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For the building contractor, time and costs are decisive factors in the economic success or failure of a construction project. To carry out various jobs most efficiently, contractors make use of specially selected construction machines which operate both quickly and economically. Manufacturers brochures and special handbooks are available to assist the contractor in selecting equipment and calculating costs. Construction machinery at the site represents a considerable capital investment. The costs of loss or damage due to unforeseen events cannot be calculated in advance by the contractor, since neither brochures nor cost calculation handbooks can provide the required information. The contractor can, however, insure his machinery against the consequences
Perils of Construction Machinery
In general, the causes of damages to construction machinery can be divided into three categories : Acts of God ( natural hazards ) Operating Errors Material Failure Acts of God are unforeseeable. Typical Acts of God are flood, inundation, storm, earthquake, rockslide, landslide, lightning. An expanded definition could also include other events over which the policyholder has little influence, such
employee error is unforeseeable. For the Contractor. so that property damage resulting from such causes is covered by construction machinery insurance.. The age and condition of a machine. . all effect the probability of loss occurrence. as well as the regular maintenance. however. Typical examples here are collision of vehicles on the construction site and tipping of cranes.Perils of Construction Machinery…. Material failure. Theft or vandalism can also be included in this category. Damage resulting from operator error and human negligence can in principle be reduced by adequate training of personnel.
Insurance of Construction Machinery .
two policy . The intent is to reimburse him for losses resulting from a direct.General • Construction machinery insurance protects contractors against losses which he cannot calculate in advance.. or as otherwise required. sudden and unforeseen external event. Once work is completed. the machinery is transported to other sited for further use. • Construction machines are not as a rule utilized at a single construction site for the entire duration of their service life. • In order to deal with this situation and the special needs of the policyholder.
Insurance of this type is for a specific location and a predetermined policy duration • Annual Policy – A contractor’s entire fleet of machines can be insured with an annual policy. and the insurance premium can be shared by all participating contractors. regardless of the location of the construction sites. the equipment is insured. This type of insurance covers all machinery. This type of insurance is suitable primarily for long-term projects and for construction sites where several contractors contribute machinery for the project.Types of Insurance • Insurance for a Project – Under this type of scheme the machinery is insured within the scope of a CAR / EAR policy for a specific project. This policy has the advantage of uniform insurance coverage for all machinery used on the site. During its utilization at this particular site. An annual policy is the most suitable type of insurance if the contractor is working at several smaller .
all the machinery utilized at a construction site or the whole machinery fleet of a contractor should be insured. Floating equipment and equipment registered for general road use.Insured Property • In both forms of insurance stationary and mobile machinery of all types may be insured. All the machines insured must be included in a machinery . should not be insured as construction machinery. • As a rule.
which regardless of the cause (operational influences.Insured Perils • Comprehensive coverage is provided for in construction machinery insurance ie all damages are covered resulting from hazards which are not specifically excluded • The most important exclusion is machinery breakdown. Damage as a consequence of such machinery breakdown is. possible to insure against . nuclear reaction. riot. wear. oil or lubricant). strike. in some countries. • As an exception to this general rule it is. willful negligence on the part of the insured. should not be covered. however. Further exclusions are the consequences of war. deficiency of water. covered. design defects for which the manufacturer is contractually liable and consequential losses.
Changes in the agreed value during the course of the policy period ie changes due to inflation. customs duties and assembly costs.Sum Insured • The sum insured must be based on the new replacement value including freight. • The current value ie the price which would be realized if the machine were sold on the open market. must be compensated for by continuous adjustment of the sum insured. may .
without deducting for wear and age ( the exception being the parts which must be replaced regularly several times during the service of a machine ) • Since construction machinery insurance is a .Scope of Compensation • The purpose of construction machinery insurance is to reimburse the policyholder the losses resulting from unforeseeable events. the insurer reimburses at current market value. • In the case of a partial loss (repair costs lower than the current value) the insurer reimburses the cost of the required replacement parts and the lobour costs for repairing the machine. In the case of total loss (repair costs higher than the current value).
both for insurer and . the age.Deductibles • The claims history in construction machinery insurance is influenced by a number of factors. amongst which are training of the personnel. In order to encourage the policyholder to prevent losses. he has certain influence on the loss frequency. • Minor losses which occur at intervals due to the nature of operations often involve administrative costs. he is requested to participate with a percentage of each claim. condition and utilization of the machines as well as the organisation of construction site operations. Since all these factors are within the policyholder’s control.
