Table of Contents

Introduction ...............................................................................

iii

Module 1: The Crime Scenario ...............................................

1

Module 2: Always Leave a Note
Handwriting and Ink Analysis ..............................

17

Module 3: Without a Trace
Examining Hair and Fiber Evidence ....................

33

Module 4: First Impressions
Fingerprints and Shoeprints ..................................

47

Module 5: One of a Kind
Blood Typing and DNA .........................................

61

Module 6: Law and Order
Conclusion and Mock Trial ...................................

79

Appendix: The Cookie Jar Mystery Standards Matrix ........

97

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Instructor’s Guide

i

The Cookie Jar Mystery

Introduction

Welcome to The Cookie Jar Mystery
An exciting adventure in the world of forensic science!
The Cookie Jar Mystery is a fun, forensic science mini-course consisting of six
separate modules designed to engage middle school students.
In Mrs. Johnson’s classroom, a curious crime has taken place: her favorite
cookie jar has been broken and not surprisingly, some of her delicious,
homemade cookies have been eaten! As a scientist and teacher, Mrs. Johnson
realizes that this unfortunate incident provides a “teachable moment”—an opportunity to teach students how
to use the tools of forensic science, understand the crime, and find the guilty party!
In The Cookie Jar Mystery, instructors and students participate in the investigation, aided by the clues
and developments in the case revealed in the ongoing story of Mrs. Johnson’s classroom. Although every
module moves students closer to a final conclusion and the guilty suspect, each module is fully selfcontained, providing a complete science module/lab, all of the activities and assessments to support student
understanding, and an engaging chapter in the story of the crime.
Included in Every Module Kit
Each module kit in The Cookie Jar Mystery contains a comprehensive Instructor’s Guide, copy masters,
resource CD and supplies. The Instructor’s Guide provides an easy, five-step process for delivering each
module, including sections on:
1. Overview
2. Engaging Students
3. Hands-On Activities
4. Data Collection and Analysis
5. Assessment, Standards, and Extensions
Each kit contains “hard copy” copy masters, as well as digital masters on the resource CD. Other resources
include read-aloud story chapters, word and vocabulary activities, data collection sheets for each activity, and
discussion questions. Additional resources may also be included.

Module Structure in Five Easy Steps: Teaching Forensic Science
Overview
Easy classroom set-up, list of materials to acquire, background information for the teacher, and
learning objectives.
More to the Story: Engaging Students
A stand-alone, read-aloud “chapter” in the ongoing story of the middle-school crime: the breaking of
Mrs. Johnson’s cookie jar, the theft of cookies, and the pursuit of justice.

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Instructor’s Guide

iii

Introduction

The Cookie Jar Mystery

Hands-On Activities
Experiments that range from developing observation skills to fingerprint detection, understanding
DNA and much, much more!
Data Collection and Analysis
Students develop a working theory of the crime by recording their experimental data on handy,
activity-related “case notes”, then discussing their findings with their fellow classroom “detectives.”
Assessment, Standards, and Extensions
Strategies on how to assess student understanding, procedures and content of each learning activity
are included. A standards correlation sheet clearly demonstrates how The Cookie Jar Mystery’s activities
meet national standards in Science and ELA. Module extensions, resources, and additional reading are
recommended in each module. Each module contains a glossary of terms introduced.
Unique Supplies Bring Every Experiment to Life
Each customized kit contains the unique supplies instructors need to lead their students through
investigations. From the crime scene tape to the fingerprint ten-cards, fiber samples and evidence envelopes,
our well-supplied kits make each experiment more realistic and engaging for classes of up to 30 students.
Additionally, each instructor will need to acquire a few basic items, such as common school supplies.

The Cookie Jar Mystery Consists of Six Essential Modules—
Do one, or do them all!
Module 1: The Crime Scenario
To kick off the series, students are introduced to the classroom caper through discovery of clues at
the re-created crime scene. Students learn about the steps of the investigation, observation, and the
identities of the four suspects in question.
Module 2: Always Leave a Note—Handwriting and Ink Analysis
Students examine the most obvious clue: the note left behind at the crime scene. They explore
handwriting analysis by comparing the note to suspects’ writing samples and then conduct
chromatography tests on the ink in the pens found on each suspect.
Module 3: Without A Trace—Examining Hair and Fiber Evidence
Students learn about the famous French scientist, Edmond Locard, often referred to as the
grandfather of forensic science who believed “every contact leaves a trace.” Students will examine
and compare both hair and fiber samples found at the crime scene to those of the suspects.
Module 4: First Impressions—Fingerprints and Shoeprints
Upon further examination of the evidence, it’s discovered that there were fingerprints and a
shoeprint found at the crime scene. Students will study fingerprint patterns, make matches and
analyze samples taken from the suspects.
iv

Instructor’s Guide

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The Cookie Jar Mystery

Introduction

Module 5: One of a Kind—Blood Typing and DNA
This activity furthers the students’ case by looking at unique evidence pieces covering blood types
and DNA from blood samples. Students will conduct blood typing and DNA experiments to look for
possible matches to the suspect samples.
Module 6: Law and Order—Conclusion and Mock Trial
In the final module, your students will create cases to prosecute or defend their leading suspect in
a role-play mock trial. The roles will be developed by students with a close association to an actual
courtroom, with a strong emphasis on evidence and expert testimony by student forensic scientists.
Students will consult all the data and present who they believe to be guilty based on their new
knowledge of forensic science and the evidence discovered. Students will prepare a case for either the
prosecution or the defense in a mock courtroom complete with judge and jury!

The Cookie Jar Mystery is designed to meet standards
The Cookie Jar Mystery is designed to fortify children’s science learning. National, state and local standards all
highlight the need for children’s enrichment activities to build science literacy.
Preparing students for future scientific careers and research is at the heart of the effort to promote a
standardized way of evaluating science learning, teaching and programs in the United States today. To
support that preparation, many schools are turning to activities outside of the traditional classroom.
The Cookie Jar Mystery series is a program that excites learners about the challenges and processes in forensic
science, and is adaptable for both in school and out-of-school programs.
The Cookie Jar Mystery series helps learners meet the National Science Education Standards (NSES) in a
number of ways.
The NSES encourage the development of activities throughout our communities to support high
achievement. Among the strong recommendations of the NSES are the following areas of emphasis:
t Engaging in activities that investigate scientific questions and extend over a period of time
t Using many skills: procedures, thinking skills, managing data, using technology and lab tools
t Gathering students in groups to engage in problem solving and to use evidence to defend their conclusions
t Publicly sharing results with classmates and teachers
The Cookie Jar Mystery is also aligned to the underlying principles that comprise the Next Generation Science
Standards (NGSS) including the disciplinary core ideas, practices and cross-cutting concepts that make up
the grades 5-8 standards. For example, the lessons in these modules address:
t Asking questions and defining problems
t Planning and carrying out investigations
t Analyzing and interpreting data
t Engaging in argument from evidence

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Instructor’s Guide

v

Introduction

The Cookie Jar Mystery

In addition, the activities included in this unit align to the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics
and English Language Arts, including the Grades 6-12 Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, &
Technical Subjects.
In The Cookie Jar Mystery, students are exposed to all of these new instructional emphases, and experience
science learning in an atmosphere characterized by high interest and developmentally appropriate ideas.
As students engage in the investigative activities of The Cookie Jar Mystery, they experience science in a
hands-on, authentic environment that elucidates the use of evidence, models, tools and techniques in science
inquiry. More detail is provided on direct standards correlation in each activity.

We need your input!
We look forward to working with you and your colleagues to create a memorable program for children. We
consider you our treasured partners in making these classroom-tested activities even better. To this end, we
invite you to complete a short evaluation about your experiences with The Cookie Jar Mystery. Here are three
easy ways to participate:
1. Online: Go to http://www.commlearning.com/instructor-evaluation/ and fill out the evaluation.
2. Email: The evaluation form is located on your Teacher Resource CD. Fill out the pdf form, save and email
it to us at Info@CommLearning.com.
3. Fax: Tear out or copy the form on the following pages and fax the completed form to our toll-free fax at:
1-888-675-0238.
Your feedback will be used to take The Cookie Jar Mystery to the next level in interest and relevance for our
young learners.
As a thank you for completing the evaluation, we’ll send you a $75.00 coupon good for any Cookie Jar Mystery
resupply items or any other Community Learning course kits. Valid for one year.

The Cookie Jar Mystery Classroom ReSupply Kit
vi

Instructor’s Guide

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Module 1

The Crime Scenario
Overview
One of the most important parts of teaching this
mini-course is to set the stage so that the mystery
intrigues your students and makes the learning
fun.
In The Cookie Jar Mystery, you will be acting as
the Chief Crime Scene Investigator and your
students will be your forensics team. Before you
explain the crime scenario, you must come up
with names for the four suspects. Mrs. Johnson
was not present when the crime occurred, but
based on students’ proximity to her classroom
and discussions with other teachers who have
classrooms on her wing, these four students were
identified as suspects.
She alerted her principal, who talked to the other
teachers, gathered names, checked schedules
and brought in each of the four suspects to his
office for a chat. He questioned each one about
their whereabouts the previous afternoon and
checked their backpacks for evidence. He
recorded their statements and had them typed up
for the record.
The suspect pool is comprised of four students,
two boys and two girls. The two girls are sisters.
You will need to choose four names for the
suspects (and fill them in below). Select names
that reflect your student population. As you
continue through each module you can substitute
the suspect numbers with the names.
Suspect #1 (male)
Name: ____________________________
Suspect #2 (male)
Name: ____________________________

In order to build a consistent understanding,
suspect number and names must be maintained
throughout this module and all others you choose
to do.
If your colleagues choose to teach the course
again, it’s best to change the names. This
approach prevents incoming students from
knowing who committed the crime even if the
outgoing students reveal their results. It also
makes the case more mysterious and entertaining
for future teams.
As an introduction to The Cookie Jar Mystery,
Module 1: The Crime Scenario introduces
students to the classroom crime scene. Students
learn how to evaluate the scene and hone
their observation skills. This module lays the
groundwork for understanding the reliability
or unreliability of eyewitness testimony and
suspect statements in solving a mystery.
As consumers of such popular television
programs as Law and Order and the old Perry
Mason mysteries, adults are well acquainted with
the notion that eyewitness accounts frequently
differ from person to person. How is this
possible?
Eyewitness testimony is often unreliable because
people have their attention focused elsewhere
and miss events. Further, people’s fear or anger
can often interfere with their ability to make
shrewd observations.
Suspect statements can often provide vital
information when determining who committed a
crime. Interviews can also help reveal a sense of
innocence or guilt. We have gathered statements
from our four suspects in The Cookie Jar Mystery.

Suspect #4 (female)

You will need to help your students find areas in
which the suspects deviate from the “norm” in
their use of language. They might be detracting
attention from their own actions by changing
pronouns or simply being evasive with their
choice of words.

Name: ____________________________

In Activity 1, students will have the opportunity

Suspect #3 (female)
Name: ____________________________

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Instructor’s Guide

1

Module 1

The Crime Scenario

to observe the crime scene re-created in your
classroom. This will include a broken cookie jar,
cookie fragments, hair and fibers, a note and a
shoeprint. Most of these items are in your supply
kit. You may need to acquire a few of your own
materials, as well as safely break the cookie jar
and arrange the items to emulate the broken
cookie jar shown in the supplied crime scene
photos.
In Activity 2, students will have the opportunity
to witness a crime you stage in the classroom.
Because the appearance of the “criminal” will
be unanticipated, students may not realize that
they are expected to notice details about the
visitor in the classroom. This is the same position
witnesses may find themselves in when a crime
takes place in front of them.
In Activity 3, students will be introduced to the
suspects who were in the vicinity of Mrs. Johnson’s
classroom the previous afternoon. They will
review the suspect statements for inconsistencies
to help further develop their theory of the case.
After you’ve completed all the activities you will
sum up the module by asking students to record
their findings in Case Notes. These worksheets
are designed to get kids thinking about the
entire case, not simply what was learned from the
activities or evidence.
The standards covered in this module are the
National Science Education Standard (NSES)
Program Standard A, B, & D, and Content
Standard A & B. The English Language Arts
standards are (ELA): Standard 5, 6, 7 and 12.
Also covered are the Next Generation Science
Standards (NGSS) practices of Asking Questions
and Defining Problems and Planning and
Carrying Out Investigations, Common Core
State Standards (CCSS) in Mathematics CCSS.
Math.Content.7.G.A.1 and Common Core State
Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy
CCRA.SL.1, CCRA.SL.2, CCRA.SL.4, CCRA.R.1,
and CCRA.R.4. See the charts at the end of the
module and on page 99 for correlation to each
learning activity.

