MINOR PROJECT (PART –I) REPORT

(Project Term August-December, 2012)

MICRO WOODEN LATHE Submitted by :
Kamaldeep Sigh Rajwinder Singh Pabla ManharParmjotsingh Abhishtk Azad Registration Number :10901492 Registration Number :10901360 Registration Number :10900912 Registration Number :10900481

Project Group Number ………….

Under the Guidance of
FATEHPAL SINGH

Discipline of Mechanical Department Lovely Professional University, Phagwara August to December, 2012

DECLARATION

We hereby declare that the project work entitledMicro Wooden Lathe is an authentic record of our own work carried out as requirements of Capstone Project (Part-I) for the award of degree of B.Tech in ____________( Programme Name ) from Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, under the guidance of Fatehpal Singh, during August to December, 2012).

Project Group Number: …………

Name of Student 1: ……………………………… Registration Number: ………………………….. Name of Student 2: ……………………………… Registration Number: ………………………….. Name of Student 3: ……………………………… Registration Number: ………………………….. Name of Student 4: ……………………………… Registration Number: …………………………..

(Signature of Student 1) (Signature of Student 2) (Signature of Student 3) (Signature of Student 4)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the declaration statement made by this group of students is correct to the best of my knowledge and belief. The Capstone Project Proposal based on the technology / tool learnt is fit for the submission and partial fulfillment of the conditions for the award of B.Tech in ______ from Lovely Professional University, Phagwara. Name : …………………………………………….. U.ID : ……………………………………………… Designation : ……………………………………….

Signature of Faculty Mentor

to all university stafffrom Mechanical Engineering Faculty. Besides that.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT First of all. my fellow friends and who was helpingindirectly. thanks you the Almighty god. Lastly. . Not forget also to Mechanical Lab staffs that done really good jobs monitoring and assisting in technical support during the workshop sessions.FatehPal Singh for his brilliant idea. invaluable guidance. experiences andtechnical skills always impress and open our minds to always think differently than what written in text books or lectures to solve any technical problems. for blessing to finish thisproject successfully. His knowledge. Special gratitude express to supervisor/mentor Mr. sincere thanks to all lab mates who taught a lot to handle machines that we were going to use. continuously encouragement andconstant support in making this project possible. thanks for giving me such a sincere support and assistance.

TABLE OF CONTENTS 1) Introduction i) Type of wood ii) Type of tools iii) Literature Review iv) Historical Development Of Wooden Turning Lathe v) Historical Development Of Product vi) Modern Wooden Lath vii) Objective Of Project viii) Parts Of Wooden Lathe ix) Components x) Statement Of Problems xi) Purpose Of Study. xii) Scope Of Work 2) Methodology i) Draft Designing ii) Stress Analysis Of Tailstock iii) Dimensions And Specifications iv) Calculation Of Cutting Parameters 3) Complete Work Plan With Timeline i) Gantt Chart ii) Process Chart : 4) Result And Concluion 5) References .

The center spins the wood rapidly as the crafter applies the blade to the surface of the wood piece. however. In addition to wood lathes. tool rest. This center holds the wood in place so it can be shaped using the wood lathe with a variety of handheld blades. It can be used to smooth and shape wood. lathes are also available for working with metal and glass. It consists a motor. the crafter must insert a piece of wood into a special holder called a center. Some wood lathes. so the user does not have to hold the blade. is a machine that spins a piece of wood at a high (or low . The pieces of metal used to lock the wood into place vary. Each of these lathes are commonly used by crafters and do-ityourselfers in order to customize and complete projects. . depending on how it needs to be held.depending on what you are carving) velocity. and pieces of metal to hold the wood in place. are capable of holding the blade in place.INTRODUCTION A wooden lathe . In order to use a wood lathe.

