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# FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

1.0 ABSTRACT

The experiment was conducted in order to find the time taken to collect 3L of water, the volumetric flow rates of the water, the pressure difference at all manometer tube (static head), velocity, dynamic head and also the total head. The combination of venturi meter complete with manometer tube and hydraulic bench were used. Bernoullis Theorem experiments apparatus consists of a classical venturi. A series of wall tapping allow measurement of the static pressure distribution along the converging duct, while a total head tube is provided to traverse along the centre line of the test section. These tapping are connected to a manometer bank incorporating a manifold with air bleed valve. During the experiment, water is fed through a hose connector and the flow rate can be adjusted at the flow regulator valve at the outlet of the test section. The venturi can be demonstrated as a means of flow measurement and the discharge coefficient can be determined. The results show the reading of each manometer tubes increase when the pressure difference increases. 2.0 INTRODUCTION Bernoulli's Principle is a physical principle formulated that states that "as the speed of a moving fluid (liquid or gas) increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases. Bernoulli's principle is named after the Swiss scientist Daniel Bernoulli who published his principle in his book Hydrodynamica in 1738. Bernoullis Principle can be demonstrated by the Bernoulli equation. The Bernoulli equation is an approximate relation between pressure, velocity, and elevation. While the Continuity equation relates the speed of a fluid that moving through a pipe to the cross sectional area of the pipe. It says that as a radius of the pipe decreases the speed of fluid flow must increase and vice-versa. However, Bernoullis Principle can only be applied under certain conditions. The conditions to which Bernoullis equation applies are the fluid must be frictionless (inviscid) and of constant density; the flow must be steady, and the relation holds in general for single streamlines. In general, frictional effects are always important very close to solid wall (boundary layers) and directly downstream of bodies (wakes). Thus, the Bernoulli

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

approximation is typically useful in flow regions outside of boundary layers and wakes, where the fluid motion is governed by the combined effects of pressure and gravity forces. Bernoulli's principle can be explained in terms of the law of conservation of energy. As a fluid moves from a wider pipe into a narrower pipe or a constriction, a corresponding volume must move a greater distance forward in the narrower pipe and thus have a greater speed. At the same time, the work done by corresponding volumes in the wider and narrower pipes will be expressed by the product of the pressure and the volume. Since the speed is greater in the narrower pipe, the kinetic energy of that volume is greater. Then, by the law of conservation of energy, this increase in kinetic energy must be balanced by a decrease in the pressure-volume product, or, since the volumes are equal, by a decrease in pressure. The Bernoulli equation:

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

3.0 THEORY The well-known Bernoulli equation is derived under the following assumptions: The liquid is incompressible. The liquid is non-viscous. The flow is steady and the velocity of the liquid is less than the critical velocity for the liquid. There is no loss of energy due to friction.

## Then, it is expressed with the following equation:

Where (in SI units): p = fluid static pressure at the cross section in N/m2 = density of the flowing fluid in kg/m3 g = acceleration due to gravity in m/s2 (its value is 9.81 m/s2 = 9810 mm/s2) v = mean velocity of fluid flow at the cross section in m/s z = elevation head of the center of the cross section with respect to a datum z=0 h* = total (stagnation) head in m

The terms on the left-hand-side of the above equation represent the pressure head (h) ,velocity head (hv), and elevation head (z), respectively. The sum of these terms is known as the total head (h*). According to the Bernoullis theorem of fluid flow through a pipe, the total head h* at any cross section is constant (based on the assumptions given).

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

Pressure head is a term used in fluid mechanics to represent the internal energy of a fluid due to the pressure exerted on its container. It may also be called static pressure head or simply static head (but not static head pressure). It is mathematically expressed as:

Where: is pressure head (Length, typically in units of m); p is fluid pressure (Force per unit Area, often as kPa units); and is the specific weight(Weight per unit volume, typically Nm3units) is the density of the fluid (Mass per unit volume, typically kgm3) g is acceleration due to gravity(rate of change of velocity, given in ms2)

In this experimental, the centre line of the entire cross sections we are considering lie on the same horizontal plane (which we may choose as the datum, z=0), and thus, all the z values are zeros so that the above equation reduces to:

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

4.0 OBJECTIVES I. To find the time taken to collect 3L of water, the volumetric flow rates of the water, the pressure difference at all manometer tube (static head), velocity, dynamic head and also the total head II. To investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct.

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

5.0 APPARATUS AND EQUIPMENTS In order to achieve the objectives of the experiment and to complete the demonstration of Bernoullis Theorem, there are several apparatus and also the equipments that are needed. They are as follows:
4. The Bernoullis apparatus test equipment that consists of 8 vertical tubes.