2

Instructor’s Guide

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The Crime Scenario

Module 1

Preparation
Overview

Print/Copy 1 per student:
Datasheets

Prepare

That’s the Way the
Cookie Crumbles
Notes for the
Students
Case Notes
Read overview notes

Activity 1: Observing Activity 2: Eyewitness Activity 3: Suspects at
the Crime Scene
Reporting
Large
(20 minutes)
(20 minutes)
(20 minutes)
1 per team of 2:

Observing the
Crime Scene

Set-up crime scene

Familiarize yourself
with each activity
Acquire needed supplies

Organize
Kit Supplies

Glass cookie jar
Cookies
Hair
Blood
Fibers
Note
Quiz with shoeprint
Crime scene tape
Crime scene photo
Evidence envelopes

Acquire
Supplies

Hammer to break
cookie jar
Towel or rag to
cover cookie jar for
breaking
Tape measures
Rulers
Pencils

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1 per student:

Eyewitness
Reporting

1 per team of 3:

Suspect Statements
Summary of Suspect
Interviews
Floor Plan of School

Arrange for a surprise
Display photo of crime
classroom visitor (ask
scene
him or her to wear
something distinctive: Write notes on the board
hat, pin, mismatched
socks, pocket protector,
etc.)

Crime scene photo
Evidence envelopes

Pencils

Pencils

Instructor’s Guide

3

Module 1

The Crime Scenario

Engaging Students
Hand out copies of story to each student.
Read aloud or choose a student to narrate.

That’s the Way the Cookie Crumbles
It was just after 9 a.m. when Mrs. Johnson, a popular science teacher at Crooked Creek
day in the Teachers’ Lounge, correcting papers and drinking coffee.
of student folders and papers. “The students will be here in ten minutes,” she muttered as
she nudged at the partially open door. Strange, she thought to herself, the classroom door is
“Oh-oh!” began the teacher. “This does not look good!”
The broken glass scattered in front of her desk surprised Mrs. Johnson. Not only was the
glass dangerous, she wondered immediately if anyone had been hurt. She set her pile of
touch anything.
Sadly, Mrs. Johnson recognized the broken glass as fragments from the cookie jar that
normally was stored in a locked cabinet. Scattered among the broken glass, Mrs. Johnson
could see remnants of the two dozen chocolate chip cookies she’d brought in the day
before. There were only a few cookies left; clearly someone (or something!) had been
interrupted in the act of stealing the cookies, and had broken the cookie jar in the process.

Who could have done such a thing?
The school bell signaled that her next class was about to start. Within a minute, several
students entered the science classroom. Immediately, they began to talk about the
disarray. As they moved towards Mrs. Johnson’s desk, she cautioned them sternly: “Let’s
not disturb anything here. Please, be careful!”
“Mrs. Johnson, what happened? Did you knock your cookie jar off the desk?” asked Jack,
one her brightest students.
“No, I didn’t. But I can see why you might think so!” answered the teacher.
police?”
“She doesn’t just need the police,” interrupted Mark, a tall 8th-grader with a keen sense of
humor. “Mrs. Johnson needs a detective!”
An idea suddenly popped into Mrs. Johnson’s head. “You’re right, Mark! I do need a
detective! Luckily, I’ve got a whole classroom full! I don’t know what happened here, but

“What are we going to do, Mrs. Johnson?” asked Ashley.
Mrs. Johnson smiled. “We…” she began slowly, with a twinkle in her eye, “are going to
solve The Cookie Jar Mystery.”

4

Instructor’s Guide

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The Crime Scenario

20 minutes

Students will observe and record a narrative of
the re-created crime scene and walk through the
steps of the investigation.
Preparation
Prepare to have students work in teams of two.
Mock up the crime scene as seen in the “Crime
Scene” photo. Follow these steps:
1. Select a prominent location for the crime
scene setup near a desk or table
2. Place the cookie jar on the floor and cover
with a towel
3. Break the jar by hitting with a hammer
4. Remove towel and arrange pieces of broken
jar to resemble photo — be careful not to cut
yourself!
5. Break up cookies and spread around the
broken glass to look like the cookie jar fell
6. Place individual hair in view near broken
glass
7. Take crime scene blood and add a few drops
to broken shard of glass
8. Place one fiber strand in and among the glass
and cookie fragments
9. Put handwritten note near broken cookie jar,
preferably on desk or lab table
10. Place quiz near cookie jar, with shoeprint
visible
11. Surround the entire area with yellow crime
scene tape

What to Do
Pass out copies of Notes for the Students and
Case Notes, and the evidence envelopes to the
class. They will be needed for each activity. Have
the students write their names and the module
number on the envelopes. They will save all their
datasheets and case notes in these envelopes.

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Read aloud:

NOTES FOR THE STUDENTS

Activity 1: Observing the
Crime Scene

Module 1

One of the most important skills of a crime
scene investigator is observation. As you saw
when you came in, I have simulated the crime
scene that Mrs. Johnson encountered in her
classroom. When you first spotted the yellow
tape, you began your observation process.
Careful observation and adherence to
procedures allows crime scene technicians
to properly process a crime scene. This
process is commonly referred to as “Steps in
the Investigation.” If these steps are followed
closely and correctly, mistakes are avoided
and critical evidence will not be overlooked,
contaminated or disqualified.
The steps of a crime scene investigation,
according to the FBI’s Handbook of Forensic
Services, are summarized as:
Secure the crime scene
Be alert to the presence of any suspects
Conduct preliminary survey – observe all
the physical evidence
Photograph the crime scene
Develop a general theory or narrative of the
crime
Sketch the crime scene
Record and collect all physical evidence
In our case, Mrs. Johnson and her principal
have identified a number of suspects and
instead of photographing the crime scene, we
will be sketching it. We’ll be working on what
we think happened here and later formulate
our “theory of the case” in our Case Notes as
we summarize the entire module.

Follow these steps:
1. Hand out copies of Observing the Crime
Scene to each team.
2. Allow students time to closely examine the
crime scene.
3. Direct students to sketch the entire crime
scene in relation to any stationary objects in
the classroom. Include measurements from
the crime scene to stationary objects.

Instructor’s Guide

5

Module 1

The Crime Scenario

4. Have students list and describe each piece of
evidence observed.
5. Remind students as they work on their
sketches to be ready with a narrative of what
they believed happened at this crime scene.

Q&A
Q: How many different pieces of evidence were
observed at the crime scene?

Activity 2 – Eyewitness
Reporting 20 Minutes
Students will test their observational skills and
abilities to accurately describe an event and
compare eyewitness accounts of an event. They
will then demonstrate the importance and validity
of eyewitness reporting.

Preparation

A:

1. Prearrange for a non-class member,
preferably an adult that the class does not
know, to knock on the classroom door at an
agreed upon time. Also prearrange for them
to steal something small and in plain view like
a stapler or pen; something they can easily
conceal.

Q: Have students volunteer to read their narrative
or theory of the case. Do others agree? How
many variations has the class come up with? Do
they fit into groups?

2. Ask your visitor to alter his or her appearance
slightly, perhaps by rolling up a pant leg,
putting a pen behind his/her ear, or wearing
an unusual hat. The visitor could also display
a distinguishing characteristic, such as a tattoo
or a limp.

Q: Which piece of evidence is considered the
most important?
A:

Answer Key for Observing the Crime Scene is
included at the end of this Module.

Wrap-Up

1. You are now going to start reading the Notes
for the Students section below; have your
unplanned visitor waiting nearby. Have them
politely knock on the door. After you answer,
your visitor should engage you (the teacher)
in conversation briefly and follow you to the
desk or lab bench. When you are distracted
by retrieving something such as a piece
of chalk, the visitor should surreptitiously
“steal” something from your desk (perhaps a
pen, book or a cookie!) The entire encounter
should last only about 30 seconds.
2. Read aloud:

NOTES

FOR

Students will now have completed a scale
drawing of the crime scene. They will have
recorded how many different types of evidence
they observed. Make sure students save their
drawings in their evidence envelopes, as they will
be referring to them in Activity 3.

What to Do

STUDENTS

A:

6

Instructor’s Guide

We are often in a hurry. Many situations occur
around us daily that we do not notice. Much
of what we think about a person is based on
appearance and gestures— how a person
looks, walks, stands, positions his or her head
and moves his or her hands. With just a quick
glance at a stranger, how much do we notice?
How well do we really observe events?

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NOTES

FOR

STUDENTS

The Crime Scenario

One tool in crime investigation is the
statement of an eyewitness. An eyewitness is
someone who was at or near a crime and saw
something happen that may have to do with
the crime. Perhaps the witness saw someone
running from a crime scene. Perhaps a
witness who got a license plate number is the
actual crime victim. Normally, investigators
try to talk to all kinds of witnesses to begin to
understand what happened.

3. Be sure to finish reading Notes for the Students.
4. Wait a few moments after the visitor leaves
and then ask the students to recall any details
they noticed about the individual: size, hair
color, clothing, mannerisms, actions or any
other distinguishing characteristics.

Module 1
Q: What were you thinking about when
the”visitor” entered the room?
A:

Wrap-Up
Have students tally how many people in the class
witnessed the event accurately. Some students
may want to record additional details that
they personally missed but learned from their
classmates.

5. Hand out Eyewitness Reporting datasheet,
and ask the students to individually record
their view of the visitor’s interruption.
6. Students who were paying attention should be
able to identify and record stolen item under
suspicious activity.

Q&A
Q: How closely did you pay attention? Did you
observe the visitor’s distinctive characteristics?
Did you notice what happened while the visitor
was in the room?
A:

Q: Ask one student in each group to share
something that was observed. How many people
caught this? Did the students notice that the
visitor took something? What was it?
A:

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Instructor’s Guide

7

Module 1

Activity 3 – Suspects at
Large 20 Minutes
Students will analyze suspect statements for
inconsistencies and write their theory of the case
which expresses their opinion of what happened
at the crime scene.

Preparation
1. Plan to have students work in groups of three.
2. Have photo of The Cookie Jar Mystery crime
scene ready to display where the group can
see it.
3. On your classroom whiteboard or chalkboard
write:

People that tell the truth usually:
Describe events in order
Use the correct pronouns
Stick to the facts without a lot of
irrelevant info
Rarely omit important details
What to Do

NOTES FOR THE STUDENTS

Read aloud:
Next you will study your layout of the crime
scene, review the suspect statements, and
analyze the data you can extract from each
interview.
Suspect statements can often provide vital
information when determining who committed
a crime. Interviews can also help reveal a
sense of innocence or guilt. We have gathered
statements from our four suspects in The
Cookie Jar Mystery. After reviewing the full
statements of each suspect, what conclusions
can you draw about the guilt or innocence of
each suspect?
Find areas in which the suspects deviate from
the “norm” and areas in which they might be
detracting attention from their own actions
by changing their pronouns or simply being
evasive. Do any of the suspects appear to

8

Instructor’s Guide

The Crime Scenario
have a motive?
Most investigators, detectives and police
officers believe that in order to arrest a person
for a crime, the investigation must prove that
the suspect had:
a way to commit the crime (means)
a reason to commit the crime (motive)
a chance to commit the crime
(opportunity)
A person’s statement at a crime scene is
usually enough to convince the police to
arrest someone for a crime, especially if a
person confesses in his or her statement.
Sometimes, however, a person confesses to
something when in fact the person never
committed the crime at all.
Now it is time to examine the full statements
from all of our cookie jar suspects. These
statements help to establish background
information and the relationships between
the suspects and the victim, Mrs. Johnson.
Investigators study suspects’ statements to
prepare for suspect interviews. They attempt
to look at the suspects’ words and behavior,
putting aside the forensic evidence.
There are certain ways that people write and
speak when they are being honest. Generally,
they:
Describe events in the order they
happened
Consistently use the correct pronouns
Don’t give a lot of extra information about
things that have nothing to do with the
case
Stick to the facts and don’t omit important
ones
This way of writing statements is called “the
norm.”
When investigators review suspect statements,
they are looking for ways of writing that are
“out of the norm.” These “out of the norm”
ways of writing might suggest that the writer
is NOT telling the truth.
Follow these steps:
1. Hand out copies of the Suspect Statements

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The Crime Scenario
and Summary of Suspect Interviews
datasheets to each group.
2. Select four students from different groups
to read aloud the statements made by the
suspects.
3. Prepare the other students to listen closely
for any statements that are “out of the norm.”
The rest of the students should follow along
on their datasheets. Students may need to
re-read statements a couple of times while
looking for patterns.
4. Suggest to students that as they are listening,
they may underline any suspicious parts of
the statements. Have students work together
in their groups to complete the Summary of
Suspect Interviews datasheet.
5. Next hand out Floor Plan of School and have
students work together to approximate where
students were located when the crime was
thought to have been committed. Write the
suspect’s name on the floor plan at his or her
location.

