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by Robert Schottler

Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE in Civil and Environmental Engineering

Approved: ______________________ Kamal B. Rojiani (Chair)

___________________ Rakesh K. Kapania May, 2004 Blacksburg, Virginia

_________________________ Tommy Cousins

**Java Applets for Analysis of Trusses, Beams and Frames
**

by Robert Schottler Committee Chairman: Dr. Kamal B. Rojiani Charles E. Via, Jr. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Abstract

Java applets are developed to assist in the learning of basic structural analysis concepts. In order for these programs to be easily available over the Internet, they are written in the object-oriented Java programming language. The Java programs known as applets are embedded in HTML documents. The HTML documents, part of a series of instructional units, present the topics demonstrated by the applets. The applets include truss and frame determinacy applets; a three-hinged arch bridge applet; determinate and indeterminate truss analysis applets; determinate and indeterminate frame analysis applets and an influence line analysis applet. These programs are available to any student or instructor with Internet access. The applets provide good examples of the application of objectoriented programming and the development of software for a graphical user interface. They also serve as excellent tools that facilitate the understanding of structural engineering concepts utilizing a medium that allows independent learning at an individual pace.

Acknowledgements

I wish to express my sincere gratitude to my advisor Dr. Kamal Rojiani. Dr. Rojiani has freely offered his support and guidance throughout this process. For this I am truly grateful. I would also like to thank Dr. Rakesh Kapania and Dr. Tommy Cousins for serving as committee members. Your contributions are greatly appreciated. And thanks to the National Science Foundation for funding this project. To my parents, my loving wife Sarah and daughter Caroline, I could not have completed this without your continued encouragement and fortitude.

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.........................................................................................................6 Applications of Java Programming in Structural Engineering ................................................................................. vii List of Tables ......................................................................................9 Frame Determinacy Applet.....................................3 Procedural Programming ..........................11 Three-Hinged Arch Bridge Applet ..........................................3 3...........................................................................................................................2 2.............................................................3 Introduction...............................x Chapter 1 1.........................2 1...........................................2 Truss Determinacy Applet ...........................................................3 2...................................3 Object Oriented Programming...........................................................................................................3............................................3.........4 2..........................................................5 Java Programming Language.....................................................1 2..................................12 Truss Analysis Applets ...................2 An Overview of Object Oriented Programming........14 3...............................................3....9 Introduction .....3 2..................................................2 Organization....................1 1..................................................................................................Table of Contents Acknowledgements ......................5 Chapter 3 3.........................................................4 Chapter 4 Classes and Objects......................9 iv .................................................................. iv List of Figures.....3 Chapter 2 2..................................................1 3.......1 Purpose................................................1 2....................................................................4 Characteristics of Object Oriented Programming.................................................................................1 Introduction................................................................ iii Table of Contents ...2 2....4 Advantages and Disadvantages of Object Oriented Programming......................................6 Determinacy Applets .........................3 Introduction.....................................................

.....................24 Analysis Procedure ...........3 Determinate Frame Analysis Applet Interface................................................................................2.......................2 Introduction........36 Introduction.............38 Determinate Frame Analysis Applet Classes..............2 5......................................3 6..........1 5.......................................................3........................................................36 Determinate Frame Analysis Applet............................71 6.....68 Introduction.................................................1 4..............................4.................1 6.....................................3....................27 Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet Interface ..........2 Frame Analysis Applets ......................52 Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet Classes .3 4.................................................................3 Chapter 6 6.....................29 Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet Classes............24 4......3 Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet.....3........2..4 4...............47 5....2 4.........53 Verification of the Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet......14 Determinate Truss Analysis Applet Interface...2..72 Program Classes...........................................................44 Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet Interface ....................................3.............31 4...........................................................3 4.........17 Verification of the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet ...............2 4.2.....2...........................68 Influence Line Applet Interface .....................3......14 4..........................1 5..............................3.42 Verification of the Determinate Frame Analysis Applet .........................................................................3.....................................................29 Verification of the Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet ....................................16 Determinate Truss Analysis Applet Classes ....................................2 5.....3.............2 6......1 Menu Bar .....3............................4 Analysis Procedure ............................................73 v .........4 Influence Line Analysis Applet........3 Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet ..........................................19 Stiffness Analysis............................2.............1 4............36 5................2.....................................................5 Chapter 5 5...55 5....................68 Analysis Procedure ......................14 Determinate Truss Analysis Applet .................1 5....................1 4..............

.......................................................................75 6................................................................................6..........................2 Example 2 ......................85 Chapter 7 7........4..................................................................3 Example 3 .................5...................92 vi ...5 Program Verification ....................................2 Interface Classes .77 6......89 Summary ..................................2 Summary and Conclusions .............4 Example 4 .....75 6.........................1 Example 1 ....................................5..........90 References......................................5..........................................................................................................................................................................73 6...................................75 6....................................................89 Conclusions.........................4.................................................5......1 Structural Classes...............................................................................1 7....................................81 6.................................

...List of Figures Figure 3...........................................7 Figure 4.......................................................................................................11 Three-Hinged Arch Bridge Applet...34 Figure 4.....................................3 Figure 4..33 Figure 4............................1 Figure 4........................................10 Global Member Deformations..................9 Truss Determinacy Applet......................32 Figure 4.12 Indeterminate Truss Example 1...................13 Truss Element.............................................2 Figure 4......................................................25 Global Member End Forces.6 Figure 4...............................2 Figure 3..............10 Frame Determinacy Applet ..........8 Figure 4..11 Indeterminate Truss Frame..21 Determinate Truss Example 2 ........................23 Local Member Deformations .....................................................................14 Geometry and Loads for the Indeterminate Truss of Example 2 from Fleming (97) ...26 Figure 4...............................................................22 Results from Determinate Truss Analysis Applet for Example 2 .........................35 vii ...5 Figure 4....................16 Set Options Class........................................1 Figure 3.........15 Results from Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet for Example 2................................................................................20 Results from Determinate Truss Analysis Applet for Example 1 ..................................4 Figure 4........................................15 Determinate Truss Applet.............................................................29 Figure 4........13 Results from Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet for Example 1......................................................................17 Determinate Truss Example 1 .....27 Figure 4..............................................................3 Figure 4.....................

....47 Figure 5..............................................................................46 Figure 5......62 Figure 5........23 Example 4 – Applet Results ...................................7 Figure 5................63 Figure 5....................................16 Example 1 – Frame from Fleming (1997).........20 Example 3 –Beam from Holzer (1998) ......37 Determinate Frame Program Interface ..........................................51 Figure 5.......2 Figure 5.............................................6 Figure 5......................................8 Figure 5........................40 Partial Uniform Load Dialogbox......................................................3 Figure 5..............................9 Local Member End Loads .......................21 Example 3 – Frame Applet Results ..................18 Example 2 – Frame from Hibbeler (1995) ............39 Uniform Load Dialogbox .........................................................................41 Concentrated Load Dialogbox.................................................................................................................64 viii ..............................................................50 Figure 5............13 Global Member End Loads for a Plane Frame Member .................................45 Figure 5.......................................61 Figure 5...............................................................58 Figure 5................................................55 Figure 5..5 Figure 5..Figure 5.......41 Intermediate Moment Dialogbox ...............4 Figure 5........................................14 Global Member Deformations for a Plane Frame Member.........................56 Figure 5................17 Example 1 – Frame Applet Results ............11 Local Member Forces for a Plane Frame Member..........40 Intermediate Moment Dialogbox .....................12 Local Member Deformations for a Plane Frame Member .............42 Change Load Dialogbox.................................................59 Figure 5..15 Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet Interface.....1 Figure 5.....22 Indeterminate Frame Example 4 ..........................53 Figure 5.........48 Figure 5....10 Results for Determinate Frame Example from Applet ...............................................................42 Determinate Frame Example.................19 Example 2 – Frame Applet Results ................................................

.......6 Figure 6.......14 Output from Influence Line Applet for Shear at 0.......................73 Influence Line Output...69 Fixed End Reactions for a Unit Concentrated Load......9 Forces on a Typical Beam Element........15 Output from Influence Line Applet for Moment at 0......................77 Figure 6...........................................88 ix ....73 Determinate Beam (from Hibbeler.83 Figure 6..........................16 Four Span Beam ..........................8 Figure 6...........1 Figure 6..............................................................................18 Results from Influence Line Applet for Reaction at the Fourth Support for Four Span Beam Example .................................................................12 Moment Influence Ordinates at 0......................................................4 Times the Length of the First Span for the Continuous Beam With Three Equal Spans ..............................81 Figure 6.........2 Figure 6.......................72 Scale/Units DialogBox ......................76 Figure 6......11 Moment Influence Ordinates at 0..................................................................70 Influence Line Applet................................5 Times the Length of the Second Span M(205)......4 Times the Length of the First Span for the Continuous Beam of Example 2 ......................4 Figure 6. ..............76 Influence Line Ordinates for Shear Force for the Determinate Beam Example 1 ...........................................................................................71 Draw Influence Line DialogBox ........................10 Influence Line for the Moment at 0..........................4 Times the Length of the First Span V(104) ............................Figure 6.........................................3 Figure 6...............17 Results from Influence Line Applet for Reaction at the First Support for Four Span Beam Example......................3 Times the Length of the Middle Span for the Continuous Beam of Example 2................... with a 1....................84 Figure 6.................................................................................13 Three Span Beam....................................5 Figure 6....................................87 Figure 6.......79 Figure 6.....85 Figure 6.......................78 Figure 6.............7 Figure 6....2 Span Ratio.75 Influence Line for Shear Force for the Determinate Beam of Example 1.. 1985)....

.65 Example 4 ............30 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet........................43 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Determinate Frame Analysis Applet.........Frame Results from Hibbeler (1995) ...2 Table 5.......................8 Example 3 ..............................43 Results for Determinate Frame Example from RISA-2D.........................................5 Table 4...................................................4 Table 5.........18 Example 1 – Member Forces from Hibbeler (1995)...........33 Analysis Results for Indeterminate Truss of Example 2 from Fleming (1997) ...30 Member Forces and Reactions from Holzer (1998) for the Truss of Example 1........54 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet ..............4 Table 4.........10 Example 4 – Applet and RISA-2D Axial Force Results ..............................................................................................................3 Table 4...................35 Structural Classes Contained in the Determinate Frame Analysis Applet ........2 Table 4.........54 Example 1 ....................21 Example 2 – Member Forces from Fleming (1997) ..........................................60 Table 5............................................................Applet and RISA-2D Shear Force Results..6 Structural Classes Contained in the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet.......Beam Results from Holzer (1998) ........5 Table 5.7 Table 4.................................................18 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet................................................9 Table 5..........................6 Table 4................62 Table 5....46 Structure Classes Contained in the Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet..........................................................................57 Table 5..........3 Table 5...........................8 Table 5..........Frame Results from Fleming (1997) ...............23 Structure Classes Contained in the Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet ........66 x ....List of Tables Table 4..1 Table 4..1 Table 5..............7 Example 2 ............

