has not been orderly: 'The progress of science [and mathematics] is generally regarded as a clean. Hamming (1980) claims that what is seen is what is looked for.24 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE mathematics is a cultural practice. and so. 2. the Hindu-Arabic system is used for the calculations in the Treviso Arithmetic. the first complete translation appears in Frank Swetz's (1987) Capitalism and Arithmetic. it can be seen that the original text is constructed semiotically through the use of language. in fact it has followed a zigzag course. . Partially translated from Italian into English by David Eugene Smith in the 1920s. As seen in Plate 2. more bewildering than the evolution of political thought' (Koestler. 1959: 11). In the following discussion.

Computation at this time centred around prestigious counting tables. The controversy concerned the abacists. By the fifteenth century Italy. and the algorists. was ahead of other European countries in using the . n pizoli and Plate 2. Despite the obvious benefits of the new system. however. 1987: 140) At the time of the Treviso Arithmetic.2(1) The Treviso Arithmetic (reproduced from Swetz. first introduced in Europe as early as AD 1000 was slow because of the resistance exerted by those who controlled the tables.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 25 Thus the problem is solved. and the proposed shift to algorists' Hindu-Arabic system represented a threat to those who had vested interests in maintaining the tables.2(2). who used the Hindu-Arabic numeration system and algorithms to calculate and record. and the answer is that there falls to Piero as profit 138 ducats. who manually used counters and ruled lines to perform the calculations and recorded the result in Roman numerals. 21 grossi. there were controversies over the best method for performing arithmetical calculations as pictured in Plate 2. the shift to the Hindu-Arabic numeration system.

2(2) The Hindu-Arabic system versus counters and lines (Reisch. those supporting the Hindu-Arabic number system). The Treviso Arithmetic demonstrates how the nature of mathematics is influenced by cultural and economic concerns of the time (in this case. 1535: 267) Hindu-Arabic system as the means for performing arithmetic calculations. In addition. merchant trade and commerce) and pressure from special interest groups (for example.26 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 2. technology plays an important role as seen below in the discussion of the .

As mathematical texts increasingly appeared in print. The expansion of the use of the Hindu-Arabic system is significant for two reasons. Printing also forced a standardization of mathematical terms.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 27 impact of the printing press on mathematics. and concepts. Second. (Swetz. the nature of the development of mathematics is a convergence of these factors. 1987). as commercial mathematics increasingly became semiotic instantiations in the written mode. Swetz (1987: 32) explains that the increased focus. new techniques based on the use of Hindu-Arabic numerals and their accompanying algorithms. First. 1954. The way was now opened for even greater computational advances and the movement from a rhetorical algebra to a symbolic one. Two examples of early printed editions of Euclid's Elements are displayed in Plates 2. techniques and symbols which led to the range of mathematical notations documented by Cajori (1993). 1987: 284) Swetz (1987) explains that at the time the Treviso Arithmetic was published. The printed text permitted close examination and development of arithmetical algorithms. patterns could be noted and mathematical structure discerned. it appears that this priority was placed second to arithmetic where 'Practical necessity was the motivating force in this printing decision' (Swetz. The calculations completed through lines and counters on the counting tables were clumsy to reproduce and required special printing techniques. symbols. Swetz. Eisenstein. More generally. The use of printing press technology explains the increased popularity of the Hindu-Arabic system which lent itself to this type of reproduction (for example.). The visual stimulus of a mathematical process written out allowed for a re-examination and questioning of the process. 'Perhaps the typographical problems inherent in setting type for geometrical figures were responsible for the delay. the algorithms for the calculations became more widely disseminated and commercial arithmetic moved from the hands and counters of the few to a wide audience. However. As may be seen in Plate 2. In Thomas-Stanford's (1926: 3) view. Thomas-Stanford (1926: 3) states that the . 1979. this form of representation could not compete with the more efficient semiotic form of the Hindu-Arabic system of computation. in many cases. the diagrams on the left-hand side (which include small pictures of hands) demonstrate how the calculations are performed using the lines and counters. From this period onward. 1987: 25).2(3). the early Venetian printing presses published few mathematics books due to the problems of printing the diagrams. attention and recording of the mathematical techniques in the Hindu-Arabic practical arithmetical texts in effect paved the way for the development of symbolic algebra. Dantzig. computation involving numbers would be more easily executed and efficiently recorded. and the standardization of mathematical procedures. the Classicist mathematicians demanded a printed edition of Euclid.2(4a-b). not only were mathematical techniques being more widely learned but they were. Under the economic and intellectual impetus of this time. but more likely it was due to the economic and intellectual demands of the marketplace' (ibid.

the running linguistic text in the style of rhetorical algebra is ornately decorated and the diagrams are neatly offset to one side.' In this version of Euclid displayed in Plate 2.2(3) Printing counter and line calculations (Reisch.2(4b) shows the richness of the border patterns and text which appears in the early editions of Euclid. which appeared in 1482.28 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 2. 1535: 326) first printed edition. Plate 2.2(4a). was 'an epoch-making' book in many respects: 'It was [one of] the first attempt[s] .to produce a long mathematical book illustrated by diagrams. In the .and a highly successful one .

. Erhard Ratdolt (ThomasStanford.2(5).' in Euclid's discourse.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF MATHEMATICS 29 Plate 2. parts of the text and the decoration are coloured red. . Thomas-Stanford (1926: 4) observes that' [it] would almost seem that at Venice especially the printers sought by a refinement of ornamentation to relieve the austerity of the subject-matter'. the author is absent. 1926: Illustration II) original version of Plate 2. the nature of which may be appreciated from the modern translation of Euclid which is displayed in Plate 2. 'I say that. The mathematics appears as objective statements which are accompanied by perfect geometrical shapes. Apart from the statement. In Euclid's writings .2(4a) Euclid's Elements: Venice 1482.2(4b) reproduced in Thomas-Stanford (1926: Illustration IV).

1926: Illustration IV) displayed in Plates 2. B.2(5). which appears only in the form of a. c and d and A. J. Tacuinus (ThomasStanford. there is also a noticeable lack of symbolism in the text. sides. C and D to refer to the points. angles and triangles in the .30 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 2.2(4a-b) and 2.2(4b) Euclid's Elements: Venice 1505. b.

2(5) Translation of Euclid (reproduced from Euclid. D. While the absence of mathematical symbolism in Archimedes' (287-212 BC) rhetorical-style text is not surprising. since AC is greater than AB. Presumably early printing presses possessed to different degrees the technology. 3].E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 31 PROPOSITION 18. it is greater than the interior and opposite angle DCB. the textual layout includes spatial separation of the text and diagrams. For example. since the side AB is equal to AD. Newton rewrote Euclid's geometry in symbolic form. Febvre and Martin (1976: 259) claim that 'printing does not seem to have played much part in developing scientific theory at the start'. For.2(6). This view is based on an observation that some influential works in arithmetic and . Therefore etc. and let BD be joined. Q. In any triangle the greater side subtends the greater angle. 1956: 283) mathematical diagrams. which is a feature of contemporary mathematical texts. For let ABC be a triangle having the side AC greater than AB. E. typesetting lines separate the Greek and Latin versions of the text. let AD be made equal toAB [i. as displayed in Plate 2. expertise and finance to produce printed mathematical books. In addition. Plate 2. therefore the angle ABD is also greater than the angle ACB. Needless to say. the quality of the production of the mathematics printed texts was not always consistent. the translated version of Archimedes (1615: 437) printed in Paris contains mathematical diagrams which are crude especially with respect to line width and horizontal alignment on the page. Then. therefore the angle ABC is much greater than the angle ACS. I say that the angle ABC is also greater than the angle BCA. As we shall soon see. since the angle ADB is an exterior angle of the triangle BCD. and the headings and margins. 16] But the angle ADB is equal to the angle ABD. [i.

32 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E Plate 2. 1615: 437) .2(6) Quadratura Paraboles (Archimedes.

remained in manuscript form in the late fifteenth century.3. and it developed into a discipline that ranked alongside or above other more established fields of study. the reckoning masters were the forerunners of applied mathematicians. early printing presses must have taken time to become established and to be economically viable. they were influential. the printers must have made careful choices as to what they published. Mathematics became widely accessible. there was a need to refine navigational techniques and increase military strength. studies in mathematics expanded rapidly into new ways of thinking about old ideas. Whitrow (1988: 267) notes: '[this book] was extremely influential. for as Eisenstein (1979: 467) claims '[cjounting on one's fingers or even using an abacus did not encourage the invention of Cartesian coordinates'. and cask gauging. Eisenstein (1979) further explains that Newton mastered the classical works of the ancients and contemporary mathematicians such as Descartes from the books he obtained from libraries and book fairs. The printing of mathematical texts had an immense impact on the mathematics that was subsequently developed. construction of calendars. Likewise. and in some sense standardized. it is important to note that commercial arithmetic was not the only concern of this time simply for the reason that commerce and trade do not only involve counting. As trade and colonialization expanded. 2. and this differed greatly from previous practices where learning took place in an oral tradition which involved the elder masters.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF MATHEMATICS 33 algebra.3 Mathematics in the Early Renaissance The new movements in sixteenth-century Europe were fuelled through the decline of feudalism and the growth of cities and towns in which the . 1951). Leibniz had read most of the important mathematical texts of his time before he was twenty years of age (Smith. In this climate. However. such as Nicolas Chuquet's (1484) The Triparty. As becomes evident in Section 2. Before moving beyond the times of the Treviso Arithmetic. and the first book on the subject was Luca Pacioli's Summa de Arithmetica (1494). presumably because it was printed'. for example. When the printed texts on algebra did appear. Newton was self-taught. At this time. As Swetz (1987: 25) explains. and their concerns spanned commercial arithmetic to land surveying. and new ways of thinking about new ideas. it is not surprising that the first books in the late fifteenth century were concerned with practical arithmetic and classical texts rather than new works in algebra. Whitrow (1988). mathematical and scientific descriptions at the beginning of the Renaissance included the study of warfare. through the medium of the printing press. states that the key to the mathematical revolution in the sixteenth century was the beginnings of the development of algebra. Given the economic demands of the time and the pressure from certain established circles. mathematics became a recognized profession which was freed from the mysticism of the Middle Ages.

a re-examination of ideas occurred in what is generally termed the Renaissance. a topic which is further investigated below.3(1). which broadened man's horizons of inquiry and innovation. the concept of volume is illustrated through spears which pierce the body of a naked man standing on a mound of earth in Reisch (1535: 424). In the new spirit of the early Renaissance. . and the notation does not include the shorthand forms which are found today. for example.' The arts flourished and the nature of mathematical and scientific thinking also changed.000.000. The other female figures are labelled Astronomy. Niccolo Fontana. was a pupil of the Italian reckoning schools and later became a prominent mathematician in his own right.3(2) clearly shows the circumstantial context of the problem including the target which is to be hit. military concerns in the form of hitting targets are reflected in other studies. The new place of mathematics in what marks the beginning of the Renaissance is made clear in this scene. The banner that Plato holds reads 'hue geometriae expers ingrediatur' or 'Nobody enters who is not expert of mathematics' (translated by David Pingree in Davis. known as Niccolo Tartaglia. the human realm was depicted. 1020 for 100. commerce and trade meant the introduction of a new power base. Tartaglia's (1546: 7) research into the trajectory of cannonballs displayed in Plate 2. After being admitted by Euclid and passing by the two firing cannons with their attendants. and Astrology. the two female figures standing by Tartaglia to greet the visitor are labelled Arithmetic and Geometry. that lacks its topmost thomist level: theology!' The message is that those seeking wisdom must know mathematics.000. As Davis (2000: 293) explains. and the frontispiece to this book. The nature of the change in mathematics is explored below through the examination of several printed mathematical texts of that time. This conception of volume differs dramatically from that found in Euclid. In the climate of relative social stability in the West. 2000: 293). mathematical discourse began to appear in a very different form from the earlier classics which were still in place as the authorative texts. The accompanying mathematical symbolic text includes extended arithmetical calculations as seen in Plate 2. The figures of Plato and Aristotle stand at the entrance to the second level and the female figure of Philosophy is located at the top level. Thomas Aquinas . Music. displayed in Plate 2. Apart from Tartaglia. Tartaglia wrote La Nova Scientia (The New Science) in 1537. for example. The circumstantial context of the mathematical problem was often made explicit. . 'What we have here is the hierarchy of knowledge as set out by St.3(3). For instance. and it appears that an integral part of that knowledge is somehow associated with cannons.000. in addition. .000. and. Poetry.000.34 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE wealth created through manufacture. contains a picture of a tower with different academic fields represented by human figures. The arithmetic is difficult to read as it is embedded within the linguistic text. Swetz (1987: 5) explains that 'Intellectual humanism was patronised by capitalism and secularism. This number appears as '100000000000000000000' in Tartaglia (1546).

Galileo (1638: 67) who attempts to calculate the angle of elevation of a building on a hill. this time from different positions on the ground as seen in Plate 2.3(4).3(1) Tartaglia's (1537) La Nova Scientia Frontispiece for example.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 35 Plate 2. Many mathematical texts in the early Renaissance appear to involve human figures participating in some form of physical or perceptual activity .

There is a human actor engaged in a material activity which is presented as the problem to be solved. the context surrounding Tartaglia's (1537) concern with predicting the path of a cannonball is explicit in Plate 2. these texts were nonetheless explicit as to the purpose of the mathematical exercise. however. However.3(5). the mathematical theory is developed in the abstract. a suitable example of a problem is posed so that the reader can appreciate the usefulness of the mathematics which is subsequently developed.36 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 2. Rather. A man is engaged in firing a cannon to hit a target which appears to be the building on the other side of the river or lake. and retrospectively shown to have applications. Contemporary textbooks in mathematics also have images where the context of the problem is visualized. often presented non-contextually in contemporary discourse. introductory exercises pose problems in order to introduce the mathematical theory which is to be developed. However. reasons for the theory such as warfare are not typically depicted. While Tartaglia later regretted his work on cannon fire as a contribution to the art of warfare (see Davis. 2000: 293). 1546: 7) where the circumstantial context of the exercise is included. for example.3(2) Hitting a target (Tartaglia. or alternatively. Mathematical theory is. and practice exercises apply that theory. in the . at least in the public eye. The problem is approached through geometrical constructions involving lines and a circle (which was later proved to be incorrect through the work of Galileo). For example.

3(3) Arithmetic calculations to hit a target (Tartaglia.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 37 Plate 2. 1546: 106) .

2. an examination of Descartes' mathematical and philosophical writings reveals that mathematical symbolism developed as a semiotic system to form 'a semantic circuit' with the visual images and language. For example. Significantly. the visual images of the curves.38 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 2. The semiotic visual rendition of the mathematics problem permits a re-organization of perceptual reality. That is. For example. these new entities become the focus of attention for Descartes who attempts to construct different curves and in doing so discovers that they may be described algebraically.3(5) demonstrates how the visualization of the problem allows new objects or entities to be introduced semiotically. Descartes discards the human realm of sense perception.3(4) Positioning a target (Galileo. the line segments. In what follows. or alternatively is replaced by a part of . the symbolic description of those curves and the use of language function hand-in-hand to create a new version of reality. 1638: 67) Renaissance texts viewed here. curves and line segments increasingly became the major focus of attention rather than the depiction of the material context of the problem that featured so prominently in the early Renaissance texts. the realm of human activity is an integral part of the mathematics texts. That is.4 Beginnings of Modern Mathematics: Descartes and Newton There was a shift in the nature of the semiotic construction of mathematical problems in the seventeenth to eighteenth centuries where the circles. From this point. circles and arcs and the resultant triangles are entities which only exist in the semiotic construal of the material context of the problem. Tartaglia's (1537) drawing of the men firing the cannon in Plate 2. the human body gradually disappears.

E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 39 Plate 2. 1537) .3(5) Predicting the path of cannon fire (Tartaglia.

circles and arcs and their accompanying spatial and temporal relations take centre stage. Plate 2.4(la) Removing the human body: Descartes (1682: 111) Plate 2. While the mental process of perception is still construed. the focus shifts away from the human actor and the context of the problem to the semiotic entities of lines.4(lb) Removing the human body: Newton (1952: 9) .4(la) and Newton's drawings of the path of light in Plate 2. the body part of 'the eye' now acts as the sensor.4(lb).40 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE the body. the line segments. In these new diagrams.4(lb). as we may see in the case of Descartes' (1682: 111) eyes in Plate 2. In Newton's diagram in Plate 2. With the decline of the human agent. curves and triangles.

3(5).4(2a).4(2a) Movement in space and time: the stone (Descartes. a hand rather than a complete human figure is drawn swinging a stone from point A to point F. 1682: 217) . Descartes labels the path A. The situational context of the problem is absent and the stone is not swung for any conceivable purpose other than to trace the movement of the stone. in Descartes' (1985c: 259) drawing in Plate 2. B and F at different points which adds a temporal dimension to the visual semiotic representation. The drawing of the eye contextualizes the scene. but rather the more dynamic aspect Plate 2. but this eye possesses secondary importance compared to the lens and the path of light depicted by the line segments.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF MATHEMATICS 41 for example. This secondary importance is signalled by the size and position of the eye compared to size. The human figure disappears in visual representations of material actions as well as acts of perception. the dynamic process of the refraction of light is constructed through intersecting line segments through a lens. centrality and labelling of the line segments and the lens. Although the path of the cannonball is drawn in Plate 2. Tartaglia does not attempt to mark so explicitly the unfolding temporal dynamics at particular points of time. Descartes is concerned with spatial and temporal dimensions of the path in the visual semiotic construction of the problem. For example.

labelled and marked spatially with line segments. This drawing depicts a material compass that swings on a pivot at point E. 1953: 31) . the semiotic compass plays a major role in the development of Descartes' geometry. however.4(3) Movement in space and time: the pendulum (Newton. 1682: 217) Plate 2. Descartes' attention. Newton's (1953: 31) construction of the path of two swinging pendulums Plate 2.42 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE of his drawing appears in the firing of the cannon. Descartes draws a model of a compass to trace the movement of the stone in Plate 2.4(2b) Movement in space and time: the model (Descartes. As we shall soon see. lies with the path of the stone at different times which are explicitly drawn.4(2b).

4(4a) Context. 1682: 226) . We have. The path of the ball is constructed as a series of line segments in relation to a circle. Once again. The appearance of de-contextualized visual images where the major processes are spatial.4(3). which is a piece of scientific equipment like the lens in Plate 2. One can see the development of the semiotic construction of the prediction of the path of objects as a continuous mapping of spatial and temporal dimensions. In this diagram the human figure and the context have completely disappeared. The shift from the realm of the material. features of the context of the situation which include a complete human figure involved in some material action in a setting. and the material everyday object such as a stone is replaced with a pendulum. However. In Plate 2.4(lb). temporal and relational with entities in the form of Plate 2.4(4a-b).4(2a). everyday world of human action and perception to de-contextualized visual images in the beginnings of modern science is apparent in Descartes' drawings in Plates 2. circles and lines (Descartes.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 43 is displayed in Plate 2. in a manner similar to Tartaglia's drawings. the human figure and the context are eliminated and the major participants are the new semiotic entities of line segments and circles which are situated in specific relations to each other. a man is shown hitting the ball downwards into what looks like a lake or a pond. These illustrations display the path of a ball through water. in Plate 2.4(4a).4(4b) Descartes shifts his attention to the line segments and curves. Newton marks the relative position of the pendulums in more detail than Descartes' path of the stone in Plate 2.

One reason is the growing significance of the role of the mathematical symbolism.44 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 2. 1682: 228) the line segments. and therefore he moved (a) from the semiotic construction of the material context (b) to the semiotic construction of the lines and curves (c) which were described symbolically (d) to solve the problem. Descartes' main concern was the proportional relations which he mapped visually and spatially as curves using his semiotic compass. The shifts in the nature of the semiotic construals of Descartes' geometry seem to occur in stages. Although this was a major . pen and paper is all that is required. In other words. Descartes discovered that curves could be described using mathematical symbolism. the semiotic rendition included drawing the material action of tracing the curve as displayed in Plate 2.4(5b). circles and curves requires explanation.4(4b) Circles and lines (Descartes. In the initial stages. 1991: 45).4(5b). However. Descartes discovered that mathematical symbolism could be used to differentiate between the curves he constructed.4(5a). This path is explored in the remainder of this chapter. Newton and other mathematicians used this path to lay the foundations of modern science. 'This new [semiotic] instrument does not have to be physically applied.4(5a). For Descartes. it is enough to be able to visualise it and use it as a computing device. Descartes was interested in constructing curves using a semiotically grounded compass which was conceived from the material compass and ruler used by the Greeks. Descartes devised a method of semiotically constructing curves based on proportionality as displayed in Plate 2. since the nature of the curve is revealed in its tracing' (Shea. From the material actions depicted in Plate 2. this material drawing of the curve (which includes the actions of the hand) developed into a semiotic rendition of the material compass to trace curves as displayed in Figure 2.

4(5b) Drawing the curves (Descartes. Descartes' interest remained in the construction of the curves and he did not realize.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 45 Plate 2. While the method amounted to an algebraization of ruler-and-compass constructions (Davis and Hersh. 1986). that the symbolism provided a complete description of the curves rather than a means for construction. Descartes nonetheless 'simplified algebraic notation and . as later mathematicians such Newton and Leibniz did. 1683: 20) (Book Two) breakthrough.4(5a) Descartes' semiotic compass (1683: 54) (Book Two) Plate 2.

4(8a). for instance. The programme of objectivity and truth in the mathematical descriptions inherited from Descartes exists today. The symbolism features as an integral part of Descartes' geometry. one that now depends on language. Descartes concludes that mental facilities alone permit . This method appears to operate within the boundaries of Descartes' new form of symbolic semiosis. Descartes' distrust of the linguistic semiotic is openly expressed in the Second Meditation in 'Meditations on First Philosophy' (Descartes. Newton's semiotic is the symbolism which functions in conjunction with language and the mathematical graphs.4(6a-b). 1952. and in printed versions of Newton's work in Plates 2. and efficiently organizes these symbolic descriptions into table format in Plate 2.4(7).4(7) and 2. that language is inadequate for his purpose of achieving certainty of knowledge beyond the commonsense kind. Descartes' method is concerned with establishing what is 'true knowledge' through the path of intelligibility rather than sensory experience. Cartesian geometry is due as much to Descartes' own contemporaries and successors as to himself. but also because it appears that the newly de-contextualized and algebraicized geometry provided Descartes with the foundations for his influential philosophy. smell. but in actually devising the simplest possible construction' (Shea. The implications and circumstances surrounding Descartes' move to the symbolic are worthy of further investigation. visual images and mathematical symbolism.' Despite this. he certainly appreciated the power of this form of semiosis. flavour.4(8a-b). Davis and Hersh (1986: 5) comment: 'In its current form. 2. Newton proceeds symbolically step-by-step in Plate 2. Descartes repeatedly insists. colour.46 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE set geometry on a new course by his discovery that algebraic equations were useful not only in classifying geometrical curves. not only because this provided Newton with the tools to rewrite nature. Descartes explains that knowledge achieved through the senses (for example. The significance of Descartes' algebraic descriptions for curves cannot be underestimated because this is the point from which modern mathematics and science developed as an integrated multisemiotic discourse in which a central role was assigned to the symbolism. shape and size) is unreliable because these properties change as the wax is heated. Newton's reliance on mathematical symbolic descriptions is seen in Plates 2. Newton rewrites Euclid's geometry in algebraic terms in Plate 2. which offers much more at the price of admitting substantially less.4(8a-b) the reliance on algebraic symbolism as a method for reasoning is evident.4(8b). 1985b) where he attempts to describe what can be known with certainty through a discussion of a ball of wax. Descartes' increasing reliance on the symbolism is evident in his geometry as displayed in Plates 2. 1991: 67).5 Descartes' Philosophy and Semiotic Representations While Descartes did not fully utilize the potential of the mathematical symbolic descriptions. For example.

E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF MATHEMATICS 47 *to LA GEOMETRIE. Plate 2.4(6a) Descartes' description of curves (1954: 234) .

4(6b) Descartes' use of symbolism (1954: 186) .48 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 2.

4(7) Newton's algebraic notes on Euclid .E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF MATHEMATICS 49 Plate 2.

Plate 2. EXAMPLES. 20 find as . whole Properties. very nearly. P R O B.of FLUXIONS. VII. at any.4 (8a) Newton's (1736: 80-81) Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series . which Hull perform the fame | thing. (inrefpeftofthe AxhJ) may be like to the Curvature and' Pofition of the.many Curves as you pleafe^ wbofe Areas may be exhibited by finite.Point of which.50 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE 80 The Method . Equations. The ufe of which Problem is. "21.. llli To determine -a Conic SeSiimt. as to their Reirasftions. Conic Sections may be fubftituted. tangent. this* that inftead of Ellipfes of the fecond kind. And the fame may be underftooci of other Curves. the Curvntitre and Pofitian of the Tangent.of refradling Light are explain'd by DCS Cartes in his Geometry. at a Point aj/igiid of any other Curve.

And thus from the Areas. 70 find as many Curves as you pleafe^ wbofe Areas Jhall have a relation to the Area of any given Curve> ajjlgnable by finite Equations. VIII.cont into . however they may be feign'd. Then the Increments or Fluxions o( the Areas which they defcribe. you may always determine the Ordinates to which they belong. will be as thofe Ordinates drawn M Plate 2. and conceive their Ordinates DB and EC to move. i. and GEI the Curve required. Let FDH be a given Curve. at right Angles upon their Abfcifles or Bafes AB and AC.4(8a) .E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 51 10. P R O B.

52 1OO MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE fhe Method < ? / F L U X I O N S .4(8b) Newton's (1736: 100) Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series . Plate 2.

EVOLUTION OF THE SEMIOTICS OF MATHEMATICS 53

examination of the reliable essence of matter which he conceptualizes as motion and extension in the form of length, breadth and depth. Two translations where Descartes explicitly criticizes the use of language are reproduced below: the first is an English translation of Descartes' original 1642 Latin text and the second is a translation of the 1647 French version of that Latin text.

But as I reach this conclusion I am amazed at how [weak and] prone to error my mind is. For although I am thinking about these matters within myself, silently and without speaking, nonetheless the actual words bring me up short, and I am almost tricked by ordinary ways of talking. (Descartes, 1985b: 21) I am indeed amazed when I consider how weak my mind is and how prone to error. For although I can, dispensing with words, [directly] apprehend all this in myself, none the less words have a hampering hold upon me, and the accepted usages of ordinary speech tend to mislead me. (Descartes, 1952: 209)

The two translations express Descartes' criticism of the use of language to describe knowledge which he claims is certain. His intent is clear: 'But aiming as I do at knowledge superior to the common, I should be ashamed to draw grounds for doubt from the forms and terms of ordinary speech' (ibid.: 210). The semiotic Descartes installs as the one most appropriate for his purposes is mathematical symbolism. In this process, the accompanying geometrical curves are only to be used as an aid to thought. Descartes describes his symbolic expressions which are to replace the linguistic descriptions:

Whatever, therefore, is to be regarded as an item . . . we shall designate by a unique sign, which can be freely chosen. For convenience sake, we employ the letters, a, b and c, etc., to express magnitudes already known, and A, B, C, etc. for unknown magnitudes. To them we shall often prefix the signs 1, 2, 3, etc., to indicate their numerical quantity, and shall also append them to indicate the number of relations which are to be recognised in them. Thus if I write 2a\ that will be as if I should write the double of the magnitude signified by the letter a, which contains three relations. By this device not only do we obtain a great economy in words, but also, what is more important, we present the terms of the difficulty so plain and unencumbered that, while omitting nothing which is needed, there is also nothing superfluous, nothing which engages our mental powers to no purpose . . . Rule XVI (ibid.: 101)

Descartes (1952: 101-102) claims that linguistic descriptions such as 'the square' or 'the cube' are confusing, and that they should be abandoned.

The first is entitled the root, the second the square, the third the cube, the fourth the biquadratic, etc. These terms have, I confess, long misled me. For, after the line and square, nothing it seemed to me allowed of being more clearly exhibited to the imagination than the cube and other shapes; and with their aid I solved not a few difficulties. But at last after many trials I came to realise that by this way of conceiving things I had discovered nothing which I could not have learnt much more easily and

54

MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE

distinctly without it, and that all such denominations should be entirely abandoned, as being likely to cause confusion in our thinking.

The underlying reason for Descartes' claim that the linguistic descriptions cause 'confusion in our thinking' is that the linguistic version means something quite different to what is generally considered to be the symbolic equivalent. As explained in the discussion of language and photographs in Chapter 1, different semiotic resources have the potential to mean different things. In Descartes' example, the linguistic term 'the cube' is semantically a fixed entity through its grammatical instantiation as a noun. It is an object, a thing, a participant or entity. On the other hand, the symbolic ax1 is not a fixed object, rather it is a complex of interactive participants which combine through the process of multiplication as seen in the expanded form ax xx x x x. The symbolic expression is not a stable fixed entity like the linguistic nominal group, rather it is a dynamic complex which may be reconfigured in different ways. This type of symbolic expression offers countless alternatives to describe different curves; for example x3, 2X3, Sx3 and so forth. Given that Descartes' aim is to construct and differentiate between curves, it is not surprising that the symbolic descriptions are preferred. Descartes' (1985a: 9-78, 111-151) 'Rules for the Direction of the Mind' and 'Discourse on the Method for Rightly Conducting One's Reason and Seeking the Truth in the Sciences' explain his method for securing true knowledge. Basically the method entails finding the simplest parts which are known to be true, and ordering and enumerating these parts to understand the more complex whole. The results should be checked to make sure that there are no errors. Shea (1991: 131) explains more fully the method:' (a) nothing is to be assented to unless evidently known to be true; (b) every subject-matter is to be divided into the smallest possible parts, and each dealt with separately; (c) each part is to be considered in the right order, the simplest first; and (d) no part is to be omitted in reviewing the whole'. This is Descartes' method. Construct the problem out of the simplest elements possible, and rearrange those elements to solve the problem of the more complex. The symbolic descriptions fulfil Descartes' criterion for the right philosophical method upon which to proceed to secure true knowledge because the method appears to be based upon his success in algebraicized geometry. The relationship between Descartes' philosophical method and his algebraicized geometry is quite apparent. First, the (algebraic) elements are broken down into their simplest components to understand the more complex (symbolic) configuration. Second, the (symbolic) statements do not include any superfluous information which may function as a distraction. Third, the (symbolic) expressions may be checked to ensure there is no error. Descartes' procedures in geometry match his method for securing true knowledge. There are several important implications of Descartes' mathematics and philosophy which shaped the course of modern mathematics and science.

E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S

55

Descartes' philosophy rested on mathematical formulations and procedures which revolutionized the nature of semiosis through the prominence accorded to the symbolic and the secondary position accorded to the linguistic. Language was considered inadequate for the knowledge to which Descartes aspired. Language belonged to the common-sense world of perceptions and sensory input which was deemed unreliable. The famous Cartesian mind and body duality was attached to the semiotic forms which were used to represent each realm. Symbolic and specialized mathematical forms of visual semiosis were located in the realm of the mind which was, according to Descartes, the proper site for securing knowledge. Language belonged to the realm of the everyday and to the body and its sensory apparatus. This remarkable shift in emphasis resulted in a sharp dichotomy between the different forms of semiosis, and this included a difference in the values attached to each. The differing values accorded to the sciences and the arts and social sciences continue today. The focus of concern in mathematics became curves or patterns which were exactly describable through the symbolism. The types of processes in these visual representations are spatial and temporal relations, and relative proportional rates of change. The major visual participants are lines, line segments, circles, arcs and curves and geometrical shapes which are the visual representations of the relations. Those relations are described symbolically through mathematical processes such as multiplication, addition, subtraction and division between the symbolic participants. The continuous nature of these relations is depicted graphically and described exactly through the symbolism. Human actors participating in material, affective, perceptive, behavioural or verbal processes in the context of the everyday were removed from the realm of mathematics and science. The new semiotic tools are designed to work within particular semantic fields, and these do not include the human realm of the material, the emotive, and the sensory which were considered superfluous. The human realm was put aside in this major re-evaluation of knowledge. The mystical claims of the Middle Ages were replaced with a new type of knowledge and a new basis for legitimizing truth. In addition, the claims upheld on the basis of mathematical descriptions were backed by experimental evidence. With the material success achieved through the mathematicization of nature, gradually the God which was central to Descartes and Newton's formulations (see Plate 2.5(1)) was removed from modern science. The significance of this re-contextualization in the modern mathematical view of the world is explored in Chapter 7. As Koestler (1959: 11) comments 'all cosmological systems [visions of the universe] reflect the unconscious prejudices, the philosophical or even political biases of their authors; and from physics to physiology, no branch of Science, ancient or modern, can boast freedom from metaphysical bias of one kind or another'. The question remains as to the impact of our adoption of the mathematical in a present-day context which differs from the cosmology within which it developed.

Plate 2.5(1) Illustration from Newton's (1729) The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy

One key to this success was that the mathematical symbolism. 1993: 180). colonialization and commerce rapidly increased.6 A New World Order The new approach advocated by Descartes proved to be significant because Newton and others created a movement which involved a new representation of the physical world using new semiotic tools. through the work of Descartes. but in a new mathematicized form (Barry. the means for industrialization. Descartes discarded sense data and developed a method with a form of semiosis which could describe exactly relations. the symbolism developed as the semiotic tool which was central to the mathematics which subsequently developed. while Newton explained the motion of bodies through his calculus and completed research in the fields of optics. These entities could be visualized and they could be described exactly in a symbolic form which allowed the rearrangement of those relations to solve problems and conceptualize the more complex phenomena. However. The physical world became the object of concern. tides. From this point. and with this new engagement. matter and perceptual data were re-admitted by Newton. The symbolic grammar was based on economy through the need to describe in the simplest and most condensed form that which also needed to be rearranged to explain the more complex. and it 'profoundly changed the perspective with which we view the world'. This meant the development of new systems in the grammar of mathematical symbolism which did not exist in language. Newton dispensed with Descartes' position in that he accepted the world of perception. In this movement. no room for error and no superfluous information in the new forms of reasoning provided by the mathematical symbolism. Newton's new semiotic constructions explained the visible world through invisible properties which were made 'real' or 'concrete' through mathematical symbolic description. Newton's new mathematical tools permitted exact description of that which was perceived in terms of the properties of matter. but at the same time he reconstructed that world using Descartes' semiotic tools. Newton started a trend which could only be called a new world order. As Sweet Stayer (1988: 3) claims. 1996). the visual images and language worked together.E V O L U T I O N OF THE S E M I O T I C S OF M A T H E M A T I C S 57 Mathematical symbolism originated from rhetorical algebra in the form of linguistic descriptions and commands which explained the method through which to proceed. Syncopated algebra saw abbreviations for recurring participants. 2. Cajori. Newton used mathematical symbolism to create metaphorical entities which explained the everyday material world. especially Leibniz who 'made a prolonged study of matters of notation' (Book Two. but basically the linguistic grammar still provided the basis for these discourses. thin films and gravitation. The reason for the status of mathematics is . Newton and other mathematicians. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy was the culmination of his work. This grammar of mathematical symbolism is the focus of Chapter 4. There was to be no confusion.

the behaviour of a system cannot be predicted exactly. The new mathematics of non-linear dynamical systems theory is made possible through computer technology. boundary conditions and initial conditions of the system must be taken into account if the behaviour of the system is to be predicted with some degree of success. they [all physical systems] turn out to be nonlinear at some level. that is.: 16). Davies (1990) explains that the approach advocated by Descartes where systems are broken down into constituent components to understand the complex whole is reasonably successful because most physical systems behave in this linear format up to a certain point. because the whole is now greater than the sum of the parts' (ibid. or at least are seen to fit. Indeed. and the idea of an ordered mechanical physical world has been largely abandoned with the development of the notion of chaos and dynamical systems theory. New branches of mathematics have developed since Newton. so the nature of the mathematics changes. One of Newton's major contributions was the use of technology and scientific equipment in a laboratory setting to test empirically his theories. visual images and language which formed the semantic circuit with which Newton constructed the new world order. that is. This method of analysis is only partially successful however: 'On the other hand. The theories had to fit the empirical evidence. As the computing ability increases. all 'superfluous' information was removed. When this point is reached. there were constraints on how the sensory phenomena could be viewed and described. the constraints. As Descartes openly states. Newton instigated a movement which increased control over the physical world because he included experimentation as an integral part of his scientific method. Galileo first established the ideas of experimentation: 'Galileo's work laid the foundations of the modern scientific method which regards the collection of experimental evidence as the essential prelude to the formulation of scientific laws and theories' (Hooper. and what remained was what was possible with the symbolism. When nonlinearity becomes important. and those constraints were established through his semiotic tools and the technology of his scientific equipment.58 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE precisely the goals and objectives which have been fulfilled through this form of semiotic representation. together with the potential for highly sophisticated dynamic graphical images. Science became a matter of description. mathematics and science are intimately linked to the state of the art of computer technology which affords new possibilities in what has literally become a virtual world. prediction and prescription within the confines of the practices established by the laboratory and the semiotic tools which permitted those representations. Although matter may have been re-admitted by Newton. This new view of the world is based on the idea of non-linearity where it is assumed that the behaviour of physical systems is in fact indeterminate. computer technology is such that visual images are now . 1949: 201). Mathematics and science fulfil functions which have transformed the face of the world and life on earth. it is no longer possible to proceed by analysis.

one that is limited by the semiotic tools and the technology employed in its construction. and the means through which this is achieved. the visual and the symbolic is discussed in Chapters 6-7. It could be that the superfluous information once discarded by Descartes can now be incorporated in a new more fully inclusive view of the world. . the grammatical systems for mathematical symbolism and visual display are presented in Chapters 4—5. After discussing the unique grammars for each resource. texts and contexts must be analysed to understand the types of meanings that are made. Discourse analyses of mathematical texts demonstrate that intersemiosis across the three resources is critical for the semantic expansions that take place in mathematics. The analyses represent a close engagement with mathematics as a multisemiotic discourse in order to appreciate the potential and the limitations of the meanings which are made. the semantic circuit in mathematics involving the linguistic. For this reason.EVOLUTION OF THE SEMIOTICS OF MATHEMATICS 59 increasingly exploited as a semiotic resource that offers new possibilities for modelling the world. In conclusion. In order to appreciate the nature of that construction. mathematics and science offer a particular representation of the world .

Halliday. An outline of systemic functional (SF) theory and the accompanying grammatical and discourse systems of language is provided in order to explain the conceptual apparatus underlying this study of mathematics. Christie. 1994. 1997. Halliday and Matthiessen. 2003). Halliday and Matthiessen. 1993. 1998) as the major concern of this study is the extension of SF theory to mathematical symbolism and visual display in order to investigate the multisemiotic nature of mathematical discourse. 1996b. It becomes apparent in this discussion that the study of mathematical and scientific language needs to take into account the meaning arising from the symbolism and visual display. 1978. but further explanations of SF theory are provided elsewhere (for example. Bloor and Bloor. genre and ideology (for example. Thompson. 1997). 1995. Martin etal. 2002-). Halliday's SFL model and linguistic systems at the rank of clause and clause complex and Martin's discourse systems at the level of paragraph and text are used to examine the nature of mathematical language.3 Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and Mathematical Language 3. The description of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and the discussion of the nature of mathematical language in this chapter function to contextualize the systemic frameworks for mathematical symbolism and visual display developed in Chapters 4-5. 1997. Martin and Veel. The discussion is necessarily technical. Hasan. 1994. Martin and Rose. 1996) including a collection of Halliday's writings (Webster. see Halliday and Martin. This leads to an investigation of the meaning arising from the integrated use of language. Christie and Martin. 1997. 1995. 1999. Eggins. 1994) systemic functional (SF) approach to language which has been extended by Jim Martin and others to incorporate discourse systems (Martin. 1985. In what follows. Martin's discourse systems where meaning is made across stretches of text are therefore . Martin. 1992. The description of mathematical and scientific language in this chapter is general (for a more detailed analysis.1 The Systemic Functional Model of Language The investigation of multisemiosis in mathematics is based on Michael Halliday's (1973. Eggins and Slade. 1999. mathematical symbolism and visual display in Chapters 6-7. Matthiessen. 1999.

In a similar fashion. the discussion of register. visual and symbolic components of the text. in the sense that everything in it can be explained.: 3-4). SFL views language as a resource consisting of a network of relationships.: 3). The SFL approach is concerned with the analysis of how language is used to achieve certain goals through the description of lexicogrammatical (that is. the description of grammatical metaphor in this chapter is further developed through an examination of semiotic metaphor in Chapters 6-7. and the nature of social relations that are enacted in that construction. The choices in the text's patternings reflect the uses that language is serving in that particular instance. SFL is thus orientated to choice. and the analysis of the choices that have been made in any instance of language use. In addition.' Any instance of written or spoken language does not unfold haphazardly as an abstract artefact as formal linguists would lead us to believe. Descriptions show 'how these relationships are interrelated' and explanations reveal 'the connections between these relations and the use to which language is put' (ibid. paradigmatic relations are mapped onto the available options in the system network (the range of . 'what speakers are neurologically required not to do' (ibid. as opposed to restriction. For. ultimately. The underlying assumptions of SFL may be contrasted to the position adopted in formal linguistics where language is conceptualized as a system of rules. Halliday 's SF Theory of Language The fundamental assumption behind Halliday's SF social-semiotic theory is that language is a resource for meaning through choice. 1992: 3). Rather than adopting an individual mentalist perspective. genre and ideology is revisited in relation to the multisemiotic nature of the discourse of mathematics in Chapter 7. lexical and grammatical) and discourse systems. 'what speakers might and tend to do'. language has evolved to satisfy human needs and its grammatical organization is therefore functional with respect to those needs. Following Hjelmslev (1961). Descriptions in these traditions show which sentences are acceptable and explanations reveal 'why the line between in and out falls where it does in terms of an innate neurological speech organism' (Martin.: xiii) states: 'A functional grammar is essentially a "natural" grammar. but rather all texts are constructed in some context of use. as Halliday explains. Halliday (1994) comprehensively documents the grammatical systems through which language is used to achieve different functions. by reference to how language is used.( S F L ) AND M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 61 extended in Chapter 6 to include meaning arising from intersemiosis across linguistic. Halliday (ibid. SFL evolved from Firthian linguistics and consequently is a type of system/structure theory where the key idea is meaning through choice from the available systems. SFL discourse analysis is a critical interpretation of how language choices function to construct a particular view of reality.

