Cluster munitions timeline (another timeline starts below

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Approximately 370 million cluster submunitions were used in Southeast Asia during wars between 1947 and 1979. That led to a small campaign by 12 States to prohibit anti-personnel cluster munitions, according to Peter Herby, head of the arms unit at the International Committee for the Red Cross (ICRC). "That was the first proposal for limitation of cluster munitions", he said. "It was inconclusive. http://www.gulfnews.com/world/General/10264063.html ‘cluster of hope..’

1976 ICRC conference in Lugano: 13 states discuss CMs but fail to get much progress as user states fail to sign on to the Lugano statement & no ref to failure rates 1980: Led ult to the CCW, which was signed in 1980 by 51 states Issue kept alive by Mennonite Central Committee, MAG in Laos & HRW December 1983: CCW enters into force applied only to incendiary weapons, mines and booby-traps, and weapons intended to cause casualties through very small fragments (US CRS report to Congress, July 2008) 1991 30m submunitions dropped during Gulf War, but not much media coverage 1999 Also major use & casualties in Kosovo  outcry 2000; ERW put on agenda at 2000 ICRC meeting 2001 major use & casualties in Afghanistan  outcry Post-Afghanistan: Euro Parl came out for a moratorium Dec 2001: 2nd Review Conference of the CCW - ICBL issued statement at final plenary calling for CM moratorium (had been worries before that this could detract from support for APM ban, so only HRW & MCC had been working on it, but eventually decided not ack the prob wd undermine landmine ban as so similar) November 2003: Protocol V to the CCW (ERW) - HRW called for new protocol specifically on CMs– CCW failed to agree this = reason why OP launched - At time HRW wanted new protocol to deal with technical reliability issues & targeting & use issues - Sought ban on unreliable & inaccurate submunitions & their destruction - So targeting specific types of CMs rather than all CMs (all from Collins, 2006 October 2004: European Parliament adopted a resolution calling for an immediate moratorium on the use, stockpiling, production, and transfer or export of cluster munitions until an international agreement has been negotiated on their regulation, restriction, or prohibition. (HRW: Production & Export, 2005 p8)
2005

2005: Norway committed to work towards a ban (Collins, 2006: 5n31) - Still the only state to commit to ban by 2006 Nash article! P390 March 2005

com/world/General/10264063. making appropriations for the Department of Defense for the fiscal year ending September 30. Germany. FEINSTEIN (for herself and Mr. Norway.org.gulfnews. and for other purposes. Mrs. Germany. Kerry. as follows: .• Germany announced it will not use cluster munitions that have a dud rate of greater than one percent and will not use those without the capacity to selfdestruct or self-neutralize • France announced it destroyed its entire stock of BL-66 Belouga bombs between 1996 and 2002. Hezbollah denies – need to check this Austrian parliament passes a resolution calling for a ban on CMs with high failure rates August 2006: Germany says will stop using 2 types of CMs with failures >1%. 5631. United Kingdom. 2005 p8) February 2006 • Belgium 1st country to ban cluster bombs • http://www. 2005 p8) By April 2005 • Denmark. • Poland reported that its residual stockpile of unspecified types of cluster bombs is no longer in service. South Africa. will not procure any more & exam alts –resolution passed in parl in September (HRW. ICRC cited in http://www.clusterbombs.R.uk/your-countrys-position/key-dates/ (15/5/08) • MSP of Protocol V June 2006 Australia & Norway declare moratorium on use (Nash. and Switzerland have withdrawn from service BL-755 bombs (used by UK in Iraq) (HRW: Production & Export.no Republicans voted for it SA 4882. The Belouga bomb was used by France in Iraq and Kuwait in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. LEAHY) submitted an amendment intended to be proposed by her to the bill H. 2007. (HRW: Production & Export.html ‘cluster of hope’) 6 September 2006 Senate amendment defeated by 70 votes to 30 – Obama. Clinton & Biden against . and the United States had all announced national policies for the future procurement of cluster munitions that establish a minimum submunition reliability rate • US said should not procure CMs with failure rate of >1% • UK announced would implement a similar policy to Germany by 2015 • Belgium. Kennedy voted for. 2007: 4) 5 countries pushing for a ban at this stage (Peter Herby. 2006: 39) July 2006: • • • Israel uses CMs in Lebanon war (mostly towards end of war in August –war 12 July-14 August) HRW accuses Hezbollah of using CMs on information from Israeli gvt. Poland. Switzerland.

