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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS AT URBANA-CHAMPAIGN
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Library Large-scale Digitization Project, 2007.
.. Dick.... XV.................... Results of Tests by C.............. VIII.. II........................ ...... VII...... Resistance Moment of Fracture Section. 17 20 24 25 25 27 29 32 Tables for Plates of Uniform Thickness............................... ......... Common Formulas ............ Method of Approximation ... XIII............... Complete Formulas for Plates of Uniform Thickness ....... Introduction ........ Additional Examples of the Use of the Tables... For Plates of Tapered Thickness.... Resultant Bending Moment Acting about Fracture Line.... Graphical Tables ............................. . XIV.... Maximum Safe Fiber Stress in Metal of Plate......................... Limit of Safe Pressure of Plate on Masonry.. Page 2 2 3 4 8 12 13 14 ........ V...................... IV. R........... CLIFFORD RICKER.... Table for the Factor ........... XVI... XI....... 35 JULY 1909 A STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES FOR COLUMNS AND BEAMS BY N....................... PROFESSOR OF ARCHITECTURE CONTENTS I.. VI.. Table for Dimensions of Base Plates. X........... XII............. . IX.. III..UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION BULLETIN No.. New Formulas...
and the results were discussed in his thesis. LIMIT OF SAFE PRESSURE OF PLATE ON MASONRY The maximum safe pressure of the plate on the masonry beneath it varies greatly. Dick. S. The value to be employed must be taken in accordance with the local building ordinance. A number of typical plates were so designed and tested in 1907 by Mr.. selected as representative cities. A secondary purpose has been to devise a similar series of formulas based on the common theory of the fracture of such plates and to check the accuracy of these common formulas by experimental tests of a series of plates designed in accordance with such formulas. II. These requirements seem to be based upon local customs and not on actual experimental tests. (Table 1. Chicago and Washington. the -requirements of the city building ordinances also differ considerably for the same kind of masonry. C. INTRODUCTION The primary object of this study has been to produce a series of accurate formulas and tables for the different forms and materials of base and bearing plates. Up to the present time. in Architectural Engineering. the larger value being allowed for truly dressed large blocks of stone. and these are further compared with the values given in Kidder's Pocket Book.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION I. formulas which give erroneous dimensions of base plates. . very little study of theory and no experimental research appear to have been devoted to these plates. R. B. These formulas are required to be as simple and as easily applied as possible and to be in accordance with the local building ordinances of the larger cities in the United States. according to the nature and the resistance of this material. D. C. Examples of such maximum safe pressures are here quoted from the ordinances of New York. Even the German writers usually give incorrect theories with formulas based thereon.) Therefore this maximum safe pressure of the plate on masonry appears to vary between 70 and 1000 pounds per square inch.
..11 Chicago Wash'ton 173.are Inch Masonry G ranite ....... Rubble in natural cement. ....... It must not exceed the intensities given in the following table.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES TABLE 1 Safe Pressures on Masonry in Pounds per Squ.. 90. compression. 208.......72 111.. Concrete in portland cement Concrete in natural cement... 16 000 10000 3 000 .. 2 500 Maximum Safe Fiber Stress in Plates Metal Steel...... MAXIMUM SAFE FIBER STRESS IN METAL OF PLATE This maximum fiber stress in pounds per square inch occurs at either top or bottom of a plate of uniform thickness..61 700-2300 173...... 160.. tension ...33 111.. 111-125 Kidder 1000 400-700 150-200 150-250 100-120 200.. 173... Dimension stone. 111... Brickwork in natural cement. 125....... compression. Brickwork in portland cement.61 1000-2400 173. Rubble in lime. Brickwork in cement and lime. Steel. .. or at the bottom of a cast-iron plate of tapered thickness...... Y...28 111. rough .. . .......61 208-230 .. 140...... 16000 16 000 12 000 12 000 16 000 3 000 Evidently the maximum tensile stress in cast-iron permitted in Chicago might safely be increased from 2500 to 3000 pounds per square inch. Brickwork in lime . Cast Iron.....33 ........... ..61 250..................... which are almost uniformly adopted throughout the United States.. 138... III....... TABLE 2 Chicago Wash'ton Kidder 16 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 16 000 12 000 12 000 12 000 12 000 12 000 12 000 ... 97... N.... 159. .. compression... Rubble in cement and lime...11 208.61 400-1600 138..... tension ..89 111.. Wrought Iron...... Y...... ......11 97....89 ..... N. 70..... Rubble in portland cement.. tension..22 94. Wrought Iron... .. 173.. .... ....... .. which is permitted in about one-half the cities in the United States... Cast Iron... Limestone .44 208....... Sandstone ........
(a) For square plates (Fig. 1) is the theoretical fracture line. t = thickness of plate required. k = perpendicular distance in inches from column to edge of plate. Then (b) t k For octagonal plates (Fig. (See Graphic Statics. a series of formulas was deduced and later published in the Handbook of the Chicago Architects' Business Association. in. The essential formulas are the following: A. 1) FIG. 2 The segment ADB may be divided into triangles. COMMON FORMULAS The ordinary formulas for base plates are usually empirical (Kidder) or they are otherwise based on the theory that the line of fracture of a base plate is a straight line tangent to the exterior of the foot of the column standing on the plate (Kohnke).maximum safe pressure of plate on masonry in lb. For Steel Plates of Uniform Thickness Let p . in inches.) . 2) FiG.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION IV. 1 The line AB (Fig. when its center of gravity C is easily found by graphical methods. per sq. In accordance with this theory.