1994: xiv). Martin et al. . 1995. The SF approach means that although the grammatical classes such as nouns. There is equal emphasis on the interpretation of the interpersonal metafunction as well as experiential. the focus on social relations and the expression of personal attitudes and feelings has traditionally been marginalized in the majority of linguistic theories. Halliday also identifies the enabling function of language. the higher values accorded to objectivity and reason have obvious significance in the development of mathematics and science. These issues are explored through an interpretation of the concepts of reason. 1993. As Poynton claims. Halliday and Martin. and the process is the actualisation of that potential. which are respectively concerned with the construction of experience and logical relations in the world. The concept of 'realization' relates system and process in that realization statements specify the systems in process and give the structural arrangement of the selected options. Chomsky. 2003). As Poynton (1990) explains. These four types of meaning. The systems in Halliday's grammar of English are organized according to meaning. 1987: 603). Simon-Vandenbergen et al. 1997. are called the metafunctions of language as they are manifestations of the general purposes of language: ' (i) to understand the environment (ideational). and reason versus emotion. adjectives and so forth still have a place. logical. the 'experiential' and the 'logical'. the experiential. Language is conceived as an 'organic configuration of functions' and 'each part is interpreted as functional with respect to the whole' (Halliday. the 'textual' component which organizes language choices into coherent message forms. Poynton (1990) explains that such cognitively orientated conceptions of language support dichotomies such as objective versus subjective. was accompanied by an explicit emphasis on the cognitive domain (for example. Since this is a language potential. and the 'interpersonal' or the socially active. verbs. objectivity and truth based on the analysis of a mathematics text in Chapter 7. Halliday does not privilege either system or process: 'I prefer to think of these [system and process] as a single complex phenomenon: the "system" only exists as potential for the process. 1965. interpersonal and textual.62 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE choices) and syntagmatic relations are mapped on to actual choices (the process which takes the form of a chain of words). the "process" takes the form of what we call a text' (Thibault. logical and textual meanings in SFL. and (ii) to act on the others in it (interpersonal)' (Halliday. 1994: xiii). in the descriptions of grammatical metaphor (Derewianka. The focus on system and referential meaning in linguistics. 2000).. perpetuated with Chomsky's reformulation of Saussure's (1966) langue/parole (language system versus language use) distinction as competence/performance. for example. Halliday further separates ideational meaning into two components. and they have also been invoked in areas of social control. Halliday separates the two main types of meaning into the 'ideational' or the reflective. the elements of language are described by functional rather than word class labels.

Martin thus establishes a separate discourse semantics stratum to complement Halliday's lexicogrammar. The major lexicogrammatical systems are MOOD for interpersonal meaning. Martin (1992: 1) organizes his divisions stratally 'as an opposition between grammar and semantics (between clause orientated and text orientated resources for meaning)'.1(2). 2003) metafunctionally based discourse systems are listed in Table 3.( S F L ) AND M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 63 Halliday (1994) is largely concerned with lexicogrammar at the ranks of word. word group/phrase. the lexicogrammatical and discourse systems are capitalized.1(1) Language. which also includes the communication planes of register. Expression and Communication Planes IDEOLOGY GENRE REGISTER LANGUAGE CONTENT Discourse semantics Paragraph and text Lexicogrammar Clause complex Clause Word group and phrase Word EXPRESSION Phonology Graphology/Typography . 1994: 81-82). Martin and Rose. genre and ideology. Following systemic conventions.1 (1). 2003) is concerned with metafunctionally based systems which operate across paragraphs and the whole text. Martin's proposals lead to a language plane with two strata. Halliday's Lexicogrammatical Systems and Martin's Discourse Systems The major systems in Halliday's lexicogrammar and Martin's (1992.1 discourse semantics and lexicogrammar. is displayed in Table 3. Martin and Rose. and an expression plane which is concerned with phonology and graphology/ typography (Eggins. Martin (1992. On the other hand. The resulting SF model of language. Martin's work follows from Halliday and Hasan's (1976) systemic analysis of textual cohesion where the basic opposition is between structural (grammatical) and non-structural (cohesive) devices. clause and the clause complex. THEME for textual meaning and Table 3.

stylistic organization of vocabulary) textual clause: THEME clause and word group: SUBSTITUTION. TAGGING. which is the basic unit in which the semantic features are represented. ELLIPSIS word group: PERSON. MODULATION. 2003) Discourse Systems Metafunction interpersonal Lexicogrammar clause: MOOD. LEXIS (lexical 'content').64 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 3. flows and falls mapped through word groups. MODALIZATION. ELLIPSIS word group: DEIXIS (nominal) logical clause complex: LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS and INTERDEPENDENT Discourse Systems NEGOTIATION (exchange rank including SPEECH FUNCTION at the move rank) Structure: Exchange Structure linking moves APPRAISAL Structure: surges. LEXIS (expressive words. POLARITY. Halliday's systems are discussed in . Martin and Rose. VOCATION. the systems for logical meaning are LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS and INTERDEPENDENT. phrases and clauses in text IDENTIFICATION (phoricity. word group/phrase) are explained by their functions in each of the metafunctionally based systems. collocation TRANSITIVITY for experiential meaning at the clause rank. ATTITUDE (attitudinal modifiers. At the rank of clause complex or sentence. intensifiers). AGENCY word group: TENSE. The elements in the clause (word. reference) Structure: reference chains linking participants CONJUNCTION and CONTINUITY (based on classifications of LOGICO-SEMANTICS RELATIONS and semantic relations respectively) Structure: conjunctive reticula linking messages IDEATION (lexical relations) Structure: lexical strings and nuclear relations linking message parts experiential clause: TRANSITIVITY. COMMENT (comment adjuncts).1(2) Metafunctional Organization of Halliday's (1994) Lexicogrammatical Systems and Martin's (1992.

intrasemiosis in mathematical symbolism and visual images. In addition. Martin and Rose. are represented as clusters of participant/process/ circumstance rather than sequences of functional elements in the clause. the realizations of the metafunctions in discourse take the forms of particle-like experiential meanings. Discourse systems similar to those proposed by Martin are introduced in the SF frameworks for mathematical symbolism and visual images in Chapters 4 and 5. CONJUNCTION and CONTINUITY. 2003) discourse systems include NEGOTIATION. The metafunctional organization and structure of the discourse systems are included in Table 3. The realization structures for Halliday's grammatical systems take different forms. appreciation) and engagement in written (and spoken) discourse.: 22).2-3. but Martin and Rose (2003) also include the system of APPRAISAL for capturing graduations of attitude (affect. need reworking as they are developed for the analysis of linguistic text (that is. NEGOTIATION is orientated towards spoken discourse.5. the patterns of realization vary across the metafunctions. visual images and mathematical symbolism.(SFL) AND M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 65 relation to the types of selections found in mathematical discourse in Sections 3. Textual meanings arising from the system of THEME and interpersonal meanings through the system of MOOD are described by paradigmatic oppositions realized through syntagmatic structures of the functional categories. 'Appraisal is concerned with evaluation: the kinds of attitudes that are negotiated in a text. The analysis of intra. APPRAISAL. on the other hand. Martin's (1992. the strength of those feelings involved and the ways in which values are sourced and readers aligned' (ibid. IDENTIFICATION. however. Martin's concept of discourse systems is useful for the analysis of stretches of text which involve language. rather than the analysis of meaning within and across different semiotic resources (that is. irregular prosodic swells of interpersonal meanings (where the concept of volume comes into play) and regular periodic wave-like textual meanings. The realization of the logical metafunction at the rank of clause complex through the system of LOGICAL-SEMANTIC RELATIONS is somewhat different from the other grammatical systems as particular elements (for example.1(2). intrasemiosis in language).and inter-semiosis in mathematical discourse includes the typography . Experiential meanings from TRANSITIVITY choices. Following Halliday. judgement. and intersemiosis across the three semiotic resources). and the framework for intersemiosis in Chapter 6. and IDEATION. Logical meaning is described by the types of INTERDEPENDENCY relations (dependent or independent) and by LOGICO-SEMANTIC relations between clauses (relations of logical expansion or projection of speech and thought). These systems are also considered in relation to the grammatical organization of mathematical symbolism in Chapter 4. the structural conjunctions 'and' and 'or') may be selected more than once in a clause complex. while the other systems have multiple variables which may be selected only once in the clause. Martin's frameworks.

] ) function within the structure of a word or word group. thus shifting rank from clause and phrase to the lower rank of word/word group.2 Halliday (ibid. This stratum has not typically been included in SFL analysis. Halliday. ] ]) and phrases (indicated by the square brackets [ . the importance of which becomes evident in Chapters 4-6. and functional labels are attached according to choices made from each system. / / and the elements within each clause are analysed according to the metafunctionally based grammatical and discourse systems. Hasan. for example. 2004c). but their brevity is not the result of ellipsis'. word group/phrase. cohesive harmony and the method of development of the text. In the case of spoken discourse. clauses are marked by slashes / / . . //she reacted more strongly [[than they expected]]//. and complete or ellipsed. Eggins (1994: 172) explains that these minor clauses are 'typically brief. Minor clauses are 'clauses with no mood or transitivity structure. 1994: 63). . . for example. 1994. Clauses are also classified as major or minor. greetings and exclamations' (Halliday. Martin's discourse structures interact systematically with each other and the lexicogrammatical structures (giving rise to incidences of grammatical metaphor. 2000. . 1984). embedded clauses (indicated by sets of square brackets [ [ . mathematical symbolism and visual display (O'Halloran. visual images and the symbolism across different strata becomes apparent in the analyses of the mathematics texts presented in Chapters 6-7. abandoned clauses may also be tagged. Elements in the clause are analysed several times. //the job [[I want]] was advertised//. That is. for example. While these formulations are not specifically developed in this study. Martin (1992:392) refers to the systematic interaction between discoursal and grammatical structures as modal responsibility. Alternatively the rankshifted element may function as a Head of a nominal group. Using Halliday's (1994: 63) notion of ranks (word.66 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE of the text at the expression stratum. clause and clause complex). . . Clauses are classified as to whether they contain rankshifted or embedded elements. typically functioning as calls. SFL Discourse Analysis In SFL discourse analysis. The classification of clause type is useful for examining interpersonal patterns of domination and deference. The texture of discourse in this case involves the dense patterns which emerge from the integrated use of language. for example) resulting in the 'texture' of a text. the grammatical density arising from the interactions between language. //[[that so many . rankshifting is the process whereby a clause or phrase functions at the lower rank of word or word group. and adverbial groups. The ways in which the discourse systems co-operate with each other to make a text is not as well understood as the nature of interaction across the grammatical and discourse strata (see for example.: 242) explains that embedded clausal and phrasal elements may function as a Postmodifier in nominal groups.

The multisemiotic text for this extract is reproduced in Plate 6. and the nature of the selections found in mathematical and scientific language is discussed according to metafunction. imperative and exclamative) and the SPEECH FUNCTION (statement. The description of the system of MOOD is given in Halliday (1994: 71-105). In the following discussion. 3. Comment Adjuncts. the major grammatical and discourse systems are explained. the curve is relatively flat and the ^values change slowly.2 Interpersonal Meaning in Mathematics The analysis of interpersonal meaning is concerned with the nature of the social relations which are enacted through linguistic choices from the systems listed in Table 3.( S F L ) AND M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 67 staff are leaving]] is cause for concern//. the ^values change rapidly. Finite. This means that when the derivative is large (and therefore the curve is steep. the MOOD system (where choices are made for Subject. that is /' (x. This gives a second interpretation of the derivative: The derivative/' (a) is the instantaneous rate of change of y=f(x) with respect to xwhen x= a. The SFL analysis is concerned with choice: how do interactants negotiate the exchange of information and goods and services.1 (2). When the derivative is small. It becomes apparent in the analysis of Stewart (1999: 132) that mathematical and scientific language must necessarily take into account the visual and symbolic components of the text.). as at the Point P in Figure 4). so the co-text and context are taken into consideration in the analysis. symbolic and visual choices in the text are analysed. rankshifting in language serves the important function of packing information into the clause. then the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent to this curve at the point where x = a. command and offer) does not exist. In essence.3(2) in Chapter 6 where the meanings arising from intersemiosis between the linguistic. The following linguistic extract from Stewart's (1999: 132) textbook Calculus is used to illustrate features of mathematical language: From Equation 3 we recognize this limit as being the derivative off at x. and what does this reveal about their social relations? A one-to-one relationship between the grammatical classes of MOOD (declarative. However. question. Predicator. the congruent or unmarked case is that statements are realized . Complement and Circumstantial Adjuncts) is related to the SPEECH FUNCTION which is concerned with the giving/demanding information (statements and questions) and goods and services (commands and offers). As may be seen from these examples. interrogative.. Mood Adjuncts. The connection with the first interpretation is that if we sketch the curve y=f(x). The concept of rankshift is particularly significant in the grammar of mathematical symbolism in Chapter 4 where the lexicogrammatical strategies for encoding meaning in the symbolism are seen to be different from those found in mathematical and scientific language.

'solve . . . These are delaying moves (dKl and dAl). The Exchange Structure is based on Halliday (1994) where the opposition is between information and goods and services moves.?').2 (I). secondary knower (K2) and secondary actor moves (A2).4 on logical meaning).') and offers through modulated interrogative Mood (modulated FiniteASubject.2(1). 'why . 'is this . the SPEECH FUNCTION and MOOD systems relate to the Exchange Structure. 'this is . commands through imperative Mood (Predicater. extension and enhancement) and projection (locution and idea) and interdependency relations (see Section 3. request. As displayed in figure 3. and secondary knower (K2) and secondary actor (A2) moves. These classifications frame the types of moves found in written mathematical texts. . ' ) . While all the classifications presented in Figure 3. . which is Martin's (1992) discourse system of NEGOTIATION. response and closure moves are supplemented with 'K-Continuation' and 'A-Continuation'. Kl is the speaker/writer who has the information which is being negotiated. together with moves of Reacting in Figure 3. . 'would you . This move is realized through paratactic relations of interdependency between the two clauses. . 3 together with the Exchange Structure which consists of sequences of moves. The system networks for MOOD and SPEECH FUNCTION are displayed in Figure 3. for example. which are requests and responses for the tracking moves of Backchannel. moves are classified as primary knower (Kl) and primary actor (Al) moves. Check. These move-complexes are based on Halliday's (1994: 220) LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS of expansion (elaboration. . Incongruent selections result in interpersonal metaphors where there is variation (for whatever reason) in the enactment of the social relations. Clarification. for example. The Exchange Structure consists of obligatory moves Kl and Al and three optional moves. 1988) 'move complexes'.2(1) do not typically occur in written mathematical texts. . for example. . . and 'K-x' and 'A-x' moves. the categories of initiation. commands and offers and Martin's (1992: 66-76) 'dynamic moves' for spoken discourse.?') and the WH-element (WH. for example. it is useful to consider the selections afforded in dynamic spoken contexts to situate the type of discourse found in written mathematics.2(1). A 'continuation' move realizes a continuation of the same SPEECH FUNCTION which was established in the previous move even though the clause selects independently for MOOD. Berry's (1981) moves are developed from Halliday's (1994: 69) SPEECH FUNCTION classifications of 'initiating and responding' to the 'giving and demanding' of goods and services and information. An 'x' move realizes a continuation of . Following Berry (1981). Confirmation and Challenging moves.'). questions are realized through interrogative Mood (FiniteASubject.68 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE through declarative Mood (SubjectAFinite. questions. and Al is the participant who performs the action. for example. In order to incorporate Ventola's (1987. The SPEECH FUNCTIONS of Call and Greeting have also been included. SPEECH FUNCTIONS include responses to the statements.

SPEECH FUNCTION and MOOD .interrogative imperative Proposal Dynamic move Followup Reacting dA1 A1 A2 Action SPEECH FUNCTION command offer compliance refusal acceptance rejection clarification challenge backchannel check confirmation paralinguistic none A-lnitiation A-Continuation A-x A-Response A-Request Figure 3.interrogative MOOD YN .Proposition Dynamic move Followup Reacting Call Greeting Knowledge dK1 K1 K2 K-lnitiation K-Continuation K-x K-Response K-Request SPEECH FUNCTION EXCHANGE new continuation exchange number statement exclamative expletive question acknowledgeme contradiction answer disclaimer clarification challenge backchannel check confirmation declarative WH .2(1) NEGOTIATION (Exchange Structure).

SFL analysis involves analysing choices in the text for mood. 1996. as primary actor (Al). and so the writer provides detailed information. Foremost. most typically. Stewart (1999: 132) makes reference to 'Equation 3' and 'Point Pin Figure 4'. it becomes apparent that the dominant position of the writer is reinforced across choices for mathematical symbolism and visual display. the writer is the primary knower (Kl) who gives information in the form of statements through declarative Mood. However. with its overarching aim of deriving results through long sequences of logical reasoning.70 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE the same SPEECH FUNCTION in hypotactically related finite and nonfinite clauses. In what follows. The selections from the systems of MOOD. 2004c). The extended exchanges contribute to the steady interpersonal rhythm of mathematical discourse. the nature of linguistic selections for interpersonal meaning in Stewart (1999: 132) are investigated. speech function and negotiation (exchange structure). In the following chapters. While mathematical pedagogical discourse is dominated by the teacher (Veel. the SFL grammatical and discourse frameworks provide the starting point for the development of grammars for the symbolism and visual display and the theorization of intersemiotic shifts and transitions in mathematical discourse. unequal social relations are established between the teacher and the students in the context of the mathematics classroom. Similarly. The Exchange Structure typically involves long sequences of moves as seen in Stewart (1999: 132). In this way. However. the writer checks that commands have been completed correctly by providing the solutions to problems. such selections as 'we' give rise to interpersonal . The writer takes the role of the one who commands (A2). provides the answers (Kl). In the case of mathematics textbooks such as Stewart (1999). the author also assumes the role of secondary knower (K2) who asks the questions and. which include the use of 'we' as Subject. the writer assumes the speech roles. 1999). Mathematics lends itself to these types of social relations between the writer and the reader as mathematics is a written discourse. In a similar fashion. These statements are typically complete. Stewart (1999: 132) attempts to vary the interpersonal nature of the extended exchanges through various strategies. Given the monologic format of the written discourse of mathematics. The nature of the linguistic selections which reinforce the position of dominance of the author of the mathematics text is discussed below. it is possible to map each clause as an element in the unfolding Exchange Structure. it is apparent that discourse moves in written mathematics often involve shifts from one semiotic resource to another. SPEECH FUNCTION and NEGOTIATION function to establish unequal relations between the writer and the reader of the mathematics text. In addition. While this framework is used to discuss the linguistic selections in Stewart (1999: 132). the nature of those social relations in classrooms differs on the basis of gender and social class (O'Halloran. the command to solve a problem is typically undertaken symbolically.

2(2) MODALIZATION and MODULATION . Although the writer attempts to vary the social relations with the reader through Subject choice and metaphorical expressions. commands and answers in mathematical discourse are similarly consistent. in the statement 'From Equation 3 we recognize this limit as being the derivative of/at xl that is. obligation and potentiality (MODULATION) are associated with propositions ('information') and proposals ('goods and services') respectively. probability MODALITY usuality obligation C-MODULATION potentiality inclination O-MODULATION potentiality -maximal high median low objective subjective ORIENTATION explicit implicit VALUE Figure 3. the process 'recognize' in the projecting clause may be seen to be metaphorical and unnecessary with respect to the more direct statement 'this limit is the derivative of/at x1.2(2). the inclusive 'we' serves interpersonal rather than experiential meaning as the statement may be seen as a metaphorical variant for the command 'Recognize this limit as being the derivative of/at x1} that is./' (xj)'.(SFL) AND MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE 71 metaphors where it is clear that the relations are being manipulated. Halliday's (1994: 354—363) graduations in probability and usuality (MODALIZATION) and inclination. questions. The descriptive categories for MODALIZATION and MODULATION and the value and orientation of the selection are displayed in Figure 3. The degrees of probability and obligation associated with the linguistic statements./' (xj)'. that is/' (xj)'. and the one whose answers and responses are checked against those provided by the author of the mathematics text. Alternatively. the reader nonetheless remains the receiver of information. For example.

For instance. In the context of the mathematics classroom. The objective.4).5. teachers introduce a variety of interpersonal strategies to maintain solidarity and group cohesiveness and to relieve the interpersonal stance of the subject matter (O'Halloran. For example.3) and the long implication sequences in the Exchange Structure arising from selections for logical meaning (see Section 3. POLARITY is simply positive ('is') and negative ('is not'). Descartes' removal of the human realm in mathematics and science is apparent in modern mathematics. 'perhaps' and 'certainly') are not selected.4).3) with an emphasis towards logical meaning (see Section 3. The types of interpersonal choices from language. However. However. books on mathematics and other generic forms of mathematical discourse. in Stewart (1999: 132) Mood Adjuncts indicating plays with probability (for example. the nature of the processes which are selected (see Section 3. 2004c). if one considers high school mathematics texts. the nature of such adjuncts may replicate the high level of presumption and obviousness found in the pedagogical discourse of mathematics (O'Halloran. 'possibly'. 1996. 2004c). the absence of modality (realized through the Finite selections such as 'might'. rational and factual stance of mathematics is the product of the nature of the selections for interpersonal meaning as they combine with a limited range of process types and participants (see Section 3. As noted in Chapter 4. This is not to say that Mood Adjuncts are not selected in mathematical discourse. the probability usuality MOOD ADJUNCT presumption inclination time degree Figure 3.2(3) also functions to create an aura of factuality. This contributes to the steady interpersonal orientation of a discourse which possesses an unqualified level of certainty. 1996. probability in mathematical discourse is typically expressed symbolically through relational clauses.2(3) MOOD ADJUNCTS . Instead a certain presumption arises from the unmodalized statements and unmodulated commands.72 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE The statements are unmodalized in terms of graduations of probability and usuality in the extract from Stewart (1999: 132). The typical absence of selections from Halliday's (1994: 82-83) system of MOOD ADJUNCTS displayed in Figure 3. For example. 'could'. probability may be expressed through approximations such as x =» 0. mathematical symbolism and visual display function to simultaneously restrict and expand experiential and logical meaning in mathematics. or 'should') functions to make the mathematics statements appear as correct and factual. The lack of modalization is accompanied by maximal obligation in the commands.

Expressive linguistic selections orientated towards interpersonal meaning are included in Martin and Rose's (2003: 54) system network for APPRAISAL. Halliday (1961: 267) states that 'The grammarian's dream is ... drawings and photographs which are inserted to disrupt the interpersonal orientation of mathematics texts.(SFL) A N D M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 73 interpersonal stance of mathematical written discourse is largely consistent. that is. generally they function in pragmatic contexts of language use as unmarked and non-expressive' (Carter.2(4). The relevant notion is one of 'core vocabulary' where certain lexical items are more central than others in describing experiential or intersubjective reality. Further research will see the development of the system of APPRAISAL so that different strategies for positive and negative evaluation monogloss ENGAGEMENT heterogloss AFFECT APPRAISAL ATTITUDE JUDGEMENT APPRECIATION PROJECTION MODALITY CONCESSION FORCE GRADUATION FOCUS Figure 3. This observation explains the inclusion of metaphorical forms of expression and non-generic choices such as cartoons. that is. which is reproduced in Figure 3.3). This includes lexical items and cases of amplification. to turn the whole of linguistic form into grammar. they occupy places in a highly organized network of mostly structurally-semantic and syntactic interrelations' and are 'more discoursally neutral than others. the issue of lexical choice for interpersonal meaning in mathematics is addressed below. and lexical items which are interpersonally marked. hoping to show that lexis can be denned as "most delicate grammar" '(see Hasan. special forms of address and so forth. 1996a). 1998: 36). and neutrality. Furthermore. the coreness of lexical items is the extent to which they are 'more tightly integrated than others into the language system.2(4) APPRAISAL Systems Reproduced from Martin and Rose (2003: 54) . Two major areas of interest are lexis specific to the field of mathematics which is considered under experiential meaning (see Section 3. From this perspective. APPRAISAL is concerned with evaluation: how the text functions to align the reader or speaker with the various propositions or proposals which are put forth. Carter describes tests for coreness which involve syntactic and semantic relations.

the point is that the discourse of mathematics appears as factual and objective truth because of the types of interpersonal choices which are made using language. However. interpersonal. language choices in mathematics are circumscribed within certain semantic domains. via projection. and the precise organization of those choices in the mathematics text (see Section 3. As the semiotic which provides the meta-discourse for that which is performed symbolically and visually. This does not mean. However. judgement and appreciation: our three major regions of feeling. The linguistic strategies for evaluation in mathematics and scientific discourse require further research. 'that is excellent' or 'that is really ridiculous').4). In addition. Amplification covers grading.3 and 3. however. 'of course' and 'typically') which may combine with an explicit objective orientation towards modality ('it is certain' and 'it appears that') mean that evaluations are made through grammatical choices which do not necessarily include interpersonally expressive lexis (for example. modalization. or concession. textual and logical systems. to establish how such layers function to orientate the reader. mathematics dispensed with many realms of human activity. perhaps APPRAISAL may be understood as a meta-system arising from the layering and juxtaposition of functional choices across experiential. The apparent lack of the need to explicitly evaluate contributes to the view of mathematics as a rational discourse of truth. The absence of lexical items orientated towards expressive or evaluative interpersonal meaning is apparent in the extract from Stewart (1999: 132). however.5 for textual meaning).6. The limited fields of meaning are considered in the discussion of experiential meaning in Section 3. However. Appraisals of what is presented in mathematics exist in different genres in different forms. and by the available options in the system networks for the grammar of visual images and the . Mood Adjunct selections (for example. force involves the choice to raise or lower the intensity of gradable items.74 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE may be uncovered. such judgements presumably appear as factual rather than evaluative. Lexical choice in mathematics is largely orientated towards experiential and logical meaning rather than interpersonal meaning. as discussed in Chapter 2. amplification (or graduation) and source (or engagement): Attitude comprises affect. rather than a discourse system in its own right. Further work is needed. the key choice is one voice (monogloss) or more than one voice (heterogloss).3 and the packing of that information through grammatical metaphor in Section 3. focus the option of sharpening or softening an experiential boundary. including force and focus. The three main appraisal systems given by Martin and Rose (2003: 54-55) are attitude. For example. that the mathematics writer does not make evaluations. For example. This orientation is supported by the nature of experiential and logical choices (see Sections 3. the authors of research papers in mathematics presumably cast a favourable impression on the results which are established. Source covers resources that introduce additional voices into a discourse.

Mathematics dispensed with the human realm. It appears that as mathematical symbolism became concerned with the description of relations. 1998). Relations took a visual form. subtraction. 1993b.3(1). The rationale and justification for the inclusion of Operative processes in the mathematical symbolism is found in Chapter 4. Halliday's (1994: 166) descriptive categories have been extended to include mathematical 'Operative' processes in mathematical discourse as displayed in Figure 3. multiplication. Halliday (1994) includes the ergative interpretation of experience in the form of AGENCY. Range and Circumstance. The associated functional elements are the Medium. and contracted to the limited semantic realms with which the visualizations and symbolic descriptions were concerned. Halliday (1993a. participants and circumstance. As language functions as the meta-discourse for these descriptions and visual instantiations. which Halliday (1998: 193) explains is the favoured process type in science. These features of experiential meaning in mathematical language are considered below. division.3(1). and linguistic descriptions shifted to the symbolic formulations. This includes the relatively high incidence of relational processes and the metaphorical nature of the participants. powers and roots. Beneficiary. Agent. The impact on the nature of mathematical language arising from the semantic expansions made possible through the symbolism and visual display may be seen in Stewart (1999: 132). This point is explored further in the chapters concerned with the symbolism. and became concerned with dynamic relations which could be viewed visually and described symbolically. The construction of experience takes the form of choices for process.3 Mathematics and the Language of Experience Following Halliday (1994). The major process type found in mathematical language appears to be the relational process. and other mathematical operations. 3.(SFL) AND MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE 75 symbolism. 1993b) explain that the regrammaticization of experience which takes place through scientific language involves relational processes and entities in the form of grammatical . the same shift occurred within language which was being used to describe and contexualize the visualizations and symbolic descriptions. Halliday and Matthiessen (1999) and Martin (1993a. experiential meaning at the rank of clause is realized through the system of TRANSITIVITY displayed in Figure 3. This new process type initially appeared in mathematical symbolism in the form of mathematical processes such as addition. The linguistic versions of these process types have thus been categorized as Operative processes. The stages through which mathematics became concerned with particular realms of meaning to the exclusion of others are discussed in Chapter 2. visual images and intersemiosis in mathematics. the nature of experiential meaning in mathematics simultaneously expanded to incorporate the new meanings. The meanings of these processes in mathematical symbolism do not accord with existing processes categories.

76 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Material Actor Goal Range Recipient Client Senser Phenomenon Sayer Verbiage Receiver Intensive Attributive Circumstantial Possessive Intensive Identifying Circumstantial Possessive Identified Identifier Token Value Mental Verbal PROCESS Relational PARTICIPANTS Carrier Attributor Beneficiary Attribute Existential Existent Behaver Behavioural Behaviour Operator Operative Participant X1 X2 X3 Xs Extent duration distance Location temporal spatial means quality comparison reason purpose behalf fcomitation Manner CIRCUMSTANCE Cause Accompaniment Matter Role u addition Figure 3.3(1) The TRANSITIVITY System .

for example. The basis of the discourse system of IDEATION for experiential meaning is lexis (Martin. These relations have previously been handled in SFL under collocation.6. the two types of lexical relations are superordination involving subclassification and composition involving part/whole relations. the taxonomies for mathematical terms are extended and precise. Such metaphorical participants permit experiential meaning to be economically packaged within the nominal group structures which are aligned through relational clauses. In mathematics. Centre PROCESS = Range: process Nucleus + MEDIUM + Range: entity Margin Periphery + AGENT x CIRCUMSTANCE + BENEFICIARY . In the case of taxonomy. In the case of mathematics. 'Nuclear relations reflect the ways in which actions. This serves to order mathematical reality in exact ways. The relatively high incidence of relational processes and metaphorical participants is found in mathematical language. The reasons for the current forms of scientific and mathematical language include the impact of the functions which are fulfilled by mathematical symbolism and visual images. relational processes realized through 'is' and grammatical metaphors (bold) appear in Stewart (1999: 132): '//The connection with the first interpretation is [ [that if we sketch the curve y =f(x). (ii) nuclear relations and (iii) activity sequences. in particular. are not explored here. The types of taxonomic relations are summarized in Eggins (1994: 101-102). triangles are defined according to the size of the angles and sides. nominalizations. however. the term 'isosceles triangle' incorporates a range of meanings. participant and circumstance in the system of TRANSITIVITY. nuclear relations stretch across linguistic. and the corresponding systems in mathematical symbolism and visual display.(SFL) AND MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE 77 metaphors. people. visual and the symbolic components of the mathematics text. For example. for example. place. Nuclear relations are realized through configurations of Halliday's functional categories of process. leading to condensation in mathematical texts. \ \ then the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent to this curve at the point [[where x= a ]]]]'. Mathematical taxonomies. The discourse units underlying the lexical items are lexical relations which are concerned with (i) taxonomic relations. The model of nuclearity adopted for language and the mathematical symbolism follows Martin (1992: 319). The second category of lexical relations involves nuclear relations. 1992: 309). 1992). The discourse structures realizing lexical relations are called lexical strings which run through the text. The impact of this regrammaticization of experience is discussed in relation to grammatical metaphor in Section 3. things and qualities configure as activities in activity sequences' (Martin. The repacking of experiential content through relational processes and grammatical metaphor is reconsidered in Chapter 6 where the notion of grammatical metaphor is linked to semiotic metaphor.

special expressions. Halliday (1978) explains that the need to conceptualize abstract relations in mathematics using linguistic modes of expression causes grammatical problems. Rather the difficulties with mathematical language must be viewed in connection with symbolic and visual descriptions. mathematical language is technical and often involves complex taxonomies of terms in nominalized forms. 2000). Further to this. Secondary clauses realizing Elaboration ('that is' type relations) function to restate. phrase and clause complexes alike. clause complexes are classified as paratactic and hypotactic. Halliday's (1994: 219-220) system of LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS is also concerned with EXPANSION and PROJECTION. In addition. grammatical metaphor and semantic discontinuity. the texture of mathematical discourse (linguistic. are recurrently sequenced in a given field' (Martin. Halliday (1994) distinguishes hypotaxis as a dependent modifying relation and parataxis as an independent continuing relation. specify. Extension ('+') and Enhancement ('x'). 1992: 321). . Halliday's (1994: 221) description of clause complex relations is based on the system of TAXIS which is common to word. lexical density. visual and symbolic) involves grammatical intricacy (like spoken discourse) and lexical density (like written discourse) which results in grammatical density (O'Halloran. . comment on or exemplify the . implication chains involving the semiotic construction of mathematical knowledge through language. As suggested by the extract from Stewart (1999: 132). In other words. these problems cannot be viewed in isolation. Apart from borrowing everyday linguistic terms. However.78 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E The third category of lexical relations is expectancy and implication relations between activities in activity sequences: 'These relations are based on the way in which the nuclear configurations .4 The Construction of Logical Meaning Martin's (1992) discourse systems of CONJUNCTION and CONTINUITY are informed by Halliday's paradigm for clause complex relations in the form of INTERDEPENDENCY and LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS. technical taxonomies.4(1). 1996. symbolism and visual images are extended and complex (O'Halloran. the language of mathematics is best investigated in relation to functions and grammar of mathematical symbolism and visual display to understand the functions of contemporary linguistic constructions in mathematics. group. given the emphasis on logical meaning and the derivation of results. cohesive or intersentence logical relations are based on Halliday (1994: 220) and Martin (1992: 179). with implication relations typically involving conditional and consequential type relations. syntactical ambiguity. 3. The relations in mathematics are realized through conjunctive relations. 1996. The categories of EXPANSION describe the relations whereby a secondary clause expands the primary clause through Elaboration ('='). 2004c). Halliday (1993b: 69-85) describes the difficulties in mathematical and scientific language which involve interlocking definitions. As illustrated in Figure 3.

4(1) LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATIONS and INTERDEPENDENCE .elucidative additative elaboration extension expansion enhancement paratactic independent cohesive .none dependent hypotactic explicit internal external projection idea implicit locution temporal consequential comparative • opposition clarification additative alternation similarity contrast simultaneous successive purpose condition consequence concession manner Figure 3.

as at the Point P in Figure 4)» || the y-values change rapidly]]. 2000). 2000: 378) which typically involve discourse moves across linguistic. cause or condition. The step-by-step development of logical reasoning is an important function of symbolic mathematical discourse discussed in Chapter 4. The discourse system of CONTINUITY differs in that items are realized in the Rheme as opposed to textual Theme. 1992).4(2). Implicit conjunctions are shown where they could have been made explicit in the discourse.4(1). Typically conjunctive relations are anaphoric but in the case of the forward relations. and 'This means [[that when the derivative is large «(and therefore the curve is steep. logical meaning is realized through the processes 'gives' and 'means' in the following clauses: 'This gives a second interpretation of the derivative'. Secondary clauses realizing Extension ('and') add new elements to the primary clause by giving exceptions or offering alternatives. That is. an arrow is placed at both ends of the dependency line. as evidenced in the short extract from Stewart (1999: 132). 'then') serve to qualify the primary clause with circumstantial features of time. The discourse semantic systems of CONJUNCTION and CONTINUITY are modelled through covariate dependency structures called conjunctive reticula (Martin. 'yet'. The significance of logical meaning in mathematical linguistic text is evident in the analysis of the extract from Stewart (1999: 132) displayed in Figure 3.80 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE content of the primary clause. logical relations typically stretch across symbolic. Following Martin (1992). The analysis of logical meaning in mathematics involves long and complex chains of reasoning which favour consequential-type relations (O'Halloran. Typically these chains of reasoning (at least in the symbolic text) are primarily based on pre-established mathematical results. these systems are organized by listing the clauses down the page. The analysis also reveals that logical meaning is realized metaphorically in the form of processes. Locution is the realization of the secondary clause as wording (") while Idea realizes the secondary clause as an idea ('). . As illustrated in Figure 3.4 Succeeding moves are shown to be dependent on preceding ones by dependency arrows pointing upwards towards the presumed message. Secondary clauses realizing Enhancement ('so'. 1999b. and there are also clause complex relations within rankshifted clause configurations. 1996.6) where logical meaning is encoded through process type. place. visual and linguistic components of the text. Projection describes the situation whereby the secondary clause is projected through the primary clause as a Locution or Idea. symbolic and visual parts of the text. However. The systems of CONJUNCTION and CONTINUITY may be used to describe logical relations in mathematics (O'Halloran. Such processes are examples of grammatical metaphor (see Section 3. There are complex nested structures of logical relations realized through structural conjunctions and conjunctive adjuncts. the type of INTERDEPENDENCE (paratactic or hypotactic) is cross-referenced with the type of LOGICO-SEMANTIC RELATION (expansion or projection).

The system network for THEME is given in Figure 3.( S F L ) AND MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE 81 From Equation 3 we recognize this limit as being the derivative of f at x 1 that is. The remainder of the message. Thus the Conjunction . . The connection with the first interpretation is [[that if we sketch the curve y = f(x). which is concerned with the organization of New information. textual meaning is realized as GivenA New through the system of THEME (Halliday. and macroThemes provide the focus for the text. ' [t]he Theme is the element which serves as the point of departure for the message.5(1). Martin and Rose (2003: 175-205) discuss thematic development in terms of phase and the whole text. In addition to Theme. When the derivative is small the curve is relatively flat and the y-values change slowly Stewart[. the Rheme'. 1994) which is composed of two functional elements: the Theme and Rheme.4(2) Logical Relations in Stewart (1999: 132) 3. That is. . as at the Point P in Figure 4)» ||the y-values change rapidly]]. hyperThemes function to organize information at the rank of paragraph. the part in which the Theme is developed. f'(x1) This gives a second interpretation of the derivative: (that is) The derivative f'(a) is the instantaneous rate of change of y = f(x) with respect to x when x = a.structural textual Conjunctive Adjunct Continative THEME interpersonal Vocative Modal Adjunct Finite ideational topic RHEME Figure 3. The Theme analysis.5 The Textual Organization of Language At the lexicogrammatical stratum. || then the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent to this curve at the point [[where x = a]]]] This means [[that when the derivative is large «(and therefore the curve is steep.5(1) The System of THEME . Following Halliday (1994: 38). is called . it is that with which the clause is concerned. permits the development of the text to be tracked at the rank of clause and clause complex. 1999 #465: 132] Figure 3.

That is. and 'When the derivative is small') to foreground important experiential content.82 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE organization of the text is investigated as regular periodic waves of increasing amplitudes at the ranks of clause. 2000. 1992: 103). 1994: 312-316). /'(*!)// //This gives a second interpretation of the derivative:// //(that is) The derivative/' (a) is the instantaneous rate of change of y—f(x) with respect to x// //when x = a// //The connection with the first interpretation is [ [that if we sketch the curve y = f (x). The THEME analysis for Stewart (1999: 132) (where Theme selections appear in bold) is given below: //From Equation 3 we recognize// //this limit as being derivative of/at x^// //that is. and 'multiple reference' which results in ambiguity. but clausal rankshift also appears to be a significant method of organizing experiential meaning. 1992: 126). 2004c) as discussed in Chapter 7. The discourse system of IDENTIFICATION is used to track participants where the basic opposition involves phoricity whereby information is recoverable from the text or context. clause complex. Martin (1992: 416) sees these types of selections as a case of textual grammatical metaphor (see Section 3. This includes 'bridging reference' where the referent has to be inferentially derived from the context rather than by direct reference. The means of retrieval are described by the types of phora (see the system network in Martin. paragraph and text. Information is not only packaged into nominal group structures through grammatical metaphor. these two types of complexity combine in mathematical discourse to give grammatical density (O'Halloran. . a participant is either newly presented ('addition'). More generally. selections such as 'this' link the clause to previously established results. In addition.6). 11 then the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent to this curve at the point [ [where x = a] ] ] ] // //This means [ [that when the derivative is large « (and therefore the curve is steep. The linguistic text in Stewart (1999: 132) reflects grammatical intricacy as well as lexical density. or alternatively the identity of the presumed participant has to be retrieved in some way from the text or context (Halliday. as at the Point P in Figure 4)» 11 the y-values change rapidly]]// //When the derivative is small// //the curve is relatively flat// //and the y-values change slowly// The analysis demonstrates that the mathematical linguistic text is carefully organized to carry forth the argument. There is also 'generic' or 'specific' reference: 'Generic reference is selected when the whole of some experiential class of participants is at stake rather than a specific manifestation of that class' (Martin. Marked Themes are selected ('From Equation 3'.

In this formulation. Grammatical metaphor involves the shifts to 'entity'. There exist logical. Grammatical metaphor is a 'variation in the expression of a given meaning' which appears in a grammatical form although some lexical variation may occur as well (Halliday. reference chains in mathematics are complex as they split and cojoin as mathematical participants are rearranged for the solution to problems and the mathematical relations which are described are visualized (O'Halloran. visual images and symbolism are the product of the interaction of the three resources. 1995. experiential and interpersonal metaphors at ranks of clause complex. 2001. 1992. Simon-Vandenbergen et al. it is a case of grammatical metaphor. symbolic and visual components of the text. The typical or unmarked form is referred to as the congruent realization and the other forms which realize some transference of meaning as the metaphorical form. The complexity of tracking participants may be seen in Stewart where 'the derivative' is variously referred to as '/'(xj)' and '/'(a)' and participants are reconfigured in other ways. 3. O'Halloran.6(1). 2003). Derewianka. 1993.(SFL) AND M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 83 These classifications are used to track the participants in mathematical discourse in order to understand how reference functions in mathematics. Martin. Halliday. 1997. . The presence of grammatical metaphor necessitates more than one level of interpretation. for example. The linguistic text in Stewart (1999: 132) illustrates that tracking participants in mathematics necessarily involves the linguistic. 2003b. Martin and Veel. The types of grammatical metaphor are organized metafunctionally according to rank in Table 3. Chen. Halliday's categorization of the types of grammatical metaphor (see Table 1.6(1). 1994. Halliday and Martin. 1994: 342). 'process' and 'circumstance' from congruent realizations listed in Table 3. 1997: 32) is given in Table 3. In addition. mathematical symbolism and visual display. an expression can be unpacked grammatically to a congruent meaning. 1998. clause and word group.the metaphor makes the clause mean what it does'. Martin (1993a: 237) states: 'the fact that we have to read the clause on more than one level is critical . The nature of the systems and lexicogrammatical strategies for encoding meaning in language. 'at x^ and 'x= a\ Tracing participant reconfigurations across the three semiotic resources necessarily involves knowledge of the grammars of language.6 Grammatical Metaphor and Mathematical Language Grammatical metaphor is an important concept for understanding the nature of scientific language (for example. This discussion forms the basis in Chapter 6 for the extension of the concept of grammatical metaphor to semiotic metaphor. the metaphorical (or the transferred meaning) and the congruent.6(1). 'quality'.9 in Martin. If. therefore. 2000). 1996. the notion of grammatical metaphor is extended to take into account the types of meaning expansions which take place intersemiotically in multisemiotic texts.

modality process Examples: event (nominal group) transformation transform will/going to try to can/could/may/will prospect attempt possibility.phase . potential. times under conditions of/under .9 in Martin. tendency quality (nominal group) increasing poverty poverty is increasing . .6(1) Halliday's Grammatical Metaphor (see Table 1. .tense . . . conditions due to relator Examples: when if therefore Clause: LOGICAL (internal relations) EXPERIENTIAL and INTERPERSONAL process entity Examples: event auxiliary . 1997: 32) RANK AND METAFUNCTION Clause complex: LOGICAL relator entity GRAMMATICAL METAPHOR Examples: so if because relator (nominal group) cause/proof condition reason quality Examples: then so relator Examples: then so and (nominal group) subsequent/follow resulting process (clause) follow cause complement circumstance (clause) in times of/in .84 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 3.

phase .modality process Examples: divide circumstance Examples: with to circumstance Examples: manner other other circumstance (clause) Examples: be about be instead of Word group: LOGICAL (internal relations).6(1) .cont process auxiliary .( S F L ) A N D MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE Table 3.tense . EXPERIENTIAL and INTERPERSONAL quality Examples: unstable entity Examples: the government [decided] the government couldn't decide entity (nominal group) instability modifier [expansion] (nominal group) [decided] hastily [argued] for a long time cracked on the surface quality was/used to begin to must/will [always] may previous initial constant possible/permissable circumstance 'h' [on V] 85 entity (nominal group) accompaniment destination quality (nominal group) hasty decision lengthy [argument] surface [cracks] process (clause) concern replace the government [decision] [a/the decision] of/by the government the government's [indecision] [the indecision of the government] governmental [indecision] .

