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Operating System
An operating system (OS) is a software program that acts as interface between a user and a computer. The operating system manages the computer hardware system resource memory, and the interaction between a computer and its user. it also forms the base on which application software is developed. Some of the popular operating system are. Linux Unix Microsoft Disk Operating System. Microsoft windows 95,98,2000. Microsoft windows NT server4.0. Microsoft Windows 7 2007. Microsoft Windows 7 Microsoft Windows 8

Function of an operating System


Process management The operating system assigns processor to the different task must be performed by the computer system. Memory management It allocates the main memory and secondary memory to the system programs , user programs and data. Input/output management It carrious out the input / output management and co-ordinates and assign different input and output devices. File Management If manages file on various storage device and the transfer these of file from one storage device no another Security management It established data security and integrity that is, it keeps different programs and data in such a manner that they do not interface with each other.

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Type of System
Single user operating system A single user operating system was designed for use by one person at a time. A personal computer (PC) is a popular single user system. it is small, general purpose computer that space program to perform a wide variety of tasks , Example Ms-Dos windows etc. Multi user operating system A multi user operating system allow a number of user to work together on a single computer each user will be provided a terminal connected to a single , computer Example Unix,Linux etc. Single tasking operating system Operating system which can execute only a single task at a time is know as single tasking operating system e.g. MS-Dos. Multi tasking operating system Multi tasking operating system supports execution of more than one job at a time Example Windows, linux etc MICROSOFT DISK OPERATING SYSTEM MS DOS stand for Microsoft Disk Operating System .It is a single user operating system for IBM compatible personal computer it was introduced in 1981 Jointly by Microsoft and IBM and was the most popular operating system for personal computer in the1980. It popular ting started reducing in the 1990 with the launch of Microsoft windows (OS) operating system. BOOTING Process that starts up a computer is called booting. It checks for proper functioning of all the peripheral devices attached with system. It checks f or primary memory of system it is also searches for the operating system and when located load into the main memory. There are two types of booting. Cold booting Warm booting Cold Booting Cold booting is done by turning on the computer in case of cold booting the memory and peripheral devices are checked loading the operating system.

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3 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION Warm Booting Warm booting is performed by pressing Ctrl + Alt and Del key simultaneously or restart, memory and peripheral devices are not checked in case of warm boot and operating system is directly loaded. Component of MS- DOS IO.Sys MS-DOS.Sys Command.Com WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

IO.Sys Program
This program interacts between your computers ROM BIOS and MS-DOS.Sys program. At startup IO.Sys, rects the disk system and initialize attached device. It always contains at least give device driver , which are used to control the operations of your keyboard, screen, printer, disk controller and system clock the final task performed by IO.Sys is to load the command processor program. The MS-DOS.Sys program Interact directly with application program and The IO.sys program. it interacepts program call for printing data storage or retrieval information display and soon and routes these called to the IO.sys program. Command.cam Command.cam is also called command processor it work as a user system interface some of the command of MS - Dos are defined in this file and they are loaded into the memory along with this file. DOS Command (dos command means instruction ) There are two type of command (1) Internal command. (2) External command. (1) Internal command Internal command are stored in memory and therefore can be executed immediately. For example MD,CD,COPY CON,REN, DEL etc (2) External command External command are store on the diskette as program files, and must be read from the diskette before they can be executed. Any file with file name

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extension. com or exe , txt is regarded by DOS as an external command when entering an external command, you should not include the file name extension. MD /MKDIR Command Stand for make the directory.MD/MKDIR is used to create a new directory. Syntax :MD <Directory name> Example MD VIEIT MD VIEIT/ UP CD /CHDIR Command CD /CHDIR is used to change the current directory. Syntax: CD <Directory name> or CHDIR< Directory name> Example: CD VIEIT (enter) CD VIEIT/UP or CHDIR VIEIT CD VIEIT/UP RD/RMDIR Command Stand for Remove the directory. This command is used to remove empty directory. Syntax RD<Directory name> RMDIR <Directory name> Example RD VIEIT RD VIEIT/UP OR

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RMDIR VIEIT RMDIR VIEIT /UP Copy con Command Copy con command is used to create a new file. Syntax Copy con<File name> Expression. for saving ctrl+z or F6 Example Copy Con VIEIT This is file number one of VIEIT Save- press Ctrl+2 or F6 Copy Command Copy command is used to copy file one,one place to another place. Syntax copy <source file><destination file> Example copy vats VIEIT (enter)

This command would copy vats to vieit. Copy A: TXT. BAK /A/V (enter) This command would copy all files with extension txt file with the same name but with extension BAK from floppy disk in drive A or current drive C copy B: A: (enter) This command would copy all files on the current drive i. e. b drive to disk drive A: copy start+middle+end complete file. The above command combines the file start middle and end into one file called complete file. DEL/ERASE Command

