This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Sistim listrik pesawat terbang terdiri dari ; 1. listrik arus searah (direct current = DC ) 2. Listrik arus bolak-balik satu fasa atau 3 fasa (alternating current = AC) 3. Motor dan Generator 4. komponen-komponen kelistrikan pesawat terbang 5. Sistim pendistribusian daya listrik Sistim arus searah pada pesawat terbang dibutuhkan untuk pengisian battery karena sistim teknologi penyimpanan listrik masih tetap menggunakan sistim arus searah Arus bolak balik satu fasa dan 3 fasa : Kebanyakan sistim listrik pesawat terbang dewasa ini menggunakan sumber daya listrik arus bolak-balik, sekalipun penyediaan listrik arus searah juga tetap digunakan, utamanya sebagai cadangan dalam kondisi darurat, karena juga sebagaimana telah diterangkan diatas, teknologi penyimpanan listrik masih berbasis pada sistim arus searah dari battery. Tenaga listrik arus bolak-balik jauh lebih banyak dan luwes dalam penggunaannya karena antara lain ; • Tegangan listrik arus bolak-balik dengan mudah dapat diubah besarnya dengan menggunakan transformator. Hal ini memungkinkan mengirimkan daya listrik tegangan tinggi dengan arus rendah dan dengan demikian mengurangi bentuk dan berat yang dibutuhkan • Arus bolak –balik dapat dihasilkan menjadi sistim 3 fasa, yang memungkinkan penggunaan motor yang kecil tapi berdaya besar. • Mesin-mesin arus bolak-balik seperti alternator dan motor tidak lagi membutuhkan komutator atau sikat-sikat sehingga memudahkan dalam sistim pemeliharaannya.
Peralatan-peralatan pesawat terbang yang menggunakan daya listrik antara lain ; instrument, lampu-lampu neon, peralatan radio, motor-motor listrik, peralatan navigasi dan pilot otomatis. Frequency atau getaran ; adalah period dari satu siklus ayunan mulai dari nol ke maksimum atau minimum dan kembali ketitik nol dalam satu detik. Getaran sumber arus bolak-balik pada pesawat terbang umumnya sebesar 400 hertz atau 400 ayunan per detik ( cycle/second). Getaran sebesar ini memberikan efek yang baik bagi bekerjanya suatu rangkaian kelistrikan dan elektronika pesawat terbang, karena mendekati sifat-sifatarus rata.
gambar gelombang DC satu lingkaran
gambar gelombang DC 4 lingkaran/loop
gambar gelombang AC satu dan 3 fasa. Motor dan generator Motor dan generator arus searah/DC terdiri dari ; - Medan magnit; yang dihasilkan oleh magnit tetap atau kumparan gelombang elektromagnit - Jangkar atau rotor; terdiri dari lingkaran kawat/loop yang berputar
- 4– - Commutator; suatu cincin-cincin geser/penyapu yang menghubungkankeujung-ujung kumparan. Bentuk ini biasanya sebuah cincin/ring yang terba-
motor jenis deret ini mempunyai putaran start yang kuat tetapi tidak boleh dioperasikan dalam waktu yang lama karena membutuhkan arus yang besar. Biasa disebut motor series. flap dan lain-lain. .gi dua bagian yang Setiap bagian terhubung ke jangkar/armature. motor dengan gulungan medan yang dihubungkan jajar/parallel dengan armature/rotor/jangkar. menaikan dan menurunkan roda pendarat. . penggerak hidraulik .series –wound motor atau motor deret dimana kumparan medan terhubung deret dengan jangkar/armature. Motor arus searah/DC motor terdiri dari . - 5– Motor Shunt. Umumnya digunakan untuk penggerak seperti motor starter.
pompa sentrifugal dan inverter putar.Mempunyai putaran awal yang kuat dan tahan terhadap putaran tinggi serta digunakan untuk banyak tujuan termasuk penggerak pompa hidraulik.Medan magnit. . Motor jenis ini umumnya disebut motor dengan putaran constant dan banyak digunakan sebagai motor untuk kipas listrik.tenaga putaran awal rendah dan tahan terhadap kelebihan putaran. Motor Compound Motor compound mempunyai kumparan medan yang terhubung deret/series dan jajar/parallel dengan jangkar/armature/rotor.6– Motor dan Generator arus bolak-balik Terdiri dari bagian-bagian . . boleh magnit permanent atau kumparan medan elektromagnet .
