1

H toxoµío xqç cììqvtkqç yµoçqç kot q ovµþoìq xov
çotvtktkoú oìçoþqxov oxq ótoµóµçeoq xov oµ¿oíov
cììqvtkoú oìçoþqxov
Etµqvq Ieoqçíóov
dtìóìoyoç
eirini_iosifidou@yahoo.gr
HEPIAHTH
H ¸puçq uaotcìci cvu uao tu µc¸uìutcpu caitcu¸µutu tou uv0peaou, oioti ¿upq oc uutq o uv0peaoç
vikqoc to ¿epo kui to ¿povo. H aupouou cioq¸qoq uvuçcpctui otq ¸puçq oivovtuç ioiuitcpq cµçuoq
oto çoivikiko uìçuµqto, aou uaotcìcoc tq µuoq auve otqv oaoiu otqpi¿0qkc kui cçcìi¿0qkc q
cììqvikq uìçuµqtikq ¸puçq. Ap¿iku, µcoe tqç µiµìio¸puçikqç uvuokoaqoqç aupouoiu¸ovtui tu
¿upuktqpiotiku aou ou¸kpotouv tov opioµo tqç ¸puçqç kui ¸ivctui oiukpioq uvuµcou otu ouotqµutu
¸puçqç aou uaup¿ouv oc oìo tov kooµo. Ev ouvc¿ciu, acpi¸puçctui uvuìutiku q «kutu¸e¸q» tou
cììqvikou uìçuµqtikou ouotqµutoç. Lu¸kckpiµcvu, ¸ivctui uvuçopu otq ¸puµµikq B kui touç
ai0uvouç ìo¸ouç c¸kutuìci¡qç tqç kui uvuçcpovtui oi ìo¸oi ouµçevu µc touç oaoiouç ocv caupkouoc
uaìeç q uio0ctqoq tou çoivikikou uìçuµqtou, uììu ¿pciu¸otuv tpoaoaoiqociç ¸iu vu kuìuç0ouv oi
uvu¸kcç tqç cììqvikqç ¸ìeoouç. Aqµioup¸q0qkuv, caoµcveç, vcu ouµµoìu kui aoìu ouvtoµu to
cììqviko uìçuµqto uacktqoc toaikcç aupuììu¸cç oi oaoicç oiutqpq0qkuv acpiaou µc¿pi tov 5
o
ui
a.X. H ouotqµutikq kututuçq tev toaikev uìçuµqtev oçciìctui otov Kirchhoff, o oaoioç
¿pqoiµoaoiqoc eç µuoiko kpitqpio tqv ciou¸e¸q apoo0ctev ouµµoìev ¸iu tq oqìeoq opioµcvev
ouµçevev tqç up¿uiuç cììqvikqç ¸ìeoouç kui cociçc µc tq µoq0ciu cvoç ¿uptq tq ¸ce¸puçikq
kutuvoµq touç. Tcìoç, auputi0cvtui tu otoi¿ciu aou uaoocikvuouv tq ouvocoq tou cììqvikou µc to
çoivikiko uìçuµqto.
ABSTRACT
The writingis one of the greatest achievements of people. This paper is reported in the writing and is
given particular emphasis on the Phoenician alphabet, which constituted the base on which was
supported and developed the Greek alphabetical writing. Through the bibliographic revieware given
the characteristics that constitute the definition of writing and become discrimination between the
systems of writing that exist in all over the world. Then, is described analytically the “origin” of Greek
alphabetical system. Specifically, becomes report in the Linear B and in the possible reasons that it was
abandoned andare reported the reasons according to which didn’t’ suffice the adoption of Phoenician
alphabet, but existed need so that become modifications in order to are covered the needs of Greek
language. Consequently, were created new symbols and quickly the Greek alphabet has acquired local
2
variations, that were maintained roughly up to 5th century B.C. The systematic classification of local
alphabets is owed in Kirchhoff, who used the import of additional symbolsin order to designate certain
consonants of the ancient Greek language and he proved their geographical distribution. Finally, are
mentioned the elements that prove the connection between Greek and the Phoenician alphabet.
