XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0.82)
© Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies SL XFlow is a registered trademark of Next Limit SL All other trademarks included in this document belong to their respective owners. All rights reserved. This document, in whole or in part, may not be copied, reproduced, translated, transferred, transmitted or publicly performed, in any form or by any means - graphic, electronic, machine-readable, or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval systems - without the prior written permission of Next Limit SL. All images in this book have been reproduced with the knowledge and prior consent of the artists concerned and no responsibility is accepted by Next Limit SL, producer, publisher, or printer for any infringement of copyright or otherwise, arising from the contents of this publication. Every effort has been made to ensure that credits accurately comply with information supplied. While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this document, Next Limit SL, the publisher and the author assume no responsibility for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of information contained in this document or from the use of programs and source code that may accompany it. In no event shall Next Limit SL, the publisher or the author be liable for any loss of profit or any other commercial damage caused or alleged to have been caused directly or indirectly by this document. Use of the XFlow software and its documentation has been provided under a software license agreement. Next Limit SL assumes no responsibility or liability for any damages or data loss caused by installation or use of the software. Information described in this documentation is furnished for information only, is subject to change without notice, and should not be construed as a commitment by Next Limit SL. The software and its documentation contain valuable trade secrets and proprietary information and are protected by copyright laws. Unauthorized use of the software or its documentation can result in civil damages and criminal prosecution.

Contents

Page 1 1 3 3 7 10 10 14 17 18 20 20 23 25 27 33 33 42 42 44 47 47 49 50 51 52 56 58 Using this guide Conventions Tutorial 01 - Flow around a cylinder Step 1: Create geometry Step 2: Problem setup Step 3: Run Step 4: Post-process Refine the resolution Moving cylinder - forced motion Moving cylinder - constrained motion Tutorial 02 - Vehicle aerodynamics Step 1: Import geometry Step 2: Problem setup Step 3: Run Step 4: Post-process Tutorial 03 - Advanced post processing Advanced Post processing Tutorial 04 - Dam break Step 1: Problem setup Step 2: Post-process Tutorial 05 - Breaking waves Step 1: Problem setup Step 2: Post-process Porous region Tutorial 06 - Ball check valve Step 1: Problem setup, no damping Step 2: Post-processing Step 3: Under-damping case

XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0.82) Tutorial Guide

© Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies

Contents
59 61 63 63 66 68 71 74 74 76 80 80 82 Step 4: Critical-damping case Step 5: Over-damping case Tutorial 07 - Wind turbine Step 1: Geometry healing Step 2: Problem setup Step 3: Post-processing Constrained behaviour Tutorial 08 - Heat transfer Step 1: Problem setup Step 2: Post-process Tutorial 09 - Radiation Step 1: Problem setup Step 2: Post-process

XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0.82) Tutorial Guide

© Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies

where the problem setup is ready. Names of windows are in italics.0. Additional explanations and recommendations are enclosed in a message box.php). Then.xfp provided in the Documentation section of the client area in XFlow website (http://www.Ball check valve Tutorial 07 . you will have to lower the resolution. Links are underlined in blue color. or load the project file .Dam break Tutorial 05 . in the Menu2 that comes up. Cascading menus are represented as Menu1 > Menu2 > Menu3 This means that in Menu1.Vehicle aerodynamics Tutorial 03 . To have more accurate results.com/private/Download_area/index_dld_area. Please take into account that the tutorials presented in this guide have been set to compute in a short amount of time. click on Menu3 and so on.Using this guide Using this guide This guide contains several tutorials that illustrate how to use XFlow in different types of problems: Tutorial 01 . Items and options in the project tree are indicated in Verdana font. click on Menu2.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 1 .Radiation You can either create a new project and follow the steps described in the tutorials (recommended). XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Tip: Explains an easy way to do a task or just to improve the work flow.Heat transfer Tutorial 09 . Conventions Several typographical conventions are used in this guide: Menu options are indicated in orange.Wind turbine Tutorial 08 .Breaking waves Tutorial 06 . Routes to files are indicated in courier new font.Advanced post processing Tutorial 04 . Keys are indicated in bold blue.Flow around a cylinder Tutorial 02 . xflow-cfd. Attention: Contains a brief explanation on what must be taken into account when doing an specific task.

0.Using this guide Units All units are in the international system (SI). In XFlow the Y-axis is assumed to be vertical instead of the Z-axis. This can be done either in the CAD or in XFlow. while angular velocities are given in radians per second. 2 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Coordinate system Special attention needs to be paid to the coordinate system. Measure Mass Length Time Velocity Pressure Temperature Acceleration Density Viscosity Thermal Conductivity Specific Heat Angle Angular velocity Symbol Units kg m s m/s Pa Kelvin m/s 2 Kg/m3 Pa-s W/m-K J/kg-K degrees rad/s t vx . vz p θ k CP Attention: Angles are given in degrees. vy .82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . The user may have to rotate the geometry when importing it from the CAD software.

Execute XFlow Execute XFlow through the direct link in your desktop or by double-clicking the XFlow. In the Project Manager enter the project name. the project path (you may need to browse to specify the path or create a new folder) and press the button Create a new project.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 3 . XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Flow around a cylinder This first tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of the two-dimensional flow around a cylinder at Reynolds number Red=4000.Tutorial 01 .Flow around a cylinder Tutorial 01 .0.exe file located in the installation folder. This tutorial shows you how to: Execute XFlow Create a simple geometry Carry out basic navigation in the Graphic View Work with the virtual wind tunnel Set fluid properties and boundary conditions Launch a simulation Load simulation data Do basic post-processing of the results Refine the resolution Set simple fluid-structure interaction Contents Step 1: Create geometry Step 2: Set up the problem Step 3: Run Step 4: Analyze results Step 1: Create geometry 1. so every step will be described in detail. The application displays the Graphical User Interface with the default layout and the Project Manager window. It is assumed that the user has no experience using XFlow.

Units are always in the SI system.Tutorial 01 .2 m and height 1. Create a cylinder Create a cylinder centered at the origin. with radius 0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .Flow around a cylinder Project Manager window 2. 3. in the Z-direction.0 m.0. Check the position of the cylinder with the help of the grid (a) click on the "Preferences" icon of the toolbar 4 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. (a) click on the "Create cylinder" icon in the toolbar or Main menu > Geometry > Create object > Create cylinder (b) introduce the geometrical data of the cylinder in the dialogue box The cylinder appears in the Geometry section of the Project Tree window.

Change the view by clicking the following toolbar icons: Top Bottom Left Right Front Back Perspective Fit all Navigate in the Graphic View window through the following actions: Zoom: Move the mouse wheel to zoom step by step. 4. translate or rotate the view to see the numbers clearly. respectively. Check the geometrical properties of the cylinder Select the cylinder and measure its dimensions by clicking the toolbar icon You may need to zoom. Rotate view: Drag the mouse while pressing Alt and the left mouse button to rotate the view. With the cylinder selected. Translate view: Drag the mouse while pressing Alt and the middle mouse button to pan the view. Navigate in the Graphic View Select a geometry object either by clicking on it in the Graphic View (the wireframe of the object highlights in red color).0.Flow around a cylinder or Main menu > Options > Preferences (b) enable the grid in Graphic View > Show grid The red and green lines indicate the X and Y axis.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 5 . The separation between grid lines is displayed at the top left-hand corner of the Graphic View window.Tutorial 01 . or drag the mouse while pressing Alt and the right mouse button for a continuous zoom. Click the right mouse button in the Graphic View window to pop-up the contextual menu: . or by clicking on the word Shape in the Project Tree window (the word highlights in red). click the distance icon again to hide the dimensions. XFlow 2011 (Build 1. 5.

Try the different visualization modes: Shading. volume. To view the surface mesh: Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > activate Show mesh and to hide the mesh: Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > deactivate Show mesh 6 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Tutorial 01 . bounding box dimensions. Therefore the Surface mesh properties (number of polygons and number of vertex) are also displayed. bounding box and switch off Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Visualization mode Show geometrical information (areas. etc ) of the cylinder Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Show geometrical properties The surface of the cylinder is automatically tessellated by XFlow when it is created. wireframe.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .0. and therefore require that you have selected an object previously (otherwise they are inactive).Flow around a cylinder These actions always refer to a geometrical object.

2. 4. 5. 6. XFlow features a virtual wind tunnel module that helps with the setup process in aerodynamic applications. 3. Create a cylinder).Tutorial 01 . Project description Name of the project. 2. the coarser the tessellation will be. 1.0. Please. Project description Engine Environment Materials Geometry Simulation Each section contains different input fields. The larger the mesh deflection. Attention: There is no Undo option. Click on to show the list of all field options.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 7 . Create the cylinder again (see 2. save the project frequently: Main menu > File > Save project or click the toolbar icon Step 2: Problem setup The setup of the problem is done in the Project Tree window. It is divided into several sections: 1. Change the color of the cylinder surface Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Set visualization material: Color Delete the cylinder Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Remove shape Notice that it disappears from the Project Tree.Flow around a cylinder Attention: The number of polygons and vertex will depend on the parameter: Main menu > Options > Preferences > Graphic View: OpenGL mesh deflection which varies between 0 and 2. You may introduce a different name. Engine settings (a) select the 2d kernel and the Single phase external flow model (b) keep the default thermal model (Isothermal) and switch off the acoustics analysis XFlow 2011 (Build 1.

Flow around a cylinder (c) leave the default advanced options 3.Tutorial 01 . (a) change the density to 1 kg/m3 (b) change the dynamic viscosity to 0. Materials settings By default in single phase external the fluid material is air.0. 3 meters height and 1 meter width (d) move the wind tunnel 2 meters in the +X direction (e) keep switched off the wall at the ground (f) set the wind tunnel boundary conditions to Velocity. Environment settings (a) set the turbulence model to Automatic (b) set the domain type to Virtual wind tunnel (c) input the dimensions of the wind tunnel: 9 meters length. with a prescribed inlet velocity of 10 m/s in the X direction (g) keep the Front reference area and the Automatic reference velocity (both for calculating the aerodynamic coefficients) (h) keep the external acceleration laws and the initial velocity field to zero Attention: The flow in the wind tunnel is assumed to move from -X to +X. 4.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .001 Pa s (Newtonian viscosity model). 8 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.

82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 9 .e. as well as the markers At this point the setup has been finished and the computation may be launched.xfp by clicking Main menu > File > Load project or Open an existing project in the Project Manager window that appears when executing XFlow. uniform resolution) (e) introduce the name "cylinder-test1" for the folder to store data and a frequency of 50 frames per second (f) leave disabled the computation of the averaged and of standard deviation fields.0. XFlow 2011 (Build 1. constant time step) and the Courant number to 1 (c) set the resolved scale to 0. Simulation settings (a) set the simulation time to 3 seconds (b) keep the time step mode to Fixed automatic (i.Tutorial 01 . Geometry settings (a) set the behaviour of the cylinder to Fixed (b) set the cylinder boundary conditions to Wall.e. with Automatic wall model and zero roughness 6.Flow around a cylinder 5. Tip: You can directly load the setup of this problem from the project file Tutorial01_Cylinder.04 meters (d) keep the refinement algorithm Disabled (i.

