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Science Form 3

Chapter 5 Growth

Unit 5 Growth 5.1 Human Growth Pattern
Growth Pertumbuhan
Defination Definasi Human Growth Pattern Corak Pertumbuhan Manusia Growth rate Kadar Pertumbuhan Stages of Growth Peringkat Pertumbuhan

Increase in the number of cells Pertambahan dalam bilangan sel Increase in size Pertambahan saiz Change in shape and function Perubahan bentuk dan fungsi

Growth curve Lengkung Pertumbuhan Infancy Peringkat bayi Childhood Peringkat kanakkanak

Effects of nutrition Kesan nutrisi

Adolescence Peringkat remaja Adulthood Peringkat dewasa Old age Peringkat tua


Human Growth Pattern
1. Growth is a life process that occurs in all types of life form. 2. Growth can be defined as
a. b. c. d. e. Increase in Increase in Increase in Changes in Changes in

A. Growth
body size , number of cells , weight , body shape , function of an organism .

3. The growth of an unicellular organism involves:
a. b.
a. b. c. d. e.

Increase in size of a cell. Increase in mass of a cell.
Increase in the number of cells. Increase in the size of the organism especially in:
i. ii.
Height . Weight .

4. The growth of a multicellular organism involves:

Changes in appearance . Changes in physical characteristics. Develop the complexity and function of the organism.

5. The process of growth in an organism is permanent and irreversible .

. The human growth pattern is a sigmoid curve.5. The Characteristics of Human Growth. Infancy Childhood . Adolescence .1 Human Growth Pattern 1. . It is divided into five stages of growth: a. d. e. 2. c. . Old age B. b. Adulthood .

The human growth curve is obtained by plotting the height or weight against time . Therefore. 2.1 Human Growth Pattern 1. The rate of growth is the difference in weight at suitable intervals over a period of time. .5. the gradient of the curve indicates the rate of growth at that particular period. 4. 3. Height and weight are common characteristics used to measure growth rate.1 is a weight against time graph showing the human growth curve. Figure 5.

5.1 Human Growth Pattern adolescence childhood adulthood old age infancy .

5.1 65 .1 Human Growth Pattern adolescence adulthood old age Weight (kg) childhood minimal growth very rapid growth negative growth infancy slow growth rapid growth birth age (year) 0 4 12 18 Figure 5.

during: the development of foetus in the uterus . The teen years are adolescent period. It is a period of minimal growth . 12. fastest . Adulthood covers the early 20s until about 65.1 Human Growth Pattern 7. Negative growth means loss in weight . a. b. An infant grows very quickly in the first three years of infancy. the first six months after birth . Childhood is a period of slow growth . 11. Tissues in the body break downs more quickly than they can be repaired . b. 9. The rate of growth in human is the a. . Sexual maturity or puberty is achieved during adolescence.5. b. The adolescence is a period of very quick growth . 10. 8. a. Old age is the period of negative growth .

1 Summary of human growth pattern .Stages Infancy (early stage) Growth pattern •0 to 3 years •Rapid growth until three years of age •Weight doubles after six months •Weight triples after one year •3 to 12 year of age •Slow growth until adolescent stage •12 to 20 years of age •Teen years •Growth rate increase •Sexual maturity or puberty achieved during this stage •Starts from about 20 years of age •Growth rate slows down •Maximum growth achieved and growth stops •Growth rate becomes negative •Height and weight decrease slightly •Death at old age Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old age Table 5.

2 shows the comparison between the growth rates of boys and girls at different stages.5. Comparing the Growth Rates of Boys and Girls . 3. Figure 5. 2.1 Human Growth Pattern 1.2 shows the comparison between the growth curves of boys and of girls based on their height and weight. Table 5. The rate of growth in humans differ according to gender . C.

2 (a) Growth curves of boys and girls based on height .height (cm) 170 150 130 infancy adulthood 70 adolescence Boys Girls 50 childhood age (years) 0 4 12 18 20 Figure 5.

2 (b) Growth curves of boys and girls based on weight .weight (kg) 64 Boys Girls 52 adulthood 32 infancy adolescence 12 childhood 4 0 4 10 12 18 age (years) Figure 5.

especially in terms of weight. Old age Table 5. Adulthood • Growth rate for girls slows down at about the age of 17 and stops altogether at the age of 21. . • From four years old a boys growth rates is faster than a girl.2 Comparison between the growth rates of boys and girls at different stages. Adolescence • Girls reach puberty at the age of 12. one or two years earlier than boys. genes. metabolic rate and health condition. • After the respective points. • Girls are usually taller and grow faster during early adolescence. • A person’s weight may increase or decrease according to his lifestyle. • Both males and females may lose weight and decrease slightly in height. • The efficiency of nervous system.Stages Infancy (early stage) Childhood Comparison • Growth rates for baby boys and girls are generally the same. metabolic rate and sensory organs will deteriorate. there is no further increase in height in both boys and girls. • Growth rate for boys slows down at about the age of 18 and stops altogether at the age of 24. • Female will become shorter if osteoporosis sets in.

Effects of Nutrition on Human Growth 1. d. Daily activities . Health . b. d. c. 2. The growth of an individual depends on: a. a. teeth 4. An excessive intake of carbohydrates and fat will lead to obesity . . Proteins are body-building foods crucial for _______ growth and repair damaged tissues. Vitamins are important to ensure good health . All the different classes of food are required in the appropriate quantities and proportions . Genetic factors . b. Minerals are required for strong bones and _____. 3. 5. Keeping a healthy lifestyle with balanced diet will maintain healthy growth in all stages. A balanced diet is important to ensure healthy physical growth and mental development of an individual at all stages of growth. Eating habits .1 Human Growth Pattern D. c.5. Carbohydrates are the source of energy .