.....3 Table 6......................74 Moment Influence Ordinates for Continuous Beam with Three Equal Spans (Tonias.........5 Example 4 – Applet and RISA-2D Moment Results ....Table 5...82 Influence Line Ordinates for Support Reactions for Four Span Beam.................2 (Barker......4 Table 6.............................................................74 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Influence Line Applet ...86 xi . 1997) .............67 Structure Classes Contained in the Influence Line Applet ..........2 Table 6.................11 Table 6...............80 Shear and Moment Ordinates for Three Span Beam with a Span Ratio of 1.............. 1995) ..................1 Table 6.........................

The primary reason for Java being developed. 2003]. Furthermore. In other words. These characteristics allow programs to be reusable and easier to maintain. and a member were developed.1 Introduction Procedural Programming (PP) has been the methodology of choice for the development of most engineering software. in the programs written for this project. Applets are Java programs that are embedded in HTML documents. Java. was platform independence. Java programs can be classified into two types. and encapsulation. Java’s platform independence made it desirable for use on the Internet.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. Thus. the program can become quite complex with separate entities. to be used for household electronic devices [Sun. For instance. and now its main advantage over other programming languages. With OPP. objects such as a joint. Java was modified for this purpose. there has been a recent interest in developing engineering software using the Object Oriented Programming (OOP) methodology. One advantage of OPP is that it uses single entities called objects. Sun Microsystems developed an object oriented language. This is due to the fact that OOP has significant advantages over procedural programming. applets and applications. In large engineering programs using PP. the program is easier to understand and manage. most OPP languages provide class libraries that reduce the time and effort of developing applications. Another advantage is that OPP possesses characteristics such as inheritance. and can 1 . In 1991. Objects represent real life objects. abstraction. However. a support. which combine data and functions. a Java program can be written on one computer and run on a different one without any modifications.

3 Organization In Chapter 2. Chapter 3 describes three simple applets dealing with the determinacy of structures. The first two applets serve primarily as a tutorial for determining the determinacy of a structure. In the next chapter. The last applet written draws influence lines for determinate and indeterminate beams and is described in Chapter 6. applets for analyzing determinate and indeterminate frames are described. A summary of the results and conclusions from the project are presented in Chapter 7. The first applet is Truss Determinancy. 1.be downloaded over the Internet that run inside an Internet browser. These applets include determinacy of structures. an overview of object oriented programming methodology is presented. applets for analyzing determinate and indeterminate trusses are presented. the second applet is Frame Determinancy. and influence line analysis for indeterminate beams. 1. These applets were then placed on a web site so they are accessible to anyone with Internet capability. The Three-Hinged Arch Bridge Applet determines support reactions for an arch bridge. Java applications are stand-alone programs written in Java that can run on a computer without any browser support. analysis of determinate and indeterminate trusses and frames. 2 . and the third applet is a Three-Hinged Arch Bridge.2 Purpose The purpose of this project was to develop several Java applets to assist in the teaching of basic structural analysis concepts. In Chapter 4.

The data and functions of procedural programs do not model real life objects and program development is significantly more difficult.Chapter 2 An Overview of Object Oriented Programming 2. This is followed by an explanation of object oriented programming and its advantages and disadvantages. 2. a description of the objected oriented Java programming language is presented. Furthermore. For smaller programs these disadvantages are not as noticeable. Data variables have to be declared as global in order for functions in the program to have access to these variables. A brief description of the traditionally used procedural programming technique is given. the maintaining of data and functions of a large complex program becomes a difficult task. 3 . In procedural programming the data and functions are separate entities within the program. 2. Procedural programming is still widely used. a review of the literature on the application of object oriented programming in structural engineering and structural engineering education is presented.3 Object Oriented Programming Object oriented programming models real world objects.2 Procedural Programming Procedural programming has been the most common programming method. The use of global variables increases the possibility of functions accidentally changing the data.1 Introduction In this chapter. Examples of procedural programming languages are PASCAL. FORTRAN. Finally. and C. Then. an overview of object oriented programming is presented. These objects contain both data members and functions.

An example of a function of the class Member is ComputeLength() function which calculates the length of the truss member. Using the class Member. A class defines the data and the functions used by each object of the class. The Member class might consist of such data members as the start and end joints of the member. 4 .1 Classes and Objects There are two main concepts in object oriented programming. and the length of the member. the modulus of elasticity of the member. and L. Data members. endJoint. objects representing truss members could be created. CosineX and CosineY. functions in a derived class can also have access to the data members.2. the class serves as a template for creating the object. An object is an instance of a class. In other words. 2. the directional cosines of the member.3. An example of a class from a structural engineering program that analyzes a truss would the be the Member class. When data members are declared as protected. L. cosineX. Each object would have its own data members. startJoint. startJoint and endJoint. E. Data members declared as public in a class are accessible to any class. cosineY.3. classes and objects. can also be declared as protected or public.2 Characteristics of Object Oriented Programming Data members and functions are contained within an object and cannot be directly accessed by other functions outside the object. however. This characteristic of an object hiding its internal workings from the rest of the program is called encapsulation. A class consists of data members and functions. A. the cross sectional area of the member. Data members are usually declared as being private. Private data members can only be used by functions within the class in which they are defined. A. E.

Instead. The characteristics of object oriented programming provides several advantages. Libraries of classes are included in many of the object oriented programming languages.e. Deriving a new class from a base class is called inheritance. Reusing tested existing classes saves time.3. A function called by a derived object in the program performs a different task depending on the type of object. A disadvantage of object oriented programming is the requirement for more memory and slower execution time. Functions in a base class can be redefined by a derived class without changing the name of the function. effort and increases program reliability. This disadvantage is due to message passing and dynamic linking. an original class developed is called the base class.An object in an object oriented program must interact with other objects in a clearly defined manner. A new class can be created that uses the same features of the base class and extends the base class by adding new features. Inheritance allows for ease in development of programs by using existing classes to develop new classes. than the cost of the hardware. this disadvantage is becoming less critical. 5 . with the development of faster computers with increased memory at relatively lower costs. The inheritance and polymorphism characteristics of object oriented programming allow for code reusability. This is called abstraction. This is called Polymorphism. lower labor costs of the programmers. However.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Object Oriented Programming Having objects that relate to real world objects makes programming complex problems more manageable. In object oriented programming. Existing classes can be used as they are or can be modified to solve different problems. Abstraction reduces the chance of objects accidentally altering data. more emphasis is being placed on the ease of development i. 2. Objects can receive a copy of private data of another object only by means of accessor functions.

and relatively inexpensive access to interactive learning. when these concepts and theories were presented in a virtual environment and there was interaction with instructive programs. Hence. It is modeled after the C++ programming language. that have been the source of difficulty or frequent bugs in C++. students do not always easily grasp the information being presented. With the development of the World Wide Web (WWW).5 Applications of Java Programming in Structural Engineering There have been many advances in information technology and educational institutions have worked to utilize these advances. Java is the programming language of choice for the Internet because it is both platform and operating system independent. 2001]. encapsulation and inheritance. Haque found that a student’s understanding of the material was improved [Haque.4 Java Programming Language The Java programming language is an object oriented language developed by Sun Microsystems [Sun. Java programs can be embedded in web pages (where they are called applets) and can run on any computer with a Java capable browser. it is not necessary to create different versions of an application for different hardware platforms. easy. information can be easily accessed through the Internet. Educational institutions have realized the importance of creating new methods for teaching engineering concepts and have turned to technology to aid in their development. extensibility. 2. When teaching complex engineering concepts and theories in standard lecture environments. It has most of the features of C++ but does not contain the more complex features. 2003]. such as pointers. demonstrating the effectiveness and the need for interactive programs. However. Java has all of the advantages of other objected oriented programming language such as reusability of code. Another advantage 6 . The Internet has become a useful tool which provides quick.2. Therefore.

curvature relationships for rectangular beam and column sections. such as during an earthquake.to interactive learning through the Internet from web-based documents is that it allows students to learn at their own pace. Features of the program include graphs of the dynamic analysis results and an animation of the virtual building. and damping coefficients of each story of the structure can be selected by the user. which perform the calculations involved in the analysis of reinforced concrete sections. 2002]. Another applet shows a visual representation of the flagpole and its real time deflections. by providing real time information. He developed a web-based interactive virtual environment for the design of flexural and shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams using Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Languanges (VRML). The last module explores the relationship of uniaxial stress-strain for confined and unconfined reinforced concrete. moment. This visual environment used for reinforced beams can be applied to other design concepts to enhance a student’s subject visualization and conceptual understanding. This visual environment allows users to understand structural dynamic concepts related to designing structures for seismic loads. Another module shows the axial force. stiffness. The applets created for the flagpole perform analysis and obtain information from archived data. One of the analysis applets includes real time stress/ strain limits of the flagpole. 2001]. This purpose of this research was to develop technology to monitor structures under duress. These modules are based on applets. The number of stories. Mishra developed applets to monitor a flagpole [Mishra. Haque conducted research to create an innovative structural design concept visualization methodology on a web-based interactive virtual environment [Haque. One module allows the user to explore the flexural design of rectangular singly reinforced concrete beams. 2001]. Gao developed a Java-powered virtual laboratory for nonlinear structural dynamic analysis [Gao. the floor mass. 2003]. Jiang created three virtual laboratory modules which educate students on reinforced concrete structures [Jiang. 7 .

These interactive applets were made accessible to any student with a computer and Internet access.Rojiani developed several web based instructional units using Java [Rojiani et al. The advantages and disadvantages of object oriented programming was also presented. embedded in WWW pages where they are called applets. In the last section. 8 . abstraction and polymorphism were briefly discussed. encapsulation. The most commonly used procedural programming paradigm was presented. computation of section properties of sections built up from standard geometric shapes. A brief description of the Java programming language was also presented. The characteristics of object oriented programming including classes. 2000]. were developed to assist undergraduate students in the conceptualization of structural mechanics. a review of the application of Java in structural engineering was presented. inheritance. An overview of object oriented programming was presented in this chapter. The applets developed included shear. These instructional units. and shear center for open and closed section thin-walled tubes. objects. moment and deflection of beams.