Gulungan medan deretnya menghasilkan putaran yang kuat untuk memutar engine.Alternator ..Hal ini dikarenakan karena . berfungsi untuk mempertahankan agar mendapatkan tegangan yang konstan dari generator dengan mengontrol kekuatan medan magnetnya. yang biasa disebut Permanent Magnet generator ( PMG ) yang terdiri dari . kombinasi antara generator dan stsrter dalam satu wadah.Slip ring/cincin geser atau sikat-sikat yang terhubung dengan ujung-ujung kumparan.jangkar/rotor atau armature berupa kumparan yang berputar .Generator exciter .Sedangkan bila berfungsi sebagai generator mampu membangkitkan tegangan arus searah/DC sebesar 28.Permanent magnet generator . Pada jenis motor dan generator arus bolak-balik yang modern. .Ram Air Turbine umumnya keluarannya/outputnya 3 fasa 115 volt AC Starter generator. Digunakan umumnya pada pesawat-pesawat jet kecil sebagai pembangkit tenaga arus searah.Auxiliary Power Unit .5 volt dengan arus sampai 300 ampere. -7Komponen-komponen Voltage Regulator atau pengatur tegangan .Main generator/generator utama Generator arus bolak-balik/AC generator .
kecepatan putar rotor/jangkar .kekuatan dari medan magnet.Kelebihan temperature . karena bila tidak.jumlah konduktor yang tersambung dengan jangkar .kerusakan pada sistem generator Reverse Current Cutout Relay Adalah suatu sistem pencegahan otomatis yang memutuskan hubungan generator dari battery bila tegangan generator lebih rendah dari dari tegangan battery.output dari generator tergantung pada . suatu pemindah otomatis yang menghasilkan putaran yang constant walaupun putaran mesin penggeraknya berubah-ubah. . -8 – . Constant Speed Drive ( CSD) . Alat ini digunakan pada semua Generator AC. Getaran output dari generator akan constant sebesar 400 HZ Sebuah CSD akan tidak terhubung baik manual atau otomatis karena : . maka battery akan membuang muatannya ke generator dan akan membakar gulungan jangkar.kehilangan oli . Komponen utama dari Voltage regulator adalah Rheostat/ tahanan geser yang digunakan untuk mengatur kuat arus pada kumparan medan.
9– Bus Tied Switch . sebesar 26 Volt AC 400 HZ atau 115 volt AC 400 HZ Pada pesawat yang besar-besar inverter digunakan hanya bila semua generator tidak berfungsi dan sumber daya hanya dimungkinkan dari battery. hanya merubah arus bolak-balik/AC menjadi arus searah/DC. . inverter digunakan Setiap saat.outputnya 28 volt DC. suatu sakelar yang digunakan memutuskan hubungan antara dua bus yang tersambung pada saat darurat/emergency. Transformator Rectifier unit ( TRU).Menggunakan transformator penurun tegangan /Step Down Transformator dengan penyearah gelombang penuh. Pada pesawat yang kecil.Inverter Suatu alat untuk merubah arus searah/DC menjadi arus bolak-balik/AC dengan getaran dan tegangan yang diperlukan. hamper seperti inverter. Fungsi utamanya adalah untuk mengisolasi dan pencegahan. .
10 – .Protective devices/ alat-alat pencegah . .Fuses/ sekering . . .Master Switch . suatu alat yang dapat memutuskan dan dapat dihubungkan kembali setelah kesalahan diperbaiki. . .Ammeter : suatu alat penunjuk dari sistim daya dari beban.Circuit Breaker/ pemutus rangkaian . memutuskan semua hubungan ke sistem penyaluran daya dan dapat diatur ulang bila kesalahan telah diperbaiki. memutuskan arus dan tidak dapat terhubung kembali kecuali diganti setelah kesalahan diperbaiki. Biasanya terdapat garis merah untuk menentukan bila sistem kelebihan beban.
Setiap alternator/Generator AC mempunyai Bus pendistribusian masing-masing. .Pada pesawat dengan motor yang lebihdari satu. suatu penghantar dari tembaga yang dirancang untuk menampung semua beban listrik dan mendistribusikan kebeban-beban yang membutuhkan daya.hampir semua pesawat yang berstruktur logam.Bus Bar . kutub positive dari generator atau battery dihubungkan ke bus bar.. dan kutub negative dihubungkan ke struktur logam sebagai bumi/ground/pertanahan. . .11 – .
tiap sistem terdiri dari generator AC.converter daya atau alat penyimpan daya (battery) • Beban-beban yang perlu setelah terjadi kesalahan pada satu engine atau keduanya. atau generator APU dapat digunakan untuk memberikan daya ke beban-beban dari generator yang rusak. generator yang beroperasi dihubungkan sedemikian rupa untuk memberikan daya kepada beban yang perlu. getarannya dan fasenya harus dalam batas-batas yang sesesuai mungkin agar bekerjanya tepat. Alat ini terdapat pada pesawat-pesawat jenis Boeing 737. • Beban yang perlu dimana diperlukan sumber tenaga alternative. • Beban yang perlu. .Sumber daya harus mampu memberi daya kepada beban-beban sendiri-sendiri atau gabungan dan dalam waktu yang diinginkan seperti . Dasar pendistribusian tenaga listrik • Split Bus electrical system . Parallel Electrical System . transformer rectifier dan distribution bus. MD-80.Bus Bar sering dikategorikan seperti . A310. 757. sistim didtribusi atau sistim penggunaan lainnya. .12 – bila terjadi kerusakan pada generator..Setiap Bus mempunyai fungsi pendistribusian kekelompok beban tertentu. . Selama generator dihubungkan parallel ke common bus. AC atau DC. semua generator AC dihubungkan ke satu distribution bus. • beban yang terhubung ke suatu sistem dan sistem berfungsi secara normal. perlu atau tidak perlu. 767. Kiri atau kanan. Airbus A300. setelah terjadi kesalahan/kerusakan terhadap penggerak utama. setelah terjadinya ketidak fungsian dari salah satu sistim penyedia daya. .terdiri dari 2 unit lengkap pembangkit tenaga yang diisolasi. semua tegangan generator.