1. EILAIOIH
Ltq oqµcpivq cao¿q o ¸puatoç ìo¸oç kutc¿ci aoìu oqµuvtikq 0coq, oioti oc uutov
otqpi¸ctui o¿coov uaokìciotiku q µctuoooq tqç ¸veoqç. H ¿pqoq tqç ¸puçqç uaotcìci to
aio ouvq0ioµcvo kpitqpio ¸iu tq oiukpioq µctuçu iotopiuç kui apoïotopiuç kui 0cepcitui eç
uaupuitqto ouotutiko tou aoìitioµou. Xupq oto ¸puato ìo¸o to ukouotiko oqµu
uvtiku0iotutui µc oatiko kui µcoe tou uìikou oto oaoio kutu¸puçctui uaoocoµcuctui uao
tiç ¿epo¿povikcç oiuotuociç tqç ckçopuç tou kui uaoktu tqv uaootuoq cvoç çuoikou
uvtikciµcvou, oputou kui auputqpqoiµou. Eivui o¿coov uouvuto vu çuvtuotouµc µiu
koiveviu otqv oaoiu ocv uaup¿ci ¸puçq (Xpiotioqç, 2006). Ooo kui uv µoiu¸ci uutovoqtq q
o¿coq tqç ¸ìeoouç µc tq ¸puçq, eotooo q ¸puçq oc o¿coq µc tq ¸ìeoou civui
ocutcpo¸cvqç.
O ocutcpo¸cvqç ¿upuktqpuç tqç ¸puçqç oc µcievci to oqµuvtiko poìo aou cauiçc
otqv cçcìiçq tev aoìitioµev otouç oaoiouç cµçuviotqkc. Aç µqv çc¿vuµc oti q ¸ìeoou kui
q ¸puçq uçcvoç civui ouo oqµcietiku ouotqµutu oc o¿coq uììqìcçuptqoqç, uçctcpou civui
oiuçopctiku uao uao¡q kutq¸opiuç µiuç kui uaukououv oc oiuçopctikouç kuvovcç kui
cçuaqpctouv oiuçopctikcç caikoiveviukcç uvu¸kcç (Holenstein, 1983).
H ouvocoq tqç ¸puçqç µc tq µctuoooq tqç ¸veoqç ocv qtuv auvtu uutovoqtq, ku0eç
µc¿pi kui oqµcpu uaup¿ouv aoìitioµoi aou ocv ¿pqoiµoaoiqouv aotc ¸puçq. Aììeotc, q
cµçuvioq tqç ¸puçqç civui o¿ctiku apooçutq otqv iotopiu tqç uv0peaotqtuç, ku0eç civui
caivoqoq tou uv0peaou, cvu aoìitiotiko caitcu¸µu kui o¿i apoïov µioìo¸ikqç cçcìiçqç oaeç
q ¸ìeoou (Xpiotioqç, 2006). O uv0peaoç µiìuci coe kui ckutovtuocç ¿iìiuocç ¿poviu, uììu
¸puçci µoìiç uao to 3.500 a.X. acpiaou. Auto ouµµuivci oioti q uvu¸kq ¸iu tq ¸puçq
¸cvvictui otuv q koiveviu c¿ci ¸ivci upkctu ouv0ctq eotc vu µqv caupkci o apoçopikoç
ìo¸oç ¸iu tq ìcitoup¸iu tqç kui otuv q ¸puçq uaìevctui oc oìo to cupoç tqç koivevikqç
¸eqç kui ocv uaqpctci cvuv acpiopioµcvo ¿epo aìqpoçopiuç (Xpiotioqç, 2005).
2. OPILMOL THL IPAdHL
H ¸puçq uaotcìci oatikq uvuaupuotuoq tqç ¸ìeoouç. Eivui cvu ouotqµu
ocutcpo¸cvouç ouµµoìioµou, tu oqµciu tou oaoiou uvtiku0iotouv ìcçciç, aou ki uutcç µc tq
ocipu touç uaotcìouv oqµciu ¸iu uvtikciµcvu q ovtotqtcç tou kooµou. O ¸puçcuç apcaci vu
uvtikutuotqoci tiç ìcçciç µc «cikovcç» ìcçcev (Vygotsky, 1962). H ¿pqoiµoaoiqoq, oµeç,
3
oaoiovoqaotc oatikev µcoev kui ouµµoìev ocv ouviotu auvtotc ¸puçq, oioti q ¸puçq
uçiotutui µovo otuv uaup¿ci µoviµq kui ou¸kckpiµcvq uvtiotoi¿iu µctuçu ¸puçikou
ouµµoìou kui kuaoiuç ¸ìeooikqç µovuouç.