• Rates of Depreciation and Interest may assist determining the approximate book value for equipment. when dealing with used machinery or in the case of a loss. The book value does not necessarily correspond to the current market .Characteristic Data • Maximum New Values are applicable to large standard units and are based on prices of 1979. 10% was taken as the interest rate for purposes of calculation. Actual values may be calculated by applying indices.
• The Repair Cost Rates represent the monthly amount which a contractor must on average spend for regular maintenance and repair (replacement parts and labour costs ). • The Hazard Class is intended to give the insurer a feeling for the degree of risk to which a certain unit is exposed in normal operations. The degree of hazard is divided into four risk categories : • A = Low • B = Low – Medium
Material Preparation • Solid aggregate for concrete must be available in grains of graduated size. Coarsely broken rock is crushed further in several steps. Coarse crushing is with ‘brute force’ in crushers (jaw-type crushers, gyratory crushers, hammer crushers) with subsequent size reduction in mills, down to the size of sand grains. Between the individual reduction steps the material is washed and stored according to grain size: Coarse grain are classified with stationary or vibrating sieves; water is added to fine grains, which are then separated by size in classification tanks, cyclones or slurry separators. • The size reduction and grading machines are often located in a single building, either one
New Value : 500.7% per .000 • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : Crushers up US$ 10 Years : 1.Material Preparation • PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : to 850 t/h • Nominal Fill : • Max.3% 0.
deposits and clogging can cause damage with very fine grain sand. flooding . Varying size and harness of the rock can lead to interruption in operations. • The systems are exposed to acts of God such as earthquake. the moist atmosphere results in corrosion.Material Preparation • Processing systems such as these are subject to extremely hard operating conditions and high wear rates. resulting in correspondingly high repair costs. Bearings and suspension elements are subject to extreme mechanical forces.
vibration troughs or pneumatic pumps. Various types of mixers are used. • Automatic concrete mixer plants usually exhibit a tower-like configuration and are . aggregate and water must be mixed to manufacture concrete. In smaller systems feed is from open storage (star stockpiles) using a cable-drawn bucket.Manufacturing Concrete • Cement. depending on the required throughput capacity. • At the metering station the aggregates and cement are weighed. water added and fed to the mixer. Systems for concrete mixing range from a bucket and shovel to large-scale plants in which the aggregates and cement are stored in silos and conveyed to the metering station by conveyor belts.
8% 1. New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month • Hazard Class : A 6 Years : 1.Manufacturing Concrete • PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.1% per .
The location of the plant must be inspected in respect of flooding. Due to the high level of wear and tear and the extreme dependency on maintenance and care. rockslides etc.Manufacturing Concrete • Being a part of site equipment. machinery breakdown should be included . concrete mixing plants are exposed primarily to external perils.
• The height of mobile cranes can be regulated by adding inserts. can cover only a limited radius and are therefore often used in groups on large construction sites. • A special type of stationary rotary tower . stationary cranes may be equipped with climbing features. Cranes mounted on undercarriage. travelling on rails. mounted on foundations. while smaller cranes often operate on tyres or crawler-type chassis. with which the crane can ‘grow’ with the structure. Stationary cranes.Tower Cranes • Rotary Tower Cranes are used in highrise construction for vertical transportation of all types of loads. are more mobile and more economical for sites which have one long axis. usually hydraulic.
Tower Cranes • PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : 1250 tm • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.7% per month • Hazard Class : D . New Value : US$ 1.2 M • Service Life : 8 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 1.5% per month • Repair Cost : 0.
track clamps are used incorrectly. yielding of the foundation. The factors which may trigger a fall are overloading. negligent laying of the tracks or wind load. the hazard of tipping is high for rotary tower cranes.Tower Cranes • Due to their geometry. connecting components encounter . Carelessness and negligence result in operational hazard : overload kickouts and limit switches are disconnected. the cranes collide with the track bumpers and tip. With increasing age hoist and holding ropes wear.
A crab. In order to allow for lateral movement as well.Special Cranes • Due to their limited range of movement rotary tower cranes are unsuitable to certain construction projects and tasks. such as in dam construction. such . moves along a steel cable which spans the site. • Facilities with larger surface areas. In other cases the cable is attached to guyed lattice masts which can be tilted to the side. carrying the load hook. are served by cable cranes. Sites with one long axis. the support points for the carrying cable can be shifted correspondingly. For this reason special type of cranes have been developed which are adapted to the particular job to be handled.