kecuali split system breaker antara bus. disuplai oleh generator • Least critical System . Sistem ini hampir sama dengan parallel electrical system. disuplai oleh generator • Most critical system /essential .13 – Urutan penggunaan sesuai keperluannya adalah sebagai berikut : Non Critical System .Split parallel Electrical system . System ini memiliki keluwesan dalam pendistribusian daya dan tetap mengisolasi antara system bila diperlukan.bus. disupali oleh generator atau battery. Sistem seperti ini terdapat pada pesawat Boeing 747-400 . • Sistem pendidtribusian daya pada pesawat ringan dengan satu mesin : .
Pada pesawat ringan dengan 2 mesin .14 – daya pada pesawat turbo propeller dengan 2 mesin .
15 – distribusi daya pada pesawat besar dengan 2 mesin : ..
.16 - .
size and shape of lamp should not be used as only criteria for selecting replacement lamps. Always verify that identification number on replacement lamp is correct for the application. certain precautions should be taken in the selection of lamps used as replacements. . therefore.LIGHTS GENERAL. However. – Most light assemblies are readily replaceable with standard tools. Lamps of different voltages ratings may have the same physical characteristics.
Lighting controls are conveniently located through out the aircraft and vary in complexity from simple toggle switches to logic circuitry. They illuminate the runway and taxi areas during ground operations. Runway lights are adjacent to landing lights. Power is supplied from the 115 volt AC buses through step-down transformers provide an output of 28 volts AC for the operation of the lights. The nose gear taxi light turns with the nose gear wheels so they are always aligned together Exterior Lighting Run away lights . taxi light supplies lighting to the area in the direction the nose wheels are pointed. power is supplied from the 28 volt AC buses. and • Emergency Lighting (Each interior and exterior emergency light gives lighting to the escape paths. • Interior Lighting (Flight Compartment Lighting. Step-down transformers and transformer rectifier units supply the various levels of AC and DC voltages required by specific lighting groups. Aircraft lighting consists of: • Exterior Lighting (Exterior lights illuminate the aircraft and landing area during flight operations. . Landing and runway lights. • Supply lighting to the areas around the aircraft. position (anti-collision) lights make the aircraft more easily seen are installed on each wingtip and fuselage.are adjusted to give good lighting when landing or turning on the runway. • Supply lighting to the external surfaces of the aircraft Exterior lights are controlled by switches on the control panel in the cockpit. A retractable landing light is attached on outboard flap track fairing. Passenger Compartment Lighting also Cargo and Service Compartment Lighting). There are lights for the aisles and exits and their associated areas. Exterior Lighting The exterior lights are the lights installed on the outer side of the aircraft for the purpose: • Make the airplane more easily seen. Landing lights supply lighting to the runway. runway lights supply lighting to the area in front of and to the side of the airplane. Taxi light.is installed on a bracket on the inner cylinder of the nose gear shock strut.Primary lighting power used is 115 volts AC. .
Landing lights .
Electrical transmission and distribution system .
Flight compartment lighting includes general and special types of area lighting. and galleys. reading. The lamps operate on 5 volts. The intensity of the lighting can be changed for the best visual condition. . Passenger information signs. . AC standby bus supplies electrical power to the lamps in some flight control instruments. If there is a electrical power failure. The panel light control adjusts the lighting intensity can be to increase or decrease the brightness Passenger compartments. Passenger compartment lighting comes from these sources: • Ceiling Lights • Night Lights • Sidewall Lights. attendants work areas. and attendant call lights are also installed. the 28 volts AC transfer buses supply electrical power to the lighting controls to a step-down autotransformer.lighting provides illumination of the entire passenger cabin. lavatories. It also provides area lighting for entryway.