Ipuçq ovoµu¸ctui ku0c ouotqµu µoviµev oatikev ouµµutikev oqµciev aou
¿pqoiµoaoicitui ¸iu tqv uvuaupuotuoq cvoç µqvuµutoç ctoi eotc uuto vu µaopci vu
uvu¸vepiotci uao tov uvu¸veotq oc oaoiooqaotc ¿epo kui ¿povo µc uaoìutq ukpiµciu
(Daniels & Bright, 1996). H ¸ìeoou kutuktutui uao to ¿pqotq µc uµcoo kui çuoiko tpoao,
cve q ¸puçq ocv uaoktutui eç ¸veoq µcoe tqç ckµu0qoqç.
3. LYLTHMATA IPAdHL
Oou ki uv civui tu ouotqµutu ¸puçqç tu oaoiu ¿pqoiµoaoiq0qkuv eç tepu, aupu tqv
caiçuvciukq touç aoikiìiu, eotooo oc oìu c¿ci ku0c ¸puçqµu uacikovi¸ci cvu otoi¿cio tqç
¸ìeoouç (Xpiotioqç, 2006).
Tu ouotqµutu ¸puçqç aou c¿ouv ¿pqoiµoaoiq0ci kutu kuipouç ¸iu tqv kutu¸puçq
oiuçopev ¸ìeooev oiukpivovtui oc ouo µuoikcç kutq¸opicç uvuìo¸u µc tqv aìcupu tou
¸ìeooikou oqµciou aou cai¿cipouv vu uvuaupuotqoouv. Aiukpivovtui, caoµcveç, oc
oqµuoio¸puçiku (otuv tu ¸puçqµutu ckapooeaouv tq oqµuoiu tqç ìcçqç) kui oc
çevo¸puçiku (otuv uvuaupiotouv tov q¿o tqç ìcçqç) (Xpiotioqç, 2006). Tu ocutcpu
oiukpivovtui oc ouììuµiku kui oc uìçuµqtiku. Ltov cììqviko ¿epo cµçuviotqkuv ouo
ouììuµiku ouotqµutu: q ¸puµµikq B ¸iu tq µukqvuïkq cììqvikq kui to kuapiuko
ouììuµupio ¸iu tqv kuapiukq oiuìckto (Xpiotioqç, 2006).
Aìçuµqtiku ouotqµutu ¿pqoiµoaoiq0qkuv oc oìcç tiç ¸ìeoocç tqç Eupeaqç. Tu
ouotqµutu uutu uaooioouv tu çevqµutu µiuç ¸ìeoouç kui o upi0µoç tev ¸puçqµutev civui
µikpoç cacioq cçioou µikpoç civui kui o upi0µoç tev çevqµutev. Lto¿oç tev uìçuµqtikev
ouotqµutev civui ku0c çevqµu vu c¿ci cvu µovo ¸puçqµutiko ckapooeao kui ku0c
¸puçqµu vu uvtiotoi¿ci oc cvu µovo çevqµu. 1toi, tu /r/, /p/, /m/, /v/ oiukpivouv µctuçu
touç tu vcocììqviku poìoç, aoìoç, µoìoç, µoìoç.
4. EAAHNIKH IAOLLA KAI dOINIKIKO AAdABHTO
4.1. H KATAIOIH TOY EAAHNIKOY AAdABHTOY
H uio0ctqoq tqç uìçuµqtikqç ¸puçqç civui µiu uao tiç oqµuvtikotcpcç kuivotoµicç
tou up¿uiou cììqvikou aoìitioµou. Hoììouç uievcç µctu tqv c¸kutuìci¡q tqç ¸puµµikqç B
oi 1ììqvcç cµu0uv auìi vu ¸puçouv otu tcìq tou 9
ou
q otiç up¿cç tou 8
ou
uievu a.X.