has been referred to the Committee on Foreign Relations 22-23rd: lst meeting of the Oslo Process in Oslo . sell. If passed.Lux parl calls on gvt to join campaign . 2007: 59) • November 12 2006: Protocol V enters into force Oslo Process February 2007 14th: Senators Dianne Feinstein and Patrick Leahy introduce the “Cluster Munitions Civilian Protection Act of 2007 in the senate.stopclustermunitions. The bill also specifies that cluster munitions with a dud rate of less than 1 percent can only be used against clearly defined military targets and cannot be used near civilian populations . or camps or groups of nomads. 2007: 3-4) • Norway announces it will start independent process (HRW. Italy.” and require destruction of stockpiles of such cluster munitions’ (HRW. UK & US in favour of a weak mandate to cont focus on ERW with focus on CMs HRW.asp?id=125 (15/5/08) • Call rejected by China. including inhabited parts of cities or villages. or transfer of cluster munitions that have a dud rate greater than 1 percent. 2007: 3) • Pro-ban states called for ban on use “within concentrations of civilians. this legislation will cut off US funds for the use. camps or columns of refugees or evacuees. or transfer any cluster munition unless the rules of engagement applicable to the cluster munition ensure that the cluster munition will not be used in or near any concentrated population of civilians. selfdeactivate or self neutralise. and the United States. 2007: 4) • Cambodia joins coalition • UK Cluster Munitions Prohibition Bill introduced in HoC: excludes containers w sensor fuzed submunitions “which autonomously detect and engage military targets and which self-destruct.”. November 2006 Nov 7-17 2006: 3rd RC of the CCW • seen as failing to address CMs – ends in call by 30 states for a “legallybinding instrument that addresses the humanitarian concerns posed by cluster munitions”at that stage http://www. 8109.” (HRW. Sweden. sale.At the end of title VIII.org/dokumenti/dokument. ban CMs that “pose serious humanitarian hazards because they are for example unreliable and/or inaccurate. utilize. October 2006: . add the following: Sec. Switzerland. Germany. Spain. the United Kingdom. France. whether permanent or temporary.Also parl initiatives in Denmark. Russia. Netherlands. No funds appropriated or otherwise made available by this Act my be obligated or expended to acquire.

Czech Republic. FOREIGN OPERATIONS.org/dokumenti/dokument.org. (b) CLUSTER MUNITIONS.referred to House Armed Services Subcommittee on Readiness on April 18th .but only 46 agree to ban CMs . Nicaragua.27 new states joined . Sierra Leone.clusterbombs. July 2008) September 2007 Costa Rica: Regional LA & Caribbean Meeting December 2007 – 3rd Oslo Process conference in Vienna US amendment bans export of CMs til September 2008 with failure rate of >1% = effective moratorium on exports amendment to BILL (H. Malta. Estonia. AND RELATED PROGRAMS FOR THE FISCAL YEAR ENDING SEPTEMBER 30. 2764) MAKING APPROPRIATIONS FOR THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE. India.During the current fiscal year. no defense export license for cluster munitions may be issued. Ireland.By this stage there were 30 states party to CCW Protocol V: Albania.UK announced that it will cease the use of “dumb” cluster munitions.Japan.stopclustermunitions. http://www. Hungary. unless-(1) the submunitions of the cluster munitions have a 99 percent or higher tested rate. Tajikistan. Spain. Mexico.Leading states: Norway. Liechtenstein. and Ukraine. Australia.Peru SA Cluster Munition FreeZone initiative http://www. New Zealand and Peru.R. Denmark. used in large numbers in Lebanon in 2006 http://www.uk/our-fight/in-the-uk/ May 2007 – 2nd Oslo Process conference in Lima . Switzerland.org/dokumenti/dokument. Slovakia.uk/our-fight/inthe-uk/ . France. Germany.asp?id=125 (15/5/08) – document now gone from website . Norway. Bulgaria. Romania & Poland attend but don’t sign the final declaration .asp?id=125 (15/5/08) June 2007: US drops opposition to including CMs in CCW (US CRS report to Congress.org. and no cluster munitions or cluster munitions technology shall be sold or transferred. Liberia. 2008.49 states attend at call of Norwegian FM Jonas Gahr Støre to sign a new treaty in 2008 . Austria. and . Luxembourg.Hungary announced moratorium .UK also signed up in February 2007 http://www.clusterbombs. Ireland. (HRW. El Salvador. Finland. Croatia. Lithuania. such as M85 bombs. Sweden.stopclustermunitions. Holy See. The Government however has said that it will retain the option to use “smart” cluster bombs. Netherlands. no military assistance shall be furnished for cluster munitions. 2007: 5) March 2007 Cluster Munitions Civilian Protection Act of 2007 introduced in US House of Representatives .