Q&A
Q: What deviations from the “norm” were
uncovered in the suspect statements? Did any
pronouns change? Are any of the suspects
evasive or over-informative?
A:

Module 1
Answer Keys for Summary of Suspect
Interviews and Floor Plan of School are
included at the end of this Module.

Wrap-Up
Check to ensure each student locates and records
where they thought each suspect was at the time
of the crime and have this recorded on their Floor
Plan of School datasheet.
Be sure students save completed datasheets in
their evidence envelopes.

Data Collection and
Analysis
Case Notes
1. Have students record their conclusions and
suspicions of the most likely suspect on
their Case Notes. This is not set in stone
but a “working theory” of the case. They
can consult their datasheets and analysis
conducted during each hands-on activity.
2. Ask students to make a prediction based on
the suspects’ statements. Who is their prime
suspect? Are there any compelling clues
available to make an arrest? Which parts of
the statements influenced this position?
3. Make sure they take into account:
Means: a way to commit the crime
Motive: a reason to commit the crime

Q: Based on the statements, does any one suspect
appear to have a motive?
A:
Q: Conduct a discussion centered on the question,
“How valid are eyewitness accounts of an event?”
A:

Opportunity: a chance to commit the crime
4. Have them back up suspicions with
observations from the crime scene and what
in the suspect statements did not sound
credible.
5. Ask for a couple of volunteers to read their
theory of the case to the class. Do most of the
students agree? Do the theories vary widely
or do they seem in sync with the evidence
discovered?
6. Save evidence for final conclusion and mock
trial.

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9

Module 1

The Crime Scenario

Assessment, Standards
and Extensions
Assessing Student Learning
Each of the modules in The Cookie Jar Mystery is
supported by a clear description of the kinds of
evidence we are looking for as we assess student
learning. Evidence-based assessment is often
seen as the cornerstone of good assessment, but

at the same time, we don’t want to discount the
teacher’s intuition, “gut feelings,” or the collective
opinions and observations of instructors working
with these course materials.
In short, we’re delighted with new insights about
student learning.
Below, we describe ways in which students
give evidence of their learning, and strategies
teachers can use to check for understanding.

Assessments
Teacher Strategy, Activity or Behavior

Student Behavior or Evidence

Teacher guides students through the “read aloud”

Students read with enthusiasm, appearing to
understand the mystery and challenges at hand

Teacher communicates the concept of the crime
scene and the importance of documentation

Students provide detailed sketches of the
crime scene, accurate and complete, including
measurements where appropriate

Teacher explains the meaning of evidence

Teacher asks students to evaluate evidence in terms
of importance

Students are able to distinguish evidence from
articles that are not evidence; define evidence;
identify at least 4-5 items of evidence at the crime
scene
Students participate in discussion evaluating the
importance of various items of evidence

Teacher engages the students in the “observation”
activity to demonstrate the importance and validity
of eyewitness reporting

Students complete the observation activity and
engage in discussion and comparison of their
results

Teacher introduces suspect statements and provides
description of “the norm” for suspect statements

Students analyze suspect statements and provide
a rationale for identifying the “most suspicious”
statement
Students provide a “working hypothesis” or “theory
of the crime” that incorporates their understanding
of the available evidence; students are able to
extract “means, motive, and opportunity” from the
suspect statements
Students complete module’s vocabulary puzzle
correctly

Teacher leads a discussion of the “case notes”

Teacher introduces new vocabulary

Add your own assessment:

10

Instructor’s Guide

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The Crime Scenario

Science Program Standard

Module 1

Standards

Activity

National Science Education Standards (NSES)

1

2

3

Standard A
In an effective science program, a set of clear goals and expectations for students must
be used to guide the design, implementation, and assessment of all elements of the
science program.

t

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Standard B
The program of study in science for all students should be developmentally
appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students’ lives; emphasize student
understanding through inquiry; and be connected with other school subjects.

t

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Standard D
The K-12 science program must give students access to appropriate and sufficient
resources, including quality teachers, time, materials and equipment, adequate and
safe space, and the community.

t

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Science as Inquiry – Standard A
As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop abilities necessary to
do scientific inquiry and gain an understanding about scientific inquiry.

t

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Science as Inquiry – Standard B
As a result of their activities in grades 5–8, all students should develop an
understanding of properties and changes of properties in matter, motions and
forces and transfer of energy.

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Science Content Standard

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The Standards for the English Language Arts
International Reading Association (IRA) and National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
Standard 5
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing
process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety
of purposes.

t

Standards 6
Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g. spelling
and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create, critique,
and discuss print and nonprint texts.

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Standard 7
Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions,
and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety
of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their
discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.

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Standard 12
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes
(e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

t

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Instructor’s Guide

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11

Module 1
Extensions
1. Developing our powers of observation often
starts with improving our memories. Here’s an
old parlor game that’s still played today:
Memory Story:
Gather together 15 or 20 items from
around the house or from around the
classroom: a pencil, a key, a comb,
photographs, a spoon or a cup could be
among these. The 15 items should be
random. Put these items together on a
tray and cover them. Then gather students
in small groups around the tray. Remove
the cover for 30 seconds and ask each
member in the group to try to commit to
memory all of the items. After 30 seconds,
cover the items, and ask each person to
write down as many items as they can
remember.
Ask the people with the best memories
how they remembered the items—often
you’ll discover that they’ve constructed a
“memory story” to help them remember
what they’ve seen.
For example, Karen told the following
story: “I just put it together like this when I
saw the items: I thought to myself, I need a
key (key) to open the door to the kitchen,
where I would go to the drawer and get a
spoon (spoon) to stir my coffee (cup); as
I drink my coffee I often make a list of the
things I need to do (pencil) which include
combing my hair (comb), etc.”

The Crime Scenario

Glossary
All glossary terms are bolded in the text.
Eyewitness: a person who was at or near a
crime scene when the crime took place and tells
investigators what he/she saw.
FBI: Federal Bureau of Investigation
Forensic evidence: any physical thing that may
be used in a criminal court to convict or clear a
person.
Means: a resource to do something. A suspect
has a gun therefore he has the means to kill
someone.
Motive: an inner drive or reason that causes a
suspect to commit a crime. For example, a man
felt his neighbor was always raking leaves on
to his property, therefore he cut down all his
neighbor’s trees in the middle of the night.
Observation: the act of perceiving the
environment through one or more of your senses.
Opportunity: a combination of circumstances
that are favorable for a purpose. For example,
freshly baked brownies were left on the counter
when the boy came home from school and no one
was around to tell him not to eat them, so he did.
Suspect: one who authorities think may have
committed a crime.

2. Have a group discussion of witness reporting
based upon students’ personal experiences.
For example, consider two students
describing to the principal their own account
of what transpired in a cafeteria incident.
3. Inquire if any students or parents ever
witnessed a car accident. Did they provide a
report for the police? What was the result?

12

Instructor’s Guide

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The Crime Scenario

Module 1

Module 1: The Crime Scenario
Activity 1 Datasheet

Name:

Observing the Crime Scene
Crime Scene Schematic
Use the grid below to sketch the crime scene as best you can. Be sure to label any fixtures such as lab tables,
sinks or desks. Include measurements between fixtures. 1 square = 1 foot

How many types of evidence did you observe at the crime scene? List them below:

Note, hair, fiber, shoe print, blood

Student Datasheet

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13

Module 1

The Crime Scenario

Module 1: The Crime Scenario
Activity 3 Datasheet

Name:

Summary of Suspect Interviews
1. Analyze suspect statements for deviations from the truth. Underline anything you find significant.
2. If the statements are true, can we plot the location of the students based on what they said?
3. Complete the following table to determine exactly what you know about each suspect.

Suspect 1

Suspect 2

Suspect 3

Suspect 4

Telling
the truth?
Yes/No/Maybe

Where after
school?

Is the suspect
hungry?

What else do
we know?

Yes

Gym

Yes, ate lunch
quickly

Cabinet left unlocked;
remorse

Yes

Library

Yes, not enough
lunch

Obsessed with cookies

No

Playground

Yes, skipped
breakfast

Defensive, evasive, omits
pronoun “I”

Maybe

Hall and
Classroom

Yes, no
breakfast

Pronoun changes; remorse;
protects sister

Student Datasheet

14

Instructor’s Guide

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The Crime Scenario

Module 1

Module 1: The Crime Scenario
Activity 3 Datasheet

Name:

Floor Plan of School

Gym

Staff Parking

1

Playground

2
Library

3

Art

Cafeteria

Computer Lab

Main Hall

4

Mrs. Johnson’s
Room

Main Office

1. Mark the location of each suspect, using the suspect’s number, at the time of the break-in.
2.Which suspect has the easiest access to the Cookie Jar?

#4

3. Formulate your own theory of how the crime happened and describe it below:

Student Datasheet

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15

Module 3

Without a Trace:
Examining Hair and Fiber Evidence
Overview
You will begin this module by reading the
story “Hanging by a Thread,” which will give
your students more background on the crime
committed and preview how they will proceed in
the investigation. If this is your first module, get
an overview of the mystery by reading “That’s
the Way the Cookie Crumbles,” included on your
resource CD.
Students will work in teams of two and need work
space to examine hair and fiber samples.
In this module, students look at examples of hair
and fibers to detect similarities and attempt to
narrow the field of suspects to help identify which
suspect can be placed at the crime scene. Hair
and fiber are examples of class evidence; it
does not absolutely identify a particular person
but rather identifies a group of individuals with a
specific trait. For example, many people may own
a sweater made of wool. The differences can be
noted in texture and color, which the students will
discover upon closer inspection. Class evidence
can not positively convict a suspect but will
provide additional information that is useful in
connecting a suspect to the crime scene.
Dr. Edmond Locard was the director of the world’s
first forensic laboratory in Lyon, France, during
the early 1900s. He established several important
ideas that are still a part of forensic studies today.
Dr. Locard was inspired by the writings of Sir
Arthur Conan Doyle, the author of the Sherlock
Holmes mysteries.
Locard’s Exchange Principle suggests that the
contact between two objects (such as a shoe and
a carpet) creates a medium for exchange. Using
an example of a shoe and a carpet, the shoe could
deposit grit, pollen, dirt, or other material from its
treads, while simultaneously taking up fibers from
the carpet.

importance as evidence. Specific comparisons
under a microscope help determine the origin of
a hair and whether a transfer may have occurred.
Fibers and hair are commonly found at crime
scenes. The investigation of fibers and hair is
a very large field within forensic science. The
study of fibers includes the study of the dyes
used to color the fibers. Certain chromatography
methods are used to do this.
In Activity 1, students will be studying human
head hair samples and making comparisons
between these hair samples and some found at
our crime scene. They will view the hair with the
naked eye and then learn proper microscope use
in order to view the hair more closely. Students
will attempt to match the crime scene hair to that
of a suspect.
Students will also learn to make their own slides
from a transparency. Young scientists can use this
skill at home with any lightweight plastic material,
a piece of paper and some tape.
In Activity 2, students will be examining and
comparing fibers obtained from the four suspects
and from the cookie jar crime scene.
The Standards covered in this module are the
National Science Education Standard (NSES)
Program Standard A, B, & D and Content Standard
A & B. The English Language Arts standards
are (ELA): Standard 5, 6, 7 and 12. Also covered
are the Next Generation Science Standards
(NGSS) practices of Asking Questions and
Defining Problems, Planning and Carrying Out
Investigations, Analyzing and Interpreting Data,
and Engaging in Argument from Evidence, as
well as the Common Core State Standards in
English Language Arts and Literacy CCRA.SL.1,
CCRA.SL.2, CCRA.SL.4, and CCSS.ELA-Literacy.
RST.6-8.3. See the charts at the end of the module
and on page 99 for correlation to each learning
activity.