Chapter 3 Determinacy Applets 3. In other words. Therefore. Likewise. At each joint. the unknowns are the support reactions and the forces in the members (Eq. If there are more unknowns than equilibrium equations.cee. the members of a truss can only carry axial forces (tension and compression). 3. 3. Thus. Each applet consists of a series of interactive examples of structures where the student must classify the structure as unstable.2).3).structures1.1 Introduction In order to cover the basic concepts of structural analysis. the number of unknowns is equal to the number of equilibrium equations in a given truss (Eq. the user can check her answers or display the correct answers (Fig. reactions. 3. All of these applets described in this thesis are available on the Internet at the following website: http://www. and redundants and make a determination as to whether the truss is unstable. determinate or indeterminate. or indeterminate.vt. The Truss and Frame Determinacy Applets test a student’s understanding of these concepts.1). All the members of a truss are pinned and loads are applied only at the joints.edu. simple applets were written to assist in the understanding of the concepts of determinacy.Rojiani. the summation of the member’s axial forces along the local coordinate system of the member must also equal zero (Eq. indeterminacy and stability. members.2 Truss Determinacy Applet The Truss Determinacy Applet tests the student’s knowledge of the concepts of stability and determinacy of trusses. In the analysis of a truss. 3. the summation of forces in the x and y directions must equal zero.1). The truss determinacy applet displays a series of trusses and asks the user to enter the number of joints. a truss is statically determinate if the sum of the support reactions and the number of members is twice the number of joints in the truss. the truss is statically indeterminate and the number of redundants is the difference between the number of unknowns and the number of 9 . determinate. For each truss. 3. A third applet for analyzing three-hinged arches was also written to demonstrate how arches transmit loads.

then the truss is unstable U-E = 0.3) Figure 3.equilibrium equations. then the truss is determinate U-E > 0.2) (Eq.1 Truss Determinacy Applet. NM = number of members NR = number of restraints NJ = number of joints U = number of unknowns E = number of equations If U-E < 0. 3. then the truss is indeterminate (Eq. 3. On the other hand. U= 2NM + NR E = 2NJ + NM 2NJ = NM + NR where. the truss is unstable. 3.1) (Eq. 10 . if there are more equilibrium equations than unknowns.

2 Frame Determinacy Applet. u. 3.3 Frame Determinacy Applet The Frame Determinacy applet tests the student’s knowledge of stability and determinacy of frames.3. and any additional equilibrium equations due to releases (such as a hinge). The equilibrium equations include the summation of forces in the x and y directions. the user can check her answers or have the applet display the correct answers. Each member of the frame can have three forces: an axial force.2). Users are then asked to enter the number of reactions. A frame is statically determinate if the number of support reactions. The members of a frame are connected by fixed (moment resisting) joints. The degree of external 11 . Figure 3. internal. degrees of freedom. the summation of moments. equations. members. is equal to the number of equilibrium equations. The applet displays a series of frame examples. e. a shear force and a bending moment. and total indeterminacy (Fig. as well as the degree of external. For each of the examples.

3. The degree of internal indeterminacy. the frame is unstable. The total degree of indeterminacy. iext. iint.4). of a frame is the difference between the number of support reactions and the number of equilibrium equations (Eq.4 Three-Hinged Arch Bridge Applet The Three-Hinged Arch applet demonstrates how arches carry loads.indeterminacy. then the frame is externally determinate. of the frame is given by itotal = 3m-d where m is the number of members and d is the number of degrees of freedom. The arch is subject to uniformly distributed load.5) The Truss and Frame Determinacy Applets allow the student to experiment with identifying whether a structure is stable. 3. the frame is indeterminate.3). These are important concepts in structural analysis. Identifying the structure allows the student to select the appropriate analysis procedure needed to analyze the structure. If iext = 0. iint = itotal-iext (Eq 3. The applet computes the horizontal and vertical support reactions of an arch bridge with a hinge located at the crown of the arch (Fig. 3. A joint without any restraints will have three degrees of freedom.4) If iext < 0. the horizontal and vertical support reactions can be solved using equilibrium equations. 3.5). The Three-Hinged Arch Bridge Applet is a determinate structure. 12 . or indeterminate. After the student realizes that the structure is determinate. of the frame is the difference between the degrees of total and external indeterminacy (Eq. determinate. If iext > 0. iext = u – e (Eq. 3. itotal.

3 Three-Hinged Arch Bridge Applet.Figure 3. 13 .

by the cosine of their corresponding orientation angle (ØnX. c) there are only axial forces in the truss members.1.Yn2). Forces SnX and SnY are calculated by multiplying the axial force of the member. The first applet computes member forces and support reactions for a statically determinate truss.1 Analysis Procedure The Determinate Truss Analysis Applet computes support reactions and member forces for a statically determinate truss. 1997]. The axial forces (Sn) at the ends of a truss member are converted into the global X and Y components. The coordinates of the start and end joints of the truss are (Xn1.1 Introduction Two applets were developed for the analysis of plane trusses. e) and the loads are only applied at the joints [Fleming.Chapter 4 Truss Analysis Applets 4.1.2. A typical truss member is shown in Figure 4.2) 14 . The second applet is similar to the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet except that it can analyze indeterminate trusses. as shown in Figure 4. 4. 4. ØnY). Yn1) and (Xn2. d) no moment is transferred between the members and joints. b) the joints of the truss are pinned. Sn.2 Determinate Truss Analysis Applet 4. The basic assumptions made in the analysis of the unknowns are: a) the truss consists of straight members in the same plane. SnX = Sn cos ØnX = SnCnX SnY = Sn cos ØnY = SnCnY (Eq.1) (Eq. 4. SnX and SnY.

Figure 4.1 Truss Element. The direction cosines, CnX and CnY, are determined from the start and end coordinates: CnX = Xn2-Xn1 √ (Xn2-Xn1)2+(Yn2-Yn1)2 Yn2-Yn1 √ (Xn2-Xn1)2+(Yn2-Yn1)2 (Eq. 4.3)

CnY =

(Eq. 4.4)

For each joint of the truss an equilibrium equation is set up in the joint’s global unrestrained X and Y directions. For a joint that is not totally restrained, the directional cosines multiplied by the unknown member forces and the loads acting on the joint are summed. These equilibrium summation equations are then placed into a matrix to be solved. The unknown member forces are solved using the Gauss-Jordan Elimination Method. After the member forces are determined, the support reactions are obtained by summing

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the forces at the restrained joints. The joint loading, if any, is added to the now known member forces multiplied by their corresponding directional cosine. 4.2.2 Determinate Truss Analysis Applet Interface The main frame of the determinate truss program contains a canvas area, a panel of buttons, and a menu bar as shown in Figure 4.2. As the truss geometry is entered, the truss is displayed in the canvas area. As seen in Figure 4.2, the menu bar contains a File selection, Calculate selection, and an Options selection. The File Menu selection has two menu items, New and Exit. With the selection of the New item, the truss shown in the canvas is cleared. The selection of the

Figure 4.2 Determinate Truss Applet.

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Exit menu item results in exiting the entire program. Before the truss geometry and loads are entered, the system of units needs to be indicated. The maximum X and Y coordinates of the problem also need to be set in order for the canvas to properly display the truss geometry. All of these are entered in the Set Options dialog box (see Figure 4.3). After the truss geometry and loading has been defined, the Analyze Truss selection can be chosen under the Calculate menu item to display the results of the analysis.

Figure 4.3 Set Options Class. 4.2.3 Determinate Truss Analysis Applet Classes The Determinate Truss Analysis Applet contains two types of classes; those that model the structure, in this case a determinate truss, and those that represent the interface of the program. The structural classes that were developed for this applet are shown in Table 4.1. They include the Joint, the Support, the Member, the Load, and the Analysis classes. A list of the methods used in the Analysis class is shown in Table 4.2.

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Class Analysis Member Joint Support Load Description All the analysis for a determinate truss is done here Represents members in the truss. Generates the coefficients in each of the equilibrium equations. Solves member forces using Guass elimination. 18 . length. Function CheckStability() CalculateTotalRestraints() AssignEquation() GenerateCoefficients() SetUpLoad() ComputeDirectionCosines() Gauss() SolveJointEquations() SumForces() Description Checks the stability of the determinate truss and displays an error message if the truss is unstable Computes the total number of restraints. This class contains data members for storing the directions that are restrained and the different reaction values. Represents the supports of the truss. This class contains data members for storing the start and end coordinates.2 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet. Represents the joints of the truss. Computes direction cosines for each member of the truss. Sets up the equations for the member forces to be solved.Table 4. Sums the reaction forces from loads at supports with member forces acting on the joints.1 Structural Classes Contained in the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet. direction cosines. and member forces. This class contains data members for storing the x and y coordinates of the joint. Determines the load vector. Table 4. Represents the loads acting at the joints. Stores member forces solved by Guass elimination.

as in the other programs. the DoubleTextField. This class contains all the code needed for the implementation of the menu bar and panel of buttons. The only differences between this class and other similar classes in other applets in later chapters are. the Metric. DoubleTextField. is to start up the program. the ManyLineLabel. Dialogbox classes are reused in some of the other applets.2. and the DetPlaneTrussFrame classes. As mentioned in the introduction. The Dialogbox and the Option classes are dialog box classes derived from the JDialog class. of course. the OptionParameter. In this section. ManyLineLabel and. the DeterminatePlaneTrussApplet. 4. The Joint. 19 . the IntTexField. The DeterminatePlaneTrussApplet class is the main applet class. It is also responsible for producing the graphics on the canvas. and the frame. which is derived from the Java Swing JApplet class. The Option class contains the code for selecting program options such as units and limits on the truss geometry. two of these example problems are presented.The user interface classes consist of the Factor. the name and title. the FloatTextField. the Option. with object oriented programming. The sole purpose of this class.4 Verification of the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet Several example trusses were analyzed and the member forces and support values obtained from the applet were verified with results obtained from other sources. once a class has been developed it can be used when necessary in other programs. and display the main frame of the program. which it calls. the Dialogbox. IntTextField. The DetPlaneTrussFrame class represents the main window frame and is derived from the JFrame class. Support.

5. The member forces from Hibbeler (1995) are shown in Table 4. taken from Hibbeler (1995). was analyzed. Figure 4.3.4 Determinate Truss Example 1.4. 20 . it can be seen that the member force results obtained from the applet are the same as those given by Hibbeler (1995). The results of the analysis are shown in Figure 4. When the two sets of results are compared.Determinate Truss Example 1 The determinate truss shown in Figure 4.

3 Example 1 – Member Forces from Hibbeler (1995).5 Results from Determinate Truss Analysis Applet for Example 1. Table 4. 21 .Figure 4.