10 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. you can load the results data by Right clicking on WorkSpace > Load data Attention: The project has to be saved before you are able to load the data.xfp. 2.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . A new data file (frame) is written when the progress bar gets to 100%. 3. Once the calculation has finished. engine messages are shown in the Message View window. The progress bar moves between 0 and 100%. Set number of CPUs Set the number of CPUs to use in the preferences of the engine: Main menu > Options > Preferences > Engine or click the toolbar icon One or two processors are enough for this tutorial. Start the computation Right click on WorkSpace section > Run or click the Run button XFlow creates a folder called cylinder-test1 in the same location as the project file. As XFlow is calculating. or when the project is newly opened in XFlow. The results data and log files are saved in this folder.0.Tutorial 01 .Flow around a cylinder Step 3: Run 1. Step 4: Post-process Post-processing is done completely in the WorkSpace section of the Project Tree. Save project Save the project before running the computation: Main menu > File > Save project or click the toolbar icon XFlow project files have the extension .

Visualize the velocity field In WorkSpace > Post Processing (a) select Velocity as visualization field (b) select the 3d field visualization mode (c) activate the Z cutting plane by clicking the tick box (d) select view from the right hand side You are displaying the velocity field at the time and frame indicated on the timeline.Flow around a cylinder 1. 2.98 s Select other visualization fields.98 s and frame = 149.Tutorial 01 . time = 2. e. static pressure or vorticity. Use the playback controls to navigate through the transient results (a) go to the last result by clicking on (b) go to the first result by clicking on (c) play forward the frame sequence by clicking on (d) play backward the frame sequence by clicking on (e) move frame by frame by clicking on and (f) go to a specific time frame by clicking on its number in the timeline XFlow 2011 (Build 1. In the figure.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 11 .g.0. Velocity field at t=2.

Play the frame sequence again. Customize the visualization (a) in Main menu > Data > Analysis settings or using the toolbar icon prescribe the velocity legend range to [0.Flow around a cylinder Notice that a periodic flow motion develops in the wake of the cylinder as a result of boundary layer vortices being shed alternatively from either side of the cylinder. The minimum and maximum values of the legend vary in each frame. 4. you can distinguish the size of the cells. Explore details of the results The look up tool displays numerically the value of the visualization field at the position pointed by the mouse. 3. Click the cross in Graphic View to pull down its options Environment and Lights.0. Click on Environment. This regular pattern of vortices in the wake is called Karman vortex street. select One color background. press again the toolbar icon. click on the colored rectangle at the right hand side and pick the white color in the palette. (b) in WorkSpace > Post Processing > Show set the Interpolation mode to Off.Tutorial 01 . White color in the velocity field means that the value is above the maximum value (15) while purple color means that the value is below the minimum (0). To deactivate this mode. In this way. 12 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. (c) change the background color to white in Main menu > Options > Preferences or the toolbar icon . Now the velocity field is displayed as a pixelation.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .15] m/s by disabling the automatic range and inputting the minimum and maximum values. being each "pixel" a cell of the lattice.

Create data sensor WorkSpace > Data sensors (a) create a sensor by WorkSpace > right clicking on Data sensors > Add sensor The new sensor is automatically called Sensor 0.Flow around a cylinder 5.0.0. This can analogously be done by Right clicking on Function Viewer > Data sensor > Refresh data sensor You may want to resize the Function Viewer window by dragging its borders. and fit the plot in the window by clicking on Auto fit. (b) deactivate the Z cutting plane (WorkSpace > Post Processing > Cutting planes) and click on Sensor 0 (the name will turn red) to visualize the location of the sensor.Tutorial 01 .0). (c) change the Transform Tool window to Function Viewer by clicking Transform Tool window at the top left-hand corner of the (d) select to plot the chosen visualization field at sensor 0 Right click on Function Viewer > Data sensor > Sensor 0 (e) go to the first frame data in the Function Viewer.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 13 . and play forward to load the results at the sensor and display the XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Change its position to (1.

whereas the lift force is perpendicular. (f) save the sensor data to a text file Right click on Function Viewer > Export current data The first column in the file represents time and the second column. See the next section to learn how to refine close to the cylinder wall. These coefficients and the forces can be plotted in the Function Viewer: Right click on Function Viewer > Data Cylinder > Cx Right click on Function Viewer > Data Cylinder > Cy Right click on Function Viewer > Data Cylinder > Fx Right click on Function Viewer > Data Cylinder > Fy Attention: Notice that with this coarse resolution it is not possible to capture the correct physics and the numerical results are far from the correct ones (Cx 1). velocity modulus. The drag force is parallel to the airflow. i.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .Tutorial 01 .Flow around a cylinder Drag the mouse while pressing Alt + left mouse button to zoom in and out the graph. 6. The Cx (drag) and Cy (lift) coefficients of the current result are displayed below the grid scale at the top left corner of the Graphic View. In the Simulation section of the Project Tree: 14 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.e. Calculate drag and lift The drag and lift coefficients are non-dimensional parameters which describe the forces acting on a body in a fluid flow. and drag the mouse while pressing Alt + middle mouse button to pan the graph. Refine the resolution We will now rerun the computation with an adaptive resolution. 1.0. finer close to the cylinder wall and the wake to better resolve the flow velocity gradients.

82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 15 . 3.Tutorial 01 .Flow around a cylinder (a) set refinement algorithm to Adapt to walls and dynamically adapt to wake (b) input a wake resolution of 0. Display the structure of the multi-resolution (a) locate the time bar on a calculated frame. Press the Run button 4.0. Save the project Main menu > File > Save project as Attention: It is recommended that you save the project with a different name because the settings have changed. (b) deactivate the Z cutting plane (WorkSpace > Post Processing > Cutting planes) (c) enable to show the domain structure WorkSpace > Post Processing > Show > Domain structure: On Domain structure x indicates the border between fluid and wall + indicates the border of a region with uniform resolution and also indicates the size of the cells in this region XFlow 2011 (Build 1.02 m and the same for the target resolved scale at the cylinder (c) change the folder name (Store data > Folder) to "cylinder-test2" 2.

now we are going to define a fixed region of refinement.04 and h=0. (a) set refinement algorithm to Near walls. The domain has two levels of refinement: h=0.-0. Attention: Note that the gradients in the solution may become smoothed across the border of the refinement region. (b) increase/decrease its value by an order of magnitude. 16 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.-0.0.Tutorial 01 .02 (d) select the region to display it in the Graphic View window (e) run the simulation Now the domain structure shows the (fixed) refinement region. 5. Change the wake refinement threshold (a) in Simulation > Resolution change the wake refinement threshold to Custom.Flow around a cylinder Notice that both the regions close to the wall and the wake have been refined. Adapt to walls and dynamically adapt to wake refinement algorithm is preferred. (c) run the simulation Observe the differences in the wake refinement.5.5. In general.0.0. with a target resolved scale of 0. Therefore the region should be large enough to contain the relevant flow features. Create a region of refinement Instead of adaptively refining the wake.5) and resolved scale 0. max = (4.02.3.5).82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .02 at the cylinder (b) in Simulation > Resolution right click the word Regions to add a region (c) define Region 0 with min = (-0. 6.

5.04. Change the folder name (Simulation > Store data > Folder) to "cylinder-forced".0. Save the project with a different name and rerun the simulation (Run button).Flow around a cylinder Moving cylinder . Create data sensor) (b) right click the law introduced before and select Edit in Function Viewer to display its graph (c) click Auto fit in the Function Viewer to adjust the scale of the graph to the size of the window 3. Set the behaviour and the motion law (a) in Geometry > Shape: Cylinder change the behaviour to forced (b) introduce the following law for position Y: 0.5*sin(10t) 2. 1. and automatic wake refinement threshold.Tutorial 01 . Set the refinement algorithm Adapt to walls and dynamically adapt to wake as in Refine the resolution Step 1 (resolved scale 0. target refinement scale 0.forced motion Now we are going to prescribe a forced vertical motion to the cylinder through an analytic function. Display the position law function (a) create a Function Viewer window if needed (see Step 5.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 17 . 4.02). XFlow 2011 (Build 1.

visualize the time evolution of the velocity field (a) activate the Z cutting plane (WorkSpace > Post Processing > Cutting planes) (b) select the Velocity visualization field (WorkSpace > Post Processing > Visualization field) (c) go to the first frame and play forward 7.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . Check that the vertical displacement of the cylinder is the prescribed one (a) select Right click in Function Viewer window > Data Cylinder > Py (b) go to the first frame and play forward to refresh the data in the Function Viewer Moving cylinder . At the same time. Model the cylinder as joined to the coordinate origin by a spring: Geometry > Shape: Cylinder (a) set the behaviour to Constrained (b) in the input fields for a constrained object. proportional to the vertical displacement (py).Flow around a cylinder 6.0. 1. the cylinder's movement will modify the flow.g. but allow the cylinder to move in the vertical direction with the external force of the spring. and therefore this is a fluid-structure interaction problem.Tutorial 01 . 18 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Keep the default values for the restitution and friction coefficients (c) the position in X and the angle in Z are constrained. 3.constrained motion We will now allow the cylinder to move vertically due to the forces exerted by the fluid. e.2 kg. Once the calculation has finished. -100*py 2. The principal inertia radius is internally calculated by XFlow. introduce a mass of 0. Save the project with a different name and rerun the simulation.e. Change the folder name (Simulation > Store data > Folder) to "cylinder-fsi". i.

Flow around a cylinder 4.0. Model some damping proportional to the vertical velocity (vy) (a) set Geometry > Shape: Cylinder > External force Y: -100*py-10*vy (b) rerun the simulation (c) plot the vertical displacement of the cylinder in the Function Viewer and save it in a text file (d) use a spreadsheet software to compare the vertical displacement for the cases without and with damping XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Tutorial 01 .82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 19 . and all the rotational angles are zero for the cylinder Right click on Right click on Right click on Right click on Right click on Function Function Function Function Function Viewer Viewer Viewer Viewer Viewer > > > > > Data Data Data Data Data Cylinder Cylinder Cylinder Cylinder Cylinder > > > > > Px Pz Eux Euy Euz 6. Display the vertical displacement of the cylinder (a) select Right click on Function Viewer > Data Cylinder > Py (b) go to first frame and play forward to refresh the data in the Function Viewer (c) save the vertical displacement in a file Right click on Function Viewer > Export current data (d) check that the X and Z displacements. 5. visualize the time evolution of the velocity field (like in step 6 of the forced behaviour). Once the calculation has finished.

Vehicle aerodynamics This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of the three-dimensional air flow around a reference vehicle (the ASMO model) and the study of the forces generated by the flow on the vehicle. Before starting the tutorial.stl. Step 1: Import geometry Step 2: Set up the problem Step 3: Run Step 4: Analyze results Step 1: Import geometry 1. 20 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.xflow-cfd. This tutorial shows you how to: Import a geometry from a CAD file Check the imported model Work with the virtual wind tunnel Explore the log file Visualize flow variables on the vehicle surface Visualize isosurfaces and stream lines Visualize a custom field Make animations Analyze aerodynamic forces on the geometry model It is assumed that the reader has completed Tutorial 01.Tutorial 02 .0. please download the project data files from the Documentation section of XFlow's website (http://www. Import the geometry Main menu > Data > Import geometry or use the toolbar icon and select the file asmo.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .com/private/priv_documentation. Some steps in the setup and post-process will not be described in detail.php).Vehicle aerodynamics Tutorial 02 .