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Del /Erase Command is used to delete or remove one or more files from any directory or current drive. Syntax DEL / Erase <file name> Example Del Example.txt (enter) OR Erase Example.txt (enter) Delete the file Example. txt Del *.*txt Delete all files on the current subdirectory with the extension txt. Del A: Deletes all files in the root directory on drive A Rename Command Rename command is used to change the name of one or more file in the current drive or directory. Syntax REN <old file name> <new file name> Example REN VATS VIEIT (enter) Type Command This command display the contents of a text file. Syntax Type <File name> Example Type VIEIT (enter) Date Command

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Date Command is used to displayed current system date or set the system date. Syntax:Date (enter) When the date command is executed , the following prompt will appear. Current date is mm-dd-yy Enter new date mm can have any value from 1to 12 dd can have any value from 1 to31 yy must be digit from two Time Command The time Command allows the user to change the system time or display Syntax C:\> Time (enter) When time is executed, the following massage will appear. Current time is hh : mm : ss : xx Enter new time The following abpreviation are used : hh - for hours one are two digit (0 to 23) mm - for minutes one or two digit (0 to 59) ss - for second one or two digit (o to 59) xx - for hundredths of one or two digit (0 to 99) Example TIME ( enter) Current Time is Enter new time X-Copy Command X- Copy Command is used to selectively copies files. Syntax xcopy <source directory> <destination directory> Example xcopy vatsa vieit (enter) 01:22:15:29 12: 16: 12: 31

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8 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION Attrib Command The attrib command change the characteristics of files. Files can be declared read-only , read write, archived In DOS attributes of directories may also be changed. Syntax Attrib (switch) <file name> Switch +H -H +S -S +R -R +A -A Prompt Command Prompt command is used to change the command prompt. Syntax Prompt Example Prompt VIEIT (ENTER) <string> Explain To make hidden file do not show To remove hidden file To make system file you can not delete file To remove system file To make read only file you can not modifiy To remove read only file To make archived file To remove archived file WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

The switch available are as follows. $$ $$ $D $T $G $L $N $P $ (clour sign) 1 (bar ,pipe symbol) Current date Current time > ( greater than symbol) < (less than symbol) Current drive Current drive name and path name

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9 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION $Q $V $E = (equal sign) System DOS version number Escape code (ASCI I ) WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

Prompt $ P $ G (It return the root prompt.) Move Command Mve command is used to move one or more files from one location to another and allows to remove directories. Syntax Move <files > < other files> Example Move UP Sys Command The Sys command copies DOS system files namely IO.Sys and MS-DOS.Sys to a new disk. Syntax Sys drive Example sys A: ( enter) Tree Command Tree command is used to display all directory structure of a specified directory graphically Syntax Tree <drive > < path> Example tree Volume Command Vol command is used to display the volume label and volume serial number of any disk. Syntax vol (enter) VIEIT ( enter)

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10 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION VER VER command is used to display the DOS version on any drive. Syntax VER (enter) Del tree Del tree command is used to remove all the files as well as sub directory or a directory. Syntax Deltree WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

Example D:\> Deltree VIEIT D:\> Deltree Format Command The Format command is used to initialize the diskette in the drive specified. Format also will check the diskette for any defective track and prepare the diskette to accept DOS files by initialize the directory. FAT, NTFS and system loader. Del Syntax Format <drive name> Example Format A: DIR Command To find out what files are on a disk you can use the DIR Command to display, type the following at the DOS prompt. DIR (enter) Display the all directory and files. DIR/P Display the page wise DIR/W Display the widthwise

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DIR/AD Display the only directory DIR /AH Display the hidden files DIR A: display the directory of A: drive DIR *.*Com display all files which has com as it extension name.

MICROSOFT WINDOWS
Microsoft Windows is an operating systems produced by Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft introduced an operating environment named Windows on November 20, 1985 as an add-on to MS-DOS in response to the growing interest in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Microsoft Windows came to dominate the world's personal computer market, overtaking Mac OS, which had been introduced in 1984.

List of Microsoft Windows Version:


Windows 1.0:- is a 16-bit graphical operating environment, developed by Microsoft Corporation and released on November 20, 1985. It was Microsoft's first attempt to implement a multi-tasking graphical user interface-based operating environment on the PC platform. Windows 1.0 was the first version of Windows launched. It was succeeded by Windows 2.0 and support was discontinued on December 31, 2001. Windows 2.0 is a 16-bit Microsoft Windows GUI-based operating environment that was released on December 9, 1987 and is the successor to Windows 1.0. With Windows 2.1x in 1988, Windows 2.0 was supplemented by Windows/286 and Windows/386. Windows 2.0, Windows/286 and Windows/386 were superseded by Windows 3.0 in May 1990, but supported by Microsoft for fourteen years until December 31, 2001. Windows 2.1x is a family of Microsoft Windows graphical user interface-based operating environments.

