No person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property without due process of law, nor shall any person be denied the equal protection of the laws . Section 2. The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers , and effects against unreasonable searches and seizures of whatever nature and for any purpose shall be inviolable, and no search warrant or warrant of arrest shall issue except upon probable cause to be determined personally by the judge after examination under oath or affirmation of the complainant and the witnesses he may produce, and particularly describing the place to be searched and the pe rsons or things to be seized. Section 3. The privacy of communication and correspondence shall be inviolable except u pon lawful order of the court, or when public safety or order requires otherwise , as prescribed by law. Any evidence obtained in violation of this or the preceding section shall be inadmissible for any purpose in any proceeding. Section 4. No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression , or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances. Section 5. No law shall be made respecting an establishment of religion, or proh ibiting the free exercise thereof. The free exercise and enjoyment of religious profession and worship, without discrimination or preference, shall forever be a llowed. No religious test shall be required for the exercise of civil or politic al rights. Section 6. The liberty of abode and of changing the same within the limits presc ribed by law shall not be impaired except upon lawful order of the court. Neithe r shall the right to travel be impaired except in the interest of national secur ity, public safety, or public health, as may be provided by law. Section 7. The right of the people to information on matters of public concern s hall be recognized. Access to official records, and to documents and papers pert aining to official acts, transactions, or decisions, as well as to government re search data used as basis for policy development, shall be afforded the citizen, subject to such limitations as may be provided by law. Section 8. The right of the people, including those employed in the public and p rivate sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not cont rary to law shall not be abridged. Section 9. Private property shall not be taken for public use without just compe nsation. Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. Section 11. Free access to the courts and quasi-judicial bodies and adequate leg al assistance shall not be denied to any person by reason of poverty. Section 12. Any person under investigation for the commission of an offense shall have t

solita ry. If the person cannot afford th e services of counsel. No person shall be detained solely by reason of his political beliefs and as pirations. after arraignment. trial may proceed n otwithstanding the absence of the accused: Provided. No person shall be compelled to be a witness against himself. except those charged with offenses punishable by reclus ion perpetua when evidence of guilt is strong. quasi-judicial. Any dea th penalty already imposed shall be reduced to reclusion perpetua. These rights cannot be waiv ed except in writing and in the presence of counsel. Section 18. he must be provided with one. impartial. or administrative bodies. nor cruel. Excessive fines shall not be imposed. unless. or other similar forms of detention are prohibited. or any other means which vitiate the free will shall be used against him. No involuntary servitude in any form shall exist except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. threat. the Congress hereafter provides for it. an d to have compulsory process to secure the attendance of witnesses and the produ ction of evidence in his behalf. Excessive bail shall not be required. and public trial. However. to ha ve a speedy. The right to bail shall not be impaired even when the privilege of the wr it of habeas corpus is suspended. when the public safety requires it. The employment of physical. shall. be bail able by sufficient sureties. degrading or inhuman punish ment inflicted.he right to be informed of his right to remain silent and to have competent and independent counsel preferably of his own choice. Section 14. The law shall provide for penal and civil sanctions for violations of this S ection as well as compensation to the rehabilitation of victims of torture or si milar practices. for compelling r easons involving heinous crimes. and their families. before conviction. that he has been duly notif ied and his failure to appear is unjustifiable. Neither shall death penalty be imposed. force. the accused shall be presumed innocent until t he contrary is proved. Section 16. intimidation. Any confession or admission obtained in violation of this or Section 17 here of shall be inadmissible in evidence against him. incommunicado. Section 13. or degrading punishment against a . Section 19. In all criminal prosecutions. or be released on recognizance as may be provided b y law. All persons shall have the right to a speedy disposition of their ca ses before all judicial. All persons. psychological. violence. and shall enjoy the right to be heard by himself and coun sel. to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation against him. No person shall be held to answer for a criminal offense without due process of law. to meet the witnesses face to face. Secret detention places. Section 17. No torture. Section 15. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended ex cept in cases of invasion or rebellion.

No ex post facto law or bill of attainder shall be enacted. Section 22.ny prisoner or detainee or the use of substandard or inadequate penal facilities under subhuman conditions shall be dealt with by law. No person shall be imprisoned for debt or non-payment of a poll tax. conviction or acquitta l under either shall constitute a bar to another prosecution for the same act. No person shall be twice put in jeopardy of punishment for the same offense. Section 21. If an act is punished by a law and an ordinance. Section 20. .

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