¿pqoiµoaoievtuç µiu ¸puçq aou apoopi¸otuv ¸iu µiu çcvq ¸ìeoou, to çoivikiko ouotqµu
aou ¿pqoiµoaoiouvtuv otqv Lupiu (Easterling & Knox, 2006). Acv civui cukoìo vu
apoooiopiotouv caukpiµeç oi uiticç ¸iu tiç oaoicç c¸kutuìciçtqkc q ouììuµikq ¸puµµikq B.
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Evoc¿oµcveç, uuto vu ouvcµq ìo¸e tqç kutuotpoçqç tev µukqvuïkev uvuktopev, µiuç kui
q ¸puµµikq B qtuv otcvu ouvococµcvq µc tqv uvuktopikq oioikqoq. Ooov uçopu touç
ìo¸ouç aou ooq¸qouv touç 1ììqvcç µctu uao tcoocpiç uievcç c¸kutuìci¡qç tqç ¸puµµikqç
B oto vu oqµioup¸qoouv cvu vco uìçuµqto otqpi¸µcvo otq çoivikikq ¸puçq civui cçioou
ouokoìo c¸¿cipqµu (Burkert, 1984).
Tu apetu oe¸oµcvu ¸puatu µvqµciu tqç cììqvikqç ¸ìeoouç oto çoivikiko uìçuµqto
civui q cai¸puçq tou aotqpiou tou Ncotopoç (740-720 a.X.) kui tqç oivo¿oqç tou Aiauìou
(735-725 a.X.) (µì. Eikovu 1). Oi ¿pqociç tqç cììqvikqç ¸puçqç uao touç up¿uiouç 1ììqvcç
qtuv aoììuaìcç, ku0eç tq ¿pqoiµoaoiououv kui oto oqµooio kui otov ioietiko µio. H
oqìeoq ktqoqç cvoç uvtikciµcvou, q tqpqoq ìo¸upiuoµev kui up¿ciev q kutu¸puçq
oiuçopev cioev kciµcvev kui oi µvqµciukcç cai¸puçcç qoq uao tov 7
o
ui. a.X. uaotcìouv
touç aio ouvq0ciç ìo¸ouç ¿pqoqç tqç ¸puçqç. Aç µqv çc¿vuµc tqv otcvq o¿coq tqç
cììqvikqç uìçuµqtikqç ¸puçqç µc tov apoçopiko ìo¸o, ku0eç ouvq0i¸uv vu oiuµu¸ouv tu
kciµcvu çevu¿tu (Xpiotioqç, 2006).
Etkóvo 1: Oivo,op oiokoonpn/vp nc yccnc:oiko 0/no:o aoc ßo/0pkc :o 1871 o:o Aiac·o :oc
Kcooncikoí o:pv A0pvo. Xoovo·oyci:oi o:o :oi:o :/:oo:o :oc 8
oc
oi. a.X. koi oao:c·ci :o
oo,oio:coo /cç :coo ociyno o·çoßp:ikpç yooçpç o:ov c··pviko koono.
Oi 1ììqvcç ocv upkcotqkuv oto vu uio0ctqoouv uutouoiu tq çoivikikq ¸puçq, uììu
cioq¸u¸uv aoììcç tpoaoaoiqociç oto uìçuµqto touç ctoi eotc vu kutuotci aio cu¿pqoto
(µì. Eikovu 2). H oqµitikq uutq ¸puçq oc oqµcievc tu çevqcvtu. 1toi, to cvoc¿oµcvo
aupuvoqoqç qtuv µc¸uìo kui oi uvu¸veotcç capcac vu civui cioikcuµcvoi (Easterling &
Knox, 2006). To ¸c¸ovoç uuto oçciìctui oto oti q cììqvikq cçuitiuç tou kìitikou tqç
ouotqµutoç civui uouvutov uv kutu¸puçci ikuvoaoiqtiku ¿epiç tq oqìeoq tev çevqcvtev
(Thomas, 1992). Iiu aupuoci¸µu oìcç oi aupukute ìcçciç kui oi tuaoi touç 0u µaopououv vu
uaooo0ouv µc ouo ouµçevu <µì>: µcìi, µcìq, µqìo, µiìe, µqìu, µiìu, µuììi, µuììiu.