7.4.6 was taken from Fleming (1997).Determinate Truss Example 2 The second example shown in Figure 4. 22 . The member forces and support reactions from Fleming (1997) are shown in Table 4.7 and Table 4.6 Determinate Truss Example 2.4 it can be seen that member forces and support reaction computed using the Determinate Truss Analysis applet are the same as those presented in Fleming (1997). From a comparison of Figure 4. The results obtained from the applet are shown in Figure 4. Figure 4.

7 Results from Determinate Truss Analysis Applet for Example 2.4 Example 2 – Member Forces from Fleming (1997). Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Reaction R1X R1Y R4Y Force 90 kN (T) 50 kN (T) 40 kN (C) 0 150 kN (T) 90 kN (C) 120 kN (C) Value -120 kN -40 kN 120 kN 23 .Figure 4. Table 4.

In the stiffness method. The local deformations of a truss member.2.3. [S]n = [Km]n[U]n ( Eq.4.5) where. n. 4. a member in a truss has an axial force at each end. The force Sn in a typical member is equal to the member’s local deformations [U]n multiplied by the stiffness matrix [Km]n of the member in the local coordinate system. 4.8. 24 . u(1) and u(2) are the corresponding displacements. As described in section 4. a structure is analyzed by calculating the joint displacements. are shown in Figure 4. and [K]m is the stiffness matrix of the member. 4.3 Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet 4.7) and [U]n = u(1) u(2) ( Eq. 4.8) n Here s(1) and s(2) are the forces at the start and end of the member. [S]n = s(1) s(2) ( Eq.1.1 Stiffness Analysis The indeterminate truss analysis applet uses the matrix stiffness approach to analysis an indeterminate truss.6) n -AxE L AxE L n [Km]n = AxE L -AxE L ( Eq.

10. the global load vector has four elements as shown in Figure 4. 4.8 – Local Member Deformations.9) 25 . Thus.Figure 4. The global member deformations matrix also consists of four elements. [Q]n = [K]n [D]n q(1) where [Q]n = q(2) q(3) q(4) n (Eq. For a plane truss. 4. Member end forces [Q]n in the global coordinate system for member n are equal to the stiffness matrix [K]n of the member multiplied by its global member deformations [D]n .9.10) (Eq. Member deformations in the global coordinate system are in shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4.9 – Global Member End Forces. L = length of member. 4.11) The stiffness matrix of the truss member in the global coordinate system is given by CX2 [K]n= AxE L n CXCY -CX2 -CXCY CXCY CY2 -CXCY . Cx = cos(ØnX) and CY = cos(ØnY). 4. 26 . E = modulus of elasticity.CY2 -CX2 -CXCY CX2 CXCY -CXCY -CY2 CXCY CY2 (Eq. Ax = area of member.12) where n = member number.d(1) and [D]n = d(2) d(3) d(4) n (Eq.

The global load matrix [Q] for the structure corresponding to the number of degrees of freedom for the truss is obtained.2 Analysis Procedure The first step in the analysis is to assign degrees of freedom.Figure 4.10 – Global Member Deformations. a zero value is assigned to the corresponding direction. 4. If the joint is restrained. The global stiffness matrix [K] for the structure corresponding to the degrees of freedom is given by 27 .3. The joints of the truss are checked in ascending order to determine if they are restrained in the global X and Y directions. a degree of freedom number is assigned. If the joint is unrestrained in a direction. The degree of freedom numbers are assigned consecutively for each unrestrained degree of freedom.

16) 28 .15) that is. (Eqs.14) The assembly process involves placing the elements of the global member stiffness matrices into the correct locations of the global stiffness matrix. The joint displacements [D] are solved using the Guass-Jordan Elimination Method. After the global displacements are determined. u(1)n = d(1)n cosθx + d(2)n cos θY u(2)n = d(3)n cosθx + d(4)n cos θY The reactions at the supports are then found by summing forces at joints.16. the global stiffness matrix of the structure multiplied by the joint displacements of the structure is equal to the joint loads of the structure. 4. NM [K] = Σ [K]n n=1 (Eq 4.The global stiffness matrix is obtained by adding the contributions of the members in a structure. member end forces for each truss member are calculated using Equations 4. 4. s(1)n = -AxE/L ([d(3)n-d(1)n]Cx + [d(4)n – d(2)n]CY) s(2)n = AxE/L ([d(3)n-d(1)n]Cx + [d(4)n – d(2)n]CY) These equations were obtained by transforming the global displacements to local displacements. The system model for the truss is [Q] = [K] [D] (Eq 4.17) (Eqs.

3. 4.3 Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet Interface The interface for the Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet is similar to that of the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet described in section 4. the classes in the Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet can be divided into structural classes and interface classes. The applet interface is presented in Figure 4. Figure 4.2.4 Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet Classes As with the Determinate Truss Analysis Applet.11. However.11 Indeterminate Truss Frame.3. an additional panel is provided for entering these properties.4. since the analysis of an indeterminate truss requires member properties such as the modulus of elasticity and area. 29 .

Represents members in the truss.6. Function CheckStability() CalculateTotalRestraints() AssignDegreesOfFreedom() initializeReactions() SetUpLoad(). Assigns degrees of freedom to the unrestrained joint displacements. Computes the total number of restraints. Table 4. Stores the joint displacements computed using Guass elimination. Initializes the global stiffness matrix. This class contains data members for storing information about the start and end coordinates. 30 .The structural classes included are the Joint. Joint loads at the supports are added to the support reactions.6 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet. Table 4. and joint displacements. the reaction values. initializestiffMatrix() GlobalStiffnessMatrix() Gauss() storeDisplacements() ComputeMemberForces() Description Checks the stability of the truss and displays an error message if the truss is unstable. Represents joints in a truss. Also computes support reactions by summing forces at the joint. Computes the stiffness matrix of the truss. length. Represents supports in a truss. Table 4. Represents loads acting at the joints.5 Structural Classes Contained in the Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet. the Load. direction cosines. An Analysis class was developed specifically for this program using the analysis procedure described earlier. Solves for member forces using Guass elimination. Computes member forces using the solved joint displacements. This class contains data members for storing the directions that are restrained. area of the member. Sets up the loads in a matrix. and member forces. This class contains data members for storing the x and y coordinates of the joint. the Support and the Member classes.5 provides a brief description of the structural classes. modulus of elasticity. Class Analysis Member Joint Support Load Description The analysis for an indeterminate truss is done in this class. Initializes support reactions. The methods contained in the Analysis class are shown in Table 4.

13 and Table 4. A panel of buttons for truss properties was added and drop boxes were added for entering the number of the cross section and area of each member. the FloatTextField. the Dialogbox. and the Metric classes. Interface classes were specifically developed for this program are the IndeterminatePlaneTrussApplet and the IndetPlaneTrussFrame classes. The truss geometry and loads are shown in Figure 4. This class contains the code needed for the interaction of the menu bar and panel of buttons and for displaying the graphics on the canvas. The IndetPlaneTrussFrame class represents the window of the program.12. 4.The interface classes contained in the applet are the Factor. Code was added to change the interface for entering an indeterminate truss.12. the ManyLineLabel. The results from the applet and Holzer (1998) are shown in Figure 4. A comparison of the results shows that the results are identical. the IntTexField. was analyzed in the applet. taken from Holzer (1998).3. the OptionParameter. The IndeterminatePlaneTrussApplet class is the main applet class and is instantiated from the web page.3. the Option.5 Verification of the Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet Indeterminate Truss Example 1 The simple indeterminate truss shown in Figure 4. 31 . the DoubleTextField. This class in turn creates an instance of the IndetPlaneTrussFrame class. respectively.

32 .Figure 4.12 Indeterminate Truss Example 1.

Member 1 2 3 Support R1X R1Y R2X R3X Force 0 10 k (C) 4 k (T) Reaction 8k 6k 0 8k 33 .13 Results from Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet for Example 1. Table 4.Figure 4.7 Member Forces and Reactions from Holzer (1998) for the Truss of Example 1.

Indeterminate Truss Example 2 The second example used to verify the analysis results of this program was taken from Fleming (1997) The truss geometry and loads are shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. 34 . The member force results obtained from this program when compared to the results of Fleming (1997) are very close.15 and Table 4. The support reactions are identical.14 Geometry and Loads for the Indeterminate Truss of Example 2 from Fleming (1997). (See Fig.14.8). 4.

517 k (C) 57.236 k (C) Support R1X R1Y R4X R4Y Reaction 18.844 k 68.653 k (T) 4.15 Results from Indeterminate Truss Analysis Applet for Example 2.750 k 35 .250 k -68.844 k 31.807 k (T) 65.8 Analysis Results for Indeterminate Truss of Example 2 from Fleming (1997). Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Force 52.Figure 4.807 k (C) 34.033 k (T) 22. Table 4.103 k (C) 22.308 k (T) 57.

s(2)n. A set of equilibrium equations is written for each joint in the frame. The Determinate Frame Analysis Applet analyzes frames that are statically determinate using a procedure that involves solving a series of simultaneous equations representing the equilibrium of the forces at the joints. s(3)n. 5. summing local forces for each member. s(2)n. s(5)n and s(6)n. The frame is analyzed by solving a set of simultaneous equations.2 Determinate Frame Analysis Applet This applet analyzes statically determinate plane frames. The 36 .1 Introduction In this chapter. the support reactions and s(1)n and s(5)n. The forces on each frame member are converted to joint loads and member end loads. two applets for the analysis of plane frames are presented.Chapter 5 Frame Analysis Applets 5. are later solved by the program by summing forces. s(4)n. These equilibrium equations are solved to obtain the member forces. and summing forces at pinned connections.1 The local member end forces represented by s(1)n. 5.1) where NUN = number of unknowns. A typical frame member is shown in Figure 5. and s(6)n are the unknowns. The equilibrium equations are obtained by summing forces at each joint. The total number of unknowns is given by NUN=6NM + NR (Eq. The Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet analyzes statically indeterminate plane frames using a matrix analysis approach. The other unknowns. s(3)n. NM = number of members and NR = number of restraints. The analysis is similar to that for statically determinate trusses described in the previous chapter. s(4)n.

Setting the total number of equilibrium to the total number of unknowns. if the number of equations is less than the number of unknowns the frame is unstable (3NJ < 3NM + NR – NP). As discussed in Chapter 3. Section 3. if the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns. 5. The program first sets up equations for the sum of the forces at the unrestrained joints of the frame in the global X and Y directions and the sum of the moments in the 37 . the frame is statically determinate.3.1 – Local Member End Loads. 5.3) Figure 5. On the other hand. If the number of equations is greater than the number of unknowns the frame is unstable (3NJ > 3NM + NR – NP). gives 3NJ=3NM +NR –NP (Eq.number of equilibrium equations is NEQ= 3NJ + 3NM + NP (Eq. NJ = number of joints and NP = number of pinned connections.2) where NEQ = number of equations.