Reading lights are installed in the passenger service units Switches are located adjacent to the respective reading light on PSU’s. These lights are pointed to supply lighting to the paths of deployed emergency evacuation slides. the emergency lighting replaces the usual lighting. Electrical power is supplied to the emergency lighting system by 6 volt battery operated power supplies. for lavatory lighting controls are within each unit. if the airplane has an electrical power failure. In this condition. Lavatories are illuminated with dome lights in the ceiling. independently from airplane generator and battery busses. • Exit signs show the passengers where the doors and escape hatches are. • Floor proximity emergency lights identify the aisle and the exits of the passenger compartment. . The interior emergency lights supply lighting to the passenger compartment and the flight compartment.Passenger cabin illumination is provided by fluorescent lights installed in the ceiling and sidewall panels throughout the passenger cabin. Controls for the lighting are on panels in the passenger compartment. • Aisle lights supply lighting to the aisle from the ceiling. Exterior emergency lights are 6-volt incandescent lights installed on the outer side of the airplane. The emergency lights automatically supply lighting and identify the exits.
provided via the external power receptacle of the aircraft. Transformerrectifier (T-R) units provide DC power by converting AC power. Engine-driven generators are driven by constant speed drives to obtain a generator speed constant of 6000 rpm. including their support and attachments. which distributes the power to wiring systems called PRIMARY MAINS and SECONDARY MAINS. Most land-based power systems use alternating current (AC) rather than direct current (DC). The CSD operation is similar to an automobile automatic transmission. Each engine is equipped with a CSD driven generator. External when switch is set directly to power CS GEN D 2 AP U GE N When on the APU to power and #2 systems. and use electrical energy. . which carry the generated power to a distribution center. Each generator supplies three phase. the APU generator can provide either the #1 or #2 system. distribute. CS D GEN 1 power supply. A battery is used as a standby Transformer . Electrical transmission and distribution system power the entire electrical power power provides power to airplane distribution. . An AC distribution system usually contains one or more generators (technically known as ALTERNATORS in an aircraft system). generator is identical to the engine generators. and 400 cycle alternating current to a maximum load of 40 KVA or 111 Ampere draw.Rectifier (T-R) Units The the The APU APU APU AC external power. principally because transformers can be used only with AC.The term “electrical system” as used in aircraft means those parts of the aircraft that generate. Transformers provide power to AC buses by reducing AC power. AC Electrical Power.ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS GENERAL . The CSD provides a constant drive speed to the generator regardless of the actual engine RPM. Generators are driven by the engines and one generator is driven by the auxiliary power unit (APU). when provided to the external power receptacle. A static inverter converts DC battery power to AC power. External power. When inbackup power to electrical if generator is directly driven by itself. 115 volt. . DC Electrical Power. the ground. necessary.A battery provides 28-volt DC power to start the APU. a wiring system of FEEDERS. may be used both the #1 Electrical flight. and the DISTRIBUTION CENTER.generators supply are the primary sources of power for the main AC buses and the whole electrical power system. The electrical power system consists of AC Electrical Power and DC Electrical Power. can system only the ground.
ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM SCHEMATIC EXTERNAL AC BUS CSD GEN 1 APU GEN GEN 2 CSD GENERATOR BUS 1 GENERATOR BUS 2 .
We will describe the indicators and gauges on this panel. Charging of the battery is automatic.115VAC GND SERVICE BUS 115VAC MAIN BUS 1 115VAC TRANSFER BUS 1 115VAC TRANSFER BUS 2 115VAC MAIN BUS 2 TR 1 TR 2 TR 3 DC BUS 1 AC STANDBY BUS DC BUS 2 DC STANDBY BUS BATTERY BUS INV APU START BATT CHGR HOT BATTERY BUS BATT The aircraft battery is located in the Electronics Compartment. The battery is a 28 volt nickelcadmium battery. The battery can supply DC power to certain busses when necessary. 0 . The AC meters and switches are shown on the right.50 + 50 380 400 CPS FREQ DC AMPS 420 . The DC meters and switches are shown on the left.
first in one direction and then the other. As the coil rotates in a counter-clockwise direction. . The direction of the induced voltages depends on the direction of movement of the coil. the ends loop are connected to two metal strip rings (collector rings) C1 and C2. When the loop rotates it cuts magnetic lines of force. The two ends of the loop are connected to slip rings. The elementary AC generator consists of a conductor or loop of wire in a magnetic field that is produced by an electromagnet. Rotating loop (A and B) placed between two magnetic poles North (N) and South (S).used to produce an alternating current re called AC generators or alternator.110 20 0 DC VOLTS 10 120 AC VOLTS 13 30 40 0 TR 1 BAT BAT BUS STBY PWR TR 2 GEN 1 GRD PWR STBY PWR GALLEY OFF APU GEN GEN 2 TR 3 INV TEST TEST RESID VOLTS OFF BAT ON ON AC AC GENERATION Generator. the coil sides will cut the magnetic lines of force in opposite directions. . and they are in contact with two brushes. Current is taken from the collector rings by brushes.
The number of times each cycle occurs in a period of time is called the frequency. the frequency of an electric current or voltage indicates the number of times a cycle recurs in 1 second. and (4) Brushes. (3) A commutators.There are two alternations in a complete cycle. or loop. The frequency then. the positive alternation and the negative. Simple Generator DC GENERATION A basic DC generator has four basic parts: (1) A magnetic field. the voltage and current pass through a complete cycle of values each time a coil or conductors passes under a north and south poles of the magnet. In a generator. . is equal to the number of cycles in one revolution multiplied by the number of revolutions per second. (2) A single conductor.