-Then 360 -2 Hence Also A 9 360 b3 12 a b3 12 a - = area in square inches of triangle ABO.1 5 b (3) . b = length in inches of chord fracture line AB. R = external radius of end of column in inches. A = area in square inches of the entire circle of the plate. b = length in inches of line of fracture. BO. A3 area of the sector ADBO in square inches. t 41 40 Hence 1- - Finally. - distance in inches from center 0 to center of gravity C of the segment.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES Let 1= perpendicular distance in inches from C to line of fracture AB. 1 3 apl . Then I (c) For circular plates (Fig. 3) (2) FIG. 3 Join the ends A and B of the chord fracture line with the center 0 by the radii AO. a = area in square inches of the segment ADB outside the line AB. and draw OD perpendicular to AB. R = perpendicular distance in inches from C to chord line of fracture AB. OB. bR 2 a = area in square inches of segment ADB. Let 3 = angle AOB in degrees between radii AO.
(a) For square plates (Fig. 5 . and they are therefore only approximate for plates with thick edges. These edges are usually made at least 38-in. thick. and are flat on the under side. 5) FIG. k'= side in inches of square on top of plate and tangent to column. but are beveled off on top from column to edge of the plate. 4 1 at k = projection of the edge of the plate outside the column.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION B. The thickness in inches of plate at middle is then given by the formula t( 6p 5(4) (k ok k' 50 (b) For octagonal plates (Fig. and a good rule is to make the edge one-fourth the thickness at the middle. For Cast-iron Plates of Tapered Thickness Such plates are of uniform thickness only beneath the end of a column or beam. These formulas are deduced for sharp edges or a trapezoidal fracture section. 4) FIG. measured in inches and perpendicular to the edge. The line of fracture AB is parallel to a side.
. 12 a 5b R = perpendicular distance in inches from C to line AB. The thickness in inches at the middle is then approximately t =- 1 0UV I I1 ap .. (c) For circular plates (Fig. a parabola may be substituted therefor without material error.area in square inches of segment ADB. 360 2 =1 -. its center of gravity C. and the distance 1. 6) D FIG.RICKER--STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES In the manner already explained for the octagonal steel plate may be found the area a of the segment ADB. 6 As for circular steel plates: A P bR a= . The actual fracture section lying between a very flat hyperbola and its chord. The thickness at middle is given by the formula 1 C I:-i5 a""l -~ 50 T 8 b 1 23 ~ J7 b 9 Itfli .-' U .
(Fig. 7). cut 24 x 3 x 7• in. RESULTS OF TESTS BY C. spaces between the pieces to permit expansion. . per sq. R. leaving 4 in. The thickness of each plate was made such that the maximum safe fiber stress in the fracture section produced by this maximum safe pressure should not exceed 16 000 lb.. and afterwards tested them in the testing laboratory of the University.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION V. Mr. though not sufficiently to seriously injure the plates except in Pre.sure Head FIG. in. R. Each plate had a bottom area of 400 sq. A cushion of dry sand forming a layer 2 inches thick was enclosed within a steel hoop a little larger than the plate. piled in crosswise layers. The distribution of the pressure of the plate uniformly over the lower surface required some form of elastic cushion between the plate itself and the very rigid bed of the testing machine. but it failed under moderate pressures. but the sand packed irregularly and failed to transmit a uniform pressure. 7 the case of the cast iron. a folded woollen comfortable and two thicknesses of rubber packing. or 31 times the safe pressure for which the plates were designed. for the entire plate. octagonal and circular plates of steel and of cast iron. This cushion proved to be sufficiently elastic and also able to sustain pressures sufficient to break the cast-iron plates. Indeed it later supported without great injury a load of 620 000 lb. making a total maximum safe pressure of 20 000 lb.. (Fig. and transmitted the very moderate safe pressure of 50 lb. Any injured pieces could easily be replaced in order to maintain the efficiency of the cushion. A cushion was composed of several folded blankets. as required by the Chicago ordinance. C. for steel or 2500 lb. for cast iron in tension. 8). in. A satisfactory cushion was finally composed of 11 layers of oak pieces. DICK Employing the preceding formulas. Dick designed in 1907 a series of square.
On the hub rested the pressure head of the testing machine. The plate was thus dished. 8 Pressure was applied to the flat top of the plate by a hollow cylindrical cast-iron hub 12 inches long. The upward deflections of their outer edges were measured at 4 points to /100oo in.29 in. when the pressure was removed.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES Pressure Head' Hvb Cushion Ia u a i II - FIG. thick. thick. or with six times its maximum safe load. several thicknesses of heavy manila jpaper were inserted between the hub and the plate. and each plate was gradually loaded to 120 000 lb.18 in. and that it does not so uniformly distribute its load over the masonry beneath it as a more inflexible cast-iron plate.. leaving a permanent set averaging 0. The square steel plates were "/. Mr. and 3/4 inch thickness of metal. Since the plates were not planed on top (which is seldom done in practical construction).1 in. Dick deduced from his experiments the following conclusions for steel plates. while the elastic cushion was placed between the plate and the bed of the machine. Empirical rules usually make steel plates one-half the thickness of cast-iron plates supporting equal loads.. These results show that a steel base plate bends more than one of cast iron. but no failure or cracks were produced.. 4 inches external diameter. . This produced an average maximum deflection of 0. the octagonal and circular steel plates were 3Y in. Thus the conditions of the test fairly represented those existing in actual structures.. It follows that the latter plate is preferable for the purpose. where the masonry yields somewhat and is not absolutely rigid like the bed of the testing machine.