38 . As was done in the analysis of determinate trusses. Within the Frame Geometry panel there are input fields for entering joint coordinates. and a canvas (see Figure 5.unrestrained Z directions (3NJ-NR equations). member incidences and joint restraints. The coefficients for the unknown forces summed in the global unrestrained X and Y directions include the directional cosines. the support reactions are found by summing forces at the restrained joints. This is done by computing the equivalent fixed end reactions for the member loads. the program sets up equations for the sum of the moments about the start of each member in the local directions (NM). The Frame Geometry panel allows the user to enter the geometry of the frame. Also. a group of buttons for the main program. the directional cosines are determined from the joint coordinates. the corresponding member end loads are set to zero (NP). The unknown member forces are solve using the Gauss-Jordan Elimination Method.1 Determinate Frame Analysis Applet Interface The main frame of the determinate truss program contains two panels of buttons. the total number of equilibrium equations that are set up is equal to four times the number of members in the frame (4NM). If the joint is unrestrained the joint load is added to the joint load vector of the structure. Other features include support for adding and deleting joints.2. If any pinned connections are present. Therefore. Next. member loads are converted to joint loads. member and supports. 5.2). The main menu bar controls the operation of the program. Sn(1) and Sn(5) are computed by summing forces in the local directions of each member. After member forces are determined. a menu bar. Next. The matrix of the coefficients of the unknowns is then obtained.

Joint loads can be entered using the first group of textfields and buttons in the “Frame Loading” panel.8). The second group of buttons and drop boxes on the panel allow member loads such as uniform. intermediate moment.2 Determinate Frame Program Interface. and concentrated loads to be placed on the members of the frame. partial uniform.3 through 5. Loads can be edited by clicking on the “Change” button and by using the “Change Load” dialog box that appears (see Figure 5. 39 .Figure 5. linear. The dialog boxes that appear when different load types are chosen are shown in Figures 5.7. Loads acting on the frame are entered through the Frame Loading panel.

Figure 5. Figure 5.4 Partial Uniform Load Dialogbox. 40 .3 Uniform Load Dialogbox.

5 Intermediate Moment Dialogbox.6 Intermediate Moment Dialogbox.Figure 5. Figure 5. 41 .

42 .2. A list of the methods used in the Analysis Class is given in Table 5. An Analysis class was developed specifically for this program using the analysis approach described in Section 5.1.2. Member and Analysis classes.Figure 5.1.7 Concentrated Load Dialogbox.2. 5. Figure 5.2 Determinate Frame Analysis Applet Classes The structural classes included in this applet are the Joint. A description of these classes is given in Table 5. Support.8 Change Load Dialogbox. Load.

2 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Determinate Frame Analysis Applet. Represents a member. length. and member forces.1 Structural Classes Contained in the Determinate Frame Analysis Applet. Represents a support. Converts loads acting on the members to joint loads. 43 . Solves member forces using Guass elimination. Table 5. Function CheckStability() ComputeDirectionCosines() convertMemberLoadsToJointLoads() AssignEquationNo() GenerateCoefficients() SetUpLoad() Guass() computeReactions() sumUpMemberLoad() Description Checks stability of the determinate frame and displays an error message if the frame is unstable Computes direction cosines for each member of the frame. direction cosines. This class contains data members for storing information about the start and end coordinates. Sums joint loads and member forces at the supports. Assigns degrees of freedom to unrestrained directions Generates coefficient matrix. Generates load matrix. This class contains data members for storing the degrees of freedom and corresponding reactions. Represents a joint. Class Analysis Member Joint Support Load Description Performs the analysis for a determinate frame. This class contains data members for storing the x and y coordinates of the joint.Table 5. The member loads are converted to joint loads. Represents a load acting at the joint. Computes reaction forces from loads at a support.

44 . This frame was analyzed using the applet.4.8. 5. The results from RISA-2D are shown in Table 5.2. and the Metric classes. and ChangeLoad classes. PartialUniformLoad. IntermediateMoment. The results are identical for both cases. the OptionParameter. The results given by the applet were compared with those obtained using the RISA-2D commercial software analysis program (RISA 2001). ConcentratedLoad. Dialog box classes for the different member loads were also created. the IntTexField. and LinearLoad. These different load classes are the UniformLoad.The interface classes that were used were the Factor. the Dialogbox . Determinate Frame Example: A one bay. the ManyLineLabel. the DoubleTextField. Results obtained from the applet are shown in Table 5. These classes are the same as those used in the applets described earlier.3. one story frame 10 feet high spanning 10 feet with a one kip force acting at joint 2 is shown in Figure 5. In this section. the FloatTextField. the Option. Other interface classes solely created for this particular applet were the IndeterminatePlaneFrameApplet and the IndetPlaneTrussFrame classes.3 Verification of the Determinate Frame Analysis Applet Several determinate plane frames were analyzed using the applet and the results obtained were verified with results from other sources. one of these examples used is presented.

45 .Figure 5.9 – Determinate Frame Example.

3 Results for Determinate Frame Example from RISA-2D.Figure 5. Member End Loads Member Joint Sx (k) 1 1 -1 2 1 2 2 0 3 0 3 3 1 4 -1 Joint 1 2 Reactions RX (k) -1 0 Vy (k) 1 -1 -1 1 0 0 RY (k) -1 1 Mz (k-ft) 0 10 -10 0 0 0 RZ (k-ft) 0 0 46 .10 Results for Determinate Frame Example from Applet. Table 5.

5. n. are shown in Figure 5.3 Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet The Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet analyzes statically indeterminate plane frames. The analysis procedure used is similar to that described for analysis of indeterminate trusses.11). Figure 5. 47 . A member in a plane frame has an axial force.12. a shear force and a moment at each end (see Figure 5. The member end displacements of a typical frame member.11 – Local Member Forces for a Plane Frame Member.

5.Figure 5.4) ( Eq.5) n -AE L 0 0 AE L 0 0 0 -12EI L3 -6EI L2 0 12EI L3 -6EI L2 0 6EI L2 2EI L 0 -6EI L2 4EI L AE L 0 [Km]n = 0 AE L 0 0 0 12EI L3 6EI L2 0 -12EI L3 6EI L2 ( Eq.6) n 48 . [S]n = [Km]n[U]n [S]n = s(1) s(2) s(3) s(4) s(5) s(6) 0 6EI L2 4EI L 0 -6EI L2 2EI L ( Eq.12 – Local Member Deformations for a Plane Frame Member. 5. The member forces Sn are equal to the local deformations [U]n multiplied by the local stiffness matrix [Km]n. 5.

5. Thus. u(1) u(2) u(3) u(4) u(5) u(6) n The member end forces in the global coordinate system.14.9) (Eq. 5. E = modulus of elasticity. [Q]n for member n.where A = area of the member. 5. are equal to the stiffness matrix [K]n of the member in the global coordinate system multiplied by its global member deformations [D]n (Eq.8) [U]n = ( Eq.7) g1 [K]n = g2 g3 g4 g5 g6 -g1 -g2 -g4 g1 -g2 -g3 -g5 g4 g5 g7 (Eq.10) g2 -g4 g3 -g5 g6 n 49 sym. .13. 5. For a plane frame the global load vector consists of six elements as shown in Figure 5. The global member deformations matrix also consist of six elements as shown in Figure 5. the relationship between member loads and member displacements in the global coordinate system can be written as [Q]n = [K]n [D]n q(1) [Q]n = q(2) q(3) q(4) q(5) q(6) n (Eq.8). I = moment of inertia and L = length of the member. 5.

11) The elements of the member stiffness matrix g1 through g7 are given by (Holzer 98) g1= α(βc12+12c22 ) g2 = α c1c2 (β-12) g3 = α(βc22+12c12 ) g4 = -α6c2 g5 = α6c1 g6 = α4L2 g7 = α2L2 where c1 = cosine θx . 50 .12) Figure 5. 5. 5.13 Global Member End Loads for a Plane Frame Member. L3 I (Eq.d(1) [D]n = d(2) d(3) d(4) d(5) d(6) n (Eq.c2 = cosine θY . α = EI and β = AL2 .

also corresponding to the number of degrees of freedom for the frame is then initialized. If the joint is restrained.14 – Global Member Deformations for a Plane Frame Member. The assembly process or the process of placing the elements of the global member matrices into the correct locations of the global stiffness matrix is similar to that for indeterminate truss analysis. a zero value is assigned to the degree of freedom for the corresponding direction. 51 . The global stiffness matrix [K] for the structure. The joints in the frame are checked in ascending order for restraints against rotation and translation in the global X and Y directions. A global load vector [Q] for the structure corresponding to the number of degrees of freedom for the frame is defined. The analysis begins with the consecutive assignment of degrees of freedom.Figure 5. A degree of freedom number is assigned to each unrestrained direction. The global stiffness matrix is the sum of the global stiffness matrices for all of the members in a structure.

14) (Eqs. The member end displacements are obtained from u(1)n = d(1)n cosθx + d(2)n cos θY u(2)n = d(3)n cosθx + d(4)n cos θY u(3)n = d(3)n u(4)n = d(4)n cosθX + d(5)n cos θY u(5)n = -d(4)n cosθY + d(5)n cos θX u(6)n = d(6)n The reactions at the supports are then found by summing forces at the joints.2. The main frame of the applet is shown in Figure 5. 5. s(1)n = -AE/L ([d(4)n-d(1)n]CX + [d(5)n – d(2)n]CY) s(2)n =-12EI/L3 ([d(5)n-d(2)n]CX + [d(4)n – d(1)n]CY) +6EI/L2([d(3)n-d(6)n] s(3)n = 6EI/L ([d(5)n-d(2)n]CX + [d(4)n – d(1)n]CY) +EI/L([d(3)n+d(6)n] s(4)n = AE/L ([d(4)n-d(1)n]CX + [d(5)n – d(2)n]CY) s(5)n =12EI/L3 ([d(5)n-d(2)n]CX + [d(4)n – d(1)n]CY) -6EI/L2([d(3)n+d(6)n] s(6)n = 6EI/L ([d(5)n-d(2)n]CX .2.13) The interface for the indeterminate frame applet is similar to that of the determinate frame applet described in Section 5.13.1 Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet Interface (Eqs.[d(4)n – d(1)n]CY) +EI/L([d(3)n+d(6)n] These equations were arrived at by transforming the global displacements to local displacements.3. additional input fields and buttons are provided for entering the cross-sectional area. 52 . Since the analysis of an indeterminate frame requires properties of the members. and Ix and Iy for each member of the frame.The joint displacements are obtained by solving the system model using the Guass-Jordan Method. 5. A. The member end forces of each member are then calculated by solving Equations 5.14. 5.