Tutorial 02 - Vehicle aerodynamics

In the Model Units window, select meter and press Apply to all.

The imported model appears in the Geometry section of the Project Tree window.

2. Check the model (a) Check the orientation of the model in the Graphic View window. Remember that Y direction is the height and that the model should point in the -X direction (flow in the wind tunnel goes from -X to +X). (b) Show geometrical information of the model Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Show geometrical properties

XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0.82) Tutorial Guide

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Tutorial 02 - Vehicle aerodynamics

(c) Measure the dimensions of the model: select the geometry object and click the toolbar icon Length (X direction): 0.809928 m Height (Y direction): 0.268566 m Width (Z direction): 0.28709 m With the object selected, click the distance icon again to hide the dimensions. (d) Check the quality of the surface tessellation Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Show mesh (e) Check the surface normals Attention: It is essential that the surface normals point to the fluid region. You can see where the normals are pointing by means of the culling. If the surface is colored then its normals are pointing to the user, but if the surface looks like a wireframe, then the normals are pointing to the background.

Enable culling Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Back-face culling and reverse the orientation of the vehicle to learn the different representations of the model depending on the normals orientation Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Reverse orientation Reverse the orientation again to leave the normals pointing to the exterior of the vehicle.

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© Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies

Tutorial 02 - Vehicle aerodynamics

WRONG: Normals pointing to the interior of the vehicle. Fluid region inside the vehicle.

RIGHT: Normals pointing to the exterior of the vehicle. Fluid region outside the vehicle.

(f) Check that the model is free of holes Attention: Every edge should be closed before importing the model. Some holes can be directly repaired in XFlow by Main menu > Geometry > Healing Intersection of surfaces is not a problem.

Holes in the geometry can be detected by Main menu > Geometry > Show holes and displaying the geometry in bounding box mode Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Visualization mode > Bounding Box

Step 2: Problem setup
1. Engine settings Select the 3d kernel and single phase external flow model.

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Tutorial 02 - Vehicle aerodynamics

2. Environment settings (a) set the turbulence model to Automatic, which is equivalent to using the Wall-Adapting Local Eddy (WALE) model (b) set the domain type to Virtual wind tunnel (c) leave to zero the external acceleration laws and the initial velocity field (d) keep the Front reference area and the Automatic reference velocity (e) introduce the dimensions of the wind tunnel: 8 x 1.5 x 3 m. This leads to a blockage ratio - vehicle frontal area (YZ) divided by the wind tunnel cross-section - of 1.38% (f) enable the ground wall, with Automatic ground wall type. You could specify a velocity for a moving ground, but in this example the ground will be fixed (zero velocity law X) (g) set the inlet velocity to 50 m/s

3. Material settings Keep the default parameters of air.

4. Geometry settings The asmo geometry object should be located just over the ground, leaving some space behind the vehicle for the wake. (a) change the position of the object to (-1,-0.75,0) and make sure that the wheels are touching the ground (b) set the boundary conditions for the asmo to Wall, with Automatic wall model and zero roughness

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© Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies

Vehicle aerodynamics 5. fixed automatic time step and a Courant number of 1 set 0.0. Therefore. Save the project 2.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 25 .01 meters as target resolved scale for the wake and the asmo wall store data in the folder "asmo" with a frequency of 200 frames per second leave disabled the computation of averaged and standard deviation fields and markers Attention: In aerodynamic applications it is essential to resolve the turbulent wake properly. Step 3: Run 1.Tutorial 02 .2 meters for the resolved scale (far field resolution) select the Adapt to walls and dynamically adapt to wake refinement algorithm set 0. one should use the "Adapt to walls and dynamically adapt to wake" refinement algorithm and specify enough simulation time to let the wake develop: typically 6 or 7 times the length of the vehicle divided by the velocity. Simulation settings (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) set the simulation time to 0.15 seconds. Set the number of CPUs Main menu > Options > Preferences > Engine XFlow 2011 (Build 1.

Press the Run button to begin the calculation 4. log in the project folder. 26 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Tutorial 02 .0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . The optimal number may depend on the size of the problem. Please. Attention: Values of maximum velocity error (Max vmod) over 0.7 means that the time step is too large and therefore a smaller Courant number is needed: Warning! Time step too big. Tip: As the calculation progresses. such as: Number of CPUs detected Levels of refinement Number of internal and external regions Number of active fluid particles in each refinement level Number of boundary particles Total number of particles Reference area (used for calculating aerodynamic coefficients) Time step size After a first analysis of the simulation domain. it is possible to post-process the calculated frames even when the simulation has not reached the final time yet.Vehicle aerodynamics 3. However. The log file contains important information. this needs computer resources and therefore slows down the calculation. It is recommended that you set the timeline to an empty frame when you are not postprocessing. the data file 0 is written and the computation of the flow starts. For each time step. try to run again the computation with a lower Courant number!!! Tip: Try different numbers of CPUs and compare the computation time. XFlow displays the number of ticks (milliseconds) needed to compute this time step. Explore the log file All messages displayed in the Message View window are also written in a text file called project_name. the simulation time and the maximum velocity error.

Create an animation 3.0. e. Visualize the solution 1.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 27 .3 Visualize isosurfaces 1. Visualize the solution 1.g.Vehicle aerodynamics Step 4: Post-process Load the results data by Right clicking on WorkSpace > Load data Remember that the project has to be saved before you are able to load the data. velocity (c) set the interpolation mode to On (d) set velocity range to [0. Analyze aerodynamic forces 1. static pressure or turbulence intensity provide meaningful insight about the flow. e. ) Velocity field at t=0.1 s Other quantities such as vorticity.1 Visualize a flow variable on a cutting plane 1.60] (Main menu > Data > Analysis settings or (e) select view from right (f) press play Notice that the domain is initialized to the far field (inlet) velocity in the virtual wind tunnel.Tutorial 02 .1 Visualize a flow variable on a cutting plane In WorkSpace > Post Processing (a) activate a cutting plane. You can also visualize a custom field by using the following system variables: Density Static pressure Velocity modulus rho sp vmod XFlow 2011 (Build 1.4 Visualize stream lines 1.5 Visualize vector field 1.g. the Z cutting plane (b) choose a visualization field.2 Visualize a flow variable on the vehicle surface 1.6 Work with averaged data 2. Contents: 1.

1. while for the Y cutting plane.5*rho*vmod^2] Change the position of the cutting plane by introducing a new value in its slider or by pressing the keys O (moves to the left) and P (moves to the right). For the X cutting plane the corresponding keys are E (moves to the front) and D (to the back). e. Visualization field: Custom field Field: [0.Vehicle aerodynamics Velocity Vorticity Turbulence intensity Temperature Time vx.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .0. velocity (b) select Post Processing > Show > Surface info: 3d field Velocity field on the vehicle surface You can also visualize the following surface quantities in Show surface info: LIC (Line Integral Convolution) of the velocity field Cp pressure coefficient Cf skin friction coefficient Y+ dimensionless distance from the wall P+ wall pressure Velocity direction 28 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. vy. vz vrt ti theta t For example.2 Visualize a flow variable on the vehicle surface (a) choose a visualization field.Tutorial 02 . pan or rotate) to display the current field. First click on the Graphic View window to ensure that it is active. key Q moves the plane to the top and A to the bottom. Attention: Refresh the Graphic View by moving the camera (zoom.g.

1 s 1.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 29 .4 Visualize stream tracers (a) create a line (press the toolbar icon ) from two points: (-1. (c) try different values for the level (between 0 and 1) Isosurface of vorticity at t=0.-0.65.Vehicle aerodynamics LIC at t=0.0. Level: 0.1.65.5.Tutorial 02 .1 s 1. vorticity (b) select Post Processing > Show > Isosurfaces: On. (d) select behavior Passive XFlow 2011 (Build 1. e.g. The new stream tracer is automatically called Tracer 0.0.5.25) The line appears in the Geometry section of the Project Tree (b) select Visualization field: Velocity (c) create a stream tracer field by right clicking the word Stream tracers > Add stream tracer.-0. Colored by field: velocity It may take a few seconds to calculate the isosurface.3 Visualize isosurfaces (a) choose a visualization field.25) and (-1.-0.

By default only Instantaneous is saved. Averaged and Standard deviation data can be saved via the option "Save averaged and standard deviation fields" in the Simulation section. in our case Inlet: Line and set the other parameters to Number of tracers: 20 Particles flux rate: 0 Transient: On Initial frame: 0 Last frame: 30 (e) right click on Tracer 0 and click Recompute (f) now enable the visualization of the stream tracers in WorkSpace > View > Post Processing > Show > Stream tracers: On and choose Path line: Line.6 Work with averaged data XFlow can save three types of data: Instantaneous.5 Visualize vector field (a) select Visualization field: Velocity (b) activate a cutting plane (c) select Visualization mode: Plane vectors (d) adjust the Arrow length and Arrow Density with the slider Attention: By default markers are not computed in the single phase external flow model. Averaged and Standard deviation. Then one can select the type of data to visualize in WorkSpace > Post Processing > Data. 30 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. To visualize the flow as particles you need to switch on the option "Compute Markers" in the Simulation section. One needs to switch to On this option before calculation to save the data.Vehicle aerodynamics In Inlet.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . 1.0. select the geometry shape that is going to be the source of tracers.Tutorial 02 . 1.

Mz Moment coefficients in each direction Forces in each direction Moments in each direction The information regarding the overall aerodynamic coefficients is also displayed on the top left-hand corner of the Graphic View window.Vehicle aerodynamics 2. it should find and append the rest of the image sequence go to Video > Frame Rate and enter the desired frame rate choose a processing mode and compression in the Video menu go to File > Save As 3. (a) press Export button in the bottom left-hand corner of the screen (b) select Export openGL view to save only the Graphic View window or Export image sequence (png) to save the entire screen (c) introduce the route to save the images (d) press play Tip: The assemblage of the image sequence to a video file can be done e. Fz Mx. XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Fy.net drag the first image of the sequence into VirtualDubMod.g. with the open source software VirtualDubMod http://virtualdubmod. Cy. Cmz Fx. Cz Force coefficients in each direction Cmx.Tutorial 02 .txt in the project folder records the evolution of the aerodynamic forces exerted over each geometry object and the overall geometry over time. Analyze aerodynamic forces The text file wallsFrzHistory. Create an animation To create an animation you have to save a sequence of images and use an external software to assemble the image sequence to a video file. Cmy.sourceforge.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 31 . The recorded quantities are: Cx. My.0.

153-0. The pressure values have to be normalized by the dynamic pressure . deactivate the previous cutting planes and (a) choose Visualization field: Static pressure (b) select view from right (c) create a cutting plane perpendicular to Z axis through the point (0.0) in Main menu > Data > Create cutting plane field distribution These four graphs can be saved in a text file by Main menu > Data > Export data of cutting plane/line distribution The default names for the files are cdDist0_Bottom.txt at the back (base) and cdDist0_Top.0025 m) to properly resolve the turbulent wake and obtain accurate drag values.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .Vehicle aerodynamics To plot the distribution of the pressure coefficient Cp on the vehicle.0. cdDist0_Right.158.Tutorial 02 .txt at the front.g. The verification of XFlow results for this problem can be found in the Validation Guide.txt at the top (roof). To hide the cutting plane field distribution Main menu > Data > Clean cutting plane/line field distribution Attention: The drag coefficient obtained with this coarse resolution is far from the experimental values 0.0. You should refine the resolution near the walls and in the wake (e. target scale around 0. cdDist0_Left.txt for distribution of Cp at the bottom of the vehicle (underbody). 32 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.