(Fig. should be designed for deflection. since marked deflections take place rapidly after this fiber stress has been exceeded. All cast-iron plates were tested to fracture. 268 0001b3. the plate thus failing under a smaller load. 10) were 2 Ys inches. 4. 11) were 2'/." The cast-iron plates were beveled on top from the hub to a uniform thickness of Y3 in. the bottom being a plane surface. The square plates (Fig. The circular is the most economical shape for a bearing plate.•. B 1 and C 1 were tested on the cushion of folded blankets. Wood Clohion. 2/3 500 As. Fro. 2. The limit of 16 000 pounds fiber stress permitted by the Chicago ordinance is perhaps too large. 9 Ib. or it would be better to use a cast-iron plate for large loads. inches. which crushed and distributed the pressure unequally. FIG. 7). etc.. 8. Fig. 9) were 2'/1. The other plates were tested on the wooden cushion. The (preceding) formulas for the design of steel base plates are entirely safe. 3. A3. At Folded Cushion 1550006l Dreakint Load A 2. while the circular plates (Fig. at the edges. which occurred with the load indicated in the figures for each plate. 2/350olbs. They were cast and tested in sets of threes of each form. inches thick beneath the hub. Cushion.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION "1. Plates A 1. 9 . Wood Wood Cushi o n. the octagonal plates (Fig. Steel plates projecting more than two diameters of the hub (or column) beyond it.
Wood Cushion 27550oo •.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES CL Folded Cushion 67000lb. Cz. Wood Cushion 12IOOolb0. B3. FIG. B i. 11 . Folded Cushion 139000/bs.
Their moments about the fracture line being necessarily unequal. He also suggests that assuming the fracture line through the center of each plate.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION From the results of these tests. The (preceding) formulas for the design of cast-iron plates may be used with safety. The weight of a base plate is very small in proportion to the load transmitted by it. Cast iron is better adapted for base plates than steel. Cast iron will not deteriorate as rapidly as steel when in a damp place. "1.sting moment of the fracture section of the plate. The pressures at the top and the bottom of the plate are then equal and act in opposed directions with unequal lever arms. 3. The direction of the fracture line in the plates tested was sometimes changed by the influence of side cracks. The line of fracture is a shorter diameter of the plate. . as assumed by the preceding formulas. 2. 4. 1. 3. the extra labor would not be repaid. A greater fiber stress than that permitted by the Chicago ordinance could be used with safety. the result of a theoretical investigation and of the nature of the failures of the plates." Mr. 2. But since this procedure would render the formulas much more complex and increase the labor of designing a plate. Dick likewise notes that the fracture lines pass through the center of each plate and are not tangent to the hub. and for this reason cast iron should be preferred. or perhaps to slight flaws in the castings. VI. NEW FORMULAS The new formulas proposed are based on the following principles. Dick deduced the following conclusions for cast-iron plates. 4. 5. The breaking moment about this line is greater than that about a line tangent to the column or hub. the resultant moment of the pressures about this line may be found and equated to the resistance moment of the fracture section. their resultant maximum safe moment is equal to the maximum safe re . as it gives a uniform distribution of the load over the bearing area for a greater range of loading. probably due to slight irregularities in the distribution of the pressure. being unnecessary for safety. Mr.. and it may safely be neglected in the formulas.
5 FIG.6 P ! .2187 X diameter of solid octagonal post or column. These values of L" may readily be found by calculation.0.0 RATIO r : R .0 . L'= perpendicular distance in inches from fracture line to center of upward pressures on one-half the area of the plate. .6 .RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES VII. P = total load in pounds transmitted by it.500R for a solid column.25 X length in inches of a wall or bearing plate.2187 X inscribed diameter of octagonal plate. then L'= 0.3 . Let R = radius of outer circle inscribed in cross section of hollow square or cylindrical column.2122 X diameter of circular plate. = 0.4 . then L"= 0.7 . Limiting . Fig. .1 . = 0.424 _-r-- .750R values for a very thin shell column.25 X side of a solid square post or column.8 .25 X side of a square plate.500 _-- for a hollow square coiumn.2 .9 1. RS 3 __r3 Also L" .424R for a solid column. 12 . ae j 0.7 a .2122 X diameter of solid cylindrical post or column. but much more easily by the aid of the graphical table.25 X width of a beam or girder on a bearing plate. Let L"= perpendicular distance in inches from fracture line to center of downward pressures on one-half the area of the plate. r = radius of inner circle inscribed in hollow square or round column. t . = 0. RESULTANT BENDING MOMENT ACTING ABOUT FRACTURE LINE Let A = total area of the plate in square inches. = 0.637R values for are a very thin shell column.4 0 S. = 0.5 .for a hollow cylindrical column. R 3 -r 3 Then L" 0. 12. Limiting 0.
I = moment of inertia of the fracture section. 12. 13 . r 4.) Let k = length in inches of horizontal top of section under column or diameter of column.maximum safe resistance fBt moment. (Fig. ThenR By the table. FIG. Fig. (a) For a rectangular fracture section of plate of uniform thickness. Then maximum safe resistance moment of fracture section in general. VIII. ft. Let f = maximum safe fiber stress in pounds per square inch. 13. external and 9 in. B = length in inches of fracture section. internal diameter. 6 (b) For tapered section-with sharp edges.56 R = 3. RESISTANCE MOMENT OF FRACTURE SECTION The fracture section is a plane vertical section through the fracture line. t = thickness in inches of plate at center under column.36 in.5 6.00 L" = 0. 12 in.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION Example. c = vertical distance in inches from horizontal neutral axis to bottom of fracture section. Assume a hollow cylindrical column.