By replacing slip rings of basic AC generator with two half-cylinders. When we have relative motion between a magnetic field and a conductor in that magnetic field. called a commutators. Basic Operation of a DC Generator A single conductor. Also. but the action of the commutators produces a DC voltage.these generators provide emergency electrical power in the event of main electrical power failure. The two segments are insulated from each other. EMERGENCY GENERATION A generator converts mechanical energy into electrical energy. there are new methods of providing emergency electrical power. shaped in the form of a loop. As long as the loop is stationary. If we rotate the loop. In . a basic DC generator is obtained. The few requirements that remain for direct current (dc) are normally supplied by a system of rectifiers. The rotating parts of a DC generator (coil and commutators) are called an armature.The magnetic field may be supplied by either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet. Emergency generators. . an EMF is induced into the conductor. as given in equation. For now. the magnetic field has no effect (no relative motion). A rectifier converts AC power to DC power. the larger the induced EMF. The magnitude of the induced EMF depends on the field strength and the rate at which the flux lines are cut. we will use a permanent magnet to describe a basic DC generator. the aircraft storage battery with its highly corrosive electrolyte damages precision equipment and precious metals used in today's aircraft for these reasons. is positioned between the magnetic poles. The generation of an EMF by the loop rotating in the magnetic field is the same for both AC and DC generators. the loop cuts through the magnetic field. and an EMF (voltage) is induced into the loop. the two stationary brushes are placed on opposite sides of the commutators and are so mounted that each brush contacts each segment of the commutators as the latter revolves simultaneously with the loop. The storage battery was the only source of emergency electrical power. Generators that produce AC are called AC generators or alternators. The stronger the field or the more flux lines cut for a given period of time. and the direction of rotation is such that the conductor cuts the lines of flux.
Feedback circuit. takes the signal from the comparison circuit and amplifies the milliamp input to an amp output. . .this regulator consists of six basic circuits that together regulate the output voltage of an AC generator from no-load to full-load. Voltage Regulator Block Diagram Sensing circuit. Sensing circuit senses the decrease in output voltage as compared to the reference and lowers its input to the comparison circuit. increases or decreases field excitation to either raise or lower the AC output voltage.which controls field excitation of the AC generator. the pilot operates a lever that causes the package to stick out into the airflow.side the aircraft provides emergency electrical power. There is one important difference between the regulators system of DC generators and alternators operated in a parallel configuration. This reference is the desired voltage output of the AC generator. .which can be a magnetic amplifier or transistor amplifier. Reference circuit. the comparison circuit will develop an error signal due to the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage. The main reason for this change in voltage is the change in the voltage drop across the armature winding caused by a change in load current.senses output voltage of the AC generator. . VOLTAGE REGULATION The problem of voltage regulation in an AC system does not differ basically from that in a DC system the purpose of a voltage regulator is to maintain the output voltage of a generator at a desired value. The ram-air effect of the airflow provides the turning power for a turbine. in turn.electrically compares the reference voltage to the sensed voltage and provides an error signal. . The turbine. . rotates the generator's armature that produces the electrical power. It does this to prevent overshooting or undershooting of the desired voltage by slowing down the circuit response. which is then sent to the signal output. or field. circuit.takes some of the output of the signal output circuit and feeds it back to the amplification circuit. Signal output circuit. Since the reference circuit is always a constant.maintains a constant output for reference. . AC generator voltage regulator. and the sensing circuit provides a signal of these voltage changes. the output voltage changes. a power package positioned out. This signal is proportional to output voltage and is sent to the comparison circuit. When required. This error signal represents an increase or decrease in output voltage. As the generator is loaded or unloaded. .some aircraft. The signal is sent to the amplification circuit. maintain a balance of circulating current throughout the system and eliminate sudden changes in voltage (anti-hunting) when a load is applied to the system. Amplification circuit. Comparison circuit.
