Our Lady of Manaoag College Bachelor of Science in Computer Science (BSCS-I

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Research Work in Physics II (Heat, Electricity & Magnetism)

Jommel Ryan J. Flores
BSCS-I 2 sem. sy: 2012-2013
nd

How Electric Motor Operate

An electric motor is an electric machine that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. In normal motoring mode, most electric motors operate through the interaction between an electric motor's magnetic field and winding currents to generate force within the motor. In certain applications, such as in the transportation industry with traction motors, electric motors can operate in both motoring and generating or braking modes to also produce electrical energy from mechanical energy. Found in applications as diverse as industrial fans, blowers and pumps, machine tools, household appliances, power tools, and disk drives, electric motors can be powered by direct current (DC) sources, such as from batteries, motor vehicles or rectifiers, or by alternating current (AC) sources, such as from the power grid, inverters or generators. Small motors may be found in electric watches. Generalpurpose motors with highly standardized dimensions and characteristics provide convenient mechanical power for industrial use. The largest of electric motors are used for ship propulsion, pipeline compression and pumped-storage applications with ratings approaching a megawatt. Electric motors may be classified by electric power source type, internal construction, application, type of motion output, and so on. Devices such as magnetic solenoids and loudspeakers that convert electricity into motion but do not generate usable mechanical power are respectively referred to as actuators and transducers. Electric motors are used to produce rotary or linear torque or force.

Success with DC motors The first commutator DC electric motor capable of turning machinery was invented by the British scientist William Sturgeon in 1832.Following Sturgeon's work, a commutator-type direct-current electric motor made with the intention of commercial use was built by the American inventor Thomas Davenport, which he patented in 1837. The motors ran at up to 600 revolutions per minute and powered machine tools and a printing press. Due to the high cost of primary battery power, the motors were commercially unsuccessful and Davenport went bankrupt. Several inventors followed Sturgeon in the development of DC motors but all encountered the same battery power cost issues. No electricity distribution had been developed at the time. Like Sturgeon's motor, there was no practical commercial market for these motors. In 1855 Jedlik built a device using similar principles to those used in his electromagnetic self-rotors that was capable of useful work.] He built a model electric vehicle that same year. The first commercially successful DC motors followed the invention by Zénobe Gramme who had in 1871 developed the anchor ring dynamo which solved the double-T armature pulsating DC problem. In 1873, Gramme found that this dynamo could be used as a motor, which he demonstrated to great effect at exhibitions in Vienna and Philadelphia by connecting two such DC motors at a distance of up to 2 km away from each other, one as a generator. (See also 1873: l'expérience decisive [Decisive Workaround].) In 1886 Frank Julian Sprague invented the first practical DC motor, a non-sparking motor that maintained relatively constant speed under variable loads. Other Sprague electric inventions about this time greatly improved grid electric distribution (prior work done while employed by Thomas Edison), allowed power from electric motors to be returned to the electric grid, provided for electric distribution to trolleys via overhead wires and the trolley pole, and provided controls systems for electric operations. This allowed Sprague to use electric motors to invent the first electric trolley system in 1887–88 in Richmond VA, the electric elevator and control system in 1892, and the electric subway with independently powered centrally controlled cars, which were first installed in 1892 in Chicago by the South Side Elevated Railway where it became popularly known as the "L". Sprague's motor and related inventions led to an explosion of interest and use in electric motors for industry, while almost simultaneously another great inventor was developing its primary competitor, which would become much more widespread. The development of electric motors of acceptable efficiency was delayed for several decades by failure to recognize the extreme importance of a relatively small air gap between rotor and stator. Efficient designs have a comparatively small air gap. [a] The St. Louis motor, long used in classrooms to illustrate motor principles, is extremely inefficient for the same reason, as well as appearing nothing like a modern motor. Application of electric motors revolutionized industry. Industrial processes were no longer limited by power transmission using line shafts, belts, compressed air or hydraulic pressure. Instead every machine could be equipped with its own electric motor, providing easy control at the point of use, and improving power transmission efficiency. Electric motors applied in agriculture eliminated human and animal muscle power from such tasks as handling grain or pumping water. Household uses of electric motors reduced heavy labor in the home and made higher standards of convenience, comfort and safety possible. Today, electric motors stand for more than half of the electric energy consumption in the US.