Then A' = kt"= area in square inches of the upper rectangle. A"= nkt = area in square inches of both triangles in Fig. Let t = thickness in inches at the middle of the plate. t"= t.nk .17/r ---- FIG. fl Finally + ntd"2 = safe moment td'2 + -+ 1 18 c L12 C (7) of resistance of fracture section of the plate. t'= thickness in inches at the edges. - fk [ t 3 nt3 (c) For tapered section with thick edges (Fig. nt t = vertical distance from center of com--d" 6 6( n + 1) bined triangles to neutral axis of fracture section. .-- ... kt 3 moment of inertia for rectangle..-k- . A"= nkt"= area in square inches of combined triangles. 13.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES nk = length in inches of each tapered portion of the fracture section.vertical distance in inches from center of 6 (n + 1) gravity of rectangle to neutral axis of fracture section. Fig.-. (2n + 1) = length in inches of fracture section. k B = A'= kt = area in square inches of rectangle in Fig. Fig. t vertical distance in inches from neutral axis to c = d" + d'= - Also I I bottom of fracture section. ..t' = thickness of the taper in plate. 14) . 13. 13. 13. 14 Divide the fracture section into two rectangles and two triangles as in the figure. + ktd'" -12 1 18 + nktd" 2 = moment of inertia for combined triangles.
A'" t b=(--e) 2 A' +A" +A"' t = e(-) (2 n +1) nt" + t' 1t = vertical distance in inches from the preceding joint center of gravity to the neutral axis of fracture section. 1) k' 3 (2 ( 2 n + ) kt'd"' =moment of in12 ertia of lower rectangle about the neutral axis. Then d'= e -. d'" t d"= d' + - 2 3 d' vertical distance in inches from center of gravity of lower rectangle to neutral axis of section. (8) .nt n "3 +t"n+t"d"±2 + ( 2 n +1 18 12 ( 2 n + 1 ) t'd"' I = resistance moment of fracture section of a plate with thick edges=t'. Finally. e -1) = vertical distance in inches from center of grav6 (2z + 1) ity of upper rectangle to joint center of gravity of this rectangle and combined triangles. Then -'P = kt" 12 + 3 kt"d'2 = moment of inertia of upper rectangle about the neutral axis. summing these results for moment of inertia of entire section: fl f-= c _ . vertical distance from center of gravity of 6 combined upper rectangle and both triangles to neutral axis of fracture section.1 18 1 (2 +nkt"d"2 = moment of inertia of combined triangles about the neutral axis.t '3 + td' + cL 12 ' ' 1 ) t1 + . nkct" I" = -.b = vertical distance in inches from center of gravity of upper rectangle to neutral axis of fracture section.fk .16 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION A"'=(2n + 1) kt'= area in square inches of lower rectangle.
15. 0.2 t.5 t. By the formula for a rectangular fracture section. and straight radial lines are drawn to these points in Fig. The corresponding per cents of resistance may then be easily computed for n = 5. puted the values of c n = 4. 15. n = 1. 0. By formula (7) I C is computed for edge thickness t' 0. for tapered plates with sharp edges. and n = 5. METHOD OF APPROXIMATION As cast-iron plates are generally made with thick edges. This process must doubtless be repeated several times before a plate is found which has the required safe moment of resistance of section. and these values lie in a straight line. n = 1l. These values are laid off on the vertical for n = 5. it becomes necessary first to assume the thicknesses t. These values are then plotted in Fig. n=3. the practical application of the last formula is quite tedious. and 0. 0. 0. 0. forming the slightly curved and dotted line. for which it may be substituted with a slight error on the safe side. n = 2. n = 2. only for n = 5. 15. then using the preceding formulas to determine the corresponding safe resistance moment of the fracture section. .1 t. the values of I c S btU 6 kt2 -6 ( 2 n +1 ) (9) are computed for n=0.4t. 0.8t. this is found to almost coincide with the curved line. as written in Fig. n = 3. n 5. n=4. t' and t". Hence the necessity for a simplification of the method by directly obtaining the required values of the thicknesses t. Joining the ends of the curve by the straight full line. when they are plotted as in the uppermost line in Fig. Similarly for n = 5 only. 0.3t. next to the lower straight line. which is accomplished in the following manner.9t. It now remains to determine this per cent for any other value of n. and which signify that the resistance moment of a tapered fracture section is a certain per cent of that of a rectangular section of equal thickness. t' and t".7t.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES IX. In order to apply it.6t. are next comI corresponding to n = 0. 15.
-./- I i'^ ..0U i-I - I i T i E T Tt t 100%7 Edge rect.It 71.Zt I .3t I r Edqe . iI -* I i .„.5 at the left.-. FIG.Y -dye .9f w ay.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION The graphical table in Fig. which is possessed by a tapered section with the same thickness t and the same value of n.%. A vertical through 2 in Fig.0 1.It=d7- i J -_-. . 16 intersects the curve 0.!. Example 1.. 15 4. 2. 9a8% 7de - i . 15. It is used as follows: 2. 5.7./.. 3.Edae . . which is the required per cent.3 t = edge thickness and n = 2. (Values of ratio n) Let @ = per cent of resistance moment of a rectangular fracture section.6t 6dye .af t Ede .ft k -ti d SEdfe .7.5t e-ii.3 on a horizontal through 70. Let t' = 0.Efe . 16 is readily computed and plotted from the data obtained in Fig.