Therefore it is not possible to make general statements. Hereby new values and service lives vary. • Typical characteristics of special design cranes are exceptional carrying capacity. mobility or other parameters. span width. ..Special Cranes….
such as earthquake. storm and flooding. Loose guy wires and frayed cables can be detected during regular inspections and subsequently corrected.Special Cranes…. In addition to the influence of external dangers. Consequential losses usually result from serious crane damage. which must be examined and evaluated from case to case. • Individual design and application make for widely varying risk characteristics. as well as rock and landslide. • Main hazards are acts of God. the experience ..
but which are moved from site to site as required. Upon arrival at the construction site a location suitable for the lifting assignment is selected. on which the telescopic boom is mounted in a slewable configuration. a heavy duty lorry chassis. or corresponds to. Stabilization is created with hydraulic outriggers extending at sides. The undercarriage is. . The lift height is achieved by extending the telescopic boom hydraulically.Telescopic Truck Cranes • Telescopic truck cranes are mobile lifting units which are not usually assigned continuously to one construction site.
Telescopic Truck Cranes
• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : 900 • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max. New Value : M • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest 1.8% per month • Repair Cost :
225 t tm
US$ 1.0 6 Years : 1.0%
Telescopic Truck Cranes
• Changing locations, difficult lifting assignments and high rental charges can lead toChanging locations, difficult lifting assignments and high rental charges can lead to hectic operations in which insufficient attention is paid to stability and safety. Overload kickouts can be neutralized, which can lead tots can be neutralized, which can lead to tipping • Telescopic truck cranes represent a difficult rint a difficult risk from the insurer’s point of view. Losses caused by neutralizing the overload kickout shoud be excluded by endorsement. Extremely high risk in cases of simultaneous use of several truck cranes for a lift; therefore control equipment must be prescribed for
Lattice Mast Truck Crane
• Truck cranes with lattice mast booms are the typical lifting equipment found on erection sites since they are highly mobile and can handle even extremely heavy loads. A slewable crane is mounted on a heavy lorry chassis; the load is suspended on a steel cable. The boom can be extended with inserts. The method of slewing and of vertical boom movement is mechanical or hydraulic. In addition to continuous use on a large construction site, lattice mast truck cranes are used intermittently for special jobs at smaller sites. • Large and bulky objects, such as components for offshore drd
New Value : US$ 1.5% per month • Repair Cost : 0.9% per month • .1 M • Service Life : 8 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 1.Lattice Mast Truck Crane • PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : 80 Mp • Carrying Capacity : 360 t • Load Moment : 2200 tm • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.
Switching off the overload kickout can result in overloading. the major problem encountered with truck cranes is the object to be lifted. which differs according to location. Several cranes lifting in unison is particularly .Lattice Mast Truck Crane • In addition to the ground stability. the weight of which is often not known exactly. the weight of which is often not known exactly. Switching off the overload kickout can result in overloading. and in turn to the cranes tipping over. and in turn to be lifted.
Rear axle steering makes for extreme maneuverability. The forklift may be powered by internal combustion engines. or battery. by a dieselelectril-electric configuration. Rough terrain forklift trucks are used for site work and .Forklift Truck • Forklift trucks are used primarily in storage facilities for lifting and transport requirements. which can be raised and lowered with a chain drive. Their specialty is loading and unloading vehicles and stacking goods. They have forks at the front.
9% per .5% 0.000 8 Years : 1.Forklift Truck • PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max. New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month 5t US$ 50.
since the truck can be evacuated in case of danger . The danger of damage to the unit by a falling load must be taken into consideration. • In general a relatively low-risk item.Forklift Truck • In case of overloading or when travelling over uneven surfaces forklift trucks have a tendency to uneven surfaces forklift trucks have a tendency to tip to the front.
Transportation Equipment .
gravel etc. which will differ according to their dumping mechanism. Coarse material is transported in off-highway haulers.Lorries • Material transportation at construction sites is generally effected by lorries. The smallest units are the dumpers. the capacity of which can be up to 200 tons. The type of drive used for the wheels will differ according to the various models. . which are built for payloads of up to 5 tons and are generally equipped with fourwheel drive and center-pivot steering. Rear or side dump trucks up to 20 tons payloads are used for transporting sand.
• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.0% per .6 m 4 Years : 2. New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month • Hazard Class : C 200 t US$ 1.5% 2.
• Large off-highway haulers are highly exposed to perils at earthmoving sites. since they are often driven fast and close together (collision danger). Particularly during unfavourable weather conditions the danger of skidding off the road is high. • The insurance risk depends on the nature of the transportation route and on the training and experience . Road ways must therefore be constantly maintained by graders.
prefabricated components. Considerably larger models are . transformers. The larger models are usually constructed as semitrailers and may run on as many as 36 wheels. which can also be used to transport heavy.Low-bed Trailers • Crawler-type equipment is moved from one jobsite to the next with low-bed trailers. etc.
5% 1.000 8 Years : 1. New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month • Hazard Class : B 40 t US$ 70.3% per .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.
• A ramp can be used for loading and unloading self-propelled vehicles (bulldozers. etc) on and off the low-bed trailer. Major risks are AOG and leaving the roadway. • Relatively low risk. otherwise a crane may be used. . excavators.
concrete can be brought to the site from an outside source. A mixer is mounted on a lorry chassis and rotates during the drive to the site.Mixer Lorries • When pouring small volumes of concrete or on construction sites where space does not allow the installation of a concrete mixing unit. the ready-mix concrete is discharged trough a chute into a bucket. mixing the concrete. concrete pumps may be . Normally. Instead of a bucket and crane. which is then moved by a crane.
• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.1% per .8% 1. New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month • 10 M3 US$ 50.000 6Years : 1.
for example due to heavy traffic. .• If there are delays. • Low insurance risk. the concrete may set in the mixer. with the normal hazards on public roads and construction sites.
Transportation on Rails • Due to the great amount of time involved in laying the rails. 900 mm or standard gauge (1. transportation equipment running on rails is used only on construction projects of several year’s duration. The gauges are as a rule 600 mm.435 mm) and drive is either by diesel engine or battery power ( for tunnel construction) Single- .
8% per month • Hazard Class : A.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : 120 kW • Weight : 22 Mp • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.3% per month • Repair Cost : 0.000 • Service Life : 10 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 1. tunnel . New Value : US$ 220.
• With the danger of cave-ins and flooding. the rail systems in tunnel construction or exposed to considerably greater perils than those installed in the open. The position and condition of the rails must be inspected regularly in order to reduce the risk of derailing .
• In addition to land-based conveyor belts there are also belt systems which float on pontoons. . The efficiency and economy of transportation is determined by the width and running speed of the belt. the rubber belt and a stripper. the overall length is often divided into segments to reduce starting inertia. The endless belts are driven and supported by rollers. including the drive and tensioning stations. Conveyor belts are assembled from individual segments. the roll way. designed for use with dredgers.Conveyor Belts • Conveyor belts allow continuous material transportation in quarrying gravel and mining raw materials as well as when constructing dams.
6% 0.000 – 7 Years : 1.7% per .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : 3m • Max. New Value : per M • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month Width upto US$ 1.
the rollers are subjected to extreme wear when handling coarse material (rock). The belt itself is a .• While belts themselves are subjected to greatest wear where the material is loaded onto the belt. Flooding should be mentioned as a particular hazard. Operational interruptions will be frequent when handling sticky material (clay. loam).
the composition of the slurry and coefficients of friction.Transport by Pipeline • Liquids or slurries of solids and water are commonly transported by pipeline. or transporting concrete through pipelines. whereby the ground water which is extracted must often be pumped over great distances to a disposal point. Either . There is a distinction between suction and pressure pumps on the basis of their location. The pumping capacity required is dependent on the height differential. or suction dredging operations in which a mixture of water and soil is trasported. Typical application areas for pipeline transport are in lowering the water table.
1% per .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.6% 1. New Value : 60.000 • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month Pumps US$ 7 Years : 1.
• If machinery breakdown is excluded.• Pumps for slurries of solids and water are subject to extreme wear due to abrasion. Underwater pumps are by nature difficult to inspect and correspondingly high breakdown rates. since they are usually in stationary . pumps represents low insurance risks.
Digging and Loading .
or water-cooled engine. The unit is powered by an air. push it to the dumping area and spread it out. as towing .Bulldozers • The bulldozers blade which is mounted at the front can be raised and lowered hydraulically. Crawler dozers are also used on large earthworks as pushers for scrapers. dozers on crawler tracks are used. For heavy material. which have greater mobility. in lighter material rubber-tyred models may be used. Bulldozers remove soil material.