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Windows/286 2.10 and Windows/386 2.10 were released on May 27, 1988, less than a year after the release of Windows 2.0. These versions can take advantage of the specific features of the Intel 80286 and Intel 80386 processors. A hard disk was required for the first time to install Windows. Windows 3.0, a graphical environment, is the third major release of Microsoft Windows, and was released on May 22, 1990. It became the first widely successful version of Windows and a rival to Apple Macintosh and the Commodore Amiga on the GUI front. It was followed by Windows 3.1. Windows 3.0 originated in 1989 when a group of Microsoft programmers independently decided to develop a protected mode Windows as an experiment. They cobbled together a rough prototype and presented it to company executives, who were impressed enough to approve it as an official project. Windows 3.1x is a series of 16-bit operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers. The series began with Windows 3.1, which was first sold during March 1992 as a successor to Windows 3.0. Further editions were released between 1992 and 1994 until the series was superseded by Windows 95. Windows 95 is a consumer-oriented graphical user interface-based operating system. It was released on August 24, 1995 by Microsoft, and was a significant progression from the company's previous Windows products. During development it was referred to as Windows 4.0 or by the internal codename Chicago. Windows 95 integrated Microsoft's formerly separate MS-DOS and Windows products. It featured significant improvements over its predecessor, Windows 3.1, most notably in the graphical user interface (GUI) and in its relatively simplified "plug-n-play" features. There were also major changes made at lower levels of the operating system, such as moving from a mainly 16-bit architecture to a pre-emptively multitasked 32-bit architecture. In the marketplace, Windows 95 was a major success, and within a year or two of its release had become the most successful operating system ever produced. It also had the effect of driving other major players (including OS/2) out of business, something which would later be used in court against Microsoft. Some three years after its introduction, Windows 95 was succeeded by Windows 98. Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system by Microsoft. It is the second major release in the Windows 9x line of operating systems. It was released to manufacturing on May 15, 1998 and to retail on June 25, 1998. Windows 98 is the successor to Windows 95. Like its predecessor, it is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit[2] monolithic product with an MSDOS based boot loader.[3] Windows 98 was succeeded by Windows 98 Second Edition on May 5, 1999, then by Windows Me (Millennium Edition) on September 14, 2000. Microsoft support for Windows 98 ended on July 11, 2006. Windows NT is a family of operating systems produced by Microsoft, the first version of which was released in July 1993. It was a powerful high-level-language-based, processorindependent, multiprocessing, multiuser operating system with features comparable to Unix. Windows 2000 is a line of operating systems produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, business desktops, laptops, and servers. Windows 2000 was released to manufacturing on 15 December 1999 and launched to retail on 17 February 2000.It is the

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successor to Windows NT 4.0, and is the final release of Microsoft Windows to display the "Windows NT" designation. It was succeeded by Windows XP for desktop systems in October 2001 and Windows Server 2003 for servers in April 2003. Windows XP is an operating system produced by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops and media centers. First released to computer manufacturers on August 24, 2001, it is the second most popular version of Windows, based on installed user base. The name "XP" is short for "eXPerience." Windows 7 is an operating system released in several variations developed by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, tablet PCs, and media center PCs. Prior to its announcement on July 22, 2005 Windows 7 is available in six different editions, but only Home Premium, Professional, and Ultimate are widely available at retail. The other editions focus on other markets, such as the developing world or enterprise use. All editions support IA-32 CPUs and all editions except Starter support the x64 CPUs. (64-bit installation media is not included in Home Basic edition packages, but can be obtained from Microsoft). Windows 8 is the upcoming version of Microsoft Windows that follows Windows 7. It features a new Metro-style interface that is designed for touch screen input. It also adds support for the ARM processor architecture in addition to the previously supported x86microprocessors from Intel and AMD. Its server counterpart is codenamed Windows Server 8. A release date for the finished version of Windows 8 has been set for October 2012. The most recent pre-release version is the Consumer Preview, which was released on February 29, 2012.

Microsoft Windows 7
Windows 7 is the new Operating System launched by Microsoft in 2009 as an upgrade from XP or Vista. Learn all about the new features, what you need to upgrade and how to customize your computer's settings to fit your needs.

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Are you wondering about the new Windows 7 operating system? Perhaps you are trying to decide if you want to upgrade from XP or Vista. Maybe you are thinking about buying a new computer and want to learn more about Windows 7 first. With these questions in mind, we explored Windows 7 and would like to share what we found with you. In this lesson, we will compare Windows 7 with previous Vista and XP operating systems. In addition, we will discuss performance improvements and review the major features.

What is Windows 7?
Windows 7 is the latest version of a series of Operating Systems that Microsoft has produced for use on personal computers. It is the follow-up to the Windows 7 Operating System which was released in 2006. An operating system allows your computer to manage software and perform essential tasks. It is also a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that allows you to visually interact with your computers functions in a logical, fun and easy way. For example, in Windows 7 you can view two windows side by side by using the Aero Snap feature. This feature automatically sizes or snaps two windows to fit together on the screen thus allowing you the convenience of viewing them next to each other.