possessing a resistance moment equal to that of a plate of uniform thickness t determined by formula 11.5.5 and n = 3.5 on a horizontal through 70.0 _-7- .0 1il l i i . the required per cent.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES 0 0.7 . It is further evident that the actual thickness t of a tapered plate must be somewhat greater than that of a plate of uniform thickness. A vertical through 3.B ( L' . found by table (Fig. (11) Let @ = per cent corresponding to Then for cast iron.2 at the left.0 3-. 16 Example 2.5 3. (12) .0 I 4.L") e r required thickness t under the column for a tapered cast-iron plate.6 FIG.5 1I I 4.0 /. when both are required to possess equal resistance moments. (10) -1 50o 3J B ' thickness for a cast-iron plate. 16) I3P "7 . The general formula for base plates is: S( L' L") = thickness in inches for a plate of uniform thickness. 20 2.5 intersects the interpolated curve 2.5" /. Let t' = 2.3 5. 1JO0 1 and n.
f [ 3000 lb. I d B FIG. 17 Let d = width in inches of the plate. C.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION X. Then P (L L" fdt 2 2 6 Pnk fdt Hence t = --2 fd = thickness of the plate in inches. f 44.fl " (a) Bearing plate on wall (Fig. (15) t = 1 I Pnk -Pn= thickness of cast-iron plate. (17) t = -- .8ý d of cast-iron plate. (16) 2500 lb. usually equal to the thickness of the wall. COMPLETE FORMULAS FOR PLATES OF UNIFORM THICKNESS By equating the resultant bending and safe resistant moments acting about the neutral axis of the fracture section of the plate.3\ thickness in inches of a steel plate. the following general formulas are obtained: The primary formula is: MP M == 2 ( L' -L" ) = R =. (14) And t = Pnk dW 103. 17) A C.8 Pnk -thickness 40.7N d 0.
since the fracture section always remains rectangular in form. -1 40.7 I PL" 2 d\ ) ") -4j- thickness for cast-iron. VII). The general formulas then become: t- 103.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES If a square or cylindrical column stands on the bearing plate instead of the end of a beam resting thereon. . f = 2500 lb. 17. by which t may then be found. 18 Let S = side of square plate in inches. Then t = (21) __ L") = thickness of plate in inches. (18) thickness for steel plate. (20) Formulas 16. (b) Square plate (Fig. (19) L" P ( -d 2 / thickness for cast-iron. L" is to be found and then inserted in the general formula. 18) A I B FIG. t -44. 19 and 20 are also applicable to cast-iron bearing plates tapered in thickness from beam or column to each end.8 f= 3000 lb.3 1 P d \ nk 2 k 4- . (Sec.
4thickness for cast-iron. f =3000 lb. 19 Let D = inscribed diameter of octagon. (23) 28.L" (26) thickness of steel plate. 2187D . f = 3000 lb.9 9 4 thickness for cast-iron.6 8 \. L'==. 19) A A I I I I I1 FIG.2187D - L" (27) thickness of cast-iron p'ate. 2187D. (24) (c) Octagonal plate (Fig. t t c (. (25) t = - (. . t= (f . 31.2187D -L")= thickness of plate in inches. f 2500 lb.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION 73 w8 4 ) (22) thickness of steel plate in inches.
20) A FIG.9 D (.2122D - (30) t = 1. 28. (32) thickness for cast-iron. . t 73 _v 2122D .2122D -L" ) (29) thickness of the plate.2187-D L" )= (28) thickness of cast-iron plate. (d) Circular plate (Fig.2122D. f = 2500 lb.L" = D ( thickness for steel plate. 20 Let D = diameter of the plate in inches.9 (.6 L") (31) thickness for cast-iron.2122Df 4o - L" ) f = 2500 lb. f = 3000 lb.9 2-. (.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES 1 = -" 28. L'= . t = 3 (.
19 X 0. (Formulas 16.17.00 1. however.71 '= 1 X 3. is Y 4 -in. thick and transmits a load of 60 000 lb. L" By formula 24. 4. Required the safe dimensions of a square cast-iron basetr = 0. safe resistance plate. By the table. for which direct formulas have already been given. A hollow cylindrical cast-iron column has an external diameter of 6 in.25 .15. 0. per sq. And 4. which are always made thinner at their edges for the sake of economy. r = By the table. ratio t of masonry under plate = 125 lb.91 = 2 For this column.96 . have a rectangular fracture section.91 4 0. . Compute the thickness for a rectangular fracture section.9153in.19.. 60000(21. fiber stress 2500 lb. n = 7.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION XI. to the plate.33. Bearing plates of cast iron set on walls. = the required middle thickness.15 and n = 1. in.75. for-= t By formula 12.56.) The thickness required at the middle of a tapered cast-iron plate may now be easily found. 6. in.1 = r 2. Then t' is easily found.96 -6. FOR PLATES OF TAPERED THICKNESS These comprise all cast-iron base plates.00. = side of plate required.. = 7. Assume the desired ratio of thickness at edge and middle. By formula 12 compute the required actual thickness t at the middle of the plate. Example.9 21.. t And 4. determine the per cent @ of its resistance in comparison with a plate of rectangular section of equal width and thickness.53 = 4.91 in. Fig. 16. @ = 71 per cent. tf By the table.33. R = 1. 28. . 16. -= 0.15 = 0.68 in. 60 nk 00 = 21.20. per sq. 3. = thickness at the edge of the plate. 12. 1. 21. Fig. Fig. R = 3.19 in. 2.63 in.
however. 42. Pressures intermediate between the given curves can be easily located with sufficient accuracy. = diameter of an octagonal plate.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES XII. Example. 45. 21 is a graphical table for determining by inspection the side of a square.0 in. = side of a square plate required. Locating the intersection of a horizontal through 100 tons with the curve for 125 lb. on the masonry beneath it. per sq. TABLE FOR DIMENSIONS OF BASE PLATES Fig. allowing safe pressures of the plate on masonry between 50 and 250 lb. . we read the following values: 40. particularly if 4-place logarithms are employed. entirely possible to devise a series of graphical tables for materially reducing this labor. XIII. per sq. in. GRAPHICAL TABLES It is evident from the example just worked out.0 in.). By the use of the upper scale corresponding to the shape of the plate.0 in. in. it is possible to employ this single table for square.. that the calculations required for any particular base plate are quite simple and rapid. = diameter of a circular plate. A plate is required to safely transmit a load of 100 tons. allowing a safe pressure of 125 lb. It is. 22 is merely an enlarged portion of the same table for loads not exceeding 20 tons. or the diameter of an octagonal or round plate. octagonal and circular plates. required to safely transmit loads not exceeding 200 tons (400 000 lb. thus saving valuable time and lessening liability to errors. and following a vertical through this point to the respective scales at the top of the table. by reading the required side or diameter on the proper scale. Fig.