the cutting tool and the power feed. . A workpiece is holded and rotated under power. which holds one end of the material in a rotating spur. Some blades are wide with sharper angles and intended to cut large portions of wood away from the piece. which holds the other end. fancy and decorative wood items. as well as for firewood and pulpwood in the paper industry. A wood lathe can also be used to make cue sticks. angles. A crafter may also use a wood lathe to assist with sandpapering the surface of the wood. A wood lathe is a machine used to form a piece of wood into a desired shape. a variety of other useful. A wood lathe can be used to create a variety of objects. Types Of Woods Acacia wood There are about 1. Its principal parts are the headstock. and flooring. baseball bats. Its machine tool for holding and turning wood against a cutting tool.A wood lathe can be fitted with a variety of different blades. It performs turning operations in which unwanted material is removed from a workpiece rotated against a cutting tool. These blades can be of different widths. and any other wooden object that needs to be cylindrical and smooth in shape. A piece of wood is attached to a spinning arm and various tools are used to shape the piece of wood as it spins. the tailstock. A few acacia plants produce wood that can be used for furniture. Rather than holding the piece in hand and rubbing it repeatedly with a piece of sandpaper. and shapes. allowing detailing to be completed with the help of the wood lathe. The type of blade used with the wood lathe determines the way it will cut the wood. a wood lathe can create decorative spindles to be used in the creation of table and chair legs. by chip removal.300 different species of acacia trees and shrubs. This makes it possible to finish sanding in a much shorter period of time and is also less physically demanding on the user. the crafter can allow the wood lathe to spin the piece as he or she holds a piece of sandpaper against it. ornaments. Other blades are sharper or pointier. For crafting and general woodworking.

Pine trees can reach a height of up to 60-80 m. Pine wood Pines are trees in the genus Pinus. Fruit wood displays color properties unlike most other woods. or metal. one type of chisel. With its multiple products. Tools  Chisel A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind) of blade on its end. particularly in woodworking. Sheesham is among the finest cabinet and veneer timbers Fruit Wood Fruit wood is a hard. tolerance of light frosts and long dry seasons. There are about 115 species of pine. typically reaching ages of 100-1. vases.Sheesham wood Sheesham is best known internationally as a premier timber species of the rosewood genus. bowls and furniture. The bark of most pines is thick and scaly. it has green. dense wood which is made into a variety of arts.woodturning and sculpture. crafts. The handle and blade of some types of chisel are made of metal or wood with a sharp edge in it. to carve small pieces from the material . for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood. Pines are long-lived. brown and yellow hues. is used.000 years. stone. A gouge.

never struck.  Paring chisel: has a long blade which is ideal for cleaning grooves and accessing tight spaces. parting. the angle and method of sharpening is different. In addition. needed to counteract the tendency of the tool to react to the downward force of the spinning wood being cut or carved. a secondary bevel would not be ground on the too .Types of wood working chisels   Butt chisel: short chisel with beveled sides and straight edge for creating joints.  Framing chisel: usually used with mallet. These tools have longer handles for more leverage. Cleans out square holes.   Bevel edge chisel: can get into acute angles with its bevelled edges. straight. slightly tapered sides to make mortises and similar joints. Mortise chisel: thick.   Slick: a large chisel driven by manual pressure.  Chisel as a Wooden Lathe Tool A lathe tool is a woodworking chisel designed to cut wood as it is spun on a lathe. such as gouge. similar to a butt chisel. The difference being the thickness of the body of the chisel. ideal for tongueand-groove flooring. paring. permitting easier access to the joint. cutting edges are many. Dovetail chisel: Made specifically for cutting dovetail joints. except it has a longer. and V-groove. slightly flexible blade.   Skew chisel: has a 60 degree cutting angle and is used for trimming and finishing.  Corner chisel: resembles a punch and has an L-shaped cutting edge. as well as the angle of the edges. rigid blade with straight cutting edge and deep. mortises and corners with 90 degree angles. Carving chisels: used for intricate designs and sculpting. Flooring chisel: cuts and lifts flooring materials for removal and repair. skew.

spiral or helical guide. so as to enable ornamental turning. modified or eliminated where found not absolutely necessary. mud and animal parts. originating. wood was certainly one if the first materials worked by primitive human-beings. CNC lathes that are controlled by a computer. it was acknowledge of these facts brought about the design of wood lathe. the machine from its inception till date have under gone series of improvement. presumably simultaneously in Great Britain. etc. Jeweler‟s lathes differ from all other working lathes in that the cutting tools are hand held. The wood lathe. though the smallest lathes are “Jewelers lathes” which are small enough that they may be held on one hand. hence different models exist in the market. Lathe machine come in variety of models amongst which are bench lathes which can sit on a bench or table. vertical lathes i. there was much art and much less speed than we get today. just like other types of lathe can be used to carry out a wide range of machining operations. along with stone. Although the work piece machined on a Jeweler‟s lathes are metal. It saves time and does not need much skill as in the use of hand tools. Thus. Lathes come in a variety of sizes and styles. profiled cutters.Thus. Also. there are some lathes that are equipped with indexing plates. The recent research indicates that wood turning may be about 3000years old. Old spindle and bowl lathes used various sources of power. In the good old days. Indeed. the development of wood lathe machine was closely tied to the development of increasingly greater degrees of skill in design of a wood. There were treadle models and pedal models with pedals designed to work as they did on the velocipedes wood lathes. Italy and by inhabitants of Crimea. some parts have been simplified. not fixed to a cross slides. . which tends to force the beginning turner to start out specialized in some manner. but often had low end speed of 75RPM.e lathe with vertical axis.LITERATURE REVIEW Basically.