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Two Windows Overlapping

Aero Snap View

Please note that Windows 7 is designed to work on PCs - you will need additional software if you want to use it on a Mac (Apple Macintosh Computer).

How is Windows 7 Different from Vista or XP?


Based on their customer feedback, Microsoft is promoting that it has simplified the PC experience by making a lot of functions easier to use, such as, better previewing on the Task Bar, instant searching for files or media and easy sharing via Home Group networking. They also claim improved performance by supporting 64-bit processing which is increasingly the standard in desktop PCs. In addition, Windows 7 is designed to sleep and resume faster, use up less memory and recognize USB devices faster. There are also new possibilities with media streaming and touch screen capabilities.

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The above are improvements for both the Vista and XP users. If you are already a Vista user then the improvements to Windows 7 are going to be more subtle. Vista users are likely already familiar with features like the Aero visual functions, the Start Menu organization and Search. However, if you are currently using XP, then you may require a bit of an adjustment period.

Improvements for both Vista and XP Users


New Taskbar and System Tray Quick Desktop View button Improved Start Up, Sleep and Resume performance Improved power management saves memory and battery life Libraries to improve file access and organization Action Center for system maintenance, back ups, troubleshooting and more User Account customization of notifications Improved back up New wallpapers and themes Improved Gadgets New premium games include Chess Titans, Mahjong Titans and Ink ball Advanced Calculator functions including saving history Improved networking via Home Groups Passkey protection with networks Device Stage for recognizing USB devices faster Windows Mail replaced by Windows Live

Changes and improvements from Windows XP only


New Start Icon Aero Snap, Shake and Peek Desktop icons like Computer and My Documents are removed and accessed through the Start Menu Larger icons and hidden icons in the Taskbar Quick Launch toolbar has been replaced by pinning a program to the Taskbar

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Jump Lists for easier access A Search Bar in the Start Up Menu The "Run" command is accessed through the Start Menu's Search Bar Faster and smoother gaming components Parental Controls for monitoring computer use Update feature that eliminates web surfing for patches

Will Windows 7 Improve My Computer's Performance?


As previously mentioned, Microsoft is promoting that Windows 7 is designed to:

Decrease Start Up and Shutdown times by 20 seconds Go to Sleep and Resume faster Use up less Memory Pop up Search results faster Reconnect to your Wireless Network more quickly Recognize USB devices faster

This is promising news, because slow wait time appeared to be one of the chief complaints regarding Windows 7. Windows 7 also saves time by not booting up various devices during Start Up unless they are currently being used. In other words, if you are not using a Bluetooth device at the moment then Windows 7 will not waste time by running that program in the background. It will wait until you have plugged it in. However, performance tests of Windows 7 indicate that actual improvements vary and greatly depend on the conditions of your specific computer and the programs you are running. We will go into more detail regarding your computer's ability to run Windows 7 in future lessons.

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What Can You Do on Windows 7?


Aero

Sort through open windows with Aero Flip 3D

Aero is an interface that makes your visual interactions with the desktop fun and easy.

Aero Peek makes your open windows transparent so you may see your desktop. It also allows you to peek at items in your taskbar for a thumbnail preview. Aero Snap is a quick way to resize your windows to make them easier to read, organize and compare. Aero Flip allows you to preview all your open windows from a central window or 3D view that you can flip through. Aero Shake allows you to take your mouse and shake only the open window you want to focus on and the rest will disappear.

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Taskbar

Get immediate access with Jump List

The taskbar is now more convenient to use with larger views and easier access.

Jump Lists allow you to right click on an icon in the taskbar and immediately access items like music, videos or web pages that you use on a regular basis. Pin allows you to place programs on the taskbar and rearrange the order of the icons as you wish. Action Center allows you to control the alerts and pop-ups you receive regarding maintenance and security.

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Search

Find documents fast with the new Search

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What Can You Do on Windows 7? - Continued


Libraries

Access your files in Libraries

Libraries allow you to organize your files in one place so they are easy to search and access. Windows 7 has four default Libraries for documents, music, pictures and videos, however you can customize and create you own Libraries based on your needs.

Gadgets

Select Gadgets for your Desktop

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You can select or download gadgetssuch as a slide show, calendar or weather update to add to your Desktop. The live updates of some gadgets like weather, stocks and feed headlines are quite convenient.

Additional Things you can do in Windows 7

Device Stage: When you plug a device into your computer such as a camera, mobile phone or flash drive, a window will open up with a menu of popular tasks, status information and options for your device. Windows Live Essentials: Windows Live Essentials is free software that enhances the Windows 7 experience. It replaces Windows Mail and allows you to email, instant message, edit photos, blog, etc. HomeGroup: HomeGroup allows you to connect two or more PCs on a home network in order to easily share and access files and printers. Windows Touch: You can use Windows Touch with a touch-screen PC to browse and flick through the screen using your fingers with multitouch technology. Remote Media Streaming: With Remote Media Streaming you can access your music, pictures and videos stored on your home PC remotely using the Internet.