...... l'--'f---r tl tl l Monal /0 . . . .n0 20 30 30 40 40 SO 50 60 60 70 80 80 90mins 90 ins. //o DIMENSIONS OF PLATES i '30 II 15 /0 5 Rous 25 20 . . ... . 5 0ctat 20 15 /0 s ins 25 20 /5 /0 5 Square Fiq 21 Fiq 22 .ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION -e Sauair -7 .i /0 l • i al 20 ll /l l 30 rl ll l l 40 l ll l l l 50 t 60 lt t l 70 t t l ROins..I . ... . ... .. . . .
cylindrical cast-iron column with ly4-in.0 in.79. and by the table in Fig.00 .0 - 6.75 6. metal stands on this base plate. B = 40.0 in. 10. Example.00 = Hence L' - 3. and a vertical through this point gives at the top of the table 4 = 122. Assume that a 12-in..0 in. TABLE FOR THE FACTOR 43 ý B The general formula for a plate of uniform thickness is t = (L' L") = thickness in inches. --one factor in the last formula..5. B = length in inches of the fracture section. Fig. The intersection of a horizontal through 100 tons with the curve for 40.43 in.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES XIV. 23 exhibits the relations of the three quantities P = total load in tons transmitted by the plate.57 in.572 X 6. P = 100 tons.43 = 10. 12: 40 4 L" = . Then r rR 4. Take the square plate in the last example. . L' 3. 0. (10) This may be factored in the form t = •~ X L' -L" = thickness in inches.
.30 Cv =4F I of 4 Iz 441 ý 1 4: 1 1 141 1 421 Ic 1 1 11 Fj" 41 1 .11.16 CL 0800 -214 70 -----12 I I IF 50 40 oe .l IF 7/ I v IL Ar 11 A il I~N 11% /96) - Mo - - - - I A I 1 1 170 160-11550-140 r I II I A I I FF I I A III 1 1 1 28 26 130 120 //o 122 20 4-- /000 . . . .ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION Factor AlpI / i) DI-) Z/ 'fl) 'T n II 7/fl 7 Fato Q)A' On I 11k/// P2/ I~t/) 1 4/7 1-71) IwA1 hI. . /0 .. . . . .. .
5 X 6. in. the factor . and 2500 lb.. Resuming the last example and employing the table Fig. for fiber stress of 3000 lb. 72. Employing the table. in the same manner for cast-iron plate of uniform thickness: t 53Y in.41 X 0. for a steel plate. 24 contains two vertical scales. 24 exhibits the relations of the three quantities: 3 =P the factor whose value has just been found from Fig. 23. 25 likewise has two vertical scales corresponding to fiber stresses of 3000 lb.48 in.35 in. L' .20 for the ratio -. ti and an = 1.41 in. Fig..5 per cent. per sq. for a wrought-iron plate. @ = 72. in.6. in. by the table. and 7.2 = 1.57 at the left. Then 6. in. at middle for f = 2500 lb. 25. .RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES XV.L" is actually employed. t = thickness in inches represented by curved lines in the table. for fiber stress of 2500 lb. per sq. at middle for f = 3000 lb. t 16.L" difference in lever arms of the upward and downward bending moments. in. per sq. per sq. Fig. By formula 12. Fig. per sq.31 = 7.76 in. in.76 X 0. t= t= ". in. t = 2%'2 in. TABLES FOR PLATES OF UNIFORM THICKNESS The table in Fig. one for steel with fiber stress of 16 000 lb. It will be seen that Fig. per sq. a vertical through 122. and the other for wrought iron with fiber stress of 12 000 lb. 24. 24 and 25.' in. in. the respective thicknesses at the edges required. t = 2 "/.17. Assuming 0. X 5.75 . In designing the tables in Fig.5 at the top intersects a horizontal through 6. but the device of separate vertical scales for the different values of f makes the table more convenient for use.2 = 1. t = 6 '/V. giving by estimation between the nearest curves the following values for t. per sq.
TT.TITOT pNN01 TETGIN RI TME C YDTtT NT' T' - n FoctorVy SO - I 60 - 55 F -I I /oo I F \ 1 I /50 L /SO 45 40 I F ZN /U I\ \ \ 35 \ $\ \ \ \ 30- \F 7 20 6 /5- 10- K 5.v S S 5 4 •1 V 3 p F? 24- . .T.
