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Published by: Adeem Ashrafi on Mar 20, 2013
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MEANING OF STAFFING Earlier staffing was considered to be a part of organization function of management.

It is now recognized as a separate management function. The reason for separating the staffing from organizing is to give proper emphasis to the actual meaning of managerial roles. Today the staffing function has assumed greater importance because of rapid advancement of technology, increasing the size of the organization and complex behaviour of human beings. The enterprise has to give due importance to human resource planning. It is the tendency in modern enterprises to create a separate department. It is for this purpose medium and large organizations have separate department known as personnel department or human resource department to perform staffing function. The organization structure spells out various positions of the organization. Filling and keeping these positions with right people is the staffing phase of the management function. Staffing involves the determination of manpower requirements of the enterprise and providing it with adequate competent people at all levels. The staffing function performs the following sub functions: (1) Manpower planning. (2) Recruitment (3) Selection of the best qualified from those who seeks job, (4) Training and Development. (5) Performance appraisal and compensation. NATURE AND IMPORTANCE OF STAFFING The staffing function has assumed greater significance these days because of various factors. Staffing is also a pervasive function. Through separate department exist for this yet every manager is engaged in performing the staffing function, when they participate in selection, training and evaluating their subordinates. The various reasons which have increased the significance of staffing functions are discussed below: (1) Increasing size of organization: Advancement in science and technology has given rise to large scale companies employing thousands of employees. The performance of the company depends on the quality and character of the people. This has increased the importance of staffing. (2) Advancement of technology: In order to make use of latest technology, the appointment of right type of persons is necessary. (3) Long-range needs of manpower: In some industries, labour turn-over is high. The management is required to determine the manpower requirement well in advance. Management has also to develop the existing personal for future promotion. The role of staffing has also increased because of shortage of good managerial talents. (4) Recognition of human relations: The behaviour of individuals has become very complicated and hence human aspect of organization has become very important. Employees are to be motivated by financial and non-financial incentives. Right kind of atmosphere should also be created to contribute to the achievement of organizational objectives. By performing the staffing function, management can show the significance it attaches to the man power working in the enterprise.

organizing. Importance of Manpower Planning 1.Before a manager makes forecast of future manpower. 5. clear communication.. the current manpower status has to be analysed. Higher productivity. Human relations become strong trough effective control. but it also comprises of motivational programmes. which will include recruitment. planning.The four managerial functions. Motivation. effective supervision and leadership in a concern. capabilities.e. human resources can be readily available and they can be utilized in best manner.A concern can stabilize itself if human relations develop and are strong. 2. 5. Shortages and surpluses can be identified so that quick action can be taken wherever required. money. It is also done to improve upon the skills. training and development. expansion plans. It can be effectively done through staffing function. 3.etc. Developing employment programmes. Design training programmes. remuneration) Need of Manpower Planning Manpower Planning is a two-phased process because manpower planning not only analyses the current human resources but also makes manpower forecasts and thereby draw employment programmes. It also helps to identify the available talents in a concern and accordingly training programmes can be chalked out to develop those talents. Through manpower planning. Therefore. higher productivity is a result of minimum wastage of time. Staffing function also looks after training and development of the work force which leads to co-operation and better human relations. i. efforts and energies. i. 4.These will be based upon extent of diversification. Better human relations. 3.Man Power Planning Manpower Planning which is also called as Human Resource Planning consists of putting right number of people. 3. selection procedures and placement plans. directing and controlling are based upon the manpower. staffing becomes a key to all managerial functions. all types of incentive plans becomes an integral part of staffing function.Once the current inventory is compared with future forecasts. right time. development programmes.Productivity level increases when resources are utilized in best possible manner. Seting of large scale enterprises require management of large scale manpower. 1. 4. Analysing the current manpower inventory. 6. planning can be done for the future manpower requirements in several work units. . 4. It helps in growth and diversification of business.Efficient management of personnels becomes an important function in the industrialization world of today. Manpower Planning is advantageous to firm in following manner: 1. doing the right things for which they are suited for the achievement of goals of the organization. Making future manpower forecasts. the employment programmes can be framed and developed accordingly.. It also helps to reduce the labour cost as excess staff can be identified and thereby overstaffing can be avoided. Human resources help in the implementation of all these managerial activities. 2. knowledge of the workers.Staffing function not only includes putting right men on right job. All the recruitment and selection programmes are based on manpower planning. Efficient utilization. This is possible through the staffing and it's related activities ( Performance appraisal. Human Resource Planning has got an important place in the arena of industrialization Steps in Manpower Planning 1. It helps the organization to realize the importance of manpower management which ultimately helps in the stability of a concern. Therefore.e. right kind of people at the right place. incentive plans to be framed for further participation and employment of employees in a concern. For this the following things have to be noted• Type of organization • Number of departments • Number and quantity of such departments • Employees in these work units 2. Key to managerial functions. Training programmes depend upon the extent of improvement in technology and advancement to take place.Once the factors affecting the future manpower forecasts are known.

