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Chart of Theories Psychosocial and Humanistic Theories Theory Psychosocial Theory Definition Erik Erikson proposed psychosocial theory which consisted of 8 stages starting from the early phases of life to maturity. Whatever happens in one stage is due to the experiences in the previous stage. Key Figures
Focus of Work Concerning the
Main aspects of Psychosocial theory of Erik Erikson
Psychosocial development model by Erikson has been given immense importance due to its significant details and model. Erikson put forward the concept of eight stages in this theory which play an important role in the development. These stages are also known as The Eight Stages of Man and were put forward in 1950. In the revised versions of his books, the theory was improved and renamed as "Identity and the Life Cycle, Insight and Responsibility (1964), The Life Cycle Completed: A Review,
He defined theory in relation to the society and psychology and explained that the Some sub-key figures are: (1)Gordon Alport (2) Harry Harlow.(1982-revised by Joan Erikson) and Vital Involvement of Old Age (1989) whereas Erikson named this theory as bio-psycho-social theory. Sub-Key Figures [if applicable] Focus of work concerning the [theory name]. scientific methods are used to comprehend and explain the way of thinking. tests resulting from theory. feelings and attitude and these are impacted by realm fictional or oblique . expansion of theory. etc.
a child learn through his activities and exposures where he succeeds as well as fails and create his own image of the world around him. He also explained the Attachment Theory as emotional attachments 4-5) John Bowlby & Mary Ainsworth . He experimented on monkeys and his theory was supported by Bowlby's attachment theory and Ainswoth and moral development theory.presence of other people. (3) Jean Piaget’s He put forward the concept of cognitive development of a person and according to him.
the way the parents look after their child and the way they handle him with care has been given immense importance. She also explained the concept of connection and the feeling of security towards it. Due to this.between two persons (6) Lawrence Kohlberg and it can happen between people of all ages but its significance can be viewed in the relationship between an infant and a caregiver. child feels very comfortable and secure and he starts . Key Concepts of Personality Formation ) Concept Trust vs Mistrust “hope” Description From the time of birth till a person is 18 months old.
In some case. From 18 months till the child is 3 years old. this sense of insecurity remains with them for the rest of their lives and they always feel that they were never important. They can also be a little aggressive and inflexible because they are very sensitive at this age. They are able to differentiate right from wrong and feel proud of themselves at whatever they do or achieve. if they are unable to trust. confidence and an independent feeling starts building up in their personality.trusting them and if at this stage. Autonomy vs Shame “Will” .
From the age of 6 to 12 years. he develop leadership skills and the ones who are unable to achieve what others are able to.children also feel frustrated and lose confidence when they are unable to accomplish something. children learn to interact with others and feel proud of himself if he is able to do it successfully. they start doubting themselves and feel ashamed. When a child reaches the age from 3 to 5. They feel confident if they are praised and believed by their teachers and parents but on the other Initiative vs Guilt “Purpose” Industry vs Inferiority “Competence” .
they will never be able to feel independent and will feel insecure.hand if they are not appreciate. the sense and feeling of being independent starts developing and if they are boosted for this. Identity vs Role and Confusion “Fidelity” Intimacy vs Isolation “Love” People who are from 18 to 35 years of age are included in this stage. their level of confidence will elevate butt if they are not. It is the time when they . From the age of 12 till a child reaches age of 18 years. they start losing their confidence and they start doubting themselves if they would ever be able to be successful in their lives.
The people who successfully pass this phase become a good part of their community and the homes otherwise they will not be able to socialize properly with the world. person pays attention to his family and career. they are able to have good relationships in their lives. From the age of 35 to 55 or 65 years.start developing personal associations with others and if they pass this phase successfully. This is a very important and face and brings regressions if passed unsuccessfully. A person feels that he wasted his Generativity vs Self absorption “Care” Integrity vs Despair “Wisdom” .
They take care of the child's all the needs and if the caregiver is unable to do that. the feeling of insecurity and distrust can start developing in a child. they are able to live a content life. Explanation of Disorder Personality How does this theory explain the development of personality disorder as a group? Erickson has explained in his theory that an individual's personality develops according to the way he socialized and makes choices in his life.whole life and did not achieve anything but if they are able to complete is successfully. A person come across many people in his life and goes through different stages of life and develops the sense about their own selves for . Parent or the caregivers give a feeling about the future to a child. he would feel the same even after maturing. Once the feeling of distrust develops in a child.
interacting with others and engaging in the relationships. his level of confidence will increase and he will be able to accomplish even bigger tasks independently but on . Does it support the notion that there are such things as personality disorders? If so. then eventually. then how does this theory explain abhorrent behavior? Basic trust versus mistrust. the challenges they face and other issues. what does it say about them? If not. he will be able to overcome problems in the future as well hence developing his personality accordingly.It is very important that a caretaker looks after the child with great care as the mistakes made at this stage can affect his whole life and also put bad impact on the decision he would make later in his life such as trusting people. Autonomy versus shame and doubt If a caretakers lets the child to handle his little tasks independently. A person is recognized by the path he chooses in his life.their needs and requirements. If the caregiver will teach the child to act appropriately towards the problems and the challenges.