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Etkóvo 2: líykoiop :oc çoivikikoí koi :oc c··pvikoí o·çoßp:oc.
Ku0iotutui caoµcveç uaupuitqtq q ciou¸e¸q tev çevqcvtev, µiuç kui q uaouoiu
touç 0u ouo¿cpuivc tq ¸puatq uaooooq tqç cììqvikqç ¸ìeoouç. Aììeotc, tu çevqcvtu
oqìevovtuv tooo otq ¸puµµikq B ooo kui oto kuapiuko ouììuµupio. H apooupµo¸q tou
çoivikikou uìçuµqtou otiç uvu¸kcç tqç cììqvikqç ¸ìeoouç aoìu ai0uvov vu c¸ivc uao
uv0peaouç aou µiìououv kui tiç ouo ¸ìeoocç. H aupuìuµq kui apooupµo¸q tou çoivikikou
uìçuµqtou cvoc¿oµcveç vu c¸ivc oc µiu uao tiç aupukute tpciç acpio¿cç: otiç uktcç tqç
Lupiuç kui tqç 4oivikqç, otqv acpio¿q tou Ai¸uiou, otqv Euµoiu (Powell, 1991; Marek,
1993).
Lu¸kckpiµcvu, oi 1ììqvcç apoo0couv acvtc çevqcvtu oto ouµçeviko çoivikiko
uìçuµqto. To uaotcìcoµu qtuv vu oqµioup¸q0ci q apetq aìqpqç uìçuµqtikq ¸puçq. Iiu
tqv uaooooq tev tcooupev çevqcvtev ¿pqoiµoaoiqouv ouµµoìu uao tq çoivikikq ¸puçq
aou oqìevuv ç0o¸¸ouç (ouµçevu kui qµiçevu) aou ocv uaqp¿uv otqv cììqvikq ¸ìeoou kui
oiutqpqouv tq 0coq aou ci¿uv kui oto çoivikiko uìçuµqto. Autu qtuv tu cçqç: A, E, I kui
O. Ooov uçopu to ç0o¸¸o [u] ¸iu tqv uaooooq tou ¿pqoiµoaoiq0qkc to ouµµoìo Y kui
6
toao0ctq0qkc µctu to tcìcutuio ¸puµµu tou uìçuµqtou, aou qtuv to T (µì. Eikovu 1)
(Xpiotioqç, 2006).
To cììqviko aìcov uìçuµqto oc aoìu ouvtoµo ¿poviko oiuotqµu uacktqoc toaikcç
aupuììu¸cç, aou qtuv uvcçuptqtcç uao tiç oiuìcktikcç oiuipcociç. Autcç oi toaikcç
aupuììu¸cç oiutqpq0qkuv µc¿pi kui tov 5
o
ui a.X. Kutu tov Kirchhoff, o oaoioç µcìctqoc
ouotqµutiku tqv kututuçq tev toaikev aupuììu¸ev tou uìçuµqtou, ¿epioc tu up¿uïku
uìçuµqtu oc tpciç oµuocç, otiç oaoicç tu ovoµutu oo0qkuv µc µuoq tu ¿peµutu aou c¿ouv
oto ¿uptq tou Kirchhoff oi acpio¿cç otiç oaoicç uutu ¿pqoiµoaoiouvtuv (Kirchhoff, 1887).
Yaup¿ouv tu apuoivu, tu kokkivu kui tu ¸uìu¸iu uìçuµqtu (µì. Eikovu 3).
Etkóvo 3: To «aoooivo», «kokkivo» koi «yo·o¸io» o·çoßp:o oao :ov ,oo:p :oc
Kirchhoff.