Hair can be easily transferred or exchanged
during physical contact. The type and number
of hairs found at a crime scene all impact their

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33

Module 3

Without a Trace
Preparation
Overview

Print/Copy

1 per student:

Datasheets

Prepare

Hanging By a Thread
Notes for the Students
Case Notes

Read overview notes
Familiarize yourself with
each activity
Acquire needed supplies

Activity 1: Analyze Hair
Samples (25 minutes)
1 per team of 2:
Hair Samples (on cardstock if available)
Comparison of Human
Hair
Set up a demonstration
area, including one set of
datasheets Hair Samples
and Comparison of
Human Hair

Activity 2: Fiber Analysis
(25 minutes)
1 per team of 2:
Fiber View Finder (on
cardstock if available)
Fiber Analysis

Set up a demonstration
area, including one set
of datasheets Fiber View
Finder and Fiber Analysis

Organize
Kit
Supplies

Hair samples
Tweezers
“Hair Slide” transparency
sheets
Evidence envelopes

Fiber samples
Tweezers
Wide roll of tape
Evidence envelopes

Acquire
Supplies

Pencils
Handheld microscopes
Scissors
Clear tape

Pencils
Handheld microscopes

34

Instructor’s Guide

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Without a Trace

Module 3

Engaging Students
(Note: If this is your first module, give the students
an overview of the mystery by reading “That’s the

Way the Cookie Crumbles,” located on the resource
CD)
Hand out copies of story to each student. Read
aloud or choose a student to narrate story.

Hanging By a Thread
As usual, the fascinating Mrs. Johnson, a science teacher at Crooked Creek Middle School,
began her lesson with a story. Because the students had been trying to solve the mystery of
who had broken Mrs. Johnson’s cookie jar, they knew her story would be another step toward
understanding crime-solving techniques. All of the students leaned forward in their seats
and gave Mrs. Johnson their full attention.
“In 1888, all of Europe was gripped by the grisly murders committed by a mysterious man
named Jack the Ripper. Investigators from Scotland Yard (the headquarters of British
detectives) did their best to apprehend the criminal, but the terrible killer was never
identified.
At the turn of the century, the interest in solving crimes continued, and the flames of this
interest were fanned by the ever increasing popularity of a series of stories about Sherlock
Holmes, a fictional detective who used his keen powers of observation to solve mysteries.
But all investigative techniques were quite simple until about 1910, when a Frenchman
named Edmond Locard approached the Lyons, France, police department and set up one of
the world’s first forensic laboratories. Locard had an important theory.”
Mrs. Johnson stopped for a moment and called on George, who had raised his hand.
“We’re going to talk about Locard’s Principle, aren’t we, Mrs. Johnson.” It was more of a
statement than a question.
Mrs. Johnson was impressed. “You seem to have done your homework, George.”
George flushed with genuine embarrassment, but he continued, “I guess you could say I’ve
been investigating!”
“What can you tell us about Monsieur Locard, George?”
“Well, let me demonstrate.” George stood up, and as he did so, he nudged Jennifer, who
was seated in front of him, and indicated that Jennifer should stand up. She did. “Locard
shook hands with Jennifer quickly) “exchange something, some kind of evidence. It’s usually
something we don’t even see, like skin cells, fibers, hair, or even germs. If I just brush past
Jennifer, I might pick up some fibers from her sweater.”
“And I might exchange some hairs from you!” said Jennifer to George. She sat back down in
her seat, and so did George.
“Exactement! Exactly!” laughed Mrs. Johnson. “Excuse my French!”
“So that’s Locard’s Principle, Mrs. J.?” asked Mark. “What does that have to do with our
mystery? I don’t think two people were involved in breaking your cookie jar!”
“Maybe not, Mark. But Locard’s Principle isn’t only about people running into each other; it’s
also about the contact between people and things.”
“So, you mean, whoever broke the cookie jar must have left something behind?” asked
Jennifer.
“Some evidence was collected,” Mrs. Johnson continued. “I put it in an envelope marked
‘crime scene fiber.’ Let’s try an experiment and see what we can learn from applying
Locard’s Principle!”

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Module 3

Students will describe and sketch hair samples,
create a slide and use a microscope properly and
match samples to hair sample taken from a crime
scene.

Preparation
1. Plan to have students work in teams of two.
2. Organize your supplies:
For Teacher Demonstration:
Human hair samples, labeled #1- #4 and
Crime Scene
Tweezers
Hair Samples datasheet
Hair slide transparencies
Scissors
Tape
Microscope
Comparison of Human Hair datasheet
Per Student Team (of two):
Hair Samples datasheet
Comparison of Human Hair datasheet
2 Hair slide transparencies
Tweezers
Scissors
Tape
Microscope
3. Be sure microscopes have batteries and are
ready to use.
4. Set up your demonstration area.
5. If available, printing your datasheets on white
cardstock can be very useful for this activity.

What to Do
Pass out copies of Notes for the Students and
Case Notes, and the evidence envelopes to the
class. They will be needed for each activity. Have

36

Instructor’s Guide

the students write their names and the module
number on the envelopes. They will save all their
datasheets and case notes in these envelopes.
Read aloud:

NOTES FOR THE STUDENTS

Activity 1 – Analyze Hair
Samples 25 minutes

Without a Trace

Today we will discuss trace evidence
and how it originates. Trace evidence is
comprised of small amounts of hair, skin, fiber
or any other material which may link a suspect
to a crime scene.
The idea of capturing trace evidence to solve
a crime goes back to Dr. Edmond Locard. Dr.
Locard was the director of the world’s first
forensic laboratory in Lyon, France, during
the early 1900s. He established several
important ideas that are still a part of forensic
studies today. Dr. Locard was inspired by
the writings of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle. Does
anyone know who he was? Yes, the author of
the Sherlock Holmes mysteries.
Locard noticed that if someone is involved in a
crime, he or she may often leave small traces
of his or her presence, as well as possibly
take something away from the crime scene.
He proposed this when he began his forensic
laboratory in 1910. This concept became
known as Dr. Locard’s Principle of Contact,
often called Locard’s Exchange Principle.
He solved a case two years later by examining
evidence under the fingernails of a victim. He
proved how this small detail could make a big
difference.
Even though many criminals are aware of this
possibility and try to clean up crime scenes,
something is usually left behind.
If you walk through the mud and then into
your neighbor’s home, you will certainly
leave mud behind and you may also collect
your neighbor’s dog hair in the soft mud
that remains embedded in your shoes. The
exchanged materials mean that the two
objects (the mud and animal hair) were in
contact with each other. Because there is
cross-transfer, both persons and/or objects
will have trace evidence in common.
Trace evidence may not always make a case
on its own but it may point crime investigators

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Without a Trace
in the right direction, prompt a confession or,
combined with other evidence, solve a crime.
Trace evidence can be any number of things,
such as hair, pollen, a paint chip, or a piece of
glass. There are many different methods used
for analysis. For some trace evidence, there is
a large database available for comparison.
A small amount of hair found at a crime scene
is called trace evidence. As we’ve discussed,
trace evidence refers to all of the smaller
evidence left after criminal activity has taken
place. Hair is considered class evidence
rather than specialized or unique evidence
like fingerprints or DNA. Class evidence
cannot absolutely identify a particular person
but rather identifies a group of individuals
with a specific trait.
Examining hair involves many different steps.
The first is to decide if the hair is from an
animal or a human being. If the hair is from an
animal, the type of animal can be determined.
It is not possible to identify the specific
animal.
Animal hair can vary from one part of the
body to another. Human hair also varies from
one part of a person’s body to another. Hair
samples are often collected from different
regions of a suspect’s body for comparison.
Head hair is easily lost, so it often becomes
evidence. Think about how much hair falls out
when you comb or brush your hair. A person
loses approximately 100 head hairs each day.
These hairs are shed on clothing and on other
items. They often transfer to another person
or to an object during physical contact.
Hairs can also be pulled from the body
while they are actively growing. Under
the microscope, roots can be examined to
determine the growth phase.
Hair transferred directly from the part of the
body where it is growing is called a primary
transfer. Hair that falls off and is transferred
from clothing is a secondary transfer. If a
victim has contact with a suspect, a secondary
transfer of hair can easily happen. Hairs
that are found on the clothing of suspects or

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Module 3
victims and appear to have fallen out naturally
could be the result of primary or secondary
transfer. Hairs that have been pulled out may
suggest violence.
In order to get a good hair sample, forensic
scientists like to collect at least 25 full-length
hairs. This sample should include both
plucked (pulled out) and combed hairs. To
analyze the hairs, forensic scientists use a
comparison microscope that allows them
to view a crime scene sample and the known
sample (the one collected from the suspect)
side-by-side for comparison.
When Mrs. Johnson swept up the broken
cookie jar in her classroom, she found a
human hair.
Your forensic team will compare the crime
scene hair with hair samples from all four
suspects. You’ll use microscopes to closely
observe the hair strands. Although hair
evidence may be common, it is difficult to
handle. Remember how light-weight hair is
and how easily a sample can be lost. Quick
movements or coughing can cause the loss of
evidence. Be careful!
Follow these steps:
1. Hand out Hair Samples and Comparison
of Human Hair datasheets, and 2 hair slides
transparency sheets to each student team.
2. Invite the students to join you around a
demonstration table.
3. Demonstrate cutting the slide transparency
sheet along the dotted lines to create
microscope slides; remember to remove the
paper backing first. Students can cut their
own sheets into slides.
4. Show the students how to use tweezers to
place a single hair from the bag for Sample
#1 in the correct space on the Hair Samples
datasheet. Place a plastic slide on top of the
hair and tape the slide into position on all four
sides.
5. Demonstrate how to use the microscope
as follows (applies to compact handheld

Instructor’s Guide

37

Module 3
microscope):
Remove from case.
Turn on light on side of microscope.
Place microscope light side down with the
circular opening on the sample.
Hold the microscope firmly with one hand
to prevent lateral movement and look
through viewfinder with one eye while
closing the other eye.

Without a Trace
Q&A
Q: Based on your observations, which sample
of hair best matches the hair found at the crime
scene? Does each characteristic on the data table
support this?
A:

Focus using the focus wheel with the other
hand.
When finished, be sure to turn light off
before returning to case.
6. Explain to students that you will be coming
around to distribute five samples of hair to
each student and that they must be careful not
to move quickly or breathe deeply until the
hairs are secured.
7. Supervise the distribution of Suspect Hair
Samples #1, #2, #3, #4 and the Crime Scene
Hair Sample. Place each hair in the center of
the slide box on the Hair Samples datasheet.
Student team members can take turns gently
setting the plastic slide over the printed box
and hold it while their partner tapes it into
place. If possible, have a student assistant
help with the distribution of hair samples.
8. With all samples in place, students will
examine each hair under the microscope.
Direct the students to describe and sketch
each hair on the Comparison of Human Hair
datasheet.

Q: Is it a good idea for investigators to provide a
hair sample themselves during an investigation?
If so why?
A:

Answer Key for Comparison of Human Hair is
included at the end of this Module.

Wrap-Up
It’s important for each team to have all the
supporting analysis for the determination of the
leading match for the hair sample. This data
needs to support and back-up their theory of the
case.
Be sure students save completed datasheets in
their evidence envelopes.

9. Ask students to analyze their results to
determine any similarities between the
suspects’ samples and the sample from the
crime scene. The most likely match should be
noted on the datasheet.
10. If time permits, students can examine a
sample of their own hair. Instruct them to pull
out a hair from their heads and place it on the
Comparison of Human Hair datasheet in the
space provided. They should describe and
sketch their hair in the space provided on the
data table.

38

Instructor’s Guide

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Without a Trace

Students will view and describe four types of
black fibers, match a fiber found at a crime scene
with a fiber type found on a suspect and make
predictions about the bearing of this evidence on
the entire case.

Preparation
1. Plan to have students work in teams of two.
2. Be sure students have their evidence
envelopes.
3. Organize your supplies:
For Teacher Demonstration:
Black fiber samples, labeled # 1- #4 and
Crime Scene
Tweezers
Wide Tape
Microscope
Fiber View Finder datasheet
Fiber Analysis datasheet
Per Student Team (of two):
Tweezers
Five 3-inch pieces of wide tape
Microscope
Fiber View Finder datasheet
Fiber Analysis datasheet
4. Be sure microscopes have batteries and are
ready to use.
5. Set up your demonstration area.
6. If available, printing your datasheets on white
cardstock can be useful for this activity.

