1947

: Invention of transistors in Bell Labs. 1959 : Fabrication of several transistors on a single chip(Integrated Circuits). 1965 : Birth of Moore’s Law. 1971 : Development of the first Microprocessor – “CPUON-A-CHIP” by Intel. 1978 : Development of the first Microcontroller – “COMPUTER-ON-A-CHIP”.

. for minimum cost . 1995 : Moore compared the actual performance of two kinds of devices . stipulating the doubling in circuit complexity to every 18 months. would double every year. and observed that both technologies have followed closely the revised Moore’s law. DRAM & Microprocessors . 1975 : Moore revised his Law . Gordon Moore predicted that the complexity of IC’s.   1965 : Based on simple observation.

Third branch comprises Special Purpose Processors like DSP processors. Second branch comprises Microcontrollers like 8048. These are typically used in specialized applications such as DSP and Communication Equipment. 8096 etc. These processors are typically used to realize embedded systems. .    Evolution tree consist of three branches: Main branch comprises Microprocessors . These processors are typically used to realize general purpose computers. 8051. etc. Network processors. starting from 4-bit 4004 to 64-bit Itanium.

. Higher flexibility and versatility. Functionally more powerful. Higher reliability. Lower power consumption. • • • • • • Typical Features : Smaller size. Lower cost.

Instrumentation.  • • • • • • • GENERAL PURPOSE : Use in PC’s . Embedded Applications : Consumer Electronics. Laptops . . Communications. Workstations. Emerging multimedia applications. Superminis and Supercomputers. Process control. Office. Process Control.

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