These two participants are then connected with a process in a single clause. that of a nominal group realizing a participant. occurs/ensues The new case where a process is realized by circumstance (as illustrated by 'h on r' to mean 'h divided by r') which has appeared in mathematical classroom discourse (O'Halloran. median and low values of probability and usuality. 1997: 70). which has largely resulted from changes in the English language to realize a scientific view of the world. 1992: 406). As Halliday explains. and as Halliday and Martin (1993: 39) point out. The strategy of recursive modification of the nominal group is also employed in scientific discourse.6(1). nominalizations may serve important ideological functions because they are less negotiable than the congruent form: 'you can argue with a clause but you can't argue with a nominal group'.6(1). Following Halliday (1993a.86 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 3. the most effective way to construct logical arguments is to establish steps within a single clause. quality or conjunction is turned into another grammatical class. The majority of cases of grammatical metaphor involve the process of nominalization whereby a grammatical class or structure realizing a process. 1993b. Cases of grammatical metaphor may be mapped through the system network as displayed in Figure 3. one in which the main concern was to establish causal relations. 1993b: 81). These two devices are typical of contemporary written discourse. 'a new variety of English' was created 'for a new kind of knowledge' (Halliday. . 1998) nominalization is conceived as 'the predominant semantic drift of grammatical metaphor in modern English' (Martin. objectivity and subjectivity. .cont Non-entity: LOGICAL (internal relations). process (clause) . with the two parts 'what was established' and 'what follows from it' reified as two 'things' or participants realized through nominal group structures. and . inclination and potentiality respectively. interpersonal metaphors occur in conjunction with the systems of MODALIZATION and MODULATION (see Martin et al. Following Halliday (1994: 354—363) metaphors of modalization and modulation are realized through the use of modal auxiliaries (modal Finites) with high. and obligation. . That is. . MODALIZATION and MODULATION vary in orientation with respect to two criteria: first. circumstance. In addition to experientially based types of grammatical metaphor. EXPERIENTIAL and INTERPERSONAL entity (nominal group) the phenomenon o f . 1996) is added to Halliday's categories in Table 3.6(1) .

command by imperative (Predicator). For example. (ii) 'text reference' which identifies facts rather than participants (for example. Martin gives four types of textual metaphor which contribute to this organization of text: (i) 'meta-message relations' as found in Francis' (1985) anaphoric nouns (for example. Interpersonal metaphors are also realized through incongruence between MOOD and SPEECH FUNCTION selections (Halliday. implicitness and explicitness.2). and Offer by modalized interrogative (modalized FiniteASubject).(SFL) AND MATHEMATICAL LANGUAGE experiential logical interpersonal textual relator circumstance process quality entity -zero nodifier process entity circumstance process quality entity 87 Figure 3. 'this'). 'example'. 'let me begin by'). for example. A subjective explicit orientation is realized through a projecting clause. As explained in Section 3. Martin (1992: 416) introduces textual grammatical metaphor which is orientated towards organizing the text as ' "material" social reality'. Derewianka (1995: 238) explains that the . (iii) 'negotiating texture' which can. An explicit objective orientation is realized through encoding of the objectivity. for example. 'point' and 'factor').6(1) System Network for Grammatical Metaphor second. these types of textual metaphors may be orientated towards the interpersonal. for example. question by interrogative (FiniteASubject and WH). That point is just silly' (Martin. 1994: 363-367).2. and (iv) internal conjunction which orchestrates text organization as opposed to field organization (for example. 'reason'. 'it is certain this is correct'. Mathematical discourse includes Modal and Mood metaphors (see Section 3. exploit monologic text as dialogic (for example. rather than being orientated towards logical meaning. the unmarked MOOD realizations of the SPEECH FUNCTIONS are statement realized by declarative (SubjectAFinite). 1992: 417) is a textual metaphor of the type 'meta-message relation' which is orientated to interpersonal meaning in the form of APPRAISAL. 'as a final point'). As Martin (1992: 416) points out. 'I know this is correct'.

. language is viewed as construing the social context with the net result being the reality of a .7 Language. This intrinsic functional organization of language is modelled as interacting with the organization of social context in what Halliday (1985) terms as language's extrinsic functionality. 1991). both have 'a semantic category which can be realized congruently or metaphorically' but with grammatical metaphor. Lexical metaphors are metaphors in the more classical sense of the term where 'a particular lexeme is said to have a "literal" and a "transferred" meaning'(Derewianka. visual images and mathematical symbolism. The real gatekeeper is grammatical metaphor.' As evident in the discussion of experiential meaning in Stewart (1999: 132) in Section 3. Martin (1992: 395) sees grammatical metaphor as an important strategy for creating texture: 'The resources for weaving chains and strings through different grammatical functions . Matthiessen. Nonetheless. what needs to be taken into account is a change in the level of generalization and abstraction. 1994: 340-342) may also be examined in mathematics. In other words. As well as grammatical and semiotic metaphors. the major concern here is shifts in meaning which arise grammatically in mathematics through the interactions between the semiotic resources of language. lexical metaphors (Halliday. Context and Ideology SFL views language as a social-semiotic. a system of meanings that construe the reality of a culture. the interpersonal metafunction construes 'intersubjective reality'. The analysis of multisemiosis in mathematical and scientific texts enhances our understanding of the role and function of grammatical metaphor. This important point necessitates further discussion of the nature and functions of grammatical metaphor in Chapter 6. 3. 'what is varied is not the lexis but the grammar' (ibid. Once the notion of semiotic metaphor is introduced in the form of metaphorical realizations which take place with intersemiotic shifts across semiotic resources. mathematical discourse involves grammatical metaphor. 1978. are important ones: but they provide only a very partial picture of the way in which meanings are packaged for grammatical realisation. According to Derewianka (1995: 238). the semantic drift in language where grammatical metaphor developed intrasemiotically in language as a means of re-packaging information becomes understandable in the context of the functions and roles which are fulfilled symbolically and visually.). although this is not undertaken in this study. This construction is described metafunctionally: the ideational metafunction construes 'natural reality'. 1995: 109). and the textual metafunction construes 'semiotic reality' (Halliday. Although this field of study is worthy of investigation.88 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE functioning of a nominal element to 'summarise or "distil" a figure or sequence of figures' does not necessarily mean that 'any instance of this type is inherently metaphorical'. In terms of distinguishing grammatical and lexical metaphors.3. .

1987). 1985). 1992: 502-503). However. 2000b. These SFL formulations are extended to other semiotic resources (for example. are language. The context of a text consists of two communication planes: register at the level of context of situation. is that the former have their own means of organizing expression (through typography/graphology and so forth) while context depends on other semiotic planes for realization (Ventola. Mathematical discourse is concerned with particular realms of experiential content according to the field of mathematics (for . The difference between language. In this study. the social context impinges upon language use. O'Toole. in essence modern mathematics developed as a written discourse. and genre at the level of the context of culture. Context is viewed as a semiotic system manifested in whole or part through language and other semiotic resources. the focus is directed towards the language and expression plane. The analysis of text becomes 'the analysis of semantic choice in context' (Martin. the conference paper and so forth). Halliday. Genre networks are formulated on the basis of similarities and differences between text structures which define text types. visual images and the symbolism is constitutive of the mathematics which is developed. Ventola el al. While mathematics does involve genres other than the written (such as the academic lecture. 'where goals are defined in terms of the systems of social processes at the level of genre' (Martin. O'Halloran. Register is constituted by contextual variables of field. rather than contextual meaning arising from the immediate material setting. 1978. which are described through genre. register and the integration of different forms of semiosis. collectively called texts. Field is concerned with experiential meaning (what is actually taking place). in the context of this study. a brief discussion of the register of mathematical language in terms of field. forthcoming) which. 1996. A culture consists of particular ways of meaning.. mathematical symbolism and visual display on the one hand. 1978. tenor and mode which work together to achieve a text's goal. 1994. Baldry. rather than register and genre. are social processes which are analysed as manifesting the culture they in part largely construct. Conversely. The three register variables of field. The textual organization of linguistic. tenor and mode is included below. The written mode of mathematics means that semiosis in the form of language. Martin (1992) describes the relationship between language and social context as one of mutual engendering where instances of language use. mathematical symbolism and specialized forms of visual display. tenor and mode can be viewed as working together to achieve a text's goals. 1992: 404) where context is conceived as consisting of the context of the situation and the context of culture. tenor with interpersonal meaning (the nature of the social relations) and mode with textual meanings (the role language is playing) (Halliday. Kress and van Leeuwen. and context on the other. 2004a.( S F L ) AND M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 89 culture. The levels of semiosis articulated by this process of realization are referred to as communication planes. symbolic and visual components and the compositional arrangement of those selections in mathematics are sophisticated.

lexis. involved and uninvolved contact. there is 'a symbolic relationship between position in the social hierarchy and various linguistic systems. The lexical and grammatical realizations of these tenor dimensions STATUS reciprocity equal unequal involved distant positive AFFECT amplification marked negative TENOR CONTACT proliferation Figure 3. 1992. 1992: 525). The basic realization principle of affect is amplification in which speakers can vary the 'volume' from normal writing/listening levels. 1984. The contact. and dimensions of affect. contact and affect (Martin. the nature of the tenor relations which are established in mathematics is worthy of closer inspection as these relations orientate the reader towards the mathematics which is presented: 'Tenor refers to the negotiation of social relationships among participants' (Martin. or degree of involvement. elementary mathematics. 1990) as displayed in Figure 3. is equivalent to what Hasan (1985) describes as 'social distance'. Status refers to 'the relative position of the interlocutors in a culture's social hierarchy'. Tenor is the projection of interpersonal meaning realized through discourse semantics and lexicogrammatical systems in the language stratum. Patterns of dominance and deference in which the status of the writer/speaker is reflected take place through the kinds of linguistic choices which are made. pure mathematics and applied mathematics) and the genre. Equal status is realized through selections of the same kinds of options for both interlocutors while unequal status is realized through non-reciprocal choices. calculus. grammar. contact is 'their degree of institutional involvement with each other' and affect includes 'what Halliday (1978) refers to as the "degree of emotional charge" in the relationship between participants' (Martin. especially interpersonal ones'. The principle of proliferation is used in which a high degree of contact means a wider range of options are available. Martin (1992: 529-535) lists features of interaction patterns. As Martin (1992: 528) explains. Tenor is mediated along the three dimensions of power (which Martin refers to as 'status').90 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE example. The principle of reciprocity of choice is significant in terms of the realization of status in spoken discourse. and phonology which realize patterns of dominance and deference. while a low degree of contact means a smaller range of options. 1985. 1992: 523). At this stage. the frequency and range of interaction.7(1).7(1) TENOR Dimensions adapted from Martin (1992: 526) . Poynton. discourse semantics.

1984. objectivity and truth in Chapter 7. 2004). (iv) systems which operate on the Expression stratum (for example. print versus electronic medium). The inclusion of other forms of semiosis and the study of intrasemiotic and intersemiotic processes enhances the theoretical possibilities afforded by SFL. and . thus revealing the ideological positioning of the choices that have been made. However. Ideology has genre.1(1) is extended to incorporate other semiotic resources in the 'Integrative Multisemiotic Model' (IMM) in Lim (2002. 1980a. Colour and Font Style and Size). Martin (1992: 507) explains that ideology may be seen as 'the system of coding orientations constituting a culture'. The nature of interpersonal relations is further discussed in relation to the symbolic and visual components of mathematics text in the following chapters.( S F L ) AND M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 91 are represented in a three-dimensional space in Figure 3. this allows the selections which have been made to be effectively placed alongside all other possibilities. power and discourse. Lim's (2002: 37) division of metafunctionally based systems shows a separation of metafunctional boundaries with respect to the systems which operate at the grammatical stratum for language. (iii) intersemiotic mechanisms for meaning across semiotic resources. 2004). (ii) intrasemiosis within the semiotic resources. 1991) formulations of knowledge. textually for cohesive purposes. The nature of the linguistic choices in written mathematics means that the discourse operates from an uncontested position of dominance. The linguistic choices are not reciprocal. slang and so forth). For example. As texts are interpreted in a multidimensional intertextual semiotic space. and hence register and language as its expression plane. The ideological orientation of mathematics is discussed in relation to the concepts of abstraction. the SFL framework presented in Table 3. The adoption of a multisemiotic perspective of discourse facilitates a holistic understanding of text. or the measure of dedication of a system to one particular metafunction. Such a multisemiotic systemic functional model incorporates (i) the grammatical systems for other semiotic resources. 2002. Such a framework is also useful for the analysis of pedagogical discourse in mathematics. A multisemiotic approach reveals differences between the functions and systems of semiotic resources across different strata. Choices from the system of Colour. context and culture. Incorporating Foucault's (1970. for example. These systems (for example. there is minimal affect. Colour and so forth) do not have the clear metafunctional orientations which are found in grammatical systems. can function interpersonally to attract attention. breaks down on the expression plane. systems such as Font. and how one text relates to all texts that may have been. While many of these systems for spoken language do not operate in mathematics written texts (for example. reason. For example. swearing. and the contact is involved but distant.7(2). the three dimensional space is nonetheless useful as a means of framing the range of options which are available in mathematics. SFL analysis is concerned with how texts relate to each other. contextual independence. and (v) the materiality and medium of the text (for example. 1972. the 'system-metafunction fidelity' (Lim.

7(2) Lexicogrammatical Aspects of the Realization of TENOR adapted from Martin (1992: 529-535) .Defer POWER Dominate AFFECT Negative CONTACT Intimate/ involved LEXIS specialized technical slang general words GRAMMAR exclamative attitude comment minor expressive intensification repetition prosodic nm gp diminutives. mental affection manner degree AFFECT Positive GRAMMAR major clauses no ellipsis no contraction no vocation single name full name CONTACT Distant/ uninvolved LEXIS core non-technical standard specific words POWER . mental affection manner degree GRAMMAR no ellipsis polarity asserted attitude manifested ~ comment presented vocation familiar person 1st tagging invited agency: I/agent modalization high modulation: obligation LEXIS explicit bodily functions swearing overt LEXIS attitudinal taboo swearing Figure 3.GRAMMAR Residue ellipsis polarity matched attitude concur comment invited vocation respectful person 2nd tagging checking agency: I/medium modalization low " modulation: inclination LEXIS euphemize tempered swearing covert GRAMMAR minor clauses Mood ellipsis Mood contraction vocation ' range of names nick-name LEXIS attitudinal taboo swearing GRAMMAR exclamative attitude comment minor expressive intensification repetition prosodic nm gp diminutives.

the multiple levels of semantic layers resulting from grammatical metaphor cannot be fully accounted for. while the square brackets mean 'select only one of the options' (that is. Notes 1 Martin's (1992: 14-21) arguments for stratification of the content plane include the following limitations of the lexicogrammar: semantic motifs cannot be generalized because of diverse structural realizations. whereas a group is an expansion of a word. These semantic circuits give rise to metaphorical expressions in the form of semiotic metaphors. as seen in the discussion of the grammar of mathematical symbolism and visual images. generalizations across structural and nonstructural textual relations such as those found in cohesion are not possible. 4 Typically in conjunctive reticula. and the internal relations are modelled down the left with external additive relations positioned in the centre. Martin's (1992: 507) focus is situated within the dynamic view of ideology which is 'concerned with the redistribution of power . 2 Although word groups and phrases occupy the intermediate position on the rank scale. Martin (1992) and Martin and Rose (2003) are concerned with overcoming these limitations and capturing semantic interdependencies in the whole text which are otherwise only partially accounted for by the lexicogrammar.( S F L ) AND M A T H E M A T I C A L L A N G U A G E 93 experientially for representational meaning. semiotic resources have different grammatical systems. In a similar fashion. a phrase is a contraction of clause. and such differences in the meaning potential have implications for the functions which are fulfilled by that resource.' Halliday's (ibid. The formulation of SF frameworks for mathematical symbolism and visual display and the analysis of intersemiotic processes reveal that the key to the success of mathematical discourse is the ability to create a semantic circuit across the linguistic. The type of structures are open ended in so far as the issue is not one of constituency.: 242) classification of rankshifting thus covers clausal and phrasal elements. external relations are modelled on the right-hand side. the curly brackets mean 'select from each of the systems' (that is. 'select this or that'). The analysis of the mathematical texts in Chapter 7 leads to a further discussion of the ideology and orientation of mathematics. 3 In SF system networks. 'select from this and this'). This allows the conjunctive relations to be separated into those which function in a rhetorical (internal) sense compared to those which function in a more experiential (external) sense. and the semantic stratum is more abstract and the systems are composed of larger units which differ in structure from those found elsewhere. symbolic and visual components of the mathematics text through the specialized grammars of each resource.with semiotic evolution'. Halliday (1994: 180) distinguishes between the two: 'A PHRASE is different from a group in that. These concerns provide the impetus for this study. but rather interdependency. .

then Sn is true for all n) and mathematical deduction using previously established results (Stewart. 1972. The scientific view of the world is not confined to the physical universe.1 Mathematical Symbolism The historical perspective covered in Chapter 2 reveals how mathematical symbolism developed as a tool for reasoning through the discovery that curves could be described algebraically and the increasingly important aim of rewriting the physical world in mathematicized form. The next step is typically the visualization of the problem in graphical or diagrammatic form. and Sk+1 is true whenever Sk is true. mathematical symbolism and visual images. an examination of different cases. the use of analogy. indirect reasoning in the form of proof by contradiction. 1981). establishing sub-goals for complex problems. 1999: 59-60). the symbolism and visual images in Chapters 6-7. Language is often used to introduce. contextualize and describe the mathematics problem. Before discussing intersemiotic processes which take place across language. each semiotic resource has a particular contribution or function within mathematical discourse. The generalized solutions and mathematical models are used for predictive purposes. mathematical induction (if Sk is true. Today. Finally the problem is solved using mathematical symbolism through a variety of approaches which include the recognition of patterns. 1980. working backwards from a solution to arrive at the original data. Kline. intrasemiosis within mathematical symbolism and visual display is explored in Chapters 4—5 respectively. Mathematical descriptions eventually replaced metaphysical. theological and mechanical explanations of the universe (see for example. Wilder. The unique functions of each resource are discussed through SF frameworks and an investigation of choices from the systems which are found in symbolic and visual . many fields of human endeavour are written in mathematicized or pseudo-scientific form. 1996. rather it underlies our day-to-day conception of reality. However.4 The Grammar of Mathematical Symbolism 4. Barry. which means that shifts may be made seamlessly across these three resources. Mathematical discourse succeeds through the interwoven grammars of language.

THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M 95 parts of the mathematical texts. mathematics visual patterns are often only partial descriptions over a limited domain. For example. through 'predator-prey' type mathematical models. a theme which is explored in Chapter 5. that is. one can observe that the tiger population in an ecosystem is decreasing. That is. For example. 1998b). on the other hand. The mathematical model expresses the relationship between the number of men and the number of tigers as a continuous function over time. the grammatical strategies for encoding meaning in each resource may be understood before proceeding to the complex problem of understanding how meaning is made intersemiotically across the three resources. Visual images supersede language in terms of the ability to represent continuous spatial relations. T represents the prey 'tiger'. 1994). and t represents time. the symbolism has the potential to express the exact relations of parts to a whole. can be specified in order to study the patterns of the interaction between the two species. However. Mathematical symbolism. including when they may be expected to become extinct. Messaris. if M represents the predator 'man'. topological-type meanings. 2003). 1972. the graphs and diagrams are used to give more intuitive understanding of the relationships which are encoded symbolically (Lemke. For example. In this way. However. then such a model would take the form (Stewart. For example. the predator-prey mathematical model for the relationship between the population of tigers and the number of men can be displayed graphically to give a sense of the type of relationship encoded in the mathematical model. a triangle with base b and height h is related to the area of the triangle A (A) through the symbolic statement As the nature of patterns of variation is not easily discernible from the symbolic statements. is seen to make meanings by degree in the form of continuous descriptions of patterns of co-variation. for example. the relationship between the number of tigers and the number of men. and they are limited in terms of their ability to be used for calculations. that is. 1966. mathematical symbolism and visual images is described by Lemke (1998b. The computer is revolutionizing the . de Saussure. The linguistic statement makes a categorical type assessment of the situation regarding tigers: 'there are not' (Existential process with negative polarity) 'many tigers' (Existent) 'around' (circumstance-Location of place) 'these days' (circumstance-Location of time). 1999: 662). Bateson. and to predict the tiger population at any one time. This shortfall is becoming less marked with the development of the power of computers to display and manipulate visual patterns. typological-type meanings. language is seen to be orientated towards making categorical-type distinctions (for example. and one may even comment: 'there are not many tigers around these days'. In addition to describing patterns of variation over time. The general nature of meanings afforded by language.

The symbolism developed a functionality through new grammatical systems . The functions and grammar of mathematical symbolism are examined through the development of an SF framework. syncopated where recurring linguistic elements for participants and processes were symbolized. However. and its grammar evolved accordingly. As will become evident.2 Language-Based Approach to Mathematical Symbolism The language-based approach to the SF framework for mathematical symbolism adopted in this study is justified by the fact that the symbolism developed as a semiotic resource which evolved from language. This framework is used to explore the nature of interpersonal. Martin and Veel. if the process of semiosis is 'frozen' in stages where meaning is made primarily within one resource rather than across the three resources. This appears to be a necessary preliminary first step to understand how the three semiotic resources function together. and the strategies through which these meanings are encoded. intersemiotic processes and their impact on scientific language are investigated in Chapter 6. 1991). the grammatical strategies for encoding meaning in mathematical symbolism differ from those found in scientific language. From the discussion of intrasemiosis in mathematical symbolism and visual display.96 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE types of mathematics being developed due to the increased facility for performing numerical calculations and displaying the resulting visual patterns through computer graphics. 1993. The key to the success of mathematics is that the three grammars function integratively. The stages of the development of algebra. From this point. have been characterized as rhetorical where instructions were in the form of linguistic commands. and symbolic where mathematical symbolism developed as a semiotic resource (see Chapter 2 and Joseph. The functions and grammar of the mathematical symbolism and visual images are therefore first investigated individually. This is not surprising as the symbolism was designed to fulfil different functions. Halliday and Martin. The nature of scientific language. the contribution of that one resource may be appreciated. A similar exploration of intrasemiosis in visual images takes place in Chapter 5. 4. experiential. the symbolism and the visual images combine intersemiotically to create meaning in mathematical discourse. The examination of the grammars of mathematical symbolism and visual display on a separate basis is a somewhat artificial approach as historically these semiotic resources developed together in mathematical discourse. for example. logical and textual meanings afforded by symbolism. with its propensity to pack experiential meaning into extended nominal group structures in the form of grammatical metaphors which are configured with relational processes (for example. it is possible to examine how language. is the resultant product of the impact of the use of the symbolism and the visual display in mathematical and scientific discourse. 1998).

it nonetheless requires a surrounding linguistic co-text to contextualize the symbolic descriptions and procedures that take place. Martin and Rose. For example. despite the new functionality of mathematical symbolism. 2003) systemic model for language. but at the same time it depended upon employing certain linguistic elements and a range of grammatical strategies inherited from language.3 SF Framework for Mathematical Symbolism The SF model for mathematical symbolism displayed in Table 4. unlike a mathematical symbolic statement. the types of semantic shift in the evolution of the symbolism are discussed in terms of the expansion and contraction of experiential meaning. The dependence on the linguistic semiotic suggests that the symbolism did not develop a wellrounded functionality.THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M 97 which permitted semantic expansions beyond that capable with language. For instance. Thus.3(1) is based upon Halliday (1994) and Martin's (1992. The unique relations between language and mathematical symbolism serve to highlight an important difference between these two resources and other semiotic resources such as art. a painting or a sculpture is not recoverable from any combination of words. genre . which becomes evident in the discussion of the types of meaning which are possible using mathematical symbolism. These types of semantic shift mean that mathematical symbolism developed as a semiotic resource with a grammar through which meaning is unambiguously encoded in ways which involve maximal economy and condensation. A summary of the major points concerning the grammar of mathematical symbolism appears in Section 4. The unique relations between language and mathematical symbolism explain the nature of the mappings that may be made between the two semiotic resources. although this is not an exact one-to-one correspondence. Mathematical statements are recoverable from linguistic statements.8 4. the narrowing of interpersonal meaning. although in some cases this is problematic because the linguistic construals are metaphorical (see the discussion of semiotic metaphor). The language-based approach permits the semantics of the mathematical symbolism to be understood and contextualized in relation to the types of meaning afforded by the linguistic semiotic. symbolic statements are typically embedded within linguistic text. The communicative planes of ideology. sculpture and architecture where such accurate mappings do not exist. After introducing the SF framework for mathematical symbolism. The economical means of encoding meaning in the symbolism permit the easy rearrangement and manipulation of relations so that mathematical models can be constructed and problems can be solved. This perspective is developed in the following discussion of the grammar of mathematical symbolism. and the refinement of textual meaning. the development of selected types of logical meaning. there exist acceptable wordings in natural language for mathematical symbolic statements. Furthermore.

3(1). 2004. The term 'display plane' is used rather than 'expression plane' because a new grammatical rank of 'expression' is introduced for mathematical symbolism in Table 4. Lim. clause. word group/phrase and word for language. However. the expression stratum in language has been under-theorized in SFL where the major concerns have been the language plane and the communicative planes of register. genre and ideology.4. interpersonal and textual meaning for the content and display planes.3(2). expression and component. In the model presented in Table 4. O'Halloran. . The 'display plane' for mathematical symbolism corresponds to the 'expression plane' for language in the model. The need for the inclusion of the rank of expression in the grammar of mathematical symbolism will become apparent in Section 4. 2002. Font Size and Style) function to create meaning (for example. Kress and van Leeuwen. Traditionally. systems which operate at the level of the display plane are also included. clause. In the language plane.3(1) SF Model for Mathematical Symbolism MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM CONTENT Discourse Semantics Inter-statemental relations Grammar Statements (or clause complex) Clause (// //) Expressions ([[ ]]) (rankshifted participants of the clause which are the result of mathematical operations) Components (the functional elements in expressions) DISPLAY Graphology and Typography and register are applicable to the multisemiotic mathematical texts considered in Chapters 6-7. The model parallels the discourse stratum and lexicogrammatical ranks of clause complex. logical. Colour. the content stratum for mathematical symbolism consists of discourse semantics and grammar strata with the ranks of statement (clause complex).98 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 4. It is recognized that options in the expression of the semiotic choices in the mathematics text (for example. symbolic and visual components of the text.3(2). The SF framework for a grammar for mathematical symbolism is presented in Table 4. as discourse moves often span linguistic. 2004a). This framework provides a description of the major systems through which mathematical symbolism is organized as a semiotic resource for experiential. The discourse systems for mathematical symbolism parallel those found in language. Martin's discourse systems are extended in Chapter 6 in the attempt to theorize intersemiosis between the three resources.

processes) • Discursive links (using verbal code of main text within the mathematical array) • Labelling TEXTUAL • Positional notation (the sequential downward placement of statements and positional placement functional components) • Dependent clauses (thematic or spatially marked) • Ellipsis (marked by spatial position) • Discursive links (using verbal code of main text within the mathematical array) • Labelling . definitions.3(2) Grammar and Discourse Systems for Mathematical Symbolism DISCOURSE SEMANTICS EXPERIENTIAL IDEATION • Activity Sequences consisting of Operative process and participant reconfigurations (progressive steps of simplification and solution) • Nuclear relations (participant and process) • Collocation (symbolic relations and strings through taxonomies. axioms and theorems) LOGICAL CONJUNCTION and CONTINUITY (based on EXPANSION) • Sequential placement of statements (explicitly marked when the logical connection is non-sequential) • Extension of TAXIS into long implication sequences INTERPERSONAL NEGOTIATION Exchange Structure and SPEECH FUNCTION at the move rank • Consists of moves and move-complexes TEXTUAL IDENTIFICATION • Direct Repetition • Referential cohesion (based on definition. internal substitution and operative properties) • Apposition • Parenthesis • Labelling INTERPERSONAL SPEECH FUNCTION (statements and limited forms of command) • Intricacy of symbolic representation • Abstractness (nature of participants. operational properties with explicit repetition of reference) • Positional notation (the sequential downward placement of statements and positional placement functional components) Structure: Exchange Structure linking moves Structure: conjunctive reticula Structure: strings for tracing activity sequence reconfigurations Structure: reference chains linking participants INTER-STATEMENTAL RELATIONS EXPERIENTIAL • Positional notation to indicate continuations of Activity Sequences • Repetition of processes and participants in new configurations LOGICAL EXPANSION • Conjunctions and cohesive conjunctions • Implicit and explicit conjunctions (external symbolic and linguistic conjunctive devices.THE G R A M M A R OF MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM 99 Table 4.

dependent clauses or fused within participant structure) • Ellipsis of Operative processes • Rule of Order of operations EXPRESSIONS [[ EXPERIENTIAL LOGICAL ]] TEXTUAL INTERPERSONAL • Rhetorical 'temporal' • Intricacy (degree and • Rule of Order and • Operative processes (condensation occurs conjunctive relations explicitness of use of brackets for unfolding of realized through embedding) via high level of conventionalized rankshift within and Operative processes • Degree of between participants) Rule of Order of abstractness (nature of participants and • Degree of rankshift operations and use of brackets processes) indicated by [ [ ] ] • Circumstantial elements (through processes and fused participant structures • Ellipsis of Operative processes • Rule of Order of operations .100 Table 4. implicit objective orientation) POLARITY (presence or absence of a slash through the process symbol) • Intricacy (embedded processes) • Abstractness (participants and processes) • Rhetorical 'temporal' TRANSITIVITY conjunctive relations • Processes (Operative. realized through relational and Rule of Order of existential) operations and use of • Participants are brackets rankshifted configurations of Operative processes • Circumstantial features (minor clauses.3(2) .cont MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE STATEMENTS // EXPERIENTIAL LOGICAL // TEXTUAL • THEME (unmarked choice is Subject of the clause with marked case indicates steps in simplification) • Multiple Theme (textual element spatially placed) • Ellipsis (spatial positioning) • Dependent clauses (thematic or otherwise spatially separated) • Conventional spatial organization • Rule of Order and use of brackets for unfolding of Operative processes INTERPERSONAL MOOD (with one symbol for the Finite and Predicator) • MODALITY (consistently high.

punctuation. however. Hebrew alphabet) • Function of constituents (spatial.THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L SYMBOLISM Table 4. The framework presented in Table 4.3(2) is best viewed as a first step towards a comprehensive SFG for mathematical symbolism.3(1). Further research is needed in the analysis of mathematical texts. • Ellipsis of process script and size The SF framework in Table 4. and the ways in which the systems and lexicogrammatical strategies in the symbolism depart from those found in language. and combinations of symbols • Use of spatial and positional notation • Style of production • Spatial arrangement (hand written. Greek. of text at each rank computer generated) • Font style and format • Contrasts in font. attitudinal and experiential epithets) • Qualifiers (form part of the nominal group without the need for embedding as phrases) • Classifiers • Conventionalized use of specific symbols (numerals. icons. font. Roman. This mathematics problem is concerned with . abbreviations.3(2) . scripts and size for special symbols. The metafunctional systems in the SF framework for mathematical symbolism are discussed with reference to the mathematical symbolic text displayed in Plate 4. serial position and brackets) DISPLAY PLANE EXPERIENTIAL LOGICAL INTERPERSONAL TEXTUAL • Variations in the form • Spatial organization of symbolic text of case. in order to fully document the systems. which remain at a preliminary stage of theorization. brackets.cont COMPONENTS EXPERIENTIAL LOGICAL INTERPERSONAL • Degree of abstractness • Degree of modification TEXTUAL 101 • Conventionalized • Restricted range of combinatory units in the nominal practices group (the absence of DEIXIS.3(2) provides insights into the ways in which the grammar of mathematical symbolism is organized to fulfil the functions of mathematics.

o°). Plate 4.EXAMPLE 4 SOLUTION If f ( x ) = J x . S t a t e t h e d o m a i n o f / ' . f i n d t h e d e r i v a t i v e o f / . 1999: 139) . so the domain of/' is (1. °°). This is smaller than the domain of/.1 . Here we r a t i o n a l i / e the numerator We see that f'(x) exists if x > 1. which is [1.3(1) Mathematical Symbolic Text (Stewart.

decreasing and sharing physical objects. Operative processes initially arose in early numerical systems. which were among the earliest forms of mathematical symbolism. subtracting. O'Halloran. One major innovation in mathematical symbolism is the evolution of a new process type. Mesopotamian. multiplying. numerical systems circumscribed mathematical activities and new developments in much the same way that grammatical systems in language function to structure reality through the nature of the linguistic choices which are available. increasing. for example. dividing and measuring. which may be interpreted geometrically as the slope of the curve at the point (x. which could not materialize in concrete form. The derivative is the rate of change of the function. the complexity of Material processes undertaken by human participants in a physical . Numerical notation appeared in different cultures arising from practical needs such as recording quantities and marking time intervals for social and economic activities. As we have seen. Indian. For example. had a major impact on the development of mathematics in Europe. an expansion of meaning took place in mathematics with respect to the description of relations and patterns of variation. multiplying. The ways in which mathematical symbolism achieves this simultaneous contraction and expansion of the experiential meaning are discussed below. Operative processes of adding. That is. that is. the Operative process. Once established. subtracting and dividing symbolic numbers initially paralleled existing Material processes of combining. However. The semantic field of mathematics therefore includes a limited experiential domain compared to language. and independent traditions such as the Mayan in South America. With the narrowing of the semantic domain. which takes the form of arithmetic operations and other processes found in the different fields of mathematics. 4. 1998b. the adoption of the Hindu-Arabic numerical system. The visualization of the derivative in the form of a graph for the geometrical interpretation of the derivative is examined in Chapter 5. Operative processes replaced the semantics of Material processes. However. new participants in the form of very small and very large numbers. Arabian and Chinese. depended upon the functions which were required to be fulfilled and the availability of material resources. new mathematical Operative participants and processes began to appear with the development of numerical systems.f(x)). arose in the symbolism. The nature of the early numerical systems in cultures which include the European. adding. 1996) which were concerned with counting.4 Contraction and Expansion of Experiential Meaning Experiential meaning in mathematical symbolism is largely concerned with a semantic field in the form of the description and manipulation of relations. as h tends to zero.THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M 103 finding the derivative/'(x) of a function/(x) by finding the limit off(x) as x is approached. Moreover. Symbolic processes in early numerical systems developed from Material processes (Lemke. Egyptian.

As a result. This statement takes the form of the metaphorical projecting clause 'we recognize' for 'this limit is the derivative o f / a t xlt that is. The limits of Operative processes within early numerical systems were dependent upon parameters such as the base of the system. /'(*i)' (see Section 3. With the development of symbolic algebra. This largely involved capturing and rearranging generalized descriptions of relations between variables through Operative processes.3(1) where the limit as h —> 0 is derived for Operative processes are typically performed by human agents on symbolic semiotic participants in the form of numbers and later variable participants. The success of these descriptions meant that mathematical symbolism developed as a semiotic resource with grammatical systems which were unique to that resource. A similar situation arises with the division of fractions where the result is larger than the number which is being divided. It became possible to perform complex combinations of Operative processes which were not otherwise feasible or even conceivable./' (xj' (Stewart. such as counting boards. find the derivative of/'. the human agent was not included in the mathematical symbolic statements which were more concerned with describing the nature of relations based on established mathematical results. As we have seen. complex numbers. the human agent tends to be located within the linguistic part of the text which is concerned with the commands (for example. were employed. material computational devices based on the number systems. rather than encoding the rhetorical commands which accompanied the solution to the problem. a means of separating fractional components and the intricacy and number of symbols. the human agent also disappeared in math- . as seen in the calculus example in Plate 4. attention turned to generalized descriptions of relations using algebraic methods. These systems developed in accordance with the aim of mathematics: the descriptions of patterns and the means to solve problems relating to those descriptions.3(1) where the reader is instructed 'If f(x) = J x — l . limits and other processes found in different branches of mathematics. When calculations became complex.104 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE world had practical limitations and intuitive expectations which did not necessarily extend to the semiotic Operative processes performed using symbolic notation. the inclusion of a symbol for zero. 1999:132). This contravenes the common-sense understanding where 'to multiply' means 'to increase'. table reckoners and the abacus. arithmetic Operative processes were supplemented with processes concerned with powers. roots. An example of this type of semantic extension occurs in the case of multiplication of fractions where the product is less than the numbers which are multiplied.2). and to obtain results unlike those previously expected. With the evolution of mathematical symbolism as a semiotic resource. In the development of symbolic algebra.3(1)) and statements such as 'We recognize this limit as being the derivative of /at xl} that is. as seen in Plate 4. the existence of place value. ' [you] find the derivative of/' in Plate 4.

THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M 105 ematical visual images as the concern with lines and curves grew during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Verbal. the Agent. as evidenced by the probe 'what is the best idea [[that Jack and Jill had all day]]?' The Value/Identifier (Range) is ' [ [to walk up the hill] ]'. the Token/Identified (Medium) in the Relational process is 'The best idea [ [that Jack and Jill had all day] ]'. since it is the entity through the medium of which the process comes into existence. Relational and Existential processes. Without 'the door'. in a mathematical function the value of the independent variable x 'impacts' on the value of the dependent variable y in so much as the value of y depends on the value of x. The typical nuclear configuration of functional elements for experiential meaning in language has the form: Participant (Medium) + Process ± Participant (Agent) ± Range ± Circumstance/s . and only in some cases is there an Agent. Behavioural. 'Jack talked' is a Verbal process with the Sayer/Medium 'Jack'. and without which there would be no process at all. Halliday (1994: 163) calls the key participant the Medium in the ergative interpretation of the clause: Every process has associated with it one participant that is the key figure in that process: this is the one through which the process is actualized. which is associated with each process. For example. This idea is developed below through an examination of the way in which Operative processes and participants are configured in mathematical symbolic statements. Operative processes appear to be grammatically different from the linguistic processes documented in Halliday's systems of TRANSITIVITY and the related system of ERGATTVTTY which is concerned with agency. the grammatical strategies for encoding such relations take the form of interactions between multiple participants rather than direct impact of one participant on another participant. Within this rankshifted clause Jack and Jill' function as the Medium for the process 'had'. realized as a complex nominal word group and the Range is 'up the hill'. the action of opening could not have been performed by Jack. Mental. At the same time. the notion of agency. In this case. In the clause 'Jack opened the door'. In a clause such as 'the best idea [ [that Jack and Jill had all day] ] was [ [to walk up the hill'] ]. Let us call this element the MEDIUM. the Medium is the rankshifted clause 'The best idea [[that Jack and Jill had all day]]'. the Medium. Every process in language has an associated Medium. In this case the Medium is 'the door'. appears to have developed in the symbolism in rather a different fashion from that found in language. There is no Agent associated with the process of walking up the hill. The process types in language are Material. In this example there is no Agent. the Medium is 'Jack and Jill'. In the case of 'Jack and Jill walked up the hill'. However. where one participant impacts on another. For example. Halliday (1994: 163) explains that in language there is a key participant. the verb 'opened' is a Material process with 'Jack' as the Actor/Agent who acts on 'the door' which is the Goal/Medium.

and 'the best idea [[that Jack and Jill had all day]]'. word group/phrase or a rankshifted clause (with one embedded Medium) as discussed in the case of 'Jack'. For example. there appear to be several key participants. x. x (n times) x y x y . y and z which interact through the Operative process of multiplication. This statement contains a Relational Identifying process '=' equating the Token/Identified (Medium) (xyz)" with Value/Identifier (Range) x"y" z" as demonstrated through the probe 'what is the expanded form for (ryz)"?' (Identified). 'Jack and Jill'. Rather. in the algebraic expression for the derivative/' (x). . . these expressions are configurations of the participants x. In a similar fashion. However. the Token/ Medium is (x x y x z)" and the Value/Range is x x x x x. This proposal is investigated through further consideration of The generalized algebraic law for the expansion of exponential expressions is given by the mathematical symbolic statement (xyz)" .106 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE However. h and 1. That is. 1994: 165-167) the Medium is (xyz)" with Range x" yn z". the Medium and other participants in relational symbolic statements are most typically configurations of Operative processes with multiple participants which appear to play equally key roles. realized through '=') in the form of the 'Token (Medium or Agent) = Value (Range or Medium)'. the corresponding mathematical participants do not take the correlate form of a word. the notion of 'a single key participant' in the configuration of Operative processes which constitute the value of the derivative does not seem to apply.x" yn zn. there appear to be multiple key participants which are central to the Operative process configurations in the examples given below. Rather. Operative processes in mathematical symbolic clauses do not appear to replicate the nature of the experiential meaning in language. While the notion of a Medium and an Agent exists at the rank of clause in mathematical relational processes (for example. Arithmetic Operations: Exponents: (xyz) n—x"y" zn Factoring Special Polynomials: x* — y2 = (x + y)(x— y) Geometric Formulae: Cosine Law: a? = tf + <? — 2bc cos A It appears that the semantics of language for experiential meaning have been extended with the inclusion of Operative processes in mathematical symbolic clauses. In this 'decoding' clause '(xyz)" represents x" y" z"' (Halliday.

the Medium Agent j However.d. This case is different to 'Jack and Jill' which is a complex nominal group in language. or one Medium with a Range.b.b.THE GRAMMAR OF MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM 107 x y .c. y and z where each variable appears to play an equally significant role. y (n times) x z X z x z . However. complex rankshifted configurations of Operative processes and participants arise as seen in the . Rather Operative processes appear as complex rankshifted configurations with participants X t . . This becomes evident if the presence of Operative processes is indicated by the systemic functional convention of square brackets [[]]. in this case division. In each case. . y and z appear to interact through the Operative process of multiplication as equally key figures in the configurations which constitute the Medium and Range of the relational process. z ( n times).d. The x. X2. it is not perhaps feasible to ask which is 'the key participant' in these configurations of x. Xn. 1994: 165-167). or the case of the rankshifted clause 'the best idea [ [that Jack and Jill had all day] ]' where the Medium in the rankshifted clause is 'Jack and Jill'. In this with 'encoding' clause (Halliday. addition and multiplication with participants a.e and / It is interesting to note that the majority of mathematical clauses for encoding relations seem to appear in the passive form is represented by rather than represents In the case of Operative processes. the generalized algebraic form for the addition of two fractions may be seen to consist of the six multiple key participants a. is not necessarily appropriate. . . X3 . .e and fin This is a statement which contains a Relational Identifying process with '=' equating the Value/Identified (Medium) with Token/Identifier (Agent) the probe 'what is the generalized form for as demonstrated by (Identified). Similarly. it appears that the idea of one Agent impacting on one Medium. once again the Medium and the Agent are configurations of Operative processes with multiple key processes and participants.c. .