To µuoiko kpitqpio aou ¿pqoiµoaoiqoc o Kirchhoff qtuv q ciou¸e¸q apoo0ctev
ouµµoìev ¸iu tq oqìeoq opioµcvev ouµçevev tqç up¿uiuç cììqvikqç ¸ìeoouç. H
apoo0qkq tev vcev ouµµoìev apocku¡c eç uvu¸kq ¸iu tqv oµoioµopçq oqìeoq oìev tev
ouocev kui opioµcvev ouµçevikev ouµaìc¸µutev tqç cììqvikqç ¸ìeoouç. Tu
ou¸kckpiµcvu ouµµoìu toao0ctq0qkuv µctu to Y kui civui tu cçqç: 4 [p
h
], X [k
h
] kui 1 ¸iu
to ouµaìc¸µu [ps] (Kirchhoff, 1887). Iiu aupuoci¸µu, to ouou [p
h
] tu «apuoivu» uìçuµqtu
to oqìevouv µc to uvtiotoi¿o ¡iìo H q µc ouo ¸puµµutu HH, cve tu «kokkivu» uìçuµqtu
¿pqoiµoaoiouv to ouµµoìo 1 ¸iu vu to oqìeoouv.
To çoivikiko uìçuµqto oic0ctc tcoocpu oupiotiku ouµµoìu, oioti oi oqµitikcç
¸ìeoocç c¿ouv acpioootcpouç oupiotikouç ç0o¸¸ouç uao tqv cììqvikq. 1toi, to zajin, to
q¿qpo oupiotiko uvtiotoi¿ci µc to cììqviko ¸qtu <Z> kui to samek, to uq¿o oupiotiko
uvtiotoi¿ci µc to cììqviko çi <E> oiutqpqouv to o¿qµu kui tq 0coq touç oto cììqviko
uìçuµqto, uììu uììuçuv ovoµu kui çevqtikq uçiu. To sade <M>ovoµuotqkc ouv kui to sin
7
<W> ovoµuotqkc oi¸µu. Tcìoç, to ouµµoìo H (het, qtu) aou oqìevc tq ououtqtu ocv ci¿c
ouoiuotikq ìcitoup¸iu otqv ievikq oiuìckto kui to ouµµoìo O oqµioup¸q0qkc ¸iu to µukpo
uvoi¿to [:] toao0ctq0qkc oto tcìoç tou uìçuµqtou (Xpiotioqç, 2006).
Tu ovoµutu kui q µopçq tev ¸puµµutev ku0eç kui q upiotcpootpoçq ¸puçq tev
apetev cai¸puçev uaoocikvuouv oti to cììqviko uìçuµqto ouvocctui otcvu µc tq çoivikikq
¸puçq. Akoµq, to pqµu çoiviko¸puçce, q uvuçopu oc cvu ¡qçioµu uao tqv Kpqtq ¸iu cvuv
uçieµutou¿o aou ìc¸otuv aoivikuotuç (µì. Eikovu 4) kui q ovoµuoiu apocìcuoqç çoivikqiu
¸puµµutu, aou coeouv oi ioioi oi 1ììqvcç oto uìçuµqto touç, oci¿vci oti ¸vepi¸uv tqv
uaupçq kui uììev ouotqµutev ¸puçqç uao tu oaoiu q0cìuv vu oiukpivouv ckcivo aou oi
ioioi uio0ctqouv (Klaffenbach, 1957).
Etkóvo 4: Xo·kivp ni:oo nc :pv caiyooçp ßoco:ooçpoov aoc ovoç/oc:oi o:o oiooiono
:oc lacvoi0ioc cç «ko:oyooç/o» (aoivikoo:oç). Aao :pv Kop:p, yíoc o:o 500 a.X.
Aao tiç up¿cç tou 7
ou
uievu oi 1ììqvcç up¿iouv vu ¸puçouv apoç tu ocçiu, uììu kui
µouotpoçqoov uììu¸uv oqìuoq tq çopu otuv cçtuvuv oto tcìoç cvoç oti¿ou. To apoµìqµu
auvteç tqç ouokoìiuç otqv uvu¸veoq kciµcvev ckcivq tqv cao¿q ìu0qkc aoìu up¸otcpu
otuv q kcçuìuio¸puµµutq ¸puçq uvtikutuotu0qkc uao tq µikpo¸puµµutq kutu tov 8
o
/9
o
ui.
µ.X.
8
BIBAIOIPAdIKEL ANAdOPEL
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