Emergence of AC motors In 1824, the French physicist François Arago formulated the existence of rotating magnetic fields, termed Arago's rotations, which, by manually turning switches on and off, Walter Baily demonstrated in 1879 as in effect the first primitive induction motorIn the 1880s, many inventors were trying to develop workable AC motors because AC's advantages in long distance high voltage transmission were counterbalanced by the inability to operate motors on AC. Practical rotating AC induction motors were independently invented by Galileo Ferraris and Nikola Tesla, a working motor model having been demonstrated by the former in 1885 and by the latter in 1887. In 1888, the Royal Academy of Science of Turin published Ferraris’ research detailing the foundations of motor operation while however concluding that "the apparatus based on that principle could not be of any commercial importance as motor. In 1888, Tesla presented his paper A New System for Alternating Current Motors and Transformers to the AIEE that described three patented two-phase four-stator-pole motor types: one with a four-pole rotor forming a non-self-starting reluctance motor, another with a wound rotor forming a self-starting induction motor, and the third a true synchronous motor with separately-excited DC supply to rotor winding. One of the patents Tesla filed in 1887, however, also described a shortedwinding-rotor induction motor. George Westinghouse promptly bought Tesla’s patents, employed Tesla to develop them, and assigned C. F. Scott to help Tesla, Tesla leaving for other pursuits in 1889 The constant speed AC induction motor was found not to be suitable for street cars but Westinghouse engineers successfully adapted it to power a mining operation in Telluride, Colorado in 1891.Steadfast in his promotion of three-phase development, Mikhail Dolivo-Dobrovolsky invented the three-phase cagerotor induction motor in 1889 and the three-limb transformer in 1890. This type of motor is now used for the vast majority of commercial applications. However, he claimed that Tesla's motor was not practical because of two-phase pulsations, which prompted him to persist in his three-phase work. Although Westinghouse achieved its first practical induction motor in 1892 and developed a line of polyphase 60 hertz induction motors in 1893, these early Westinghouse motors were two-phase motors with wound rotors until B. G. Lamme developed a rotating bar winding rotor. The General Electric Company began developing three-phase induction motors in 1891. By 1896, General Electric and Westinghouse signed a cross-licensing agreement for the bar-winding-rotor design, later called the squirrel-cage rotor. Induction motor improvements flowing from these inventions and innovations were such that a 100 horsepower (HP) induction motor currently has the same mounting dimensions as a 7.5 HP motor in 1897.

How Generators Operate
An electric generator is a device that converts mechanical energy obtained from an external source into electrical energy as the output. It is important to understand that a generator does not actually ‘create’ electrical energy. Instead, it uses the mechanical energy supplied to it to force the movement of electric charges present in the wire of its windings through an external electric circuit. This flow of electric charges constitutes the output electric current supplied by the generator. This mechanism can be understood by considering the generator to be analogous to a water pump, which causes the flow of water but does not actually ‘create’ the water flowing through it. The modern-day generator works on the principle of electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday in 1831-32. Faraday discovered that the above flow of electric charges could be induced by moving an electrical conductor, such as a wire that contains electric charges, in a magnetic field. This movement creates a voltage difference between the two ends of the wire or electrical conductor, which in turn causes the electric charges to flow, thus generating electric current.

Main components of a generator

The main components of an electric generator can be broadly classified as follows (refer to illustration above):

(1) Engine (2) Alternator (3) Fuel System (4) Voltage Regulator (5) Cooling and Exhaust Systems (6) Lubrication System (7) Battery Charger (8) Control Panel (9) Main Assembly / Frame A description of the main components of a generator is given below.
(1) Engine