What to Do
Read aloud:

NOTES FOR THE STUDENTS

Activity 2 – Fiber
Analysis 25 Minutes

Module 3

In 1912, a button attached to a piece of cloth
was found near a body. A matching coat was
discovered in a nearby boarding house. It was
in the room of a man who had been bothering
the victim. The coat was missing all of the
buttons and some fibers. The button and
fibers recovered from the crime scene were
later matched to the coat and used to convict
the owner of the coat.
In 1983, a piece of rope was used to solve
another crime. A rope of unusual composition
was found on the victim. The rope was used
to confront a suspect who admitted someone
had given him the rope, which had come
from Korea. The fibers from the victim were
matched to rope fibers in the suspect’s
possession.
Fibers are considered a form of trace
evidence. Do you remember how we defined
trace evidence earlier? Trace evidence is a
small amount of hair, skin, fabric or any other
material which may link a suspect to a crime.
By definition, a fiber is the smallest unit of
a textile (something that is woven). Fibers
come from many sources. Some are called
natural fibers because they come from things
that exist in nature which include fibers made
from plants, such as cotton (used in making
clothing), hemp (used in making rope) and
flax (also used in making clothing). Silk
is another natural fiber. It is spun from the
cocoon of a silkworm and is extremely fine
and strong. The soft, curly hair of sheep is
made into the natural fiber known as wool.
Another class of fibers is called man-made
or synthetic fibers. These fibers are created
from chemicals. Man-made fibers include
rayon, nylon, polyester, satin, acetates, Lycra
and many others. These fibers often exhibit
strength, elasticity, durability and the ability to
maintain shape.
Polar fleece is made from recycled materials.
The composition of the materials in the polar

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Instructor’s Guide

39

Module 3

Without a Trace

fleece can point to a particular manufacturer.

mixed up and causing any confusion.

Fibers can be transferred from the clothing of
a suspect to the clothing of a victim or remain
at the crime scene. Fibers can also transfer
from carpets, beds or furniture at a crime
scene onto the criminal or the victim. These
transfers can either be primary or secondary.

6. Demonstrate how to use the microscope
as follows (applies to compact handheld
microscope):
Remove from case.
Turn on light on side of microscope.
Place microscope light side down with the
circular opening on the sample.

A primary transfer occurs when a fiber
is transferred from a fabric directly onto a
victim’s clothing. A secondary transfer
occurs when already transferred fibers on the
clothing of a suspect transfer to the clothing of
a victim. Forensic scientists must have an indepth understanding of how transfers occur in
order to reconstruct the events of a crime.
As you remember, when observing the crime
scene, there was a black fiber found among
the cookie jar pieces. Can these fibers help
identify our thief?
Follow these steps:
1. Invite students to join you at the
demonstration table.

Hold the microscope firmly with one hand to
prevent movement and look through viewfinder with one eye while closing the other eye.
Focus using the focus wheel with the other
hand.
When finished, be sure to turn light off before
returning to case.
7. Now direct students to complete the Fiber
Analysis datasheet, determining the
characteristics of each sample. If any students
have difficulty, demonstrate how to sketch a
fiber sample. Note the thickness of the fiber
and its texture. Is it curled, straight or hairylooking? Draw these features.

2. Demonstrate the use of tweezers to gently
separate one or two fibers from Sample #1.
(Please pay special attention to keep different
fibers separate. Students need only one or
two strands of each sample for examination.)

8. Students should then analyze their results to
compare the four suspect samples with the
fiber found at the crime scene.

3. Show students how to place the fiber sample
in the space for Fiber Sample #1 on the Fiber
View Finder datasheet. Next, pull and cut a
piece of wide tape to cover the fiber entirely.
Explain that by taping the samples into the
view finder boxes, they have created a type of
slide, used for examining trace evidence with
a magnifying glass or microscope.

Q: Which suspect sample best matched the crime
scene sample?

4. Pass fibers from Sample #1 out to each team
and have them place the fiber sample in the
space for Fiber Sample #1, covering it with
one piece of tape. Give students time to
examine the sample.

Q&A

A:
Q: Did any other samples share characteristics
with the crime scene sample besides what was
mentioned?
A:
Q: Is the evidence examined here conclusive?
A:

5. Then move on to Sample #2 and again
distribute to all teams at once. Repeat for
Samples #3, #4, and Crime Scene. This
procedure will prevent samples from getting

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Instructor’s Guide

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Without a Trace

Module 3

Answer Key for Fiber Analysis is included at the
end of this Module.

Wrap-Up
Students will have captured more data on class
evidence of a fiber found at the crime scene.
Students will also need to have descriptions
of each individual common characteristic of
the fibers well documented as they proceed.
Ensure students’ data table on Fiber Analysis is
complete.
Be sure students save completed datasheets in
their evidence envelopes.

Data Collection and
Analysis
Case Notes
1. Refer students to Case Notes. Ask them to fill
out their conclusions and suspicions as to the
guilty suspect.
2. Ask and discuss how their theory of the case
has changed in light of the analysis of hair and
fibers from the crime scene.
3. Have them back up suspicions with data
learned during lab activities.
4. Be sure students save datasheets and case
notes in their evidence envelopes for final
conclusion and mock trial.

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41

Module 3

Assessment, Standards
and Extensions
Assessing Student Learning
Each of the modules in The Cookie Jar Mystery is
supported by a clear description of the kinds of
evidence we are looking for as we assess student
learning. Evidence-based assessment is often
seen as the cornerstone of good assessment, but

Without a Trace
at the same time, we don’t want to discount the
teacher’s intuition, “gut feelings,” or the collective
opinions and observations of teachers/instructors
working with these course materials.
In short, we’re delighted with new insights about
student learning.
Below, we describe ways in which students
give evidence of their learning, and strategies
teachers can use to check for understanding.

Assessments
Teacher Strategy, Activity or Behavior
Student Behavior or Evidence
Teacher guides students through the “read aloud”

Teacher may use review questions to explore student
retention of new facts about crime-solving

Teacher demonstrates appropriate use of laboratory
tools

Students read with enthusiasm, appearing to understand the mystery and challenges at hand; they are
responsive to questions, and ask about new vocabulary
Students able to identify Locard as the theorist behind
the “exchange principle”, and recognize the early 20th
century as the time when interest in crime-solving was
growing
Students create a slide and use a microscope properly

Teacher emphasizes the critical importance of accurate
data collection

Students describe and sketch hair samples

Teacher encourages students to review complete evidence set before drawing conclusions

Students match hair sample taken from a crime scene

Teacher emphasizes the critical importance of accurate
data collection

Students view and describe 4 types of black fibers

Teacher encourages students to review complete evidence set before drawing conclusions

Students match a fiber found at a crime scene with a
fiber type found on a suspect

Teacher poses questions that encourage students to
draw inferences

Students make predictions about the bearing of this
evidence on the entire case

Teacher introduces new vocabulary

Students complete module’s vocabulary puzzle
correctly

Add your own assessment:

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Instructor’s Guide

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Without a Trace

Module 3
Standards

Science Program Standard

Activity

National Science Education Standards (NSES)

1

2

Standard A
In an effective science program, a set of clear goals and expectations for students must
be used to guide the design, implementation, and assessment of all elements of the
science program.

t

t

Standard B
The program of study in science for all students should be developmentally appropriate,
interesting, and relevant to students’ lives; emphasize student understanding through
inquiry; and be connected with other school subjects.

t

t

Standard D
The K-12 science program must give students access to appropriate and sufficient
resources, including quality teachers, time, materials and equipment, adequate and safe
space, and the community.

t

t

Science as Inquiry – Standard A
As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop abilities necessary to
do scientific inquiry and gain an understanding about scientific inquiry.

t

t

Science as Inquiry – Standard B
As a result of their activities in grades 5–8, all students should develop an
understanding of properties and changes of properties in matter, motions and forces
and transfer of energy.

t

t

Science Content Standard

The Standards for the English Language Arts
International Reading Association (IRA) and National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
Standard 5
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use different writing
process elements appropriately to communicate with different audiences for a variety
of purposes.

t

t

Standard 7
Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas and questions,
and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and synthesize data from a variety
of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts, artifacts, people) to communicate their
discoveries in ways that suit their purpose and audience.

t

t

Standard 12
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their own purposes
(e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the exchange of information).

t

t

Standards 6
Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions (e.g.
spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and genre to create,
critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

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Instructor’s Guide

43

Module 3

Without a Trace

Extensions
1. Research how someone’s DNA can be
obtained from a hair sample.
2. Identify the different parts of a human hair
3. Clothing is often produced using very durable
but flammable fibers. Research how some
fabrics actually melt when they catch fire. Are
there laws governing this?
4. Discussion: clothing colors often reflect
current styles. Colors and choices in clothing
may vary depending on ethnic background.
Can you think of any examples of clothing
that are related to a group’s cultural heritage?
Discuss why some summer clothes are made
of lighter-weight fabric and are lighter in
color than winter clothes.

Glossary
All glossary terms are

in the text.

Class evidence: evidence that will not positively
convict a suspect but will provide additional
information that might be presented at trial.
Comparison microscope: a microscope that
allows side-by-side comparisons of two slides.
Cotton: a fabric made from the cotton plant.
Cross transfer: the shared exchange of
something (hair, fibers, blood, etc.) between two
people or objects that have come in contact with
one another.
Contact: the physical touching of two persons or
a person with an object. If contact is made, trace
evidence can be exchanged.
Laboratory: a place where evidence can be sent
for analysis by crime scene investigators.

Man-made fibers: fibers made from materials
other than plant or animal products. These
materials are called polymers, which are long,
chain-like molecules. Examples of man-made
fibers include nylon, polyester and satin.
Natural fibers: fibers created from plant or
animal products. Examples include cotton, linen,
silk and wool.
Nylon: a man-made fiber with long thin fibers
(strands).
Polyester: a man-made fiber similar to satin but
stronger.
Primary transfer: the transfer of something
(such as hair) directly from the part of the body
where it is growing. Generally occurs when a
fiber is transferred from a fabric directly to a
victim’s clothing.
Satin: a man-made fiber similar to nylon with
long thin fibers.
Secondary transfer: the transfer of something
that falls off (such as hair) and is then transferred
from clothing or objects. Generally occurs when
already transferred fibers on the clothing of a
suspect transfer to the clothing of a victim.
Silk: a fabric made from the cocoon (larval home)
of a silkworm.
Specialized evidence: evidence that can
positively convict a suspect of a crime.
Trace evidence: small amounts of hair, skin,
fabric, or any other material which may link a
suspect to a crime scene.
Unique evidence: points to one individual.
Wool: a fabric made from the soft, curly hair of a
sheep. Before it is made into wool, the hair is oily
and tangled.

Locard’s Exchange Principle: whenever two
objects (or persons) come in contact, trace
evidence will be exchanged between them.

44

Instructor’s Guide

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Without a Trace

Module 3

Module 3: Without a Trace-Examining Hair and Fiber Analysis

Name:

Activity 1 Datasheet

Comparison of Human Hair
Color

Straight,
Curly, or Wavy

Describe the
appearance of the hair

Sample #1

Blond

Wavy

Clear, Tubular

Sample #2

Black

Curly

Springy, Dark
throughout

Sample #3

Black/Dark
Brown

Straight

Thin, Same color
throughout

Sample #4

Brown

Wavy

Clear, Tubular

Crime Scene

Same as #3

Sketch the hair

Personal
Sample (if time
permits)

The most likely match to the hair found at the crime scene is Sample number

3

.

Attach your hair sample here

Student Datasheet

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Instructor’s Guide

45

Module 3

Without a Trace

Module 3: Without a Trace-Examining Hair and Fiber Analysis

Name:

Activity 2 Datasheet

Fiber Analysis
Place a check in each box
where it applies

Sample #1

Sample #2

Sample #3

Sample #4

Crime Scene
Sample

Fibers are loose and
stringy or fuzzy
Fiber is tightly bound
Fibers appear wavy
Fibers all run parallel
Fibers appear shiny
Fiber is a fat bundle

Sketch of fibers

1. Circle check marks found in both a fabric sample column and the crime scene column.
2. The most likely match to the fabric found at the crime scene is Sample number

1

3. If one fiber sample matches the fiber found at the crime scene, is this conclusive evidence regarding who stole
the cookies? No

Explain: Fibers are an example of class evidence and not conclusive.