Exploring Windows 7

By now, you should have a better idea of what Windows 7 is all about. Now you can start considering if upgrading to Windows 7 will be a good choice for you. In making this decision, you may want to compare your desires with what your current computer is capable of.

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While Microsoft is promoting that Windows 7 can be used on older computers that does not mean all of the features will be available or work the same as they will on a new computer. For example, we have found that some of the Aero features, like Peek and 3D, do not work on one of our three-year old, 32-bit computers. In addition, upgrading to Windows 7 from the XP operating system is more complicated than upgrading from Vista. In the next lesson, we will review the cost and requirements for running Windows 7 which are important factors in making a decision. In the mean time, you may want to consider the following questions:

How valuable are the new features and improvements in regards to my computer needs? Can I afford the upgrade and do I have the time to devote to installing and adjusting to the new operating system? What are the system requirements of Windows 7 and how will it perform on my computer? If I am in the market for a new computer, does Windows 7 meet my needs?

What is a theme?
A theme is a combination of pictures, colors, and sounds on your computer. It includes a desktop background, a screen saver, a window border color, and a sound scheme. Some themes might also include desktop icons and mouse pointers. TO CREATE OWN THEME 1. Open Personalization by clicking the Start button , and then clicking Control Panel. In the search box, type personalization, and then click Personalization. Click a theme to apply it to your desktop. Change one or more of the following: The desktop background. You can have a single picture or a slide show (a rotating series of pictures) as your desktop background. Use your own pictures, or choose from the pictures that come with Windows. To change the background, click Desktop Background, browse to the pictures you want to use, select the check boxes for the pictures that you want to include in your slide show, and then click Save changes.

2. 3.

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Point to a picture, and then select its check box to add it to your desktop background slide show.

The window border color. To change the color of your window borders, taskbar, and Start menu., click Window Color, click the color that you want to use, adjust the color intensity, and then click Save changes. Sounds. To change the sounds you hear when events occur on your computer, click Sounds, click an item in the Sound Schemes list, and then click OK..

The screen saver. To add or change a screen saver, click Screen Saver, click an item in the Screen saver list, change any settings to suit your preference, and then click OK. Your new theme will appear under My Themes as an unsaved theme. If you want to come back to your unsaved theme later, make sure you save it. To learn more about saving a theme, see the next section in this Help topic.

TO change the desktop background


1. Open Desktop Background by clicking the Start button and clicking Control Panel. In the search box, type desktop background, and then click Change desktop background.

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2.

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Click the picture or color that you want to use for your desktop background. If the picture you want to use isn't in the list of desktop background pictures, click an item in the Picture location list to see other categories, or click Browse to search for the picture on your computer. When you find the picture that you want, double-click it. It will become your desktop background.

Look for pictures in other locations on your computer

3.

Under Picture position, click the arrow and choose whether to crop the picture to fill the screen, fit the picture to the screen, stretch the picture to fit the screen, tile the picture, or center the picture on the screen, and then click Save changes.

To Change Screen saver


1. Open Screen Saver Settings by clicking the Start button , and then clicking Control Panel. In the search box, type screen saver, and then click Change screen saver. In the Screen saver list, click the screen saver that you want to use, and then click OK.

2.

Tip To see what your screen saver will look like, before clicking OK, click Preview. To end the screen saver preview, move your mouse or press any key, and then click OK to save your changes.

To make the text on your screen larger or smaller


1. Open Screen Resolution by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, and then, under Appearance and Personalization, clicking Adjust screen resolution. Choose one of the following:

2.

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Smaller - 100% (default). This keeps text and other items at normal size. Medium - 125%. This sets text and other items to 125% of normal size. Larger - 150%. This sets text and other items to 150% of normal size. This option appears only if your monitor supports a resolution of at least 1200 x 900 pixels.

3.

Click Apply. To see the change, close all of your programs and then log off of Windows. This change will take effect the next time you log on.

To change your screen resolution


1. Open Screen Resolution by clicking the Start button , clicking Control Panel, and then, under Appearance and Personalization, clicking Adjust screen resolution. Click the drop-down list next to Resolution, move the slider to the resolution you want, and then click Apply. Click Keep to use the new resolution, or click Revert to go back to the previous resolution.

2.

3.

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Screen Resolution in Control Panel shows the recommended resolution for your monitor.