but one firmly held belief is that it was derived from „bőtticher‟ an old German word for a Cooper. but the items they could produce were limited by their equipment. sports equipment. musical instruments. The common day usage of the word „bodger‟ to describe someone who starts a job and does not complete it could be explained by the fact that the original bodgers only produced the turned parts and not the whole chair. The history of turning wood can be traced back many thousands of years. maritime articles e. Chair-bodgers were also to be found in many other areas of England and Wales. farm implements. Turned wooden items have been of major importance to the development of mankind from the production of simple domestic utensils. There is no doubt that the bodgers were highly skilled. joinery such as staircase parts. 2) a few references to lathes and turning in Greek and Roman literature. What information we have is derived from: 1) a single pictorial representation of a lathe from the 3rd century BC. Because of the last of these we know that woodturning has been practised from at least the 6th century BC and possibly for several hundred years prior to that. During the 19th Century hundreds of bodgers set up lathes in the woods around High Wycombe where they would turn legs and stretcher rails for chairs from green timber.Historical Development of woodturning Lathe Information about woodturning before the 13th century AD is sparse. It is recorded that in 1347 the Turners were instructed by the . bow and pole lathes. These simple machines are believed by many to be the first machine tools. Our story will begin with the earliest known products of the lathe and then go on to consider the lathe itself. the origins of this word is uncertain. pulleys for blocks & tackle. and 3) a limited quantity of the physical remains of turned products and turned waste.g. but were most prevalent in Buckinghamshire. measuring and drinking vessels etc. The artisans who worked in the woods using a pole lathe came to be known as „bodgers‟. Although the information on the early development of woodturning is sparse it is surprising how much it tells us when it is interpreted in the light of information from later periods. furniture. The earliest machines operated on the basis of the timber stock being rotated in a reciprocal motion on primitive strap.

C. . The range of machines and equipment available today is wider than at any other time in the history of wood turning. each having benefits and restrictions. The advent of the industrial revolution. Wood turning was not always the domain of the artisan craftsman. It is for this reason that many of the members of the British Wood Turners Association have a range of machines. It could be argued that without the mechanical wood lathe the industrial revolution could not have taken place. together with the explosion in the population in the towns and cities. the manufacturers of the modern high output machines offer many differing solutions to the method of turning. Further. There is no evidence to suggest that it was one of his many inventions. following the publication of Holtzapffel‟s reference work on „Turning & Mechanical Manipulation‟ it became the principal hobby of the mechanically-minded English gentry who produced a wide range of complex ornamental turnings. both wood and metal that we have today. each turner was to have his mark placed on the bottom of such measures for identification when they were examined. the skills to produce them from wood remain strong and will continue for as long as there are those discerning people who appreciate the many practical and aesthetic properties of a turned wooden item. The first record of a mechanical continuous revolution lathe is in the form of a sketch by Leonardo da Vinci. Whilst the hand lathes used by turners for samples and small runs are very similar to their predecessors.1480. It depicts a treadle lathe with a crankshaft and a rather large flywheel constructed substantially from wood. led to the manufacture of high output machines to meet the ever increasing demand for turned wooden items. This was without doubt the beginning of main stream industrial wood turning with many companies specialising to meet the ever increasing demands of the industrial users such as the cotton spinning mills in Lancashire.Mayor and Alderman of the City of London to ensure that their measuring vessels of turned wood conformed to the City standards. This and similar machines was the predecessor of the lathes. Today many of the items which were traditionally turned from wood are no longer required or are made from synthetic materials. However. in fact it may well be his sketch of an established piece of equipment that he had seen and interested his inventive mind. In the 19th century.