and health complaints.  Comes primarily from the sciences of biomechanics.  A focus on increasing job complexity through job enlargement. Biological Approach  New employees can be trained to perform the job quickly and inexpensively.     FACTORS AFFECTING JOB DESIGN I] Organizational factors :Organizational factors to refer to factors inside the organization which affect job design they are a) Task characteristics :. skill simplification. how the job design must be done. In other words job design is the process of deciding on the content of a job in terms of its duties and responsibilities. and repetition. Focuses on designing jobs around the concepts of task specialization. b) The process or flow of work in the organization:-There is a certain order in which jobs are performed in the company. subordinates and colleagues. Scientific management. etc.  Focuses on outcomes such as physical fatigue. safety. operational efficiency. The goal is to design jobs in a way that ensures that they do not exceed people's mental capabilities.  Integrate the needs of the individual with the organizational requirements. one of the earliest mechanistic approaches. or the study of body movements  Is referred to as ergonomics.  The goal of this approach is to minimize the physical strain on the worker by structuring the physical work environment around the way the body works. and the construction of jobs around sociotechnical systems. job enrichment. APPROACHES TO JOB DESIGN The four approaches used in job design are:  mechanistic approach  motivational approach  biological approach  perceptual-motor approach Mechanistic Approach   It’s roots in classical industrial engineering.  A model of how job design affects employee reaction is the “Job Characteristics Model”.Task characteristics refer to features of the job that is depending on the type of job and the duties involved in it the organization will decide. systems and procedures and on the relationships that should exist between the job holder and the superiors. Perceptual-Motor Approach  Has their root in the human-factors literature. a single job may have many duties and vice versa. quality of product/service etc  To satisfy the needs of the individual employees like interests. Motivational Approach  The motivational approach to job design focuses on the job characteristics that affect the psychological meaning and motivational potential of job design. Tries to improve reliability. Incase the company is not in a position to appoint many people. Incase the company wishes it could combine similar job and give it to one person this can be done if all the jobs come one after the other in a . sought to identify the one best way to perform the job through the use of time-and-motion studies.JOB DESIGN Job design is the process of defining the way work will be performed and the tasks that will be required in a given job.Thus job design is necessary to fulfill the following goals:  To Meet the organizational requirements such as higher productivity. in terms of techniques. on the methods to be used in carrying out the job. aches and pains. Focuses on human mental capabilities and limitations. or the concern with examining the interface between individuals' physiological characteristics and the physical work environment. achievement or accomplishment.  The scientific management approach was built upon in later years and resulted in a mechanistic approach that calls for the job to be designed very simply. challenges. and user reactions by designing jobs in a way that reduces the information processing requirements of the job.