Advanced post processing Tutorial 03 .82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 33 . Before starting the tutorial. Advanced Post processing 1. save it with a different name and load the results (a) in the Project Manager window that appears when executing XFlow. C:\tutorials_cases\Tutorial02_VehicleAerodynamics\asmo (d) in the Project Tree window.g. This tutorial shows you how to: Change color of the GUI Set colors and materials to the geometries Use the ray-tracing render mode Set lights and ground wall color Set environment textures Hide the domain box Visualize the volumetric field Visualize stream tracers Use the Discrete Phase Model Create a camera Create additional Graphic View windows It is assumed that the reader has completed Tutorial 01 and 02. e.0.xfp (c) in Simulation > Store data > Folder.com/private/priv_documentation. e.php).Advanced post processing This tutorial illustrates some of the advanced post processing capabilities of XFlow using the results computed in Tutorial 02. right click in WorkSpace and select Load data. This option appears and select the folder where you have stored the XFlow 2011 (Build 1. click "Browse for existing project" in the lower right-hand side corner and select the xfp file from tutorial 02 (b) save the project with a new name in a new folder. please download the project data files from the Documentation section of XFlow's website (http://www.g. Open the project file from tutorial 02. Some steps in the setup and post-process will not be described in detail.Tutorial 03 . click results from tutorial 02. Tutorial03_AdvancedPostprocessing\Tutorial03_AdvPostProcessing.xflow-cfd.

you can superpose another geometry for visualization purposes.xfk (which contains a backup of the parameters used for the simulation) in the store data folder. The warning message "Project case not found! Data will try to be recovered based on current project settings" means that the program cannot find the file Tutorial03_AdvPostProcessing. We are going to import a geometry of the ASMO where the wheels are separated from the main body to set different colors and materials.57.nff. Therefore save the project before loading the data. (a) set plastic material to the wheels and metal to the car (b) switch on the ray-tracing render by clicking the icon = render mode Off in the Graphic View toolbar 34 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. select the desired color from the palette and press Apply. -0. (a) import car. Set materials and use the ray-tracing render mode In addition you can set a surface material to the shapes.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . select meters. When render is enabled. 4.nff. classic 3. 0) to make it to coincide with the original geometry (c) collapse the subfields of all Geometry shapes in the Project Tree: right click Geometry string > select Collapse all (c) remove the original geometry "asmo" by selecting the asmo shape > right click in Graphic View > Remove shape or.0. wheel2.nff. wheel4. Change color of the GUI XFlow GUI colors can be customized in two styles: dark. with light colors Change the application style in Main menu > Options > Preferences > Application > Application style: dark. wheel3. wheel1. selecting the asmo shape and pressing key Del (d) assign colors to the different shapes: select a shape > right click in Graphic View > Set visualization material > Color Click the colored rectangle.nff. alternatively. In model units. Import geometry parts and set colors Once the results have been computed. each material is displayed depending on its lighting properties. with dark colors (the default configuration) classic.Tutorial 03 . 2. (b) move them to position (-0.63.Advanced post processing deactivated when the file has changed.nff.

It can be done by clicking in the Graphic View toolbar or WorkSpace > Graphic View 1 > Camera settings > Perspective: On (c) try the other textures XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Press the Set button. Shadows for this light are active by default. 0). (a) in Main menu > Options > Preferences > Graphic View > Environment: Background color select Two Colors and choose them by clicking the rectangles (b) now select Texture > City Square. It is also possible to have a background as a fade between two colors or even have a texture as environment map.0. Light 4 is active by default.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 35 . Lights and ground wall color Shading is produced by the light sources when render is enabled.Advanced post processing = render mode On (c) try different materials and different values of the parameters (between 0 and 1) such as the reflection index in metal or the transparency index in glass Observe that the metal and glass materials reflect the color of the ground wall. Notice that shadows are produced by two different lights now. To visualize the texture you need set a to perspective view.Tutorial 03 . Change the color of the ground wall Main menu > Options > Preferences > Graphic View > Environment: Ground wall color Click the rectangle and select for instance the white color. 6. To define lights: Main menu > Options > Preferences > Graphic View > Lights Activate Light 1 at the location (0. 10. Set environment textures In tutorial 01 you have already changed the color of the background (see step 4). 5.

2000] by disabling the automatic range and inputting the minimum and maximum values. 8. Hide the domain box To hide the domain box. deactivate Show domain box. This hides the wireframe and the ground of the domain. a and a*a*a.g.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . (a) deselect any geometry shape in the Project Tree (b) right click in an empty area of the Graphic View window (c) in the pop-up menu. (c) switch off the interpolation WorkSpace > Post processing > Interpolation mode: Off Otherwise the render of the volumetric field will be too slow. Try different transference laws. 36 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. which assigns a higher opacity to the higher vorticity. (d) show volumetric field WorkSpace > Post processing > Show > Volumetric field: On By default.Advanced post processing 7. e. the transference law is a*a. Visualize the volumetric field Volumetric field shows the chosen visualization field in the entire domain with an opacity given by a specified transference law. This law is a function of a (alpha value).Tutorial 03 . (a) in WorkSpace > Post Processing select vorticity as visualization field and 3d field as visualization mode (b) in Main menu > Data > Analysis settings or using the toolbar icon prescribe the vorticity legend range to [0. a=0 corresponds to the legend minimum and a=1 to the maximum.0.

XFlow distinguishes between two cases: (i) when the tracer is massless and therefore has a passive behaviour.0. (a) first create a box with lower corner (-3.-0. WorkSpace > right click Stream tracers > Add stream tracer This creates Tracer 0. In this way only the surface remaining is the one pointing to the vehicle.3).75.-0. Instead of a line like in tutorial 02.Advanced post processing 9.-0. To visualize stream tracers. drag and inertia (discrete phase model. In this tutorial we are going to calculate a steady passive tracer. Rename this shape to "surfstreams". now we will create a surface. select each surface indicated in red wireframe in the image below and remove them (right click in Graphic View > Remove shape).Tutorial 03 .82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 37 . you need to define a geometry shape that will be the source of stream tracers. and (ii) when the tracer is a particle with mass. (b) to calculate the stream tracers. Visualize stream tracers Stream tracers refers to streamlines of the velocity vector field generated from a collection of source points. (c) set the passive steady tracer consisting of 20 tracers generated from the shape "surfstreams" and calculated from the results at frame 25 as in the figure below XFlow 2011 (Build 1. and a transient DPM tracer. Then eliminate all the box surfaces except the one at x=-2 by selecting the surface mode in the toolbar. DPM).3) and upper corner (-2.4.0.

0.81 m/s2 and restitution coefficient of 0. 0= perfectly inelastic (b) choose now transient calculation from frame 10 to 30 38 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. To model water drops. drop diameter of 1e-6 affected by a vertical gravity acceleration of -9. Set the velocity legend range to [20.Advanced post processing (d) right click on Tracer 0 and click Recompute (e) now enable the visualization of the stream tracers in WorkSpace > View > Post Processing > Show > Stream tracers: On and choose Path line: Line.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .Tutorial 03 . You may need to adjust the size factor to visualize these path lines correctly. Use the discrete phase model (a) set the behaviour to DPM. Change the path line to ribbon. Stream tracers with tube path representation 10. spheres chain and tube.5. set a density of 1000 kg/m3. The restitution coefficient models the behaviour of the particle when it impacts a solid surface: 1= perfectly elastic. Change the size factor to 3. 60] and recompute tracer 0 to take effect.

XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0. The total number of particles will be given by the flux rate (particles/second). the camera is fixed and defined by the parameters from. To describes the position of the target. to calculate 20 particle trajectories you have to set a flux rate of 200 particle/s (d) right click on Tracer 0 and click Recompute (e) when the calculation has finished.1 seconds therefore. in WorkSpace > Post Processing > Show > Stream tracers enable Current marker (again you may need to adjust the size factor to visualize correctly the particles) (f) play from frame 10 to see the trajectories of the particles DPM visualization as tubes and current marker 11. Between frame 10 and 30 go 0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 39 . Create a camera When you have played the solution in the previous step. It is the center of the view.Advanced post processing (c) set Number of tracers=0. This generates particles from random source positions along the surface. From describes the position of the camera or eye point. where the camera is looking at.Tutorial 03 . To and Up in WorkSpace > Camera settings.

This creates a second branch in the workspace tree corresponding to Graphic View 2. define a camera from the top by defining From=(0.0).0). To return to the interactive camera. To=(0. Up=(1. It is also possible to define a moving camera. Create additional Graphic View windows Each Graphic View can display different fields and have different cameras. Notice how these parameters change when you navigate in the Graphic View (pan.10. behaviour Fixed and perspective On. 40 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Tutorial 03 . To activate this camera.15 s. Select Forced behavior. to create a Function Viewer change the type of any existing window by clicking at its top left-hand corner. Now the entries for all the parameters allow a function (it is indicated by the brackets). zoom.0.0. (a) enter the following expressions to describe the camera motion: (b) display the graph of the From X-coordinate in the Function Viewer (you may need to create one) by right clicking the expression and selecting Edit in Function Viewer 0.Advanced post processing Up describes the direction of the vertical axis. go to WorkSpace > Camera settings > Link to camera and select Camera 0. (a) split the current Graphic View window and select Split horizontal.0). Tip: Remember. For example. Check that it is periodic with a period of 0. 12. (c) link the Graphic View to Camera 0 and play forward the results. You can create your own cameras in WorkSpace > Cameras. Right click on Cameras string to add a new camera.0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . select Graphic View 1. The camera follows a loop around the vehicle. rotation).

0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 41 .Tutorial 03 . XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Advanced post processing (b) create a second camera with the following parameters: (c) link the Graphic View 2 to Camera 1. Select Show volumetric field as indicated in step 8 and play forward the results.

82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .com/private/priv_documentation. Step 1: Problem setup Step 2: Post-process Step 1: Problem setup 1.php). The problem consists of a rectangular tank with an obstacle.Dam break Tutorial 04 . This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution process of a dam break flow. Now the wind tunnel will disappear and you will have to 42 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Some steps in the setup and postprocess will not be described in detail. please download the project data files from the Documentation section of XFlow's website (http://www.Tutorial 04 . Examples of this type of problem include simulating the waves produced by a ship or the forces exerted by waves that break against an oil platform.Dam break XFlow can also be applied to problems that involve the free surface between water and air.0. In the right part of the tank there is a water column that will flow through the tank due to the effect of gravity and impact against the obstacle. Before starting the tutorial.xflow-cfd. Engine settings (a) select the 3d kernel (b) select the flow model Free surface internal. This tutorial shows you how to: Set a free surface problem Define liquid regions Visualize the fluid particles Create arbitrary cutting planes Create clipping planes It is assumed that the reader has completed Tutorials 01 and 02.