New Value : US$ 700.5% per month • Repair Cost : 2.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : 550 kW • Weight : 80 Mp • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.1% per month • Hazard Class : C .000 • Service Life : 4 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 2.
Machinery breakdown should not be covered and all parts subject to wear should be excluded. There is a high degree of abrasion at the tracks and the shanks of the rearmounted ripper. The danger of slides and falls in mountainous terrain and of bogging down in swampy ground should be taken into consideration. Heavy loading of gearing and hydraulic systems are common. Just as with other machinery it is .• Bulldozers are used primarily for heavy earth-moving work.
Scrapers • Scrapers are rubber-tyred combined loading and transport units. The bowl is also emptied while in motion. The scarper is filled by lowering the bowl into the ground while the unit travels forwards. thus cutting the material and collecting it. with an ejector . a crawler dozer is often used as an aid to push the scarper. To facilitate the loading procedure the elevator scraper is equipped with a conveyor covering the entire width of the bowl. • A towed scraper is pulled by a bulldozer. Since great power is required for this operation. the motor-scraper is self-propelled and may be equipped with one or two engines.
5% per month • Repair Cost : 1.9% per month • Hazard Class : C . New Value : US$ 700.000 • Service Life : 4 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 2.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : 700kW • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : 30 m3 • Max.
• The economics of the scraper depend upon the speed during loading and transport. the risks of collision and tipping play a major role.. Risk during operation depends mainly on the training and experience of the operator and the nature of the haul road. particularly during bad . which must be continuously maintained by grades. When operating on roadways which are inadequately maintained.
buckets. The wheeled loaders. are fast highly maneuverable. forks. Crawler loaders are typical units for digging building excavations. since they can use the loading bucket to dig. since wheeled loaders in particular are universal machines which can be adapted with specially designed grabs. cranes etc.Loaders • Wheeled and crawler loaders are equipped with hydraulically controlled front loading buckets and are particularly well suited for loading vehicles with material. and are used primarily for shovel-like pickup of loosely piled material. and can thus be . if provided with center-pivot steering. • Listing the accessories is hardly possible.
• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : 520kW • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.000 • Service Life : 4 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 2. New Value : US$ 750.9% per month .5% per month • Repair Cost : 1.
. depending on soil conditions. For wheeled loaders there is the hazard of collision with other vehicles and.• The external hazard resulting from operations is dependent on the type of use and the conditions in the immediate surroundings. • In the case of crawler loaders a survey should be made to determine to what extent these will be used as dozers. the danger of sinking into boggy ground.
Mounted on a crawler or wheeled chassis.Hydraulic Excavators • Hydraulic excavators are used for digging and loading. A diesel engine provides power and drives one or several hydraulic pumps. The usual equipment consists of the boom. • A multitude of interchangeable accessories makes the hydraulic excavator a universal piece of . Electric drive is also used for large units in quarry operations. in both cases the dipper stick is attached to the boom. the super-structure is attached to a slewing ring. the dipper stick and a bucket or a face shovel. All operations are carried out hydraulically.
0% per month • Hazard Class : B .000 • Service Life : 8 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 1.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : 350kW • Weight : 9 Mp • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.5% per month • Repair Cost : 1. New Value : US$ 600.
• In general the risk is dependent on the skill and care of the operator.• Operating conditions and the surroundings determine the perils for the equipment. .
They are constructed with a mobile undercarriage on crawlers or wheels. or as a carrier unit for driving and drilling.Cable Operated Excavators • In contrast to hydraulic excavators. as lattice mast crane for lifting tasks. Cable-operated excavators can be used for excavating vertically. lattice booms may be used in cableoperated excavators where the tools are suspended on cables. mobile models may also be approved for operation . with a dragline bucket for stripping away earth layer by layer. The smaller.
3 m • Service Life : 6 .0.7% per month • Hazard Class : C .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : 700kW • Weight : 250 Mp • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max. New Value : US$ 1.10 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 1.8% 1.3% per month • Repair Cost : 1.3% .
