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Galileo and Einstein - Fowler|Views: 38|Likes: 1

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/131364887/Galileo-and-Einstein-Fowler

03/05/2014

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- 1 Introduction: What is this course about?
- 1.1 Some Basic Ideas
- 1.2 Babylonians and Greeks
- 1.3 Greek Classics Come to Baghdad
- 1.4 Monasteries and Universities
- 1.5 Galileo
- 1.6 Newton
- 1.7 From Newton to Einstein
- 1.8 What about Other Civilizations?
- 1.9 Plan of the Course
- 2 Counting in Babylon
- 2.1 The Earliest Written Language
- 2.2 Weights and Measures: 60s everywhere!
- 2.4 Fractions
- 2.5 Ancient Math Tables
- 2.6 How Practical are Babylonian Weights and Measures?
- 2.7 Pythagoras’ Theorem a Thousand Years before Pythagoras
- 3 Early Greek Science: Thales to Plato
- 3.1 The Milesians
- 3.2 Early Geometry
- 3.3 Early Geometry According to Proclus
- 3.4 The Pythagoreans: a Cult with a Theorem, and an Irrational Discovery
- 3.5 The Square on the Hypotenuse
- 3.6 Rational and Irrational Numbers
- 3.7 What’s so Important about Irrational Numbers?
- 3.8 Change and Constancy in the Physical World
- 3.9 Hippocrates and his Followers
- 3.10 Plato
- 3.11 References
- 4 Motion in the Heavens: Stars, Sun, Moon, Planets
- 4.1 Introduction
- 4.2 Looking at the Stars
- 4.3 Motion of the Sun
- 4.4 Motion of the Moon against the Starry Vault
- 4.5 Motion of the Planets
- 5 Aristotle
- 5.1 Beginnings of Science and Philosophy in Athens
- 5.2 Plato’s Idea of a Good Education
- 5.3 Aristotle and Alexander
- 5.4 Aristotle Founds the Lyceum
- 5.5 Aristotle’s Science
- 5.6 Aristotle’s Method
- 5.7 “Causes”
- 5.8 Biology
- 5.9 Elements
- 5.10 Dynamics: Motion, And Why Things Move
- 5.11 Natural Motion and Violent Motion
- 5.12 Aristotle’s Laws of Motion
- 5.13 Planetary Dynamics
- 5.14 Aristotle’s Achievements
- 6 Measuring the Solar System
- 6.1 How Big is the Earth?
- 6.2 How High is the Moon?
- 6.3 How Far Away is the Sun?
- 7 Greek Science after Aristotle
- 7.1 Strato
- 7.2 Aristarchus
- 7.3 Euclid
- 7.4 Plato, Aristotle and Christianity
- 7.5 Archimedes
- 7.6 Archimedes’ Principle
- 7.7 Archimedes and Leverage
- 7.8 Apollonius
- 7.9 Hypatia
- 8 Basic Ideas in Greek Mathematics
- 8.1 Closing in on the Square Root of 2
- 8.2 Zeno’s Paradoxes
- 8.3 Achilles and the Tortoise
- 8.4 The Arrow
- 8.5 Instants and Intervals
- 8.6 Speed at an Instant
- 8.7 The Beginning of Calculus
- 8.8 Archimedes Begins Calculating Pi
- 8.9 Squaring the Circle
- 8.10 Eudoxus’ Method of Exhaustion
- 8.11 Archimedes does an Integral
- 8.12 Conclusion
- 9 How the Greeks Used Geometry to Understand the Stars
- 9.1 Crystal Spheres: Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle
- 9.2 Measuring the Earth, the Moon and the Sun: Eratosthenes and Aristarchus
- 9.3 Cycles and Epicycles: Hipparchus and Ptolemy
- 9.4 Ptolemy’s View of the Earth
- 10 How Classical Knowledge Reached Baghdad
- 10.1 The Classical Achievement in Mathematics and Science
- 10.2 Why did Mathematics and Science Grind to a Halt?
- 10.3 But Some Christians Preserved the Classical Knowledge…
- 10.4 How the Nestorians Helped Science Survive
- 10.5 On into Persia
- 10.6 The Advent of Islamic Rule
- 10.7 The House of Wisdom: al-Khwarismi
- 11 Later Islamic Science
- 11.1 The Islamic World
- 11.2 Omar Khayyam
- 11.3 Al-Tusi
- 12 Galileo and the Telescope
- 12.1 Copernicus Challenges Ptolemy’s Scheme
- 12.2 The Evolution of the Telescope
- 12.3 Mountains on the Moon
- 13 Life of Galileo
- 13.1 Books
- 13.2 Like Father, like Son
- 13.3 Pendulums and Pulses
- 13.4 The Roof of Hell
- 13.5 Venice: Wine, Women and Dialogue
- 13.6 The Telescope: Heaven Abolished?
- 13.7 Galileo Wins Over Some Jesuit Astronomers…
- 13.8 …but Alienates Some Others
- 14 Scaling: Why Giants Don’t Exist
- 15 Galileo’s Acceleration Experiment
- 15.1 Summarizing Aristotle’s View
- 15.2 Two New Sciences
- 15.3 Naturally Accelerated Motion
- 15.4 Galileo’s Acceleration Hypothesis
- 15.5 Slowing Down the Motion