Material settings By default. (a) keep the default fluid properties XFlow 2011 (Build 1. (c) leave the default advanced options Attention: Volume correction of the free surface to ensure volume conservation is enabled by default in Engine Advanced Options.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 43 .e. else (x>0) the liquid region has height 0. i.Tutorial 04 .55 meters.y<0. water) instead of a gas.0) (d) introduce the initial liquid function: if (x<0.0. 2.0. 3. select meters and press Apply to all.Dam break provide the geometry of the tank that contains the fluid. -9. Environment settings (a) set the turbulence model to Off (b) introduce the external acceleration law (0. the normals are pointing to the outside of the tank. Import the geometry (a) import the geometry of the tank from the file tank. in the free surface flow models the fluid is a liquid (namely.55) This means that if x<0 then the liquid region has height 0. 4. to the region with fluid Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Reverse orientation Correct tank orientation (c) show the grid (Main menu > Options > Preferences > Graphic View: Show grid) to observe that the coordinate origin is at the location where the water column begins.81.0.stl Main menu > Data > Import geometry or In model units. 0) to include the gravity (c) keep the initial velocity field as (0. (b) reverse orientation of the tank to make the normals to point to the inside. It is displayed as an opaque box.

Geometry settings (a) keep the tank behaviour as fixed (b) set the boundary conditions to Wall.0.Dam break 5.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .03 meters. Show particles In WorkSpace > Post processing > Visualization mode (a) select Markers to show the particles of fluid simulated (b) select Surface in Visualization mode > Particle from to show only the particles at the surface. Launch the calculation (a) save the project (b) set the number of CPUs in Main menu > Options > Preferences > Engine (c) press Run button Step 2: Post-process 1. and All to show the whole domain of fluid (c) select Arrows and Sphere in Visualization mode > Representation to represent the particles with different shapes (d) play the simulation by pressing 44 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. with the refinement algorithm Disabled (c) set the frequency to store data to 50 frames per second (d) leave off Save averaged and standard deviation fields and Compute markers 7.Tutorial 04 . Simulation settings (a) set the simulation time to 3 seconds. Load data Right click on WorkSpace > Load data 2. with Free-slip wall model 6. time step mode to fixed automatic and Courant to 1 (b) set the resolved scale to 0.

Tutorial 04 .1).-1) by Right clicking on Clipping planes > Add clipping plane (b) click on Plane 0 (the word turns red) to activate the clipping plane (c) zoom-in to see the details of the flow close to the obstacle (d) change the point of the plane. Create a clipping plane WorkSpace > Camera settings > Clipping planes (a) create the Plane 0 through the point (0. (f) deactivate the clipping plane by clicking again on Plane 0 4. To visualize the particles and a cutting plane at the same time you have to create an arbitrary plane in WorkSpace > Post Processing > Cutting planes > right click on Arbitrary planes > Create plane and activate it by clicking on its name.0) and with normal vector (0. Now you can visualize the other side of the clipping plane.0. 3.161.0. 0) and other on the top of the obstacle at position (-1. the X.1675.0. 0. 0) (b) create a Function Viewer window and measure the pressure in both sensors by first selecting the visualization field static pressure and then Right click on Function Viewer > Data sensor > Refresh data sensors Right click on Function Viewer > Data sensor > Sensor 0 Right click on Function Viewer > Data sensor > Sensor 1 (c) save the measurements to a text file Right click on Function Viewer > Export current data 5.101. (0. e. Create data sensors WorkSpace > Data sensors (a) create two data sensors: Right click on Data sensors > Add sensor one on the front of the obstacle at position (-1.g.Dam break Notice that when visualizing particles.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 45 .0.-0. Y and Z cutting planes are not visible even if they are activated. 0.2) (e) change the normal vector to (0.2685. Show surface info XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0.

velocity (c) select Show > Surface info: 3d field 6.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . Show volumetric field (a) select vorticity as visualization field (b) switch off the interpolation WorkSpace > Post processing > Interpolation mode: Off (b) enable WorkSpace > Post processing > Show > Volumetric field (c) adjust the vorticity range and observe the evolution in time of the flow 46 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0.Tutorial 04 .g.Dam break WorkSpace > Post processing (a) change the visualization mode to 3d field (b) select a visualization field. e.

The beach will be modeled first as impermeable and later as a porous medium.Tutorial 05 .xflow-cfd. Before starting the tutorial.php). that the normals are pointing to the outside. -10) to include the gravity (c) keep the initial velocity field as (0. Environment settings (a) set the turbulence model to Automatic (b) introduce the external acceleration law (0. Step 1: Problem setup 1. A buoy will be included to track the water movement.0. 02 and 04. This tutorial shows you how to: Set a free surface external problem Set progressive waves with the help of the wizard Set porous regions Set center of gravity for moving objects It is assumed that the reader has completed Tutorials 01.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 47 .Breaking waves Tutorial 05 . i. It is a channel flow where waves will be generated following the linear wave theory. Main menu > Data > Import geometry or (b) check the correct orientation of the wedge surface. The water channel domain appears.com/private/priv_documentation. (c) leave the default advanced options 2. Engine settings (a) select the 2d kernel (b) select the flow model Free surface external.Breaking waves This second tutorial on free surface flows consists of traveling water waves approaching a beach.0) (d) with the help of the wizard. please download the project data files from the Documentation section of XFlow's website (http://www. set the water channel parameters Main menu > Wizards > Setup progressive wave boundary conditions XFlow 2011 (Build 1.nff. Some steps in the setup and postprocess will not be described in detail.e. Import the geometry (a) import the geometry of the beach from the file beach. Select model units meters and press Apply to all. 3. Otherwise reverse orientation (Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Reverse orientation).

Material settings By default. Create a cubic buoy (a) create a box with lower corner (-1. depth=5m. 0) so that the mean free surface level is located at y=0. time step mode to fixed automatic and Courant to 1 (b) set the resolved scale to 0. width=10 meters and settings of the waves: type=linear. 4. -6) and set the boundary conditions to wall for a solid (impermeable) beach. height=15.Breaking waves dimensions: length=240.Tutorial 05 . Simulation settings (a) set the simulation time to 20 seconds.-1.2Hz. current frequency=0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . (a) keep the default fluid properties 5. Notice that the position of the channel changes automatically to (0.1.1) (b) select the box and show its local axis to check that the center of gravity is located in the center Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > activate Show local axis 48 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. with automatic wall model and roughness=0. with the refinement algorithm Disabled (c) set the frequency to store data to 5 frames per second (d) leave off Save averaged and standard deviation fields. 2.5. 6. -8.5. move it to position (-3.2 meters. Geometry settings (a) keep the beach behaviour as fixed. and Compute markers 7. velocity=0m/s. in the free surface flow models the fluid is water.-1) and upper corner (1. amplitude=1m and Velocity laws. water initial surface and water inlet wave function are internally calculated and set based on the entered parameters.0.

82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 49 . Y=0.Tutorial 05 . a density of mass/volume=125 kg/m3 ). Keep the default wall boundary conditions. 8. In this case you should move the center CoG to the cube center: Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Modify CoG/CoR position: X=-68.1. Z=0 (e) set the box behaviour to constrained. which would make the simulation fail. (b) play forward the results. Show particles (a) show all particles from the fluid region WorkSpace > Post processing > Visualization mode: Markers By default particles are represented by points and are colored by the velocity field.0. with a mass of 1000 kg (i. but observe that then the center of gravity would be in the global origin (0. with external force Y = gravity*mass = -10000.0). lower corner (-69.0).-1.e.1).0. Observe how the waves accelerate when they arrive at the beach and end up XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Launch the calculation (a) save the project (b) set the number of CPUs in Main menu > Options > Preferences > Engine (c) press Run button Step 2: Post-process 1. Geometry > Shape: Box > Position (d) hide the local axis Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > deactivate Show local axis You could also create the cube directly in the right position. constrained position X and Y and angular Z to Off.-1) and upper corner (67.Breaking waves (c) move the box to position (-68.0.

Observe that there is no fluid inside.0. 2. (b) create a Function Viewer window and display the evolution of the box position and rotation Right click in Function Viewer > Data Box > Px.0)] (f) set the simulation time to 50 seconds (g) set number of CPUs.Tutorial 05 . Track the movement of the buoy (a) select the box and play forward the results. Observe the different initial configurations in the solid and porous beach cases. 50 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. (d) select the beach and visualize it in wireframe mode.207303)*x). (a) set the boundary conditions of the beach to Porous volume in Geometry > Shape > Boundary conditions (b) set the porosity type to isotropic (c) specify a permeability coefficient of 1e-5 and zero Ergun coefficient (e) modify the water initial surface to leave void part of the beach interior Water initial surface [if(x<60. Py. (c) visualize vorticity and static pressure fields. (b) play forward the results and observe how the flow evolves inside the porous region. Mass inlet flux Porous region We will now model the beach as a porous volume with a permeability of 10-5 m2.y<-sin((0.Breaking waves breaking due to shoaling. save the project and run the calculation Post-process (a) select the beach and display it in wireframe visuatization mode. Euz (c) display the evolution of the mass inlet and mass inlet flux Right click in Function Viewer > Data mass > Mass inlet. Initial position is marked in wireframe.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .

the ball goes back to its original location and seals the passage. The differential equation that describe the movement of the ball due to the spring is: The parameter ξ is called the damping ratio and determines the behavior of the system.Ball check valve This tutorial illustrates how to set up a fluid-structure interaction problem. The inflow duct is blocked by a sphere mounted on a spring at rest with an extension of l0. If the fluid stops coming from the inlet duct. Before starting the tutorial.Ball check valve Tutorial 06 . namely the case of a ball check valve working with a spring. Some steps in the setup and post-process will not be described in detail. XFlow 2011 (Build 1.php). This leads to the following expression of the force exerted by the spring on the sphere: This tutorial will show you how to: Create closing boundary surfaces for single phase internal flow Impose inlet and outlet boundary conditions on closing surfaces Model a 1D-freedom constrained system such as a spring-mass system Model damping effects Visualize the forces exerted by the fluid on a moving solid Visualize the streamlines Visualize the different damping regimes It is assumed that the reader has completed Tutorial 01 and 02. it pushes the ball and exerts a force that is against the spring.com/private/priv_documentation. please download the project data files from the Documentation section of XFlow's website (http://www.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 51 .xflow-cfd. The spring will be modeled by an external force on the sphere in X-direction with and without damping to simulate different regimes of the spring. and k is the spring constant. When the fluid flows in.0.Tutorial 06 . It consists of a valve with inflow and outflow ducts.

In order to orientate the flow from -X to +X. to select the circular inlet contours of the inlet cylinder as 52 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. 0) the Orientation parameter: Geometry > Shape: Valve > Behavior > Orientation The valve is now correctly oriented as shown on the picture below. (d) leave the default advanced options 2. 180. This means ξ will be considered equal to zero. Create the inlet boundary surface: use the "Select lines" button shown below. Now the wind tunnel will disappear and you will have to provide the geometry of the valve that contains the fluid (c) leave the thermal model to Isothermal since this is an incompressible simulation. (b) you can notice that no surfaces are defined inlet and outlet of the valve.Tutorial 06 .Ball check valve Step 1: Problem setup.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . no damping In this case no damping will be modeled for the spring.stp. 1. Engine settings (a) select the 3d kernel (b) select the flow model to Single phase internal.0. and the acoustic analysis to Off. make a rotation of 180º around Y-axis by changing to (0. Import the valve and create the sphere (a) import the CAD file named Valve.