Student Datasheet

46

Instructor’s Guide

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Module 5

One of a Kind: Blood Typing and DNA
Overview
You will begin this module by reading the story
“Blood Will Tell,” which will give the students
more background on the crime committed
and preview how they will proceed in the
investigation. If this is your first module in the
series, get an overview of the mystery by reading
“That’s the Way the Cookie Crumbles,” included
on your resource CD.
Students will work in small teams of 2-5 and will
need work space where they will be doing blood
typing and DNA analysis.
Most of the evidence explored in the other
modules was part of the group known as “class
evidence,” meaning that it can belong to many
individuals.
In this module, students will focus on more
individualized types of evidence like
and DNA. Most people are aware of the role
DNA plays in our judicial system. Many juries
have been known to suffer from the “CSI effect”
because the television programs depict DNA as
the most conclusive and incriminating piece of
evidence uncovered.
In these activities, students will simulate a blood
test to determine the blood type of the drop left at
the crime scene. This again cannot entirely lead
to a conclusion about the matching suspect; many
people can have the same blood type. Of course,
some types are rarer than others.
DNA is everywhere at a crime scene. It can be
found in blood, hair, skin, and saliva. Scientists
compare the DNA in these kinds of evidence
samples to see if it matches a suspect’s DNA.

as reduce the chances of a wrongful conviction.
Currently DNA profiling is used in less than one
percent of criminal cases.
In Activity 1, students will utilize simulated blood
to determine the blood type found at the crime
scene and then type each of the suspect’s blood
to make a match. This information will only serve
to narrow the suspect field and is not truly unique
evidence.
In Activity 2, students will extract strands of DNA
from a strawberry.
In Activity 3, students will simulate DNA profiling
to gain an understanding of the scientific process
used. Rather than using a gel box to separate
actual DNA, they will use a paper technique that
simulates the procedure. Students will attempt
to match DNA profiles (acquired from blood
samples) of our suspects with DNA from the blood
found on the broken cookie jar.
The Standards covered in this module are the
National Science Education Standard (NSES)
Program Standard A, B, & D and Content Standard
A & B. The English Language Arts standards
are (ELA): Standard 5, 6, 7 and 12. Also covered
are the Next Generation Science Standards
(NGSS) practices of Asking Questions and
Defining Problems, Planning and Carrying Out
Investigations, Analyzing and Interpreting Data,
and Engaging in Argument from Evidence as
well as disciplinary core ideas LS3.A and LS3.B.
The module also addresses Common Core State
Standards in English Language Arts and Literacy:
CCRA.SL.1, CCRA.SL.2, CCRA.SL.4, and CCSS.
ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.3. See the charts at the end
of the module and on page 99 for correlation to
each learning activity.

Multiple DNA samples are taken directly after the
evidence is collected, so that if there is a mix-up
or contamination, a back-up is available. Samples
are often compared with the DNA of detectives
on the scene or random peoples’ profiles, as
well as database profiles.
can
be used to quickly eliminate a suspect. It can
provide evidence to support a conviction, as well

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61

Module 5

One of a Kind

Preparation

Print/Copy
Datasheets

Prepare

Overview

Activity 1: Blood
Typing (35 minutes)

Activity 2: DNA
Activity 3: Making a
Extraction (25 minutes) Match (15 minutes)

1 per student:

1 per team of 5:

1 per team of 2:

Blood Will Tell
Notes for the
Students
Case Notes
Read overview
notes

Blood Results
Blood Typing

DNA Extraction

1 per team of 2:
Practice Profiles of
DNA
Suspects’ DNA Profiles
DNA Fragments

Set up a demonstration
area

Set up a demonstration
area

Organize Kit
Supplies

Simulated blood
Anti- sera
Blood exam trays
Markers
Toothpicks
Disposable gloves
Evidence envelopes

Zip-lock bags
Coffee filters
Plastic cups
Wooden splints
Teaspoon measure
Salt
Measuring cup

Envelopes
Evidence envelopes

Acquire
Supplies

Pencils
Paper towels
Sheets of lined
paper
Plastic bags (for
waste)

Pencils
Strawberries—fresh
or frozen (thawed),
without sugar
Dishwashing or liquid soap
Water
Rubbing alcohol
(refrigerated)
Paper towels

Pencils
Rulers
Scissors

Familiarize
yourself with each
activity
Acquire needed
supplies

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One of a Kind

Module 5
Way the Cookie Crumbles,” located on the resource
CD)

Engaging Students
(Note: If this is your first module, give the students
an overview of the mystery by reading “That’s the

Hand out copies of story to each student. Read
aloud or choose a student to narrate story.

Blood Will Tell
Mrs. Johnson was late to class; all of her science students were already seated at their
desks as she dumped her books and took off her long raincoat. “Sorry, everyone,” she
began. “Take out your notes and let’s get right back into our crime scene investigation!”
For several days, Mrs. Johnson’s students had been conducting experiments trying to
quick glance around the room as she opened her attendance book.
“Hey, Mrs. Johnson. What happened to your arm?”
Mrs. Johnson was touched, but she kindly brushed off Jack’s concern. “Oh this?” she
began, indicating the bandage in the crook of her right arm. “I was late because I was
“Ooooh, does it hurt to give blood?” asked Ashley anxiously.
“There’s a little pinch when they put the needle in your arm, but giving blood is very
important. It doesn’t take long. My blood type is AB+, and it’s a relatively rare type, so
I am happy to be a blood donor. When you kids get older, I hope you’ll consider being
blood donors, too!”
have cut himself on the cookie jar when it was broken. We collected a blood sample at
the crime scene.”
“Very good, Jack. That’s right.”
our suspects,” said George.
“That’s true,” replied Mrs. Johnson. “Luckily, I DO know the blood type of each of our
suspects. Today, we’re going to ‘type’ our crime scene blood sample.”
Emily spoke up quickly. She couldn’t keep the puzzled look off her face. “But if our
“Well, let’s consider the blood typing as a good place to start,” said Mrs. Johnson. “If we
aren’t able to match the type to just one suspect, we’ll have to go one step further.”
“But what else could we do?” asked Emily with exasperation. “I’m not sure we’re ever
going to solve this case!”
Mrs. Johnson lifted an amused eyebrow and looked out at her students. She was
proud of the work they had done so far, but she knew they were capable of even more.
“Today, we’re going to push our limits as forensic scientists,” she announced. “Has
anyone here ever heard of DNA?”

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63

Module 5

35 minutes
Students will determine the blood type of each
of our suspects, analyze and determine the blood
type of the blood found on a piece of the cookie
jar, and compare our suspects’ blood types to the
type of the blood found on the cookie jar.

Preparation
1. Plan to have students work in teams of five and
have adequate space ready to set up blood
trays.
2. Organize your supplies:
For Teacher Demonstration:
1 bottle of simulated blood from each of
Suspects #1-4 and crime scene
1 bottle of Anti-A serum
1 bottle of Anti-B serum
1 bottle of Anti-Rh serum
1 plastic blood examination tray
1 permanent marker
3 toothpicks
1 pair of disposable gloves
Lined paper
Paper towels
Blood Results and Blood Typing
datasheets
Per Student Team (of five):
5 plastic blood examination trays
1 permanent marker
15 toothpicks
5 pairs of disposable gloves (1 pair per
student)
Lined paper
Paper towels
Blood Results and Blood Typing
datasheets
3. Set up a demonstration area.

64

Instructor’s Guide

4. Photographic examples of the simulated
blood reactions are included on the Resource
CD. If you have access to a computer and
projector, it is helpful to review the results
together.

What to Do
Pass out the evidence envelopes and copies of
Notes for the Students and Case Notes to the
class. They will be needed for each activity. Have
the students write their names and the module
number on the envelopes. They will save all their
datasheets and case notes in these envelopes.
Read aloud:

NOTES FOR THE STUDENTS

Activity 1 – Blood Typing

One of a Kind

Regardless of how well the crime scene gets
cleaned up, even the smallest trace of blood
can be detected and tested.
If something that looks like blood is found
at a crime scene, investigators must first
determine if it is blood. There are several
screening tests used for differentiating
between blood and other substances. A
positive test for blood is reason to further test.
If forensic investigators arrive at the crime
scene when the blood is still wet, more tests
can be run than when the blood has dried.
For example, if wet blood is available, tests for
alcohol and drug content can be performed.
Blood dries very quickly though, within 3-5
minutes. As it dries, it turns brown and black.
At the crime scene, blood can be in pools,
drops, smears, or crusts. Pools of blood take
longer to dry and allow for the possibility of
a wet sample. Drops of blood tell the height
and angle from which the blood fell.
In forensic law, blood typing is considered
class evidence. Today, forensic serologists
can link an individual to a bloodstain.
Forensic scientists use tests, as well as
heredity, to estimate things like age, sex and
race.
There are proteins found in some types of
blood. These proteins are called Protein A
and Protein B.

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One of a Kind
If a person has Protein A, he has type A blood.
If a person has Protein B, he has type B blood.
A person with both Protein A and Protein B
has AB blood.
Some people have neither type A nor type B
protein in their blood, and are type O.
Another protein is the Rh protein (named
after the monkey from which it was first
studied). People either have the Rh protein
and are called Rh positive or do not have the
protein and are called Rh negative. When
we describe your blood type, we always talk
about both the A and B proteins, and the Rh
protein.
For example, a person who is AB- has Protein
A and Protein B in his blood but no Rh protein.
This is a very rare type of blood found in only
2 people in 1,000. The most common type of
blood is O+. About 37% of our population is
O+. What does O+ mean? (This means about
37 of every 100 people do not have protein A
or B but do have the Rh protein.)
In this activity, we’ll work with simulated
blood to determine the blood type found
at the crime scene, and then type each
suspect’s blood to try and make a match. This
information will only serve to narrow the
suspect pool, because blood typing is a form
of class evidence.
Follow these steps:
1. Invite the students to the demonstration area.
With a permanent marker, label a plastic
examination tray #1 (for Suspect #1). Note
that the students will have 5 trays and should
label their trays #1- #4 (blood from Suspects
#1-#4) and “Crime Scene” or “CS” (blood
from the cookie jar).
2. Put on disposable gloves. Place plastic
examination tray on sheet of lined paper.
3. Shake the dropper bottle labeled Suspect
#1 Blood Sample. Add three drops of blood
from the Suspect #1 bottle to each of the three
wells in the tray for Suspect #1.
4. Next demonstrate adding three drops of

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Module 5
the BLUE solution labeled Anti-A Serum to
Suspect #1 well labeled A.
5. Then add three drops of the YELLOW solution
labeled Anti-B Serum to Suspect #1 well
marked B.
6. Last, add three drops of the GREEN solution
labeled Anti-Rh Serum to Suspect #1 well
marked Rh.
A
Rh

Add blood
drops
here.

B

7. Stir the contents of well A in gently for about
30 seconds. USE A CLEAN TOOTHPICK EACH
TIME you perform this procedure. Repeat
with wells B and Rh.
8. Pick up and GENTLY rock the plastic
examination tray from side to side, being
careful not to spill the blood from one well to
another. This helps to improve the mixing.
9. After the complete demonstration, students—
with your assistance—will repeat these steps
for all 5 of their blood examination trays, using
blood from the bottles for Suspect #1 -#4 and
the Crime Scene Blood Sample.
10. Shake the bottles before dispensing. Students
will add three drops to each of the three wells
in the tray for each sample, until they have
completed one tray for each blood sample.
Each student in the team can be responsible
for one of the trays.
11. Next the students, again with your assistance,
will add the drops of anti- sera to their trays:
Three drops of the BLUE Anti-A Serum
to all wells labeled A in each of the FIVE
trays
Three drops of the YELLOW Anti-B Serum

Instructor’s Guide

65

Module 5
to all wells labeled B in each of the FIVE
trays
Three drops of the GREEN Anti-Rh Serum
to all wells labeled Rh in each of the FIVE
trays
12. The contents of each well should be stirred
gently for about one-half minute. Students
should USE A CLEAN TOOTHPICK EACH TIME
they stir the contents of a new well until all the
wells have been stirred in the trays.
13. If possible, project images on the Resource
CD that show Agglutination (clumping).
When this occurs in the well, the results
are POSITIVE. The clumping and opaque
appearance of the blood should occur after a
few seconds of stirring. The lines of the paper
will no longer be visible. Negative results
are clear with no agglutination (clumping,
opaqueness). Dark speckles called
microspheres may appear, but that does not
constitute a positive reaction. If you can still
see the lines of the paper underneath, then it
is a negative reaction.
14. Please Note: Some blood types take longer to
react than others; the Anti-B serum reaction
can take up to a minute to complete.