Native resolution
LCD monitors, including laptop screens, typically run best at their native resolution. You don't have to set your monitor to run at this resolution, but it's usually recommended in order to ensure you see the sharpest text and images possible. LCD monitors generally come in two shapes: a standard proportion of width to height of 4:3, or a widescreen ratio of 16:9 or 16:10. A widescreen monitor has both a wider shape and resolution than a standard ratio monitor. If you're unsure of your monitor's native resolution, check the product manual or go to the manufacturer's website. Here are typical resolutions for some popular screen sizes: 19-inch screen (standard ratio): 1280 x 1024 pixels 20-inch screen (standard ratio): 1600 x 1200 pixels 22-inch screen (widescreen): 1680 x 1050 pixels

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24-inch screen (widescreen): 1900 x 1200 pixels

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Notes When you change the screen resolution, it affects all users who log on to the computer. When you set your monitor to a screen resolution that it won't support, the screen will go black for a few seconds while the monitor reverts back to the original resolution.

To change a gadget's options Right-click the gadget that you want to change, and then click Options. (Some gadgets might not have options.) To resize a gadget Right-click the gadget that you want to resize, point to Size, and then click the size that you want the gadget to be. (Some gadgets can't be resized.) To always keep gadgets on top of your windows You can keep gadgets on top of your open windows so they're always visible. Right-click a gadget, and then click Always on top. If you don't want a gadget to appear on top of your open windows, right-click the gadget, and then click Always on top to clear the check mark. To move a gadget to a different location on the desktop By default, gadgets "stick" to each other and to the edge of the screen. But you can change the order of gadgets and move them anywhere on the desktop. Drag the gadget to a new position on the desktop.

To place a gadget on a different monitor If you have two or more monitors, you can place gadgets on both of them. Drag a gadget to the monitor where you want to view it.

To hide gadgets on the desktop


Right-click the desktop, point to View, and then click Show desktop gadgets to clear the check mark.

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(Note that hiding your gadgets doesn't remove them from the desktop.)

To show gadgets on the desktop


Right-click the desktop, point to View, and then click Show desktop gadgets.

To create a user account


1. 2. To open User Accounts, click the Start button , click Control Panel, click User Accounts and Family Safety, and then click User Accounts. Click Manage another account. If you're prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation. Click Create a new account. Type the name you want to give the user account, click an account type, and then click Create Account.

3. 4.

Create a new folder


A folder is a location where you can store your files. You can create any number of folders and even store folders inside other folders (subfolders). Heres how to create a new folder: 1. Go to the location (such as a folder or the desktop) where you want to create a new folder. 2. Right-click a blank area on the desktop or in the folder window, point to New, and then click Folder. 3. Type a name for the new folder, and then press Enter. The new folder will appear in the location you specified.
Note

If you create a new folder in a library (such as Documents), the folder will be created inside that library's default save location (for example, My Documents).

To rename a folder
1. In the Folders list, click the folder you want to rename. 2. Click the File menu, point to Folder, and then click Rename. 3. Type the new name for the folder in the Folder Name box.

To delete a folder

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30 PAPPU INFOSOLUTION 1. In the Folders list, click the folder you want to delete. 2. Click the File menu, point to Folder, and then click Delete. WWW.PAPPUINFOSOLUTION.COM

Searching in Windows 7,
Using Advanced Search for those hard-to-find files
When I started using Windows 7, I was thrilled with the fast and responsive Search box at the top of every folder. To find an article I wrote 10 years ago for an outdoors magazine, for example, I only needed to type the word kayak in the Search box to quickly see a short list of files that I created with the word kayak in them. No longer did I need to know what subfolder in which to peek, or recall the file name of the document.

The instant you type in the Search box,

Save Search, Search Tools, and Advanced Search appear to assist you
But all was not blue skies and puppy dogs in the Johnson household. Search was fast and easy for ordinary documents, but sometimes I needed to find an unusual file that was located in a Windows system folder. The ubiquitous Search box isnt really designed for a search like that. Another

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problem: Sometimes I need to find all of the files related to a particular project. I might have Microsoft Office Word files, email messages, and even videos that all pertain to moms birthday. The Search box cant find all of these files at the same time because it only searches the folder that youre in. For example, the illustration above shows all of the search results for kayak after searching only the Documents foldernot the Pictures, Music, and Video folders. Is there, you might wonder, some clever way to find very different files in different folders all at once, instead of in separate searches? Lets be honest: This would be a terrible article if the answer was no. So in this last column of my search series, Ill show you some effective and advanced techniques for locating hard-to-find files.

Search anywhere with Advanced Search


Imagine that youre looking for a file, and so you type a word or phrase in the Search box of the Documents folder. But you dont find what youre looking for. Try giving Advanced Search a chance. Click it. Now, youll see a slew of additional options for your search.

Advanced Search provides additional options for you to customize your search
By default, the Search box only searches the folder youre currently in (and its subfolders), which is annoying if you want to search multiple locations at once. Thats where location comes in. Using this menu, you can search any folder or drive. Want to search your entire hard drive for a stubbornly misplaced file? Change the location to Local Hard Drives (C:).