Tutorial 06 .0.008 m radius at the location (0.0) by clicking on "Create cylinder" button and move it to the position (-0. Do the same at the outlet to get the outlet closing surface.0. Environment settings (a) leave the turbulence model to Automatic (b) leave the external acceleration laws to (0. as shown below. here for instance one can call the surfaces "Inflow" and "Outflow". Change: Geometry > Shape: Surface to Geometry > Shape: Inflow Change: Geometry > Shape: Surface-000001 to Geometry > Shape: Outflow (c) create the sphere of 0.0.0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 53 . sealing the outlet pipe.014.0) (c) leave the initial velocity field to (0.Ball check valve Now click on the "Create surface" button and a new cylindrical surface will appear. check their orientation to ensure the domain of fluid to be inside the valve. It is usually recommended to rename the geometries created with more explicit names.0) since the system should be at rest at the first frame.0) which is its initial position at rest: Geometry > Shape: Sphere > Position The final geometry should now contain one valve with and inlet and outlet surface. and a ball sealing obstructing the passage at the inlet. Finally. XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0. 3.

and change the dynamic viscosity to 0. (b) set up the Inflow surface to be a mass flow boundary condition of 0. 54 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.2 for t<1.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . 5.01 (c) change the density to 998 (d) leave the operating temperature to 288.0.Tutorial 06 .5 s and 0 after to go back to the original position: select the behavior to Fixed the position should already be set up correctly and does not need to be changed select the boundary conditions to be Mass flow and set its law to: if(t<1. Material settings By default. (a) set up the Valve geometry: select the behavior to Fixed since this will be the fixed domain outline the position and orientation of this object has already been set up previously select the boundary conditions to be Wall with Automatic wall model and 0 roughness. We are now changing the fluid properties to make the simulation with water: (a) change the fluid type to Water (b) change the molecular weight to 18.Ball check valve 4.0.15 (e) leave the viscosity model to Newtonian.5.2.0). Geometry settings The geometries imported and created will now be set up to define boundary conditions and constraints.001 (f) change the specific heat capacity to 4182. the fluid used for an internal single phase analysis is air.

with a Fixed automatic time step mode and a Courant number of 1 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Ball check valve (c) set up the Outflow surface to be a pressure outlet condition at atmospheric pressure: select the behavior to Fixed the position should already be set up correctly and does not need to be changed select the boundary conditions to be Gauge pressure outlet and set its law to 0. Apply the following external force X to simulation a spring with no damping and with a spring constant of 250: -250*(px-(-0. select the boundary conditions to be Wall with Automatic wall model and 0 wall roughness.014. orientation. and angular velocity will be left as they are.0) as defined previously the mass of the sphere will be set to 1 the principal inertia radius. velocity.5 leave all the constraints to On except the constrained position X that you need to turn to On in order to allow the sphere moving by translation to the X direction. the center of gravity (Cog) and the restitution coefficient will be left as they are the static friction coefficient and the dynamic friction coefficient will be set to 0. In this section the spring is modeled with no damping: select the behavior to Constrained since we want to apply spring forces on it which is a 1D constrained movement the position. (d) set up the Sphere to simulate the spring.Tutorial 06 . Make sure that the position is still (-0.0. Simulation settings (a) set the simulation time to 2 seconds.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 55 .0.014)). 6.

Such a coarse resolution should in no way be used for an accurate analysis of the solution. and leave averaged data and standard deviation field disabled Attention: The solved scale is in fact quite coarse for such a case because the dimensions of the valve are very small.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .002 with no refinement (c) set the frequency to 100 and give a folder name such as "nodamping" (d) enable the computation of markers by switching the option to On. 7. Launch the calculation (a) save the project (b) set the number of CPUs in Main menu > Options > Preferences > Engine (c) press Run button Tip: Remember that to accelerate the calculation time you can select an empty frame (the last one for instance). Step 2: Post-processing 1. This choice is made on purpose for this tutorial in order to reduce the calculation time since it is enough to simulate and show the interaction between the fluid and the sphere for different dampings.Tutorial 06 .Ball check valve (b) set the resolved scale to 0. This way XFlow will not post-process data in real-time which saves resources for the computation. Show markers In WorkSpace > Post processing (a) select Velocity for the visualization field to observe the velocities (b) select Markers for the visualization mode to show the markers (c) enable Z Plane to observe the results in the Z cutting plane (d) set the view to Right view by pressing (e) play the simulation by pressing 56 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0. Load data (a) save the project (b) right click on WorkSpace > Load data 2.

This means the streamlines will be calculated for one second of physical time. 4. 3.0.Tutorial 06 . to compute the actual streamlines at this frame (g) set the Time to 1 second.5s when the mass flow goes down to 0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 57 . Plot the sphere position against time (a) reset to the first frame by pressing and turn off the cutting plane Z (b) change the Transform Tool window to the Function Viewer by clicking on (c) plot the sphere X position by selecting Right-click on the Function Viewer > Data Sphere > Px (d) refit the range of view by clicking on Auto fit at the right-top of the Function Viewer (e) play the simulation again and observe the evolution of the sphere position in real time Note that the evolution is periodic until 1. (h) leave Colored by field to Velocity and the data to Instantaneous XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Ball check valve Observe that the fluid is pushing the sphere and that the sphere has a periodic movement as expected since there is no damping. The simulation of the nondamping spring is therefore successful. Visualize the streamlines (a) create new streamlines by right-clicking on Workspace > Stream tracers and selecting Add stream tracer (b) change the Behavior of the Tracer 0 that has just been created to Passive (c) change Inlet to "Inflow" to specify the streamlines will be drawn from the Inflow surface (d) set the Number of tracers to 100 to get hundred streamlines (e) leave the Particles flux rate and transient parameters to default (f) set the Reference frame to 60 for instance.

1.0.014))-15*vx 58 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .Ball check valve (i) in Workspace > Views > Graphic View 1 > Post Processing > Show turn Stream Tracers to On (j) set the Path line to Line and the size factor to 3 to make the streamlines more visible (k) go to the frame number 60 to observe the streamlines surrounding the sphere and leaving through the outflow boundary (l) turn off the streamlines Step 3: Under-damping case In this case the spring will be modeled with under-damping. Run the under-damping case (a) edit the External force X in Geometry > Shape: Sphere > Behavior: Constrained > Constrained position X: Off and replace it by: -250*(px-(-0. The value of the spring constant will be taken as ξ = 0.Tutorial 06 .5.

for instance "ballcheckvalve_underdamping" (d) save the case. and note that the damping of the system is effective. Note that the sphere is reaching an equilibrium position after few oscillation. Step 4: Critical-damping case In this case the spring will be modeled with critical-damping.Ball check valve (b) rewind the player by pressing (c) and check that the sphere position is still (-0. The flow is then smooth until the mass flow stops and the sphere is then going back to its original location (b) switch the Z cutting-plane off and rewind (c) display X position of the sphere against time curve in the Function Viewer as done previously.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 59 . XFlow 2011 (Build 1.5. The value of the spring constant will be taken as ξ = 1. check the number of CPUs and make sure the markers are computed (e) press Run button 2.0.0. due to the damping.0). Post-process the results (a) observe the velocity markers in the Z cutting-plane as done previously.014.Tutorial 06 . Observe that the second oscillation is reduced by half of the first which is the behavior expected from a spring that has a spring constant of 0. change the name of the folder in Simulation > Store data > Folder.

82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .014.Ball check valve 1. Observe that the first oscillation is not fully done and the system stabilize directly: this is the critical damping. Run the under-damping case (a) edit the External force X in Geometry > Shape: Sphere > Behavior: Constrained > Constrained position X: Off and replace it by: -250*(px-(-0.5 (d) save the case. The flow is then smooth until the mass flow stops and the sphere is then going back to its original location slightly slower than previous cases (b) switch the Z cutting-plane off and rewind (c) display X position of the sphere against time curve in the Function Viewer as done previously.014))-32*vx (b) rewind the player by pressing (c) and check that the sphere position is still (-0. Post-process the results (a) observe the velocity markers in the Z cutting-plane as done previously. change the name of the folder in Simulation > Store data > Folder.Tutorial 06 .0. for instance "ballcheckvalve_criticaldamping" (d) for this case you can set the simulation time to 2 seconds and stop the mass flow at 1 second instead of 1. Note that the sphere is reaching an equilibrium position directly without completing a full oscillation. and note that the damping of the system is effective. 60 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.0).0. check the number of CPUs and make sure the markers are computed (e) press Run button 2.

for instance "ballcheckvalve_overdamping" (d) set the simulation time to 2s and stop the mass flow at 1s (d) save the case. The value of the spring constant will be taken as ξ = 16 to show an extreme case.Ball check valve Step 5: Over-damping case In this case the spring will be modeled with over-damping.0). XFlow 2011 (Build 1. check the number of CPUs and make sure the markers are computed (e) press Run button 2.0. When the mass flow stops the sphere is then going back to its original location much slower than previous cases (b) switch the Z cutting-plane off and rewind (c) display X position of the sphere against time curve in the Function Viewer as done previously. change the name of the folder in Simulation > Store data > Folder. Post-process the results (a) observe the velocity markers in the Z cutting-plane as done previously. The flow tends to be smooth later than in the previous cases since the sphere slowly goes to its maximum X location.014))-500*vx (b) rewind the player by pressing (c) and check that the sphere position is still (-0. 1. Observe that no oscillation occurs: this is the over-damping.0.014. and note that the damping of the system is effective. The drawback of such an over-damped system is that the sphere does not go back easily to its original location. Run the under-damping case (a) edit the External force X in Geometry > Shape: Sphere > Behavior: Constrained > Constrained position X: Off and replace it by: -250*(px-(-0.Tutorial 06 . and therefore does not seal the inlet passage as it should.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 61 . Note that the sphere is reaching an equilibrium position slowly and does not oscillate at all.

0.Ball check valve 62 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Tutorial 06 .82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .

The rotor will rotate first with a prescribed angular velocity and later due to the forces exerted by the flow. (c) Show geometrical properties (select the blades > right clicking in the Graphic View window > Show geometrical properties) and observe that it has around 7900 polygons (d) Delete this shape. Import the CAD file blades-to-heal.igs (a) Before importing the CAD file blades-to-heal. Step 1: Geometry healing 1. which is in parametric IGES format.xflow-cfd.1 and import it again. Observe that now the tessellation XFlow 2011 (Build 1. This tutorial shows how to: Heal a geometry with holes Set appropriate parameters for importing IGES files Set forced and constrained motions for the rotor Define a power-law for the inlet velocity Customize the wake refinement threshold Perform basic aeroacoustics analysis It is assumed that the reader has completed Tutorial 01. (b) Select the blades and show the tessellation by right clicking in the Graphic View window > Enable Show mesh.com/private/priv_documentation.igs. 02 and 06.Wind turbine This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of the flow around a wind turbine and its aeroacoustics analysis. set the OpenGL mesh deflection to 1: Main menu > Options > Preferences > Graphic View > OpenGL Mesh Deflection This parameter (between 0 and 2) determines the size of the automatic tessellation for parametric geometries.php).82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 63 . Attention: This tutorial requires several hours of computation and large hard disk resources.0.Wind turbine Tutorial 07 . change the parameter to 0.Tutorial 07 . please download the project data files from the Documentation section of XFlow's website (http://www. The wind profile is assumed to follow a power-law. Some steps in the setup and postprocess will not be described in detail. Before starting the tutorial.