3. The Bernoullis apparatus that consist of venturi meter that function as manipulated variables

2. The stopwatch that used for the timing to the flow measurement of the water.

1. The hydraulic bench which allows water flow by time volume collection to be measured.

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

6.0 PROCEDURES 6.1 Equipments Set Up 1. The Bernoullis equation apparatus is first set up on the hydraulic bench so that the base is in the horizontal position. 2. The test section is ensured to have the 14- tapered section converging in the direction of the flow. 3. The rig outflow tube is positioned above the volumetric tank. 4. The rig inlet is connected to the bench flow supply, the bench valve and the apparatus flow control are closed and then the pump is started. 5. Gradually, the bench valve is opened to fill the test rig with the water. 6. In order to bleed air pressure tapping point and the manometers, both the bench valves and the rig flow control valves are closed. Then, the air bleed screw is opened and the cap from the adjacent air valve is removed. 7. A length of small-bore tuning from the air valve is connected to the volumetric tank. 8. The bench valve is opened and allowed to flow through the manometer to purge all air from them. 9. After that, the air bleed screw is tightened and both the bench valve and rig flow control valve are partly opened. 10. Next, the air bleed is opened slightly to allow the air to enter the top of the manometers. The screw is re-tightened when the manometer reach a convenient height. 6.2 Taking A Set Of Results 1. The h1 h5 are set to be 50 ml using air bleed screw. 2. After the specific volume of h1 h5 is reached, the ball valve is closed and the time taken to accumulate 3L of fluid in the tank is measured. 3. Steps 1 and 2 are repeated with the different level of h1 h5. 4. Then, the test section is reversed to get the diverging flow. 5. The test section is removed by unscrewing the two coupling and being reversed. 6. The couplings are tightened. 7. Steps 1 until 3 are repeated for diverging section.

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

7.0 RESULTS 7.1 Experiment 1(flow rate: slow) Volume (L) Average Time (min) Flow Rate (LPM) 3 0.82 7.14

Difference

hi (mm)

ViB =

Ai =

Vic =

## ViB - Vic (m/s)

(m/s) (m2) A B C D E F 173 172 171 171 171 171 171 170 164 167 169 170 0.198 0.198 0.371 0.280 0.198 0.140 5.31 x 10-4 3.66 x 10-4 2.01 x 10-4 3.14 x 10-4 3.80 x 10
-4

(m/s) 0.224 0.325 0.592 0.379 0.313 0.224 -0.026 -0.127 -0.221 -0.099 -0.115 -0.084

5.31 x 10-4

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

7.2 Experiment 2(flow rate: medium) Volume (L) Average Time (min) Flow Rate (LPM) 3 0.19 12.00

Cross section #

## Differenc e ViB - Vic (m/s)

h* = hH (mm)

hi (mm)

ViB =

Ai =

Vic =

(m/s) (m2) A B C D E F 207 206 204 199 197 195 186 178 111 155 165 176 0.642 0.741 1.351 0.929 0.792 0.611 5.31 x 10-4 3.66 x 10-4 2.01 x 10-4 3.14 x 10
-4

(m/s) 0.377 0.546 0.995 0.637 0.526 0.377 0.265 0.195 0.356 0.292 0.266 0.234

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

7.3 Experiment 3(flow rate: fast) Volume (L) Average Time (min) Flow Rate (LPM) 3 0.13 17.64

Cross section #

## Differenc e ViB - Vic (m/s)

h* = hH (mm)

hi (mm)

ViB =

Ai =

Vic =

(m/s) (m2) A B C D E F 251 247 238 235 233 232 211 196 69 153 172 193 0.886 1.000 1.821 1.268 1.094 0.875 5.31 x 10-4 3.66 x 10-4 2.01 x 10-4 3.14 x 10
-4

(m/s) 0.554 0.803 1.463 0.936 0.774 0.554 0.332 0.197 0.358 0.332 0.320 0.321

November 9, 2012

## Flow rate of water =

Sample Calculation (cross section A): Bernoulli equation: ViB = ViB = ViB = 0.198 m/s

Continuity equation: Ai = Ai = Ai = 5.31 x 10-4 m2 Vic = Vic = Vic = 0.224 m/s Therefore, the difference is = ViB - Vic = 0.198 m/s - 0.224 m/s = -0.026 m/s

November 9, 2012

Experiment 2:

## Flow rate of water =

Sample Calculation (cross section A): Bernoulli equation: ViB = ViB = ViB = 0.642 m/s

Continuity equation: Ai = Ai = Ai = 5.31 x 10-4 m2 Vic = Vic = Vic = 0.377 m/s Therefore, the difference is = ViB - Vic = 0.642 m/s - 0.377 m/s = 0.265 m/s

November 9, 2012

Experiment 3:

## Flow rate of water =

Sample Calculation (cross section A): Bernoulli equation: ViB = ViB = ViB = 0.866 m/s

Continuity equation: Ai = Ai = Ai = 5.31 x 10-4 m2 Vic = Vic = Vic = 0.554 m/s Therefore, the difference is = ViB - Vic = 0.866 m/s - 0.554 m/s = 0.332 m/s