- 15.6 Galileo’s Acceleration Experiment
- 15.7 Actually Doing the Experiment
- 16 Naturally Accelerated Motion
- 16.1 Distance Covered in Uniform Acceleration
- 16.2 A Video Test of Galileo’s Hypothesis
- 16.3 Throwing a Ball Upwards
- 16.4 Speed and Velocity
- 16.5 What’s the Acceleration at the Topmost Point?
- 16.6 The Motion of Projectiles
- 16.7 Compound Motion
- 17 Using Vectors to Describe Motion
- 17.1 Uniform Motion in a Straight Line
- 17.2 Uniform Motion in a Plane
- 17.3 Relative Velocities: a Child Running in a Train
- 17.4 Aristotle’s Law of Horizontal Motion
- 17.5 Galileo’s Law of Horizontal Motion
- 17.6 Galileo’s Law of Vertical Motion
- 17.7 Describing Projectile Motion with Vectors
- 17.8 Acceleration
- 18 Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler
- 19 Isaac Newton
- 19.1 Newton’s Life
- 19.2 Projectiles and Planets
- 19.3 The Moon is Falling
- 20 How Newton built on Galileo’s Ideas
- 20.1 Newton’s Laws
- 20.2 Acceleration Again
- 20.3 An Accelerating Body that isn’t Changing Speed
- 20.4 Finding the Acceleration in Circular Motion
- 20.5 An Accelerating Body that isn’t Moving
- 20.6 Galileo’s Analysis of Motion: Two Kinds
- 20.7 Newton Puts Them Together
- 20.8 Force is the Key
- 20.9 Newton’s First Law: no Force, no Change in Motion
- 20.10 Newton’s Second Law: Acceleration of a Body is Proportional to Force
- 20.11 What About Same Force, Different Bodies?
- 20.12 Falling Bodies One More Time: What is Mass?
- 20.13 Mass and Weight
- 20.14 The Unit of Force
- 20.15 Newton’s Third Law: Action and Reaction
- 20.16 Newton’s Second Law in Everyday Life
- 20.17 Gravity
- 20.18 The Law of Gravity
- 20.19 Weighing the Earth
- 21 The Speed of Light
- 21.1 Early Ideas about Light Propagation
- 21.2 Measuring the Speed of Light with Jupiter’s Moons
- 21.3 Starlight and Rain
- 21.4 Fast Flickering Lanterns
- 21.5 Albert Abraham Michelson
- 21.6 Sailing the Silent Seas: Galilean Relativity
- 21.7 Michelson Measures the Speed of Light
- 22 The Michelson-Morley Experiment
- 22.1 The Nature of Light
- 22.2 The Wavelike Nature of Sound
- 22.3 Is Light a Wave?
- 22.4 If Light is a Wave, What is Waving?
- 22.5 Detecting the Aether Wind: the Michelson-Morley Experiment
- 22.6 Einstein’s Answer
- 23 Special Relativity
- 23.1 Galilean Relativity again
- 23.2 Generalizing Galilean Relativity to Include Light: Special Relativity
- 23.3 You Really Can’t Tell You’re Moving!
- 23.4 Truth and Consequences
- 24 Special Relativity: What Time is it?
- 24.1 Special Relativity in a Nutshell
- 24.2 A Simple but Reliable Clock
- 24.3 Looking at Somebody Else’s Clock
- 24.4 Fitzgerald Contraction
- 24.5 Experimental Evidence for Time Dilation: Dying Muons
- 25 Special Relativity: Synchronizing Clocks
- 26 Time Dilation: A Worked Example
- 27 More Relativity: The Train and The Twins
- 27.1 Einstein’s Definition of Common Sense
- 27.2 Trapping a Train in a Tunnel
- 27.3 The Tunnel Doors are Closed Simultaneously
- 27.4 Or are They?
- 27.5 Does the Fitzgerald Contraction Work Sideways?
- 27.6 How to Give Twins Very Different Birthdays
- 27.7 The Twins Stay in Touch
- 27.8 Figuring the Observed Time between Flashes
- 27.9 What does she see?
- 27.10 What does he see?
- 27.11 The Doppler Effect
- 28 Momentum, Work and Energy
- 28.1 Momentum
- 28.2 Momentum Conservation and Newton’s Laws
- 28.3 Work
- 28.4 Energy
- 28.5 Kinetic Energy
- 29 Adding Velocities: A Walk on the Train
- 29.1 The Formula
- 29.2 Testing the Addition of Velocities Formula
- 30 Conserving Momentum: the Relativistic Mass Increase
- 30.1 Momentum has Direction
- 30.2 Momentum Conservation on the Pool Table
- 30.3 A Symmetrical Spaceship Collision
- 30.4 Just How Symmetrical Is It?
- 30.5 Einstein Rescues Momentum Conservation
- 30.6 Mass Really Does Increase with Speed
- 30.7 Kinetic Energy and Mass for Very Fast Particles
- 30.8 Kinetic Energy and Mass for Slow Particles
- 30.9 E = mc²
- 31 General Relativity
- 31.1 Einstein’s Parable
- 31.2 Some Consequences of the Equivalence Principle
- 31.3 General Relativity and the Global Positioning System