Zoom in to observe that the joint edge is a double curve. 64 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. the surfaces (patches) defining the geometry are not sewed. Show holes Furthermore. 2.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .0. there are gaps between them.Tutorial 07 . the blades are not properly joined to the central part. 3. Keep this geometry. For instance. Check the surfaces orientation Ensure that back-face culling is enabled (select object > right click in Graphic View > Back-face culling).Wind turbine is finer. You can observe that some surfaces have the normals pointing outwards and others pointing inwards. it has around 41000 polygons.

XFlow allows intersecting surfaces but holes in the model may cause the fluid to enter inside it.0. The tolerance is approximately 1% of the finest resolution used in the computation.Tutorial 07 .Wind turbine You can view all the holes in the model by selecting the object. clicking Main menu > Geometry > Show/hide holes and visualize the object in bounding box mode (right click in Graphic View > Visualization mode > Bounding Box).82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 65 . XFlow 2011 (Build 1.

To clean the information about the holes.nff and blades. 2. The wind turbine consists of a 3-blade rotor with a diameter of 52 meters and a tower of 82 meter height. single phase external flow and isothermal model (b) enable Acoustics analysis (c) leave the default advanced options 3. Environment settings (a) set the turbulence model to Automatic (b) set the domain type to Virtual wind tunnel (c) leave to zero the external acceleration laws and the initial velocity field 66 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. remove isolated lines. so you will have to select it again): Main menu > Geometry > Healing > Fix small lines Main menu > Geometry > Healing > Sew faces Main menu > Geometry > Healing > Complete healing Check that most of the holes have disappeared after healing. Step 2: Problem setup 1. fix small faces.Tutorial 07 . select meters and press Apply to all. but the computation may encounter problems with surface patches separated by gaps. Finally reorientate all surfaces coherently by Main menu > Geometry > Reorientate normals This blades geometry has been used only to learn the healing.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . In model units. Select the geometry shape and perform the following healing operations (be careful that the model is unselected after finishing an operation. Engine settings (a) select the 3d kernel. Return to the Shading visualization mode. or sew faces.Wind turbine Tip: A good practice is to model the geometries from solids and avoid geometries with gaps. press again Main menu > Geometry > Show/hide holes. In the next section you will use a different model. 4. XFlow is tolerant to crossing surfaces. Import the geometry Import the geometry of the tower and the blades from the files tower.nff. Healing XFlow has some basic healing operations such as fix small lines.0.

(i) display the graph of the X-velocity law in the Function Viewer (you may need to create one) by right clicking the expression and selecting Edit in Function Viewer 0. This sets the ground at Y=-75m. XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Now there is an additional parameter related to the aeroacoustics analysis. 4.12] by Zoom: Alt + left mouse button + drag Pan: Alt + middle (wheel) mouse button + drag and check the exponential shape of the wind profile.100] x [5. velocity at the reference height uref = 10 m/s. Adjust the range of the Function Viewer to [-100. with Automatic ground wall type (h) set the inlet wind velocity to the following power-law profile with reference height yref = 50 m.0). (g) enable the ground wall. By default the wind tunnel is centered at (0.143 corresponding to neutral conditions. Material settings Keep the default parameters of air. 25. At height 50 m (y=-25) the wind velocity is 10 m/s.Tutorial 07 . ground height y0 = -75 and coefficient α = 0. You may check it with the help of the grid ( > Graphic View > Show grid: On).Wind turbine (d) keep the Front reference area and the Automatic reference velocity (e) introduce the dimensions of the wind tunnel: 500 x 200 x 200 m.0. the volume bulk viscosity. (f) change the position of the wind tunnel to (75.0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 67 . 0).

Geometry settings In this section we model the blades to rotate at a constant speed of 15 rpm. (c) 15 rpm = 90 degree/s.5 meters as target resolution for the wake.0. fixed automatic time step and a Courant number of 1 (b) set 8 meters for the resolved scale (far field resolution) (c) select the Adapt to walls and dynamically adapt to wake refinement algorithm (d) set 0. Simulation settings (a) set the simulation time to 12 seconds. 5.7894e-05. Launch the calculation (a) save the project (b) set the number of CPUs in Main menu > Options > Preferences > Engine (c) press Run button Tip: During the calculation it is recommended that you set the timeline to an empty frame to not hinder the performance. Step 3: Post-processing 1. Monitor the evolution of the number of active particles The refinement adapted to the wake causes the number of active particles to change during the computation.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . 68 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.00001. Observe that the local X-axis corresponds to the rotation axis. (f) store data with a frequency of 100 frames per second (d) leave the computation of averaged data. In this case the geometry dimensions are very large and we need to decrease the wake refinement threshold to get the wake properly refined. (a) keep the tower to fixed behaviour and wall boundary condition (b) set the behaviour of the blades to forced (c) check the local axis of the blades by selecting the geometry > right click in Graphic View > Enable Show local axis. tower and blades (e) change the wake refinement threshold to custom with value 0.Wind turbine Set the same volume bulk viscosity than the dynamic viscosity. standard deviation field and markers disabled 7.Tutorial 07 . therefore set the angular law for the X-axis as 90t (d) check the forced motion of the blades by pressing timebar or dragging the current frame along the 6. namely 1.

Visualize surface info (a) in Project Tree > WorkSpace choose the velocity as visualization field and select Show surface info: 3d field.6. Surface velocity at t=10 s (b) show the pressure coefficient (Surface info: Cp).20] and navigate through different frames.10.0) sensor 1 = (15. 600 and 1200 and check the number of particles in the Message View.0.-20. Aeroacoustics analysis (a) create three sensors at locations sensor 0 = (50. Adjust the range to [-1. Adjust the velocity range (Main menu > Data > Analysis settings) to [0.Tutorial 07 .0) sensor 2 = (15.1] in Main menu > Data > Analysis settings: Surface info. (b) the wind velocity at hub is u(y=0)=10.Wind turbine Load the frames 10. 3.-10.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 69 . Frame 10 Frame 600 Frame 1200 Level 0 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Total 37629 10077 22465 47902 161557 37162 11979 26249 80689 596093 37131 12239 27567 80618 506165 279630 752172 663720 2.0) (b) show the sensors position by selecting them in the Project Tree XFlow 2011 (Build 1.

It may take a few minutes.0.Wind turbine Sensors locations (b) choose static pressure as visualization field (c) load the results at the sensors by right clicking in Function Viewer > Data sensor > Refresh data sensors.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . or directly display the sound pressure level (SPL) in XFlow: right click in Function Viewer > Data management > Set graph to [SPL vs freq] mode 70 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Tutorial 07 . (d) monitor the evolution of the static pressure at the sensors right click in Function Viewer > Data sensor > Sensor 0 right click in Function Viewer > Data sensor > Sensor 1 right click in Function Viewer > Data sensor > Sensor 2 Static pressure at sensor 1 (e) you may want to export these data (right click in Function Viewer > Export current data) and process them in a software specific for aeroacoustics.

with: Mass =10000 kg Constrained angular X: Off.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 71 .0. to test-constrained XFlow 2011 (Build 1. and External moment X = 0. (a) in Engine set the Acoustics analysis to Off (b) in Geometry > Shape: blades set the behaviour to constrained.Tutorial 07 . to enable this angular degree of freedom (c) set the simulation time to 30 seconds (d) change the store data folder. e.g. Constrained behaviour Now we will set the rotor free to rotate due to the forces exerted by the wind.Wind turbine SPL at sensor 1 To store data at 100 frames per second allows to analyze the signal up to a frequency of 50 Hz.

Wind turbine (e) now a frequency of 10 Hz is enough (f) set number of CPUs. adjust its range to [0. disable interpolation mode and show the volumetric field with transference law = a*a (c) display in the Function Viewer the X-angular displacement of the blades right click in the Function Viewer > Data blades > Eux (d) display in the Function Viewer the X-angular velocity of the blades right click in the Function Viewer > Data blades > Wx 72 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. save the project and run the calculation Post Process (a) play the simulation from the first frame to see how the blades start to rotate (b) choose the vorticity visualization field.20].82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .Tutorial 07 .0.

0.3 rad/s = 22 rpm XFlow 2011 (Build 1.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 73 .Wind turbine Observe that the blades achieve a uniform rotational speed of approximately 2.Tutorial 07 .

θ0 a reference temperature and 0 = (θ0). the solid is at a temperature of 400 K and it will be cooled by the surrounding fluid due to thermal conduction through the solid.-1. At the initial time instant. where is the thermal expansion coefficient. see Tutorial 09. It consists of a square cavity with differentially heated vertical walls and adiabatic horizontal walls.Tutorial 08 . This tutorial shows you how to: Create simple geometry such as boxes Apply boundary conditions to faces Use the single phase internal flow model Use the segregated energy thermal model Enable the viscous term in the energy equation Use the Boussinesq state equation Set conjugate heat transfer problems Computer particles in single phase flows Visualize heat flux and results on a line Export cutting plane data to raw format It is assumed that the reader has completed Tutorial 01 and 02. leading to strong convection. Step 1: Problem setup 1.(θ-θ0)].82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .5) and upper corner 74 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. The Rayleigh number of the flow is Ra~106.Heat transfer This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of a conjugate heat transfer problem. Some steps in the setup and post-process will not be described in detail. which are modeled using the Boussinesq approximation: = 0[1. Fluid convection is driven by buoyancy forces. Create the geometry (a) create the cavity as a box (toolbar icon ) with lower corner (-1.-1. For radiative heat transfer. The cavity is filled with air and solid box is placed in its center. where both solid conduction and fluid convection are solved simultaneously.5.Heat transfer Tutorial 08 .5.0.

