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L G E B R A

x - 1 , calcular:
3.- Si P (x) =

x + 1

EJERCICIOS RESUELTOS
1.- Calcular:

R = P{P[P(25)]}

E = Q [P(-2)]
Solucin:

siendo: P (x) = 3x3 + 5x2 + 2x + 8 y:


n

2n-1

Q(x) = (2x + 1) (5x - 1)

Calculando por partes:


n

+ (x + 5) (x + 1)

25 - 1
24
24
P(25) =
= = = 4
25 + 1 5 + 1 6

+ (2x + 5) (x - 1)
Solucin:

4-1
3
3
P[P(25)] = P [4] = = = = 1
4+1
2+1
3

Clculo de P (-2):
P(-2) = 3(-2)3 + 5(-2)2 + 2(-2) + 2(-2) + 8

1-1
0
P{P[P(25)]} = P[1] = = = 0
1+1
2

= -24 + 20 - 4 + 8 = 0

P(-2) = 0
Rpta.: E = P{P[P(25)]} = 0

Clculo de Q [P(-2)]
4.- Si P ( x ) = x(2 - x) + 5, calcular:
Q [P(-2)] = Q[0] = (0 + 1)n (0 - 1)2n-1
P(x) - P(-x)
R =

P(x) + (x + 5 ) (x - 5 )

+ (0 + 5)n (0 + 1) + (0 + 5)n(0 - 1)
Q[0] = (1)n (-1)2n-1 + 5n + 5n(-1)

Solucin:
Q[0] = (1) (-1) + 5n - 5n = -1

Clculo de P(-x):

Rpta.: E = Q [P(-2)] = - 1

P(-x) = (-x) [2-(-x)] + 5 = -x(2+x) + 5


= -2x - x2 + 5

2.- Si P (x) = x2 - x + 2, calcular:

Solucin:

Por otro lado:

2
(x + 5 )(x - 5 ) = x2 - (5 ) = x2 - 5

Clculo de P (-1):

adems: P(x) = 2x - x2 + 5

R = P{P[2 - P(-1)]}

P(-1) = (-1)2 - (-1) + 2 = 1 + 1 + 2 = 4

reemplazando:

Clculo de P[2 - P(-1)]:

2x - x2 + 5 - (-2x - x2 + 5)
R =
2x - x2 + 5 + (x2 -5)

P[2 - P (-1)] = P[2 - 4] = P[-2]

2x - x2 + 5 + 2x + x2 - 5 =
4x = 2
R =
2
2
2x - x + 5 + x -5
2x

P{-2} = (-2) - (-2) + 2 = 4 + 2 + 2 = 8


Clculo de P{P{2 - P(-1)}}:
2

Rpta.: R = 2
2

P{P[ - P(-1)]} = P {8} = 8 - (8) + 2

5.- Calcular:

= 64 - 8 + 2 = 58

E = P(x + 1) + P(x - 1) - 2 P(x),

P{P[2 - P(-1)]} = 58

si: P(x) = 3x2 + 2x + 4

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Solucin:
Clculo de P(x + 1):

x
7.- Si P(x) = ;
1+x

P(x + 1) = 3(x + 1)2 + 2(x + 1) + 4


= 3(x + 2x + 1) + 2(x + 1) + 4

F(x) = 1 y
1+x

= 3x2 + 6x + 3 + 2x + 2 + 4

G(x) = x

Clculo de P(x - 1):

1
y adems: P{F[G(x)]} =
10
Calcular x

P(x - 1) = 3(x - 1)2 + 2(x - 1) + 4

Solucin:

= 3x2 + 8x + 9

= 3(x2 - 2x + 1) + 2(x - 1) + 4

Como:

G(x) = x

= 3x2 - 6x + 3 + 2x - 2 + 4
F[G(x)] = F(x)

= 3x2 - 4x + 5

1
1

F(x)
1 + (x)
1+x
1
P[F(x)] = = = =
1
1+x+1 2+x
1 + F(x) 1+
1+x
1+x

reemplazando en la expresin propuesta:


E= (3x2 + 8x + 9)+ (3x2 - 4x + 5) - 2(3x2 + 2x + 4)
E = 6x2 + 4x + 14 - 6x2 - 4x - 8 = 6

Por otro lado:

Rpta.: E = 6

1
P[F(x)] =
10

6.- Si f(x) = x - 2a, g(x) = 2x + a y adems:


f[g(x)] - g[f(x)] = f[g(a)] + 19

Igualando los valores del polinomio en P:

calcular a

1
1
=
2 + x 10

Solucin:
Clculo de f[g(x)]:
f[g(x)] = f[2x + a] = 2x + a - 2a = 2x - a
Clculo de g[f(x)]:

de donde: x = 8
8.- Si: P [(x + 3)x] =

g[f(x)] = g(x - 2a) = 2(x - 2a) + a = 2x - 4a + a


= 2x - 3a

x2
_1 __

(x + 6x + 9) 2

x+3

Clculo de f[g(a)]:

][
2

1
2x+1
__
___
3 2x . x + 3 2x

Calcular P(4)

g(a) = 2(a) + a = 3a

Solucin:
Transformando por partes:

f[g(a)] = f(3a) = 3a - 2a = a

reemplazando en la segunda condicin:

x2
_1 __
2

(x + 6x + 9)

x+3

(2x - a) - (2x - 3a) = a + 19


2x - a - 2x + 3a = a + 19
2a = a + 19

[ ]
x+3

x+3

Rpta.: a = 19

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2
x_
_1_ __
2
2
[(x + 3) ]
=
x+3

] [

2
= (1) = 1

2x

L G E B R A

32x . x + 3

2x + 1

2x

( ) (x + 3)
1

] [
2x

2X

2x

2x

= 32x

= 3 2x (x + 3)

= 3 (x + 3)

x
x

Como la expresin transformada es:

P (4) = 3(4)2 = 3(16) = 48

( ) ( )
( ) (n1 ) (1n )

1
=
n

[( )]

1
1
= n
P
-1
n

n
n n

9.- Si se cumple que:

[ ]

1
-
2

( )
( )
1

reemplazando en el polinomio propuesto:

Rpta.: P(4) = 48

1
-
2

P x

1
por comparacin: x =
n

P[(x + 3)x] = 3[(x + 3)x]2

x
x

1
-
2

__
n

= nx + n2x2 + n3x3 + (considerar


n trminos)

( ) + n (n1 ) + n (n1 )
2

14243

+=1+1+1+
n trminos

Calcular:

Rpta.: = n

[( ) ]
1

- 1
n
n
n

x + 3 , calcular: P[P(x)]
9.- Si P(x) =
x-1
Solucin:
P(x) + 3
P[P(x)] =
P(x) - 1

Solucin:
Sea:

reemplazando P(x):

[ ]
1
-
x 2
x

P x

[( ) ]

1
= P
- 1
n
n

x+3
x + 3 + 3(x - 1)
+ 3

x-1
x-1
P[P(x)] = =
x+3
x + 3 - 3(x - 1)
- 1

x-1
x-1

x + 3 + 3x - 3
=
x3-x+1

luego se tendr:
1
-
2
x
x

( )

-n
+n

-1

1
=
n

( )

-1

4x = x
P[P(x)] =
4

- n
1
=
= n
-1
n
n n

( )

( )
n

1
=
n

( )

kx + 1 y P[P(x)]es independiente de x
10.- Si P(x) =

x-8

( )
-1

Calcular: E = 64k2
Solucin:

1
=
n

( )

Clculo de P[P(x)]

- 53 -

igualando (A) y (B):

kx + 1
k2x + k + x - 8
k + 1
kP(x) + 1
x-8
x-8
P[P(x)] = = =
P(x) - 8
kx + 1
kx + 1 - 8x + 64
- 8
x-8
x-8

a3x4 + (2a2bx2) + (ab2 + b) = 8x4 + 24x2 + c


Igualando coeficientes de trminos idnticos:

(k2 + 1)x + (k - 8)
P[P(x)] =
(k - 8)x + 65

a3 = 8

;
;

b=3

ab2 + b = c

c = 21

2a b = 24

si es independiente de x se debe cumplir:


luego:

k2+ 1 k - 8
=
k-8
65

a=2

E = 2 + 3 + 21 = 26

Rpta.: E = 26

65(k + 1) = (k - 8)

12.- Sabiendo que: P(x - 1) = x2- x + 1, calcular P(10)

Esta propiedad ser demostrada en el Captulo


de Polinomios Especiales.