We have seen above that when a force does work accelerating a body to give it kinetic energy,

the mass of the body increases by an amount equal to the total work done by the force, the

energy E transferred, divided by c². What about when a force does work on a body that is not

speeding it up, so there is no increase in kinetic energy? For example, what if I just lift

something at a steady rate, giving it potential energy? It turns out that in this case, too, there is

a mass increase given by E = mc², of course unmeasurably small for everyday objects.

However, this is a measurable and important effect in nuclear physics. For example, the helium

atom has a nucleus which has two protons and two neutrons bound together very tightly by a

strong nuclear attraction force. If sufficient outside force is applied, this can be separated into

two “heavy hydrogen” nuclei, each of which has one proton and one neutron. A lot of outside

energy has to be spent to achieve this separation, and it is found that the total mass of the two

heavy hydrogen nuclei is measurably (about half a percent) heavier than the original helium

nucleus. This extra mass, multiplied by c², is just equal to the energy needed to split the helium

nucleus into two. Even more important, this energy can be recovered by letting the two heavy

hydrogen nuclei collide and join to form a helium nucleus again. (They are both electrically

charged positive, so they repel each other, and must come together fairly fast to overcome this

repulsion and get to the closeness where the much stronger nuclear attraction kicks in.) This is

the basic power source of the hydrogen bomb, and of the sun.

It turns out that all forms of energy, kinetic and different kinds of potential energy, have

associated mass given by E = mc². For nuclear reactions, the mass change is typically of order

one thousandth of the total mass, and readily measurable. For chemical reactions, the change is

of order a billionth of the total mass, and not currently measurable.

195

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