One of a Kind
Q&A
Q: Were you able to successfully type each
suspect’s blood and the blood found at the crime
scene?
A:

Blood Typing
Q: Did your team find a definite match? If so,
which suspect did it match?
A:
Q: Does this evidence positively identify the
guilty suspect? If so, why?
A:

Answer Key for Blood Results is included at the
end of this Module.

15. Students should place gloves, toothpicks and
paper towels in a waste bag for disposal. The
blood trays can be washed and dried and
reused. (These are simulated blood samples,
not actual human blood. If we were using real
blood, all waste would have to be disposed of
in “Biohazard” containers like the ones seen in
doctors’ offices.)

Wrap-Up

16. Show students how to report their results on
datasheet Blood Results. On the diagram,
students should indicate clumps and an
opaque appearance where they occur in their
trays.

Be sure students save completed datasheets in
their evidence envelopes.

66

Instructor’s Guide

Student teams should have completed the Blood
Results datasheet, and after reviewing the results
as a team, corrected anything they missed.
Ensure that every student has the correct answer
due to the strength of this evidence and bearing
on the overall case.

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One of a Kind

Students will learn procedures to extract and
observe DNA, study DNA patterns and learn
how to analyze them in relationship to our
case.
Preparation
1. Plan to have students work in teams of two.
2. Organize your supplies:
For Teacher Demonstration:
1 - 3 fresh or frozen (and thawed)
strawberries
Sandwich-size zip-lock bag
Measuring cup (beaker)
Water
Teaspoon measure
Salt
Dishwashing or liquid soap
Plastic cup
Coffee filter (basket style)
90% rubbing alcohol (chilled)
Wooden splint
Paper towels
Per Student Team (of two):
1 - 3 strawberries
Sandwich-size zip-lock bag
Plastic cup
Coffee filter (basket style)
Wooden splint
Paper towels
3. After your demonstration you will need to
have stations set up for students to come
and get the DNA extraction liquid (prepared
during your demonstration) and the rubbing
alcohol.

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What to Do
Read aloud:

NOTES FOR THE STUDENTS

Activity 2 – DNA
Extraction 25 minutes

Module 5

We have learned that our fingerprints are
unique, and so are the cells in our bodies.
Cells are the basic units of life. They make
up all living and once living things like
plants, animals and bacteria. Each of our
cells contains information in the form of DNA,
which stands for deoxyribonucleic acid. DNA,
a self-replicating material present in nearly
all living organisms, controls everything
that happens in the cell, and is the carrier of
genetic information.
DNA molecules have coded sequences that
give us traits like our eye color, hair color,
height, etc. In a laboratory, DNA can be
separated from the cell and cut into pieces
using special chemicals. These DNA pieces
are different lengths and show unique
codes. Each person’s code is different and
recognizable. It is called a DNA pattern.
Steps must be taken to separate out the
polymorphic or unique sections of the DNA.
It is then photographed with a radioactive
process that allows it to be seen.
In this activity, we will learn about the steps
used to extract DNA. These procedures
need to be followed exactly, because if your
protocol is outside the guidelines, your
evidence could be disqualified and not
allowed at trial.
To ensure this doesn’t happen, the Federal
Bureau of Investigation has published quality
standards for conducting DNA extraction. You
will need to follow these procedures exactly
to avoid any contamination of your samples.
The DNA you will be testing is from a
strawberry. Strawberries are an effective
source of DNA because they are soft and
easy to break up. Ripe strawberries produce
chemicals that help to break down cell walls,
making the job of DNA extraction even
easier. Strawberries also contain four times
the copies of each chromosome which is an
ordered package of DNA found in each cell.

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Module 5

One of a Kind
the strawberry’s DNA. There will be a white
cloudy substance on the top of the strawberry
extract layer which is DNA.

At a real crime scene investigation, the DNA
could have been taken from blood left at the
crime scene, a human hair or saliva.
Follow these steps:
1. Hand out the DNA Extraction datasheets to
each student team and invite your students to
join you around the demonstration table.
2. Pull off the green leaves if you’re using a
fresh strawberry. Demonstrate placing one
strawberry into a zip-lock bag. Use 2-3
berries if they are frozen. Carefully remove
air and seal the bag. Using the side of your
fist or the palm of your hand, gently crush the
strawberry(s) until you create a slush or paste.
This helps break open the cells and release
the DNA. Be sure you don’t break the bag or
create a leak.
3. Next, you will make the DNA extraction liquid
for the class. In the beaker, mix together 1 ½
cups of water (~375 ml), 3 teaspoons of salt,
and 6 teaspoons of liquid soap. Stir gently
with a wooden splint or the measuring spoon.
4. Add 2 teaspoons of the DNA extraction liquid
to the bag with the strawberry paste. Remove
air and reseal the bag and gently manipulate
for another minute. Try to avoid making soap
bubbles.
5. Place the coffee filter down into the plastic
cup, creating a well. Have a partner fold back
and hold the filter edges to the sides of the
cup.
6. Open the bag and pour the strawberry
liquid into the filter. Allow the liquid to drain
through the filter.
7. Gather the top of the filter together, creating
a pouch. Gently squeeze out the remaining
liquid.
8. Remove the filter and visually calculate the
amount of liquid in the cup.
9. Pour an equal amount of cold rubbing alcohol
into the cup.
10. Do not mix or stir. The separation should
happen in few seconds. You have isolated

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11. Tilt the cup to one side and pick up the
mucous-like DNA with a wooden splint and
examine.
12. At the conclusion of the demonstration,
students will repeat these steps. The steps
they need to follow are included on their
datasheet, DNA Extraction. Emphasize that
the steps should be followed gently and
precisely. You will need to supervise the
students measuring out the extracting liquid
and the rubbing alcohol.
13. After students have completed the
procedures, follow up with each team and
inspect the results. The DNA sample should
be a white slimy substance. This strawberry
DNA sample can be preserved for an
extended period if sealed and refrigerated.
14. Ask students to complete the questions on the
DNA Extraction datasheet.

Q&A
Q: What step in the procedure do you think is the
most important in extracting DNA?
A:

Q: Would this work for other fruits or vegetables?
A:

Q: What do you think forensic scientists do next
with this isolated DNA?
A:
Answer Key for DNA Extraction is included at the
end of this Module.

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Activity 3 – Making a
Match 15 Minutes
Students will simulate a gel box to match crime
scene DNA to DNA taken from the blood samples
of our suspects.

Preparation
1. Plan to have students work in teams of two.
2. Be sure students have their evidence
envelopes.
What to Do

NOTES FOR THE STUDENTS

Read aloud:
Now that you’ve explored how DNA is
extracted, we will move on to how forensic
scientists find a match.
After DNA has been isolated, scientists create
a profile. This profile is the system by which a
suspect is matched to a crime scene.
DNA profiling is rather new to forensic
science. In 1983, two murders were linked
in Narborough, England. The crimes were
linked through the work of Dr. Alec Jeffreys,
who perfected the process known as DNA
profiling. Every young man in the village was
asked to give a DNA sample. Colin Pitchfork,
a local bakery worker, asked a friend to give a
blood sample on his behalf.
The police were informed and Pitchfork was
forced to give a blood sample. His DNA was
a match to DNA found on the victims. He
confessed to the crimes. This was the first
time DNA profiling was ever used.
A large portion of our DNA illustrates traits
we have that all humans share. For example,
our toes are separated rather than webbed.
Other parts of human DNA are unique to
each person. These sections are called
polymorphic because they show different
combinations of sequences which are unique
to each person.

Module 5
share as human beings. To do this, DNA
is mixed with a gel solution that is heated
and poured into a chamber with a series
of wells. When the gel cools it is much like
Jell-O. DNA samples are poured into the
wells and electricity is applied causing the
DNA sections to move down the chamber.
The gel is then stained so the DNA can be
photographed and seen. This process is
called electrophoresis. The shorter sections
of DNA move farther and faster than the
longer ones. When the electricity has been
shut off, the sections are lined up by length.
In this activity, we are going to run an imitation
DNA profile in an attempt to make a match
between the suspects’ DNA and that found at
the crime scene.
Follow these steps:
1. Distribute datasheets Practice Profiles of
DNA. Explain to students that they will be
running a simulation of a gel chamber to
create a DNA profile.
2. A diagram illustrating a mock DNA profile is
provided on the datasheet. Read out loud the
paragraph describing the DNA separation
results and ask students to measure and
analyze the strips to determine a match.
3. Next distribute datasheets Suspects’ DNA
Profiles and DNA Fragments, as well as 5
envelopes to each team. Ask student teams
to label their envelopes “Suspect Sample
#1” – “Suspect Sample #4” and “Crime Scene
Sample.”
4. Proceed by asking one student per team to
cut out the DNA fragments for each sample;
the other team member should then place
the three fragments for each sample into the
matching envelope.
5. Ask students to turn to datasheet Suspects’
DNA Profiles. Using their envelopes and
fragments, have them follow steps 1 and 2 and
then answer questions 3 and 4.

DNA profiling separates a person’s
polymorphic sections from the ones we all

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Data Collection and
Analysis

Q&A
Q: On your datasheet Practice Profiles of DNA
example of a gel box, did you find a match?

Case Notes

A:
Q: From the classroom simulation using DNA
Fragments, did you find a match for the crime
scene band? If so, which one?

1. Refer students to Case Notes sheet; have
them fill out their conclusions and suspicions
as to the guilty suspect.
2.

A:
Q: What type of evidence is DNA?

Ask and discuss how their theory of the case
has changed in light of the analysis of blood
typing and DNA from the crime scene.

A:

3. Have them back up suspicions with data
learned during lab activity.

Answer Keys for Practice Profiles of DNA and
Suspects’ DNA Profiles are included at the end
of this Module.

4. Be sure students save datasheets and case
notes in their evidence envelopes for final
conclusion and mock trial.

Wrap-Up
The activities in this module should have served
to significantly narrow the field of suspects
due to the unique nature of blood typing and
DNA. Ensure that each team has completed
the datasheets and have arrived at the same
conclusion; these will be critical pieces of
information as we move to the conclusion and
mock trial.
Be sure students save completed datasheets in
their evidence envelopes.

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Module 5

Assessment, Standards
and Extensions
Assessing Student Learning
Each of the modules in The Cookie Jar Mystery is
supported by a clear description of the kinds of
evidence we are looking for as we assess student
learning. Evidence-based assessment is often
seen as the cornerstone of good assessment, but

at the same time, we don’t want to discount the
teacher’s intuition, “gut feelings,” or the collective
opinions and observations of instructors working
with these course materials.
In short, we’re delighted with new insights about
student learning.
Below, we describe ways in which students
give evidence of their learning, and strategies
teachers can use to check for understanding.

Assessments
Teacher Strategy, Activity or Behavior

Student Behavior or Evidence

Teacher guides students through the “read aloud”

Students read with enthusiasm, appearing to
understand the mystery and challenges at hand

Teacher reads “Notes” and describes distribution of
blood types

Students offer their own blood types, if known

Teacher uses table to prompt discussion of blood
types

Students explain their understanding of type by
answering questions such as “What does AB mean?”

Teacher demonstrates blood typing procedure

Students share roles throughout procedure and
correctly follow procedures

Teacher provides typing datasheet

Students accurately record data and discuss and
compare results across teams

Teacher demonstrates DNA extraction procedure

Students share roles throughout procedure and
correctly follow procedures

Teacher explains DNA simulation procedure

Students correctly follow procedure and accurately
record data

Teacher introduces new vocabulary

Students complete module’s vocabulary puzzle
correctly

Add your own assessment:

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Standards

Activity

National Science Education Standards (NSES)

1

2

3

Standard A
In an effective science program, a set of clear goals and expectations
for students must be used to guide the design, implementation, and
assessment of all elements of the science program.

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Standard B
The program of study in science for all students should be
developmentally appropriate, interesting, and relevant to students’ lives;
emphasize student understanding through inquiry; and be connected with
other school subjects.