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Heres an even better approach: Windows constantly keeps track of all of your most common files and stores information about them in something called the index. So, if you search Indexed Locat ions, youre probably going to find what youre looking for, unless you want to find an unusual file or a system file.. So, suppose youre looking for all of the moms birthday files I mentioned earlier. Piece of cakejust select Indexed Locations, and then type moms birthday in the Name field. When you search, youll get all of the files that have your search information in common, no matter which personal folder or e-mail inbox theyre currently located in. With Advanced Search, you can also fine-tune a search to avoid receiving search results you don't want. Do you only want to see files that you created before Arbor Day 1997? Then, using the three date menus, set the date to Date Created is before April 25, 1997.

You can look for files by criteria such as date or size using Advanced Search

You can also combine any of the search criteria. Looking for music files that are more than 10 MB? Type "*.MP3 OR *.WMA" in the Name field. (If you want to know how to use Boolean filters such as AND, OR, and NOT, From the Size menu, select is greater than, and then type "10000" in the Size box (because 10,000 KB is the same as 10 MB).

You can combine any search criteria such as size and file name to conduct very targeted searches

Just remember that when youre ready to start the search with Advanced Search, click the Search button.

Save your search for another day


If you regularly look for a certain group of files and end up performing the same search over and over again to find them, consider saving your search for future use. To do this, click Save Search, and give your search a name. When you want to run the search again later, click Searches in the Navigation pane of any folder, and you will find your search waiting for you. The saved search will find files that match the original criteria, including files that you added to your computer after you saved the search.

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Also, consider adding tags to your files when you first create and save them. Adding tags to files in anticipation of having to search for these files later will help to reduce your time spent searching.

Your saved searches are available in the Navigation pane of any folder

Finding files that dont want to be found


More ways to search Remember that you can search every nook and cranny of every hard drive on your computer by setting the location to Everywhere. But even when Windows is looking everywhere for files, some types (such as system files and hidden files) are automatically filtered out of the search. Its as if these files are simply invisible, so Windows cant see them even when its looking right at them. You need a way to make search find them. Heres how: Select the Include non-indexed, hidden, and system files (might be slow)check box. Now, Windows will scour your hard drive and reveal files that are ordinarily kept out of search results. These include files youve intentionally hidden or special Windows system files that are usually hidden because fiddling with them can damage your computer.

Setting the location to "Everywhere" and including non-indexed, hidden, and system files provides the most comprehensive search results

What to do when searching is slow


If you routinely need to find files that are in a drive or folder location that is not indexed by Windows, or if you often need to find files that have a file extension that is not indexed, searching can be slow. The solution is to add the location or the file extension to the index.

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For example, suppose that you like to keep documents on an external hard drive. The index doesnt track files at this external location, and so it has no information on the files located there. For this reason, whenever you search a folder on the external hard drive, its slow. To speed up your search, add this folder to the index. On the Search Toolsmenu, click Modify Index Locations, and then click Modify. Click Show all locations, and then select the check boxes for any folders and drives that you want to add to the index. You might want to add a few folders that you search all the time, but resist the temptation to add the entire external hard drive to the index. This can affect your computers performance because the index has to track a potentially huge number of files.

If a drive or folder location is not tracked by the index, you can add it to the index for faster searches

Now, suppose that you have installed a new program. And it creates files with a file extension that doesnt automatically get indexed by Windows. Go back to the Search Tools menu, click Modify Index

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Locations, and then click Advanced. On the File Typestab, select the check boxes of any file types that you want to index. Remember that for a file to get indexed, its file type must be selected in the Extension list, and the location in which you store the file must be included in the location selected.

If a file type is not tracked by the index, you can add it to the index to find files of that type faster

Finding all of the common files that I use every day is so easy in Windows 7 that Ive stopped making lots and lots of subfolders to categorize my stuff. I just drop all of my documents in the Documents folder, all of my photos in the Pictures folder, and so on. Using Advanced Search, I can quickly find all of the unusual, tricky, and stubborn files as well. Maybe it is puppy dogs and blue skies after all.

What is System Information?


System Information (also known as msinfo32.exe) shows details about your computer's hardware configuration, computer components, and software, including drivers. Open System Information by clicking the Start button , clicking All Programs, clicking Accessories, clicking System Tools, and then clicking System Information. System Information lists categories in the left pane and details about each category in the right pane. The categories include:

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System Summary. Shows general information about your computer and the operating system, such as the computer name and manufacturer, the type of basic input/output system (BIOS) your computer uses, and the amount of memory that is installed. Hardware Resources. Displays advanced details about your computer's hardware for IT professionals. Components. Displays information about disk drives, sound devices, modems, and other components installed on your computer. Software Environment. Shows information about drivers, network connections, and other programrelated details.

To find a specific detail in System Information, type the information you're looking for in the Find what box at the bottom of the window. For example, to find your computer's Internet protocol (IP) address, type ip address in the Find what box, and then click Find.