A -\ R I A-I N I I I R I 1\1 I 8 17 25 20 20 ) XI A NI \1 1 'k IX IN 1 A 16 14 /S IV I X1I 1 rI I N I IQ I f*. . . I. .. 1. /// /IM IMTId/} iv> /A/ /7/n /s P/7 J//7 190 43a &1) /97 160 170 Zm ..RICKER--STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES .. .. .. ! . Fiq 2S . I.12 liý I IN Ist I v -f1 'C- SII I Ii 7 ..e II Ia.50 I. 24 1 h x 1 IV 2ý xI k 3346 '21 I IX I\ X1 N X N L 5 X V 19 3036 25 k Ki k N IX X 1A X. l l I.. . . . I AR9 00 . .0) W~ 40 T/) An7 7/7 -I .... .. . . 4J I 40-4. B n/ . .54 m. ..uunr*u .PixtoAJ3F /0 ...
t = 3Y8 in. in. Fig.85 in. 1 40. Hence. By the table. nk = - 2 12 6.5 12. wide.25 in. the graphical tables may also be used for bearing and wall plates.25 in.5 in. say.0 3. as before. t 40. wide and rests on a 13-in. By formula 17. 25.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION XVI. as before. Required its thickness. A bearing plate is 12 in.25 . in. L' - L" = 6. ADDITIONAL EXAMPLES OF THE USE OF THE TABLES i. Fig.. 15 X 2000 100 . Or by the table.12 = 447_ 44.25) 12 25. 23..0 4 -. the factor L'= = 86.0 in. length (17.. it supports a load of 15 tons (30000 lb. = projection of end beyond side of girder.8 X 3. the thickness beneath the girder.12 in.0 in.12= 252 25. L"_= 3. per sq. Fig. since its fracture section is always rectangular.00 12.7 2.00. wall. BJ3-B 25. 2Y7 in.0 4 =-6. = length of the plate. Also by the table. Therefore. . Safe fiber stress for cast iron = 2500 lb. Safe pressure of plate on masonry = 100 lb. in.0.3. 21. The plate may be tapered from the girder to any desired thickness at its ends without danger.8 30000X6. a plate 17.) transmitted by the end of a girder 12 in. square would be required. per sq..8 I Pnk d 1 40. If the safe fiber stress be taken = 3000 lb.25 - = 3. per sq.
t = 3.10 in.05 in. Fig. n = 1. t = 3. Fig. and t' = 3. 21.. which is a commonly employed ratio.60. A column of metal 12 in. A column 7 in. . 22. per sq. in.50 in. By the table.= thickness at middle. per sq. = 3. and n By the table.25 = 0. 23. thickness of metal stands on this plate. 16. Also L' - L" = 7.12. 23. in. 25. per sq. for a wrought-iron plate. t = 7.5 by the table in Fig.25. 16. 21. L' = 5. @ = 73. thick stands on this plate.86 X 0. A circular base plate transmits a load of 175 tons to masonry with a safe resistance of 175 lb. for cast-iron plate.60. Fig. 25. 3. per sq. @ = 71. Safe fiber stress 3000 lb.29 in. and t n = 1. 24. 50. and as n = 1. By the table.91 in.12.75 in. in. thickness at edges. Assuming By formula 12. 0. 3JP - 144.. = side of plate. By the table. L" = . By the table. Fig.31 in.68 in. for cast-iron plate. = diameter of the plate. f = 2500 lb. 0. Assuming - f = 3000 lb.7 in. Fig. in diameter and 14 _in.5 in. L' - 3. By the table. t = 3 6/. by the table. per sq. t= I7'.0.31 = 3. by Fig.1. Fig. for a steel plate. Fig. 1. By the table. A square base plate transmits a load of 50 tons to masonry with a safe resistance of 150 lb. in. external diameter and 1 in.5.-X 3. t = 7. in.25. L" = P__ 114. in. 12.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES 33 2.76 in.97 in. Fig.86 in.
09.2 in. to which the plate transmits a load of 500 tons (1 000000 lb.3 in. VII. Therefore t' = 2. for same with f = 2500 lb. . ti per sq.. channels. d= I . we easily find: Side of plate = 62. in.95 in the second..09. in the first case and 2.00 in.50 and 2. for f = 2500 lb. By formula Sec.) Maximum safe fiber stress in cast iron is taken at 2500 lb. @ = 69. Assume that in the last case the plate is to be square and that the safe resistance of the masonry is but 90 lb. in the second.3 X 0.37 in.05 X 4 7 = 8. L'= 85. and for n = 2. 1000000 In this case. 5.74 inches.17. for cast-iron plate. and two 16 x 34 -in.ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION Then t = 7.5. in. = thickness beneath column. It stands on a circular cast-iron base plate.85. plates.09 in. Let - = 0. per sq. In the same manner as before.20. Safe resistance of the concrete pier is 175 lb. A built steel column is composed of two 15-in. Factor 4 t= B 35 130 s in. The corresponding values for t' are 2. Then t= 10.5714.75 X 9. 175 -. in.1 in. for a wrought-iron plate t = 83/s in. 7854 .30 in. for a steel plate t = 434 in. thickness at middle in the first case and = 10. n = 2.25. n = 2. per sq.2122 = 18.3 sq. in.20 in. = same. f = 3000 lb. t = 9Y8 in. Required least safe diameter and thickness of the cast-iron plate. 4. one 15-in. f = 3000 lb. 1 00 - t = 7. which rests directly on a cylindrical sunken foundation pier of portland cement concrete. area of plate. I. = diameter of the plate. tf Assuming - = 0.
@ = 68.2 X 0. about the axis AB. and it might also be cheaper than the usual arrangement consisting of a cast-iron ribbed base plate or stool above a layer of short .44 in. 26 For the given cross section of the steel column. and for n = 2. Fig.20.84 in. about the axis CD.0 Then t 00 68.78 in.0 X 14. 16.= 0.20 in.28. Taking the smaller of these values and applying formula 32. t = 1 28. = thickness at edge of plate.RICKER-STUDY OF BASE AND BEARING PLATES FIG.18 = 17. by table in Fig. 26.17. L" = 3.20 = 3.9 B L'- L '")1 ). = thickness under column. there may readily be found by the usual graphical methods: L" = 5. Such a solid plate would be more simple and more easily set in place.9 X Assuming . and t' = 17.