Historical developments of Products The first information on the form taken by the lathe comes from the 3rd century BC but it was in use long before that. which has been plugged. There is also a hole in the centre. The Mycenean Wooden Bowl Circa 1200 BC When we move forward in time a few hundred years we find clear evidence that the Etruscans possessed well developed techniques of turning.. . This is a fragment of a wooden bowl. The Etruscans were not the only people to use the lathe in that period. A flat wooden dish which stood on wooden legs was found in a pit grave at Mycenae dated at 1100 to 1400 BC. Excavations of a mound grave in Asia Minor (now Turkey) revealed two flat wooden dishes with decorative turned rims." Other Etruscan turned vessels were found on this site. These have been dated as from the 7th century BC. dated at around 700 BC. The oldest complete turned artefact discovered was a bowl from about the 6th century BC that was found in the late 19th century by Julius Naue in a burial ground at Uffing in Upper Bavaria. This dish has low side walks with a bead running around the top. The earliest piece from that area was found at a site known as the "Tomb of the Warrior" at Corneto. which shows "clear evidence of rounding and polishing on its outer surface and of hollow turning. One of these is described by Woodbury as a "double box" made in one piece with a separate cover which "shows highly sophisticated skills in turning". A number of turned wooden boxes and bowls from the 5th century BC have been found in the Crimea. This suggests that it could have been turned on a mandrel held between centres in a lathe.. Against this view must be set the fact that there is no sign of turned grooves on the piece. which is typical of turned work.

Floor Lathe Heavy duty lathe. extension to lengthen bed is available.Modern Wooden Lathes: Pen lathe Small specialized lathe. fits into limited space. . this is a machine for serious turners. Mini lathe A good starting out lathe. usually limited to maximum 2" swing. bed is more rigid than lighter models. ideal for pen turning.

Spindle of the motor is fitted with a socket which will be used as a chuck in micro wooden lathe for holding the work piece in a proper alignment with a tailstock. (3) Tailstock :. which is equipped with a motor and also in order to control the speed of the motor during operations a pedal controller is also attached to the motor. It is made up of wood in a trough shape so that material removed from the wood can be easily collected on the bed . tailstock is fixed but only the spindle is moveable in order to support varying length of different work piece . In a micro wooden lathe . A bolt with coned end is used as a spindle in micro wooden lathe in .It is situated at the right hand end of the bed .The headstock is permanently fastened to the inner ways at the left hand end of the bed .It is a base or foundation of the wooden lathe . Wood lathe receives their power through the headstock .SCOPE OF PROJECT Parts Of Wooden Lathe The main parts of a micro wooden lathe are:(1) Bed :. which is provides a tailstock spindle for the purpose of supporting the right end of the work piece . (2) Headstock :. It hold and support the other parts of the lathe such as motor. It severs to support the spindle and driving arrangements.

It usually can be adjusted by sliding the length of the bed at its base. Movement of the bolt is controlled by the means of two nuts which keep the bolt at desired position.which conned end act as a dead center. (4) Tool rest :-The tool rest is similar to a mechanical arm with a metal guide bar to support the chisel or knife used for turning the work piece. and the upper arm. . with an intermediate arm that can swing from a parallel to a perpendicular position in relation to the lathe bed. which holds the actual tool rest bar.

the importation of wood lathe machine. 2) Manufacturer tends to upgrade their machines to compete with the new machine with new technology. likewise has failed to meet man‟s insatiable needs because of our unstable economy.However. Then. the bed and tailstock the fixed headstock Sewing machine motor Pedal (10) Socket (11) Wooden pieces (12) Bolt (13) Tool Rest Statement Of Problems The general purpose for any project is to find solutions on a certain problems. 3) Lathe machine cutting tool can easily break and needs to enhance its tool life. The continuous quest to have the problems of man and his growing needs solved has led to the establishment of factories and other industries. . the problems that need to be solved are:1) Any manufacturer wants to reduce cost and time taken to complete a product but gives better quality products and increases the outputs. simple hand tools that were in use before are no longer efficient for mass production. It‟s also gives main idea how the project to be completed. for these tools. In the same manner. as a substitute. there comes the need for urgent attention to a better and locally made wood lathe machine.Components The main components of a mini wooden lathe are:(5) (6) (7) (8) (9) the base. For this project. which necessitates an intermediate technology.