Solucin:
Sea: P(x) = ax2 + bx + c

Operando:

(A)

luego:
65k2 + 65 = k2 - 16k + 64
P(x - 1) = a(x - 1)2 + b(x - 1) + c

64k2 + 16k + 1 = 0

= ax2 - 2a x + a + bx - b + c

(8k + 1)2 = 0

P(x - 1) = ax2 - (2a - b)x + (a - b + c)

8k + 1 = 0
Como: P(x - 1) = x2 - x + 1
1
de donde: k = -
8

Igualando coeficientes de trminos idnticos:


a=1

luego:
1
E = 64k2 = 64 -
8

( )

-(2a - b) = -1

1 =1
= 64
64

( )

2a - b = 1

b=1
a-b+c=1

Rpta.: E = 1

c=1

Sustituyendo valores en (A):

11.- Si P(x) = ax2 + b y: P[P(x)] = 8x4 + 24x2 + c

P(x) = x2 + x + 1

Calcular : E = a + b + c
luego:

Solucin:

E = P(10) = (10)2 + 10 + 1 = 111

Clculo de P[P(x)]:

Rpta.: E = 111

P[P(x)] = a [P(x)]2 + b = a(ax2+ b)2 + b


3 4

13.- Sabiendo que:

= a x + 2a bx + ab + b
3 4

= a x + 2a bx + (ab + b)
Como: P[P(x)] = 8x4 +24x2 + c

P(x + 2) = 6x + 1
(A)

y adems: P[F(x)] = 12x - 17

(B)

Calcular F(15)

- 54 -

L G E B R A

Solucin:
x+1
2) S[R(-x)] = S
x-1

Clculo de P(x):
Sea P(x) = (ax + b)
luego:

x
+1+x-1

x-1
=
x+1-x+1

x-1

P(x + 2) = a(x + 2) + b
= ax + (2a + b)

x+1 +1

x-1
=
x+1 -1

x-1

(A)
2x = x
S[R(-x)] =
2

Como por dato:


P(x + 2) = 6x + 1

(B)

x-1
3) R{S[R(-x)]} = R(x) =
x+1

Igualando los coeficientes de los trminos idnticos (A) y (B):

x-1
4) S[-R{S[R(-x)]}] = S -
x+1

[(

a=6

)]

2a + b = 1
1-x
1-x +1+x
+ 1
1
x
1
+
x
1 +
x
= S = =
1+x
1-x
1-x-1-x
- 1
1+x
1+x

b = -11

( )

por lo tanto:
P(x) = ax + b = 6x -11

2 = -
1
=
-2x
x

Clculo de P[F(x)]:
P[F(x)] = 6F(x) - 11 = 12x - 17

6F(x) = 12x - 6

1 as:
5) Por el dato este valor es igual a -
5
1
1
- = -
x
5

F(x) = 2x - 1

Rpta.: x = 5

6F(x) = 12x - 17 + 11

Clculo de F(15) = 2(15) - 1 = 29

15.- Cul es la variacin que experimenta P(x), cuan


do x vara de -2 a -4, si:

Rpta.: F(15) = 29

x
P(x) =
1
1 -
x

x-1
x+1
14.- Si R(x) = ; S(x) =
x+1
x-1

Solucin:

y adems:

Para x = -2:
1
S[-R {S [R(-x)]}] = -
5

-2
-2 =
-2 = -
4
P(-2) =
=
1
1
3
3
1 - 1 +
(-2)
2
2

Calcular x
Solucin.

Para x = -4:

Por partes:

-4
-4
-4
16
P(-4) = = = = -
1
1
5
5
1 -
1 +

(-4)
4
4

-x - 1 x + 1
1) R(-x) = =
-x + 1 x - 1

- 55 -