. but girls generally mature before boys. These stages are the same for boys and girls.GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (add) There are clear stages that children pass through from birth to adult. This is clearly shown in the diagram below.

Both sexes are of a comparable shape and size during infancy and childhood. steady growth in middle childhood ● Rapid growth during puberty ● Gradual slowing down of growth in adolescence until adult height is reached . (add) There are four characteristic stages of growth from birth to adult: ● Rapid growth in infancy and early childhood ● Slow.

. Some body parts grow more than others during development to reach the final adult proportions.Patterns of Growth .Changes in Proportions (add) The physical proportions of the body at birth are very different from those of the adult.

Changes in the size and shape of the body are caused by different segments growing at different times. Baby adulthood Growth of the skull .

. Those suffering from kwashiorkor would be physically weak and show growth retardation.Nutrition (add) A growing child who does not have sufficient protein may develop a dieses called kwashiorkor.

finger length 2 3 . height and weight B. maturity and aging C. death B. Growth involves a change of sex Human growth can be measured in terms of A.ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 1 1 Growth results in A. mass and quantity of blood C. a decrease in cell mass D. Humans grow in stages D. Humans grow only once C. Growth is an irreversible process B. a decrease in cell size Which of the following statements about growth is true? A. quantity of blood and the number of blood cells D.

Climate C. Environment D.4 What is the main factor that influences growth pattern in humans? A. Gender B. State of health Which of the following graphs shows human growth? A C 5 B D .

T → V → U → S C. Adults .1 8 Puberty is the time when boys and girls start to change into A. Which part A. U → T → S → V Figure 5. Toddlers C. Which of the following explains growth in the right sequence? A. V → T → S → U B.6 S – Old age T – Infancy U – Adulthood V – Adolescence The above information is about the stages of human growth. S → V → U → T D.1 shows the pattern of human growth. C or D shows the highest rate of growth? 7 Figure 5. Old people D. B. Infants B.

B.2 9. Figure 5. A human being experiences negative growth when he reaches . A girl has a longer growth period than a boy. Both sexes have the same growth period. B. C. A. D.Figure 5. A boy has a longer growth period than a girl. C. What conclusion can you make from the graph? A. Individuals have different growth rates Puberty Childhood Adolescence Old age 10.2 shows the growth rate in both boys and girls. D.

1? A. D. Age (years) Weight (kg) 12 39 13 50 14 58 15 67 16 73 17 75 Table 5. D. She eats too much protein. A boy grows the fastest between the ages of 12 and 16.1 11.1 shows the average body weight of boys and girls of the same age.Age (years) Girl Weight in (kg) Boy 2 12 12 4 16 16 6 18 22 8 30 28 10 32 34 12 39 38 14 50 49 16 52 58 18 53 64 20 53 65 22 53 65 Table 5. She does not exercise enough . Table 5. B.2 12.2 shows Susan's weight according to her age. She eats too much carbohydrates. The growth rate in a girl is always slower than the growth rate in a boy. B. Which of the following statements is true about Susan's eating habits? A. She drinks too much water. What conclusion can you make from Table 5. A girl reaches maturity faster than a boy. Table 5. C. The period of growth in a boy is shorter than the period of growth in a girl. C.

B. D. Figure 5. C. What can you infer from the growth pattern? A. Males are usually taller than females.3 shows the differences in the growth rates of males and females.Figure 5. Males usually die before females.3 13. Males mature faster than females. Males always appear younger than females .

Mental maturity III. Genetics II. Proteins B. Environment A. Spiritual maturity A. II and III 15. B. They both display different rates of growth. D. B. I and II only I and III only II and III only I.14. They were separated at birth and brought up by different families. Oils and fats Which of the following aspects are involved in human growth? I. Based on the above information. Fibre C. which of the following factors caused this difference in growth? I. Physical maturity II. C. His daily diet consists of potato chips and instant noodles only. Food consumption III. C. D. Alice and Ivy are identical twins. II and III . 16. I and II only I and III only II and III only I. Carbohydrates D. What does his diet lack? A. James is 8 years old.

17. Which of the following are Q? I. A girl has a shorter lifespan than a boy A. II and III . II. I and II only I and III only II and III only I. Vitamin D III. Which of the following statements is/are true about human growth? I. A boy stops growing at about 24 years of age. D. Iron A. The above information describes the function of Q in human growth. B. D. I and II only I and III only II and III only I. II and III Important for the growth and development of strong bones and teeth. B. III. 18. Calcium II. A girl reaches puberty earlier than boys. C. C.

(2 marks) b) The graph has divided the growth rate into four stages. Growth is the increase in size and mass during the development of an organism over a period of time. The graph in Figure 5. a) Define growth. Which stage shows the most rapid growth rate? Adolescence (1 mark) .ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 2 Figure 5.4 compares the growth in terms of mass of a boy and a girl.4 1.

the boy grows faster than the girl. Why? The growth period of boys is longer than girls (1 mark) g) Which two classes of food are needed during childhood and adolescence to achieve maximum growth? Carbohydrates and protein (2 marks) .ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 2 c) At what ages is the growth rate of a girl faster than a boy? From 12 to 14 years (1 mark) d) What is the cause of this difference in growth rate in (c)? Girls reach puberty faster than boys (1 mark) e) At what stage does the boy grow faster than the girl? From 14 years onward (1 mark) f) During the later part of adolescence.


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