Drilling operations cannot be performed on this machine.but in our micro wooden lathe we allow such arrangement such that we can drill workpiece with the help of cone ended threaded bolt by rotating the bolt from the head portion . the machine comprises of the frame made of metal. with the headstock fixed in position. 4) To Motor holder designed by using Pro-E software. the machine is limited to only scarping and cutting of any type of wood. The simple design and fabrication of this machine.Purpose Of Study. The design and fabrication of wood lathe machine aims among other things at justifying a simple way of scarping and cutting off wood at its best quantity at a minimum cost of labour. Scope Of Work Essentially. The general scopes for this project are:1) To Do the literature reviews on lathe machine 2) To Develop Gantt chart and flow chart for this project. in this micro wooden lathe we can not only perform turning operations but also can perform parting as well as knurling operations . and the toll rest mounted on a tool post which is fixed to bed of micro wooden lathe and tool can rest on this tool rest allow the operater to freely work on the workpiece by placing the tool on the tool rest. and easy to carry out maintenance services at minimized cost. make it viable. 5) To Testing the lathe machine. the tail stock moves along the bed of the machine by using a bolt supported by L shaped frame which provide flexibility in order to fix workpiece of various length and cross section . reliable. 3) To Design the lathe machine by using Pro-E software. In operations. so that the financial burden of people can be reduced. . It is located between the head stock and the tailstock.

the cost of importation of a lathe machine. Increase productivity and creativity. To test the lathe machine operates 4. wood lathe machine will helps to reduce the cost and consequently increase the rate of production and craftsman‟s skill . is too high for an average user. The vital need for the fabrication of a wood lathe is significant in the much delay and time as well as energy wasted in using simple hand tools to carry out jobs.OBJECTIVES OF PROJECT Every works must come out with its own objectives so that its will achieves the goal successfully. Reduce the labour cost and time spent on using hand tools for wood design. 7. Use available local materials in fabrication 6. the objectives are:- 1. 5. Provide a life engine in the workshop which students could use for exhibition thereby creating awareness for. To fabricate the wooden lathe machine. 9. To analyze the cutting tool wear and workpiece surface roughness. and encouragement of indigenous technology. To design a wooden lathe machine. For this project. 3.Also. Achieve a reduction in the cost of production of the machine. 8. 2. Moreover.

METHODOLOGY Draft Designing Designing of work piece in pro e along with dimensions Total length = 100 mm (vary acc to workpiece) Diameter = 50 mm (vary acc to workpiece) .

Designing of tailstock in pro e along with dimensions ( 2D & 3D) .

Stress analysis of tailstock Red = maximum stress Green = medium stress Blue =low stress .

Dimensions And Specifications Below are the dimensions and specifications as regards the fabricated wood lathe.4 mm .6 mm 115 mm 55 mm 33.32 amp 9. Total length of the machine Total height of the machine Width of machine bed Angle of inclination of the tail stock The electric motor RPM Frequency Power Capacity Voltage Current Diameter of motor shaft Maximum length of work Minimum length of work Diameter of workpiece 420mm 180 mm 260 mm 90 0 6000 rpm 50 Hz 50 w 1/12 hp 200/230 v .

the workpiece surface is driven with respect to the tool. mm N = Spindle Speed . and can cause tool chatter. it will cause premature tool wear. Soft steel such as aluminium alloy is suitable with high spindle speed during machining. Mathematically . Mostly the tool or workpiece revolves. breakage.V = πDN/1000 m/min Where .r. at a relatively high rate of speed. Using the correct spindle speed for the material and tools will affect tool life and the quality of the surface finish. Cutting speed (in Wooden lathe for turning operation) is the peripheral speed of the workpiece past the cutting tool. V = Cutting Speed .Calculation of cutting parameters Cutting Speed When metal is cut.p.Spindle speed (rpm) is the rotational frequency of lathe machine spindle and its determined based on the type of material to be cut. or the tool with respect to surface. The cutting speed is related to the rpm and thus is conveniently expressed in meter per minute (m/min). This is called cutting speed (Cs). If hard steel such as bronze applied excessive spindle speed. m/min D = Diameter of the job . Almost all such machine tools are calibrated in revolutions per minute (rpm).m .

m Then we can calculate the cutting speed which is :V = ( π*33. Di = Initial diameter of the workpiece .4 mm N = 6000 r. mm Df = Final diameter of the workpiece . the depth of cut is expressed as : d = ( Di – Df ) / 2 mm Where .8 m/min Factor which influence the selection of a proper cutting speed are :     Material of the cutting tool Hardness and Machinability of the wood to be machined Tool Shape Depth of cut Rigidity of the tool and work Depth Of Cut (d) The depth of cut „d‟ is the perpendicular distance measured from the machined surface to the uncut surface of the workpiece .4*6000 ) /1000 v = 629. mm .p.In a Micro wooden Lathe D = 33. For turning operation .

