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Miranda Grade 9 MYP Science Research Statement: Investigation for the effect of the pH number by changing the volume

of the acid in a sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide reaction. Hypothesis: I predict that the more sulfuric acid that is added to the mixture, the lower the pH number will be. This is my prediction because the pH measures the concentration of hydrogen ions, so with more acid added to the mixture, there will also be more hydrogen. Therefore, the concentration of hydrogen ions will increase, making the pH number lower. Materials - 1 10ml graduated cylinder
1 25ml graduated cylinder 1 80ml beaker

60ml of diluted sulfuric acid 100ml of diluted sodium hydroxide 4 pH paper 1 glass stirring rod Stopwatch Paper towel 1 funnel 1 spatula Baking Soda 1 tweezer 1 eye dropper 1 pair of gloves Safety goggles Napkin/Tissue Sink

Variables: The independent variable for this experiment is the volume of sulfuric acid, which are 10ml, 15ml, 20ml, and 25ml. As for the dependent variable, it is the pH number of the mixture. The volume of sodium hydroxide is the control variable, which is 20ml for each time the volume of the acid changes. Procedure: 1. Gather all the materials that are required for this experiment and wear your gloves and safety goggles. 2. Use scissors to cut the pH paper into 4 strips.

Miranda Grade 9 MYP Science 3. Carefully pour 10 ml of diluted sulfuric acid into a 10 ml graduated cylinder, using a funnel and an eye dropper. Make sure youre at the same eye level as the beaker so that the amount of acid poured is accurate. 4. Put the cap back onto the sulfuric acid bottle and wash your funnel and eye dropper straight away. 5. Carefully pour 20ml of diluted sodium hydroxide into a 25 ml graduated cylinder, using a funnel and an eye dropper. Make sure that you at the eye level of the beaker so that the amount you pour is more accurate. 6. Put the cap back onto the sodium hydroxide bottle and wash your funnel and eye dropper straight away. 7. Pour both the acid and base into the 80ml beaker. 8. Insert a pH indicator strip into the mixture with a tweezer, and place the pH paper into a new napkin/tissue. Afterwards clean the tweezer with the same napkin/tissue and record your result. 9. Using a spatula, pour baking soda into the mixture and stir it with a stirring rod until the mixture stops fizzing. This will make sure that the mixture is neutralized and wont cause any further consequences. 10. Pour the mixture into the sink and rinse all of the graduated cylinders, beaker and stirring rod. 11. Carefully pour 15ml of diluted sulfuric acid into a 25ml graduated cylinder, using a funnel and an eye dropper. Make sure youre at the same eye level as the beaker so that the amount of acid poured is accurate. 12. Repeat step 4-10. 13. Carefully pour 20ml of diluted sulfuric acid into a 25ml graduated cylinder, using a funnel and an eye dropper. Make sure youre at the same eye level as the beaker so that the amount of acid poured is accurate. 14. Repeat step 4-10. 15. Carefully pour 25ml of diluted sulfuric acid into a 25ml graduated cylinder, using a funnel and an eye dropper. Make sure youre at the same eye level as the beaker so that the amount of acid poured is accurate. 16. Repeat step 4-10.

Miranda Grade 9 MYP Science

Results: Volume of acid 10ml 15ml 20ml 25ml pH number 11 1 1 1

Conclusion: This experiment was conducted so that we could determine whether the change of the volume of acid affects the pH number. It has been predicted that the greater the volume of acid, the lower the pH will become. Based on the results shown above, my hypothesis has been supported, because the pH measures the concentration of hydrogen. Since all acids contain hydrogen, the more acid that is added into the mixture, the lower the pH will be. The graph above shows a negative correlation, which starts from a pH of 11 and rapidly decreases to a pH of 1. From there, it becomes constant for all the other different volumes of sodium hydroxide. Evaluation: There have been many weaknesses present in my method that has affected my results. One of the weaknesses was that some of the apparatus contained particles of water because I was using the same apparatus over and over again. To keep the test fair, I made sure that I poured the right amount of acid by making sure I was at the eye level, it still might not have been accurate. To make sure that the experiment will be

Miranda Grade 9 MYP Science safe, it has been included that the funnel and eye dropper should be rinsed straight away before the experiment is continued. Improvement: As it is mentioned, since there are many weaknesses present in my method, there also should be many improvements. To make sure that there arent any particles of water on the apparatus, I could use a napkin to wipe the apparatus. Another improvement is that I should have done more trials which will give me more accurate results. However, I wasnt able to do this because of the lack of resources. To get the pH number that is more precise, I could have also used the pH probe, instead of pH paper.