53 .4.5.15 Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet Interface. 5. An Analysis class was developed specifically for this program using the analysis procedure described earlier.3.2 Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet Classes This program contains many of the same classes as the determinate plane frame program.Figure 5. Brief descriptions of the methods used in the Analysis class are given in Table 5. The structural classes included in this program are listed in Table 5.

Represents a load acting at the joints.4 Structural Classes Contained in the Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet. the OptionParameter. Checks if joints are restrained and assigns degrees of freedom. 54 .5 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet. Sets up the load vector.Table 5. Stores joint displacements at each joint. Function CheckStability() AssignDegreesOf Freedom() SetUpLoad() setUpGlobalStiff () Gauss() storeDisplacements() ComputeMemberForces() Description Checks the stability of the frame and displays an error message if the frame is unstable. This class contains data members for storing the directions that are restrained and the different reaction values. the DoubleTextField. The interface classes used were the Factor. the IntTexField. and the Metric classes. This class contains data members for storing information about the start and end coordinates and member forces of a member. Represents the cross sectional properties of each member. the FloatTextField. Table 5. Represents a member in the frame. Class Analysis Member Material CrossSection Joint Support JointLoad Description Performs the analysis for an indeterminate frame. Represents a joint in the frame. Computes member forces and reactions. Solves for joint displacements using Guass elimination. The data members include area and the moment of inertia about the x and y axes. the Option. the ManyLineLabel. Represents a support in the frame. Note that member loads are converted to joint loads. Sets up the global stiffness of the structure. the Dialogbox. Represents the modulus of elasticity of each member. This class contains data members for storing the x and y coordinates of the joint. Other interface classes specifically created for this applet were the IndeterminatePlaneFrameApplet and the IndetPlaneFrame classes.

The results Figure 5. The story height is 10 feet high and the bay width is 10 feet.16 Example 1 .3 Verification of the Indeterminate Frame Analysis Applet In this section. The loads acting on the frame consist of a 100 k horizontal force at joint 2 and an applied moment of 5000 kip-in at joint 3 (see Figure 5.3. Indeterminate Frame Example 1: The first example is a one bay.Frame Example From Fleming (1997). 55 . one story frame.16). the results given by the applet for several example problems are compared with those obtained from other sources.5.

the results for the applet are identical to those obtained by Fleming (1997).17 Example 1 .6.obtained from the applet are shown in Figure 5. Figure 5. The corresponding values obtained from Fleming (1997) are shown in Table 5.17. 56 . As can be seen.Frame Applet Results.

Table 5.6 Example 1 - Frame Results From Fleming (1997). Joint Displacements Joint X-Tran (in) 1 0.000 2 0.460 3 0.454 4 0.000 Member End Loads Member Joint Sx (k) 1 1 -77.647 2 77.647 2 2 28.866 3 -28.866 3 3 77.647 4 -77.647 Reactions Joint RX (k) 1 -71.134 2 -28.866 Y-Tran (in) 0.000 0.016 -0.016 0.000 Z-Rot (rad) 0.00000 -0.00178 -0.00518 0.00000

Vy (k) 71.134 -71.134 -77.647 77.647 28.866 -28.866 RY (k) -77.647 77.647

Mz (k-in) 4698.57 3837.52 -3837.52 -5480.13 480.13 2983.80 RZ (k-in) 4698.57 2983.80

Indeterminate Frame Example 2: The second example consists of a two member frame 20 feet high and 20 feet wide. There is a 5 k load acting on it at joint 2. (See Figure 5.18). The results from the applet are shown in Figure 5.19. The results of the program match the answers from Hibbeler (1995) shown in Table 5.7.

57

Figure 5.18 Example 2 - Frame From Hibbeler (1995).

58

Figure 5.19 Example 2 - Frame Applet Results.

59

Frame Results From Hibbeler (1995).0 -5.647 2 2 -1.87 5.87 3 1.21 and Table 5.0 RY (k) -1.87 RZ (k-in) 0 750.8 the member end loads and reactions from the applet match the results obtained by Holzer (1998).0 450.87 1. The load acting on the beam consists of a one kip per foot uniformly distributed load on member 1.696 2 0.002488 0 Vy (k) -1.00155 0 Z-Rot (rad) 0. 60 .0 Mz (k-in) 0 -450.87 Reactions Joint RX (k) 1 0 3 -5 Y-Tran (in) 0 -0. The beam in Figure 5.001234 -0.87 1.7 Example 2 .0 Indeterminate Frame Example 3: The third example is a two span continuous beam.696 3 0 Member End Loads Member Joint Sx (k) 1 1 0 2 77. Joint Displacements Joint X-Tran (in) 1 0.Table 5. As can be seen from a comparison of Figure 5.20 was taken from Holzer (1998).0 750.

20 Example 3 .Figure 5.Beam From Holzer (1998). 61 .

0 9.25 7.8 Example 3 .75 RZ (k-ft) 0 0 0 62 .Beam Results From Holzer (1998).75 0. Member End Loads Member Joint Sx (k) 1 1 0 2 0 2 2 0 3 0 Reactions Joint RX (k) 1 0 2 0 3 0 Vy (k) 5.50 -0. Table 5.Figure 5.75 Mz (k-ft) 0 -9.21 Example 3 .0 0 RY (k) 5.Frame Applet Results.25 6.75 -0.

There is a five kip load acting at joint 7 and a ten kip load acting at joint 4. This frame was analyzed using the applet and the commercial analysis program RISA-2D.23. 63 .Indeterminate Frame Example 4: The fourth example is a two story frame with story heights of 12 feet and bays widths of 20 feet is shown in Figure 5.22. The results from RISA-2D and the applet and a percent comparison are shown in Tables 5.9-5.11.22 Indeterminate Frame Example 4. Results obtained from the applet are shown in Figure 5. Figure 5.

64 .23 Example 4 – Applet Results.Figure 5.

6 0.Table 5.08 -6.663 -3.115 3.05 6.27 -1.98 -1.68 -3.04 0.6 2 2 65 .5 0.88 -0.225 -4.663 4.015 -6.22 -0.301 -1.68 4.015 1.6 0.98 5.985 5.9 Example 4 – Applet and RISA-2D Axial Force Results.03 0.301 6.26 1.27 6.04 -0.042 6.25 0.22 1. Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Joint 1 4 4 7 2 5 5 8 3 6 6 9 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 Axial Force (k) from Applet -5.225 0.03 -0.88 Axial Force (k) from RISA 2D -5.042 0.08 3.25 -4.05 0.02 -6.904 % Difference 0 0 3 3 33 33 19 19 0 0 2 2 0.6 0.115 -6.985 -1.26 -0.904 -0.5 0.02 1.

75 -0.567 -4.66 0.8 3 3 2 2 66 .301 % Difference 0 0 2 2 0.904 -0.301 1.76 -4.26 -1.773 -5. Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Joint 1 4 4 7 2 5 5 8 3 6 6 9 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 Shear Force (k) from Applet 4.775 -0.725 4.2 0.714 -1.26 1.2 1 1 0 0 2 2 0.78 3.66 0.66 -4.78 -5.37 -3.75 4.27 1.8 0.321 4.22 -1.88 -0.76 4.321 -3.8 0.Table 5.37 4.714 4.75 5.56 0.22 1.725 -4.66 -4.773 3.56 -4.775 5.8 0.88 -4.27 Shear Force (k) from RISA 2D 4.567 0.904 -4.75 -1.10 Example 4 – Applet and RISA-2D Shear Force Results.

5 0. Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Joint 1 4 4 7 2 5 5 8 3 6 6 9 4 5 5 6 7 8 8 9 Shear Force (k) from Applet 0 55.22 Shear Force (k) from RISA 2D 0 55.029 -42.199 0 69.85 -12.5 1 1 0.5 1 0.894 13.14 -12.802 -2.595 24.63 13.28 -42.878 -13.471 -42.255 -12.21 -52.997 -12.59 0 69.251 0 54.93 -42.7 4 67 .85 -52.97 24.772 % Difference 0 0 0 4 0 0 4 1 0 0 1 4 0.Table 5.65 12.399 -51.199 -11.275 15.59 -11.93 -3.923 -3.01 0 54.16 -13.924 13.11 Example 4 – Applet and RISA-2D Moment Results.31 14.772 -52.77 -2.

The internal forces in these structures vary not only with the magnitude of the loads but also with the position of the loads. A load is placed at these points as it is moves along the beam. Responses of interest include support reactions. A brief description of the analysis procedure follows.Chapter 6 Influence Line Applet 6. After the program has completed all of its analyses at the different interval points. industrial buildings with overhead travelling cranes and frames supporting conveyers. The Influence Line Applet draws influence lines for determinate and indeterminate beams. the beam is analyzed using the matrix displacement method. The support reactions are found and stored in an array. Examples of structures subjected to moving loads include highway and railway bridges. The analysis of these structures involves determining the positions of the loads that produce the maximum response. Structures with moving loads are designed for the maximum forces developed as the loads move across the structure. 1957]. The program then computes the chosen response at a given location by summing forces. An influence line shows graphically how the movement of a unit load across a structure influences the response of the structure. The program considers a number of equally spaced points in each span of the beam. At each point that the unit load is placed.1 Introduction An influence line is a useful tool developed by Professor E. in 1867 for analyzing structures subjected to moving loads [Kinney. The value that is obtained is placed into another array. shear forces. Winkler.2 Analysis Procedure The beam is analyzed using the matrix displacement method. a German engineer. The forces acting at the ends of a typical beam element and 68 . The shape of the influence line is helpful in finding the position of the load that produces the maximum. 6. the influence line of the beam is drawn. bending moments and displacements.

f1-f4 = element forces and d1-d4 = displacements. 6. The stiffness matrix of the system was determined by first converting the element stiffness matrices from the local system to the global system. α = EI/L3 6L -6L 12 -6L 2L2 -6L 4L2 where E = modulus of elasticity. 6. L = length of the beam span. The structure stiffness matrix was 69 .2) The member code matrix. fi on the beam are obtained by multiplying the element stiffness matrix by the displacements at the ends of the element (Eq. and then by imposing compatibility conditions (Eq. k = beam stiffness matrix. fi = kdi (Eq.the corresponding displacements are shown in Figure 6. The element forces.1. 6. Figure 6.1) f1 f2 f3 f4 = α 12 6L -12 6L 6L 4L2 -12 - 6L 2L2 d1 d2 d3 d4 .2).1 Forces on a Typical Beam Element.1). I = moment of inertia. Kqk=Qk (Eq. 6. which relates the presence of joint displacements at the ends of each element was developed as described in Chapter 4.