The emergency system supplies an immediate and automatic source of electrical power to selected loads that are vital to the safety. is P. If the load on the generator were decreased. INVERTER The INVERTER. the voltage output of the machine would rise. equipment to distribute the power. You will recall that P is the complement of P. is a logic device that has an output opposite of the input. motors. Some large ships also use load centers that function as remote switchboards. Consequently. If we apply P to the input of the inverter then the output will be the opposite of the input. and 400-Hz power. at load centers. It is sometimes called a NEGATOR. When an inverter is used alone. P remains LOW as long as P is HIGH and vice versa. The output. This increase in field excitation causes generated voltage to increase to the desired output. This output from the comparison circuit will then be amplified by the amplifier circuit and sent to the signal output circuit. causing the generated voltage to decrease to the desired output. At T2. the comparison circuit will develop a negative error signal whose magnitude is again dependent on the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage. often referred to as a NOT gate.The error signal developed will be of a positive value with the magnitude of the signal dependent on the difference between the sensed voltage and the reference voltage. It will more often be seen in conjunction with the symbol for an amplifier (view B). below. Most AC power distribution system is 115/200-volt. The actions of the voltage regulator would then be the opposite of that for a lowering output voltage. Power is used by any equipment that requires electrical power for its operation (lights. If power from the ship service distribution system is interrupted. Symbols for inverters used in combination with other devices will be shown. etc). In this case. it is represented by the symbol (view A). 3-phase. on power panels. The Boolean expression for the output of this gate is f = P. the output (P) is HIGH. and the equipment which uses the power. P 0 f 1 The Truth Table for an inverter is shown . and on loads that are fed by normal and alternate and/or emergency feeders. Bus transfer equipment is installed on switchboards. The ac power distribution system consists of the power source. the signal output circuit will decrease field excitation to the AC generator. As a result. P goes HIGH and as a result P goes LOW. POWER DISTRIBUTION Delivery of power to building premises on poles or placed underground. The signal output circuit then increases field excitation to the AC generator. The power source can be the ship from generator or the external power generator. from the power plant or substation through feeders and mains. Power is normally distributed through the ship service distribution switchboards and power panels. in this case. the emergency power distribution system is activated. P is LOW. At times T0 through T2.
The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the design of the primary and secondary windings. The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an alternating voltage into the winding. with voltage regulation. silicone controlled rectifier (SCR) inverter. • The PRIMARY WINDING. usually iron. The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are: • The CORE. inverter drive. and the ferro resonant transformer and filter.1 0 The inverter is a general purpose. Transformers used at low frequencies. The inverter driver operates the SCR inverter which in turn. direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). TRANSFORMER Most basic form a transformer consists of: • A primary coil or winding. static inverter which provides a 115-volt alternating current power source for use there systems if required. The primary winding is connected to an ac voltage source.Two coils of wire (called windings) are wound on some type of core material. Most power transformers are of the iron-core type. current limiting. The magnetic field (flux) builds up (expands) and collapses (contracts) about the primary winding. require a core of low-reluctance magnetic material. the core material is air and the transformer is called an AIRCORE TRANSFORMER. The input filter attenuates noise such that the inverter does not introduce noise back onto the input dc line. which provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux. such as 60 hertz and 400 hertz. The basic functional entities of the inverter are the input filter. • A core that supports the coils or windings. In some cases the coils of wire are wound on a cylindrical or rectangular cardboard form. In effect. which receives energy from the ac source. . • A secondary coil or winding. THE COMPONENTS OF A TRANSFORMER. .volt. operates in a square wave mode to drive the Ferro resonant output transformer. and harmonic suppression located inside the inverter and the cables from external equipment must be routed to their respective terminal boards through openings in the rear panel of the inverter. This type of transformer is called an IRON-CORE TRANSFORMER. The Ferro resonant transformer and filter provide a 115. This voltage causes alternating current to flow through the load.
The composition of a transformer core depends on such factors as voltage. It takes about 50 such laminations to make a core an inch thick. thus it provides for the efficient transfer of power. A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily. Commonly used core materials are air. Size limitations and construction costs are also factors to be considered. CORE CHARACTERISTICS. The laminations are insulated from each other and then pressed together to form the core. which receives energy from the primary winding and delivers it to the load.and I-shaped sections of metal. soft iron. which protects the above components from dirt. One is the HOLLOW-CORE. yet efficient. Each of these materials is suitable for particular applications and unsuitable for others. A soft-iron-core transformer is very useful where the transformer must be physically small. An important point to remember is that the most efficient transformer core is one that offers the best path for the most lines of flux with the least loss in magnetic and electrical energy. Iron-core transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low (below 20 kHz). These steel laminations are insulated with a non-conducting material. TRANSFORMER WINDINGS. moisture. and frequency. The winding that is connected to the source is called the PRIMARY WINDING. The most popular and efficient transformer core is the SHELL CORE each layer of the core consists of E. . Generally. . The iron-core transformer provides better power transfer than does the air-core transformer. The ENCLOSURE.There are two main shapes of cores used in laminated-steel-core transformers. such as varnish. The transformer operates when a source of ac voltage is connected to one of the windings and a load device is connected to the other. Hollow-Core Transformers. and mechanical damage. . The winding that is connected to the load is called the SECONDARY WINDING.As stated above. These sections are butted together to form the laminations. and then formed into a core. current. and steel.• • The SECONDARY WINDING. the transformer consists of two coils called WINDINGS which are wrapped around a core. The purpose of the laminations is to reduce certain losses which will be discussed later in this chapter. so named because the core is shaped with a hollow square through the center. air-core transformers are used when the voltage source has a high frequency (above 20 kHz). .