The degree of rankshift found in mathematical symbolism exceeds that found in language. This is a significant point in understanding how the grammar of mathematical symbolism is functionally organized to fulfil the goals of mathematics: to order. the process/ participant configuration is preserved so that the expression can be rearranged and simplified. to model situations. This is an important grammatical strategy in the evolution of mathematical symbolism as the semiotic which is used to solve problems. At the rank of the mathematical expression. This remains an important research goal. At each stage. If the rank- shifted Operative processes are marked by [[]]. . This may be demonstrated through closer inspection of the derivative in Plate 4. . to present patterns. the typical form of the configurations of expressions in ranking clauses in symbolic mathematics is seen to be: [ [Participant + Processj + Participant + Process2 + Participant. where it may be seen that there are six levels of embedding of Operative processes in the mathematical expression for the derivative. the rank below the clause is called 'the expression' (see Table 4. to solve problems and to make predictions. we see that the level of embedding is complex. At this stage. ProcessJ]". where the potential of the nominal group structures expanded in order to encode experiential meaning. This point is further developed in relation to grammatical metaphor in Chapter 6. The degree of rankshift is displayed in Table 4. . Range and Circumstance also have the potential to take the form [ [Participant + Process! + Participant + Process2 + Participant. .4(1). The two different grammatical strategies reflect the different functions of mathematical symbolism and language.108 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE In order to mark this difference in the grammar of mathematical symbolism.3(2)) which corresponds to the equivalent rank of word groups/phrases in language.3(1). the potential for agency and the nature of the participants within the nuclear configurations of process/participants need further research in order to classify the participant functions according to the types of Operative processes. This is a different grammatical strategy to that found in scientific language. Processn]]n (Medium) + Process ± Agent ± Range ± Circumstance/s where the Agent. The potential for rankshifted configurations of Operative processes and participants is one of the key factors in the success of mathematical symbolism because this strategy preserves process/participant structures which may be reconfigured for the solution to problems. .

dependent clauses or fused elements within participant group structures in symbolic mathematics. circumstantial and possessive) and Existential processes. Mathematics became concerned with an . processes involving the human realm of feeling. behaving and talking were largely excluded in the quest to describe patterns.4(2).THE G R A M M A R OF MATHEMATICAL S Y M B O L I S M Table 4. While the potential of mathematics as a semiotic resource expanded in the field of description of relations. participants and circumstance in symbolic mathematics is displayed in Table 4. That is. The processes in mathematical symbolism largely consist of Operative processes. Relational processes in the form of identifying and attributive processes (intensive. Mathematical symbolic participants became numbers and variables which function as general representations rather than the specific entities or groups realized through lexical choice in language. A summary of the range of experiential meaning in terms of processes.4(1) Levels of Rankshift in Mathematical Symbolism Rank Process Operative Process/Participant Configuration 109 The process types in mathematics and their attendant participants are concerned with capturing and reformulating patterns of relations. the overall scope of experiential meaning with which mathematics was concerned narrowed. Circumstance became limited to those types which had applicability in the description of relations. Circumstance in the symbolism is realized through minor clauses. as described below.

special means have developed for realizing the Operative process/participant configurations in mathematical symbolic statements. is needed to fully document the process types.110 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 4. These strategies include ellipsis of Operative processes. the associated participants. and the types of circumstance which are found in symbolic mathematics. This strategy is discussed below in relation to systems for experiential meaning in the display stratum. X2 . in addition to being separate functional elements in the form of prepositional phrases. . X2 . . the Rule of Order for Operative processes. Xp Existent Operator Participants X]. These strategies for efficiently encoding experiential meaning are discussed in relation to textual meaning and the organization of the symbolic statements. . and to logical meaning and the temporal unfolding of the Operative processes. and the use of brackets to re-organize the order of operations. For example. Further study. . temporal Location 'at a time of four seconds' may be represented by the dependent relational statement 'if t = 4'.4(2) Restricted Range of Experiential Meaning in Mathematical Symbolism PROCESS Relational: Identifying Relational: Operative Attributive Existential PARTICIPANTS Medium Agent Range Token Value/ Identifier Token/Identifier Value/Identifier Carrier Attributor Attribute Participants X]. however. Xp CIRCUMSTANCE Extent Duration/Distance Location: Temporal/Spatial Contingency: Accompaniment Temporal and Spatial Time and Place Condition Commitation/Addition expanded realm of meaning within a restricted experiential field. and the circumstance of Extent 'after four seconds' may . In the effort to efficiently encode meaning in mathematical symbolism in an economical and exact manner. Another strategy to efficiendy encode experiential meaning in the symbolism relates to circumstantial elements which appear within participant and process structures. Another significant strategy for efficiently encoding experiential meaning in mathematical symbolism is the use of positional and spatial notation.

Combinations for packing circumstantial information in the symbolic clauses also occur.7). Elements in the . Cajori (1993) provides evidence to prove that the path to standardized symbolic notation was not smooth. friendships. Such Activity Sequences are clearly marked in a step-by-step fashion as seen in the case of the derivation of the derivative /' (x) in Plate 4. for example. the definition for the derivative of a function). At the rank of component. experiential epithets and choices from the system of DIEXIS do not occur. Circumstantial prepositional phrases and adverbial groups also occur in the surrounding linguistic co-text within which mathematical symbolism is embedded. for example. x2 — f = (x + y) (x — y) which is used to rationalize the numerator). algebraic laws (for example. symbols include letters from the Roman alphabet (with upper and lower case letters of varying sizes written with varying fonts and scripts). popularity of a certain book. With the development of the grammar for mathematical symbolism. iconic representations.8). substituted.THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M 111 be included in participant structure '5(4)'. translation of text) other than those of the intrinsic merit of the symbol'. The Rule of Order determines the sequence in which Operative processes are performed within statements and expressions (see logical meaning in Section 4. The Activity Sequence consisting of the strings for Operative processes and participants is clearly marked through the textual and spatial organization of the solution to the problem (see textual meaning in Section 4. the Greek alphabet and a range of choices from other alphabets. symbolic statements such as appear in italicized form to mark them as separate elements in the mathematics text. size and format on the display stratum function to realize experiential meaning. the conventionalized use of specialized symbols in mathematics took place. there is a restricted range of elements. In reality. the steps are organized according to vertically placed lines where participants and process configurations are repeated. Cajori (1993: 338) explains that' [o]ften the choice of a particular symbol was due to a special configuration of circumstances (large group of pupils.4(3). Choices from the systems of the font style. 'the displacement in the first four seconds is ten metres' may be represented by 5(4)-5(0) = 10. abbreviations and the invention of new symbols as displayed in Table 4. Other elements include punctuation symbols. re-organized and simplified according to mathematical definitions (for example. the choice of mathematical symbols often depended upon circumstantial. For example. Within the Operative participant structures. In this example. the system of IDEATION is largely concerned with Activity Sequences in the form of Operative process/participant re-configurations for the solution of mathematics problems. This is not so surprising as mathematics is a field of human endeavour. and other established results for algebraic operations. personal and political contingencies rather than merit. At the rank of discourse semantics in mathematical symbolic text.3(1). brackets.

sub-subscript (5 points). bold) Greek alphabet Abbreviations Punctuation Brackets Brackets Iconic New symbols Example G z u R Meaning group complex number vector set of real numbers angle the tangent of A the derivative f (x) grouping of terms indicating changed order of operations the value of the function at a is perpendicular to infinity e tanA /(*) 3 [(8 + 2) . text. the Greek alphabet and so forth. which means x x x x x through the spatial position of the 3 as a superscript. The different choices from systems in the display stratum may be seen in the expression The display of mathematical symbols is standardized through special software applications for mathematical symbolic text. and the process of division which is realized through the spatial arrangement of The use of spatial positioning for experiential meaning is highlighted in the case of matrices where each variable has a value depending upon its . different fonts are assigned for functions. symbol (18 points) and sub-symbol (12 points). variables. vector matrices. As with all system choices for experiential meaning in mathematical symbolism.4(3) Examples of Mathematical Symbols Type of Symbol Roman alphabet (upper case) Roman alphabet (lower case) Roman alphabet (lower case. This is a significant grammatical strategy for encoding meaning efficiently in mathematics. with varying sizes according to their function as a subscript (for example. for example. superscript (7 points). sub-superscript (5 points).2 ] /<«) _L oo mathematical statements typically appear in standardized fonts according to functional status. Simple examples of the use of positional notation are x3. the objective is to precisely encode the relations in a condensed format ready for re-organization and solution to the mathematics problem.112 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 4. Mathematical symbolism realizes experiential meaning through spatial and positional notation in a form that is not found in language. bold) Roman alphabet (upper case. 7 points).

f(x) C where x is a variable. The contraction of options in the systems for experiential meaning. This issue is further developed in relation to textual meaning and the organization of symbolic mathematics. ellipsis and the use of spatial notation and special symbols mean that maximal structural condensation can take place in the mathematical symbolic statements.4(4). in particular to the realm of interpersonal meaning. These examples show that the use of spatial notation extends to Operative processes. The contraction of options for experiential meaning extends to the other metafunctions. F E D f(x) is a function and the spatial positions are marked as A.X Combination . C through to H are given in Table 4. The objective and factual Table 4. the use of strategies such as the Rule of Order for Operative processes. B.4(4) Positional Notation Examples Position A B B B B C C D E G Functional Unit entity Operative process Example X Meaning the mean [of x] x raised to the power [of y] x y entity classifier entity classifier/ Operative process entity deictic entity Operative process circumstance Operative process /(*) M T the derivative [off] the transpose of matrix x the inverse of function f opposite of x or (-1) times x /-' -x xl Xo x factorial a specific value of x vector x multiplied by x the definite integral X .THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M 113 spatial position in the matrix as seen in the example Examples of the use of positional notation for experiential meaning in H A B relation to the following configuration G x. participants and expressions of classification and qualification.

. offer and so forth) with different values of MODALITY (high. and the emphasis directed towards logical meaning. 'find'. EXAMPLE 4 I off. is concerned largely with descriptive statements and a more restricted sense of commands which are realized linguistically through lexical choices such as 'let' or. could you please think how we might get out of this jam' is a metaphorical variation of the command 'think how we can get out of this jam' realized through modulated interrogative Mood ('could you'). the rigorous ordering of fewer components of interpersonal meaning in the mathematical symbolism allowed accessible and intelligible conventions to be established. The quest for exactness in the encoding of those relations in the simplest manner possible for reconfiguration in the solution to problems meant that all 'superficial' information had to be removed. and 'we see that' for the command 'see that'. The resultant impact on the nature of interpersonal meaning in mathematical symbolism is explored through a discussion of the symbolic text in Plate 4. Mathematical symbolism. As discussed below.3(1). State t h e domain At the rank of clause.114 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE appearance of mathematics results from a combination of the restricted selections in the fields of experiential and interpersonal meaning in the mathematical symbolism (which is also reflected in the linguistic parts of the text).3(1). The Vocative 'darling' and the colloquial lexis 'jam' add further interpersonal dimensions in the play of the social relations being enacted. SOLUTION f f i n d t h e derivative off. low) are possible using language through the changeable order and selection of different functional units in the Mood structure as described in Chapter 3. a range of SPEECH FUNCTIONS (statement. in the case of Plate 4. mathematical symbolism does not include lexical choices which are orientated towards interpersonal meaning.5 Contraction of Interpersonal Meaning The range of interpersonal meanings in language narrowed as mathematical symbolism became concerned with the description and reformulation of patterns of variation between generalized variables and numerical quantities. the textual strategies of condensation through which meaning is efficiently encoded. For example. In combination with the restricted experiential meaning. 'darling. medium. command. question. 4. on the other hand. 'state'.

special symbols and Operative processes rather than the individuality which is possible through lexical choice. for example. 'possibly' and 'probably'). '=' and 'e ' represent positive polarity. 'might =') to realize plays with TENSE (past. time. At the level of discourse semantics. 'sometimes' and 'usually') and other semantic domains such as readiness. intensity. The multiple strategies of condensation. Using the notion of coreness of lexical items (see Chapter 3). and expressions of attitude such as 'that is horrific' are not found in the mathematical symbolism. In mathematics. the Finite element is fused with the process in selections such as '=' for 'equals'. Every element is precisely defined in relation to other functional elements where the emphasis is orientated towards experiential and logical meaning. that is. present or future) and MODALITY (in the form of probability and usuality). The mathematical symbolism typically consists of a series of statements where the Exchange Structure is constructed from the position of the primary knower (Kl moves and move-complexes) and the primary Actor (Al moves) (see Chapter 3). In mathematical symbolism. degree are typically excluded in mathematical symbolic statements. typicality. positive and negative POLARITY ('is' or 'is not') is realized through one element for the process in mathematical symbolic statements such as For example. which function to reduce the number of functional elements in a mathematical symbolic clause. Lexical choices such as 'darling'. the symbolic elements appear in generalized forms as variables. As a further condensatory strategy. or 'could ='. choices for MODALITY in the form of probability may be realized through symbolic statements for measures of probability. Subject/(%) A Finite/Predicator '='.5 (where the notion of uncertainty is quantified) and different forms of approximations. 'did ='. mathematical symbolism only consists of items which have a specific meaning in the register of mathematics. for example. Mathematics thus narrows the options of language which permit expression of a wide range of probability through the Finite element. V and '£ '. the choices from the discourse system of NEGOTIATION largely result in an Exchange Structure where information is provided and commands are issued so that Activity Sequences unfold in a strictly regulated fashion. the Predicator and MOOD ADJUNCTS. usuality (for example. In the Exchange . obviousness. Rather. 'was ='. In addition. the Finite element does not appear as a separate functional element (for example. Shades of meaning derived from the selection of symbolic elements which occupy a non-central position do not exist in mathematical symbolic statements. and negative polarity is typically indicated by a slash through that same element. levels of significance: p <0. mean that a maximal level of certainty is typically associated with mathematical statements and a high degree of obligation is associated with commands. Similarly MOOD ADJUNCTS which function to realize probability (for example.THE GRAMMAR OF MATHEMATICAL S Y M B O L I S M 115 The Mood structure in relational symbolic clauses such as/(#) = Jx— 1 may be seen to correspond to that found in language. obligation.

The reason for this is that mathematics is designed to fulfil certain functions which do not include the re-negotiation of social relations or the expression of typically human processes of feeling and emotion. Mathematical symbolic discourse is positioned as authoritative. I appreciate that') are typically absent in mathematical symbolism. contributes to the image of the text as dominating in terms of the social relations which are established between the writer/producer and reader. The symbolic clauses and statements are realized in a tightly organized Exchange Structure. This strong sense of direction is also realized compositionally through the spatial arrangement of the mathematical symbolic statements which literally 'run' down the page. the restricted range of process types and the nature of the participants as generalized variables and numerical quantities function to make the text appear as abstract. judgement. appreciation) (for example. The discourse appears as non-evaluative and value-free. However. Indeed. largely as a series of symbolic statements which lack modalization. The nature of the interpersonal choices in mathematical symbolism results in a discourse which appears as factual and objective. Mathematics is designed to capture. including probability statements and unmodalized approximations. there appears to be no question about symbolic statements such as x = y. 'that is good' and 'thanks. The truth-value of the symbolic statements appears as consistently high with an implicit objective orientation. modulation and choices for affective realms of meaning. model and predict patterns in the most economical fashion. and this overriding aim has resulted in pre- .5(1). In addition. there is a strong sense of direction which appears to be nonnegotiable. what needs to be made explicit is that this position is created by the nature of the choices that are available from the systems in the language and display planes for mathematical symbolism.116 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Structure. The development of computer software devoted to the expression of mathematical symbolic text functions to ensure that conventionalized styles of typesetting and symbolic representation are standardized. In addition. Without a knowledge of the grammar of mathematical symbolism. The factual and objective stance of mathematical symbolism is also communicated through the style of production and contrasts in choices for scripts and fonts from the systems in the display plane. question or even interrupt. which are extraordinarily intricate and complex due to the high degree of rankshifted expressions and use of specialized symbols. mathematics appears as the ultimate truth which is difficult to re-negotiate. Mathematical symbolic texts are concerned with a limited semantic field which appears as factual and objective due to the range of interpersonal and experiential meanings which are admitted. The expression of probability takes different forms in mathematics. The interpersonal meaning realized through such professionally produced texts. choices from the discourse system of APPRAISAL for graduations of evaluation and attitude (affect. the texts are impenetrable as may be appreciated from Plate 4. 'I like that'.

social.8) Plate 4. textual and logical meaning.v = Pf. we calculate at . we obtain where X is the identity matrix and (5. i = 1 K: 117 Lei (5.THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M In the case ft —»• 0. most likely through its success as a tool for science and technology which plays a major role in determining economic. interpersonal. 2003: 159) determined patterns of experiential. To the . Mathematicians and scientists.7) Then we have Writing in matrix form. cultural and political relations.5(1) Mathematical Symbolic Text (Wei and Winter. however. are aware of the fallibility and impoverished nature of mathematical descriptions and models. Mathematics is typically assigned a high truth-value.

rather than the left-to-right sequential processing of the Operative processes of addition and subtraction. At the rank of discourse semantics and inter-statemental relations. In what follows. Mathematical symbolism is concerned with relations of EXPANSION (Halliday. Descartes desired a tool that could be used to reason with. Operative and Existential processes which preserve process/participant configurations through rankshift. This represents a narrowing of the options for logical meaning admitted into mathematical symbolism. through the use of differing types of brackets which function to re-organize the standard sequence of operations. or a re-statement in the form of apposition or clarification. however. Logical reasoning flows smoothly down the page as seen in the solution to the problem in Plate 4.: 220) are not typically found in symbolic mathematics. that reasoning is explored. 1994: 328-329) in the form of (i) elaboration.3(1). The conventionalized order is brackets. Mathematical symbolism has been specifically designed as a semiotic resource to describe patterns which can be rearranged for the solution to problems. the use of brackets in the numerator of means that the order is changed so that the Operative processes of addition in (x+ h— 1) and (x— 1) are completed first.118 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E outsider who cannot engage with the discourse. The concept of truth and the cultural value attached to mathematical discourse is explored further in Chapter 7. The Rule of Order is a condensatory strategy in that the explicit order with which the mathematical operations are to be performed need not be explicitly marked in mathematical symbolic statements. and this means that Operative processes do not necessarily unfold in a left-to-right fashion. (ii) extension. or additative and variation type relations. CONJUNCTION and CONTINUITY relations are realized through explicit and implicit structural conjunctions which link clauses. For example. The order may be changed. and (iii) enhancement. which is predominantly causal-conditional and spatio-temporal type relations. the myth is harder to counteract. Logical relations of PROJECTION in the form of quotations and reporting of locutions and ideas (ibid. powers.6 A Resource for Logical Reasoning In his pursuit of sure knowledge. and the narrow range of interpersonal meanings result in a grammar which encodes meaning in the most efficient manner possible. The 'temporal' conjunctive relations which are concerned with the order in which Operative processes unfold in statements and expressions are realized through the Rule of Order for Operative processes. The encoding experiential meaning in the form of Relational. and that tool was designated to be mathematical symbolism. 4. and non-structural conjunctive adjuncts which function cohesively across stretches of text (see . multiplication/division and addition/subtraction.

in general. the implicit conjunctions are causalconditional type relations of the form 'therefore'. Statements are explicitly marked in cases where the logical connection is non-sequential. axioms. The loss of certainty in mathematics (Kline. however. However.3(1).6(1). may have terms in it that co-refer with terms in other systems'. the steps in the Activity Sequence in the solution of the problem involve implicit procedures using established results. Mathematical symbolic discourse typically involves long implication sequences as seen in Figure 4. For example.6(1). 'for example'. 'or'. theorems.6(1) contains the analysis of logical meaning in terms of the conjunctive relations which occur in the solution of the problem displayed in Plate 4. theorems and established results which are not made explicit in the derivation of the solution to the problem.THE G R A M M A R OF MATHEMATICAL S Y M B O L I S M 119 Section 3. Hilbert and Russell and Godel. deductive inference consisting of two premises and a conclusion which are categorical propositions) is misleading. As seen in Figure 4. 'and'. Perhaps in the pursuit of knowledge (see also Chapter 2). . Relations are modelled through arrows which indicate the dependency structure. New technological advances are contributing to this process: 'Computers are in the process of dismantling the very image of reason which generated them' (Tiles.6(1). 1991: 169). In Figure 4. axioms. On the right-hand side.'. and the arrows point outwards in the cases where the result depends on mathematical definitions. Conjunctive relations in mathematical symbolism typically function in an internal-rhetorical sense rather than an externalexperiential sense. and while others occur in linguistic form (for example. 'also' and so forth). has been demonstrated through contributions by Frege. axioms. Following Martin (1992).6(1). 1980) has been accompanied by new mathematical approaches to physical systems. theorems and other results. Figure 4. Azzouni (1994: 79) characterizes mathematics as 'a collection of algorithmic systems.4 where Halliday's systems for logical meaning are explained). where any such system. it becomes evident from this analysis that mathematical deductive reasoning depends to a large extent on laws. chaos and dynamical systems theory. statements labelled (1) and (2) may be referred to later as 'from (1) and (2)'. Some structural conjunctions and conjunctive adjuncts are symbolized in mathematics (for example. these types of relations are modelled on the left-hand side as shown in Figure 4. Moves are shown to be dependent on preceding ones by dependency arrows pointing upwards. the realms of meaning . The conceptions upon which logical meaning at the rank of discourse semantics and inter-statemental relations are based are investigated below. Tiles (1991) claims that the image of mathematics as dealing solely with deductive reasoning based on syllogisms (that is. laws. laws and so forth. the basis for the logical reasoning is given. for example. The fallibility of mathematics as a formal system. It appears that the success of mathematics is dependent on this co-referral of terms based on previously established results which are formalized as definitions.

3(1) .f(x) given in Example 4 Definition of derivative Substitution for f(x) Rationalize numerator Multiplication Property ofOne(MPOne) Factorization x2-y2=(x+y)(x-y) Distributive Property of Multiplication over Addition (DPM/A) Simplification based on algebraic laws Definition limit Simplication based on algebraic laws Figure 4.6(1) Logical Meaning (Conjunctive Relations) in Plate 4.

3(1).7 Specification of Textual Meaning The textual organization of mathematical symbolism is sophisticated and highly formalized in order to facilitate the economical encoding of relations which permits immediate engagement with the experiential and logical meaning of the text. 'To simplify' in mathematics means to arrange mathematical Operative processes and participants in the most simple standardized format using algebraic rules and pre-established mathematical results. Examples of spatial and syntagmatic relations which are typically found in mathematical symbolism are given in Table 4. The nature of textual meaning is evident in Plate 4.7(1). for example. However. perhaps a new semiotic resource will evolve through the increased power of computers to represent patterns of relations. The specificity of textual organization relates to the need to organize the experiential meaning of the mathematical symbolic statement in an exact and simplified format so that problems may be solved. The overall spatial arrangement of mathematical symbolic text is generic so that key equations. alternatives are possible in the configuration of participants. . definitions and solutions are immediately accessible in texts. That is. at the rank of discourse semantics. process and circumstance in language. the statements are placed sequentially down the page to permit easy tracking of the nuclear reconfiguration of process/participant structures.THE GRAMMAR OF MATHEMATICAL S Y M B O L I S M 121 which were excluded in mathematical symbolism resulted in an inadequate set of semiotic tools to describe physical phenomena. In addition to spatial sequential organization of the symbolic text. While mathematical symbolism remains the major semiotic resource for the construction of logical meaning in mathematics. mathematics is constrained by the nature of the semiotic resources it has at its disposal. Such re-organization is not a typical feature of mathematical symbolic statements. As may now be appreciated. This may be in the form of the development of a new grammar of visual images. the mathematical statements and clauses are organized syntagmatically in pre-defined forms for Relational and Operative process/participant configurations. 'For ten minutes I will sit quietly'. T will quietly sit for ten minutes' and 'Quietly will I sit for ten minutes'.7(1) and the definition of the derivative in Plate 4. technological innovations such as those accompanying the latest development in computers permit patterns to be mapped computationally and visually in new ways. The tendency towards standardized syntagmatic organization of symbolic statements is evident in Table 4. 4. or the construction of a new resource yet to be imagined. T will sit quietly for ten minutes'.3(1) where. The textual organization of the symbolism may be contrasted to experiential meaning in language which is typically represented as clusters of participant/process/circumstantial functions rather than definitive syntagms which have a specific order.

122 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 4.21 . Many other possibilities occur including the use of language conjunctions and complete integration of mathematical statements within the linguistic text as found in 'If f(x) = J x — l .7(1) Textual Organization: Syntagmatic and Spatial Relations 1 Equations and formulae Circ Qualifier {x. Such visual arrangements permit easy engagement with the text.hand side of a mathematical sentence. however. with exceptions (for example.3(1). Key symbolic statements of special interest. for example. conjunctions typically occur on the left. The use of spatiality is one key element of mathematical symbolism which differs from the line-wrapped syntagmatic arrangement of linguistic text. The use of spatial arrangement also permits ellipsis on a scale which is not found in language.5 + 5x = 3 Mathematical statements may be combined Participant -3 Process < Participant x Process < Participant 2 = = 4 Combinations may occur with certain conjunctions if x + 2y = 7 and 2x + 3y = 4 Spatial positioning in combination with syntagmatic organization plays an important role in the semantics of mathematical symbolism as illustrated in Table 4. however.7(1). that mathematical texts vary in terms of spatial layout and the extent to which the symbolic text is integrated with language. It should be noted. slightly separated spatially from the mathematical clause as seen in Plate 4. 'if. are typically spatially separated from the body of the text. and 'or'). . Lemke (1998b) explains that the table. visual images and symbolism. This is necessary as the reading path is not necessarily linear in mathematical and scientific texts which consist of language. At the clause level of the lexicogrammar.7(1). find the derivative of/' in Plate 4. 'and'. if Conj inAABD Participants 2x + 4 3x AB ABD Process > > 7i = Participants 7 y} CD 60° 2 Simplification of expressions and formulae Process Participant Participant 7(2x-3)-5(l-x) 14x .

Next so that For the last term.7(1) Textual Organization of Mathematical Symbolism (Clerc. Plate 4. 2003: 117) . On the other hand.THE G R A M M A R OF MATHEMATICAL S Y M B O L I S M 123 Next.

two further textual strategies for economical encoding of meaning are the generic forms of ellipsis established in mathematical symbolism. The spatial arrangement of the mathematical symbolic clauses permits ellipsis. the decimal system involves place value. 'if x= 4') also frequently occur. At the rank of discourse semantics.4 on experiential meaning). the Rule of Order for Operative processes (see Section 4. /' (x) need not be repeated in the derivation of the derivative in Plate 4. for example. Marked Themes in the form of a dependent clause (for example. and the statement. such as 'in A ABD' in Table 4. this functional element is typically placed further apart from the mathematical equation so that the Subject/ Theme conflation is not disrupted. An example of this type of extension occurs within the decimal place value system (for example. multiple Themes containing textual elements in the form of conjunctions and conjunctive adjuncts (for example. that is. 'therefore') are common in mathematical symbolic text. verbal and symbolic resources in scientific tables. Within statements. inter-statemental relations. Baldry (2000a) discusses meaning compression and the integration of visual. the reference chains linking partici- . spatial notation for division is used in expressions such as for x ~ y. Within mathematical statements.3(1).7(1).1415926) where each place or location in the sequence has a particular value. The left-hand side of an equation usually involves the conflation of Subject with Theme. 'then'. Mathematical symbolic statements function in a similar manner. and the use of spatial position to realize Operative processes (see Section 4. For example. which does not necessarily follow a left-to-right format. meaning that the table uses spatial arrangement to compensate for the lack of grammatical constructions. the notion of the Theme as the point of departure of a message and the Rheme as the part in which the Theme is developed is fundamental to the textual organization of mathematical symbolic clauses. x for the Operative process of multiplication in expressions is not required in expressions such as xyz (for x x y x z) and (a + b) (c + d) for (a + b) x (c+ d). Within the symbolic statements. Another strategy for economy of expression is the serial placement of the components of an expression which follows conventions which differ from the structure of the nominal group in language. In addition. permitting a visual arrangement for condensatory purposes so that the experiential and logical meaning is immediately accessible. the use of spatial position in x3 realizes the Operative process of multiplication for x x x x x. If a Circumstance Adjuncts occurs first. 3.124 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE carries textual ellipsis to the extreme so that the result is a 'textualized visual display'. Given the concern with logical meaning. In a similar fashion.6 on logical meaning) determines the temporal unfolding of processes/participant configurations. The organization of mathematical symbolism as a message is therefore highly conventionalized in terms of genre. 'if. Mathematical symbolism possesses its own rules through which mathematical Operative processes unfold.

the Rules of Order for Operative processes and the use of brackets to change that order. standardized forms of ellipsis. as we have seen. Grammar and Display Hand in hand with language and visual images. The discourse. In addition. The focus on experiential and logical meaning necessitated the development of a specific grammar in order to fulfil those functions. In addition. operational properties and theorems.THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M 125 pants for the system of IDENTIFICATION are complex as the nuclear configurations of Operative processes and participants are constantly rearranged in the derivation of the solution to a problem. derived results. participants may be transformed through axiomatic definitions. grammatical and display strategies that consequently developed in mathematical symbolism were based on the need for an economy of expression so that meaning could be encoded in a manner which permitted the reconfiguration of process/participant structures. and the fate of participants is based on definitions. algebraic laws.8 Discourse. Strategies include the spatial or visual arrangement of the text which permits easy tracking of process/participant configurations. theorems and so forth. Referential cohesion. Spatial arrangement and positional notation thus developed in the grammar of mathematical symbolism as an important means for fulfilling the functions of this resource. there may be discursive links to situate the symbolic notation in relation to the main body of the text. The discourse. that grammar interacts with linguistic and visual semiotic resources in the manner described in Chapters 6-7. standardized sequential placement of elements in the statements and clauses in terms of Theme and Rheme. laws and theorems and other established results. mathematical symbolism developed as a semiotic resource which had clearly defined functions. Mathematical symbolic texts are textually organized in a way that permits maximum condensation in the instantiation of the texts. However. the tracking of participants. 4. That is. the spatial organization is such that these chains are typically organized down the page in a manner where the configurations of Operative processes and participants are standardized. The use of space as a textual means of organizing and displaying mathematical symbolism is an important strategy which. The grammar also needed to be efficient in terms of making use of mathematical definitions. extends to the experiential and logical meaning. axioms. requires a knowledge of the implicit basis upon which participants are rearranged. to solve problems and to make predictions. Mathematical symbolic participants are explicitly repeated clause by clause to permit tracking. however. These functions include the description of patterns of relations and the reordering of those relations to create models of the physical world. grammatical and display strategies described in this chapter are . and place value at the rank of component. Statements are also often labelled for easy reference. as discussed in relation to logical meaning.

Format and Size. Condensatory Strategies for Exact Encoding of Meaning Experiential Meaning Mathematical symbolism became concerned with limited fields of experiential meaning in the form of Relational. numerical quantities and specialized symbolic expressions for mathematical terms. The grammatical strategies which contribute to the economical encoding of experiential meaning include the use of spatial positioning which results in an economy of expression that is impossible in language. Circumstance is encoded within process and participant structures in the clause in addition to appearing as separate functional elements. The condensatory grammatical strategies in mathematical symbolism include the use of special standardized symbols and place value. Mental. Qualifiers form part of participant group structures without the need for embedding as phrases. Behavioural and Verbal processes. Activity sequences which document the solution to mathematical problems through the reconfiguration of Operative processes are clearly denned. and (2) to permit reconfiguration of process/participant structures through the strategy of rankshift. The temporal unfolding of mathematical operations need only be grammatically marked through brackets when the Rule of Order is altered. At the display stratum. including the Rule of Order for Operative processes and the use of brackets. there are specific formats for functions. and multiplication/division and addition/subtraction. Within the syntagmatic structures in mathematical statements. The development of an economical and precise grammar for encoding experiential meaning permitted the development of mathematical symbolism as a tool for logical reasoning as process/participant structures are easily reconfigured in the steps for deriving the required mathematical result. . This aids condensation in terms of encoding relations in a simplified format. Operative and Existential processes. The removal of experiential realms of meaning considered extraneous (for example. In essence. for example. variables. The grammar of mathematical symbolism permits Operative processes to be ellipsed. powers. their attendant participants and a range of circumstances) aided the expansion of experiential meaning in terms of capturing and rearranging descriptions of patterns of relations through the configurations of Operative process/participants. meaning is encoded through Font Style. symbolic processes do not unfold in a left-to-right fashion because of a variety of strategies. the associated participants and restricted forms of circumstance. The order of operations is brackets. There is a restricted range of elements in the participant structures which take the form of generalized variables. mathematical symbolism incorporated and built on resources from language (in the form of syntagmatic relations and sequential and serial positioning) and visual images (in the form of spatial arrangement and spatial notation).126 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE summarized below in terms of two major aims: (1) to encode patterns of relations economically and exactly.

vector matrices. the temporal unfolding of Operative processes is determined by the Rule of Order for Operative processes. laws. These grammatical strategies contribute to the efficient encoding of relations in mathematical symbolism. mathematical statements are sequentially positioned . The extended implication sequences of internal/rhetorical-type relations are most typically based on implicit results such as definitions. the sequential ordering of statements within that text (discourse semantics). Lexis is replaced with variable and numerical participants and other symbolic terms. The restricted range of interpersonal meanings in mathematical symbolism contributes to the objective and factual appearance of the discourse. That is. Textual Meaning Mathematical symbolic notation developed specific techniques for organizing experiential and logical meaning at the ranks of discourse.THE G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L S Y M B O L I S M 127 text. This means that selections for conjunctive adjuncts for temporal relations need not be made within mathematical statements. grammar and display strata. The spatial arrangement of the text enables the conjunctive relations to be apprehended at a glance. theorems and other established results. Brackets are used to change the conventionalized order of Operative processes. Logical Meaning Mathematical symbolism developed as a tool for reasoning in the form of elaboration (clarification and reinstatement). The ease at which the grammar of mathematical symbolism permits the reconfigurations of mathematical participants and processes for the descriptions of relations means that logical reasoning flows in the symbolic text. The style of the production of the mathematical symbolic text arising from software applications reinforces the dominating type relations established between the writer/ producer and the reader of the text. The Exchange Structure consists of rigid sequences of statements and commands which lack choices of judgement. the syntagmatic ordering of components within the clauses (grammatical) and the use of positional notation at the rank of expression and component (expressions and components). At the rank of the statement. These include the use of spatiality in ways which are not found in language. Probability is encoded as probability statements and approximations. Functional elements such as the Finite element and Mood Adjuncts are excluded. Interpersonal Meaning Interpersonal meaning in mathematical symbolism is largely restricted to unmodalized statements and commands. Visual spatial layout includes the organization of the entire mathematical text (genre). axioms. affect and evaluation. extension (addition and variation) and enhancement (predominantly causal-conditional and spatio-temporal type relations). Greek alphabet and so forth.

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vertically and horizontally, while syntagmatic structures unfold horizontally in a manner which depends on the Rule of Order for operations and the use of brackets. Textual organization also functions at the rank of component, for example, place value.

Rankshifting of Operative Process/Participant Configurations

Mathematical symbolism and scientific language developed different lexicogrammatical strategies for encoding experiential meaning. Scientific language evolved to expand the meaning potential of nominal group structures through grammatical metaphor, where the relations between these abstract entities were encoded as relational processes (Halliday and Martin, 1993; Martin and Veel, 1998). However, the grammatical strategy which developed in mathematical symbolism is the preservation of Operative process/participant configurations through rankshift. This strategy is essential because it permits the re-organization of the patterns of relations for the solution to problems. In other words, mathematical symbolism succeeds precisely because it preserves the nuclear configurations of Operative process/participant structures in an exact and economical format which may be rearranged for the solution to mathematical problems. Mathematical symbolism succeeds as a tool for logical reasoning because the grammar preserves relations in a dynamic format which can be manipulated to obtain the required result. The mathematical grammatical strategy of rankshift is the platform upon which the grammar is built. 4.9 Concluding Comments This discussion provides a framework for a grammar of mathematical symbolism. As becomes apparent, there is much work to be completed in order to construct a grammar which compares with the comprehensiveness of Michael Halliday's SFG for language and Jim Martin's discourse systems for language. For example, the grammar for Operative processes needs to be further investigated to understand how the notions of the Medium and Agent apply to this process type. In addition, Martin's discourse systems need extending to incorporate shifts across semiotic resources (see Chapter 6). More generally, however, the discussion presented here demonstrates that although mathematical symbolism is impoverished with respect to the meanings afforded by language, it nonetheless is capable of meaning beyond that which is achieved linguistically. An outline of the strategies through which this meaning expansion occurs in mathematical symbolism has been given above. These strategies require further investigation, especially in relation to the new developments in mathematics which are taking place through computer technology. The impact of this technology is considered with respect to visual images in Chapter 5.

5 The Grammar of Mathematical Visual Images

5.1 The Role of Visualization in Mathematics

Visual images are such an important component of our resources for meaning (Kress, 2003; Staley, 2003) that they have been defaced and destroyed in scientific, religious and artistic contexts (see Latour and Weibel, 2002), sometimes for reasons which are not even immediately clear. Visual images in mathematics give an intuitive understanding of the reality constructed through the symbolism and language (for example, Galison, 2002; Lemke, 1998b). Mathematical visual images mirror our perceptual understanding of the world and thus connect and extend common-sense experience to the mathematical symbolic descriptions. However, there have been longstanding tensions among mathematicians over the place of the visual image versus the symbolic in mathematics. Traditionally, the functions of the visual image are seen to be important, but limited compared to those fulfilled by symbolism. In what follows, the tensions and differing perceptions of the roles of mathematical symbolism and visual images are explored. From this point, an SF framework for mathematical visual images is used to analyse the types of metafunctional choices found in abstract mathematical graphs. In the final section, the changing role of mathematical images arising from the use of computer graphics programs to display patterns generated from digitalized data (Colonna, 1994; Davis 1974, 2003) is considered. The struggle concerning the role of the visual image versus the symbolism in mathematics has a long history (Davis, 1974; Galison, 2002; Shin, 1994). Since the time of Descartes, traditionalists have seen mathematics as primarily being the symbolic. From this perspective, the visual image is seen as a heuristic tool rather than a means of establishing a valid proof. A 'proper' theorem takes the form of a statement derived from axioms by a sequence of logical steps, rather than a visual pattern which requires neither verbal statement nor symbolic proof. The opposing perspective is that visual displays are a valid form of establishing results, leading to what has been conceptualized as 'a theorem of the perceived type' (Davis, 1974). Galison (2002: 323) sees the ongoing tension in mathematical circles as an oscillation between two poles: 'We must have images; we cannot have

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images.' In fields 'from geometry to quantum mechanics, from astrophysics to microphysics, the richness of the image and the austerity of the numerical are always falling into each other' (Galison, 2002: 323). The struggle between the image and the symbolic as legitimate forms of semiotic practice in mathematics deserves special attention. Shin (1994) gives two common reasons why mathematicians and scientists claim a limited functionality for visual images: the limitations of visual images in presenting 'knowledge'; and the possible misuse of diagrams, such as making unwarranted assumptions in geometry. In the first instance, the meaning of mathematical visual images is seen to be less precise than the symbolism which allows for logical deduction from a set of established results and formalized procedures for mathematical induction, proof by contradiction, calculation of exact values and so forth. In the second instance, the trends displayed in abstract graphs, for example, are seen to be incomplete descriptions which vary according to how they are displayed. There is also room for error in interpreting visual images, for example, in the case of optical illusions. The symbolism is thus seen to be more powerful (Lemke, 1998b) and less prone to error than visualization. Shin (1994), however, claims that the negative prejudice against the use of diagrams as a means for establishing logical proof is not entirely warranted. Shin (1994) uses C. S. Peirce's system of logical diagrams, called 'existential graphs', to demonstrate that Venn diagrams can be used for valid proof, and that diagrams are not inherently misleading. Mathematicians have in fact always drawn conclusions from visual images, but the results have traditionally been expressed through symbolic means. Davis (1974: 115-116) gives a comprehensive list of reasons why this form of practice developed in mathematics:

1 The tremendous impact of Descartes' Discours de la Methode (1637) by which geometry was reduced to algebra; also the subsequent turnabout wherein the medium (algebra) became the message (algebraic geometry). 2 The collapse, in the early 19th century, of the view, derived largely from limited sense experience, that Euclidean geometry has a priori truth for the universe; that it is the model for physical space. 3 The incompleteness of the logical structure of Euclidean geometry as discovered in the 19th century and as corrected by Hilbert and others . . . 4 The limitations of two or three physical dimensions which form the natural backdrop for visual geometry. 5 The limitations of the visual ground field over which visual geometry is built as opposed to the great generality that is possible abstractly (finite geometries, complex geometries, etc.) when geometry has been algebraicized. 6 The limitations of the eye in its perception of mathematical 'truths' (e.g., the existence of continuous everywhere nondifferentiable functions, optical illusions, suggestive but misleading special cases, etc.).