In a Micro wooden Lathe Di = 33.4 mm Df= 22.25 mm Depth of cut generally depend on following factors :    Type of workpiece material Type of tool material Type of surface finish required .4 – 22.9 ) / 2 d = 5.9 mm Then we can calculate the Depth of cut which is d= (33.

8 * 5.25 mm f = 0.1 mm / revolution Then we can calculate the cutting speed which is :MRR = 1000 * 629. MRR. Another way to define MRR is to imagine an "instantaneous" material removal rate as the the rate at which the cross-section area of material being removed moves through the workpiece MRR = 1000 *V * d * f In a Micro wooden Lathe V = 629.25 * 0.1 = 330645 mm^3 / min .8 m/min (Calculated above) d = 5.Material Removal Rate (MRR) The material removal rate. can be defined as the volume of material removed divided by the machining time.

 November .COMPLETE WORK PLAN WITH TIMELINE Gantt Chart       Designing of Wooden Lathe      September Selection of material required Arrangement of required components Construction of Line diagram/Rough Sketch Construction of wooden lathe September October October October   Assembling all components Working test of wooden lathe   October November   Designing of workpiece. Analysis of wooden lathe   November November  Computation of cutting parameters  November  Final testing of working of wooden lathe.

Process chart : Review of Literature Designing of Project Work Selection of Material Selection of Tool Procurement of Material and Tool Sub assembly of Machine Final Assembly of Machine Inspection of Machine Testing of Machine .

25 mm  Material Removal Rate MRR= 330645 mm^3 / min  Normal lathe has more overhead and operating cost. .It can also be use to hollow out the wood to make vessels such as cups. of operations can be performed anywhere.  Handling and transportation is easy The lathe can be used in the production of wheels and making parts for many types of furniture and tableware. bowls.RESULT AND CONCLUION  Cutting Speed v = 629. The items you can make using a wood lathe are more evenly carved and finished than would be possible by hand. and many other important technological developments. vases and decorative objects.8 m/min  Depth Of Cut d = 5.Wood lathes cut down drastically on the time required to make carved wooden vessels and other implements.  And mini wooden lathe has too less overhead and operating cost .  No. parts for mills and pumps.

 Micro wooden lathe is derived from wood turning lathe which has been a well establish industrial processes offering attractive capabilities for handling work piece of various length to be used at micro level  We have presented historical development of micro wooden lathe from ancient time to modern time  We have explained the various parts and components of micro wooden lathe  Different type of micro wooden lathe and tool for micro wooden lathe has been discussed  We have discussed the entire time line and process chart .In this project report we provide an overview of the issues concerning different aspects of micro wooden lathe . the presented results can help to plan the machining of workpiece expected tolerance. different type of micro wooden lathe and tool used to fabricate the workpiece In micro wooden lathe has been presented . depth of cut . The following major conclusions may be drawn from the present project report.material removal rate .The project report focus on the principle of conventional lathe . type of micro wooden lathe tooling and machining parameters and process performance measure. which include cutting speed .

uk/history2/history-turning2.com/?Best-Wood-Lathe-for-Your-Project&id=5866721 http://www.wisegeek.uk/history%20of%20woodturning.com/?Using-Your-Mini-Wood-Lathe-the-Right-Way&id=4352151 http://www.worldofwoodturning.html http://wiki.php http://www.com/what-is-a-wood-lathe.britishwoodturners.com/video/wikipedia-down/352932/nZ-ezNKkXqIla6Guoe1ppeJvK7JorSXuKi5pbiqqISlh9qr/micro-woodlathe-how-to-make-itwith-a-sewing-machine-motor         http://ezinearticles.worldofwoodturning.com/wood-lathes.in.answers.REFERENCES  http://tech2.co.co.com/Q/What_is_a_wood_lathe_and_how_does_it_work http://www.com/sip-1200-wood-turning-lathe.html http://ezinearticles.html http://www.html .turningtools.

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