Sometimes. Parts (B) and (C) show iron-core transformers. In a transformer designed for high-voltage applications. additional connections are made to the transformer windings at points other than the ends of the windings. it is called a CENTER TAP. Frequently. Next.Typical schematic symbols for transformers an air-core transformer is shown in figure (A). These additional connections are called TAPS. SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS FOR TRANSFORMERS. The bars between the coils are used to indicate an iron core. These leads are to be connected to the source and load. are placed between the layers of windings to provide additional insulation. The figure shows four leads.In the transformer shown in the cutaway view. After the secondary winding is complete. . sheets of insulating material. When the primary winding is completely wound. the E and I sections of the iron core are inserted into and around the windings as shown. it too is covered with insulating paper. The leads from the windings are normally brought out through a hole in the enclosure of the transformer. The wire is coated with varnish so that each turn of the winding is insulated from every other turn. 0 + 50 400 380 DC AMPS 420 120 110 Block diagram of a basic power supply RECTIFIER . the primary consists of many turns of relatively small wire. respectively. it is wrapped in insulating paper or cloth. terminals may be provided on the enclosure for connections to the windings. When a tap is connected to the center of the winding. The secondary winding is then wound on top of the primary winding. two from the primary and two from the secondary. such as paper.
RECTIFIERS. and to the positive supply lead. by the current Simple diode rectifier For each 360-degree cycle of input voltage. The circuit current therefore has the appearance of a series of positive pulses. most input transformers have separate step-down windings to supply filament voltages to both power supply tubes and the tubes in the external equipment (load). or inductors that controls the rise and fall time of the varying signal so that the signal remains at a more constant dc level. This is indicated dotted waveform. It maintains the output of the power supply at a constant level in spite of large changes in load current or in input line voltage. The tube will be in cutoff and no will flow for the entire negative alternation. the sine wave applied to the tube makes the plate positive with respect to the cathode. However. Current that . The final section. VOLTS 0 30 Now let's discuss the process of rectification.that rectification is theDC changing of an ac voltage to a pulsating dc voltage. Depending upon the design of the equipment. it is ideally suited for converting alternating current to direct current. a RECTIFIER. you will see later in this chapter that the pulsating dc voltage is not desirable. the tube is said to be in CUTOFF. a FILTER. a FILTER section is used to convert the pulsating dc voltage to filtered DC voltage. You will see this more clearly in the discussion of the actual filter circuits. through the tube. If an ac voltage is applied to a diode. During the positive alternation of the source voltage. At this time the diode conducts and plate current flows from the negative supply lead. through the milliammeter. Additionally. the diode will conduct ONLY DURING THE POSITIVE ALTERNATION OF VOLTAGE when the plate of the diode is made positive with respect to the cathode. This is indicated by the shaded area of the output waveform. The first section is the TRANSFORMER. the plate is driven negative and the tube cannot conduct.the transformer serves two primary purposes: (1) To step up or step down the input line voltage to the desired level and (2) To couple this voltage to the rectifier section. . the current always flows through the circuit in THE SAME DIRECTION. The RECTIFIER section converts the ac signal to a pulsating dc voltage. the REGULATOR. and a REGULATOR. the output of the regulator will maintain a constant dc voltage within certain limits. . does just what the name implies. Since a diode vacuum tube will pass current in only one direction. For this reason. the tube conducts for 180 degrees and is in cutoff for 180 degrees. capacitors.Most power supplies are made up of four basic sections: a TRANSFORMER. During the negative alternation of plate voltage (dotted polarity signs). When conditions prevent the tube from conducting. This current exists during the entire period of time that the plate is positive with respect to the cathode. it also isolates the electronic power supply from the external power source and either steps up or steps down the ac voltage to the desired level. The filter section contains a network of resistors. The transformer has several purposes: In addition to coupling the input ac signal to the power supply. as shown by the shaded areas. Notice that although the current is in the form of pulses.