Davis (1974) explains that mathematics never really recovered from the impact of the Cartesian project which involved the algebraicization of geometry and other fields of mathematics with geometric content. Math-

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ematicians such as Henri Poincare (1854-1912) sought to establish a legitimate place for visual images, which he saw as being the source of intuition and the means for keeping mathematics in contact with the real or 'concrete world', rather than spiraling off into 'the abstract' through the symbolism. 'As far as Poincare was concerned, without intuition the mathematician was like a writer shackled forever in a cell with nothing but grammar' (Galison, 2002: 302). However, Poincare came to realize that the complexity of the solar system defied visualization, and his efforts in effect sparked the study of chaos. But in the quest for a general rule, Poincare had turned to visual images. Galison (2002: 302) summarizes the situation: 'In the sciences of the last century and a half, the pictorial and the logical have stood unstably perched, each forever suspended over the abyss of the other.' From a semiotic perspective, it is possible to see why modern mathematicians prefer to use mathematical symbolism as the means for establishing results. Descartes and later mathematicians favoured algebra as the means for describing curves, and the grammar of mathematical symbolism developed accordingly so that these exact relations could be rearranged and manipulated for the solutions to problems. This is possible because the grammar of mathematical symbolism preserves nuclear configurations of process/participant structures in an economical and exact fashion. These structures are encoded through elaborate forms of rankshift to form multiple levels of embedded process and participant configurations. These configurations are rearranged to establish the required mathematical results. The grammar of mathematical symbolism is thus based on a range of condensatory strategies which facilitate rankshift for the rearrangement of relations. As described in Chapter 4, the condensatory strategies include limited forms of process types, the use of spatial and positional notation, the use of special symbols, the Rule of Order for operations and so forth. The result is a semiotic resource which can be used as a tool for reasoning. The dynamic semiotic resource, the one that can be rearranged and manipulated for the proof of results, was designated to be mathematical symbolism, and the grammar developed accordingly. From Descartes onwards, the emphasis shifted from the construction of curves to symbolic description and manipulation of relations, which were visualized using mathematical graphs, diagrams and other forms of visual display. Mathematical symbolism thus developed a grammar which permitted it to be used for establishing mathematical results, and so the dynamic aspect of the process of mathematicization was allocated to the symbolism. The same effort was not extended to the grammar of visual images, which retained the important but seemingly less significant role of the display of the patterns. In addition, modern mathematics developed as a written discourse which circulated in manuscript and print form. The grammars for mathematical symbolism and visual images were certainly the product of the functions allocated to each resource, but they were also the product of the technology through which the texts could be produced. The advent

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of the printing press was a key factor in the increased popularity of the Hindu-Arabic numerals, their accompanying algorithms, and the eventual development of standardized algebraic procedures. However, the visualization of the patterns traditionally appeared in the form of static graphs and diagrams in printed texts. These visual images could not be manipulated, and they were also time-consuming to produce. Mathematical visual images thus developed as a static representation of the dynamic procedures undertaken through the symbolism, the tool through which the formal reasoning took place. There was a loss of meaning incurred in mathematics through the use of the symbolism. In the process of developing a specific grammar for the functions to which it had been assigned, mathematical symbolism became concerned with a limited semantic domain which not only excluded realms of meaning in language as explained in Chapter 4, but also excluded the realms of meaning afforded by visual semiotic. Mathematical symbolism may be seen as more powerful, but the descriptions of continuity nonetheless arise from categorical distinctions of variation made from a limited range of choices within the symbolism. For example, only certain categories exist for symbolic process types, participants and circumstance. Visual images, on the other hand, are capable of representing graduations of different phenomena (Bateson, 1972; de Saussure, 1966; Lemke, 1998b; Messaris, 1994). 'Words [and at a more delicate level, mathematical symbolism] divide the world into black and white (and in some languages, gray), large and small, strong and weak, good and bad. Images, however, can represent shades of gray, ranges of size, and degrees of those external attributes that viewers use in making inferences . . .' (Messaris, 1994: 121). The loss of the input from the visual semiotic in the symbolized environment of mathematics cannot be underestimated. Davis (1974: 119) explains:

The algebraicization of geometry must be regarded as a prosthetic device of great power which maps certain aspects of space into analytical symbols. The blind might be [en]abled to manipulate space through the instrumentality of these symbols, but since one channel of sense experience is denied to the blind, one feels that a corresponding fraction of the mathematical world must be lost to them [and to us] . . . The analytic program [the symbolism], then, is a prosthetic device, acting as a surrogate for the 'real thing' [the visual image].

This situation is rapidly changing, however, with the development of computer graphics which is revolutionizing the role of the visual image in mathematics and science, and, more generally, across most other fields of human activity. Visual images may now be manipulated and synthesized in today's computer environment. This revolution is considered in terms of the increased functionality of the visual image in Section 5.7. However, in order to make sense of what can be achieved visually, a framework for an SF grammar for mathematical visual images is first presented in Section 5.2. The framework, based on O'Toole's (1994, 1995) SF framework for paintings, is extended to account for systems of meaning in mathematical visual

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images. The systems for representational (experiential and logical), interpersonal and compositional meaning are discussed through an analysis of an abstract graph in Sections 5.3-5.6. From this point, the changing nature of visualization in mathematics is considered from the point of view of computer graphics.

5.2 SF Framework for Mathematical Visual Images

Mathematical visual images include abstract and statistical graphs, a range of genres of diagrams and computer-generated graphics. Abstract graphs display the functional relationship between two or more variables in the form of lines, curves and three-dimensional figures. The points are plotted on a set of co-ordinate axes and include only those points which satisfy the given relation. Statistical graphs show the relationship between sets of quantities in the form of bar graphs, column graphs, line graphs, histograms, pie charts, scatter diagrams and so forth. The term 'diagram' is used here in the broadest sense to include pictorial representation of entities and relations such as Venn diagrams, geometrical figures and other figures such as those found in graph theory and topology (Borowski and Borwein, 1989). Computer-generated graphics include traditional forms of abstract and statistical graphs and diagrams, in addition to new forms of dynamic images of graphs which unfold over time. The visual images generated through computer graphics include fractal geometry, views of mathematical models and methods, and other images in applied mathematics, such as graphical representations of diffusion, turbulence and flow, for example (see Colonna, 1994). The evolving range of new genres of mathematical visual images requires investigation and documentation. However, in what follows the focus of attention is the discourse and grammatical systems which constitute the grammar of mathematical visual images. The SF framework is used for the analysis of printed mathematical abstract graphs. The systemic model for visual images in mathematics is presented in Table 5.2(1). The content plane includes a discourse semantics stratum

Table 5.2(1) SF Model for Mathematical Visual Images

MATHEMATICAL VISUAL IMAGES CONTENT Discourse Semantics

**Inter-Visual Relations Work/Genre
**

Grammar

**Episode Figure Parts
**

DISPLAY Graphics

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which is concerned with Inter-Visual Relations established across a sequence of visual images such as those found in mathematics journal articles, books and websites (see Plate 5.2(1) and Plate 5.7(ld)). Discourse moves across visual, linguistic and symbolic parts of the text are theorized in Chapter 6. Following O'Toole's (1994: 24) ranks for paintings, the entire visual image is the Work and the grammar is concerned with the Episode or the configurations of process/participant and circumstance in the visual image, the Figures which are the participants in the Episodes, and the Parts of the display. The Work is the diagram, graph or computer graphics which result from interactions of Episodes with Figures which are composed of Parts. The sub-division of the mathematical visual image into separate Episodes is not always relevant as there may only be a single Episode and Figure; for example, a drawing of a line. As with language and mathematical symbolism, the systems which operate on the display plane are also considered. Despite the classification of mathematical discourse into three different semiotic resources as suggested by the three SFGs for language, mathematical symbolism and visual display presented in Chapters 3-5, mathematical visual images are typically multisemiotic texts which contain linguistic and symbolic elements in the form of Titles, Labels and Captions. The multisemiotic nature of mathematical visual images are investigated according to metafunction in Sections 5.3-5.6 O'Toole (1994: 24) organizes the systems for paintings according to the representational, modal and compositional metafunctions which correspond to ideational, interpersonal and textual metafunctions in language. The same approach is adopted in Table 5.2(2), which displays the SFG for mathematical visual images. A similar approach for mathematical statistical graphs and biological schematic drawings is adopted by Guo (2004a, 2004b). In Table 5.2(2), the representational metafunction is sub-divided into the experiential and the logical. The metafunctionally organized systems are displayed according to rank and strata: discourse semantics for the Sequence of Graphs/Diagrams/Computer Graphics; grammar with ranks Graphs/Diagrams/Computer Graphics, Episode, Figure, Parts; and the display plane which, following Lim (2002, 2004), is called the 'graphics' plane. The systems for the logical metafunction appear in the discourse and grammar strata at the rank of Graphs/Diagrams/Computer Graphics because logical meaning is seen to primarily arise from sequences of mathematical visual images and interactions of Episodes. The categories for logical meaning are based on Halliday's (1994) system of EXPANSION, that is, elaboration, extension and enhancement. In particular, logical meaning in the form of spatio-temporal relations in visual images is discussed in Section 5.5. The applicability of O'Toole's (1994: 24) framework for displayed art to visual images in mathematics makes sense given the relationships between mathematics and visual art and design from the times of antiquity and the Renaissance to the present. The engagement between mathematics and art includes the mathematicization of the human figure in

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**Table 5.2(2) Grammar and Discourse Systems for Mathematical Visual Images
**

DISCOURSE SEMANTICS SEQUENCE OF GRAPHS/ DIAGRAMS/ COMPUTER GRAPHICS CONCEPTUAL DEVELOPMENT Development of mathematical content through sequences of Episodes, Relations, Figures and Parts LOGICAL RELATIONS EXTENSION in the form of elaboration, extension and enhancement (through multiple TimeFrames) ENGAGEMENT (Inter-Visual Relations) Discourse moves through visual sequence (through repetition and change in Episodes) THEMATIC DEVELOPMENT Textual organization for tracking participants, processes and relations

GRAMMAR Units REPRESENTATIONAL/ EXPERIENTIAL • Display of patterns of relations (as lines, curves and three-dimensional shapes) • Process types: - Relational (graphs of functions) — Transformational x^f^y • Perceptual Reality (for example, geometrical displays) • Mathematical Symbolic Reality (for example, Venn diagrams, data graphs) • Interplay of Episodes • Multiple Time-Frames with Temporal Unfolding through Spatiality • Comparisons of patterns of variation • Circumstance • Dynamic Temporal/Spatial Unfolding (Computer Graphics) INTERPERSONAL COMPOSITIONAL

GRAPHS/ DIAGRAMS/ COMPUTER GRAPHICS (Genre)

• Metaphorical Narrative • Modality and the Degree of Idealization, Abstraction, Quantification • Accompanying text in the form of Caption, Title and Labelling which are emphasized by Size, Positioning, Underlining and Font • Colour • Line Width, Shading, Line Solidarity, Slope, Arrows • Rhythm • Curvature • Perspective • Framing • Style of Production • Nature of participants • Production process • Intricacy of display • Directionality

• Gestalt: Framing, Horizontals, Verticals and Diagonals • Positioning • Perspective (2D, 3D) • Use of Lines and Curves • Inter-connections established through symbolism and language through Labels • Cohesion (Parallelism, Contrast, Rhythm) • Reference through language, symbolism)

Shape. Curves. Labelling. • Portrayal of Process and Position and so forth) Participants (relative • Display of process (Line. Labelling. Prominence. Curves. Dynamics.2(2) . Size and so forth) . Size of Curve) Figure and salient features as displayed by Lines. Intersetion Points • Slope • Stylization • Conventionalization • Labelling of Figure (through symbolism. Colour. Scale. (Size.cont GRAMMAR Units REPRESENTATIONAL/ EXPERIENTIAL INTERPERSONAL COMPOSITIONAL EPISODE LOGICAL RELATIONS • Spatial relations (from Interplay of Episodes) • Temporal relations (Multiple Time-Frames) • Spatial/temporal Relations • Types: Elaboration. Shading. extension and enhancement • Participants • Circumstantial features • Prominence of Figures (Size. Line Width. Positioning. Colour. extension and enhancement • Interplay of Actions or Relations between Figures • Portrayal of process (for example. relation as Curves or Lines) • Prominence of Interplay • Labelling of Interplay (through symbolism. language) Framing. Arrows • Labels • Lines. Colour. Colour. Shadings) FIGURE LOGICAL RELATIONS • Spatial relations (in Episodes) • Spatial/temporal Relations (Multiple Time-Frames) • Types: Elaboration.136 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 5. and marking of Parts) • Textual markedness (through Labelling. Position and so forth) PARTS • Title • Axes. Prominence. Colour. language) • Stylistic Features (Size. Framing.

Shading. it will become apparent that these types of meanings are largely replicated in conventionalized forms of mathematical diagrams and graphs. Abstract graphs are chosen for the analysis as these forms of graphs are central to mathematical descriptions of patterns of variation and. Danaher. Brightness and Hue • Variations in line width. Given the interconnectedness between art and mathematics. the development and use of perspective. Compositional styles of the visual images are conventionalized.2(2) . • Perspective dotted lines and arrows • Cohesiveness and Contrast (through • Variations in font. 'derepresentationalized artistic productions' involving geometric constructions and computer-generated and assisted art (for example.7(la-d)) is also considered.cont DISPLAY 137 GRAPHICS • Variations in line width.2(2) are discussed in relation to the analysis of the abstract mathematical graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5. 1993.2(2) occur.G R A M M A R OF MATHEMATICAL V I S U A L I M A G E S Table 5. and . As mathematical symbolism dispensed with different forms of meaning in the quest to encode and rearrange patterns of relations.2(1). it appears that a similar trend occurred in mathematical visual representations which were designed to function in collaboration with the symbolic descriptions. scripts Colour. Davis. a narrow range of interpersonal meaning. drawn and so forth) terms of proportion. scripts and size • Colour. Emmer. Size and and size so forth) • Colour • Spatial arrangement • Stylization and production (computer generated. a refinement of textual meaning and specific forms of logical meaning. However. dotted lines and arrows • Variations in font. which is aided by the elimination of what is considered to be superfluous contextual information.6. The investigation of the choices in the grammatical systems for mathematical symbolism in Chapter 4 reveals a contraction and simultaneous expansion of experiential meaning. 1997). The SF systems documented in Table 5. The application of the framework for images generated by computer graphics (see Plates 5. these graphs employ unique strategies to encode experiential meaning. In what follows. mathematical visual images developed specific grammatical systems which permit the integration of the symbolism and language with the visual images. The nature of these systems is discussed according to metafunction in Sections 5.3-5. The algebraic form of the derivative is considered in Chapter 4. further to this. 2001. Font. 1994: 167. Field. The dominant metafunction in the visual display is representational (experiential and logical) meaning. These graphs are the geometrical interpretations of the derivative of a function/' (x) as the slope of a curve. overlaps between O'Toole's (1994) systems and those proposed in the SF model for mathematical visual images in Table 5.

interpersonal and compositional meanings through computer graphics are included in the grammar and discourse systems in Table 5. we can now say the following.138 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE "Si Interpretation of the Derivative as the Slope of a Tangent In Section 2. the geometric interpretation of a derivative [as defined by either (2) or (3)] is as shown in Figure 1. Brightness and Hue. The experiential meaning is concerned with the Episodes and relevant Parts of the Figures. Colour. by Definition 2. the derivative of / at a. The systems for representational. 2004b) SFGs for mathematical statistical graphs and biological schematic drawings are first steps in this direction. this is the same as the derivative /'(«). However. FIGURE 1 Geometric interpretation of the derivative = slope of tangent at P = slope of curve at P = slope of tangent at P = slope of curve at P If we use the point-slope form of the equation of a line. the representational meaning is the major function of the mathematical visual display./(a)) whose slope is equal to /'(a).f(a)) to be the line that passes through P and has slope m given by Equation 1.2(1) and Guo's (2004a. the framework is not complete. Since. for example.2(1). In what follows.2(2). Once the viewer's attention is focused on the relevant parts of the mathematics visual image.6 we defined the tangent line to the curve y —f(x) at the point P(a. we can write an equation of the tangent line to the curve y = f(x) at the point («. the metafunctionally based discourse and grammatical systems for visual images in mathematics are discussed through the analysis of Plate 5. In the final section. the computer graphics displayed in Plate 5. and further research is needed to document the systems through which meaning in mathematical images is made. and logical meaning is largely concerned with spatio-temporal relations. 1999: 130) interpersonal meaning is contracted and direct. The tangent line to y — f(x) at (o. Table 5.2(1) Interpretation of the Derivative as the Slope of a Tangent (Stewart. ./(a)) is the line through (a./(«)): y-/(a)=/'(fl)U-fl) Plate 5.7(lc-d) are discussed. Shading. Thus. Computer graphics are contributing to the development of new systems of meaning.

There are two graphs for the two equivalent algebraic forms of the derivative: (a) and In what follows.' In the painting. Light and Perspective: 'The painting has a gentle. The result is not a gentle rhythmic engagement through the subtle use of Rhythm. there is an interplay of modalities with the 'Rhythm changing from episode to episode as our eye moves from right to left across the canvas'. with the placing of fruit. The result is an exquisite unfolding of Botticelli's masterpiece. such as the use of concentric Frames and Colour.2(2). Frame. with the flow of draped clothing. the tilt of her head. O'Toole discusses how the Compositional forces at work. Venus engages the viewer 'directly with her eyes' and 'even signals a greeting or benediction' with 'the gesture of her right hand. undulating rhythm which is in harmony with the graceful gestures and stance of the figures. the choices for interpersonal meaning function directly so that the viewer immediately engages with the significant aspects of the representational meaning of the graph or diagram. As O'Toole (1994: 11) comments. Light and Perspective. Interpersonally. The interpersonal meaning arising from the Sequence of Graphs for (a) and (b) is also examined.f(a)} is displayed in Plate 5. Gaze. at the rank of Work the viewer is presented with a Metaphorical Narrative where the Figure of the Line intersects the Figure of the Curve in Graph (a).3 Interpersonally Orientating the Viewer The choices from the systems for interpersonal function in a visual image determine how the viewer engages with the Work. This feature is functional in mathematical discourse as it enables experienced viewers to immediately apprehend representational meaning of a display and it also lowers the likelihood of misinterpretation.2(1). Similarly. Gaze. Frame. O'Toole (1994: 7). Botticelli's careful choices for individualization of the Figures through Stylization may be contrasted to the uniformity of the mathematical visual images through Conventionalization. for example. the position of other Figures demarcates the centrality of Venus. carefully traces how the viewer becomes involved with Botticelli's Primavera through choices of Rhythm. Rather.2(1) using the SF framework provided in Table 5. the viewer's gaze is also directed to certain aspects of mathematical visual images. also contribute to the viewer's engagement with Venus. however. The interpersonal meaning of traditional mathematical visual images is best examined through an analysis of Plate 5. if the painting is viewed Episode by Episode. The Episode or 'plot' attracts the viewer's attention through the Prominence of the Individual Figures and the Prominence of . The geometrical interpretation of the derivative of the curve y = f(x) as the slope of tangent line at the point P(a.G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L V I S U A L I M A G E S 139 5. Graph (a) is analysed for interpersonal meaning. Further to this. and the poise of her body' (1994: 8). flowers and foliage and with the easily blending colours.

The Modality value is the cultural value assigned to those choices made from the available systems for interpersonal meaning in mathematical graphs. The minor Episodes lack the Prominence of the Interplay of the major Episode as the Colour of the lines is yellow (not displayed here) and the Line Solidarity is dotted rather than solid. The x and y axes provide the visual context for the major and minor Episodes. leading to a maximal truth-value. At the rank of Part. The Episode involving the Line and Curve appears as dynamic because the Interplay is framed by the set of horizontal and vertical axes. which is not prominent because of its Position and close proximity to the Curve. the context is provided by the symbolic and linguistic Caption. . The viewer is also drawn to the critical aspect of the Metaphorical Narrative. Stylization and Conventionalization are standardized through the means of production. respectively Labelled x and y. and a triangle is formed by the horizontal Line Labelled h and the hypotenuse extending from point P. After the initial impact. Captions and Titles of Graphs and Diagrams are typically placed in a prominent position and usually are marked through Size and Font. These minor Episodes function as rankshifted instances of Circumstance in Graph (a). A series of 'minor' Episodes are marked by the dotted vertical Lines positioned above the values a and a + h on the x axis in Graph (a). Apart from this.140 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE the Interplay. These Labels connect the Episodes. the hypotenuse of the triangle is marked by the Colour blue (not displayed here). and the surrounding linguistic text. Closer inspection reveals that the curve is Labelled y—f(x). the Graph appears to have a high degree of certainty as to the correctness of the representational meaning it encodes. the Rhythm achieved through the Slope of the Line and the Curvature of the Curve creates a reading path which initially tends from left to right. These dotted lines intersect the Curve. Figures and Parts to the symbolic and linguistic descriptions appearing in the Captions for Graphs (a) and (b). Abstraction and Quantification are high. In addition. The viewer's attention is also drawn to the Curve through the dynamic aspect of the Curvature. This Label attracts attention through the curved arrow which is used to point directly to the Curve. Labelling and Colour of the Figures and Parts. the point of intersection between the line and the curve which is marked by a dot and Labelled point P in italicized font. Line Width and Line Solidarity. The graph appears to be contextually independent as background information and 'noise' are erased. The Modality and the degree of Idealization. the straight line is 'marked' through the Colour red (not displayed here) and attention is also drawn through the choices for Slope. The graph appears as an abstraction which consists of generalized participants involved in a metaphorically abstract interaction. and attention is drawn to certain parts of the graph through the Title. that is. particularly the 'flourish' at the tail of the curve positioned around the origin of the axes which is marked with the Label '0'. The Style of Production indicates that the graph has been professionally produced through a specialized software application. In other words.

Patterns and Colours. which is concerned with experiential meaning. The important Episodes. which change from a and a + h to a and x. In line and bar graphs. The degree of Abstraction and the level of Intricacy of the figure interacts modally with the Style of Production. Interpersonal meaning is not a delicate balance of a variety of unobtrusive strategies working in harmony as for example. Labelling. Position. The viewer's gaze is also drawn to certain points of the diagram through Perspective. and not on the objective correspondence of the visual image to a reality defined independently of it' (Kress and van Leeuwen. is given prominence through Inter-Visual Relations while the nature of interpersonal meaning is reinforced with the exact repetition of the major Episode. Figures and Parts are explicitly marked through choices for Labels. Parts may be labelled and the Slope may be exaggerated. Figures and . the lack of contextual information. which appears as Circumstance in Graph (a). there is not the same degree of correspondence as portrayed in photographs. Rather the high level of certainty attached to mathematical and scientific representations has been culturally assigned: 'visual modality rests on culturally and historically determined standards of what is real and what is not. the viewer's attention is similarly drawn to salient parts of the visual display through Captions. a minor Episode. The perfection and exactness of the visual displays. 1996: 168). The visual display of information in fields such as advertising. the viewer is engaged directly through certain features such as Shading. While mathematical visual images relate to our perceptual understanding of reality. Framing. the Sequence of Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5.G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L V I S U A L I M A G E S 141 At the rank of discourse semantics.2(1) involves repetition. The reason for marking the prominence of the Circumstance in Graphs (a) and (b) is explained in Section 5. From the analysis of choice from systems for interpersonal meaning in Plate 5. newspaper discourse. In statistical graphs and mathematical diagrams. Line Width. for example. politics and so forth is worthy of further investigation. The 'art' of presenting information lies in making salient particular Parts of the Graph so that the viewer's gaze is directed to those parts of the display. the viewer is explicitly directed to the relevant parts of the visual display through the nature of the interpersonal choices at each rank. Colour. the Modality or the truth-value of the visual image is high. Slope. but this is not because mathematical visual images faithfully depict material 'reality'. Line Width. Size and features such as Colour. Second. The graphs are identical with the exception of the Labels. in O'Toole's (1994) descriptions of the Primavera. experiential and/or composition meaning. three features of mathematical visual images become evident. the Style of Production and the metaphorical and abstract nature of the Episodes. Prominence is achieved through specific choices for interpersonal. Misleading graphs are those which present information in such a fashion that an unwarranted Prominence is attached to particular dimensions of the display.2(1). and h and/( a + K) —f(a) to x— aandf(x) -/(«)• In this way. Shading and Perspective. Line Solidarity and so forth. First.3.

symbolic and visual parts of mathematical discourse. Once the immediate interpersonal impact subsides. 5. which similarly selects for a high value of Modality. The writer directs the reader to certain parts of the graph so that the experiential and logical meanings become the dominant metafunctions once the short. and mathematical symbolic reality in the form of statistical data graphs. This is because the grammar of mathematical visual images is designed to function with the grammars of mathematical symbolism and language. the nature of interpersonal engagement with mathematical visual images is sharp and direct. Attention is directed to salient features of the mathematical visual images and the Titles. The discourse creates a high level of certainty with respect to the representational meaning subsequently realized. The viewer is engaged with the experiential and logical meanings of the graph or diagram which are pre-empted by the selections for interpersonal meaning. Third.142 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE their Parts mean that the certainty of the mathematical and scientific visual images is difficult to counter. the curves. Mathematical visual images are. the abstract graphs of functions and transformations such as those shown in Plate 5. The appearance of certainty in mathematical discourse arises from the nature of the selections for interpersonal and experiential meaning (the narrow range of participant. Mathematical visual images are also concerned with perceptual reality in the form of geometrical displays. Venn diagrams and other forms of diagrams which have no counterpart in the real world. lines and three-dimensional shapes are intuitively accessible. Moving from the interpersonal orientation of mathematical visual images. Labels and Captions.2(1) display patterns of relations as lines. the nature of the experiential meaning is explored with respect to Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5. The conventionality of the visual display allows experienced viewers to . sharp interpersonal impact subsides. For example. process and circumstance selections) and the truth-value which has been culturally accorded to these selections. These patterns of meaning are reinforced across the linguistic. While the form of the display.2(1). it becomes evident in what follows that an understanding of the grammar of mathematical visual images is necessary for a reading of the experiential meaning realized by images. concerned with particular forms of experiential meaning. representational meaning takes over.4 Visual Construction of Experiential Meaning Visual images are typically conceived as dealing with the 'concrete real world' rather than the 'abstract world' of the symbolism (for example. and the social relations which are consequently established between the writer/producer and the viewer are unequal. however. 2002). The interpersonal meaning of the mathematical visual images in fact replicates that found in mathematical symbolism. The reason for this view is that graphs replicate our perceptual experience of the world. curves and threedimensional objects. Galison.

To understand what the graph is depicting. The graph is partly accessible as it replicates our perceptual understanding of spatial relations.2(1) as the 'slope of tangent at P' and 'slope of curve at P\ Figure 1 Caption reads 'Geometric interpretation of the derivative'. for example.2(1) requires a knowledge of the grammar of mathematical visual display and the grammar of mathematical symbolism and the grammar of language./(x) = x3 + 1 or y = x" + 1). In this case. The viewer must also understand the grammar of mathematical abstract graphs. At the rank of Work.2(1) is analysed. for example. The point of intersection arising from the interaction of the two Figures is marked with P. the experiential meaning of Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5. Line and the Axes in Plate 5. are linguistic and symbolic. the Curve y = f(x) and the Line which depicts the Slope of the Curve at point P. Strictly speaking. and this has repercussions for the lengths of the sides of the triangles which are conceptualized as the distance between two points.f(x)) such that/(x) is the value of the function for x.2(1) should also have Arrows to indicate ongoing continuity. The Labels on the Graphs (a) and (b) are symbolic. a + h has been replaced by the general value x. Graphs (a) and (b) each consist of an Episode involving two Figures. However. the Curve. Curve. and the lengths of the sides of the triangle as the distances between two points in the right triangle formed by the line segments. The Line appears in red (in the original version) which compensates for the lack of Labelling. Each value of x corresponds to a value of f(x) which is y. This Part of the Figures is prominent through the marking of the point with a dot and the italicized Label P. The hypotenuse of the right triangle is drawn to form a triangle where the lengths of the other two sides are marked as the distance between two points. the minor Episodes in the form of Circumstance are emphasized with the Labelling of points a and a + h on the x-axis and the distances h and/(a+ h) -/(«) which are marked by curly brackets. In Graph (b). The general values /( a) and /(a + h) are indicated by the dotted vertical line segments which are drawn from a and a + h to intersect the curve y=f(x). In what follows.G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L V I S U A L I M A G E S 143 access the representational meaning of graphs and diagrams at a glance. rather than a specific case (for example. In Graph (a).2(1) remains in generalized form. The Episode is an Interplay of Relations between the two Figures. the x and y axes. Mathematical visual images are multisemiotic texts. The Captions. the Line. the viewer needs to know the definition of the derivative which is given in the symbolic form: (a) and (b) The symbolic forms are re-instated linguistically in Plate 5. the experiential meaning of abstract Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5. The relations captured symbolically appear in the form of a Curve and a . The Curve is the set of ordered pairs (x. Titles and the surrounding co-text. The function f(x) in Plate 5. the Curve in Graph (a) represents the relation obtained by the mapping/: x—*f(x) where y =f(x).

144 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Line in Graph (a). algebraic functional notation. In addition. Moreover. 2 The processes h —> 0 and x —> a unfold. and the graph shows discrete instances of time as the limits h —> 0 and x —> a are . the geometrical interpretation off(x) values. In essence. The Interplay of Episodes and Circumstance result in Multiple Time-Frames with the Temporal Unfolding being realized through Spatiality. Once the limit at point P is reached. and the intersemiotic relations between the three resources. Continuity is made discrete in the form of spatial relations at different points of time. and this dynamism is Framed by the axes x and y. 4 The Line is the tangent line at point P.2(1). the reader must recognize that the graphical display is a partial representation of the pattern of covariation described by f(x). there are Multiple Time-Frames juxtaposed in Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5. realized symbolically as h —> 0 and x —> a in . it represents the mapping/: x —> y. the Graphs depict discrete instances of time for particular values of h and x. symbolic notation and language. The complex of the relations captured by the symbolism is displayed in the form of an entity. this includes the notion of a graph as a set of points. the graph as the set of these mappings. the Curve and the Line which intersect at point P. These time frames are: 1 y—f(x) unfolds as a set of mappings/: x—*y. the tangent line at point P represents the slope of the curve at the point when these limits h —> 0 and x —> a are reached. Variations in temporality. 3 The limit is reached at point P. In the case of Graphs (a) and (b). f(x)). the tangent line may be drawn. Despite appearances. That is. these visual displays may nonetheless appear as fixed entities. and the notion of the tangent as a line which intersects the curve at one point only. The repercussions in terms of logical meaning are discussed in Section 5. The interpretation of experiential meaning in abstract graphs relies on a knowledge of the grammar of mathematical visual display. the curve y = f(x) is dynamic as a set of relations which unfold temporally and spatially. where f(x) is realized through configurations of the rankshifted Operative processes and participants. the algebraic definition of the derivative as a limit.5. Temporal relations are visualized at instances of time in terms of decreasing distances.2(1) are frozen representations of the dynamic processes h —> 0 and x —> a. the Curve. Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5. are given a spatial interpretation in Graphs (a) and (b). While there is an element of dynamism associated with the Curve and the Line. Further to this. the notion of a function as a mapping from x —» f(x). The symbolic description y = f(x) is dynamic. the notion of Cartesian co-ordinates whereby each point of the curve represents an ordered pair (x.

manner). The types of relations are: Additive (addition. The reason for Graph (b) becomes apparent in the linguistic text: Graph (b) establishes the equation of the tangent using the 'point-slope form of the equation of a line' (Stewart. The Inter-Visual Relations between Graphs (a) and (b) repeat the Interplay of Episodes with the exception that Circumstance changes from a and a + h to a and x. does not include a category for spatial relations.2(1) involves Multiple Time-Frames where the temporal unfolding of the processes is given a spatial interpretation at different instances of time.G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L V I S U A L I M A G E S 145 approached. corresponding to the semantics of spatiality. This category. the experiential meaning encoded within the visual display is complex.2(1) represent an instance of time in an unfolding dynamic process as the limits h —> 0 and x —> a are approached. for example. In what follows. That is. concession. which includes the Conceptual Development of the derivative of a function. for example. 'as far as I can see. Plate 5. Circumstance is given prominence. alternation). While the grammar is richer in terms of temporal relations in the form of structural conjunctions and cohesive conjunctive adjuncts (for example. 'there'. The Inter-Visual Relations are significant in accessing the experiential meaning of Plate 5. In this way. that is not possible'. 'then' and 'simultaneously'). however. condition. 5. Comparative (similarity.2(1).5 Reasoning through Mathematical Visual Images Halliday (1994: 328-329) includes a linguistic category for spatial relations in terms of 'extent' and 'place'. 1999: 130). Our perceptual apparatus permits 'logical deductions' based on spatiality to be performed through visual means rather than depending upon formalized linguistic and symbolic selections. reasoning depends on previously established results which are implicit. the grammar of the graph and the relations in the symbolic and linguistic text must be understood. Martin's (1992: 179) classification for logical relations in language. 'as far as' and 'wherever'. 'here'. Temporal (simultaneous. successive) and Consequential (purpose.2(1). the logical meaning of mathematical visual images is discussed in relation to Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5. consequence. To access this experiential meaning. 'and'. 'now'. language did not develop the same potentiality for spatial logical relations. presumably because visual images are functional in this respect. The potential for logical meaning through visual images is discussed below. It becomes apparent that logical meaning based on the semantics of spatiality is only minimally developed in language. Although visual display in mathematics is more intuitive than the symbolic descriptions. also functions as a rhetorical organizing device rather than a direct reference to actual space or place. . 'next'. The meaning of visual images replicates that found in mathematical symbolism. The experiential meaning also depends on previously established mathematical results which have been derived symbolically and visually. contrast). Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5.

The visual display encodes a multidimensional Time-Frame. Consider the temporal frameworks represented in Graph (a): y =f(x) as a mapping/: x —> y. O'Toole (1994: 22) explains: 'decisions [in paintings] about the arrangement of forms within the pictorial space. and also permit the manipulation of visual patterns in ways previously unimaginable. as afforded by computer graphics. the graph is used to reason with. displayed as lengths of sides of the triangle. have been made by the artist in order to convey more effect- . 5. Thus the distance between the two points. Graph (a) encodes logical meaning in terms of temporal relations which are expressed visually as spatial relations. however. the reaching of that limit at point P. logical and interpersonal meaning in mathematical visual images is considered. The logical inference is that as h —> 0. the limit as h —» 0. The visual image. The potential for logical reasoning using computer graphics is explored in Section 5. The nature of this relationship permits logical meaning in Graph (a) in the form of elaborative type relations ('in other words' becomes 'in other pictures'). and the slope of the curve at the point P which is represented by the tangent line.6 Compositional Meaning and Conventionalized Styles of Organization The textual organization of the mathematical visual images is conventionalized in order to permit the viewer to engage immediately with the experiential and logical meaning which is encoded in precise and exact form. once the limit is reached at point P. and causal relations (cause in terms of reason 'so').146 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE This is only ascertainable from the linguistic Caption which explains that the derivative is given by (a) and (b) The symbolism captures the process of the derivative as the result of a limiting process. approaches zero over time. The dynamic displays of the digital medium encode temporal relations through an unfolding spatial form. The logical relation across Graphs (a) and (b) takes the form of causal relations 'therefore' to establish the equation of the tangent line in point-slope form. In other words. In the next section. a + h moves towards the value a over time with the result that the spatial distance h approaches zero.7. additive type relations ('this and this'). The dynamic unfolding of the process. Graphs (a) and (b) also depict the final result of that limiting process: the tangent at point P. the temporal relations have a spatial dimension in Graphs (a) and (b). makes the ability to reason perceptually even more encompassing. Furthermore. about line and rhythm and colour relationships. Therefore. gives a spatial interpretation of that limiting relation at an instance of time. the tangent line as the slope of the curve at that point appears. compositional meaning in terms of the organization of experiential. The graph thus contains a visualspatial interpretation of relations over time.

At the rank of Work. Graphs (a) and (b) are organized through Labels which form Cohesive links to the main body of the text. Inter-Visual Relations later establish the Line in Graphs (a) and (b) (which represents the derivative as the tangent of the curve at point P) as the instantaneous rate of change (Stewart. and Balance is achieved through these spatial positions and the curvature of the Curve. 1999: 132). the compositional meaning of Graphs (a) and (b) in Plate 5. and diagonal alignments visually trace trends in the data and in bar and line graphs. the interpersonal meaning is direct. The Conventionalization of visual images in mathematics is significant in establishing such Inter-Visual Relations. the experiential meaning of each point of the Curve corresponds exactly to its spatial location with respect to the x and y axes. The steeper the Slope of the Line. That is. and they involve direct repetition of the Metaphorical Narrative. Labels are attached to the major participants and circumstance as discussed above. These axes contribute to the stability of the visual display. There is maximum Cohesion arising from the explicit ordering of each Part of Graphs (a) and (b). the greater the rate of change.G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L V I S U A L I M A G E S 147 ively and more memorably the represented subject and to make for a more dynamic modal relation with the viewer'. 1994: 23). The Curve and the Line are perfectly Positioned against the backdrop of the x and y axes. thus attracting the viewer's attention. Inter-Visual Relations are established through the spatial position and organization of Graphs (a) and (b). the two graphs are placed next to each other. At the ranks of Figure and Part. As may be seen in Plate 5.2(1). Figures and Parts. there is an exact relationship between compositional and experiential meaning of the Figures in abstract graphs. The Curve and Lines appear as dynamic elements in the visual display because they are diagonally positioned. the derivative/' (x) as Slope of the tangent Line as the instantaneous rate of change at point P is compositionally organized to correspond to perceptual reality.2(1) is discussed. With mathematical visual images. where the Episode is Framed by the x and y axes. Diagonal elements are similarly formed by perspective in geometrical representations. Episodes. The Slope of the Line is conventionalized to correspond to the semiotics of physical/psychological perception. the narrow range of interpersonal meanings is accompanied by unambiguously encoded experiential meanings in condensed format in mathematical visual images. The Work is the Graphs (a) and (b). At the rank of Figure and Parts. In Graphs (a) and (b). . A small change in x produces a large positive or negative change in y. and thus the gradient of the tangent. Gestalt is the term used for the complex relations between a whole visual image and its parts: ' "Gestalt theory" claims that we always have an overall perception of forms and objects and that when we focus on their parts we perceive them in relation to the whole' (O'Toole. and this engagement is aided by the compositional arrangement of the Work. As with mathematical symbolism. At the rank of Episode. the Interplay is explicitly marked through the Label for point P. In what follows.

or interactive user interfaces' (GroB. computer graphics is denned as ' "the pictorial synthesis of real or imaginary objects from their computer based models" and covers working areas like rendering. This means that Positioning. experiential. animation. Davis (1974: 115-116) predicted the resurgence of the visual image in mathematics through the development of computer graphics. 1990: 23—24).148 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E Compositionally. The resulting Curve or Line is the set of all such 'points' in the mappings /: x —> y. logical and compositional meaning in mathematical visual images is incomplete as only abstract graphs are considered. Often the visual image is consulted before the viewer attends to the symbolic and linguistic parts of the mathematics text.7 Computer Graphics and the New Image of Mathematics The influence of computers is such that they have given rise to 'a new world view which regards the physical world not as a set of geometrical harmonies. The other relevant process is 'image processing'. Size and Shape of the Figure are determined by the Scale selection on the axes. . and the patterns are immediately ascertained. scientific visualization. The impact of increased computational ability is discussed in relation to the revolution which is taking place through computer graphics. The analysis of interpersonal. The visual image plays an increasingly important role in different branches of mathematics. (1990). Mathematical visual images also include numerous other genres in the forms of statistical graphs. which deals with 'the management. diagrams and other forms of visual display in the form of computer-generated dynamic images. Following Foley et al. Choices of compositional meaning for the organization of the mathematical visual images function alongside selections for interpersonal meaning to direct the viewer to the significant parts of the visual text. In what follows. and this is indeed proving to be the case. One outstanding feature of the shift to computation is the ability of computers to generate. the placement of a point is exactly determined by the x co-ordinate value and the y co-ordinate value. coding. but as a computational process' (Davies. In terms of the display stratum. compositional meaning is aided by Perspective. Colour and Spatial Arrangement. The visualization process consists of 'the transformation of numerical data from experiments or simulation [via mathematical models] into visual information' (Grave and Le Lous. Experiential meaning is efficiently encoded. Spatial Position has been connected to experiential meaning in terms of sets of co-ordinates. graphics in documents. 1994: 2). as evidenced in the modelling of non-linear dynamical systems. represent and manipulate the numerical results as dynamic visual patterns which unfold over time. the general nature of images realized through computer graphics is discussed. that is. nor as a machine. 1994: 12). and the implications for a changing role of visualization in mathematics through the medium of computer technology are considered. 5.

multidimensional images of motion. meteorology and engineering). fractals and so forth have also rapidly moved into highly developed computer systems for military and industrial applications. isolation and understanding of information about our environment. However. Vision provides a global reception of coloured shapes against a changing. As Colonna (1994: 184) explains: Vision is the most highly developed of our human senses for reception. and noise-filled background. moving. especially in the field of three-dimensional images (Danaher. Davis..7 (Ic) (reproduced in black and white here) represent an entirely new 'image' of Newton's method for finding the solution to equations. more emphasis has been placed on visual analysis tools for understanding computer simulations of complex phenomena' (Watson and Walatka. topological problems). for example. in applied mathematics. Software programs encode the data displayed visually on the computer screen.7 (la-d).G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L V I S U A L I M A G E S 149 and manipulation of images. geology. Mathematical ideas such as interpolation. The increasing sophistication of computer graphics may be appreciated through the images from the 1970s to the present which are displayed in Plates 5. the visualization of large data sets (for example. For example. 1974): 'Over the last 20 years. Humans cannot process the information at the same rate if presented with the symbolic output generated by supercomputer simulations or high-powered scientific instruments. 1994: 7). The idea of using the eye as the main tool in the analysis of numerical results is therefore quite natural. 2001. approximation with polynomials. and the reconstruction of 3D objects from their 2D projectional presentations' (GroB. and visualizations and reconstructions in medicine and biology (for example. Computer graphics are leading to new insights of complex mathematical problems (for example. and the coloured images and the textured surfaces of the three-dimensional graphs in Plate 5. the creation of threedimensional objects.7 (Id) (reproduced in black and white) illustrate the detail now possible in computer-generated images. the analysis of scenes. the construction of view-dependent visualizations. Computer graphics are increasingly being used for a range of functions. see Moorhead et al. 1994: 2). Computer graphics have developed from pictures consisting of (i) predominately lines and (ii) patterns arising from arrays of dots to (iii) coloured kaleidoscope images of complex patterns and (iv) displays that replicate the detailed intricacy of photographs. computer graphics have resulted in the growth of computer art and animated film. In addition. all phases of film production have been . the coloured fractal patterns in Plate 5. the symbolic still presides over the visual in higher dimensional mathematical theories. The increased applications of computer graphics in applied mathematics and science for the interpretation of complex data sets relate to human capabilities of seeing visual patterns: 'Because visual analysis techniques are particularly well suited to the human cognitive capabilities. 2002).

