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15722619-F3-chapter-5-Growth

15722619-F3-chapter-5-Growth

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02/15/2014

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Science Form 3

Chapter 5 Growth

Unit 5 Growth 5.1 Human Growth Pattern
Growth Pertumbuhan
Defination Definasi Human Growth Pattern Corak Pertumbuhan Manusia Growth rate Kadar Pertumbuhan Stages of Growth Peringkat Pertumbuhan

Increase in the number of cells Pertambahan dalam bilangan sel Increase in size Pertambahan saiz Change in shape and function Perubahan bentuk dan fungsi

Growth curve Lengkung Pertumbuhan Infancy Peringkat bayi Childhood Peringkat kanakkanak

Effects of nutrition Kesan nutrisi

Adolescence Peringkat remaja Adulthood Peringkat dewasa Old age Peringkat tua

5.1

Human Growth Pattern
1. Growth is a life process that occurs in all types of life form. 2. Growth can be defined as
a. b. c. d. e. Increase in Increase in Increase in Changes in Changes in

A. Growth
body size , number of cells , weight , body shape , function of an organism .

3. The growth of an unicellular organism involves:
a. b.
a. b. c. d. e.

Increase in size of a cell. Increase in mass of a cell.
Increase in the number of cells. Increase in the size of the organism especially in:
i. ii.
Height . Weight .

4. The growth of a multicellular organism involves:

Changes in appearance . Changes in physical characteristics. Develop the complexity and function of the organism.

5. The process of growth in an organism is permanent and irreversible .

The Characteristics of Human Growth. . . b.5. c.1 Human Growth Pattern 1. e. Adolescence . The human growth pattern is a sigmoid curve. 2. Old age B. Infancy Childhood . . It is divided into five stages of growth: a. Adulthood . d.

5. The human growth curve is obtained by plotting the height or weight against time .1 Human Growth Pattern 1. Figure 5. 4. . The rate of growth is the difference in weight at suitable intervals over a period of time. Height and weight are common characteristics used to measure growth rate. Therefore.1 is a weight against time graph showing the human growth curve. 2. the gradient of the curve indicates the rate of growth at that particular period. 3.

5.1 Human Growth Pattern adolescence childhood adulthood old age infancy .

1 Human Growth Pattern adolescence adulthood old age Weight (kg) childhood minimal growth very rapid growth negative growth infancy slow growth rapid growth birth age (year) 0 4 12 18 Figure 5.5.1 65 .

12. The rate of growth in human is the a. Tissues in the body break downs more quickly than they can be repaired . 9. a. It is a period of minimal growth . a. during: the development of foetus in the uterus . 10. Sexual maturity or puberty is achieved during adolescence.1 Human Growth Pattern 7. b.5. b. Old age is the period of negative growth . fastest . . 8. Adulthood covers the early 20s until about 65. 11. An infant grows very quickly in the first three years of infancy. the first six months after birth . Negative growth means loss in weight . b. Childhood is a period of slow growth . The adolescence is a period of very quick growth . The teen years are adolescent period.

1 Summary of human growth pattern .Stages Infancy (early stage) Growth pattern •0 to 3 years •Rapid growth until three years of age •Weight doubles after six months •Weight triples after one year •3 to 12 year of age •Slow growth until adolescent stage •12 to 20 years of age •Teen years •Growth rate increase •Sexual maturity or puberty achieved during this stage •Starts from about 20 years of age •Growth rate slows down •Maximum growth achieved and growth stops •Growth rate becomes negative •Height and weight decrease slightly •Death at old age Childhood Adolescence Adulthood Old age Table 5.

2 shows the comparison between the growth rates of boys and girls at different stages.2 shows the comparison between the growth curves of boys and of girls based on their height and weight.1 Human Growth Pattern 1. Figure 5. The rate of growth in humans differ according to gender . 3. 2. C. Comparing the Growth Rates of Boys and Girls . Table 5.5.

2 (a) Growth curves of boys and girls based on height .height (cm) 170 150 130 infancy adulthood 70 adolescence Boys Girls 50 childhood age (years) 0 4 12 18 20 Figure 5.

weight (kg) 64 Boys Girls 52 adulthood 32 infancy adolescence 12 childhood 4 0 4 10 12 18 age (years) Figure 5.2 (b) Growth curves of boys and girls based on weight .

• Female will become shorter if osteoporosis sets in. • A person’s weight may increase or decrease according to his lifestyle. • After the respective points. Adulthood • Growth rate for girls slows down at about the age of 17 and stops altogether at the age of 21. Old age Table 5.Stages Infancy (early stage) Childhood Comparison • Growth rates for baby boys and girls are generally the same. • The efficiency of nervous system.2 Comparison between the growth rates of boys and girls at different stages. Adolescence • Girls reach puberty at the age of 12. there is no further increase in height in both boys and girls. one or two years earlier than boys. especially in terms of weight. metabolic rate and sensory organs will deteriorate. genes. • Both males and females may lose weight and decrease slightly in height. • Girls are usually taller and grow faster during early adolescence. • From four years old a boys growth rates is faster than a girl. . • Growth rate for boys slows down at about the age of 18 and stops altogether at the age of 24. metabolic rate and health condition.

b.5. 2. All the different classes of food are required in the appropriate quantities and proportions . Genetic factors . 3. c. Carbohydrates are the source of energy . Vitamins are important to ensure good health . b. Daily activities . Keeping a healthy lifestyle with balanced diet will maintain healthy growth in all stages. A balanced diet is important to ensure healthy physical growth and mental development of an individual at all stages of growth.1 Human Growth Pattern D. d. Eating habits . An excessive intake of carbohydrates and fat will lead to obesity . teeth 4. The growth of an individual depends on: a. Health . . Proteins are body-building foods crucial for _______ growth and repair damaged tissues. 5. Effects of Nutrition on Human Growth 1. d. Minerals are required for strong bones and _____. a. c.