• While cable operated excavators represent relatively low risks in excavation work. there is a high risk of tipping during crane operations. Particularly endangered are lattice mast cranes where several units are lifting a load simultaneously. In addition to regular maintenance. the training of the operator is of prime significance. Since earth removal . due to overloading or on unstable ground.
serve as the connecting link between the mobile excavator unit and the stationary conveyor belt. . themselves mobile and mounted on a tracked chassis. or between the belt and the stockpile. occasionally on rails. From this belt the earth is transferred to a second conveyor belt or moved to a stockpile. Large stackers. The excavation components are usually mounted on tracks.Bucket Excavators • The typical method of operation for chain bucket wheel excavators is continuous digging and conveyance of the material: buckets which are attached to a chain or wheel dig into the earth. and have electrical or diesel-electric drives. and empty the material onto a conveyor belt. load it.
• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : 10. New Value : US$ 25 m • Service Life : 20 Years • Depreciation and Interest : • Repair Cost : • Hazard Class : A .000 Mp • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.
with the resulting fall of the excavator. which not all soils will withstand. In terraced extraction of the material there is the additional danger of a bench collapsing.• These heavy units exert high ground pressures. since the equipment is very slow moving. • Low risk. Due to . Tilting and possible tipping may result.
Drilling and Driving .
but steam or compressed air may be used. Occasionally the hammer falls free on the head of the pile. which is dropped on the top of the pile. A leader is used to guide the hammer and the upright pile. • In addition to impact hammers there are also vibratory pile hammers.Pile Driving • Pile drivers are used to drive piles into the ground. which do not strike the pile. The impact is generated by the hammer. The hammer may be raised with a cable winch. the leader is either part of the pile driver frame or may be held by a lattice mast crane. but which by means of unbalanced weights generate vibrations .
000 • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month • Hazard Class : B 63 t US$ 12 Years : 1. New Value : 800.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.6% per .1% 0.
etc. pile-driving in water. from a scaffolding.• Hazards in operation depend in most cases on the location. . The angular pull when setting up the pile can cause tipping.
Here selfpropelled. for larger holes. the diameter and depth of the hole. The drilling process selected depends on the nature of the ground.Drilling Equipment • Holes of considerable diameter are drilled for positioning steel beams. loose material is drawn inside the casing by a . for laying pile foundations and for positioning concrete piles. • For smaller diameters and in soft ground auger may be sufficient. the sides of which must be protected against cave-ins with steel casings. universal driving units are used or suitable attachments are utilized in conjunction with cable-operated or hydraulic excavators.
000 • Service Life : 8 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 1.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : 150kW • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max. New Value : US$ 700.5% per month • Repair Cost : 1.0% per month • Hazard Class : B .
Parts subject to wear should not be covered. . drill rods and casings are normally excluded from coverage. Drill bits. Relatively low risk. The main risk factors are acts of God.• The degree of risk is dependent on the location.
driven hydraulically. Holes will also have to be drilled for back anchors for retaining walls. in the course of quarrying or excavation operations. rock is encountered which cannot be ripped with dozers. . and operate on the rotating drill or rotary impact principle. shallow holes. The rock drills used here are usually mounted on crawler track chassis.Rock Drills • Blasting will be required when. powered by a diesel engine. The explosive is placed in narrow. closely spaced. In exceptional cases drilling units are also supplied as accessories for mobile hydraulic excavators. to obtain soil samples. or for injection work.
8% per month • Repair Cost : 1. New Value : US$ 280.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : 200kW • Weight : 30Mp • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.0% per month • Hazard Class : B .000 • Service Life : 6 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 1.
. there is also the danger of rockfalls in the mountains and in quarries. Drill bits and rods must be excluded from coverage.• The degree of risk determined by local conditions : drilling on a slope involves the danger of tipping when shifting position.
Road Construction .
to compact earth and rock. gravel ).Compacting Equipment • To consolidate material so that it will carry a load. unbalanced weights are often located in the roller drums. rotating. This is normally done with a heavy roller. Backfill material in small excavations is normally consolidated with surface vibrators. while sheepsfoot . self-propelled rollers are primarily used. it must be compacted by weight or vibration. dieselpowered. In road construction. sand. these generate vibrations which are transferred to the earth. To improve compaction performance. The type of roller is selected according to the material to be compacted: smoothsurface rollers are used for granular material ( rock. simple towed rollers are drawn by dozers or crawler-loaders.
New Value : US$ 120. vibro 2.000 • Service Life : static 10.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : 32 Mp • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max. vibro 4 Years • Depreciation and Interest : static 1.5% • Repair Cost : static 0.3%.5% . vibro 1.8%.