Here at this stage. He would start working . he will lack confidence and will never be able to have the sense of responsibility.the other hand if he is very strict and does not let the child to express his skills.During this phase. Industry versus inferiority. or performing his other tasks and learning to be more responsible. child has entered the period of life when he will start making up goals and aims in front of him.This is the stage when a child want to be independent and explore things around him with freewill like dressing up. it is decided what games or tasks the child likes to the most. If the child is restricted for these things from the beginning. For example. child's level of confidence will never be able to develop and he will remain doubtful about his potential and skills for the rest of his life. His social and leadership skills are improving. Caretakers should guide the child but should allow the child to freely explore things around him. if he is playing a game then it is to win. Initiative versus guilt.
child will either go towards the extreme negative path of his life or will lose the confidence and self-actualization. Intimacy versus isolation. there is a high probability that he would feel isolated and lonely. . If the child is constantly judged at this stage. a caretaker should treat him same as he had been doing before no matter what his choices or priorities are.really hard for the results.At this stage. If a child is not allowed to enhance his motivational and goal oriented skills.This stages includes the teen age years of a child when he feels that his decisions are the best and he knows everything. If he is unable to engage in social groups at this age. Identity versus identity confusion. Even at this stage. a child has developed his self-actualization and is now on the verge of making associations with the people around him leading to stronger relationships. He should be given space to make his own comfortable environment. he would always low than others around him even at the mature stage of his life.
An individual is more interested in the activities of the younger people around him such as younger siblings. A person's personality development has been divided into various phases and if this phases of life are well-handled. his level of confidence drops and he feels he can't achieve anything is his life.It is the phase when a person is required to guide the people younger than him and be the part of their development process. he feels that his life has become stationary. person gets a feeling of accomplishment but on the other hand. In this theory.Generativity versus stagnation. this theory explains what it claims. Validity () . Can the theory be tested? Opinions. Erickson is apprehensive about the EGO development. His level of gratitude and comfort is dependent on his level of achievement. assessments and scale testing are the ways in which this theory has been experimented. Does this theory address what it says it does? Indeed. Integrity versus despair-It the phase of maturity and old age and a person activities impact his own life. If a person doesn't feel confident about his activities at this phase of his life. if handled improperly.
What does the test say about the theory’s validity? Erickson's theory hasn't been approved for its validity yet as no recognized discussions to Erickson's studies for the personality development theory. Are there any studies on the validity of the theory? What do they show about it? McClain.What are the results of the testing? Various studies have been carried out where different cultures and gender were considered to test Erickson's theory of personality development. The agenda of the phases have been considered authenticated. The eight phase of life start from confidence against suspicion to trustworthiness against misery where all the developmental stages are considered. Every stage . a behavioral psychologist. presented the studies in 1975 where the teenagers were studied and was concluded that they showed a big variation in their behaviors during the first 6 phases of Erickson's theory. Comprehensiveness () Is this theory robust? Erickson's development theory is considered strong due to the research and studies.
is unique and is about real-life problems. Can you think of aspects it does not account for? This theory doesn't cover about person's character . This theory explains all the phases of a person's life and the difficulties he faces during his development. explaining a child's life as a process of mental transition while he grows up into an adult. Does it account for all aspects of personality? This theory doesn't cover all the phases of psychological development of a person. Jean Piaget's work has also contributed to Erikson's phases and point of views about cognitive development through his three stage theory. It also explains about the emotional attachment of a child with his parents while going through different stages of life. Erickson's theory is about the comparison between the realities versus confusion and talks more about identity rather than personality awareness. This theory explains about a person struggle while passing the positive and negative aspects of life in order to live a healthy life to enhance development process.
According to Erikson. person's interaction with his surrounding develop a sense of responsibility but he also emphasized on person's development while going through the good and bad times of life with a very brief involvement of a person's own character.. What does your book say about its comprehensiveness? Applicability () Does this theory lend itself to being applied and how? Yes. this theory does lend itself to being applied. Erikson’s stages range from birth to death and within each Creator Erik Erikson Application Psychosocial Stages of Development Purpose To clarify the phases of a person's life while facing the positive and negative aspects of life and approaching towards healthy living by solving .and also doesn't explain about person's confidence.
Cultural Utility () Is this theory used in other cultures and how does the book relate psychosocial theory in cultures? Erikson.the problems and issues. has been unable to give details in this book from cultural aspects and . he can overcome the negativity of the life. Once a person has achieved his healthy living. Whereas. a German theorist. he will go through a lot of psychological issues which will be hard to handle in the later age. if he fails to come out of the negative aspects.
ethnic origins and anthropology and his was theory was applied to the psychological issues that a person faces. His psychoanalysis covered various aspects such as culture.developed this theory on a certain social level only. and other cultures such as German have been covered while studying this theory and theory was applied to the psychological enhancement of a person. What cultures. . countries and by whom? All the English speaking cultures.
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