Thermal Protectors. the current will greatest. Most circuit breakers must be reset by hand and when overload condition still exists. Circuit Protective and Control Devices TR 1 APU GEN It is very important to protect aircraft components.is designed to break the circuit and stop the current flow when the current exceeds a predetermined value. it designed to open the circuit automatically whenever the temperature of the motor become excessively high. Circuit Breakers. while fuse melts and must be replaced. When fuse is replaced the applicable manufacturer’s instructions should be consulted to be sure a fuse of the correct type and capacity installed. if the resistance in a circuit is small. we will explain the three rectifier circuits most commonly used in electronics today-the half-wave. injury personnel. Circuit Breakers. some rectifiers are more efficient than others. Fuse melts and breaks the circuit when the current exceeds the rated capacity of the fuse. and bridge. Two type fuse holders are installed in aircraft. open and closed.or switch is used to protect a motor. For this reason. there will be an extremely heavy current flowing through the wires or cables. This consists of a bimetallic strip which it becomes overheated from excessive current. “Plug-in holders” are used for small type and low capacity fuses. term “direct short” describes a situation in which some point in the circuit. come direct contact with the ground or return side of the circuit. If a malfunction in motor causes it to overheat. It has two positions. Most serious trouble in a circuit is a direct short. Although the principle of rectification applies to all rectifier circuits. the thermal switch . bends away from a catch on the switch lever and permits the switch to trip open. Magnetic type and Thermal overload switch or Breaker. and that with properly controls electrical circuit under proper control. Thermal Protectors are used for this purpose. several kinds of protective devices are installed. .a fuse is a strip of metal that will melt when current in excess of its carefully determined capacity flow through it.flows in pulses in the same direction is called PULSATING DC. When a direct short occurs. . and “Clip” type holders are used for heavy high capacity fuses. full-wave. Circuit Breaker Fuse. There several types of circuit breakers in general use in the aircraft systems. Most of fuses. other fuses are made of copper and are called current limiters. Circuit breakers differs from a fuse in that it “trips” to break the circuit and it may be reset. According to Ohm’s Law. The diode has thus RECTIFIED the input voltage. To protect aircraft electrical systems from damage and failure cause by excessive current. the circuit breakers will trip again to prevent damage to the circuit. the strip metal is made of an alloy of tin and bismuth. The fuse is installed in the circuit so that all the current in the circuit passes through it. Fuses. where full system voltage is present. .
will break the circuit intermittently. is a DoublePole Single-Throw (DPST) that can complete two circuits. either a switch or a relay may be included in the circuit for this purpose. Control Devices. one circuit at the time through each pole. Example on figure it is possible to complete only one circuit through a switch. Toggle switches operate much the same as Knife switches but they moving parts are enclosed. A pole of switch is its moveable blade or contactor. which bends and breaks the circuit when it is heated (one metal expands than the other subjected to the same temperature). to stop.the units in the electrical circuits in an aircraft are not all intended to operate continuously or automatically. There must be controlling their operation. A switch with two contactors or poles. the metals contract and the strip return to its original position and close the circuit. Double-Pole Single-Throw Knife and Toggle switches . number of poles is equal to the number of circuits or paths for current flow that can be completed through the switch at any one time. each of which completes only one circuit. or to change the direction of the current flow in the circuit. certain conditions.switch is used to start. Switch must be able to carry the normal current of the circuit and must be insulated heavy enough for the voltage of the circuit. When the strip or disk cools. the switch is a Single-Pole Single-Throw (SPST) switch. Thermal switch contains a bimetallic disks. SWITCHES. to perform very definite functions. Single-Pole Single-Throw Knife and Toggle switches Single-Pole Single-Throw Knife and Toggle switches Knife switches are seldom used on aircraft. A single-pole switch through Single-Pole Double-Throw Knife and Toggle switches which two circuits can be completed (not at the same time) is a Single-Pole Double-Throw (SPDT) switch. . Most of them are meant to operate at certain time. or strip. . Throw of switch indicates the number of circuits or paths for current that it is possible to complete through the switch with each pole or contactor.
actuator motors. Push Button switch. they are used primarily as limit switches to provide automatic control of landing gears. except when it is held in the closed position. One that will come to rest at either of two positions. is a two-position switch. opening the contacts and the circuit. Micro-switches will open or close a circuit with a very small movement of the tripping device. opening the circuit in one position and closing it in another. Micro-switches are usually push-button switches. Both kinds are spring-loaded position to their normal position and will return to that position as soon as they are released. The push button is either an insulator itself or is insulated from the contact.. except when it is held in the open position. One that stays closed. have one stationary contact and one moveable contact. This switch is spring-loaded and designed for momentary contact. is a normally close switch (identified as NC). the spring and the moveable contact are pushed. The moveable contact is attached to the push button. A switch that stays open. is a normally open switch (identified as NO). When the operating plunger is pressed in. Cross section of a Micro-switch .38 Schematic representation for typical switches A toggle that is spring-loaded to the OFF position and must be held in the ON position to complete the circuits is a momentary contact two-position switch.
take the place of several switches when the knob of the switch is rotated.Rotary-selector switch. Rotary Selector Switch In general. contacts. springs. Relays or relay switches are used for control of circuits carrying heavy currents. armature. A relay is connected in the circuit between the unit controlled and the nearest source of power (or power bus bar) so that the cables carrying heavy current will be as short as possible. the switch opens one circuit and closes another. A small wire connects one of the coil terminals (which are insulated from the housing) to the source of power through a control switch usually located in the cockpit. The other coil terminal is usually grounded to the housing. Relay switch consists of a coil or solenoid an iron core. . and the mounting. Fixed-Core Relay Moveable-Core Relay . and both fixed and moveable contacts. Power relays are called CONTACTORS. Relays. . When the control switch is closed. -39Ignition switches and voltmeter selector switches are typical of this kind of switch. a relay consists of a magnetic core and its associated coil.Relays are electrically operated control switches. control relays are usually known simply as relays. and are classified according to their use as POWER RELAYS or CONTROL RELAYS. an electromagnetic field is set up around the coil.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.