org/news. Mexico .’ (BBC) April 2008 16-17th: Regional Conference for LA & the Carribbean. Kitts & Nevis all said they’d push their gvts to support .stop exporting those type by then (although export moratorium currently exists) – in meantime will seek assusrances from receiving states that they will not use these type of CMs after 2018 & US forces using them will have to seek specia1 comman permission .Bolivia. transfer.stopclustermunitions.will phase out CMs with dud rate of > 1% by 2018 . Nicaragua.stopclustermunitions.asp?id=126 (15/5/08) 24-25 April 2008: Meeting of SEA states in Bangkok wks before Dublin .however wd not have to pay costs as did not cause problem? http://www. Jamaica. Panama & Venezuela for 1st time all said will take pt http://www.Colombia reticent – only wants to observe http://www.org/news.asp?id=132 (15/5/08) .took strong stand pro-VA even tho unaffected themselves .ICRC invited CMC to attend http://www. ES.asp?id=126 (15/5/08) .Granada.(2) the agreement applicable to the assistance.org/news.stopclustermunitions.stopclustermunitions. or sale of the cluster munitions or cluster munitions technology specifies that the cluster munitions will only be used against clearly defined military targets and will not be used where civilians are known to be present.org/ (15/5/08) Dublin conference 107 countries agreed to sign August 2008 Russia and Georgia use CMs in war July 2008 US DoD publishes new policy on CMs .org/news.‘Some 41 of 76 nations which are major holders of cluster bomb stocks are reported to be attending the talks. St.asp? id=133 (15/5/08) May 2008 By 6th May: 105 states have signed the Wellington Declaration http://www.clusterprocess.120 states attend .after 2018 will only use & export CMs with a dud rate of <1%# September 2008 1st -5th: CCW considered CMs November 2008 2nd round of CCW meetings to consider whether to negotiate a protocol on CMs failed to agree . February 2008 final OP meeting in Wellington where states endorsed Wellington Declaration which incl draft treaty .

Egypt.javno. but not much media coverage Also major use & casualties in Kosovo & Afghanistan  outcry Post-Afghanistan: Euro Parl came out for a moratorium ‘So what had changed since the Gulf War? The link between renewed interest in cluster munitions and the international success of the APM ban campaign is unmistakable.Proposals under discussion would have given countries 13 to 20 years to phase out some cluster munitions. All weapon use after the Ottawa Convention bears a new level of scrutiny. Turkey. Pakistan. India. Israel. http://www.21 For many campaigners.’ ERW put on agenda at 2000 ICRC meeting 2nd Review Conference of the CCW December 2001 final plenary RC of CCW: ICBL issued statement calling for CM moratorium (had been worries before that this could detract from support for APM ban. activists said. Slovakia & Poland are not 18/26 NATO members signing Timeline 2 1976 ICRC conference in Lugano: 13 states discuss CMs but fail to get much progress as user states fail to sign on to the Lugano statement & no ref to failure rates Led ult to the CCW in 1980 Issue kept alive by Mennonite Central Committee. exchange information related to efforts to promote and establish best practices” (emphasis added)’ . stockpile and trade the rest. bans on certain fuses or old weapons Only measure of prevention: ‘“Each High Contracting Party is encouraged to take generic preventive measures aimed at minimising the occurrence of explosive remnants of war” and “Each High Contracting Party may. The ICBL and Ottawa Convention had highlighted the unacceptability of weapons detonated by innocent victims either directly (death and injury) or indirectly (socioeconomically).com/en/world/clanak. Romania. MAG in Laos & HRW Use in Gulf War. but eventually decided not ack the prob wd undermine landmine ban as so similar) November 2003 Protocol V to the CCW (ERW) Inadequate because: Hardly anything agreed on preventing UXO – all re post-conflict remediation No agreed failure rates. Russia. on a voluntary basis. Kosovo & Afghanistan 30m submunitions dropped during Gulf War. while allowing them to use. this was the best possible result.php?id=203900 ‘main users fail to agree pact’ December 2008 2nd-4th Signing conference in Oslo – 107 states have pledged to sign . so only HRW & MCC had been working on it. Finland. China. produce.Japan is signing - United States.

