This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
ELT Methodology : Principles and Practice CHAPTER 5 Chitravelu, N. Sithaparam
Contents: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Four stages in reading Areas of concern in the selection of texts Role of texts in the L2 classroom Simplified vs. authentic texts Channel conversion Implications for L2 teachers
Reading Materials – Stages in Reading
In general, there are 4 stages in reading:
Learning to read Reading to learn
Source: Chitravelu et al., 2005
2005 . 3. 5. Content. Concepts in the text.. Balance.Reading Materials – Selection of Texts Major areas of concern in the selection of texts: 1. 2. Pedagogic suitability. 4. Suitability of language. Level of reasoning required. Source: Chitravelu et al. and 6.
Selection of Texts Teacher need to skillfully exploit texts to help students acquire new reading skills or become fluent in using the skills: Learning to read stage - Outcome of reading is to acquire the skills required when reading to learn. 2005 . Texts should contain pedagogic as well as real reading purposes. Source: Chitravelu et al.Reading Materials ..
Reading Materials . Texts should be information-rich. 2005 .. Outcome of reading is to gain knowledge. Source: Chitravelu et al. - Students read text to learn from the content.Selection of Texts Reading to learn stage Students tend to read slowly in order to understand & remember what they have read.
3. 2003 .Reading Materials – Role of Texts Role of text in the L2 classroom: 1. Text as a vehicle for teaching language structure & vocabulary. Source: Wallace. Texts which teach language through reading. Texts which offer high-interest content. 2.
Lack of communicative function as texts aim at reinforcing sentence patterns. Source: Wallace. Text as a vehicle for teaching language structure & vocabulary Language-focused texts. 2003 . “Usage” rather than “use” (Widdowson. 1978). Reading solely to learn a language – not for information or interest (Williams. Text-focused activities – focus on sentence patterns text & to highlight cohesive features.Reading Materials – Role of Texts 1. 1984).
Texts which teach language through reading Select texts to promote reading .learners develop language awareness through reading. Source: Wallace. the overall content of the selected text is more important than the linguistic features contained in the text. 2003 .1984). To motivate L2 learners to read widely in the L2. Select texts that can develop reading strategies.Reading Materials – Role of Texts 2. Wide access to meaningful written language is effective in reinforcing English structures as well as learning new ones (Elley.
Texts which offer high-interest content Text must be interesting for the learner to read.g. E. However. Source: Wallace. difficult to address the issue of interest (individual differences and preferences). Therefore.Reading Materials – Role of Texts 3. 2003 . select texts that are inherently motivating – something about the content that makes learners interested to read. in narratives that can stimulate readers’ schema.
00 pm. 2003 . Joanne works the day shift. Her schedule is Tuesday through Saturday from 8 o’clock to 5 pm. Her lunch time is 12. …………………………………………………………………. Source: Wallace.00 noon to1. Many. Joanne works for the Lincoln Company. …………………………………………………………………. many years ago there was a very rich landlord who owned a lot of land and houses. a day shift and a night shift. There are two shifts in the Lincoln Company.Reading Materials – Role of Texts Activity Which opening lines might be of the greatest general interest to secondary level students? ………………………………………………………………….
2003 . events are unexceptional.Reading Materials – Role of Texts Activity . However. T1 is not what we perceive as a “story”.Discussion Both texts are linguistically simple. something about the content in T2 make students more interested in reading. Source: Wallace. Why? T2 begins with a recognizable kind of narrative and students engage with the text by activating a relevant schema.
2008 .contains increased redundancy & amplified explanation (Kuo 1993).Reading Materials . Advantages of simplified texts: . idiosyncratic styles without suffering a loss of valuable communication features & concepts (Allen & Widdowson 1979). and .excludes unnecessary & distracting.Simplified Texts Texts are simplified for L2 learners for easy comprehension and to help prepare them for more advanced. Source: Crossley & McNamara. authentic text (Young 1999).