Strauss) (Davis. M.7(la) Stills from a computer-made movie: wrapping a rectangle to form a torus (Courtesy T. Banchoff and C. 1974: 126) .150 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 5.

G R A M M A R OF MATHEMATICAL V I S U A L IMAGES 151 Plate 5. Colonna (1994) suggests that the notion of experiment rather than proof is more relevant in relation to computer graphics. 2001:26). The computerized numerical approach entails generating and visualizing numerical . are difficult to capture analytically.). Whether what is suggested visually requires symbolic proof 'seems to depend on the particular mathematical culture within which the pictures have been derived' (ibid. theorem and proof of "the perceived type" ' (ibid. is automatically and without further ado a definition. simple chaotic systems.7(lb) MATLAB graphics. The traditional approach based on 'real experimentation' involves finding analytical or symbolic solutions to the model equations constructed from experimental data in order to explain the behaviour of physical systems. for example. together with its rule of generation. will become acceptable in mathematics: 'A figure.: 122). Images generated through software programs are seen as tools for 'virtual experimentation' in a computerized environment. However. where the traditional form of proof is not required. Davis (2003) sees that this trend has yet to develop to its full potential. Davis) changed by computer technology' especially postproduction which has 'been transformed by computer-generated imagery ("CGI")' (Bordell and Thompson. Davis (1974) suggested that 'visual theorems'. circa 1985 (courtesy of Philip J.

(Gleick.152 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 5.7(lc) The Complex Boundaries Of Newton's Method. 1987: insert) .

GRAMMAR OF MATHEMATICAL VISUAL IMAGES 153 Plate 5. 2003: 194) .7(ld) Graphical and Diagrammatic Display of Patterns (Berge at al.

the data is distilled into generalized mathematical models which are solved and visualized. . . . the various components 'come together to create a useful whole. 2001. 1997). Hue.: 184). paper. and picture synthesis all work together to form a scientific instrument. New scientific methods arising from computer graphics may extend beyond those suggested by Colonna (1994: 191). the scientist. the numerical calculations. This led to a de-contextualization and reduction of the complexity of the phenomenon under study: 'The strength and novelty of seventeenth century science.: 183-184). rather than finding an analytical solution to the model equations: 'Virtual experimentation. transformation and various other forms of manipulation. Computer technology extends the meaning potential of mathematics in the digitalized medium. which has historically been limited to the pen. therefore. for example. numerical calculation. visualizations of the continuous patterns of relations have the advantage that they encode spatial and temporal dimensions. Following this. the patterns are generated with minimal effort. As others have pointed out: Scientific visualization is the art of making the unseen visible1 (ibid. Levkowitz. New systems of meaning such as Colour Saturation. The semiotic in question is now the visual rather than the symbolic code. In addition. However. and the displayed images form a feedback loop through which the complex behaviour of the simulated system is explored' (ibid. the printing press and three-dimensional mathematical models.' (ibid. may be generated: 'Complex forms will become distinct and the scientist may be able to ascertain a hidden order in the numerical results. While static forms of graphs and diagrams in handwritten and print format have been time-consuming to produce. The development of mathematics is tied to the available technology. The visual image has thus evolved into a dynamic display that can be easily manipulated in the same way that symbolic mathematics developed to be the semiotic that could be rearranged in print format. connection.: 184). The new functions of computer graphics arises from the expanded meaning potential afforded by these forms of visual image and the ease with which patterns can be generated. The researcher can change the parameters or request different views of the numerical results to explore the behaviour of the system: 'The researcher. .154 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE solutions. . the experiment). rather than traditional point-by-point descriptions. This statement echoes Newton's efforts at making the invisible 'visible' through mathematical descriptions. Through juxtaposition.: 184-185). rearranged and combined. assumes that the underlying analytical models of the simulation are correct. Shading and Brightness are playing an important role in computer-generated images (Danaher. computer-generated visual images now encode dynamic representations with minimal effort. Traditionally data is first filtered through the lens of numerical quantification (through. Colonna (1994) sees 'picture synthesis' as a scientific tool where coloured global patterns. and explores the range of behaviours produced by that model' (ibid.

In order to make logical connections in what is seen to be a 'valid proof in mathematics. rearranged and thus used to establish mathematical results in much the same way that symbolism evolved to do. 'if this'. and reasoning can take place visually through the dimensions of space and time. extension-type relations (additative. The mathematician is no longer working as someone deprived of the use of sight. language and mathematical symbolism have formalized 'intuition' through the development of systems for logical meaning. 1986: 75). this semiotic resource may be seen to offer more than an intuitive understanding of the phenomena and a means for experimentation and synthesis. 'then this'). The significant aspect of the digital computerization process is that visual images may be reconfigured in forms which unfold dynamically as a sequence of steps over time rather than a static display where instances of time are displayed discretely. the complexity of data can more easily be maintained in a computerized 'virtual' world. mathematical visual displays may be synthesized. The linguistic and symbolic function to impose order. the part that is significant in mathematics. While this contribution is extremely productive for insights into the nature of the mathematics problem.G R A M M A R OF M A T H E M A T I C A L V I S U A L I M A G E S 155 both theoretical and experimental. and one major contribution to that order. In addition. reasoning is established in a step-by-step fashion through choices from the available linguistic and symbolic systems (for example. which may develop further grammatical systems for encoding meaning. was in its capacity to take things out of context and analyze their relations in ideal isolation' (Funkenstein. Spatial and temporal dynamics are afforded through digital encoding of information in a computerized environment. The potential for logical meaning in digitalized images is further considered below. The dependence on the grammar of mathematical symbolism (which evolved from the grammatical systems of language) is supplemented with visual forms of semiosis. a mathematical proof is considered to be 'a sequence of steps or statements . Computer graphics may evolve formal systems for reasoning. However. A sequence is seen to be necessary for logical reasoning. Now visual images in the form of computer graphics possess an added potential for sequential processing. rather being based on the ordering of space and time through language and symbolism.and spatio-temporal-type relations). Language and mathematical symbolism possess systems for logical meaning in the form of elaboration-type relations (re-statement in the form of apposition or clarification). A graph can be seen as an unfolding of relations through time and space on a computer screen. The difference is that computer graphics combine spatiality and temporality. is logical reasoning. The intuition arises naturally as the visual image relates to our perceptual understanding of the world. Mathematical symbolism developed grammatical strategies to ensure that logical sequences could unfold progressively with ease.and variation-type relations) and enhancement-type relations (predominantly causal-conditional. Indeed. As visual images increasingly take their place alongside mathematical symbolism.

it becomes clear that the powerful drive towards images and the equally forceful pressure towards analysis never completely stabilized scientific practice. such step-by-step reasoning may be possible using visual images which have the potential to unfold sequentially over time. . we see that the image itself is constantly in the process of fragmenting and re-configuring . If so. Galison (2002: 321-322). points out that the divide between the analytic and the visual is not so marked in a computerized environment: [i] t may be that the most significant development in the laboratory of the last fifty years has been the fusion of pictures and numbers into the production of the manipulable image. The image is no longer the traditional frozen snapshot such as those displayed in the visualization of the derivative as the tangent to the slope of line in Plate 5. data gather into images. Traditional static visual images (such as those found in mathematics books) are limited compared to the potential of the dynamic and interactive complexity of computer graphics. . 'Just as the microscope showed us the "infinitely small" and the telescope showed us the "infinitely large".156 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE that establish the truth of a proposition' (Wilkes. It remains to be seen if computer graphics will lead to the development of formalized systems for logical meaning in the grammar of the visual semiotic. the visual semiotic will possess an important advantage over the traditional semiotic resources of language and mathematical symbolism: computer graphics can display continuous spatial-temporal patterns of variation. so the computer will enable us to regard . Controllable digitized images were built by computers from statistics and formed into pictorial renditions of non-visible worlds . After tracking the endless drive back and forth between images and data. but one may predict with some degree of confidence that the functions of graphical visual images will increase. . The impact of this change remains to be seen. The development of formal systems for logical meaning in visual images may not be so far-fetched. . Our perceptual apparatus lets us perceive patterns. but temporal. as evidenced by the rapid development of software programs and increased use of computer visualization across many disciplines and fields of study. .and cause-effect-type relations have been formalized using language and mathematical symbolism. ever more intensively. now.' The continuous oscillation between visual and symbolic forms of display for digitalized data described by Galison may contribute to the development of grammatical systems for logical meaning in visual images. Quite the contrary. . . . Instead . for instance. every-day science propels this incessant oscillation: 'Images scatter into data. With the advent of computer graphics. however. 1986: 1225). the routinization of analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions have made the flickering exchanges routine: image to non-image to image . Mathematical visual images are becoming increasingly functional alongside symbolic descriptions of patterns of relations. neither the 'pictorialrepresentative' nor the 'analytical-logical' exist as fixed positions.2(1). Mathematical proof is thus equated to what can be achieved using language and mathematical symbolism.

experiment. visual images and mathematical symbolism are investigated. The functionality of mathematical discourse does not only stem from accessing the three individual meaning potentials of language. that which can be perceived. smell and taste. manipulate and synthesize four dimensions of experience: three-dimensional spatial world and one-dimensional temporal world to create a dynamic rendition of real and imagined worlds. Rather. Both real and imagined realities can now be modelled and experienced. A variety of software applications which can recreate perceived reality in space and time are already available as documented by Danaher (2001) in the recent book Digital 3d Design. The 'newer richer' way suggested by Colonna arises in computerized environments through the capacity to model. . mathematical symbolism and visual images. Indeed 'reality' undergoes a transformation from 'real'. such as touch.G R A M M A R OF MATHEMATICAL V I S U A L IMAGES 157 our world in a new. the process where new meanings arise integratively through transitions from one semiotic resource to another. richer way' (Colonna. In what follows. Typically. Chapters 6 and 7 are concerned with intersemiosis. This recreation takes place on the two-dimensional computer screen. and the purposes for which the reconstructions of reality are employed. virtual reality has the potential to incorporate other dimensions for semiotic input. the functionality of mathematics also arises from intersemiosis between the three resources and the metaphorical construals which take place intersemiotically. complexity and context (which are excluded in traditional approaches) to be incorporated for a more comprehensive understanding of 'reality'. This will depend on the functions which are assigned to computerized medium. The implications of this semiotic reordering of the world remain to be seen. advances made for the purposes of military concerns feed back into useful applications for other fields of human endeavour. 1994: 191). to 'abstract'. Computerized environments have the potential to move beyond that perceivable and conceivable by the human senses. that which can be imagined. and the resultant meaning expansions across language. In addition. The modelling process in a computerized environment permits noise. the nature of intersemiotic mechanisms and systems.

Traditional mathematical descriptions break down. the symbolism and the visual image may be summarized as follows. These calculations and descriptions take place in digitalized form through the use of computers. Visual Images and Symbolism 6. The functions of language. when the behaviour of the physical systems become non-linear and chaotic. Visual images in the form of abstract and statistical graphs. The symbolism has limited functionality. so that language functions as the meta-discourse to contextualize the problem. however. or meaning within the systems which constitute the grammar . The metafunctionally based SFGs for language. show the relations in a spatio-temporal format which involve multi-dimensional time-frames. the traditional role assigned to the mathematical visual image is changing with the increasing power of computers to generate and manipulate complex dynamic visual patterns. symbolism and visual images are integrated in such a way that the behaviour of physical systems may be described. to explain the activity sequence which is undertaken for the solution to the mathematics problem. however. and to discuss the implications of the results which are established. mathematical symbolism and visual display in Chapters 3-5 provide the basis for the discussion of intrasemiosis. In practice. geometrical diagrams. the entire system must be understood rather than the constituent parts.6 Intersemiosis: Meaning Across Language. and other types of diagrams and forms of visual display. such as those generated through computer graphics. diagrams and.1 The Semantic Circuit in Mathematics Language. Mathematical discourse is effective because the systems of meaning for language. computer graphics have together created a discourse which has transformed the face of the world. more recently. In such cases. mathematical symbolism and visual images in the form of graphs. if technology is considered to be the direct result of mathematics and science. Patterns of relations are encoded and rearranged symbolically for the solution to the problem. this means that the variety of constraints and conditions must be taken into account in order to effectively model and predict the behaviour of the system. As discussed in Chapter 5.

must also be considered.INTERSEMIOSIS 159 of each resource. visual images and mathematical symbolism are called 'Items'. stretches of linguistic text and the symbolic equations. The SF framework adopted for the analysis of mathematics texts is displayed in Table 6. in press a. grammar and display strata. maps and other forms of drawings. are multisemiotic. The resultant meaning potential of mathematics therefore stretches beyond that possible through the sum of the three resources. Following this view. the meaning arising across semiotic choices. genre and ideology of mathematical discourse are considered in Chapter 7. Therefore semiotic transitions. in press b. for instance). mathematical symbolism and visual display are organized to facilitate intersemiosis are explored in this chapter. 2001. tables. grammar and display strata both within and across elements in the text. the success of mathematics as a discourse stems from the fact that it draws upon the meaning potentials of language. The Items are not called 'genres' because the use of this term is reserved for the communication plane which is concerned with the goals and cultural context of the entire mathematics text. occur according to the required functions at the different stages of the text. and elements within that text (mathematical graphs and the symbolic derivations to problems. symbolism and visual images function together in mathematical discourse to create a semantic circuit which permits semantic expansions beyond that conceivable through the individual contributions. the discourse. 2002) refers to intersemiosis as 'intersemiotic complementarity' where Visual and verbal modes semantically complement each other to produce a single textual phenomenon' (Royce. 1999. 2004. As Royce and also Lemke (1998b) explain. the product is 'synergistic' or 'multiplicative' in that the result is greater than the sum of the parts. grammar and display systems for each resource have evolved to function as interlocking system networks rather than isolated phenomena. or movements between the semiotic resources. 1998b. Following Kok (2004). The expansions in meaning arising from intersemiosis in mathematics are investigated at the discourse. Baldry and Thibault. elements in mathematical texts which function as discernible units through systematic choices from the grammars of language. which result in phases and sub-phases where there is a change in the semantic input from one or more of the semiotic resources (Baldry. in press. These include graphs. The mathematics text. However. 1998b: 26).1 (1). The register. diagrams. The ways in which the grammars of language. Language. The analysis of mathematical discourse therefore needs to take into account the meaning arising from intersemiosis at discourse. . The three semiotic resources fulfil different functions as the mathematics text unfolds. visual images and the symbolism in very specific ways. as well as photographs. Royce (1998a. the three separate grammars are not sufficient for the analysis of mathematical discourse because intersemiosis. That is. ledema (2003: 30) refers to the transition process as 'resemioticization' or the translations from one semiotic resource into others as social processes unfold. Transitions are a feature of everyday dynamic discourse.

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**Table 6.1(1) SF Model for Mathematical Discourse
**

IDEOLOGY GENRE REGISTER CONTENT (Items)

INTERSEMIOSIS

LANGUAGE MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM

MATHEMATICAL VISUAL IMAGES

OTHERS ITEMS

Discourse Semantics

Text

Inter-statemental relations

Inter-Visual Relations Work/Genre

Grammar

Clause complex Clause Word Group/ Phrase Word

Statements Clause Expressions Components

Episode Figure Parts

For example: Photographs Maps Drawings ThreeDimensional Models Equipment and so forth

DISPLAY

INTERSEMIOSIS

Graphology and Typography

Materiality

Thibault, 2000). For example, television advertisements combine the dynamic visual image, gesture, music, sound and spoken and written language into interwoven phases which favour metafunctional input from one semiotic resource over another. Baldry and Thibault (Baldry and Thibault, in press b; Thibault, 2000) investigate how different types of transitions give rise to phasal shift in video texts. However, transitions are not always clear cut as phases and sub-phases merge and blend in what amounts to an orchestral organization of semiosis.

INTERSEMIOSIS

161

Modern mathematics developed as a written discourse, and so the intersemiotic shifts or transitions are deliberate and 'calculated' to fulfil the required functions of the text at different stages. The increasing use of computers and computerized mathematics, however, is changing the static nature of semiosis which takes place in written mathematics. There is an increasing drive towards computation where the results of the numerical calculations are displayed visually through sophisticated software programs. Intersemiosis in mathematics may be viewed as a musical score, but one that is increasingly played in a computerized environment. The shift to the electronic medium is changing the nature of the theory and practice of mathematics, especially in the field of applied mathematics. However, the discussion presented here is concerned with intersemiosis in written mathematical texts. The analysis of the written format permits us to appreciate how language, visual images and the symbolism developed as integrated systems to create modern mathematical discourse. Despite advances in computerized mathematics, the three resources remain the primary tools for meaning in mathematics. Transitions are seen to take two forms in written mathematics. Macrotransitions occur at the rank of discourse, where Items which consist of predominantly one semiotic resource give way to Items consisting of another semiotic resource; for example, language to visual images (graph) to symbolism (symbolic solution to the problem) back to language. Macrotransitions are conceptualized as discourse moves across Items in the mathematics text. Theoretically speaking, the reading path of the text results from such discourse moves. In practice, readers scan multisemiotic mathematical texts to ascertain the important information according to their own requirements. On the other hand, micro-transitions in mathematics texts occur at the rank of grammar where functional elements of one resource are contained within Items which primarily consist of another resource; for example, symbolic elements appear in the graphs, and linguistic elements appear in the symbolic statements. More generally, macrotransitions involve discourse moves to access the meaning potential of a semiotic resource, while micro-transitions take place constantly because of the integrated grammars for language, mathematical symbolism and the visual image where it is possible to embed functional elements from one semiotic resource within a different semiotic resource. That is, microtransitions are the result of the interlocking nature of the system networks for the three resources. As seen in Sections 6.3 and 6.4, micro-transitions aid macro-transitions or discourse moves to another Item in the mathematics text. The nature of the macro- and micro-transitions for intersemiosis in mathematical discourse depends upon the metafunctional requirements at different stages in the text and the available choices in the discourse, grammatical and display systems. Regardless of the organization of the mathematics text and the explicit choices marking the transitions which should take place, often the reader will examine the diagram or graph and

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the mathematical equations independently; for example, before reading the linguistic text. The reading path is conceptualized as a recursive scanning process rather than the sequential path determined by the compositional organization of the mathematics text. The use of Caption, Titles and Labels aids this scanning process through the spatial separation and foregrounding of significant Items, such as the symbolic descriptions and the visualization of relations. The resulting recursive path depends on the needs and experience of the reader. As mathematical texts typically unfold in a non-sequential fashion, macro-transitions therefore are not always operational in practice. Intersemiotic transitions in mathematics offer the opportunity for metafunctional choices in system networks across the three semiotic resources to combine in new ways across different strata. For example, choices from system networks for experiential meaning in language and symbolism may combine with choices for interpersonal meanings in visual images. For instance, 'the derivative/' (a)' is drawn as two red lines in the original version of Figure 4 reproduced in Plate 6.3(2). The colour red in the visual image functions interpersonally to give salience to the experiential meaning of the derivative as a geometrical entity. One dimension of the 'multiplication of meaning' which takes place in mathematics arises from the combinations of system choices from different semiotic resources across different strata. The metafunctionally based systems for the three resources permit a range of different combinations. The number of possible intersemiotic relations or combinations increases with the number of semiotic resources which are involved. Mathematics thus succeeds through utilizing the meaning potential of language, visual images and the symbolism and the meanings which arise through intersemiosis. Significantly, intersemiotic shifts in mathematical discourse also permit metaphorical expansions of meaning beyond those which can occur within any one semiotic resource. The metaphorical nature of meaning expansion is considered in relation to the concept of semiotic metaphor in Section 6.5. These key ideas concerning intersemiosis in mathematics are developed through the notions of macro-transitions across Items and microtransitions within those Items. However, the strategies or mechanisms through which intersemiosis takes place need to be extended beyond the notion of transition. Thus, in addition to Semiotic Transition, intersemiotic mechanisms are conceptualized as Semiotic Cohesion, Semiotic Mixing, Semiotic Adoption and Juxtaposition in Section 6.2. In addition, semiotic metaphor accounts for the metaphorical meaning expansions which occur during transitions. This list of intersemiotic mechanisms is not exhaustive; on the contrary, further research is needed to understand how meaning expansion takes place intersemiotically. In what follows, previous approaches to the study of intersemiosis are discussed in order to contextualize what are conceived to be four main issues pertaining to intersemiosis in mathematics, namely: (i) the mechanisms for intersemiosis; (ii) the metafunctionally based systems at the discourse, grammar and

INTERSEMIOSIS

163

display strata through which intersemiosis takes place; (iii) the semantics of intersemiosis; and (iv) the metaphorical expansions which take place in the form of semiotic metaphors. 6.2 Intersemiosis: Mechanisms, Systems and Semantics The underlying principle for the integration of semiotic resources in Thibault's (2000) theoretical framework for the transcription and analysis of television advertisements is metafunctional salience where meanings arising from choices from different resources function to contextualize each other. Thibault (2000: 362) explains that it is 'on the basis of cocontextualizing relations that meaning is created'. In order to analyse a dynamic multimodal text such as the television advertisement, Thibault segments the text in phases and sub-phases: 'A discoursal phase, following Gregory (1995, 2002), is a set of co-patterned semiotic selections that are co-deployed in a consistent way over a given stretch of text' (Thibault, 2000: 325-326). Thibault (2000: 325-326) deals with the complexity of multiple forms of dynamic semiosis through a transcription table where phases and metafunctional salience are marked in what is a seminal effort at handling the complexity of the integration of multiple semiotic resources. This approach is further developed into multimodal concordancing of patterns arising from different types of transitions (Baldry, 2004, in press; Baldry and Thibault, 2001, in press b). Lim (2004) conceptualizes the expanded meaning arising from intersemiosis as the 'Space of Integration' (Sol) in the Integrative Multisemiotic Model (IMM). The Sol is designed to capture the meanings which arise through the interaction between language and visual images. Royce (1998a, 1998b, 1999, 2002) formulates this space as the 'intersemiotic complementarity' between language and visual images: 'They [the visual images and language] work together to produce a coherent multimodal text for the viewers and readers, a text characterised by intersemiotic complementarity (Royce, 2002: 193). Royce (1998b) identifies a number of intersemiotic semantic mechanisms through which image and language orchestrate the meaning of a text in the analytical metafunctionally based framework reproduced in Table 6.2(1). Royce (1998b, 2002) adopts Halliday (1994) and Halliday and Hasan's (1976, 1985) categories of lexical cohesion to account for ideational meaning arising in a multimodal text. Royce's categories include intersemiotic repetition, synonymy, antonymy, meronymy, hyponymy and collocation across visual and verbal codes. For interpersonal meaning, Royce (1998b) is concerned with the relations established between the reader/viewer and the text through MOOD and MODALITY which function to reinforce address and attitudinal congruence or dissonance. In relation to textual or compositional meaning, the layout and composition through information value, salience, framing, inter-visual similarity and reading paths are considered. Royce attempts the difficult task of mapping intersemiotic

164 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Table 6. Royce (1998b: 29) META-FUNCTION Visual Meanings Intersemiotic Complementarity Various lexico-semantic ways of relating the experiential and logical content or subject matter represented or projected in both visual and verbal modes through the intersemiotic sense relations of: • Repetition • Synonymy • Antonymy • Meronymy • Hyponymy • Collocation Various ways of intersemiotically relating the reader/ viewer and the text through MOOD and MODALITY through intersemiotic semantic relations of: • Reinforcement of address • Attitudinal Congruence • Attitudinal Dissonance Verbal Meanings IDEATIONAL Variations occur according to the Coding Orientation. and interpersonal dimensions of MOOD . In the Naturalistic Coding we can look at: • Address to the viewer • Level of Involvement of viewer • Power relations between the viewer and the represented participants • Social Distance between viewer and represented participants • Modality — believability or acceptability of the portrayal Variations in visual meanings occur according to choices made in: • Information Value intra-visual placement • Visual Salience • Framing of Visual elements Lexical items which relate to the visual meanings. These lexical items arise according to: • Identification (participants) • Activity (processes) • Circumstances • Attributes INTERPERSONAL Elements of the clause as exchange which relate to visual meanings.2(1) Analytical Framework for Visual-Verbal Intersemiotic Complementarity. These arise according to: • The MOOD element in the clause realizing speech function • The MODALITY features of the clause • Attitude . accompaniment and setting • Attributes of represented participants Variations occur according to the Coding Orientation.use of attitudinal adjectives TEXTUALCOMPOSITION Various ways of mapping The body copy (verbal the modes to realize a element) as an coherent layout or orthographic whole composition by: realized by various • Information Valuation typographical on the page conventions: • General Typesetting • Salience on the page • Copyfitting • Degree of framing of • Other Typesetting elements on the page Techniques • Inter-visual synomymy • Also: Theme/Rheme. In the Naturalistic Coding we can look at: • Identification of represented participants • Activity portrayed • Circumstances of the mean. • Reading paths Given/New Structures expansions across visual and verbal elements by proposing mechanisms for meaning expansion that largely depend upon linguistic conceptions such as those proposed for cohesion.

The second issue . For example. From this perspective. the two resources share cocontextualizing relations.3-6. the systems for language and other semiotic resources have the potential to function intersemiotically. The four major issues in relation to intersemiosis in mathematics are displayed in Figure 6. The options within the system networks for the three resources function intrasemiotically as closed systems in theory only. 2004: 239). and the implications of those semantic reconstruals. Cheong (1999. CP 'refers to the degree/extent to which the linguistic items contextualize the meaning of the visual images' (Cheong. The mechanisms reside within and across the systems for language. Royce's analytical framework provides a point of departure for the description of intersemiotic mechanisms which extend beyond those proposed for language and visual images. which results in the Semantic Effervescence (SE) of the text. their semantic relationship is one that creates divergence or dissonance. and the implications of those contextualizing relations. Two types of contextualizing relations are proposed: 'In cases where the meaning of one modality seems to "reflect" the meaning of the other through some type of convergence. which is measured through a scale known as Contextualization Propensity (CP). In what follows. Cheong shows the CP has a direct influence on the Interpretative Space (IS). grammar and display strata are considered. Royce also considers composition as the different mappings which result in the coherent layout of the whole text.INTERSEMIOSIS 165 and MODALITY. and thus considering them in isolation gives only a partial picture of their functionality. the resources share re-contextualizing relations' (Lim. Cheong conceptualizes the ideational meaning arising from the intersemiosis between visual and linguistic selections in print advertisements as the Bi-directional Investment of Meaning. Lim (2004) sees contextualizing relations as a significant aspect of the meaning arising from intersemiosis. the nature and the degree of the co-contextualizing or re-contextualizing relations are significant. Semiotic resources have evolved to be used in conjunction with other semiotic resources. an advertisement with a high CP leads to a low IS resulting in a low SE. A range of intersemiotic mechanisms is given below. Following Thibault (2000: 325-326) and Royce (1998b). in cases where the meaning of one modality seems to be at odds with or unrelated to the other. In practice. The metafunctionally based systems for intersemiosis are developed through text analysis in Sections 6. mathematical symbolism and visual images. On the other hand.4. 1999: 44). Further research is needed to theorize the range of intersemiotic mechanisms through which semantic expansions take place. In the latter case. First. 2004) provides a meta-language for the semantics of intersemiosis in terms of the degree of contextualization. the means or mechanisms through which intersemiosis as a phenomenon takes place require investigation. the nature of intersemiotic mechanisms and the metafunctionally based systems through which intersemiosis takes place at the discourse.2(1).

mathematical symbolism and visual images include the potential for intrasemiosis and intersemiosis INTERSEMIOTIC MECHANISMS Meaning through choices from systems functioning as interlocking networks: 1 2 3 4 5 Semiotic Cohesion Semiotic Mixing Semiotic Adoption Juxtaposition Semiotic Transition SYSTEMS AND SEMANTICS OF INTERSEMIOSIS Textual/Compositional meaning Interpersonal meaning Experiential meaning Logical Meaning Co-contextualization (parallelism) Re-contextualization (divergence or dissonance) Bi-directional Investment of Meaning. Interpretative Space-(IS) Semantic Effervescence (SE) (Cheong. Contextualization Propensity (CP). Semantics and Semiotic Metaphor . 2004) SEMIOTIC METAPHOR Metaphorical shifts across semiotic resources where functional status of elements is not preserved and new elements are introduced across discourse. grammar and display Figure 6. GRAMMAR AND DISPLAY SYSTEMS The functions of language. Systems. 1999.INTRASEMIOSIS (within one semiotic resource) Meaning through choices from systems forming intra-connected network options for each semiotic resource DISCOURSE.2(1) Aspects of Intersemiosis: Mechanisms.

) The systems are discussed in relation to the analysis of two mathematics texts in Sections 6. The semantics of intersemiosis is considered in Sections 6.5. Variable' and x) INTERSEMIOTIC MIXING Use of selections of different semiotic selections (for example. The third issue is the semantics of intersemiosis which may be conceptualized in terms of co-contextualizing and re-contextualizing relations.2(2a-d). x) Display JUXTAPOSITION (Textual and Compositional Arrangement) Use of spatial position and layout to juxtapose and separate selections and items from each semiotic resource FRAMING to organize text FONT Use font style.4. A tentative description of these systems is proposed in Tables 6. MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM AND VISUAL DISPLAY Metafunction Textual Discourse INTERSEMIOTIC IDENTIFICATION Cohesive devices for Intersemiotic Reference including elements which operate across resources through Direct Reference and Intersemiotic Repetition (for example. x for AB + for addition) INTERSEMIOTIC ADOPTION Use of functional element across semiotic resources (for example. A ABC) DEIXIS Use of deictics in language (for example. size and colour for cohesive purposes COLOUR Use of colour for cohesion across text (for example.4.2(2a) Systems for Intersemiosis: TEXTUAL MEANING INTERSEMIOSIS ACROSS LANGUAGE.3 and 6.3 and 6.INTERSEMIOSIS 167 therefore involves the description of the metafunctionally based intersemiotic systems according to the discourse and grammar strata and the display plane. Table 6. 'this' curve) compensated by generalized participants in symbolism and visual display DISCURSIVE LINKS across text LABELS Use of Labels which CAPTIONS use multiple semiotic Use Captions which resources use multiple semiotic resources . The fourth aspect is the metaphorical construals which result from shifts between semiotic codes. This is investigated in relation to semiotic metaphor in Section 6. x) and semantic reference Grammar INTERSEMIOTIC SUBSTITUTION Substitution of one term for another (for example.

168 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E Table 6. antonymy. introduction of triangle visually which becomes symbolized and lexicalized). 'h' for 'line' and ' — ') (iii) Visualization of lexical and symbolic functional elements (for example. COLOUR SYMBOLIZATION and Use of colour for VISUALIZATION experiential Maintenance in process. let AB = x and visual relations Transitivity selections which overlap. Taxonomies which stretch across resources (for example. MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM AND VISUAL DISPLAY Metafunction Experiential Discourse INTERSEMIOTIC IDEATION Activity Sequences and relations which stretch across semiotic resources through direct repetition (for example. types of triangles) CAPTIONS Use Captions which use multiple semiotic resources Grammar Display TRANSITIVITY JUXTAPOSITION RELATIONS (for Experiential The use of relation processes Relations) to set up identifying relations Use of space and across semiotic resources for position to create lexical. meronymy and collocation (Royce. participant and circumstance meaning and agency configurations through: (i) Lexicalization of symbolic and visual functional elements (for example. size and colour for and the grammar of language experiential meaning LEXICALIZATION. symbolic example. hyponymy.2(2b) Systems for Intersemiosis: EXPERIENTIAL MEANING INTERSEMIOSIS ACROSS LANGUAGE. let AB terminate at C) and intersemiotic equivalence. 'flirt^r^ fi=. for example. synonymy.' fr~*v ' 7»' ^»-«*-l ( '\ (ii) Symbolization of lexical and visual functional elements (for example. shifts in agency LABELS Use of Labels which use multiple semiotic resources . ' — ' for distance and 'h') SEMIOTIC METAPHOR Shifts in functional status and introduction of new process. Use font style. A and B FONT have meaning in the grammar of visual images. participants and circumstantial elements (for example. 1998b:29).

visual and symbolic romnonents FONT Use font style. arrows.INTERSEMIOSIS Table 6. Juxtaposition: Items and components within those Items are compositionally arranged to facilitate intersemiosis. Semiotic Adoption: System choices from one semiotic resource are incorporated as a system choice in another semiotic system. .2(2c) Systems for Intersemiosis: INTERPERSONAL MEANING 169 INTERSEMIOSIS ACROSS LANGUAGE. verbal and symbolism Display STYLE OF PRODUCTION Consistency in style of production SALIENCE as directing discourse moves across text PROMINENCE as directing attention to verbal. Semiotic Mixing: Items consist of system choices from different semiotic resources. (to accommodate lack of gaze and so forth) LABELS and CAPTIONS POLARITY Use of Labels which Displays of Polarity use multiple semiotic across resources resources SEMIOTIC INTERSEMIOTIC METAPHOR APPRAISAL Shifts in functional Appraisal across status of expression semiotic resources of modality across semiotic resources The mechanisms of intersemiosis are categorized as: 1 2 3 4 5 Semiotic Cohesion: System choices function to make the text cohere across different semiotic resources. MOOD Speech functions (including commands to view parts of the text) MODALITY Consistency of Modality across visual. size and colour for interpersonal meaning COLOUR Use of colour for interpersonal meaning Interpersonal INTERSEMIOTIC NEGOTIATION The unfolding of discourse moves across semiotic resources using SPEECH FUNCTIONS. MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM AND VISUAL DISPLAY Metafunction Discourse Grammar SPEECH FUNCTION. Semiotic Transition: System choices result in discourse moves in the form of macro-transitions which shift the discourse to another Item consisting primarily of another semiotic resource. or alternatively macro-transitions within Items occur.

and hence are indicated by one-directional arrows. however.2(2a-d). provide the .2(2d) Systems for Intersemiosis: LOGICAL MEANING INTERSEMIOSIS ACROSS LANGUAGE. despite the one-directional shift in the discourse. linguistic and symbolic strutural Conjunctions. and arrows pointing to other semiotic resources) Grammar Display LOGICO-SEMANTICS SPATIAL and POSITION INTERDEPENDENCY Alignment of Items Cohesive and in the text in conjunctive devices sequence across semiotic resources FONT Use font style.2(1). textual COLOUR and symbolic Use of colour to transformations direct the sequence for the construction of logical relations SEMIOTIC METAPHOR Shifts in functional status of logical relations across semiotic resources Intersemiotic mechanisms generally involve a two-way directional investment of meaning as displayed in Figure 6. size INTERPLAY OF and colour for SPATIALlTYand logical meaning TEMPORALITY through visual. However. The intersemiotic systems listed in Tables 6. and cohesive ties. This alternation is explained by the functional requirements at different stages in the generic structure of the mathematics text. the arrow pointing in the opposite direction shows that contextualization is a two-way process. Intersemiotic transitions are particularly significant in mathematics where semiotic resources are seen to alternate between being primary and ancillary at different stages of the text. which are categorized according to the discourse and grammar strata and the display plane. The intersemiotic mechanisms are realized through choices from the systems in Tables 6. MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLISM AND VISUAL DISPLAY Metafunction Logical Discourse IMPLICATION SEQUENCES Cohesive and structural devices across semiotic resources (for example. the analysis of mathematical discourse has been based on the three SF frameworks proposed for language. Semiotic transitions involve shifts in the discourse from one semiotic resource to another. and thus form another semantic layer to the analysis of mathematics texts.2(2a-d).170 MATHEMATICAL D I S C O U R S E Table 6. The systems are organized metafunctionally. mathematical symbolism and visual images in Chapters 3-5 respectively. Up to this point. Conjunctive Adjuncts.

Following this discussion. because the linguistic choices are largely congruent and thus intersemiotic shifts between linguistic. Further research is needed to examine how semiotic resources are organized to function interserniotically.INTERSEMIOSIS 171 facility whereby choices from a metafunctionally based system in one semiotic integrate with choices from other systems in other semiotic resources.3(1).3(2) in Sections 6. the symbolic text in (Point 3) (which is embedded in the surrounding linguistic text). Newton's text may be compared to the contemporary rendition of the derivative as the slope of a tangent line displayed in Plate 5. 'Fluxion' is Newton's term (now obsolete) for the derivate as the rate of change of a function with respect to x. In Stewart's (1999: 132) description of the derivative as the instantaneous rate of change. visual and symbolic parts are . where the geometrical interpretation of the derivative is the tangent to a curve at a point. The framework in Tables 6.3 Analysing Intersemiosis in Mathematical Texts Intersemiotic mechanisms through system choices at the ranks of discourse. The Items in Newton's text are the linguistic text.2(2a-d) is discussed with reference to Newton (1736: 46) and Stewart (1999: 132) displayed in Plate 6. and the diagram. the Items consist of Figure 4. In the analysis of interserniosis.2(2a-d) is not exhaustive. 6. While the linguistic. the notion of semantic expansion through semiotic metaphor is illustrated through text analysis in Section 6. and Dxf(x). This includes the provision for integration of system choices across discourse and grammar strata and the display plane.3 and 6. Newton's work has been chosen for analysis. the linguistic text which is concerned with the derivative.3(2). and that the systems through which interserniosis takes place require further theorization. '/' stands for the letter V in the linguistic text. The framework provides a semantic layer whereby the 'texture' of the text may be seen as the interaction between semiotic resource x metafunction x strata x system x choice through the mechanisms of interserniosis.5. Newton's (1736) work is typeset in the style of running text in Plate 6. However.3(1) and Plate 6. the important points are that semiotic resources are functional with respect to the semantics of other semiotic resources. and Example 4. In Newton's text. it becomes evident that the integration of semiotic resources is formalized in mathematics and science in a fashion which is not typically found in other forms of discourse. grammar and display are examined in the extract from Newton's (1736) writings The Method of Fluxions and Infinite Series displayed in Plate 6. and how that functionality relates to system options in the grammars for each resource.4. symbolic and visual Items are spatially separated in the modern mathematics texts such as Plate 6.3(1). Newton is concerned with drawing the tangent to the curve in Plate 6. however. The systemic framework for interserniosis in Tables 6.2(1). Newton's dy notation for the derivative x is used today along with other forms such as — dx f'(x).3(1).

2(2a-d) is discussed according to metafunction. intersemiosis in Plates 6.3(1) and 6.5).172 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Plate 6. In what follows. . unlike modern mathematical and scientific texts such as Stewart (1999: 132) which are highly metaphorical (see Section 6. and the examination of contemporary discourse reveals the results of that integration.3(2) arising from systems displayed in Tables 6.3(1) Newton's (1736: 46) Procedure for Drawing Tangents easier to track. Newton's writings in the eighteenth century illustrate how mathematics evolved to integrate three semiotic resources.

that is. This means that when the derivative is large (and therefore the curve is steep. In other words.\i. visual and symbolic items as displayed in Table 6. Thus. in Plate 6. .2(2a).3(1) Intersemiotic Reference occurs through the selections 'tangents' and the actual line (TD) which is drawn to intersect the curve in the diagram. there are textual systems other than those on the display stratum which aid intersemiotic tracking of participants across linguistic. then the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent to this curve at the point where . where t is measured in seconds and . These systems include INTERSEMIOTIC IDENTIFICATION where cohesion is achieved through Intersemiotic Reference. Often there is Direct Reference across the three semiotic resources. for example. The importance of textual organization explains the traditional emphasis on compositional layout in graphical design where items are aligned. f'(x\). the velocity after 2 s is m/s.v in meters. then /'{«) is the rate of change of the displacement . the primary resource for intersemiosis in mathematics appears to be textual. Similarly. For example.6). Find the velocity and the speed after 2 seconds. as at the point P in Figure 4). 'BD' is 'a right line' which appears in the diagram. the y-values change rapidly. the curve is relatively flat and the y-values change slowly. i / '(a) \. and the speed is m/s. newspapers and magazines.3(2) The Derivative as the Instantaneous Rate of Change (Stewart. Plate 6. it's — f ( t ) is the position function of a particle that moves along a straight line. 1999: 132) Textual Meaning At first glance. This gives a second interpretation of the derivative: The derivative /"(«) is the instantaneous rate of change of v -•/(. SOLUTION The derivative o f / when / = 2 is FIGURE 4 The y-values arc changing rapidly al P and slowly at Q. From the systemic perspective.v = a.v with respect to the time t. logical and experiential meaning across semiotic resources. x appears in the linguistic. framed and juxtaposed in relation to other items to create certain effects in advertising. that is. The connection with the first interpretation is that if we sketch the curve y = fix). In particular. the organization of the message for the enabling of interpersonal.INTERSEMIOSIS 173 From Equation 3 we recogni/e this limit as being the derivative o f / at . that is. EXAMPLE « The position of a particle is given by the equation of motion i ~ /(?) — 1/i I + /). When the derivative is small. The speed of the particle is the absolute value of the velocity.*) with respect to v when A = a. fin) is I/if ir/«<7/y of the particle at rime t a (see Section 2. however.