Change the Recycle Bin settings


You can change the settings of the Recycle Bin to suit the way you work. For example, if you rarely empty the Recycle Bin because you want to save your discarded files, you can increase the maximum storage size of the Recycle Bin. You can also turn off the delete confirmation dialog box that appears every time you send files to the Recycle Bin, or even choose not to move files to the Recycle Bin but instead permanently delete them from your computer.

Permanently delete files from the Recycle Bin


To permanently remove files from your computer and reclaim any hard disk space they were using, you need to delete the files from the Recycle Bin. You can delete individual files from the Recycle Bin or empty the entire Recycle Bin at once. 1. 2. Open the Recycle Bin by double-clicking the Recycle Bin on the desktop. Do one of the following: To permanently delete one file, click it, press Delete, and then click Yes. To delete all of the files, on the toolbar, click Empty the Recycle Bin, and then click Yes.

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Applies to all editions of Windows 7.

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Compare editions

Recover files from the Recycle Bin


When you delete a file from your computer, it's actually just moved to the Recycle Bin, where it's temporarily stored until the Recycle Bin is emptied. This gives you an opportunity to recover accidentally deleted files and restore them to their original locations. For information about permanently deleting files, see Permanently delete files from the Recycle Bin.

Watch this video to learn how to recover files from the Recycle Bin (0:50)

To recover files from the Recycle Bin


1. 2. Open the Recycle Bin by double-clicking the Recycle Bin on the desktop. Do one of the following: To restore a file, click it, and then, on the toolbar, click Restore this item.

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To restore all of the files, make sure that no files are selected, and then, on the toolbar, click Restore all items.

The files will be restored to their original locations on your computer.

Recovering an item from the Recycle Bin

To show or hide the Recycle Bin on the desktop


1. 2. Click the Start button , type desktop icons into the search box, and then clickShow or hide common icons on the desktop. In the Desktop Icon Settings dialog box, do one of the following: 3. To hide the Recycle Bin, clear the Recycle Bin check box. To show the Recycle Bin, select the Recycle Bin check box.

Click OK.

To turn off the delete confirmation dialog If you don't want to receive a message each time you send a file or folder to the Recycle Bin, you can choose to not get the messages. 1. 2. On the desktop, right-click Recycle Bin, and then click Properties. Under Recycle Bin Location, click the location of the Recycle Bin you want to change (likely your C drive). Clear the Display delete confirmation dialog check box, and then click OK.

3.

To change how the Recycle Bin looks


The Recycle Bin has two different appearances: one when it's empty, and one when it has files or folders inside. You can customize the appearance of the Recycle Bin by changing one or both of these icons.

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Comparison of the Recycle Bin when empty (left) and full (right)

1.

Open Personalization by clicking the Start button , and then clicking Control Panel. In the search box, type personalization, and then click Personalization. In the left pane, click Change desktop icons. In the list of desktop icons, click Recycle Bin (full) or Recycle Bin (empty), and then do one of the following: To change the Recycle Bin to a new icon, click Change Icon. Select an icon from the list, and then click OK. To change the Recycle Bin to its original icon, click Restore Default.

2. 3.

4. Note

Click OK.

If you have multiple hard drives, partitions, or an external hard drive connected to your computer, each location will have its own Recycle Bin settings. When changing settings in the Recycle Bin Properties dialog, under Recycle Bin Location, make sure you select the location you want to change.

Delete files using Disk Cleanup


If you want to reduce the number of unnecessary files on your hard disk to free up disk space and help your computer run faster, use Disk Cleanup. It removes temporary files, empties the Recycle Bin, and removes a variety of system files and other items that you no longer need. For more information about deleting files from the Recycle Bin,

To delete files using Disk Cleanup


The following procedure cleans up files associated with your user account. You can also use Disk Cleanup to clean up all the files on your computer. 1. Open Disk Cleanup by clicking the Start button then, in the list of results, click Disk Cleanup. . In the search box, type Disk Cleanup, and

2.

In the Drives list, click the hard disk drive that you want to clean up, and then click OK.

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3.

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In the Disk Cleanup dialog box, on the Disk Cleanup tab, select the check boxes for the file types that you want to delete, and then click OK. In the message that appears, click Delete files.

4.

Start Disk Defragmenter


Disk Defragmenter is a tool that rearranges fragmented files so your hard disk can work more efficiently. Disk Defragmenter runs on a schedule in this version of Windows, but you can modify the schedule or start it manually. Open Disk Defragmenter by clicking the Start button , clicking All Programs, clicking Accessories, clicking System Tools, and then clicking Disk Defragmenter. If you are prompted for an administrator password or confirmation, type the password or provide confirmation.

Note Here's another way to open Disk Defragmenter: Click the Start button . In the Search box, type Disk Defragmenter, and then, in the list of results, double-click Disk Defragmenter.

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