Reading Materials . simplified texts contain simplified & frequent forms. denying learners the opportunity to learn natural forms of language (Long & Ross 1993). Widely criticized for removing authentic language.Simplified Texts However. 2008 . Thus. Source: Crossley & McNamara.
the text can only be truly authentic in the context for which it was originally written (Hutchinson & Waters. 1987). Authenticity does not lie in the materials but is created by the reader’s response – congruence between the writer’s intention & reader’s interpretation(Widdowson. Authenticity is not a characteristic of the text in itself .Authentic Texts Definitions of Authenticity: “genuine communicative acts” . 1987). .Reading Materials .1979).written or spoken language between native speakers (Meinhof.
2008 . cohesive devices) – development of reading comprehension skills & information processing skills. 1995) Advantages: introduces students to natural & contextualized language Use of authentic linguistic features (e. Source: Crossley & McNamara.Authentic Texts Authentic text written to fulfill a social purpose for native speakers within a language community (Lee.Reading Materials .g. contain natural lexical redundancy – aids in reconstructing text & understanding unfamiliar lexicon.
Simplified vs. however. is thought to benefit L2 learners because it is lexically.Reading Materials . 2008 . and rhetorically less difficult than authentic text. Authentic text? Authentic text is assumed to provide more natural language and more naturally occurring cohesion than simplified text. Source: Crossley & McNamara. syntactically. Simplified text is criticized as creating discourse that is unnatural and serves to reduce helpful redundancy. thus increasing text readability. Authentic Simplified Vs. Simplified text.
In what way are the discourses in it culture-specific? . This is due to the lack of familiarity with culture-specific features of the discourses in the text (Wallace. 2003).Activity – Authentic Texts Readers from a different sociocultural background may find the meaning of a simple text difficult to comprehend. Explore critically the discourse in minimal texts such as the following advertisement.
TITLE: "Sucky Vacations" BRAND: San Diego AGENCY: NYCA .
Refer to a particular sociocultural practice – parents are sent to retirement homes when they get older.g. e.Discussion – Authentic Texts Message written to young parents who are considering where to take their children for a holiday.: Parents are expected to take their children on family vacations. - The vacations are normally related to having fun at the beach. Message makes assumptions that are culture specific. .
g.. from words to graphics.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion Information transfer. E. materials. 2005 . actions. is converted into another medium. etc. Information expressed in one medium. Source: Chitravelu et al.
information in graphs. etc. Sometimes. Source: Chitravelu et al. etc. is easier to remember. we might use non-verbal responses.. 2005 .. diagrams.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) Why it is important? Whenever the receptive skill is higher than the productive skill. graphs. Some information is better presented using tables.
2005 . . etc. Source: Chitravelu et al.students learn how to make sense of the forms & the special way of presenting information. it is important to teach students how to interpret them: . graphs. .students learn how to relate these forms to the verbal texts they accompany.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) Why it is important? Since many texts/textbooks include charts..
. 2005 . Maps – see relationships involving physical location Source: Chitravelu et al.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) Commonly-used graphics in channel conversion 1.
Floor plans .see relationships involving physical location Source: Chitravelu et al.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 2. 2005 ..
2005 .. Bus/train schedule – gather information from schedules & how best to use them Source: Chitravelu et al.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 3.
Pictures/diagrams – form mental picture using information from the text PLAYLOAD BAY DOORS PLAY LOAD BAY FLIGHT DECK MAIN ENGINE Source: Chitravelu et al. 2005 ..Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 4.
Graphs/pie-charts/etc.Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 5. – present trends. information that is too complex to understand without the relationship being shown in written forms & hierarchical information. relationship of parts to whole. Source: Chitravelu et al.. 2005 .
2005 ..Reading Materials – Channel Conversion Channel Conversion (Cont’d) 6. Time-lines & flow-charts – follow sequence of events Source: Chitravelu et al.
Need to make reading lessons more enjoyable by introducing texts that are of interest to the learners.Conclusion Implications for L2 teachers: Need to be aware of criteria involving the preparation & selection of material for teaching reading. Authentic reading is interactive – teachers need to facilitate interactions between readers and texts in the classroom. .Reading Materials . Need to expose learners to authentic materials at earlier stage.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.