The response at the desired location for each position of the unit load is 70 .2). the forces at each joint of the system are determined from the joint equilibrium equations. K=ΣK(i) (Eq.1) and element forces are calculated.2. 6. Once the joint displacements are known. The matrix displacement calculations described in the previous sections are performed at each point. The joint displacements are then computed using Guass elimination to solve the system of equations (Eq. they are substituted into the element model (Eq. For this program.3). Qk are the known external loads and K is the global stiffness matrix of the system. Figure 6. 6.2 Fixed End Reactions for a Unit Concentrated Load. the concentrated load is a unit load and the distance. After element forces are computed. a. The known external loads (Qk) are calculated from the fixed end reactions for a concentrated load along a span at a given distance as shown in Figure 6.3) where qk are the unknown joint displacements. 6.produced by the summation of each element’s converted global stiffness matrix (Eq. varies as the load is moved along the span. 6.

The user can add or delete joints and supports and enter joint coordinates using the various buttons. a panel of buttons. producing the influence lines.3 Influence Line Applet. which includes joint coordinates and joint restraints. and a menu bar as shown in Figure 6. The beam geometry is displayed in the upper canvas area. Figure 6.determined from the equilibrium equations. The beam geometry. 71 .3 Influence Line Applet Interface The main frame of the influence line program consists of two canvas areas. These results are stored in an array and are then plotted by the program.3. is entered via the input panel. text input fields and list boxes provided in the input panel. The influence line is drawn in the lower canvas area. 6.

When this menu item is selected.4 is displayed. With the selection of the New item. the number of interval positions of the unit load between spans. Figure 6. When this menu item is selected. the Draw Influence Line DialogBox shown in Figure 6. the menu bar of the program contains a File menu. The Calculate menu contains the Draw Influence Line menu item. 72 . and the system of units may be changed using this dialog box. New and Exit. the present beam and data are cleared. The first item is Scale/Units. a Calculate menu.4 Draw Influence Line DialogBox.3. Selecting the Exit menu item selection causes the program to terminate. theScale/Units DialogBox shown in Figure 6.5 is displayed. and an Options menu.6. The Options menu contains two menu items.1 Menu Bar As seen in Figure 6. The File menu has two menu items. The desired response and the location of the response can be entered in this dialog box. The maximum x coordinate.3.

4. Figure 6.5 Scale/Units DialogBox.4 Program Classes 6. The second menu item under the Options Selection is Show Output.6 Influence Line Output. an output window showing influence line values at each interval point is displayed. Additional structural classes developed for this applet are the Value and the Analysis 73 . the Joint. These include the Support.1 Structural Classes The same structural classes as those developed in the indeterminate frame program were used in this applet. When this menu item is selected.6. and the Member classes. 6.Figure 6. The output window is shown in Figure 6.

Computes the global stiffness matrix for the beam. These vectors are used to store joint and member data. 74 . Brief descriptions of these classes are given in Table 6. Determines the total number of restraints on the beam. Generates element stiffness matrices. Generates a matrix that relates member displacements to structure displacements. Saves the joint displacements obtained from solving the global system model. This value is needed for scaling the influence line diagrams. Checks for the presence of a unit load on the span and computes fixed end forces. Determines the value of the ordinate for the influence diagram for moment. Represents members in the structure. Checks the stability of the structure and displays an error message if the beam is unstable. Computes member end forces.1. Initializes member and joint vectors. This class contains data members for storing the directions that are restrained and the different reaction values.1 Structural Classes Contained in the Influence Line Applet.classes. Table 6. Determines the value of the ordinate for the influence diagram for shear. Class Analysis Member Joint Support Value Description All the analysis for the beam is done here. Represents a support. Table 6. This class contains data members for storing information about the start and end coordinates and member forces of a member.2. Represents a joint in the beam. Function CheckMaxCoordinate() setUpMemberVector() CalculateTotalRestraints() CheckStability() Stiffness() elementStiffness() GenerateMCode() Loading() Guass() storeDisplacements() memberEndForces() shearInfluence() momentInfluence() Description Computes the maximum x-coordinate. This class contains data members for storing the x and y coordinates of the joint. Solves for joint displacements of the structure using Guass elimination. The loads not acting at a joint are converted to joint loads. Represents a load at the joint.2 Methods in the Analysis Class of the Influence Line Applet. A description of the different methods used in the Analysis class is given in Table 6.

Dialogbox. The program was used to draw the influence line for the shear at point C (see Figure 6. As can be seen from Figures 6. the results obtained from the program are in agreement with those given by Hibbeler (1985).4.5 Program Verification In this section. the results obtained from the Influence Line Applet for several example problems are compared with those obtained from other sources. and the OutputFrame classes. IntTextfield. 6.9. the InfluenceLineApplet. 75 . 1985). OutputFrame. the InfluenceLineFrame.2 Interface Classes The interface classes that were reused from the previous applets were the ManyLineLabel.5. 6. Figure 6.7 Determinate Beam (from Hibbeler.7). and DoubleTextField classes.8 and 6.6.1 Example 1: The first example taken from Hibbeler (1985) consists of a determinate beam with a unit load. The interface classes that were created for this applet are the Option.

76 .8 Influence Line for Shear Force for the Determinate Beam of Example 1.9 Influence Line Ordinates for Shear Force for the Determinate Beam of Example 1.Figure 6. Figure 6.

4 Times the Length of the First Span for the Continuous Beam With Three Equal Spans. The influence lines for the moment at four-tenths of the first span and at three-tenths of the middle span were computed. All spans are equal length. It is seen that the values are the same when rounded to the same number of significant digits.10 that the influence line for the moment at four-tenths (0.5.12.4L) of the first span is drawn correctly by the applet. The output values for both cases are shown in Figures 6. The beam geometry is shown in Figure 6.10.11 and 6. Also.3).6. Figure 6. it can be seen from Figure 6.2 Example 2: The second example consists of a three span continuous beam. The results were compared with those presented by Tonias (1995) (see Table 6. 77 .10 Influence Line for the Moment at 0.

78 .11 Moment Influence Ordinates at 0.4 Times the Length of the First Span for the Continuous Beam of Example 2.Figure 6.

79 .Figure 6.3 Times the Length of the Middle Span for the Continuous Beam of Example 2.12 Moment Influence Ordinates at 0.

80 .

The end spans are equal and the middle span has a length equal to 1.13) the spans are unequal.3 Example 3 The third example considered is also a three span continuous beam.15.2 Span Ratio. For this example the influence lines for the shear and reaction responses were examined. V(104) is shown in Figure 6.2 times that of the end spans.13 Three Span Beam. 81 . Table 6.4 shows the shear and moment ordinate values at various locations obtained from Barker (1997). The values generated by the computer program are exactly the same. in this example (see Figure 6. However. M(205) are shown in Figure 6. The results for the moment at five-tenths of the second span. Figure 6.6. The output from the program for the two cases is shown to demonstrate the accuracy of the results obtained from the program.5. The output from the program for shear at four-tenths of the first span of the beam. with a 1.14.

03333 -0.00458 0.50000 0.03188 -0.02511 0.38200 0.04453 0.07300 0.00900 0.02321 0.01286 0.24714 -0.59208 -0.00000 0.21234 0.26850 0.09990 -0.09900 0. Location 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 M(104) 0.01929 0.02529 0.00000 -0.01145 0.02391 0.00000 -0.08750 -0.07500 0.01929 0.03000 -0.02391 0.78766 -0.00956 0.83600 0.01714 -0.16317 0.00000 V(100) 1.00000 0.09766 -0.02529 0.03000 -0.38200 0.01828 0.05829 0.00000 0.00000 0.12431 -0.10000 -0.02511 0.04135 -0.00000 -0.06703 -0.51750 0.08331 -0.01029 0.05801 0.16400 0.00000 -0.01828 0.02578 0.02571 0.00731 0.01851 0.07109 0.00663 0.00884 -0.00000 -0.00884 0.05091 -0.50000 0.63297 0.02391 0.12929 0.06210 -0.00000 0.48250 -0.50000 0.00663 0.00663 0.09297 -0.00000 0.20700 0.2 (Barker.10337 -0.00663 0.Table 6.07500 -0.09297 -0.01828 0.12929 0.09990 -0.00000 0.09990 -0.09990 -0.05091 -0.00000 0.01851 0.01145 0.00000 0.00000 V(205) 0.06210 -0.04714 -0.14743 0.00000 0.09643 -0.08177 -0.01286 0.07109 0.01527 0.87569 0.36703 -0.03857 -0.01527 -0.00000 0.04011 -0.00000 -0.40792 0.05000 0.03348 -0.24714 -0.07500 0.08750 0.07300 0.02571 0.16400 0.73150 0.00000 -0.02511 0.00000 0.00000 0.16400 -0.00000 -0.08331 -0.00000 -0.04199 0.08177 -0.10000 0.00000 1.09643 -0.08177 -0.04453 0.08250 -0.04011 -0.05801 0.05000 -0.10114 0.05091 -0.14743 0.05829 0.03429 -0.69429 -0.04453 -0.03996 -0.09429 -0.02037 -0.00000 M(200) 0.05171 0.12431 -0.00000 0.09297 0.00000 0.09766 0.09766 0.08750 -0.94199 -1.02437 -0.10337 -0.01145 0.4 Shear and Moment Ordinates for Three Span Beam with a Span Ratio of 1.02571 0.02250 0.06210 -0.00000 0.01851 0.00000 V(110) 0.61800 0.01650 -0.02437 -0.08177 -0.07300 -0.01929 0.09643 -0.10000 0.05000 -0.02484 -0.00000 -0.07071 -0.00265 0.00771 0.07109 -0.07500 -0.00000 0.21234 0.00000 -0.02431 -0.00000 0.02571 -0.08494 0.00000 0.08331 -0.03348 -0.08331 -0.05091 -0.02250 0.03429 -0.09297 0.05000 0.00000 0.01004 0.25780 0.08766 -0.02578 0.87071 -0.36703 -0.15319 0.03271 -0.00741 0.01851 0.09900 0.01929 0.00000 82 .01714 -0.09208 -0.75286 0.00000 0.04011 -0.09643 -0.12229 0.40792 0.02250 0.05028 0.10337 -0.08750 0.04011 -0.26850 0. 1997).20357 0.38200 -0.01828 0.00000 0.02391 0.30571 0.02571 0.92700 0.06210 -0.10000 -0.00000 0.09766 -0.00000 V(104) 0.00000 0.01286 0.02511 0.00000 0.02578 0.00000 V(200) 0.00000 M(205) 0.04453 -0.01286 0.07109 -0.26850 -0.00000 0.10337 -0.02571 -0.02250 0.03187 -0.30571 0.51750 0.01145 0.48250 0.00000 -0.00514 0.00000 -0.