This is clearly shown in the diagram below. .GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT (add) There are clear stages that children pass through from birth to adult. but girls generally mature before boys. These stages are the same for boys and girls.

steady growth in middle childhood ● Rapid growth during puberty ● Gradual slowing down of growth in adolescence until adult height is reached .Both sexes are of a comparable shape and size during infancy and childhood. (add) There are four characteristic stages of growth from birth to adult: ● Rapid growth in infancy and early childhood ● Slow.

. Some body parts grow more than others during development to reach the final adult proportions.Changes in Proportions (add) The physical proportions of the body at birth are very different from those of the adult.Patterns of Growth .

Baby adulthood Growth of the skull .Changes in the size and shape of the body are caused by different segments growing at different times.

Those suffering from kwashiorkor would be physically weak and show growth retardation.Nutrition (add) A growing child who does not have sufficient protein may develop a dieses called kwashiorkor. .

a decrease in cell mass D. height and weight B. death B. Growth is an irreversible process B. a decrease in cell size Which of the following statements about growth is true? A. Growth involves a change of sex Human growth can be measured in terms of A. finger length 2 3 . maturity and aging C. Humans grow only once C.ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 1 1 Growth results in A. quantity of blood and the number of blood cells D. Humans grow in stages D. mass and quantity of blood C.

4 What is the main factor that influences growth pattern in humans? A. Gender B. State of health Which of the following graphs shows human growth? A C 5 B D . Climate C. Environment D.

V → T → S → U B. U → T → S → V Figure 5. Adults . Toddlers C. Which of the following explains growth in the right sequence? A.6 S – Old age T – Infancy U – Adulthood V – Adolescence The above information is about the stages of human growth. Old people D. Infants B. Which part A.1 8 Puberty is the time when boys and girls start to change into A.1 shows the pattern of human growth. B. C or D shows the highest rate of growth? 7 Figure 5. S → V → U → T D. T → V → U → S C.

C. What conclusion can you make from the graph? A.2 shows the growth rate in both boys and girls. A girl has a longer growth period than a boy. A. B. A boy has a longer growth period than a girl. C. Individuals have different growth rates Puberty Childhood Adolescence Old age 10. Both sexes have the same growth period.Figure 5. Figure 5.2 9. B. A human being experiences negative growth when he reaches . D. D.

Table 5. A boy grows the fastest between the ages of 12 and 16. She eats too much carbohydrates. She eats too much protein. Age (years) Weight (kg) 12 39 13 50 14 58 15 67 16 73 17 75 Table 5. C. What conclusion can you make from Table 5.Age (years) Girl Weight in (kg) Boy 2 12 12 4 16 16 6 18 22 8 30 28 10 32 34 12 39 38 14 50 49 16 52 58 18 53 64 20 53 65 22 53 65 Table 5.2 shows Susan's weight according to her age. She drinks too much water. The growth rate in a girl is always slower than the growth rate in a boy. B.1? A. D. D. The period of growth in a boy is shorter than the period of growth in a girl. Which of the following statements is true about Susan's eating habits? A. Table 5. C. A girl reaches maturity faster than a boy.2 12. B. She does not exercise enough .1 11.1 shows the average body weight of boys and girls of the same age.

Figure 5. B. C. Males are usually taller than females. Males always appear younger than females . Males usually die before females.3 shows the differences in the growth rates of males and females. Figure 5. Males mature faster than females. What can you infer from the growth pattern? A. D.3 13.

Food consumption III. They both display different rates of growth. His daily diet consists of potato chips and instant noodles only. Oils and fats Which of the following aspects are involved in human growth? I.14. Based on the above information. Physical maturity II. I and II only I and III only II and III only I. Genetics II. Spiritual maturity A. Environment A. Alice and Ivy are identical twins. Mental maturity III. Proteins B. II and III 15. I and II only I and III only II and III only I. II and III . 16. B. D. Carbohydrates D. C. They were separated at birth and brought up by different families. which of the following factors caused this difference in growth? I. Fibre C. What does his diet lack? A. D. C. B. James is 8 years old.

A girl has a shorter lifespan than a boy A. B. III. II and III . II and III Important for the growth and development of strong bones and teeth. Which of the following statements is/are true about human growth? I. The above information describes the function of Q in human growth. B. II. D. D. I and II only I and III only II and III only I. Calcium II. 18. Vitamin D III.17. A girl reaches puberty earlier than boys. C. I and II only I and III only II and III only I. Iron A. A boy stops growing at about 24 years of age. Which of the following are Q? I. C.

4 compares the growth in terms of mass of a boy and a girl. The graph in Figure 5. (2 marks) b) The graph has divided the growth rate into four stages.4 1. Growth is the increase in size and mass during the development of an organism over a period of time.ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 2 Figure 5. Which stage shows the most rapid growth rate? Adolescence (1 mark) . a) Define growth.

ASSESSMENT 5 Paper 2 c) At what ages is the growth rate of a girl faster than a boy? From 12 to 14 years (1 mark) d) What is the cause of this difference in growth rate in (c)? Girls reach puberty faster than boys (1 mark) e) At what stage does the boy grow faster than the girl? From 14 years onward (1 mark) f) During the later part of adolescence. the boy grows faster than the girl. Why? The growth period of boys is longer than girls (1 mark) g) Which two classes of food are needed during childhood and adolescence to achieve maximum growth? Carbohydrates and protein (2 marks) .

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