82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 75 .5) and upper corner (0. To reverse the orientation: Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Reverse orientation 2. 3.81 m/s 2 has to be introduced.1.0. This is done in the following way: XFlow 2011 (Build 1. the dynamic viscosity to 1e-5.Tutorial 08 . You may test both cases. The normals always have to point to the fluid region. Viscous heat dissipation will not be relevant in this example. Remember that the culling helps to distinguish the orientation of the normals of a surface (see Tutorial 02. where the gravity acceleration 9.5.0.Heat transfer (1.5.5.5. Check that the box normals are orientated to the exterior.5).5.1. and this occurs when either the buoyancy force is large or when the convection region is extensive. Check with the help of the culling that the box normals are orientated towards the interior and rename this shape as Cavity. step 1). The effect of viscous dissipation in natural convection is appreciable only when the induced kinetic energy becomes comparable to the amount of heat transferred. with density 1 and thermal expansion coefficient 0.5). (b) create the inner solid as a box with lower corner (-0.5. Material settings (a) set the gas state equation to Boussinesq. Engine settings (a) select the 2d kernel (b) select the flow model Single phase internal (c) select the thermal model Segregated energy (d) leave the default advanced options. the thermal conductivity to 10 and the specific heat capacity to 200 5.1 (b) set the initial temperature to 350 K.-0. Geometry settings We need to apply different conditions to each face of the cavity.0.-0. with the viscous term enabled and disabled. Environment settings Keep the default settings except the external acceleration in Y direction. Note that viscous dissipation is enabled in the energy equation by default. 4.

with a conductivity of 100. initial temperature 400.Heat transfer (a) choose the Select surface mode in the toolbar.05 meters. Analyze the temperature field 76 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. two surfaces appear in the Cavity shape: "surface 1" is the one you have selected and "surface 0" contains the rest of the cavity surfaces (c) select the opposite face. with automatic wall function and zero roughness (h) set the thermal boundary condition to Conjugate Heat Transfer. specific heat capacity 20 and density 1000 6. with refinement near walls of 0. 1. Simulation settings (a) set the simulation time to 5 seconds and keep Courant to 1 (b) set the resolved scale to 0. (c) set the store data frequency to 50 (d) enable the computation of markers (passive particles that advect with the flow) It will just be used for post processing purposes. Launch the calculation (a) save the project (b) set the number of CPUs in Main menu > Options > Preferences > Engine (c) press Run button Step 2: Post-process Load the results data by Right click on WorkSpace > Load data Remember that the project has to be saved before being able to load the data. choose "Apply boundary conditions to faces" from the contextual menu (b) check that in the Geometry section of the Project Tree.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . Remember that in free surface simulations markers are always computed. and choose "Apply boundary conditions to faces" (d) check that a new surface called "surface 2" appears in the Project Tree (e) return to the Select shape mode by choosing in the toolbar (f) set all surfaces to wall boundary condition. right click in the Graphic View. the cold wall (surface 2) to a prescribed temperature of 300 K and the rest (surface 0) to adiabatic conditions About the boundary conditions of the solid box: (h) set to wall boundary condition.Tutorial 08 . Select a vertical face (it highlights) and by right clicking on the Graphic View. 7.0.025 m. with automatic wall function and zero roughness (g) set the thermal boundary condition of the cavity's hot wall (surface 1) to a prescribed temperature of 400 K.

3] in the x coordinate and [300. In the Function Viewer.46. 400] in the y coordinate: To zoom: Alt + left mouse button + drag To pan: Alt + middle (wheel) mouse button + drag To zoom in only one direction: Alt + right mouse button + drag rightward Horizontal zoom in Alt + right mouse button + drag leftward Alt + right mouse button + drag upward Horizontal zoom out Vertical zoom in XFlow 2011 (Build 1. Observe that the maximum fluid temperature at the cold wall is 305 and the minimum 300. while at the hot wall the maximum fluid temperature is 399. (e) go to frame 125 and create a line graph by right clicking "Data plot line" > Add plot line with vertex1 (0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 77 .4 and the minimum is 395.Heat transfer (a) enable the cutting plane Z. Click Auto fit and adjust the scale of the graph to [0.0). The figure shows the temperature field and distribution along the surfaces at frame 86 (t=1. right click Data plot line > Plot line 0.72 s).0) and vertex2 (0.-1.5. (c) show the isocontours WorkSpace > Post Processing > Show > Isocontours: On (d) display the temperature distribution along the cavity walls by Main menu > Data > Create cutting plane field distribution This is the temperature of the fluid touching the wall.Tutorial 08 . It displays the temperature along the line (x coordinate is length from vertex1 to vertex2.29.0.5. y coordinate is temperature).1. with visualization field temperature WorkSpace > Post Processing (b) select the solid box and display it in wireframe mode to be able to visualize the results at its interior Right click in Graphic View > Visualization mode: Wireframe Play forward the results and observe the influence of the solid's temperature in the overall solution. Select Line 0 to display its location. not the wall temperature.

Let us check that it is zero.e. (c) hide the distribution field Main menu > Data > Clean cutting line field distribution and rotate the camera to visualize the colored stripe of heat flux at the walls (included the box walls). Therefore you have to export the cutting plane distribution: Main menu > Data > Export data of cutting plane distribution This saves four files. Compare the data plot line values with those of the current cutting plane at X=0 (see file Tutorial08_exportresults_frame125.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies . cdDist0_B. i. Observe in the A and D files that the heat flux is zero. 2. position Z and temperature value.txt for the right hand side. Analyze the velocity field (a) enable again the cutting plane Z. the chosen visualization field. (d) adjust the legend range to distinguish the heat flux variation along the box walls Main menu > Data > Analysis settings: Surface info for example. (e) in the Function Viewer. (b) now show the velocity as a vector field WorkSpace > Post Processing > Visualization mode: Plane vectors with arrow length 0. Analyze the heat flux (a) disable the cutting plane Z and show the heat flux at the walls WorkSpace > Post Processing > Show > Surface info: Heat flux The distribution is refreshed to the chosen field. If you create a data plot line close and parallel to a horizontal wall.Tutorial 08 . Observe the eddies at the corners.6. because lines can not read surface information. as corresponds to an adiabatic wall.txt for the top.0. min -2000 and max 0. It contains four columns: position X. cdDist0_C. it will display temperature.Heat transfer Alt + right mouse button + drag downward Vertical zoom out Export the data plot line values to a file: Right click in Function Viewer > Export current data (f) export the temperature results at the cutting plane by Main menu > Data > Export cutting plane to raw format.txt in the project directory with the (noninterpolated) temperature value at the center of every cell. 78 XFlow 2011 (Build 1. The same happens with a cutting line field distribution (Main menu > Data > Create cutting line field distribution). This creates the file currentCuttingPlaneZ. choose the velocity visualization field and show it as particles WorkSpace > Post Processing > Visualization mode: Markers Play the results forward to see the movement of the particles. display the evolution of the overall heat flux at the box Right click in Function Viewer > Data Box > Heat flux 3.txt for the left hand side and cdDist0_D. and can be processed with spreadsheet software.txt for the bottom. (b) notice that the flux is constant at the horizontal walls.xls). position Y. one corresponding to each face: cdDist0_A.

Tutorial 08 .82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 79 .0.Heat transfer XFlow 2011 (Build 1.

-1) and upper corner (1. The temperature of the wall behind the obstacles will be lower than the other part of the wall since the obstacles block the heat radiation energy.0.15 and height 0.-0.2. choose Select line and Create surface . This tutorial shows you how to: Create simple geometry such as a closed cylinder Merge shapes Use the Montecarlo radiation model Analyze the heat flux at the surfaces It is assumed that the reader has completed Tutorial 01.1).6. XFlow simulates the reflection and absorption of heat radiation energy at the surfaces. Create the geometry (a) create the outer walls as a box (toolbar icon ) with lower corner (-1. (c) create the heat source as a cylinder (toolbar icon ) with center (0. radius 0.6.25) for Obstacle1 and lower corner (0.0.0). select a cylinder perimeter.0.25). (e) check that the orientation of the cylinder and lids is to the exterior and merge all these three object into a single one by clicking Main menu > Geometry > Merge shapes.25.25) and upper corner (0.75. it has no lids. in the toolbar. Step 1: Problem setup 1.5.0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .Tutorial 09 .5.75.-0.0. Check that the box is orientated to the interior and rename this shape as OuterWall.0.0). 02 and 08.25) for Obstacle2. Some steps in the setup and postprocess will not be described in detail.Radiation This tutorial illustrates the setup and solution of a radiation problem. Do the same with the other perimeter. 80 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.1.Radiation Tutorial 09 . Delete the original objects and rename the merged shape as HeatSource. Check their orientation and rename the shapes. upper corner (0.1. (b) create the obstacles again as a box with lower corner (-0. It consists of a heat source at 400 K surrounded by two obstacles at 0 and 200 K and an outer wall at 0 K. (d) to create the lids of the cylinder.0.0.25.0. direction (0.4. Notice that the cylinder is open.

standard deviation field and markers disabled 7. Environment settings Keep the default settings.015 m. 6. To reverse the orientation: Select the geometry > Right click in Graphic View > Reverse orientation 2. Material settings (a) set the initial temperature to 250 K. (c) set the Obstacle2 to the same boundary conditions than the HeatSource but prescribed temperature to 200 K. emissivity 0.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies 81 . Engine settings (a) select the 3d kernel (b) select the flow model Single phase internal (c) select the thermal model Segregated energy (d) select the radiation model Montecarlo. 4. and thermal boundary conditions with prescribed temperature at 400 K. Launch the calculation (a) save the project (b) set the number of CPUs in Main menu > Options > Preferences > Engine (c) press Run button XFlow 2011 (Build 1.Radiation Remember that the culling helps to distinguish the orientation of the normals of a surface. (b) set the OuterWall and Obstacle1 to the same boundary conditions than the HeatSource but prescribed temperature to 0 K. (b) keep the other gas settings to their default value 5. Geometry settings (a) set the HeatSource to fixed behaviour. (c) set the store data frequency to 10000 (d) leave the computation of averaged data.5.0002 seconds (we will see that it is enough to calculate just a few time steps) and keep Courant to 1 (b) set the resolved scale to 0. with ray density 200 and number of iterations 1 (d) leave the default advanced options 3.0. with refinement near walls of 0.04 meters. Simulation settings (a) set the simulation time to 0.Tutorial 09 . The normals have to point always to the fluid region (see figure in the previous page). wall boundary conditions with automatic wall model.

=5. 1. In Main menu > Data > Analysis settings set the range of Surface info to [-726.00005) and generates the irradiance map to calculate the heat flux at each point. In this case qrad = -680 W/m2. while in frames 1 and 2 the heat flux has also contributions from the energy equation (diffusion+convection). The heat flux with Obstacle2 should be smaller because it is at a higher temperature (θmin= 200 K).6703x10-8 W/m2K4 the Stefan-Boltzmann constant. the noisier is the solution. the full domain has 384902 elements in two levels of refinement). (c) now set the Surface info range to [0. Notice that behind Obstacle1 the heat flux is smaller than behind Obstacle2. Analyze the heat flux at the surfaces (a) go to frame 0 and show the total heat flux at the surfaces: WorkSpace > Post processing > Show surface info: Heat flux (b) observe that the flux at the HeatSource is -726 W/m2 (horizontal legend).Tutorial 09 . XFlow discretizes the domain (in this example. not the temperature of the solid objects. θmax = 400 and θmin= 0 K. This is due to the stochastic nature of the Montecarlo model. The farther from the source and with less visibility. remember to adjust the simulation time depending on the delta time per iteration. Refine the resolution to achieve better results. estimates the time step (delta time per iteration 0. 2.137] and observe the solution at the walls.82) Tutorial Guide © Copyright 2010 Next Limit Technologies .5.0. 82 XFlow 2011 (Build 1.-680] and observe the heat flux at the HeatSource. Heat flux at frame 0 is pure radiative. Therefore. Remember that this is the temperature of the fluid touching the walls. in frame 0 the temperature is constant to 250 K on all surfaces. it is enough to calculate just one time step. Increase the ray density and/or number of iterations and observe the improvement of the solution.Radiation Step 2: Post-process In this problem the fluid is static (no forced flow nor natural convection) because the goal is to analyze the capabilities of the radiation solver in XFlow. the irradiance map is calculated only once and the radiative heat flux remains constant. If you analyze the temperature at the surfaces (choose the Visualization field temperature and Show surface info 3d field). Due to the facts that heat source has constant temperature along time and the gas is non-absorbing. Solids must have conjugate heat transfer thermal boundary conditions (see Tutorial 08) to be able to display their temperature. which corresponds to the analytic value qrad = (θ4max -θ4min) with =0. Read the Message View output When you launch the simulation.

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