Therefore. III. They are not able to get employees with specific education levels for jobs and have to depend on other countries due to this job design gets affected. These factors are a) Feedback :-Job design is normally prepared on the basis of job analysis and job analysis requires employee feedback based on this employee feedback all other activities take place. job enrichment is a vertical restructuring method by virtue of giving the employee additional authority. Many employees are however not interested in providing a true feedback because of fear and insecurity. while preparing job design certain amount of variety must be provided to keep the person interested in the job. This is called work practice and it affects job design. . Job enrichment-A job design technique that is a variation on the concept of job enlargement. Thus when we prepare a job design we must see to it that certain amount of autonomy is provided to the worker so that he carries his job effectively. Also called job enhancement or vertical job expansion. and control over the way the job is accomplished. it reduces the monotony of the job and gives them a wider experience and helps them gain more insights.Ergonomics refers to matching the job with physical ability and characteristics of the individual and in providing an office environment which will help the person to complete the jobs faster and in a comfortable manner. etc. This in turn affects job deign. Job enlargement-A job design technique in which the number of tasks associated with a job is increased (and appropriate training provided) to add greater variety to activities. These methods help to analysis the job. inauspicious time. to design the contents of the and to decide how the job must be carried out .sequence.Job enlargement is considered a horizontal restructuring method in that the job is enlarged by adding related tasks.Job Rotation is a management approach where employees are shifted between two or more assignments or jobs at regular intervals of time in order to expose them to all verticals of an organization. Job rotation. b) Autonomy :-Every worker desires a certain level of freedom to his job effectively. III] Behavioral factors:Job design is affected by behavioral factors also. II. to suit the Indian conditions. Although the job may be the same the method of doing the job differs from company to company. c) Variety :-When the same job is repeated again and again it leads to burden and monotony.The social and cultural conditions of every country is different so when an MNC appoints an Indian it has to take into account like festivals. Job enlargement may also result in greater workforce flexibility.Job rotation is a well-planned practice to reduce the boredom of doing same type of job everyday and explore the hidden potential of an employee. This is called autonomy. While job enlargement is considered a horizontal restructuring method. d) Work practices: . Job enrichment adds new sources of job satisfaction by increasing the level of responsibility of the employee. This leads to lack of interest and carelessness on the job. autonomy. auspicious time. Methods of job design There are various methods in which job design can be carried out.these methods are as follows I. c) Ergonomics:. This applies to every country and therefore job design will change accordingly.Certain countries face the problem of lack of skilled labour. In addition to it. thus reducing monotony. It is a pre-planned approach with an objective to test the employee skills and competencies in order to place him or her at the right place.. II] Environmental factors:Environmental factors which affect job design are as follows a) Employee availability and ability :.Every organization has different work practices. b) Social and cultural expectations :.

whether large or small. do engage in recruiting activity. (ii) The employment conditions (iii) The effects of past recruiting (iv) Working conditions and salary and benefit packages offered by the organization (v) The rate of growth of organization. Short-listing 6. Thus Recruitment means:  Recruitment is the activity that links the employers and the job seekers. and competencies deemed as being necessary to the job • To develop and maintain processes which will assist in ensuring the appointment of the most suitable candidate Purpose and importance 1)To determine the present and future requirement of the organization. skills. The personnel department of a larger business will often have detailed recruitment and selection policies that need to be followed by those responsible for hiring new employees. 5) Helps to meet the organization legal and social obligations. Flippo. qualities. (e. Managing the response 5. Sources of Recruitment Recruitment Process 1. Conducting interview and decision making . 6) Helps to identify the individual effectiveness in the short term and long term. This differs with: (i) The size of the organization. Identify vacancy 2. 2)To increase the pool of job candidates at minimum cost.  A process of finding and attracting capable applicants for employment The recruitment process has the following objectives: • To ensure that the recruitment is as per the company expectations. 4) Helps to reduce the turnover of the job employees.g time. Factors Affecting Recruitment All organizations.Recruitment According to Edwin B. Advertising the vacancy 4. Prepare job description and person specification 3. 3) Helps to increase the success rate of the selection process.) • To attract sufficient applications from potential candidates with the required skills. Arrange interviews 7. experience. though not to the same extent.“Recruitment is the process of searching the candidates for employment and stimulating them to apply for jobs in the organization.. etc.