2000). the graph in Plate 6. In addition. In terms of the display stratum. in a given Angle to another right Line AB. At the rank of grammar.174 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE visual and symbolic parts of the text in Plate 6.3(2). the grammars interlock in ways so that selections are almost interchangeable as seen in the example 'the curve y = f ( x ) \ INTERSEMIOTIC MIXING. or Ordinate. For example. the Items consisting of the graph. the problems of tracking participants across semiotic resources in mathematics are addressed in relation to pedagogy in Section 7. grammatical and display choices for textual meaning function to ensure a coherent text. INTERSEMIOTIC IDEATION contributes to the construction of Activity Sequences which stretch across the text. and the symbolic solution to the problem are spatially organized in Plate 6. 'the curve' in 'the curve y=f(x)' (which could have been labelled in Figure 4 in Plate 6. INTERSEMIOTIC MIXING aids the tracking of participants. symbolic and linguistic selections which refer to participants in the linguistic and symbolic parts of the text.3(2)). in the original version of Plate 6. For example. symbolic and visual participants are reconfigured and combined. For example.3(2).3(1)) and INTERSEMIOTIC ADOPTION (x appears as an element in each resource in Plate 6. Experiential Meaning Experiential intersemiosis is formulated in terms of INTERSEMIOTIC IDEATION at the discourse stratum.3. the reader is instructed in Plate 6. JUXTAPOSITION in terms of Textual and Compositional Arrangement aids intersemiosis. the linguistic text. Similarly. COLOUR also aids textual organization. DEIXIS in language aids textual organization across visual and symbolic modes.3(2)). for example.3(2) so that the reader may easily access the experiential and logical meaning of each Item. especially within the symbolic parts of the text. for example. Further to this. As mathematical symbolism evolved from language. as a . LABELS and CAPTIONS ensure that the semantic realm of the linguistic and symbolic is included in diagrams and graphs. textual resources include INTERSEMIOTIC SUBSTITUTION (for example. grammatical choices function to ensure that experiential and logical meanings arising from textual organization of the message are precisely encoded in ways that permit the reader to access these meanings across semiotic resources in the most immediate manner possible. While discoursal.3(1) to 'first let BD be a right Line. The resulting texture is dense as linguistic. the definition of the tangent which is Framed (in red) coheres with the (red) line corresponding to the tangent lines in Figure 4. The choices which function intersemiotically for textual meaning result in a discourse where reference chains split and recombine in complex ways across semiotic resources (O'Halloran. x for AB in Plate 6.3(2) consists of visual.

important parts of the linguistic text and significant Episodes. SYMBOLIZATION. and so particular linguistic. VISUALIZATION and the use of LABELS. for example. as a Base'. the use of red lines for the derivative in Figure 4 in Plate 6.3(1). Interpersonal Meaning INTERSEMIOTIC NEGOTIATION for interpersonal meaning at the discourse stratum stretches across the three resources. xis continually repeated in symbolic.5). style and COLOUR function experientially to cohesively link. the concept of cohesion is nonetheless useful for tracing lexical relations in mathematics at the discourse stratum. In this process. Plates 6. 2002) uses the notion of cohesion across visual and verbal semiotic resource to conceptualize ideational intersemiosis (see Table 6. visual and linguistic parts of the text) is important. participant and circumstantial elements through LEXICALIZATION.INTERSEMIOSIS 175 Base'.3(2) are concerned with the geometrical interpretation of the derivative. taxonomies are constructed in mathematics so that cohesive relations are realized through classification (x is a type of y relationship in the form of hyponymy. FONT size. The sequences are realized through interpersonal commands and statements. semiotic metaphor is conceptualized as an important intersemiotic strategy for metaphorical meaning expansions in mathematics (see Section 6. 'Calling AB — x and BD = y' . Also information is given through statements (for example. visual and symbolic choices are expected. in a given Angle to another right Line AB. JUXTAPOSITION for Experiential Relations (for example. For example. and TRANSITIVITY RELATIONS which function intersemiotically to establish identifying relations across process. For example. 'Calling AB = x and BD = / means that the symbolism is brought into play in the Activity Sequence. for example.2(1)). Furthermore. symbolic variables. symbolic and visual relations is an important resource for experiential meaning in mathematics. the reader is given a linguistic command 'first let BD be a right Line. or Ordinate. the relative position of the graphs and diagrams. These participants correspondingly appear in the diagram. Compliance with this command takes place visually in the diagram in Plate 6. Figures and Parts in the visual display. for example. In addition. The use of space and position to create lexical. for example. a point is part of a line). In addition. Although associated with textual meaning in SFL. The second main type of cohesive device for lexical relations is expectancy relations which are similarly direct given the limited semantic field with which mathematics is concerned. Intersemiotic Repetition (where. and the accompanying Labels and Captions) and COLOUR (for example. for example.3(1) and 6. Royce (1998b. the tangent is classified as the line which intersects the curve in one point only) and composition (whole/part relations in the form of meronymy. At the display stratum.3(2)) aid the construction of intersemiotic experiential meaning.

Interpersonally there is typically a consistency in terms of high MODALITY values across the discourse and grammatical selections (in terms of probability and obligation values) and the STYLE OF PRODUCTION at the display plane also suggests a high truth-value. FONT. SPATIAL POSITIONING and the alignment and sequence of Items also function to aid logical reasoning.3(2): 'The ^values are changing rapidly at Pand slowly at Q'.3(2) in combination with visual devices such as arrows (see Plate 5. However. Further to this. so that intersemiosis permits a logical expansion beyond that possible with language and symbolic elements where typically space and time are separated into different elements. Metafunctionally Based Co-Contextualization and Re-Contextualization Textual.176 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE in Plate 6. Interpersonal meaning in the form of dominating social relations with high modality values is co-contextualized across linguistic.3(1)) which function intersemiotically to link the visual image to the symbolism. the logic of spatial visual perception is translated into a text-based tool in the form of mathematical symbolism which permits reasoning to progress beyond that possible with language. The INTERPLAY OF SPATIALITY AND TEMPORALITY in Figure 4 is glossed linguistically in terms of the manner of change. 'rapidly' and 'slowly'. The grammar of the visual image interlocks with the grammars of the symbolism and language so that these types of reasoning can take place. The writer directs the . interpersonal and logical meanings are cocontextualized and re-contextualized through the intersemiotic mechanisms which are described above. The interplays with spatiality and temporality in mathematical visual images are aided by linguistic selections such as those appearing under the CAPTION 'Figure 4' in Plate 6.3(2).2(1)). Logical Meaning IMPLICATION SEQUENCES function intersemiotically through linguistic and symbolic Conjunctive Adjuncts and structural Conjunctions in Plates 6. experiential. sequential steps realized through language and symbolism are placed alongside and underneath one another in Example 4 in Plate 6. visual and symbolic selections. At the display stratum. Interpersonal relations of authority with a high truth-value are reinforced intra and intersemiotically in mathematics. Intersemiosis means that spatial and temporal dimensions are integrated in the visual image.3(1) and 6. COLOUR and the resulting visual SALIENCE and PROMINENCE function to assist discourse moves across and within the Items in the text. FONT and COLOUR aid logical sequential processing in terms of organizing the symbolic and linguistic steps. In addition. Once again. For example. the types of contextualization appear to be metafunctionally based. LABELS and CAPTIONS attract attention in order to aid INTERSEMIOTIC NEGOTIATION across resources.

logical meaning involves re-contextualization of spatial and temporal relations through intersemiosis across linguistic. although language functions to contextualize the results which are established. There are constant macro-transitions back and forth between the linguistic text and the diagram as the problem is visualized. for example. the integration of language.ax2 + axy — yz = 0' and 'Therefore .INTERSEMIOSIS 177 Activity Sequences with commands and statements which possess high degrees of obligation and certainty which are reinforced through the nature of the de-contextualized visual representations and the modality found in the symbolic text.4 and 6. Finally the functional elements within the geometrical image are given a symbolic algebraic form: 'Calling AB = x and BD = y\ Newton thus describes the relations using mathematical symbolism: 'let their Relation be Xs . Once visualization is achieved. there are macro-shifts between the diagram and the symbolism to establish the relationship between entities.3(1) is examined for this purpose. the tool for reasoning to derive the mathematical results is ultimately the symbolism. In what follows. Aided by visual perception.5. correspond to functional elements in the geometrical visual image. mathematical symbolism and visual display is further examined in terms of the transitions which take place in order to investigate the semantics of re-contexualization in mathematical discourse.4 Intersemiotic Re-Contexualization in Newton's Writings Newton's problem in Plate 6. The Style of Production of the text and the abstract nature of the linguistic. The identification and tracking of those functional elements and their subsequent semantic reconfiguration is important in mathematics. and the directions to achieve this objective take the form of a series of linguistic commands and statements. 'Line AB' and 'Curve ED'.3(1) is titled 'PROB. however. visual and mathematical participants. processes and circumstances function to further co-contextualize the selections for interpersonal meaning. E and D. Experiential meaning. B. To draw Tangents to Curves. Similarly. The organization of the message is critical in mathematics so that the meaning potential of each resource may be accessed and integrated at different stages in the unfolding of the text. First Manner'. Micro-transitions occur in that the functional elements within the linguistic text. IV. Newton's text in Plate 6. is re-contextualized as the Activity Sequences stretch across the different semiotic resources. This significant aspect of semantic expansion in mathematics is further developed in Sections 6. processes and circumstances are semantically realigned across the three semiotic resources. visual and symbolic components. Newton writes 'So that it is TB : BD :: DC (or B£) : cd'. Textual and compositional meaning as the enabling function assumes a new realm of importance when viewed through the lens of intersemiosis. New systems for textual meaning are called into play as participants. 6. for example. the points A.

the semantic circuit involves more than using relational clauses to give functional elements in one semiotic resource an identity in another. or y and x. contextualized and finalized using language. However. 'Calling AB = x and BD = y' means that functional elements in the visual image now have corresponding elements in the symbolism so that the problem can be solved algebraically. while AB is increased by the Moment Bi. However. x may appear in the linguistic. further to this. The result is a highly coherent text. the length BT will be given. The command for Actor/Agent ('you') to make 'this Ordinate [BD]' (Goal/Medium) 'move' (Process: material) 'through an indefinitely small . for example. so that it may be increased by the Moment cd. to which Deis equal and parallel. For example. the expansion of meaning also involves metaphorical exchange whereby functional elements do not always retain their original status when they are rerepresented in a second semiotic resource. The symbolism encodes the exact nature of the relations over time in a continuous and complete form. new entities are created through intersemiotic transitions. Newton's problem in Plate 6. The x. Newton's problem of drawing the tangent to a curve is resolved algebraically as a set of relations involving Operative processes and participants. The visual image permits a perceptual understanding of the problem through re-contextualizing spatial and temporal relations at discrete instances of time. This certainly is the case as each semiotic resource has a unique meaning potential which permits particular functions to be fulfilled. The grammar of mathematical symbolism is such that these relations are easily reconfigured to solve the problem. The semantic circuit in the form of macro. For example. Newton (1736: 46) writes: Let this Ordinate [BD] move through an indefinitely small Space to the place bd.3(1) is introduced. close textual analysis reveals that functional roles are not always maintained across different semiotic resources.and micro-transitions is seamlessly woven so that shifts back and forth are a constant feature of mathematical discourse. The relations of parts to the whole may also be ascertained through the visual image.178 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Newton concludes: Therefore the Point D being given. and thence DB and AB. While this permits macro-transitions across resources and ensures representation of particular elements through repetition. visual and symbolic parts of the text). The functional grammars of mathematical symbolism and visual display have evolved to ensure this is the case. by which the Tangent TD is determined'. functions as a participant (in the form of a generalized noun) in all three semiotic resources. (for example. and that. On the surface it appears that the intersemiotic transitions are largely a matter of giving functional elements in one semiotic resource an identity in another semiotic resource so that the meaning potential of that second resource can be accessed.

Cases of semiotic metaphor are therefore evident in the classroom discussion and board texts largely because meaning has not been pre-packaged metaphorically through grammatical metaphor. in press) as demonstrated in the preceding discussion of Newton's text. the linguistic Material process 'move' BD (the goal) results in the introduction of new entities. Second. 'Let Dd be produced till it meets with AB in T' involves the introduction of the visual participant T from the linguistic circumstance 'in T'. That is. the classroom discussion is congruent rather than metaphorical (see Sections 3. but also involve introducing new functional elements and changing the functional status of existing elements. the linguistic circumstance of location in 'to place bd becomes a major participant bd in the visual image. participant or circumstance undergoes a transformation through the shift or transition to another resource. . This lesson contains several instances of the types of semantic expansions which are made possible through semiotic metaphor. First. The phenomenon is best illustrated through an example from a secondary school mathematics lesson in trigonometry (O'Halloran 1996. 1999b). 2003b. and a shift in the functional status of an existing entity (Circumstance 'to the place bd becomes a participant bd). the metaphorical nature of the semantic expansion is traceable because the linguistic text includes the oral discourse in the classroom.6 for a discussion of grammatical metaphor in written mathematics and science). in the visual image. Newton's command to 'Move X' introduces visually new participants Y and Z which are configured in the new semantic field of spatial relations with W. these entities (be. In other words. for example. 6. 1999b. the line segments foand B6. Being spoken discourse. Alternatively. Lastly. 1996. In a similar fashion. 2000. B£ and bd) enter into spatial relations with one another. In this example. 2003a.5 Semiotic Metaphor and Metaphorical Expansions of Meaning Semiotic metaphor is the phenomenon where an intersemiotic transition gives rise to a metaphorical expansion of meaning (O'Halloran. The semiotic interchange involves semantic recontextualization and metaphor. the status of the functional element as a process. In terms of experiential meaning.6 and 6. the shift to another semiotic resource involves the introduction of a new process. through the meaning potential of visual images. The significant phenomenon of intersemiotic metaphor is further explored through the notion of semiotic metaphor. both of which may be reconfigured in a new semantic realm. 1999a. Thus intersemiotic transitions in the semantic circuit do not only involve accessing the meaning potential of new semiotic resources.INTERSEMIOSIS 179 Space' (Range) 'to the place bd (Location: Place) // so that 'it' [BD] (Goal/Medium) 'may be increased' (Process: Material) 'by the Moment cd (Range). the intersemiotic transition to the visual images from the linguistic involves the creation of new entities (foand B&). participant or circumstance which did not previously exist.

the height of the cliff at point A and. The problem concerns finding a generalized expression for the height of a cliff h and the width of a river r using two angle measurements.180 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE The teacher introduces and describes the trigonometric problem using language. firstly. STEP ONE: Teacher's Linguistic Introduction to the Problem // // // // // // // // a man is actually at this point here he is climbing a cliff and /ahh doesn't know how high up he is and he looks down of course and looks at the river and doesn't know how wide the river is // so with this information.5(1) are produced in stages on the blackboard as a result of the classroom discussion led by the teacher. he has a ten-metre rope and a device that measures angles. secondly. and the diagrams in Figure 6. visual image and mathematical symbolism are given below. the width of the river . Extracts from the lesson which involve shifts between language. mathematical symbolism is used to solve the problem using the tangent ratio. which captures the relationship between the size of an angle and the length of the opposite and adjacent sides in the triangles. we are asking the question // how can the man determine. From the diagram.

5(1) Diagrams for Trigonometric Problem .INTERSEMIOSIS 181 STEP TWO: Visualization of the Problem (a) HOW HIGH and HOW WIDE ? HOW HIGH and HOW WIDE ? Figure 6.

the problem may be solved algebraically. 4 New entities in the form of the two triangles. This new entity is later introduced in the verbal discourse as 'the line of sight'. 3 The circumstance of 'how high' and 'how wide' realizing Extent (spatial distance) is transformed into participants h and later h — 10 which are marked with arrows indicating the relative distances in the diagram (see Figure 6. visual image and mathematical symbolism. The process realized by the verb 'look' in 'and he looks down of course' becomes an entity in the form of a line segment AR in the visual diagram on the blackboard (see Figure 6. These semiotic metaphors are described below. tan a and tan 9 are introduced. These entities did not exist prior to the visual semiotic representation of the trigonometric problem. From this point.5(la)).5 (lb)). 5 The newly constructed Figures of the triangles permits the relations of sides and angles to be expressed symbolically as and 1 Thus the new entities.5 (lb)). are introduced visually in the mathematical diagram. The Figures of the triangles emerge as configurations of the participants h. rand 10. (2) There are multiple cases of semiotic metaphor which occur in the process of solving the trigonometric problem through the macro-transitions between language. AABR and ACBR. and a and 0. This means that these participants may be now viewed as a connected whole rather than as isolated entities. The metaphorical shift from the linguistic processes and circumstance to the visual participants leads to the introduction of new participants in the form of two triangles in the diagram. the diagram becomes the point of departure for the expression of the mathematical relationship which exists between the sides and angles of a right triangle in the . From this point.182 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE STEP THREE: Symbolic Solution to the Problem In right A CBR (1) In right &ABR. 2 The Material process of 'measuring' becomes the participants a and 6 with arrows marking the direction through which the angles are measured and the dashed line representing the horizontal 'line of sight' (see Figure 6.

and thus these types of metaphorical shift serve a reinforcing and co-contextualizing function. However. however. The two opposite poles are conceived as parallel and divergent semiotic metaphors (O'Halloran. These examples of 'ideological disjunction' are a possible result 'of the complex. means that 'the functional element is reconstrued into a new semantic field' (ibid.: 348).INTERSEMIOSIS 183 form of the tangent ratio. The important relationship between grammatical metaphor and semiotic metaphor is discussed in Section 6. The reconstrual of functional elements in a divergent semiotic metaphor. There appear to be graduations in the types of semiotic metaphor according to the nature and the extent of the semantic expansion which takes place. such linguistic constructions have traditionally been theorized in SFL as grammatical metaphors rather than the product of meaning expansions through intersemiosis. 2000: 321). 1999a). From this example. cosine and tangent in mathematics. Although there could be redundant meanings because of overlaps. On the other hand. An example is the introduction of the tangent ratio in the mathematical symbolism which configures the relationship between an angle and the sides of the triangle. Divergent semiotic metaphors emerge to create re-contextualizing relations. relations of inter-functional solidarity among the various semiotic resource systems that are co-deployed' (Thibault. 'new layers of meaning are [essentially] simultaneously added to the original representation' (ibid. A parallel semiotic metaphorhas 'an expanded semantic field but also one which is situated within the old' (ibid. Grammatical metaphor seems to have evolved as a response to the expansions of meaning which occurred through the use of other semiotic resources in mathematics and science. In .: 348). The possibility for meaning expansions in divergent reconstruals is extensive as the functional element is relocated in a new semantic field which is not typically inter-textually related to the first. often intricate. This relationship forms the basis for the symbolic solution of the problem. divergent semiotic metaphors have the potential to involve conflicting meanings. In the case of the trigonometric problem considered above.: 348). However. Examples include the shift from process and circumstance to participant in Newton's diagram. in this case in the form of the linguistic choices 'the angle of elevation' and 'the angle of depression'. participants like 'the angle of elevation' and 'angles of depression' become choices in language.6. There are semantic redundancies involved in parallel semiotic metaphors. new visual entities are construed in the shift from language to visual image. From the semantic expansions made possible through semiotic metaphor. including those metaphorical expansions arising from semiotic metaphor. it becomes clear that mathematical discourse depends on the types of metaphorical shifts which take place with transitions between the three semiotic resources. the meanings arising from divergent semiotic metaphors become naturalized over time. as has occurred with trigonometric ratios such as sine. The systems for language must necessarily expand to encompass these new visual entities.

. From this perspective. 1998). . The identification of the phenomenon of semiotic metaphor is important because it helps to explain how intersemiosis contributes to the expansion of meaning. rather the intersemiotic mechanisms prove to be an important tool for the semantic expansion. The other mechanisms include Semiotic Cohesion. using multiple semiotic resources is not just a matter of accessing different meaning potentials. (ii) The secondary motif . Semiotic Mixing. semiotic metaphors are one further intersemiotic mechanism for the realization of co-contextualizing and re-contextualizing relations. which includes investigating semiotic metaphors for interpersonal. but also new grammatical strategies evolve in each semiotic resource as a result of their co-functionality with other resources. Halliday (1998: 211) captures this shift in the following form: relator —» circumstance —> process —» quality —> entity Halliday and Matthiessen (1999: 263-264) distinguish two general motifs in the semantic shifts taking place through grammatical metaphor: '(i) The primary motif is clearly the drift towards "thing".184 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE essence. Halliday (1993a. 1998) cites several examples from Newton's (1704) Opticks .3. There is a decided 'semantic drift' towards metaphorically reconstruing experience in terms of entities which enter into relations with other entities. including co-contextualization and re-contextualization.6.2. 1993b) describe the regrammaticization of experience which takes place through scientific language. As explained below. Halliday and Matthiessen (1999) and Martin (1993a. Halliday (1998: 209-210) and Halliday and Matthiessen (1999: 246-248) categorize the different types of grammatical metaphor and demonstrate that the general semantic shift is towards regrammaticizing of experience in the form of entities. Semiotic Adoption and Juxtaposition developed in Section 6.6 Reconceptualizing Grammatical Metaphor Halliday (1993a. which is described in Section 3. The significance of semiotic metaphor is discussed in relation to mathematics pedagogy in Section 7. 1993b. the move from "thing" into what might be interpreted as a manifestation of "quality" (qualifying. logical and textual meaning. the evolution of grammatical metaphor in language may be seen as a response to the semantic expansions which occurred through semiotic metaphor and the use of mathematical symbolism and visual display in the construction of a scientific view of the world. There remains much research to be completed in this field. The nominalization of process. These types of semantic expansions feed back into the grammar of each resource so that not only do the transitions become seamless. 6. quality. possessive or classifying expansions of the "thing")'. relator and circumstance takes place through the lexicogrammatical strategy of grammatical metaphor. This secondary shift involves the expansion of the potential of the nominal group to encode experiential meaning in condensed format.

First. 1990: 61) In this example. [then] two hydrogen atoms would form a much more weakly bound molecule than they actually do' is replaced by the clause 'The absolute indistinguishability of the electrons in the two atoms gives rise to an "extra" attractive force between them. 1993. 1998). Martin and Veel.' The logical relations 'if and 'then' are replaced by the causative relational process 'gives rise'. Halliday (1998: 202) uses an example from David Layzer (1990:61) to illustrate the metaphorical repackaging of experience: If electrons weren't absolutely indistinguishable. In addition. 1999. 'as' and 'and'). Close analysis of scientific writing reveals that this type of grammatical repackaging is typical of contemporary scientific writing (Guo. grammatical metaphor in the form of nominalization also carries forth Newton's argument. there is an increased potential for categorization and Table 6.INTERSEMIOSIS 185 to demonstrate that the shift towards nominalization noted in modern scientific writing had begun to emerge in this work. Halliday (1998: 202) explains that the impact of grammatical repackaging is twofold. two hydrogen atoms would form a much more weakly bound molecule than they actually do. which Halliday (1998: 193) terms 'the favourite grammatical pattern ("syndrome" of grammatical features) in modern scientific English'.6(1). 2004a. Grammatical metaphors may occur with relational processes to repackage experiential content. (David Layzer. Halliday (1998: 201-202) explains that although reasoning is carried forth congruently by conjunctions (for example. Halliday and Matthiessen. the clause Tf electrons weren't absolutely indistinguishable' is replaced by the nominalization 'the absolute indistinguishability of the electrons in the two atoms'. The absolute indistinguishability of the electrons in the two atoms gives rise to an 'extra' attractive force between them. The logical relations in the original clause complex are typically reconstrued as different forms of relational processes. 'if. the clause complex 'If electrons weren't absolutely indistinguishable. the semantic sequence of two clauses (forming a clause complex) is reconstrued as a single relational clause where the two original clauses are reconfigured into nominal group structures. Halliday and Martin.6(1) Congruent and Metaphorical Realizations of Semantic Units: Halliday and Matthiessen (1999: 239) Semantic Unit sequence figure logical relation congruently clause complex clause conjunction (relating clauses in a complex metaphorically clause nominal group verbal group . In this process. Cosmogenesis. Halliday and Matthiessen (1999: 239) summarize congruent and metaphorical realizations in Table 6. 2004b. 'so'.

The metaphorical nature of mathematical writing is evident in the following examples from Plate 6. 'the derivative of/at x^. In addition. logical meaning is re-packaged through process selections (for example. 270-271) explain that the significance of grammatical metaphor is related to the new textual organization of the clause where participants may be foregrounded (and backgrounded) as packaged information. 'as being' and 'gives').3(2) where relational processes (in bold) configure entities in the form of nominalizations. for example. the loss of experiential meaning includes the loss of arguability which accompanies a congruent configuration of process/participant in a clause. In effect. // this limit as being the derivative of /at xt// // this gives a second interpretation of the derivative// // The derivative/' (a) is the instantaneous rate of change ofy=f(x)// // the connection with the first interpretation is [[that if we sketch the curve y=f(x) \\ then the instantaneous rate of change is the slope of the tangent to this curve at the point 11 where x = a ] ] // . For example. Halliday and Matthiessen (1999) also explain the gain is an increased potential to encode in condensed format experiential meaning in nominal group structures. Halliday and Matthiessen (1999: 239. the analysis of the linguistic text in Stewart (1999: 132) in Plate 6. 1993b. and. 'the instantaneous rate of change'. 1993a. which is essential for the construction of technical knowledge and taxonomies (Martin. circumstance and process become construed as entities. so Z will be affected However. 'a second interpretation of the derivative'. further to this. 1993c). 'the instantaneous rate of change'. Second. there is a subsequent loss of experiential meaning with the collapse of the clause into nominal group structures and the blurring of categories of experience where relators. the metaphorical construal does not admit such doubt concerning the relations between X and Y. the effect on Z seems much more certain with the absence of the logical conjunction: the transformation of X to Y affects Z The packaging of experiential meaning through the use of grammatical metaphor and relational processes takes place in mathematical discourse. the reader/ listener can disagree that X transforms Y based on the following congruent clause complex sequence: X transforms Y. in addition to questioning the effect on Z. However. 'the connection with the first interpretation'. For example.3(2) reveals that the majority of clauses contain relational identifying processes with nominalized participants involving extended nominal group structures. effective reasoning and logical progression are enhanced as the repackaging of a clause into a nominal group has a discursive textual function of carrying forth the momentum of the argument. 'the slope of the tangent to this curve' and so forth.186 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE taxonomic organization. Halliday (1998) sees the development of scientific language in terms of'technicalizing' and 'rationalizing'.

given the relative inaccessibility of mathematical symbolism to a general audience. The significance of semiotic metaphor for pedagogy is discussed in Chapter 7. the derivative of fat t = 2 is [[the limit as h approaches zero of the difference between the value of the function at 2+h and 2 [[divided by h]]]]. which accordingly developed a grammar enabling it to fulfil this role. However. The functions of scientific language should be contextualized in relation to the context of its development. the meaning of the symbolic statement is not retained because process/participant configurations become entities in the form of nominalized participants. It appears that scientific language evolved to construe a 'stable' view of the universe through relational processes with nominalized participants which carried forth the impetus of the argument because the function of the 'dynamic' description of the relations was allocated to the mathematical symbolism. scientific language has assumed functions which are not understood in relation to . However. however. we may see that the opposite trend has occurred in the mathematical symbolism where process/participant configurations are preserved through the grammatical strategy of rankshift. in the transition to language. as developed in Chapter 4. In other words. The linguistic version of the symbolic statement involves a relational process for '='.INTERSEMIOSIS 187 Halliday (1998) and Halliday and Matthiessen (1999) thus explain how relational clauses and grammatical metaphors which expand the potential of the nominal group function in scientific language. is rarely if ever noted. This is particularly significant in the context of the mathematics classroom where the symbolism is regularly verbalized.3(2) is analysed. the rankshifted configuration of symbolic processes and participants on the right-hand side of the equation undergoes a reconstrual through the grammatical metaphor: 'the difference between the value of the function at 2+h and 2 divided by h'. if the symbolic statement it would read something like: is verbalized. However. However. if the symbolic text in Example 4 in Plate 6. The metaphorical nature of such construals.

The mathematical and scientific view of the world is used in contexts which are not always appropriate. It is this other potential that grammatical metaphor has. the linguistic reconfiguration of reality through scientific discourse has repercussions: Metaphors are dangerous. they have too much power. and grammatical metaphor is no different in this respect. From the preceding discussion. Because it leaves relations within a figure almost inexplicit. for making meaning that is obscure. this demands that they should in some sense already be in place [beforehand] . and to establish the paternalistic authority of a technocratic elite. however.188 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE the limits of its applicability. arcane and exclusive. that makes it ideal as a mode of discourse for establishing and maintaining status. . prestige and hierarchy. . Only from this perspective can semiosis be fully understood. For as Halliday and Matthiessen (1999: 271272) explain. . The metaphorical nature of the construction of mathematical and scientific discourse and the accompanying uses of the scientific view of the world are considered in Chapter 7. it becomes evident that more research is needed in the study of the functions of language and other semiotic resources as an integrated phenomenon.

mathematical symbolic statements and Figure . the mathematics book and textbook which typically contain a range of sub-genres. For example. practice examples and solutions. the mathematics textbook consists of chapters and subsections which contain definitions. is analysed in order to investigate intersemiosis in contemporary mathematics discourse. as a function of time where x is the number of minutes which have elapsed in a lecture (Burgmeier et al.24. which is conceptualized as a function of the time elapsed in a lecture.2 (2a-d).1 Multisemiotic Analysis of a Contemporary Mathematics Problem Mathematical discourse consists of a range of genres such as the research paper. the questions concern (a) the times at which receptivity is increasing and decreasing.7 Mathematical Constructions of Reality 7. which in turn consist of Items. mathematical symbolism (Tables 4. The description of the mathematics problem includes a black and white photograph of a group of students in a university lecture.: 77).3(1) and 4.24.1(1) and 3.0. Example 2.24 is reproduced in Plate 7. an introductory university textbook on calculus. 'the ability of the students to grasp a difficult concept'. (b) the situation with regard to student interest after ten minutes. (c) the time in the lecture where the most difficult concept should be placed. Thus the mathematics textbook is a multisemiotic genre consisting of sub-genres. In Example 2. Example 2.1 x2 + 2. Example 2.6x + 43 which describes receptivity.3(2)) and visual images (Tables 5. In Example 2.1(2)).2(1) and 5. explanations of theory. In what follows. 1990: 77). and finally (d) whether it would be possible to teach the students a certain concept which 'requires a receptivity of 55' given 'the intelligence level of the students in this group' (ibid.24. and the systemic framework for intersemiosis across the three resources (Tables 6.2(2)). theorems.1(1) and 6. readers are asked questions concerning the 'receptivity of students'. demonstration examples.24 contains a linguistic description of the problem and the equation G(x) — . The theoretical frameworks for the analysis include SF models for language (Tables 3. the mathematics lecture. (1990: 76-77).1(1). The solutions to the questions (a)-(d) are given in the form of explanatory linguistic statements. a mathematics problem from Burgmeier et al.

(b) Is student interest being stimulated after 10 minutes or is attentiveness falling off? (c) Where in the presentation should the most difficult concept be placed? (d) For the intelligence level of the students in this group. student interest is still being stimulated 10 minutes into the presentation. visual and symbolic choices in Example 2. the graph of the function G(x) where different points of time have been marked.6. an increase in x corresponds to decrease in G(x)). the most difficult concept should be discussed 13 minutes after the presentation begins.24 (Burgmeier et al. is dependent on the number of minutes of the teacher's presentation that have elapsed before the concept is introduced. maximum receptivity occurs 13 minutes into the presentation.1(1) Mathematics Example 2. visual and symbolic Items and (ii) intersemiotically within and across the Items. (d) Since G(13) = 59. attention becomes diffused. The solution is obtained by considering the derivative G (x) where receptivity increases for G (x) > 0 (i. (See Figure 2. and attentiveness is falling off when G(x) is decreasing.24. an increase in x corresponds to an increase in G(x)) and decreases for G (x) < 0 (i. To determine where G(x) is increasing and where it is decreasing.190 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE 2. Is it possible to teach the students this concept? Solution (a) Student interest is being stimulated when G(x) is increasing. Thus.24 Graph of student receptivity function G(x) in Example 2.9 and the concept we want to present requires a receptivity of 55. (a) Determine the values of x for which student receptivity is increasing and decreasing.2* +2. (c) Receptivity is increasing during the first 13 minutes and decreasing after the first 13 minutes. In what follows. . At the beginning of a lecture a student's interest is stimulated. Analysis of this group's results indicate that the ability of a student to grasp a difficult concept is given by the function where the value G(x) is a measure of receptivity after x minutes of presentation. We know that G(*) is increasing where G'(x)>0. a certain concept requires a receptivity of 55.) (b) Since G(x) is increasing at x = 10.24 By studying the learning behavior of a group of students a psychologist determines that receptivity. the ability of the students to grasp a difficult concept.24 Plate 7. The register. G'(x) = -0. Figure 2. but as time passes. 1990: 76-77) 2. so we solve the inequality which is equivalent to (inequality sign is reversed) Thus. student receptivity G(x) is increasing for x < 13 and decreasing for x > 13. it is possible to teach this concept to these students.24 are analysed with respect to the meanings which arise (i) intrasemiotically within the linguistic. we use the derivative of G(x) that is.e. genre and ideology arising from such choices are discussed.24.e.5 Increasing and Decreasing Functions Example 2. the linguistic.

24'. this is evident to the reader of the mathematics book (presumably a university student or lecturer) given the nature of the seating arrangements. Within this text. the Questions '(a)-(d)'. the important symbolic statements are spatially separated through the use of line spacing and centre alignment. Compositionally. Example 2.24 is textually organized to accommodate a reading path for these four Items. the photograph is visually prominent because of its spatial location on the right-hand top corner of the page and the contrast which is provided by the density of black and white photograph against the white background of the printed text. most likely towards the stage where the presentation is taking place. which is a common sub-genre in mathematical textbooks. The two black male students physically lean sideward from each other as they look at and listen to the lecture presentation. Such examples contain obligatory Items in the form of the problem and the solution. the Figures in the photograph which emerge as prominent are the two male students whose body posture forms a . the photograph and the graph are distinct Items. the age of the students. given their Position and Size. In mathematics problems involving the derivative (such as Example 2. the solution and the graph through Typography. Culturally. the style of clothing and the activities which are depicted. The students in the photograph are two male black students and four women.24 appear in bold. The Gaze of the students in the photograph is directed downwards to the left. Prominence is given to the question.24). the 'Solution' for (a)-(d) and the Caption for Figure 2. such as listening and taking notes. intersemiotic patterns of meaning take place across the Items. The Photograph At the rank of Item. are spatially separated from the optional Items. At least three of these women belong to ethnic minority groups. These examples serve to illustrate standard solutions to typical mathematics problems.24 Example 2. although this is not always the case. At the rank of discourse semantics. where 'Example 2.M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF R E A L I T Y 191 Compositional Organization of Example 2. The compositional arrangement is marked by the justification of the linguistic/symbolic text in the column to the left of the two visual images. the problem is organized so that the question and the solution (including the symbolic equations). Each of the symbolic statements is marked through italicized font.24. The photograph is optional. However. The photograph is a picture of university students in a lecture theatre. a graph or sketch is typically included. The contrast provided by their light-coloured clothing and the dynamism provided by the angle formed by their arms and the arm of the woman sitting in the row above converge to an empty space that lacks a centrally framed Figure. the question and the solution.24 is a demonstration example. The obligatory Items in Example 2. the photograph and graph.

three looking to the left. but as time passes attention becomes diffused. At the beginning of a lecture a student's interest is stimulated. and one looking down as though writing. However. the facial expressions of these two students suggest a somewhat sceptical reaction to the performance which is taking place. At the rank of Part of the Figure. Rather the reader's attention is drawn to the picture due to the position and the density of the black and white photograph. INTERSEMIOTIC IDEATION and TRANSITIVITY RELATIONS function to establish what appears to be a VISUALIZATION of the mathematics problem: 'By studying the learning behaviour of a group of students' (photograph of a group of students is provided) 'a psychologist' (a professional whose identity remains anonymous) 'determines that receptivity. Analysis of this group's results indicate that the ability of a student to grasp a difficult concept is given by the function where the value G(x) is a measure of receptivity after x minutes of presentation. The implications of this discourse move are considered below. the ability of the students to grasp a difficult concept' (photograph of students concentrating on the lecture). Intersemiosis: The Photograph and the Linguistic/Symbolic Text The linguistic text introduces the mathematics problem in the following manner: Example 2. is dependent on the number of minutes of the teacher's presentation that have elapsed before the concept is introduced. The majority of the students in the photograph rest their chins upon their hands in what appears to be a studied reaction to the lecture. The female students listen with varying degrees of concern. The Gaze and action of the students in the photograph do not beckon the reader of the mathematics textbook. the students' Gaze and accompanying body posture in the photograph guide the reader's attention downwards to the left towards the block of text which consists of the question and solution in Example 2. INTERSEMIOTIC IDENTIFICATION at the rank of discourse involves identifying and tracking participants across the Items in Example 2. In the case of the photograph and the linguistic text.24. from the photograph to the mathematics problem through Gaze and body posture of students in the photograph. 'is dependent on the number of minutes of the teacher's presentation' (a second professional whose identity remains anonymous) 'that have elapsed before the concept is introduced.24.' 'At the beginning of a . There is a directional link which stretches from the photograph towards linguistic/symbolic parts of the text through the vector provided by the Gaze and posture of the student in the photograph.24 By studying the learning behaviour of a group of students a psychologist determines that receptivity. INTERSEMIOTIC NEGOTIATION thus includes a discourse move.192 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE dynamic 'V shape. however fleeting or recursive. the ability of the students to grasp a difficult concept.

24 which arises intersemiotically from the choices in the photograph and the linguistic text is further discussed below. In what amounts to a VISUALIZATION of the mathematics question. ethnicity and race. The view is reinforced that the ability of these minority students is related to how long they can pay attention because 'as time passes. The organization of the lecture is a textual concern where ideational meaning is reduced to the notion of 'a difficult concept'. the professional psychologist is seen to be able to determine the exact nature of the learning process. In this way. From the description of the problem. the linguistic construction 'receptivity'. Features of the lecture and its presentation (for example.24. students from ethnic minority backgrounds.6x + 43 where the value G(x) is a measure of receptivity after x minutes of presentation' (the notion of 'this group' is linked to the ability of an individual student). the language and visual images used. it becomes apparent that groups of students perform differently. that is. 'Analysis of this group's results' (the performance of 'this group' as measured by the psychologist) 'indicates that the ability of a student to grasp a difficult concept is given by the function G(x) = -O. the actual content of the lecture. The added dimensionality to Example 2. given the body posture and facial expression of the students).M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF R E A L I T Y 193 lecture a student's interest is stimulated' (the students in the photograph appear to be attentive). 'the ability of a student to grasp a difficult concept'. Further to this. On the other hand. in Example 2. A whole range of issues such as social. appear in the linguistic text only. cultural and economic factors are thus distilled into what appears to be an extraordinarily simplistic and misleading construction of the factors underlying educational achievement. the educational . becomes associated with one particular group of students. and so the symbolic description of receptivity as a function of time elapsed in a lecture in Example 2. the 'psychologist' who pronounces the relationship between time and student receptivity and the 'teacher'. the interpersonal stance of the lecturer. attentiveness and. ability and race rather than the complex practices of educational institutions and society as a whole. through the photograph. mental and biological criteria such as the attention span. The problem of educational achievement becomes tied to internal psychological. which is reconstrued as 'the ability of the students to grasp a difficult concept'. The results of the group are re-contextualized in relation to individual performance. the students are pictured as ethnic minority students. only some of the major participants introduced in the linguistic text are represented in the photograph. Thus INTERSEMIOTIC IDEATION relations are established as to which group of students have problems grasping difficult questions given their attention span.24 is a description of the results of one particular group. attention becomes diffused'. Failure 'to grasp concepts' is linked to personal ability. And the photograph does contain one group of students. and the result is a concern with presenting lecture material at the right time. 'but as time passes attention becomes diffused' (the photograph is taken at some stage during the lecture. The professionals.lx2 + 2.

The mathematics problem in effect reduces the complex and dynamic practices of university education into metaphorical entities in the form of nominalized participants which are defined and aligned using relational processes. In this shift. but as time passes attention becomes diffused. the ability of the students to grasp a difficult concept. is dependent on the number of minutes of the teacher's presentation that have elapsed before the concept is introduced. the notion of 'receptivity' is converted into 'the intelligence level of the students in this group' in question (d). the real participants (the lecturer and students as Medium and/or Agent) and circumstance completely disappear or they are buried within the nominal group structures of the metaphorical entities. Intrasemiosis in Language: The Use of Grammatical Metaphor The linguistic text. which functions to introduce and contextualize the problem in relation to the photograph and the symbolic equations. which appear in bold below: By studying the learning behaviour of a group of students a psychologist determines that receptivity.24. The implications of these constructions are further considered through an analysis of the linguistic and symbolic text in Example 2. grammatical metaphor functions to construct a situation where processes and attributes are reconstrued as entities. Following .1x2 + 2.6x+43 where the value G(x) is a measure of receptivity after x minutes of presentation. (c) where the most difficult concept should be placed in the presentation. (b) whether at different times interest is being stimulated or attentiveness is falling off. At the beginning of a lecture a student's interest is stimulated. and other social and cultural contextual factors) are excluded in the formulation of 'student receptivity'. 'Receptivity' is an entity (rather than the process of the students 'receiving' material from the lecturer in some fashion) which is denned to be another entity 'the ability of the students' (rather than an attribute that the students demonstrate in some manner) to grasp the entity 'a difficult concept' (from the process of the students 'conceiving' something from the lecturer in some way). and (d) whether or not a concept requiring a receptivity of 55 could be taught given the intelligence level of the students in this group. Analysis of this group's results indicate that the ability of a student to grasp a difficult concept is given by the function G(x) =-0. is metaphorical as indicated by the numerous instances of grammatical metaphor.194 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE institution. After the explanation of the problem. The relations between educational achievement and genetic makeup are reinforced along racial grounds. For example. 'learning behaviour' is an entity (rather than the process of the students 'behaving' in some fashion) which can be measured by the trained expert. the psychologist. Finally. In terms of experiential meaning. questions (a)-(d) also contain grammatical metaphors which include: (a) the time when student receptivity is increasing or decreasing.