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Standard D
The K-12 science program must give students access to appropriate
and sufficient resources, including quality teachers, time, materials and
equipment, adequate and safe space, and the community.

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Science as Inquiry – Standard A
As a result of activities in grades 5-8, all students should develop
Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry and gain an understanding
about scientific inquiry.

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Science as Inquiry – Standard B
As a result of their activities in grades 5–8, all students should develop an
understanding of properties and changes of properties in matter, motions
and forces and transfer of energy.

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International Reading Association (IRA) and National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)
Standard 5
Students employ a wide range of strategies as they write and use
different writing process elements appropriately to communicate with
different audiences for a variety of purposes.

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Standards 6
Students apply knowledge of language structure, language conventions
(e.g.
spelling and punctuation), media techniques, figurative language, and
genre to create, critique, and discuss print and nonprint texts.

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Standard 7
Students conduct research on issues and interests by generating ideas
and questions, and by posing problems. They gather, evaluate, and
synthesize data from a variety of sources (e.g., print and nonprint texts,
artifacts, people) to communicate their discoveries in ways that suit their
purpose and audience.

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Standard 12
Students use spoken, written, and visual language to accomplish their
own purposes (e.g., for learning, enjoyment, persuasion, and the
exchange of information).

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Extensions
1. DNA is often used as evidence to convict a
suspect. Research Barry Scheck and how his
law firm attempts to free innocent people who
have been wrongly convicted. His program
is called the “Innocence Project” and has
successfully freed a number of innocent
people. http://www. innocenceproject.org/
about/
2. It is important for the doctor to check your
blood type before an operation. If it is
necessary to give you blood (a transfusion), it
must be of the correct type. Otherwise, your
blood would clump (stick together) and you
could die as a result. This results because
foreign proteins from the wrong type of blood
have been introduced into your body. How
many students know their blood type? Do any
of them or their parents have an unusual blood
type?
3. Some societies have dealt with sickness
and fever by blood-letting. Research how
and why this was done. Research the blood
type distribution of different races. Sickle
cell anemia and beta thalassemia are blood
disorders associated with certain ethnic
groups. Why are they more prevalent in these
groups?

Module 5

Glossary
All glossary terms are

in the text.

Agglutination: the clumping of blood cells due
to the introduction of an anti-serum.
Blood type: the type of blood you have. It will be
either A, B, AB or O.
Chromosome: an organized package of DNA
found in the nucleus of a cell.
DNA profile: the specific pattern of DNA bands
that appears when a sample of your DNA is
chemically analyzed. These DNA bands are
specific to an individual (unless you have an
identical twin).
DNA: a self-replicating material present in nearly
all living organisms as the main constituent
of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic
information.
Electrophoresis: the process of passing
electricity through a gel box and separating DNA
into separate bands.
Gel box: the scientific equipment used to get a
DNA profile.
Polymorphic: DNA sequences which vary
between different individuals.
Rh Protein: another substance found in your
blood cells. If you have it present, you are Rh
positive, if it is not present, you are Rh negative.
Serology: the study of the properties of serums.
Several examples of serums are blood, saliva and
sweat.

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Module 5: One of a Kind-Blood Typing and DNA

Name:

Activity 1 Datasheet

Blood Results
1. Refer to the chart to see how clumping appears.
2. If clumping occurs, use your pencil and draw red blood cells in the ovals below. Put an X through the
clump. Leave blank any wells where clumping did not occur.
3. Label each picture shown below with the correct blood type, A+, B-, O-, or AB+ (Hint: Each suspect should
be different).
A

A

A

Rh

B

A

Rh

Rh

B

B

Rh

B

Suspect #1

Suspect #2

Suspect #3

Suspect #4

AB+

B-

A+

O-

A
Rh

B

Crime Scene

A+
4. Why is simulated (man-made) blood used instead of real human blood?

Human blood is precious and needed for medical procedures. It also could be
contaminated or cause spread of disease.
Student Datasheet

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Module 5

Module 5: One of a Kind-Blood Typing and DNA

Name:

Activity 2 Datasheet

DNA Extraction
Procedure
1. Pull off the green leaves if you’re using fresh strawberries. Place one or two small strawberries in the ziplock bag, seal
and crush with your hands. Create slush or puree. This helps break open the cells and release the DNA.
2. Next, take one of the plastic cups. You will make the DNA extraction liquid by mixing together 2 teaspoons of liquid
soap, 1 teaspoon of salt and a half cup of water.
3. Add 2 teaspoons of the DNA extraction liquid into the bag with the strawberry paste. Reseal the bag and gently smash
for another minute. Try to avoid making too many soap bubbles.
4. Place the coffee filter over another plastic cup. Have your partner hold the filter or tape it to the sides of the cup.
5. Open the bag and pour the strawberry liquid into the filter. Allow the liquid to drain through the filter. You don’t need
to filter the entire contents of the bag, just enough to make about 2 inches of liquid in the cup.
6. Next pour cold rubbing alcohol into the cup, an amount equal to the amount of strawberry liquid.
7. Do not mix or stir; the separation should happen in the next couple of minutes. There will be a white cloudy substance
on the top of the strawberry extract layer.
8. Tilt the cup to one side and pick up the DNA with a wooden splint and examine.

Observations
1.

Describe the appearance of the DNA you extracted.

It’s clumpy and has visible strands like wet fibers

2.

Summarize the key steps in this DNA extraction.

Making the correct solution mixture and crushing the strawberry to release the
maximum amount of DNA

3.

Do you think your results would vary if you were to use a banana, tomato or spinach? Explain.

Yes, the strands would look different

Student Datasheet

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Module 5

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Name:

Module 5: One of a Kind-Blood Typing and DNA
Activity 3 Datasheet

This picture shows the set up used for running a DNA profile. First the DNA samples are put into separate wells
and then power is added.

DNA

DNA

DNA


DNA

Battery

DNA

Negatively charged electrode (black)

+

Positively charged electrode (red)

+

Here are some DNA results after separation is complete. The pattern of DNA are unique. Everyone has his or
her own. Circle the numbers of the two below that match. Notice how some bands have a great deal of DNA
(wide bands) and other pieces of DNA produce narrow bands. DNA matches have band patterns at the same
distances from the top rectangle band, if you are not sure measure.

Negatively charged electrode (black)

DNA

DNA

DNA

DNA

#1

#2

#3

#4

#5

Battery

DNA

DNA travels
down and
separates.

Which two match? #1 and #4 .

Student Datasheet

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Module 5

Name:

Module 5: One of a Kind-Blood Typing and DNA
Activity 3 Datasheet

Length of
DNA piece

Sample #1

Sample #2

Sample #3

Sample #4

Crime Scene

10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

1. Open Envelope #1 and place the pieces of DNA in front of you. Note that one of the pieces has the number 10;
the block for that location has been shaded in on the chart above. Shade in the blocks that correspond to the
remaining numbered pieces for Sample #1. Return pieces to their
envelope.
2. Repeat for Samples #2 , #3, #4, and the crime scene.
3. Compare the band patterns on your DNA profiles. Are there any
matches? Yes
4. Which suspect sample matches DNA from the crime scene? #3

Student Datasheet

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77

Appendix
The Cookie Jar Mystery Standards Matrix
The lessons and activities in The Cookie Jar Mystery modules help learners meet the practices, cross-cutting
concepts, and disciplinary core ideas that comprise the Next Generation Science Standards. The practices,
concepts, and disciplinary ideas specifically covered in this unit include:
Practices:
Asking Questions and Defining Problems
Ask questions that can be investigated within the scope of the classroom, outdoor environment, and
museums and other public facilities with available resources and, when appropriate, frame a hypothesis
based on observations and scientific principles.
Planning and Carrying Out Investigations
Make observations and measurements to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence for an
explanation of a phenomenon.
Plan an investigation individually and collaboratively, and in the design: identify independent and
dependent variables and controls, what tools are needed to do the gathering, how measurements will be
recorded, and how many data are needed to support a claim.
Conduct an investigation to produce data to serve as the basis for evidence that can meet the goals of
the investigation.
Analyzing and Interpreting Data
Analyze and interpret data to determine similarities and differences in findings.
Engaging in Argument from Evidence
Support an argument with evidence, data, or a model.
Scientific Knowledge is Based on Empirical Evidence
Science knowledge is based upon logical and conceptual connections between evidence and
explanations.
Science disciplines share common rules of obtaining and evaluating empirical evidence.
Cross Cutting Concepts:
Patterns
Patterns can be used to identify cause-and-effect relationships.
Graphs, charts, and images can be used to identify patterns in data.
Disciplinary Core Ideas:
LS3.A: Inheritance of Traits
Variations of inherited traits between parent and offspring arise from genetic differences that result
from the subset of chromosomes (and therefore genes) inherited.
LS3.B: Variation of Traits
In sexually reproducing organisms, each parent contributes half of the genes acquired (at random)
by the offspring. Individuals have two of each chromosome and hence two alleles of each gene, one
acquired from each parent. These versions may be identical or may differ from each other.

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Appendix

The Cookie Jar Mystery

In addition to meeting the National Science Education Standards (NSES) and Next Generation Science
Standards (NGSS), the activities in these modules meet Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in
Mathematics and English Language Arts and Literacy, including the Grades 6-12 Literacy in History/Social
Studies, Science, & Technical Subjects. Specific CCSS addressed include:
English Language Arts and Literacy:
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.1: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and
collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and
persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.2: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and
formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that
listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to
task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.6: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks,
demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.1: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make
logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions
drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.4: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including
determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices
shape meaning or tone.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.1: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics
or texts using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development,
organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research,
reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks,
purposes, and audiences.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.3: Follow precisely a multistep procedure when carrying out experiments,
taking measurements, or performing technical tasks.
Mathematics:
CCCS.Math.Content.7.G.A.1: Solve problems involving scale drawings of geometric figures, including
computing actual lengths and areas from a scale drawing and reproducing a scale drawing at a different
scale.

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The Cookie Jar Mystery

Appendix
Module

1

Standard

2

3

4

5

6

Activity

1

2

3

1

2

1

2

1

2

1

2

3

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Next Generation Science Standard
Practice: Asking Questions and
Defining Problems
Practice: Planning and Carrying Out
Investigations
Practice: Analyzing and Interpreting
Data
Practice: Engaging in Argument from
Evidence
Practice: Scientific Knowledge is Based
on Empirical Evidence
Cross-Cutting Concept: Patterns
Disciplinary Core Idea: LS3.A:
Inheritance of Traits
Disciplinary Core Idea: LS3.B:
Variation of Traits

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Common Core Learning Standards- English Language Arts and Literacy
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.1:
Prepare for and participate effectively
in a range of conversations and
collaborations with diverse partners,
building on others’ ideas and expressing
their own clearly and persuasively.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.2:
Integrate and evaluate information
presented in diverse media and formats,
including visually, quantitatively, and
orally.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.4:
Present information, findings, and
supporting evidence such that listeners
can follow the line of reasoning and the
organization, development, and style
are appropriate to task, purpose, and
audience.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.SL.6: Adapt
speech to a variety of contexts and
communicative tasks, demonstrating
command of formal English when
indicated or appropriate.

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Appendix

The Cookie Jar Mystery
Module

1

Standard

2

3

4

5

6

Activity

1

2

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.1: Read
closely to determine what the text says
explicitly and to make logical inferences
from it; cite specific textual evidence
when writing or speaking to support
conclusions drawn from the text.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.R.4:
Interpret words and phrases as they are
used in a text, including determining
technical, connotative, and figurative
meanings, and analyze how specific
word choices shape meaning or tone.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.1: Write
arguments to support claims in an
analysis of substantive topics or texts
using valid reasoning and relevant and
sufficient evidence.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.4:
Produce clear and coherent writing in
which the development, organization,
and style are appropriate to task,
purpose, and audience.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.CCRA.W.10: Write
routinely over extended time frames
(time for research, reflection, and
revision) and shorter time frames (a
single sitting or a day or two) for a range
of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RST.6-8.3: Follow
precisely a multistep procedure when
carrying out experiments, taking
measurements, or performing technical
tasks.

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Common Core State Standards- Mathematics
CCCS.Math.Content.7.G.A.1: Solve
problems involving scale drawings of
geometric figures, including computing
actual lengths and areas from a scale
drawing and reproducing a scale
drawing at a different scale.

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