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

9.0 DISCUSSION: The objectives of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and to measure the flow rates and both static and total pressure heads in a rigid convergent and divergent tube of known geometry for a range of steady flow rates. This experiment is based on the Bernoullis principle which relates between velocities with the pressure for an inviscid flow. To achieve the objectives of this experiment, Bernoullis theorem demonstration apparatus along with the hydraulic bench were used. This instrument was combined with a venturi meter and the pad of manometer tubes which indicate the pressure of h1 until h8 but for this experiment only the pressure in manometer h1 until h6 being measured. A venturi is basically a converging-diverging section (like an hourglass), typically placed between tube or duct sections with fixed cross-sectional area. The flow rates through the venturi meter can be related to pressure measurements by using Bernoullis equation. From the result obtained through this experiment, it is been observed that when the pressure difference increase, the flow rates of the water increase and thus the velocities also increase for both convergent and divergent flow. The result show a rise at each manometer tubes when the pressure difference increases. As fluid flows from a wider pipe to a narrower one, the velocity of the flowing fluid increases. This is shown in all the results tables, where the velocity of water that flows in the tapered duct increases as the duct area decreases, regardless of the pressure difference and type of flow of each result taken. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the velocity of water decrease as the water flow rate decrease. For slow flow rate, the velocity difference at cross section A for water flow rate is (-0.026 m/s), B (-0.127m/s), C (-0.221 m/s), D (-0.099 m/s), E (-0.115 m/s), F (-0.084 m/s). Also for medium flow rate, the velocity difference at cross section A for water flow rate is (0.265 m/s), B (0.195m/s), C (0.356 m/s), D (0.292 m/s), E (0.266 m/s), F (0.234 m/s). At the same time, for fast flow rate, the velocity difference at cross section A for water flow rate is (0.332m/s), B (0.197m/s), C (0.358 m/s), D (0.332m/s), E (0.320m/s), F (0.321m/s). So,it can be concluded that the diameter of the tube will affect the differences in velocity as a bigger tube will cause the differences in velocity become bigger while the smaller tube cause the velocity differences between ViB and Vic to be smaller. The flow rate of the difference flow also different. From the result, we can see that the flow rate of slow condition is 7.14, then for medium flow rate is 12.00 and lastly for the fast rate is 17.64. So we can conclude that the fast flow rate is higher than slow flow rate.

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

There must be some parallax and zero error occurs when taking the measurement of each data. The observer must have not read the level of static head properly. Moreover, the eyes are not perpendicular to the water level on the manometer. Therefore, there are some minor effects on the calculations due to the errors and this can be seen from the result obtained which there is few value calculated get negative values for ViB -Vic. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Bernoullis equation is valid when applied to steady flow of water in tapered duct and absolute velocity values increase along the same channel. Although the experiment proof that the Bernoullis equation is valid for both flow but the values obtain might be slightly differ from the actual value. This is because there is some error maybe happen during the experiment is done. While taking the reading of the manometer, there might be possibility that the eye position of the readers is not parallel to the scale. Thus, this error will contribute to the different in the values obtained. Other than that, the readers must take the accurate reading from the manometers. In order to get the accurate value, the water level must be let to be really stable. Thus, a patient is needed in order to run this experiment successfully because sometimes the way the experiment is conduct may influence the result of the experiment.

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

10.0 CONCLUSION The results show the reading of each manometer tubes increase when the pressure difference increases. From the result obtained, we can conclude that the Bernoullis equation is valid for convergent and divergent flow as both of it does obey the equation. For both flow, as the pressure difference increase, the time taken for 3L water collected increase and the flow rates of the water also increase. Thus, as the velocity of the same channel increase, the total head pressure also increase for both convergent and divergent flow.

11.0 RECOMMENDATION I. Make sure the trap bubbles must be removing first before start running the experiment. II. Repeat the experiment for several times to get the average values in order to get more accurate results. III. The valve must be control carefully to maintain the constant values of the pressure difference as it is quite difficult to control. IV. The eye position of the observer must be parallel to the water meniscus when taking the reading at the manometers to avoid parallax error. V. The time keeper must be alert with the rising of water volume to avoid error and must be only a person who taking the time. VI. The leakage of water in the instrument must be avoided

## FACULTY OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING

November 9, 2012

12.0 REFERENCES I. Bernoulli experiment, 27 August 2010 at http://www.scribd.com/doc/23125607/Bernoulli-Experiment II. Bernoullis principle, 27 August 2010, at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bernoulli's_principle III. Bernoulli Lab Report, 27 August 2010, athttp://www.scribd.com/doc/23106099/Bernoulli-Lab-Report IV. Bernoulli's theorem, 27 August 2010, at http://www.transtutors.com/physicshomework-help/fluid-mechanics/Bernoullis-theorem.aspx V. Bernoullis Theorem Demonstration, 27 August 2010, at http://www.solution.com.my/pdf/FM24(A4).pdf VI. http://www.oneschool.net/Malaysia/UniversityandCollege/SPM/revisioncard/physics/forceandpressur e/bernoulliprinciple.html#3 VII. VIII. http://library.thinkquest.org/27948/bernoulli.html

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APPENDIX

November 9, 2012