The World Water Organization

Ten most salient points water in nepal
1.Nepal has been identified as the 14th poorest country in the world. 2. It is estimated that 15,000 children die each year due to diarrheal diseases ‘caused by poor environmental sanitation and lack of access to quality water supply’ (Nepal’s Department of Water Supply and Sewerage). 3. Although much of the urban population has access to a water source, there is still a huge shortage. Kathmandu has a demand for 200 million liters daily, but the government reports only being able to supply 160 million liters. 4. There is no national standard for water quality. Water supplied in Kathmandu is tainted with dangerous levels of chemicals, viruses and bacteria, and some estimate that only 27% of residents in the capital have access to clean, safe water. 5. Toxic levels of arsenic have been detected in the water in the Terai region, which can lead to diarrhea, vomiting, partial paralysis and blindness. 6. The National Water Plan for Nepal reports that the number of absolute poor has almost doubled in the last 20 years. 7. 6025 people died between 1983 and 2001 due to floods and landslides in Nepal. 8. Groundwater is being rapidly depleted. According to the Nepalese government, the water level is falling by 2.5 meters annually. 9. Climate change is reducing water availability within Nepal. Erratic rainfall, less rain during monsoon season and drought result in less water being stored. 10. It is reported that three quarters of Himalayan glaciers could disappear by 2030, ‘leading to more floods and drought for the 500 million people who rely on Nepal’s rivers in India and Bangladesh’ (Department for International Development). Population: 28,563,377 (July 2009 est.)
%W/O access to water: Urban: 17% Rural: 29% Per Capita: 375 cubic meters per year

Existing water collection/extraction infracture :
Piped water is considered a safe water source but only 14% have access in their homes, 30% outside their homes. 37% rely on a covered well, 5% on an open well, and 14% on rivers, streams and ponds. (WHO Nepal Health Profile). Kathmandu’s pipeline system is 100 years old. 38% are reported to be leaking, and repair is difficult due

In the Amargadi Municipality 200 families share 1 tap. which has not been met. and drinking water international activities addressing water issued There are numerous international organizations involved in Nepal’s many water and sanitation issues. The National Water Plan established short. and a large number of residents in the capital have reported that their taps have been dry for months. which was approved in Web: and has the main aim of improving sanitation conditions. children stand in queues for hours to collect water from a public tap. The coalition includes Nepal’s government. Some projects include the education of local people on the maintenance of these public taps. Some projects include: The Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) exists under a mandate from the UN. thereby reducing the need to carry and transport large quantities of water. Nepal Tel: 977-1-4211426 Fax: 977-1-4200026 Email: limited The Ministry is divided into two departments. particularly in the Terai region.moir. though sporadic commentaries report lines at tap stands etc.(15 year) and long-term (25 year) plans for various aspects of the water sector. The main goal identified was to improve the living standards of Nepalese people in a sustainable manner. NGOs and other agencies. and has provided freshwater and . medium.(5 year). sanitation. which is run by Nepal’s WASH coalition. Ministry of Irrigation Singh The international NGO WaterAid began working in Nepal in 1986. Government Water Ministry The Ministry of Water Resources http://www. including Many tube wells exist though arsenic has been found in many. Collection/carrying hours There is no clear statistic on this. In order to implement the goals identified in the Water Resources Strategy. They developed the Water and Sanitation for All (WASH) campaign. The short-term goal for sanitation was to ensure 50% of the population has basic sanitation facilities by 2007. the government formed the National Water Plan. (The Himalayan) Within Kathmandu. Local government activities addressing water issued The Government of Nepal began formulating the Water Resources Strategy in 1996 which was approved in 2002. It appears that this goal has almost been met although there is no systemic water quality monitoring nationwide. The short-term goal for drinking water was to ensure ‘85% of the total population has access to water supply’ by 2007. Kathmandu. environmental sustainability. requiring people to queue from 4am to get a jar of drinking water. the Ministry of Energy and the Ministry of Irrigation. Water is piped to tap stands in many locations.

This will help reduce the major shortages seen even within Kathmandu. Water disputes All the rivers of Nepal drain into the Ganges Existing treaties/ agreements There are at least three bilateral treaties with India that involve three major rivers. estimated to benefit 160. The U.300 households still need clean water service and proper sanitation between 2000 and 2015 to achieve the drinking water target. which will reach an additional 33.pdf This details the rights that Nepal and India have to the shared Mahakali River.000 people.pdf This specifies that no construction shall be undertaken along this river by India without consultation with Nepal.http://www. building over 800 rural water and sanitation schemes.087 million). China and India. The waters of the Ganges Basin are shared by Nepal. Although WaterAid has improved conditions in Terai. 3. there remains a water quality problem due to poor design of underground tubes in wells.moir. The Mahakali Treaty (1996) . paid for by the Government of India.moir. increasing potential for disputes. It has been reported that a large percentage of Nepal’s drinking water contains fecal coliforms. . pollution. However. The Kosi Treaty (1954) . To achieve this would cost an additional USD $23 million on top of the USD$755 million allocated in the available resources budget for 2000-2015 (bringing the estimated cost to USD $1.sanitation to an additional 3% of the total rural population. This river basin is home to 500 million people in one of the poorest regions in the world. Improved water treatment is unaffordable as pipelines are scattered throughout the country.moir. where arsenic was found in 17% of wells. flooding and river channel changes can affect this region This details various projects along the Gandak river which flows into India.’s Department for International Development (DFID) has invested 14 million pounds. Water supply and sanitation levels in districts such as Rukum and Jajarkot fall well below the national average.K.http://www. 1. Bangladesh. DFID are working on approximately 160 new schemes.http://www. Specific water needs Drinking Water WaterAid Nepal (2004) estimated an additional 11. WaterAid has also installed arsenic detection and mitigation methods in the Terai Only 46% have a supply of drinking water while only 23% have toilets. Although there are currently no water disputes with Nepal. Funding is required for basic maintenance of pipes and tap stands.000 people in rural areas. implementation of the Mahakali Treaty has proven problematic and talks continue 14 years after the treaty was formed. demonstrating the urgent need for dramatic improvement in the water quality and for the establishment of national standards for safe potable water (International Water and Sanitation Centre). and landslides and extensive erosion within the hills have damaged transmission and distribution systems. The Gandak Treaty (1959)

It has been estimated that 14 million people (approx 50%) practice open defecation in Nepal. Nepal was declared a Federal Democratic Republic in 2008.Agriculture The National Water Plan recognizes the need for the expansion of irrigated agriculture in order to meet the food security requirements of the country.358 million Nepal Rupees approximately USD$3.39 billion. Sanitation Sanitation facilities increased by 17% between 1996 and 2004. particularly in rural regions. Agriculture production in 2003 was 7. A 1996 study by UNICEF and the National Planning Commission found that a major reason for not having a latrine included 66% having no perceived need.161 million. Challenges Economic Nepal’s annual GDP is USD $31. Only approximately one-third of irrigable land has year round irrigation. limiting production significantly. and the recent abolition of the monarchy. but there is still a major need for improved sanitation facilities. . civil war.2 million tons which only just met the minimum requirement for Nepal’s edible grains. The National Water Plan estimates that the total cost of water supply and sanitation programs will be 231. Human waste continues to contaminate water sources in dense areas of rapid population growth. Political The government of Nepal had been unstable for many years due to a coup. Inadequate education of the environmental hazard of this activity remains a significant problem.