• Small surface vibrators can easily be stolen. otherwise all types of rollers are very robust in design and are subject to only minimal hazards. .
usually in a tower-like configuration. Such a system. mixer. consists of metering devices. dedusting system. filler silo and control center.Preparation Plants (bituminous) • For major road building projects the site equipment includes portable or stationary plants for preparation of the bituminous mixture for the base. The finished mixture is conveyed . mixed material storage hopper. binder and surface courses. drying drums. binder storage tanks.
5% 0. New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month • Hazard Class : B 350 t / h US$ 1.0 m 8 Years : 1.7% per .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.
flooding and storm.• The erection site for the system should be checked for the influences of natural hazards such as earthquakes. Machinery . • The insurance risk is dependent solely upon the location and can generally be regarded as low.
Special equipment has been developed for the sealing of dam surfaces. which is hydraulically controlled and often heated. concrete pavements finishers may also run on rails. The height of the beam is controlled electronically with a levelling unit installed in the finisher or by means of laser beam. In the case of asphalt pavements the mixture is delivered by lorry. transported and distributed in the finisher. . The machines advance on tracked or tyred chassis in phase with the progress of the construction work. perhaps heated and agitated. The effective width can be adjusted in steps by adding extensions. these travel along the crown of the dam and cover the face down to the foot.Fineshers • Road finishers are combination units for fabricating the bituminous base. binder and surface courses as well as for the laying of concrete pavements. and then placed and at the same time pre-compacted by a screeding beam.
000 • Service Life : 6 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 1.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : 28 Mp • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.8% per month • Repair Cost : 1. New Value : US$ 350.5% per month • Hazard Class : A .
however. pavement finishers are endangered primarily by external influences. The fire hazard is considerably higher for asphalt finishers than for concrete finishers. and in . All types. are endangered by construction traffic.• Since this is very slow moving equipment which travels on a prepared base.
the shields are often .Driving Shields • Using driving shields it is possible to head sewage conduits and tunnel tubes economically. the hydraulic presses are supported on sections of tunnel already finished. To facilitate removal of the rock and to protect the working place. In order to reduce the high driving forces the shield is often divided into segments which are then advanced individually (blade shield). The shield is advanced hydraulically as construction progresses. The heading shield is made of steel and protects the forward area of the tunnel tube against material as it breaks out. without influencing existing buildings or interrupting the traffic flow. particularly in built-up areas.
• Values are high and depend on the equipment used. .
Damage resulting from the operations themselves should be excluded. as well as loss of shield when it is later determined that heading cannot be carried out to completion. Recovery of a shield after damage may be very difficult .• When rock is encountered the cutters on the shield may be damaged or the entire shield may be thrown off course.
which is advanced hydraulically. A slewing arm is attached to a mobile undercarriage (usually tracked). this arm carries a milling head which loosens material at various points on the face. The slewing arm can be fitted with various types of cutting heads matching the type of rock. following the progress of the work. this work is normally carried out under the protection of a shield. To stabilize the cutting face and the tunnel tube until the lining is completed. which are especially suited for rock which is not too hard and for asymmetrical cross-sections. .Partial-cut Machines • The material at the face can be loosened during tunnel construction with partial cut machines.
New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month • Hazard Class : D 6 Years : 1.8% 1.2% per .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.
.• Cave-in of the tunnel tube. ingress of water. fire and explosion are the potential dangers to which partial-cut machines are exposed and which often result in a total loss.
as well as the laying equipment for the tunnel lining elements. a cutting head rotates. which is advanced hydraulically and which may be divided into individual blades to reduce wall friction. Full-cut machines are generally designed as comprehensive units for tunnel heading and lining. The . the so-called tubbings. apart from rock which is not too hard. underneath a protective shield at the face. which is equipped with cone bits or constructed as a cutting disk. a symmetrical tunnel cross-section. and may reach a length of 50 m.Full-cut Machines • The pre-requisite for the utilization of full-cut machines for heading the complete tunnel cross section at one time is. Behind the cutting head are holding and follower shields to support the tunnel walls and roof.
New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month • Hazard Class : D 6 Years : 1.8% 1.2% per .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.
which may result in a total loss. ingress of water. In case of partial losses there are usually problems in effecting repairs. fire and explosion are typical hazards. High . tunnel tube caveins. since the machines fill the entire crosssection of the tunnel and are accessible with difficulty.• As factors in underground operation.