36 ILLINOIS ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION steel 15-inch I-beams. making the calculation of safe plain bearing and base plates a very simple matter. in diameter at the top. This pier would also here require to be not less than 8 ft. 6 in. which are set on the top of the concrete pier. These examples show that simple formulas and tables have been here devised. .
(Out of print. by T. I. 23. Series of 1907. 1909.) Bulletin No. Tests of Reinforced Concrete T-beams. by G.) Bulletin No. Dirks. by S. Clifford Ricker. Voids. The Engineering Experiment Station of the University of Illinois. Tests of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Columns. P. A Study of Roof Trusses. M. Drainage of Earth Roads. . Talbot. A Study of Base and Bearing Plates for Columns and Beams. 21. Baker. Bulletin No. H. Series of 1906.) Bulletin No. Clifford Ricker. Snodgrass. 1907. (Compiled from tests made by the Technologic Branch of the U. 1 90 7. Bulletin No.) 1909. 29. P. Resistance to Web Stresses. 1909. Bulletin No. 35. Tests of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Columns. Parr and C. M. P. P. 1906. by L. by Ira 0. 1909.) Bulletin No. by Arthur N. Talbot. 7. H. W. Series of 1905. 1905. Bulletin No. 2.) Bulletin No. 4. A. F. 1906. by Arthur N. Breckenridge and G. 13. Abrams. Bulletin No. (Out of print. Garland. FHigh-Speed Tool Steels. 8. by J. Fuel Tests with Illinois Coal. Bulletin No.) Bulletin No. Lighting Country Homes by Private Electric Plants. 19. Tests of Concrete: I. 22. Settlement and Weight of Crushed Stone. 1908. by T.. 1905. Bulletin No. Tests of Two Types of Tile Roof Furnaces under a Water-tube Boiler. Fuel Tests with House-heating Boilers. W. 1908. On the Rate of Formation of Carbon Monoxide in Gas Producers. Guell. Conmparative Tests of Carbon. 31. Bulletin No. 1908. Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams. S. Talbot and Duff A.) 1907. (Out of print. 15. 16. Bond. (Out of print. 1904. Bulletin No. 1906. by N. 1908. Fuel Testing Plant. Holding Power of Railroad Spikes. 3. 1908. p. Breckenridge. Tests of High-Speed Tool Steels on Cast Iron. 5. 14. 1909. by L. W. 3.) Bulletin No. Breckenridge. Shear. Schmidt and John M. An Extension of the Dewey Decimal System of Classification Applied to the Engineering Industries. Moore. N. Bulletin No. (Out of print. Snodgrass. (Out of print. by N. by Arthur N. Clement. Parr. 11. Talbot.. by Roy I. Bulletin No.) Talbot. i. Bulletin No. Bulletin No. 34.) Bulletin No. Baker. Bulletin No.) Bulletin No. Bulletin No. Mo. Bulletin No. Metallized Carbon and Tantalum Filament Lamps. Amrine. Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams. Bulletin No. by Albert P. II. by L. 1906. Wheeler. by T. Tests of Tungsten Lamps. 18. Parr and Henry B. by N. Breckenridge. by Arthur N. Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams. G. Bulletin No. 1908. Francis. A Test of Three Large Reinforced Concrete Beams. The Effect of Scale on the Transmission of Heat through Locomotive Boiler Tubes. II. Talbot. An Extension of the Dewey Decimal System of Classification Applied to Architecture and Building. Occluded Gases in Coal. of print. L. The Strength of Chain Links. by Arthur N. Resistance of Tubes to Collapse. 1909. 1908. 1908. (Out of print. Hudson and C. by Edward C. (Out of print. Goss. 26. Bulletin No. Series of 1906. (Out of print. P. 1909. The Weathering of Coal. 1907. Tests of Reinforced Concrete Beams. 1908. Louis. 1908. S. P. 1906. 1906. (Out of print. By W. Dirks. by Arthur N. II. by L. 1909. by L.) CircularNo. by L. Ilow to Burn Illinois Coal without Smoke. (Out Talbot. Hamilton and W. K. High Steam-Pressures in Locomotive Service. Parr and Perry Barker. Bulletin No. F. Ta'bot. N. 24. Haskins.PUBLICATIONS OF THE ENGINEERING EXPERIMENT STATION Bulletin No. M. 1909. A. Tests of Brick Columns and Terra Cotta Block Columns.) Bulletin No. by Arthur N. by Arthur N. 20. Io. 1906. by L. by Arthur N. W. D. (Out of print. by Arthur N. S. 33. 2. Adams and C. by S. Carman. 28. P. Amrine. (Out of print. Breckenridge and Henry B. Bulletin No. Webber. Fuel Tests with Illinois Coals. Clifford Ricker. S. 1908. by Ira 0. 6. 1904-1907. 17. Series of 1906. Snodgrass. 1908.) CircularNo. Goodenough and L. Amrine and A. 1907. (Out of print. I2.) CircularNo. Bulletin No. Goodenough. 32. by J. (Out of Jprint. Bulletin No. by J. Talbot. E. M. Talbot. at the St.) Bulletin No. Breckenridge and Paul Discrens. 1906. Tests of Cast-Iron and Reinforced Concrete Culvert Pipe. by S. Tests of a Liquid Air Plant. 1909. Talbot. (Out of print. Breckenridge. 27. by C. K. 30. The Modification of Illinois Coal by Low Temperature Distillation. 23. A Review of a Report to the Carnegie Institution of Washington. by Arthur N.
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