'the intelligence level of these students' in question (d). In summary.24. The photograph functions to contextualize these relations along racial lines. the textual organization of the clauses reveals marked choices such as foregrounding particular elements such as 'By studying the learning behaviour of a group of students'. there are particular students in question as portrayed by the photograph. The mathematical symbolism thus provides a dynamic description of the metaphorical entity 'receptivity' in exact terms where the only variable is the time elapsed in the presentation. 'Analysis of this group's results indicate that the ability of a student to grasp a difficult concept is given by the function'. and. the symbolism permits the dynamic reconfiguration of that situation in terms of one variable only. Furthermore. further to this.6x+ 43 where the independent variable is x.the time elapsed in the lecture. Second. Other variables concerned with teaching and learning are excluded in the symbolic formulation. In addition. Ts it possible to teach the students this concept?' The interpersonal orientation of the text exudes a confidence and objectivity which is difficult to counteract. and 'For the intelligence level of the students in this group'.*2 + 2. Through the relational process '='. the use of grammatical metaphor reduces the complex dynamic process of a university lecture into a series of metaphorical entities which are related to other metaphorical entities through relational processes. In the questions (a)-(d) which follow. The series of statements are either unmodalized in terms of probability or usuality. 'receptivity' is related to another metaphorical entity. This is achieved with a high degree of certainty. Intersemiosis: Linguistic Construction of the Problem and the Symbolic Equations The metaphorical entity 'receptivity' is symbolized as G(x). the number of minutes that have elapsed after the presentation has started.M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF R E A L I T Y 195 this formulation. G(x) is given a definitive description in the form of the mathematical equation G(x) = -O. The nature of the experiential meaning in the linguistic construction of the problem and the intersemiotic shift to the symbolic description are rather incredible. First. or they are metaphorical in that the modality orientation is explicitly objective. the time which has elapsed in a lecture.I. 'At the beginning of the lecture'. especially as the majority of clauses contain relational processes where identifying relations are established between the metaphorical entities. In this process. The use of grammatical metaphor extends to interpersonal meaning in the form of modality metaphors. logical meaning is metaphorically re-packaged as a process rather than being instantiated as a conjunctive relation. for example. the linguistic text is highly metaphorical. the shift to mathematical symbolic description involves a reconstrual which only includes one dimension of the context of the problem . for example. these metaphorical entities are exactly described using mathematical symbolism in Example 2. the issue of the viability of measuring and . As seen above.

The derivative G' (x) is calculated and equated to zero to find the times for which receptivity is increasing and decreasing. the phenomenon of semiotic metaphor is invisible because of the layers of grammatical metaphor. 'the ability to grasp a difficult concept'. The development of grammatical metaphor in language is related to the types of metaphorical expansions which take place through intersemiosis. the value for G' (x) > 0 is found as follows: -0. the 'measure of receptivity after x minutes of presentation'. the time elapsed in the lecture. This construal is hedged in rhetoric which implicitly relates educational performance to the innate characteristics of the students such as ability and intelligence which are literally 'viewed' along the lines of ethnicity and race.2% < 2. mathematical symbolism and a graph. Once constituted as a symbolic entity. In Example 2. Such grammatical and intersemiotic metaphorical constructions now appear as commonsense knowledge in contemporary discourse.24.6 x<13 . or 'the student receives the lecture material from the lecturer in multiple semiotic forms' where the lecturer/student is the Medium or Agent are reduced to 'receptivity'.6>0 -0. and the optimal time for the presentation of the most difficult concept.24.2x+2. that is.2x > -2. To determine when receptivity is increasing.24. mathematical symbolism is called into play. semiotic metaphor occurs in that the process 'receive' (linguistic) is construed as an entity G(x) (symbolic). G(x) becomes a linguistic entity. In the shift to Figure 2.196 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE describing such an entity as 'receptivity' in precise symbolic form is sidestepped. the complex dynamic process of teaching/learning is reduced to metaphorical entities and relations. Grammatical metaphor and other linguistic choices construe metaphorical entities which are re-inscribed symbolically as a dynamic process which unfolds over time. the symbolic G(x) is reformulated in terms of a dynamic construal of mathematical participants and Operative processes in relation to the variable of time. Intrasemiosis: The Mathematical Symbolism To answer the questions (a)-(d) posed in Example 2. Thus through the use of language.6 0. In other words. but only within a semantic field which involves x. congruent linguistic constructions such as 'the lecturer uses language and other forms of semiosis to teach the students'. In the shift from language to the symbolism. another form of semiotic metaphor occurs in that a new entity in the form of a curve is introduced visually. For example. The mental/material/ behavioural dynamic process of teaching/learning shifts seamlessly from the metaphorical construct 'receptivity' to the symbolic participant G(x).

(b) student interest is found to be still increasing when x = 10. G(x)) for . the scales are calibrated numerically. The solution to Example 2.24: (a) student receptivity is increasing for x < 13 and decreasing for x > 13. and the Multiplicative Properly of Negative One (which is signalled in Example 2.lx2 + 2. So apparently it is possible to teach the concept to these students.24 which reads 'Graph of receptivity function G(x) in Example 2.24. For example.1[[*x x]]]] + [[2. various algebraic laws. The dynamic aspect of time is therefore related to spatiality in the graph. The mathematical symbolic relationship consists of rankshifted configurations of mathematical participants and processes indicated by [[ ]]: G(x) = [[[[-0. which serves to provide a VISUALIZATION of the results which are established symbolically. The algebraic inequality is rearranged so that the values for which the derivative is greater than zero are found. INTERSEMIOTIC IDENTIFICATION is realized through direct reference in the caption for Figure 2.24 depends upon previously established results which include the definition of the derivative. Intersemiosis: The Mathematical Symbolic Solution and the Graph The mathematical symbolic solutions to questions (a)-(d) are directly linked to the graph of the function. That is. Thus the following answers are provided in Example 2. (c) the optimal time for the discussion of the most difficult concept is x= 13 (although the fact that student receptivity must immediately start to decrease after this point of time is not considered) and (d) substituting x= 13 in the original equation G(x) = -0.1x2 + 2.24. which is higher than the 55 required for the concept to be taught to 'this particular group of students'. the definition of a negative number. A curved line pointing to the graph of the function accompanies the Labelling in Figure 2.24'. Intersemiotic Reference takes place through the intersemiotic mechanism of Intersemiotic Mixing where the graph is Labelled G(x) = —O. Significant values for (x.24 by the statement 'inequality sign is reversed').6x+43gives 'the maximum value of receptivity' to be 59.24 means that there is no ambiguity as to the identification of the visual participants and circumstance in the graph. given 'their intelligence level'. In addition.9. The grammar of mathematical symbolism has been specifically designed exactly for this purpose (see Chapter 4).M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF R E A L I T Y 197 The solution to the problem unfolds seamlessly in the form of an IMPLICATION SEQUENCE.6*]] +43]] This rankshifted configuration becomes a metaphorical visual entity in the form of a curve in Figure 2. the symbolism preserves the rankshifted process/participant configurations so that the equation can be reconfigured and simplified in order to find the solution to the problem. The axes are Labelled linguistically 'receptivity' and 'time (in minutes)' and symbolically x and G.6x + 43. The use of Juxtaposition and compositional arrangement of the labels in Figure 2.

5 in Burgmeier et al. In terms of interpersonal meaning.1-2. Following generic conventions. discourse. the tenor. symbolic components of the Example 2. The formulation and solution to mathematics problems become straightforward standard procedures. The levels of assumption in this mathematics problem.24. the variable 'receptivity' is a measurable entity which is dependent on time. grammar and display. Example 2. There is no ambiguity arising from the conventionalized modes of presentation. (1990). Example 2. directions are issued and the problem is solved. the Bi-directional Investment of Meaning through intersemiosis with respect to the Contextualization Propensity (CP) (Cheong. The definition of the derivative is assumed given the preceding theory presented in Sections 2. visual images and mathematical symbolism directly function to contextualize each other so there is a low Interpretative Space (IS) which results in a direct Semantic Effervescence (SE). Statements are made. to demonstrate how the derivative of a function may be used to solve mathematics problems involving increasing and decreasing functions. There is no visual representation of the derivative as the slope of the tangent line at the points which are marked on the curve. are not addressed in Burgmeier et al.24: Register. The abstract nature of the processes and participants and the style of production of the text contribute to the dominating tenor. The terms 'receptivity' and 'intelligence' are reduced to a function of the time elapsed in the teacher's presentation. (1990). Genre and Ideology There are consistent patterns of registerial configurations across the linguistic. is unequal. The assumptions behind this application of mathematical theory and concepts are not discussed in Burgmeier et al.6x+ 43) and the solution. The problem is solved using mathematical symbolism. and this is perhaps the key reason for the formulation of the problem.198 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE questions (b) and (d) are Labelled and marked by points on the graph as (10. it is worthwhile to examine the types of semiotic choices in Example 2.1^ + 2. The main function of the problem is. 2004) is high. In Example 2. Nonetheless. 1999. 59. In terms of experiential meaning.9) through the dotted vertical line which extends from the x axis to the curve. involves the application of mathematical concepts and theory to an educational context. symbolism and visual images are such that the mathematics text appears objective and factual.24. the mathematics problem is tightly organized at the ranks of Item.24. choices from the systems for language. Textually. however.24 in order to investigate the underlying ideological assumptions of the problem. . Interpersonal attention is drawn to the critical turning point of the graph at (13. the method through which the psychologist determines that 'receptivity' for a group of students is given by G(x) — —0. or the relation between the author and the reader. (1990:45-76). in relation to its conception (for example. however. 59. The linguistic items. 59) and (13.9).

24. 'receptivity'. mathematical symbolism.' The mechanisms through which semiotic mediation in mathematics contributes to this exercise are a central focus of concern in this study. the use of language. Within this discourse. especially in the realm of mathematics and science education. The reasoned logic realized through the symbolism is mirrored in the surrounding linguistic text and the graphical display of the results.M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF R E A L I T Y 199 Logically. Further interpretation of the complexity and the simplicity of the social-semiotic reality of mathematical and scientific discourse is needed. In what follows. Firmly entrenched in mathematical and scientific discourse. 'the ability of students'. intersemiosis across the three resources. 'difficult concepts' and 'intelligence levels' become commonsense constructs. Once described. these are discussed in relation to language. 'teacher's presentation'. but in all other domains of enquiry in both the natural and social sciences. the solution to the problem unfolds smoothly according to the meaning potential made available through the grammar of mathematical symbolism. 1984) speaks of scientific discourse as the discourse of truth in contemporary society.24. 7. evaluates and normalizes. In addition to providing a theoretical framework through which mathematics may be viewed in mathematics education. the use of grammatical and semiotic metaphor functions to order experience such that metaphorical constructs appear as real entities formulated in exact symbolic terms by accredited experts in the field. order is imposed on educational practices such that identifiable entities such as 'learning behaviour'. Thibault (1997: 108) elaborates: 'This paradigm has provided the basis for approaching the problems of causality not only in physics. Following Foucault (1991). the SF approach also permits the analysis of discourse in mathematics classrooms. The flux of experience is reduced to a matter of variables. this is done in a society that categorizes.2 Educational Implications of a Multisemiotic Approach to Mathematics An SF perspective of mathematics as a multisemiotic discourse has many implications for mathematics education. one variable in the form of the time which has elapsed in a university lecture. Foucault (1980b. visual display. As seen in Example 2. In Example 2.24. The . In what follows. The nature of these exact relations may be viewed graphically. The tools for these descriptions are semiotic. the implications of an SF approach to mathematics as a multisemiotic discourse for mathematics education are summarized. measures. and semiotic and grammatical metaphor. certain groups are constructed as subjects in such a way as to provide causes and reasons for central inequalities in the educational system. exact values may be calculated as they change over time. Explanations can be provided to legitimize and rationalize educational practices which continue to support privilege in society. mathematical symbolism and visual representation in mathematics discourse has developed and expanded into new realms of human experience since the days of Newton and Descartes. in the case of Example 2.

opens the way for a critical engagement with texts. Mathematical and scientific language developed in particular ways because the dynamic construal of reality was delegated to mathematical symbolism where the relations could be displayed visually. The nature of linguistic selections in mathematics and science may be contextualized with respect to other possible choices using the SFL approach. the nature of scientific writing and reading (Halliday and Martin. The choices relate to the functions of language in mathematics. 1971. . and that meaning is a matter of choice. although meaning may be a matter of choice. 2000). that is. concluding comments concerning the implications of the semiotic makeup of mathematics and science are made in Section 7. Lemke. printed media and material lived-in-day-to-day reality. the semantic drift towards the constructions of metaphorical entities and the expansion of nominal group structures in language needs to be contexualized in relation to the functions and lexicogrammatical strategies found in mathematical symbolism and visual images. the logical reasoning which takes place and the ways in which the message is organized and delivered. Martin and Veel. An understanding that reality is enacted contextually through particular configurations of linguistic choices is critical for interpreting discourse in diverse contexts which span digital media. The analysis reveals the complexity of classroom discourse and the difficulties which inadvertently arise from using English as the metalanguage to teach mathematics. The SF Approach to Language The SF approach to language offers a comprehensive model through which students may come to understand that language is a tool used to create order.4.200 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE nature of pedagogical discourse in mathematics classes is discussed in Section 7. and the interests served by such language selections. In contemporary times where information is increasingly a commodity. However. In addition. the ability to critically read. 1998) need to be situated in relation to the functions of mathematical symbolism and visual images. interpersonal and textual meanings are found. Finally. to contextualize the mathematical problem and to draw implications from the results. 1973. Mathematical and scientific language involve particular types of linguistic choices which organize reality in particular ways. For example. The metafunctional approach shows that content is only one aspect of the order which is imposed on the world. 1990. interpret and write is becoming a necessary resource for survival. logical. students can appreciate that there are culturally specific ways in which language is used in different contexts. This is particularly important in the context of education where groups of students are marginalized (Bernstein.3. 1993. 1990. 1977. Mathematics and science are registers where particular configurations of experiential. Equally important are the social relations which are enacted. The understanding of those ways.

the simultaneous contraction and expansion of process types to include Operative processes. A semantic circuit was created in that linguistic and mathematical descriptions were tied to visual images. these . However. The nature of the selections and the lexicogrammatical strategies for encoding meaning needs to be seen in relation to the mathematical symbolism and visual display. The grammar of mathematical symbolism functions differently from the grammar of language. Logical meaning is concerned with elaborating. The SF Approach to Mathematical Symbolism The SF approach to mathematical symbolism demonstrates how this semiotic resource developed new grammatical strategies for encoding meaning. Finally. extending and enhancing relations for the description of problems and the prediction of outcomes. logical deduction using language is realized metaphorically through the selection of causative relational processes. The abstract and nominalized forms of the participants contribute to the authorative stance of mathematics texts. and the reasons for this development. These entities are related to other entities so that clause complex logical relations are reconfigured as single clauses.M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF R E A L I T Y 201 In terms of experiential meaning. important linguistic. and clauses are reconfigured as nominal groups. In this process. to reiterate an important point. and the grammar thus developed special techniques where process/participant configurations were preserved for reconfiguration for the solution to problems. and this needs to be made explicit in an educational context. Language functions to construe metaphorical entities through the expansion of the potential of the nominal group. symbolic and visual components are spatially marked so that the reader may easily access information through a recursive scanning-type reading path. and the use of multiple levels of rankshift so that the symbolic processes and participants can be rearranged in the solution to mathematics problems. The interpersonal stance of mathematical language includes a high modality or truth value where statements and commands have maximal probability and obligation. Mathematical symbolism developed as a tool that could be used for reasoning. The algebraicization of geometry meant that spatial relations (the visual image) could be connected to temporal and logical relations (symbolic descriptions of relations over time) in an exact manner. mathematical and scientific language cannot be viewed in isolation. mathematical language is largely concerned with relational processes where identifying relations configure metaphorical identities. that is. These techniques include the development of new grammatical systems. The typography and compositional choices in mathematics texts include the spatial organization of items according to significance. which are organized in generically specific ways. A historical perspective reveals how realms of meaning were set aside in order to develop a semiotic resource concerned with the descriptions of relations in a de-contextualized environment. SFL offers a theoretical approach through which this is possible.

Mathematical symbolism is functional. Consequently mathematical symbolism developed new grammatical systems (such as the use of spatial notation. the culmulative effect is that many students fail mathematics because they simply do not understand how (or why) mathematical symbolism functions as a resource . In an educational context. the multiple rankshift or embedding of nuclear configurations of Operative processes in mathematical symbolic text gives what can be described as grammatical density. Halliday (1985: 87) compares the 'density of substance' or the 'lexical density' of written text to the 'intricacy of movement' or the 'grammatical intricacy' of spoken language. However. Even though the participants and processes are typically generalized variables and Operative processes. students are typically presented with modern mathematics in a pre-packaged form where the functions and grammar of mathematical symbolism are not discussed. but only within a certain semantic realm compared to language. Mathematical symbolism is largely concerned with relational and Operative processes with limited forms of circumstance. or how mathematical symbolism developed historically as a semiotic resource in order to fulfil particular functions. This reduction of meaning in the evolution of mathematical symbolism permitted semantic expansions so that the exact description of the relations can be displayed visually. The price for the semantic expansion where mathematical symbolism provides exact descriptions of relations which are reconfigured to solve problems is a limitation of the semantic realm with which mathematics is concerned. while written language packs meaning into extended word group structures. The discourse is presented in such a way that many students do not understand what mathematics is. The preservation of process/participant configurations involves an unprecedented flexibility through a range of grammatical systems which permit those configurations to be rearranged as the symbolic text unfolds. special symbols and the Rule of Order for operations) so that meaning was economically and precisely encoded in rankshifted configurations which could be easily rearranged for the solution to mathematics problems. Interpersonal meaning is largely restricted to maximal values of modality and modulation where expressions of probablity and uncertainty are encoded through relational processes such as approximations and probability statements. The difference is that density in mathematical symbolism involves specialized systems for economy of expression and multiple levels of rankshift. Mathematical symbolism combines the flow of spoken discourse with the density of written language.202 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE grammmatical strategies took place in language because the responsibilty for the dynamic description of relations and logical deductions was allocated to the symbolism. Given that the grammar of mathematical symbolism is not taught from a linguistic perspective. the symbolic mathematics is experientially dense because of the precision and economy with which meaning is encoded. Logical meaning is aided by textual organization so that solutions of mathematics problems are organized in very specific ways which utilize spatial positioning.

However. and one means for understanding this development is the changes which occurred in the visual image. curves and three-dimensional objects. The increasing sophistication of computer graphics are leading to more complex forms of mathematical visual images. they cannot solve mathematical problems without recourse to the grammar of mathematical symbolism. These types of selections in mathematical images mean that contemporary mathematical graphs and diagrams appear abstract with a high modality value. The SF Approach to Visual Images The SF approach to visual images in mathematics includes a description of the functions and grammar of visual representation and how these relate to the algebraic and linguistic descriptions. The functions and grammar of mathematical symbolism need to be addressed in the teaching and learning of mathematics. which are variously shown as intersecting lines. Visual images are typically multisemiotic as accompanying labels function to identify the relations with respect to symbolic descriptions.M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF REALITY 203 for meaning. the grammar of visual images. mathematics and science are entering into a new era where new ways of construing reality are becoming possible. the participants and processes in visual images are the relations encoded symbolically. A semantic circuit with language. Students cannot write in the formats required by educational institutions if they cannot make use of the options provided by the grammar of language and. the development of computer technology permits digital data to be transformed into new forms of visual images. needs to be understood because there are specific systems which permit links to be made to the symbolism. A de-contextualization of the visual display took place as human actors and material circumstances were removed as concern focused on the display of relations in the form of lines. planes and other forms of visual representation. especially as the resource employs new strategies for encoding meaning. Mathematical visual images developed to link spatiality with temporality so the visual relations could be exactly encoded using the symbolism. However. mathematical symbolism and visual images thus exists. Experientially. While visual images are accessible as they correspond to perceptual reality. This includes the use of systems such as colour and three-dimensional displays that replicate and extend our perception of the world in what has become virtual reality. in a similar manner. The relations between semiosis and technology could be incorporated into mathematics education. . A historical perspective demonstrates how mathematics evolved as a discourse. Modern mathematics developed as a written and printed discourse. because of advances in visualization and computation. however.

mathematical discourse is successful because: 1 2 3 The meaning potentials of language. This is not confined to the display of mathematical visual images where computer graphics display numerical rather than analytical solutions in rapidly changing dynamic formats. These overlays are formulated as co-contextualizing relations where there is a convergence of meaning. These transitions give rise to semantic expansions in mathematics. method (computation versus analytic solution) and medium and materiality (computerized environment rather than print). The discourse. The functions and resulting grammars for language. Semiotic Mixing. 2004). Traditionally. and micro-shifts where choices from one semiotic resource are integrated within another semiotic resource. The potential for re-contextualization is changing with the advent of computer technology.204 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE Intersemiosis across Language. mathematics functions to co-contextualize and re-contextualize meanings intersemiotically in such a way that the Interpretative Space (IS) is limited. Computer technology is also revolutionizing mathematics in terms of approach (non-linearity versus linearity). In addition to transitions. and a new meta-language is useful for examining the semantic overlays which consequently arise. mathematical symbolism and visual images function intersemiotically. mechansisms for intersemiosis include Semiotic Cohesion. Apart from concerning itself with a limited semantic domain. The examination of intersemiosis and intersemiotic mechanisms provides a conceptual framework which adds a new semantic layer to analysis beyond that provided by the SF frameworks for each resource. 1999. Intersemiotic transitions consist of macro-shifts from one resource to another across Items. Meaning expansions occur when the discourse shifts from one semiotic resource to another. grammatical and display systems of each resource function integratively. symbolism and the visual images may be conceptualized as three integrated systems which permit intersemiotic transitions to take place. The systems for intersemiotic transitions and other intersemiotic mechanisms are metafunctionally based. . Mathematical Symbolism and Visual Images The SFL approach to mathematics as a multisemiotic discourse is significant because it provides a theoretical framework to explain how language. The extent and degree of these contextualizing relations arise through the Bi-Directional Investment of Meaning where the Contextualizing Propensity (CP) and Semantic Effervescence (SE) result in an Interpretative Space (IS) (Cheong. Semiotic Adoption and Juxtaposition. symbolism and visual images are accessed. and re-contextualizing relations where divergence occurs.

regardless of the context or the field of human endeavour. occur. that linguistic entity has traditionally been viewed as a case of grammatical metaphor. or a distance in a diagram). Grammatical metaphor in language is most likely a response to the dynamic function fulfilled by mathematical symbolism and the types of semantic expansions which take place intersemiotically. The types of cocontextualizing and re-contextualizing relations which take place with semiotic metaphor extend beyond those possible within one semiotic resource. These metaphorical shifts which take place across language. For example. mathematics is taught using a variety of modes which include the black/white board. In this context where the oral discourse tends to be congruent. semiotic metaphors are traceable. however. The scientific view of the world is the means through which truth is established. Scientific and mathematical constructions appear as commonsense knowledge despite their metaphorical nature because these types of constructions have become 'the way' of establishing order. these metaphorical semantic expansions are absorbed into the systems for each resource and thus contribute to the dynamic evolution of semiosis. However. In the context of the classroom. printed material including mathematical textbooks. symbolism and visual images are not always noticed because the high incidence of grammatical metaphors in mathematical and scientific language create a semantic layer over the semiotic metaphors occurring through intersemiosis. Co-contextualization in the form of parallel semiotic metaphors. then the shift is perceived to be language -> language rather than language -» visual image/mathematical symbolism —> language. In other words. and re-contextualization in the case of divergent semiotic metaphors. 7. Alternatively or concurrently. the transition to another semiotic resource may also permit new functional elements to be introduced. if there is a shift from a linguistic process to a visual entity then the linguistic reconstrual of that visual entity results in a linguistic entity. a linguistic process ('to measure') becomes a symbolic or visual entity or circumstance (an xin the symbolism. Thus grammatical metaphor may be viewed as the product of semiotic metaphor. Semiotic metaphor is further discussed in relation to the nature of pedagogic discourse in mathematics classrooms. Semiotic metaphor occurs when a choice from one semiotic resource undergoes a change of functional status in the transition to another semiotic resource.M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF R E A L I T Y 205 Semiotic and Grammatical Metaphor Semiotic metaphor is an important means for semantic expansions in mathematical discourse. if one is only examining language. In turn. . For example.3 Pedagogical Discourse in Mathematics Classrooms The theorization of mathematical discourse in this study concerns printed mathematical texts and the evolution of new forms of mathematics made possible through computer technology.

1996. The constant reconfiguration of the symbolic rankshifted Operative processes and participants and the nature of taxonomic relations increase the difficulty of tracking participants. In what follows. graphics calculators. symbolism and visual display. 2000). The texture of mathematical pedagogical discourse is dense as the spoken mode provides the meta-language for the action which takes place in the temporal material unfolding of the lesson which includes the written mathematics. 2004c). although analysis demonstrates that the nature of relations established between the teacher . From this perspective a new multimodal approach to discourse analysis emerges (O'Halloran. The nature of the discourse in three mathematics classrooms differentiated on the basis of gender and socio-economic status are summarized after the more general features of mathematical pedagogic discourse are outlined below. While gestures such as pointing and hand movements. there are long chains of logical reasoning which typically involve a high incidence of consequential-type relations. which includes the verbalization of the symbolic and visual descriptions. In terms of logical meaning. As a result. The constant shifts between the written and spoken modes in mathematics classrooms mean that the preceding theory of the functions and grammars for language. computer software. and mathematical models and equipment. body movement. The analysis of mathematical pedagogical discourse must necessarily take into account the multisemiotic nature of mathematics. Interpersonally. the authorative interpersonal stance of written mathematics may be replicated in the oral discourse. the INTERSEMIOTIC IDENTIFICATION of participants extends across language. The meta-language for teaching and learning mathematics in this study is English. In many cases these relations are based on previously established mathematical results which are often left implicit. proxemics and so forth. SF discourse analysis reveals that the patterns of interaction in classrooms are different (O'Halloran. 1996. 1996. For example. mathematical symbolism and visual display is relevant in terms of both intrasemiosis and intersemioisis. symbolism and visual images in the written and spoken modes. the implications of the SF perspective to pedagogical discourse in mathematics classrooms are discussed. The grammar of mathematical symbolism contributes to the dense texture of classroom discourse. the interaction between the teacher and the student in the context of the mathematics classroom involves spoken language. facial expression. and body movement are significant in classroom interactions. Veel.206 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE practice sets of examples and test papers. 1999). Although teacher-talk dominates mathematical classrooms (O'Halloran. While mathematics evolved as a written discourse. the teacher and students inevitably resort to language at each stage of the lesson. one that integrates the multisemiotic written and spoken modes of mathematics with the use of other systems of meaning such as gesture. major reference chains continually split and conjoin as the solution to the problem is derived. and the shifts between the written/ spoken modes and the shifts between language.

M A T H E M A T I C A L C O N S T R U C T I O N S OF REALITY 207 and the students varies across classrooms and schools (O'Halloran. 1996. For example. Interpersonal dimensions of the interaction between the male teacher and female students in a similarly placed private school for girls were found to be orientated towards deferentiality compared to the patterns of dominance enacted in the lesson with male students.6 x x Similarly. students are presented with linguistic entities which are. In other words. Jx2 + 5x* as indicated by [[^/[[x 2 ]]]] + [[5x[[xx x x xx x]]]]. Otherwise.1 [[xx *]]]] +[[2. 'the sum of the square root of x squared and five x to the power of 4' is realized linguistically as an entity because it takes the form of a nominal group. 1996. The consequent shifts in meaning that take place in oral pedagogical discourse need to be addressed so that students understand the metaphorical nature of those linguistic constructions in relation to the symbolic and visual forms.6x+ 43 in Example 2. However. The analysis of discourse in an elite private school for male students reveals that the metafunctionally based choices in the pedagogical discourse and blackboard texts mirror those typically found in mathematical discourse. complex configurations of mathematical processes with their associated participants.I. the metaphorical nature of those linguistic constructions is not usually discussed. 2004c).*2 + 2. However. These students subsequently performed exceptionally well in university entrance examinations in mathematics and other subjects. The nature of pedagogical discourse in mathematics varies greatly across institutions and teachers (O'Halloran 1996. The symbolic statement means G(*) = [[[[-0. 2004c). The female students. the impact of the metaphorical form of those constructions needs to be considered. often results in semiotic metaphor. there are multiple configurations of process/participants in the symbolic form. for instance.1 X [[xx x]] and 2. the teacher may refer to G(x) = -O.24 in the following manner: 'the function G(x) is negative zero point one x to the power of two plus two point six xplus forty-three'. Although verbal descriptions of the symbolic statements and visual images constantly take place in the mathematics classroom. the linguistic entity in the form of the nominal group 'negative zero point one x to the power of two' and 'two point six x' replaces the process/participant configurations -0. The use of English as the meta-language for the symbolic and visual texts involves metaphorical-type constructions that typically remain unnoticed (O'Halloran. performed well in . The verbalization of symbolic mathematics. nonetheless. the Operative processes become participants in the verbalization of the symbolic statement. Although the verbalizations permit exact translations back to the mathematical symbolic statement. for example. 2000). 'the function G(x) is [[negative zero point one x to the power of two plus two point six x plus forty-three] ]'. This may be one important factor accounting for learning difficulties in mathematics. This raises an important issue.6*]]+43]] where [[ ]] indicate rankshifted configurations of Operative processes and participants. in fact.

Coherence in the lesson depended to a large extent on the immediate physical context of the classroom and accompanying physical gestures of the teacher and the students. including the oral discourse. The SF approach includes the development of SFL theory to account for the context of culture (education). the micro-genres and activity sequences which constitute the lesson. The practices and processes of teaching/learning mathematics are as diverse as the outcomes. and. '[t]he orientation towards particularistic/local/context-dependent meanings . the reality is that the discourse differs across institutions. the school curriculum in the form of macro-genres (Christie. 7.208 MATHEMATICAL DISCOURSE university entrance exams. In particular. more generally. the context of situation (school type and class). the physical context and the non-verbal behaviour of the teacher and the students. where the pedagogical discourse was different in all respects from that found in the other two classrooms.4 The Nature and Use of Mathematical Constructions Mathematical and scientific discourses are semiotic constructions which have moved beyond the printed page into new realms of meaning. the oral discourse and non-generic ellipsed format of the blackboard texts tended to be context dependent. the use of computers and software applications and the internet for teaching and learning mathematics may also be investigated. The most marked difference in classroom discourse was found in the lesson in the low socio-economic government school. The uses of mathematics and science have also extended into other realms such as the social sciences . does not accord with the universal. 1997). . visual images. These results indicate that while we may speak of classroom discourse in mathematics classrooms. the register selections in the classroom discourse were colloquial rather than technical. In this classroom. the SF approach offers a comprehensive social-semiotic theory of language through which mathematical symbolism and visual display may be viewed. the lesson genre (the type of lesson). and the use of language. These semiotic constructions have proved enormously powerful for the reshaping of the physical world and developing technology. 1996). Using this approach. 2004c). the complexity of classroom interactions. remote and seemingly context-independent meanings of mathematics' (O'Halloran. The analysis indicated that the major concern of this lesson was the maintenance of interpersonal relations rather than the experiential content of the lesson. although not to the same level as the male students. may be analysed. In addition. There are many applications of the SFL approach to mathematics education which require further research and development. The students who attended this school did not perform well in university entrance examinations. As far as the mathematical content was concerned. language and other semiotic resources in those activity sequences (O'Halloran. This discussion has indicated some areas in which the study of semiotics of mathematics is useful for mathematics education. .

We need to come to terms with the functions and limitations of mathematical and scientific descriptions which increasingly appear to be harnessed to the demands of capitalism. a commonsense reading of reality today is often based on a mathematical and scientific view of the world. before the political rhetoric surrounding such advances betrays us all. From here. The re-contextualization which took place through Descartes. a few final comments are made below. the political. Reason becomes the rearrangement of relations which can be undertaken with the available semiotic tools. visual display and language. Further to this. From the SF perspective developed here. the life sciences and the military. especially in the fields of computer technology. The nature of that semiotic construction has been the subject of this study. non-linear dynamical systems theory introduces new computerized techniques to describe and predict the behaviour of chaotic systems. reason. Abstraction is the re-contextualization which took place historically where 'superfluous' information was put aside in the pursuit of knowledge which entailed the description of relations in a form which could be visualized and rearranged for the solution to problems. Modern mathematical and scientific constructions are effective in that they successfully model physical systems up to the point where they become nonlinear. From this view. contextual independence. mathematical and scientific descriptions have extended into the realms of the economic. objectivity becomes a 'valued' cultural product which is enacted semiotically. And the nature of truth is reduced to the nature of the semiotic constructions found in the mathematical and scientific views of the world.MATHEMATICAL CONSTRUCTIONS OF REALITY 209 where the problematic nature of the metaphorical constructions which consequently arise may be demonstrated through close textual analysis as undertaken in Section 7. Meanwhile. Similarly. objectivity and truth are viewed as particular types of semiotic choices made from the available systems from the grammars of mathematical symbolism. In conclusion. objectivity is the organization of particular experiential and logical realms of meaning which are accompanied by a contracted interpersonal stance. The scientific method initially involved describing the physical world where new entities were introduced to explain physical phenomena. Newton and countless other mathematicians to produce modern mathematics has undergone further re-contextualization in what could only be described as the mathematicization of the human condition. . However. the educational and the private. the social.1. science and technology advance rapidly. critical concepts in mathematics and science such as abstraction.

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89 Danaher. 6 Coca Cola (company) 8 code-switching 16 cohesion. 95-6. 33.W.W. 118. 129-30. PJ. 146-58. 148 Davis. 189-90.132. 199. Rene 17. 8. 62 Christie. B. 53-9. 157 Davies. 18 advertising 8. 58. 119 Baldry. 58-9. N. 128. 198. 129-31. R. 125-8 BurgmeierJ.Index abacus. 23. 19.33.J. fall of (1945) 3-7 Bernstein. 1-7 Berlin. 23. 68 Bordell. 198 Bush. 27-8. T. 9 Berry. 149-51 Botticelli.W.38-48. Nicolas 33 classroom discourse 205-8 Cobley.J. 151 deductive reasoning 119 Derewianka. 119. 163 agency.A.127 conjunctive reticula 80 context of text 89 contextualization propensity (CP) 165. F. use of 118. P. 6 chaotic systems 17. 19. 87-8 Descartes.115 cosmology 55 culture 7-8. 60 Chuquet. 204 contextualizing relations 165—7 coreness of lexical items 73. 161.22-3. 154—6 definition of 148 computer technology 15. 132. 104 computer graphics applications of 149. Thomas 34 Archimedes 31 Aristotle 34 Azzouni. 138. 34.YY.115. concept of 175 Colonna. 148.27. George W.-F.126. B. 57. 151. 149-57 passim communication planes 89 compositional meaning 146-8 computational devices 25. 46. Sandro 139 Bourdieu. D. M. use of 25 abstract theory 36 activity sequences 111. 160. 209 Cheong. loss 119 Chandler.111 Carter.C. 130-2. 58. S. P. 176-7 Adorno. 124 Beevor. 2 Cajori. D. 209 . 165 Chomsky. 9 brackets. 201 algorithms 25 anaphoric nouns 87 applied mathematics 33. 96.119. P. 203-5. 73 certainty in mathematics. A. 119-21. 45-6. 104-7. 72. concept of 105-8 algebra 23-4.F. 36 Aquinas. 208-9 condensatory strategies 126—8 conjunctive relations 119-20.P.

91. 71-4. 155. G.115-16. 61 Hooper. 65-6.A. 18 ideational meaning 62. 186. 145.194-6. 91. 1 grammatical density 202 grammatical metaphor 83-8. 16. 165 . 20 Kuhn. 142. L. R. 64-8. 63. M. 67. M.198 contraction and expansion of 103-14 encoding of 148 visual construction of 142-5 experimentation 58 virtual 151. M.S. 94. 96.L. mathematical 16-17. 114. 148 Fontana. 156 genre 20. 13.163.A.130. 158-9 Iraq war (2003) 18 'items' in mathematical texts 159-61. 33. 128.127 existential graphs 130 experiential meaning 71. 206-8 contraction of 114—18 interpretative space (IS) 165. A. 60-90. 179. 93 ledema.W. 134.175-6. M. 95.224 INDEX discourse systems 60-1. 128. 96. 154 expression 108 Febvre.89-91 geometry 45-8.L.57 Lemke. T. 119. 163.K.157. 65-6. 34. 88-91. J. 97. 198. 46 historical development of mathematical discourse 22-4 Hjelmslev. 149 Guo. 91.Y. 148 Gregory.K.138 habitus 9 Halliday. G.127. mathematical 94 integration of semiotic resources 171 integrative multisemiotic model 91. 20.C. 163 Hersh. 97.163 internet resources 208 interpersonal meaning 62. 24 langue 62 Layzer.V. G. F.184-8. 58 Galison. 202 Hamming. 24. 65. 31 female students 207-8 'field' variable 89 FoleyJ. R. 129-31. 87 Funkenstein. 199-208 Eisenstein. 154—5 Galileo 35-7. L. 58.20. E. David 185 LeLous. 159 Kress.R. 189-91 Koestler. 20. 98. 24 Hasan. Niccolo see Tartaglia Foucault. 6-7.45. 198. 110. 204-5 and expansion of meaning 184 in mathematical texts 171-7 mechanisms of 169-71 semantics of 163-9 systemic framework for 171 intrasemiosis 16.160-3.199.126-8. 49. 72. 105. 98-101.A. 118. 90. M. 134. 199 Francis. 81. L. 58 Horkheimer. 124. 96. 88.13. P. 132. 200-1 Lim.174-5. 119 education. 11. 88 ideology 91. 204 intersemiosis 11-12. A. 163 GroB. 184. R. 92. 108.195. M. 183-8. 148 learning difficulties 207 Leibniz.55 Kok. 93. 201 Gestalt theory 147 Goldhagen. 130 exchange structures 68-72. 128 dynamical systems theory 17.202-3 condensatory strategies for 126-8 Euclid 27-31. 122-4. 202. 205 grammatical repackaging 185-6 Grave. D J.113-14. 159 image processing 148-9 induction.189-98. 33 ellipsis 122-6 encoding of meaning 97. 46. 159 lexical density of text 202 lexical metaphor 88 lexicogrammar 63-7.139.

201-2. 118. 62 printing technology 27-33.197. 6. 209 secondary clauses 80 semantic drift 200 semantic effervescence (SE) 165. 205. 17 . mathematical 23. 82.91.M.13. 204 semantic shift 184 semiotic capital 9 semiotic metaphor 16. 88. 97-8 educational implications of 199-205 see also integrative multi-semiotic model natural language 97 Nazi regime 2. 184. 93. 179-84. 13-21. W. de 62 scientific language 14.187. 62-7. 178 Martin. 108.101. 155-6 McDonald's (company) 8 macro-transitions 161-2. 31 Martin. C. 128. 186-7. 207 September llth 2001 attacks 2 Shea. 57. 10 Newton. 65. C.127 logical reasoning 128. 81 Rotman. 149. see also grammatical metaphor. S. 177-9. 121-8.158.176. 146-7 Pacioli. 34 Renaissance mathematics 33-8 resemioticization 11.R. T.88.175 rule of order for operative processes 118. 178 mode 20. 189-91 mathematics. 13 Royce. 199. 196. 97-8.46. 184 mathematical spirit 19 mathematical books 24-33. mathematical 94—7 multimodality 19-21. 75. C. 60. Isaac 17. 2 parole 62 Peirce. (author) 208 operative processes 103-13.17. 60-8. G. 152-4. 73-93 passim. use of 191-3 picture synthesis 154 Plato 34 Poincare. 130 Smith. T. J. 188.163-5.40-58. 128.M. 209 'register' of mathematical language 89-91 Reisch. K. 127 Noth.I.200 metaphorical terms 14-17. 199. 128.22-3. 145. 6-7 nuclear relations 77 numeration systems 24-7. 178. 105-9. 24. 132-41.159.-J. 73-4. 103-4 objectivity 209 O'Halloran.124-8 Saussure.INDEX 225 logical meaning 78-81. David Eugene 24 social distance 90 social-semiotic theory 6-10. M. H. 206-7 rationalism 18 realization. status of 57-8 matrices 112-13 Matthiessen. definition of 20 Messaris. 198.89 models. 94. 184-8 medium.L. 201-2. 131-2 probability 72 rankshifting 66-7. 112-13. 22. 11. B.206 multisemiosis 10. 184. 209 Nike (company) 8 non-linear systems 58. 159 Rose. P. 96. 119. 5.R. 73-7.S. see also rule of order O'Toole. 91. concept of 62. 59-60. Luca 33 Page. D. semiotic metaphor metaphorical exchange 178 micro-transitions 161-2. 171-2. 200-1.131. 88. 205 scientific view of the world 6. 209 notation. F. 183-5. 44. 206-7. 188.W. 132 metafunctionality of language 7. 204-5. Henri 130 positional notation 112-13 Poynton.31-3. 13-14. 205. 130 photographs. 65 reciprocity of choice 90-1 re-contextualization 177-9.10.54 Shin.

R.L. M. K. status of 90 statistical graphs 141-2. 158 systemic functional linguistics (SFL) 8. V.D. 62. 44-8. 149 war attitudes to 1-3 scientific impact of 18 Watson.FJ. 126-8 systemic functional (SF) approach 938.27. 1 Whitrow. 38. 199-206 and intersemiosis 196-7 language-based approach to 96-7 operative processes in 106 as a semiotic resource 125 SF approach to 201-3 textual organization of 122-5 as a tool for logical reasoning 128 syntagmatic organization 121-2. 158 Stewart.128. 148-9.101. Niccolo 34-42 taste 14 taxonomic relations 77 . 148. 183. 22-3. J. P. 78. 88. 126.165. 70.132-9. 20 Venn diagrams 130. 27-30 Thompson. 65-7. 80. 53-7.226 INDEX tenor 89-92 textual meaning 121-8 textual organization of language 81-3 Thibault.209 typological-type meaning 95 van Leeuwen. P.133. 23-4 Wilkes. E.155-6 as distinct from visual images 129-32 framework for 97-103 grammar of 15. 108. GJ.199. 60-1.P. C. 75. 18-20. 19.200-1. 203 systemic functional grammar (SFG) 13-15. 68 virtual experimentation 151. 88-91.142 Ventola.159. 119 topological-type meaning 95 transitions in mathematics 159-62 Treviso Arithmetic 22-7 trigonometry 179-83 'true knowledge' (Descartes) 54—5 truth-values 117-18.170.208 Tartaglia. 149-51 Tiles. 203 visual theorems 151 visualization 129-33.112-25. T. 204-9 and language 11-15. 203 Walatka.201-2 spoken discourse.163.186 Sweet Stayer.201.178. 60. 155-6 space of integration (Sol) 163 spatial positioning of mathematical symbols 122. 66-7. 96.G.187.142. 199 Thomas-Stanford. 89.131-2.183. 98. 200-1 and mathematical symbolism 201-3 and visual images 133-8. 111. 67-83 passim.E. 57 Swetz.33 syllogisms 119 symbolism. M.154 virtual reality 203 visual forms of semiosis 155-6 visual images grammar of 15 reasoning through use of 145-6 in SF framework 133-8.A.10-17.175. 149 Weitz. 24. 138. 57-9. mathematical 6-7. 93-104.134. 33 Wilder. 60-5.

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