Drilling Jumbos • Hard. Shot holes are drilled in the working face in preparation for the blasting. these operate several rock drills simultaneously. stable rock must be blasted. Specially drilling cradles. . so-called drilling jumbos. have been developed for this purpose. since it cannot be removed economically with machinery. These drilling jumbos must be removed to a rear tunnel area prior to blasting.
0% per .000 • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month US$ 6 Years : 1. New Value : 500.8% 1.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.
the primary peril is the collision with transport vehicles. which move quickly in restricted space. An effective ventilation system must be provided to improve visibility within the tunnel. .• In addition to the dangers of tunnel tube cave-ins. fire and explosion. ingress of water.
in which a ladder chain carrying the buckets is mounted in a rotating configuration at the center of a ship which is cut through longitudinally.Chain-Bucket Dredgers • Floating dredgers are used for underwater excavation work. The buckets dig into the material. The most familiar is the chain-bucket dredger. such as deepening channels or harbour basins. from which the material slides into an adjacent bottom-dump barge (scow) or onto a floating convneyor . convey it upwards and empty it into a chute.
New Value : • Service Life : • Depreciation and Interest per month • Repair Cost : month Bucket US$ 7.5% per .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : 1000 lt • Max.4 mi 20 Years : 0.8% 0.
In particular for work at sea attention must be paid to setting up satisfactory emergency plans for imminent storms.• The main peril to all floating dredgers is sinking. • Like all floating equipment. the floating dredger should not be .
which is used where the ground is difficult to loosen. They consist essentially of a centrifugal pump. a suction tube. The pump draws a mixture of water and material through the suction port and moves this through a floating pipeline or a pipeline on the channel bed to the deposit area. . In the case of a suction dredger with cutting head. and a transportation pipeline.Suction Dredgers • Suction dredgers are used for underwater excavations when the bed is composed of gravel or soft material. a power supply unit. Everything is located on a floating operations platform.
New Value : US$ 14 mi • Service Life : 20 Years • Depreciation and Interest : 0.8% per month • Repair Cost : 0.5% per month • Hazard Class : D .• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : Pump 3800 kW • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.
• Storms and subsequent sinking are the major perils to all floating equipment, ie the dredging equipment and the floating dredging pipeline. A suitable plan must be worked out to deal with storms. The slurry causes extreme abrasion at the suction port, pipelines and pumps. This equipment,
• A floating ocean going rig consists of a pontoon and usually four caissons which pass through the pontoon at its conrners. With the caissons raised, the platform to towed to the intended site, where caissons are lowered to contact the seabed; the platform then lifts itself out of the water, climbing up the caissons by hydraulics. The advantage of using the ocean going rigs for construction is that it is exposed to wave action only during the relatively short transfer period to the next location. It is for this reason that it is normally used as the base for large equipment such as pile drivers and cranes, but can itself be utilised as a transportation and lifting unit. All the
• The design and equipment of ocean-going rigs are adapted to suit the particular construction site and can in no way be standardized . It is for this reason that new values fluctuate widely. • Service life : 20 years • Hazard Class ; D
such as dropping large. They usually cannot be towed to a safe port in case of a storm. • Whether the units are considered . the organisation of the work must be examined for hazardous features.• Ocean-going rigs are normally used for special construction assignments at sea. In addition to taking storms and wave action into consideration. pre-fabricated elements.
for ventilation of tunnel tubes. Diesel or electric power compressors are used to compress the air into air reservoirs.Compressed Air and Injections • Large volumes of compressed air may be required and produced at construction site powering pneumatic tools (such as pneumatic rock hammers). and for tunnel and casing advancing. Differentiation must be made between tool-operating air and ventilation for personnel. Auxiliary . The air for personnel must be cleaned in oil and air separators prior to use. to hold back water with over pressure in underwater operations.
New Value : • Service Life : Years • Depreciation and Interest compressors 1.5% per month • Repair Cost : 0.8% per month US$ 110.• PARAMETER : • Engine Power : • Weight : • Carrying Capacity : • Load Moment : • Throughput : • Nominal Fill : • Max.000 Compressors 8 : compressors .
fire and rock fall.• As part of the general site facilities. which . A special assessment must be made in cases where systems are mounted on pontoons. compressors are exposed only to minimal operational hazards. The main dangers are posed by external perils such as flooding.
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