6.etc. The main purposes of an employment interview are: 1. Evaluation: This step also can be treated as an important step in the selection process. It saves the time of both employer and applicants.. the next step is to evaluate their qualification. Preliminary Interview: does the job of eliminating the totally unsuitable candidates. Medical Examination: A proper medical examination will ensure higher standard of health and physical fitness of the employees and will reduce the rates of accidents. Employment Interview: Employment test provide a lot of valuables information about the candidate. The following are some of the tests: a) Intelligence test b) Aptitude tests c) Trade or proficiency test d) Interest test e) Personality tests 3. personal reputation. It is a simple process. and absenteeism.Selection Selection is the process picking the right individuals and offering them job. rather organization will try them for a few months. Objective Process Hurdles . Selection can be defined as the process of differentiating between applicants in order to identify and hire those with greater likelihood of success in a job. The candidates have not to cross over many hurdles. Final Selection: After candidates successfully clear all the hurdles in selection procedure. It encourages large number of Candidates for a job. 2. To give him an accurate picture of the details of terms and conditions and some idea of organization policies. To find out the suitability of candidates. The communication skill of candidate can be judged in the interview.. and (ii) It enhances the self-esteem and prestige of those selected and conveys to them the seriousness with which the things are being done in the organization Selection Process or Procedures Process of selection varies from organization to organization and even from department to department. 7. It attempts at rejecting unsuitable candidates. 3. It is the process of offering jobs to the desired applicants. To seek more information about the candidate. capabilities. Employment Tests: Different tests are conducted in order to know the level of candidate’s ability.&make the selection. The candidates are not appointed permanently. labor turnover. the entire selection process has to be evaluated to ensure the quality of selection process and to perfect it for the next selection. experiences. It serves to ascertain the applicant’s physical capability to meet the job requirements. Once the potential applicants are identified. The main steps in selection procedure are: 1. Many hurdles have to be crossed. qualities. It is a complicated process. financial condition etc 5. This is also called as selection audit. Need for Selection (i)It ensures that the organization gets the best among the available. The candidates who pass this screening will be usually asked to fill the application. the pattern of his interest and aptitudes in detail. the knowledge. education. Checking References: Prior to final selection the prospective employment normally makes an investigation on the references supplied by the applicant and undertakes more or less a through search into candidates past employment. 4. Difference between Recruitment and Selection Basis Meaning Recruitment It is an activity of establishing contact between employers and applicants. they will be given appointment letter formally. 2. Selection It is a process of picking up more competent and suitable employees.

Bad habits passed on 5. It proceeds selection. Training Training as a part of staffing is done to aid employees in improving performance. Helps create a better corporate image. Narrow experience Methods of Training Broadly speaking. To impart the basic knowledge and skill to new entrants and enable them to perform their jobs well. 3. 3. expensive to operate 2. Disadvantages of training: Disadvantages of training 1. • Help to increase success rate. It follows recruitment. Existing employees require refresher training so as to keep abreast of the latest developments in job operations 4. 3. instruction.  on-the-job training Job Instruction Training Coaching and Mentoring Apprenticeship Training Job rotation Refresher training Orientation training off-the-job training Role playing Lecture method Conference/ discussion approach Programmed instruction . 5. Can be a financial drain on resources. 5. Objectives of Training The general objectives of any training programme are: 1. 4. It is a negative approach. expensive development and testing. Equips staff to leave for a better job 4. Newly recruited employees require training so as to perform their tasks effectively. It is an expensive method. Importance of Recruitment and Selection • Helps to get a proper candidate. To prepare employees for higher level tasks and build up a second line of competent managers. 3. More time is required. Need for Training Training is needed to achieve the following purposes: 1. Advantages of Training: Advantages of Training 1. viz. 2. 4. • Helps to get organizations legal and social obligations. development and planned experience. Less time is required. 2. To teach the employees new techniques and ways of performing the job or operations. Often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time. Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Helps people identify with organizational goals.Approach Sequence Economy Time Consuming It is a positive approach. Training is necessary when a person moves from one job to another (transfer). Improves the morale of the workforce. Training is necessary to prepare existing employees for higher-level jobs (promotion). Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. It is an economical method. 2. To equip the employee to meet the changing requirements of the job and the organisation.. Training is the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education. Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation. • Helps to increase organization and individual effectiveness. Training is necessary to make employees mobile and versatile. there are two methods of training.