France. Liechtenstein. Luxembourg. Hungary. Czech Republic. 2007: 3) Pro-ban states called for ban on use “within concentrations of civilians. (HRW. Bulgaria. Netherlands. 2007: 5) October 2004: Euro Parl Resolution calls for moratorium on CMs til intl agreement 2005: Norway committed to work towards a ban (Collins. UK & US in favour of a weak mandate to cont focus on ERW with focus on CMs (HRW. Norway. and the United States. Finland.HRW at time called for new protocol specifically on CMs – CCW failed to agree this = reason why OP launched At time HRW wanted new protocol to deal with technical reliability issues & targeting & use issues Sought ban on unreliable & inaccurate submunitions & their destruction So targeting specific types of CMs rather than all CMs (all from Collins. Russia. Nicaragua. 2007.org/dokumenti/dokument. and Ukraine. Croatia. Sweden.asp?id=125 (15/5/08) Call rejected by China. will not procure any more & exam alts –resolution passed in parl in September (HRW. India. 2007: 59) November 12 2006: Protocol V enters into force CCW 3rd Review Conference Nov 7-17 2006: 3rd RC of the CCW seen as failing to address CMs – ends in call by 30 states for a “legally-binding instrument that addresses the humanitarian concerns posed by cluster munitions”at that stage http://www. Sierra Leone. Switzerland.” (HRW. Netherlands. Spain. Tajikistan. 2007: 4) October 2006: Lux parl calls on gvt to join campaign Also parl initiatives in Denmark.”. the United Kingdom. Italy. Germany. there were 30 states party to CCW Protocol V: Albania. France. 2006: 5n31) Still the only state to commit to ban by 2006 Nash article! P39 Feb 2006: Belgium 1st country to ban cluster bombs http://www. Lithuania. Ireland. Australia. Germany. Holy See. 2006) As of February 16. Switzerland. Nov 2006: Cambodia joins coalition November 2006: UK Cluster Munitions Prohibition Bill introduced in HoC: excludes containers w sensor fuzed submunitions “which autonomously detect and engage military targets and which self-destruct. Malta.clusterbombs. Liberia.stopclustermunitions. 2006: 39) July 2006: Austrian parliamanent passes a resolution calling for a ban on CMs with high failure rates August 2006: Germany says will stop using 2 types of CMs with failures >1%.uk/your-countrys-position/key-dates/ (15/5/08) MSP of Protocol V March 2006 (just after Belgian ban) Australia & Norway (June) declare moratorium on use 2006 (Nash. Denmark. Spain. Slovakia. El Salvador. selfdeactivate or self neutralise. Sweden.org. Estonia. ban CMs that “pose serious humanitarian hazards because they are for example unreliable and/or inaccurate.” and require destruction of stockpiles of such cluster munitions’ .

” If passed. Jamaica.uk/our-fight/in-theuk/ March 2007.stopclustermunitions. New Zealand and Peru.asp?id=125 (15/5/08) – document now gone from website February 14.asp?id=126 (15/5/08) 24-25 April 2008: Meeting of SEA states in Bangkok wks before Dublin ICRC invited CMC to attend .org/dokumenti/dokument.org/news. UK also signed up in February 2007 http://www.asp?id=126 (15/5/08) Granada. 2nd conference Lima.stopclustermunitions.org/dokumenti/dokument.(HRW. http://www. St. Peru May 2007: 27 new states joined Hungary announced moratorium Peru SA Cluster Munition FreeZone initiative http://www. Mexico.stopclustermunitions. Austria.22 Feb 2008: final OP meeting in Wellington where states endorsed Wellington Declaration which incl draft treaty 16-17 April 2008: Regional Conference for LA & the Carribbean. The bill also specifies that cluster munitions with a dud rate of less than 1 percent can only be used against clearly defined military targets and cannot be used near civilian populations has been passed I think – exports definitely banned.org/news. ES. 2007 Senators Dianne Feinstein and Patrick Leahy introduce the “Cluster Munitions Civilian Protection Act of 2007. the UK announced that it will cease the use of “dumb” cluster munitions. used in large numbers in Lebanon in 2006.stopclustermunitions. Mexico Bolivia. such as M85 bombs. 2007: 3-4) Norway announces it will start independent process (HRW.stopclustermunitions.org. or transfer of cluster munitions that have a dud rate greater than 1 percent. Nicaragua. Kitts & Nevis all said they’d push their gvts to support Colombia reticent – only wants to observe http://www.org/news. this legislation will cut off US funds for the use.asp?id=132 (15/5/08) took strong stand pro-VA even tho unaffected themselves however wd not have to pay costs as did not cause problem? http://www.clusterbombs. The Government however has said that it will retain the option to use “smart” cluster bombs.asp?id=125 (15/5/08) Regional LA & Caribbean Meeting September 2007 Costa Rica 3rd Conference Vienna 4-7 December 2007 18. Ireland. 2007: 4) Oslo Process Feb 22-23 2007: 46 gvts met in Oslo at call of Norwegian FM Jonas Gahr Støre to sign a new treaty in 2008 Leading states: Norway. Panama & Venezuela for 1st time all said will take pt http://www. sale.

clusterprocess.stopclustermunitions.org/ (15/5/08) .http://www.org/news.asp?id=133 (15/5/08) 105 states have signed the Wellington Declaration as of 6 May http://www.