14 Output from Influence Line Applet for Shear at 0. 83 .Figure 6.4 Times the Length of the First Span V(104).

15 Output from Influence Line Applet for Moment at 0.Figure 6. 84 .5 Times the Length of the Second Span M(205).

As can be seen from Table 6.16 Four Span Beam. The results obtained from the applet for the reaction at the first support are shown in Figure 6.17.6.5. For this example influence lines for the support reactions were computed.18. The values in the Steel Construction Manual are listed in Table 6. 1986). These influence line ordinates were compared with those given in the Steel Construction Manual (AISC.3 times the exterior spans.5.17 and 6.18 the results from the applet and the values given by AISC (1986) are the same. 85 .16).4 Example 4 The fourth verification example is a four span continuous beam (see Figure 6. The results for the reaction at the fourth support are given in Figure 6.5 and Figures 6. The two interior spans are 1. Figure 6.

0288 0.8 0.5209 0.0052 -0.0981 -0.1122 -0.0137 0.0153 0.0064 -0.0069 -0.7785 0.0704 -0.6358 0.2012 0.1090 -0.3097 0.7403 0.0797 -0.4269 0.8660 0.7 0.3 0.4614 0.1344 -0.0500 -0.9339 0.1095 -0.9339 0.7548 0.0034 -0.9788 0.1043 -0.1540 0.0598 0.0064 -0.0118 0.1127 -0.2160 0.0184 0.0250 0.1322 0.4795 0.1292 -0.1122 -0.0940 -0.1344 -0.0308 0.4 0.0925 -0.0455 -0.8318 0.0301 0.5 0.8318 0.2012 0.6744 0.8 0.0000 Re 0.0000 -0.0034 -0.0841 -0.6 0.7 0.0137 0.1460 0.9795 1.3276 0.0308 0.5562 0.Table 6.9 e Ra 1.0000 Rb 0.0797 -0.1090 -0.4 0.0574 0.0687 0.0231 0.0000 -0.4118 0.3430 0.9868 1.0299 0.0301 0.0598 0.4269 0.0243 0.7403 0.0000 0.9341 0.9868 0.0287 0.9203 0.1389 -0.9795 0.6 0.0031 -0.0531 -0.0289 -0.0054 0.0704 -0.0000 Rd 0.0060 -0.0060 -0.0270 0.0000 -0.9 b 0.0118 0.0018 0.0079 0.7785 0.0574 0.6145 0.5 0.8 0.0925 -0.1 0.0956 0.1093 -0.4118 0.3097 0.1043 -0.7209 0.0219 0.0000 0.3 0.0054 0.0827 -0.8767 0.3276 0.2125 0.1123 -0.0153 0.1 0.4 0.0067 -0. Location a 0.6 0.4795 0.0561 -0.0000 0.2893 0.0000 0.0000 Rc 0.2890 0.0079 0.5 0.5 0.0956 0.0067 -0.0299 0.2125 0.1093 -0.2160 0.9341 0.7548 0.0243 0.0895 0.0000 -0.1292 -0.5209 0.9788 1.0000 -0.0000 -0.0287 0.0000 0.0841 -0.0000 -0.2 0.7 0.0687 -0.5949 0.0000 0.1167 -0.0219 0.0309 0.2 0.7209 0.0000 0.6358 0.0069 -0.4614 0.0211 -0.3 0.0184 0.2 0.3 0.1389 -0.0243 0.0000 0.5 Influence Line Ordinates for Support Reactions for Four Span Beam.0049 -0.0940 -0.1123 -0.0531 -0.2 0.9 c 0.0000 0.0031 0.8 0.0000 0.9203 0.0827 -0.1095 -0.6744 0.0000 86 .0000 0.0250 0.1460 0.0018 -0.1167 -0.0270 0.0981 -0.1127 -0.0561 -0.1 0.8494 0.9 d 0.0154 0.0052 -0.6 0.0049 -0.0243 -0.5562 0.4 0.0000 0.0500 0.0455 -0.6145 0.2893 0.8660 0.0288 0.0231 0.8767 1.8494 0.0211 0.5949 0.1 0.0000 -0.3430 0.7 0.0895 0.1322 0.0309 0.

17 Results from Influence Line Applet for Reaction at the First Support for Four Span Beam Example.Figure 6. 87 .

88 .Figure 6.18 Results from Influence Line Applet for Reaction at the Fourth Support for Four Span Beam Example.

The beam is analyzed and the influence line drawn for the selected 89 . the last applet. The frame applets give reactions and member forces results for a frame with joint and member loads. The determinate and indeterminate truss analysis applets demonstrate how to analyze different trusses. The first set of determinacy applets also includes a three-hinged arch bridge applet. the truss and frame determinacy applets test a student’s understanding of the fundamental concept of stability and determinacy of a structure. without having to do hand computations. A user can easily gain an understanding of how the joint loads are distributed through a truss. analysis of determinate and indeterminate trusses. the influence applet. The determinate and indeterminate frame analysis applets demonstrate the analysis of different frame structures. These applets show the results of the member forces and reactions of an entered truss. beams and frames and influence line analysis. These applets are interactive. Finally. The beam geometry and the location and type of response required can be entered. draws the influence line responses of continuous beams. A student can enter and check their answers for the truss or frame being displayed.Chapter 7 Summary and Conclusions The objective of this thesis was to develop a series of web based Java applets to assist engineering students in the understanding of fundamental structural engineering concepts. 7. This chapter presents a summary of these topics and conclusions from the development of the applets. This applet enables a student to solve for support reactions in a determinate structure such as a determinate arch bridge with a uniform loading.1 Summary The first set of applets. The topics covered include the determinacy of structures.

This allows the applets to be accessed by any computer with Internet access without difficulty and hence. The truss and frame applets are limited in the complexity of the structures that can be solved. Also.2 Conclusions Using the object oriented programming language Java to write these applets had several benefits.response. more complex programs. but it was not necessary for the scope of this project. Some possible future modifications of the applets developed would be the capability to draw shear and 90 . even though they were developed using the same methods of analysis of large. This simplified the development of the applets. These applets could be further developed to be more comparable to commercial software programs. and member. Having these applets made up of real world objects made the programs easier to understand and debug. A table of the results can also be displayed. the use of Java libraries reduced the amount of time and effort needed to create the graphic user interface. Another was that a number of classes representing structural objects were reused in creating the different applets. One benefit was the use of real world objects such as joint. 7. makes these tutorial applets widely available. This applet demonstrates to a student the internal forces that need to be considered as a load moves across a beam. There are some limitations to the applets that were developed. But perhaps the greatest benefit of using Java for the development of these structural analysis programs is that Java is both platform and operating system independent. Future development of these applets could enhance the quality of interaction by giving the user a better understanding of basic structural engineering concepts. buckling or excessive deflection. For instance. The inclusion of these checks would not require much additional work in that most of the required user interface and analysis have been programmed. These enhancements would make these applets more useful especially in structural design courses. the scope of this project includes the solving of member forces but not the checking of members for overstress. support.

Another possible modification of the frame applets would be to show the deflected shape of the frame. The applets developed serve the purpose of being interactive.moment diagrams for the frame applets. These applets are accessible to students through the Internet allowing them easy access and the opportunity to learn at their own pace. educational tools in the understanding of fundamental structural engineering concepts. 91 .

New York. Manual of Steel Construction. “Computer Analysis of Structures Course Notes.. Y. S. (1997). (2002).. Inc. (1997). Inc. D. A. Upper Saddle River. New Jersey. Russell C. University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign. Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering. University of Notre Dame.A. New York. Journal of Structural Engineering. John F. Haque. Hibbeler.. Inc. “Web-based Visualizaton Techniques for Structural Design Education”. Prentice-Hall. John Wiley & Sons.M. (2003). Kurama. D. Chicago. Second Edition. (1990). Christopher M. Illinois.” Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Proceedings of the 2001 American Society for Engineering Education Annual Conference Exposition. (2001). (1997). Jiang. “Automated Design of Steel Frames Using Advanced Analysis and Object-Oriented Evolutionary Computation”.. PWS Publishing. New Jersey. and Schinler. Fanella.Virtual Laboratories for Reinforced Concrete Education”. “WWW-Based. H. Structural Analysis. Kassamali. C. Holzer. Prentice-Hall.References American Association of Steel Construction (AISC) (1986). Structural Analysis. Analysis of Structural Systems. (1998). Barker. Yong (2003). Gao. Upper Saddle River. Design of Highway Bridges. Foley. M. May 2003. 92 . Load and Resistance Factor Design (LFRD).. Fleming. Richard M.E. “Java Powered Virtual Laboratory for Nonlinear Structural Dynamic Analysis”.

(1957).S. Kinney.java. Trinayana (2001). Session 2620.Kennedy. Massachusetts. Y.”Real -Time Communication and Control of a Sensored Physical Environment”. New York. Kim. Inc. J. Mishra. New York. (1990).. Rehabilitation. “RISA-2D Users Manual”.sun. and Madugula. Tonias. June. Intermediate Structural Analysis. (1965). Demetrios E.. Reading.com. MO.Y. “Web-Based Java Applets for Teaching Engineering Mechanics.K.. New York. Roark. Sun MicroSystems. New York. Rojiani. McGraw-Hill. R. (2003). Bridge Engineering: Design. Louis. Raymond J. M.. McGraw-Hill.B. Classical and Matrix Methods. (2000). 93 . and Kapania. Elastic Analysis of Structures. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. J. (1995). K. New York. Harper and Row Publishers. Inc. Addison-Wesley.K.” Proceedings. RISA Technologies (2001). Formulas for Stress and Strain. http://www. St. ASEE Annual Conference.. B. Inc. and Maintenance of Modern Highway Bridges.S.

C. 1974 in Washington. Robert Schottler 94 . He attended Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and obtained his Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering in 1997.Vita Robert Schottler was born on July 11. D. He later attended Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and earned his Master of Science degree in Civil Engineering in 2004.

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