problems.Employee development is a necessary component of a company’s efforts to:  Improve quality  Retain key employees  Meet the challenges of global competition and social change  Incorporate technological advances and changes in work design Approaches to employee development Formal education programs It includes:  off-site and on-site programs designed specifically for the company’s employees  short courses offered by consultants or universities  executive MBA programs  university programs in which participants actually live at the university while taking classes Assessment It involves collecting information and providing feedback to employees about their behavior. demands. relationships. Most employee development occurs through job experiences.Two types of interpersonal relationships used to develop employees: o Mentoring o Coaching The Development Planning Process The development planning process involves: o Identifying development needs o Choosing a development goal o Identifying the actions that need to be taken by the employee and the company to achieve the goal o Determining how progress toward goal attainment will be measured o Establishing a timetable for development . A major assumption is that development is most likely to occur when there is a mismatch between the employee’s skills and past experiences and the skills required for the job. Used most frequently to:  identify employees with managerial potential  measure current managers’ strengths and weaknesses  identify managers with potential to move into higher-level executive positions  Work with teams to identify members’ strengths and weaknesses. Interpersonal Relationship Employees can also develop skills and increase their knowledge about the company and its customers by interacting with a more experienced organizational member. and factors that inhibit productivity Job experiences It refers to relationships. communication style. or other features that employees face in their jobs. tasks. job experiences.Development Development refers to formal education. or skills. and assessments of personalities and abilities that help employees prepare for the future.

Performance Appraisal Performance Appraisal is the process of deciding how employees do their jobs.  The appraisal is carried out periodically.  It provides an objective description of an employee's job's relevant strengths and weaknesses. Objectives Appraisal of employees serves several useful purposes: (a) Compensation decisions (b) Promotion decisions (c) Training and development programmes (d) Feedback (e) Personal development Steps in performance appraisal Establishing job standards Designing an appraisal programme Appraise performance Performance interview Use appraisal data For appropriate purpose . “It is the process of evaluating the performance of employees. It is certainly not a one-shot deal. sharing that information with them and searching for ways to improve their performance’’.  It tries to find out how well the employee is performing the job and tries to establish a plan for further improvement. according to a definite plan. According to Newstrom. It tries to evaluate performance in the same manner using the same approach. The main characteristics of performance appraisal may be listed as:  The appraisal is a systematic process.

and  motivating subordinates to realise goals.  supervising work.  Guiding. It provides necessary guidance and inspiration to people at work in order to carry out their assigned duties. (Motivation). Importance  The importance of directing function in the process of management may be discussed under the following heads:  Initiates action  issuing instructions. Direction is the essence of operations.  Achieves integration  Motivates people  Facilitates changes  Attains balance and stability Principles of Direction Important principles of direction may be summarised thus:  Principle of harmony of objectives . Thus. good working environment. Direction phase of management is the heart of management-in-action. It is a connecting and activating link between various functions of management. Direction is telling people what to do and seeing that they do it to the best of their ability.  Motivating them to achieve goals by providing incentives.  providing guidance. Direction is an important managerial function that initiates organiser's action. It consists of:  Issuing orders and instructions by a superior to his subordinates (Communication). leading and supervising the subordinates to accomplish desired objectives. motivating.DIRECTION Direction is the managerial function of guiding. It includes all those activities which a manager undertakes to influence the actions of his subordinates and achieve goals.  Supervising subordinates to ensure compliance with plans (Supervision). the scope of direction is very wide. etc. It is a continuous function. It is through directing that managers get the work done through people. advising and helping subordinates in the proper methods of work (Leadership).

The aim of supervision is to ensure that subordinates work efficiently to accomplish the tasks assigned to them. overseer. ‘Super’ means over and above. Supervision is important at the operative level because the activities of workers must be guided and controlled continuously. Thus ‘Supervision’ means overseeing from above by a superior. Supervision Supervision is a function of controlling the subordinates to ensure that work is being done in accordance with the instructions issued. The term ‘Supervision’ refers basically to an individual who supervises the operatives. . from top management to operative level. leadership. Supervision is only an element of direction function. Direction includes communication. i.e.. He may be designated as foreman. Direction is important at all levels of the organization.Supervision means overseeing the subordinates at work. Difference Between Direction and Supervision Direction Direction is a function of instructing. or viewing mental images or looking over. superintendent. section officer or section incharge. guiding and motivating the subordinates for the achievement of organizational goals.        Principle of unify of command Principle of direct supervision Appropriate techniques Managerial communication Informal organisation Principle of maximum individual contribution Use of motivation techniques Principle of follow-up Supervision: Meaning The word ‘supervision’ consists of two parts – ‘super’ and ‘vision’. motivation and supervision. gang chief. It involves a face-to-face contact between the supervisor and his subordinates. ‘Vision’ is the art of seeing objects.

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