The engine is the source of the input mechanical energy to the generator. The size of the engine is directly proportional to the maximum power output the generator can supply. There are several factors that you need to keep in mind while assessing the engine of your generator. The manufacturer of the engine should be consulted to obtain full engine operation specifications and maintenance schedules. (a) Type of Fuel Used – Generator engines operate on a variety of fuels such as diesel, gasoline, propane (in liquefied or gaseous form), or natural gas. Smaller engines usually operate on gasoline while larger engines run on diesel, liquid propane, propane gas, or natural gas. Certain engines can also operate on a dual feed of both diesel and gas in a bi-fuel operation mode. (b) Overhead Valve (OHV) Engines versus non-OHV Engines – OHV engines differ from other engines in that the intake and exhaust valves of the engine are located in the head of the engine’s cylinder as opposed to being mounted on the engine block. OHV engines have several advantages over other engines such as: • Compact design • Simpler operation mechanism • Durability • User-friendly in operations • Low noise during operations • Low emission levels However, OHV-engines are also more expensive than other engines. (c) Cast Iron Sleeve (CIS) in Engine Cylinder – The CIS is a lining in the cylinder of the engine. It reduces wear and tear, and ensures durability of the engine. Most OHV-engines are equipped with CIS but it is essential to check for this feature in the engine of a generator. The CIS is not an expensive feature but it plays an important role in engine durability especially if you need to use your generator often or for long durations.

(2) Alternator

The alternator, also known as the ‘genhead’, is the part of the generator that produces the electrical output from the mechanical input supplied by the engine. It contains an assembly of stationary and moving parts encased in a housing. The components work together to cause relative movement between the magnetic and electric fields, which in turn generates electricity. (a) Stator – This is the stationary component. It contains a set of electrical conductors wound in coils over an iron core. (b) Rotor / Armature – This is the moving component that produces a rotating magnetic field in any one of the following three ways: (i) By induction – These are known as brushless alternators and are usually used in large generators. (ii) By permanent magnets – This is common in small alternator units. (iii) By using an exciter – An exciter is a small source of direct current (DC) that energizes the rotor through an assembly of conducting slip rings and brushes. The rotor generates a moving magnetic field around the stator, which induces a voltage difference between the windings of the stator. This produces the alternating current (AC) output of the generator. The following are the factors that you need to keep in mind while assessing the alternator of a generator: (a) Metal versus Plastic Housing – An all-metal design ensures durability of the alternator. Plastic housings get deformed with time and cause the moving parts of the alternator to be exposed. This increases wear and tear and more importantly, is hazardous to the user. (b) Ball Bearings versus Needle Bearings – Ball bearings are preferred and last longer. (c) Brushless Design – An alternator that does not use brushes requires less maintenance and also produces cleaner power.

(3) Fuel System The fuel tank usually has sufficient capacity to keep the generator operational for 6 to 8 hours on an average. In the case of small generator units, the fuel tank is a part of the generator’s skid base or is mounted on top of the generator frame. For commercial applications, it may be necessary to erect and install an external fuel tank. All such installations are subject to the approval of the City Planning Division. Click the following link for further details regarding fuel tanks for generators. Common features of the fuel system include the following: (a) Pipe connection from fuel tank to engine – The supply line directs fuel from the tank to the

engine and the return line directs fuel from the engine to the tank. (b) Ventilation pipe for fuel tank – The fuel tank has a ventilation pipe to prevent the build-up of pressure or vacuum during refilling and drainage of the tank. When you refill the fuel tank, ensure metal-to-metal contact between the filler nozzle and the fuel tank to avoid sparks. (c) Overflow connection from fuel tank to the drain pipe – This is required so that any overflow during refilling of the tank does not cause spillage of the liquid on the generator set. (d) Fuel pump – This transfers fuel from the main storage tank to the day tank. The fuel pump is typically electrically operated. (e) Fuel Water Separator / Fuel Filter – This separates water and foreign matter from the liquid fuel to protect other components of the generator from corrosion and contamination. (f) Fuel Injector – This atomizes the liquid fuel and sprays the required amount of fuel into the combustion chamber of the engine.

(4) Voltage Regulator As the name implies, this component regulates the output voltage of the generator. The mechanism is described below against each component that plays a part in the cyclical process of voltage regulation. (1) Voltage Regulator: Conversion of AC Voltage to DC Current – The voltage regulator takes up a small portion of the generator’s output of AC voltage and converts it into DC current. The voltage regulator then feeds this DC current to a set of secondary windings in the stator, known as exciter windings. (2) Exciter Windings: Conversion of DC Current to AC Current – The exciter windings now function similar to the primary stator windings and generate a small AC current. The exciter windings are connected to units known as rotating rectifiers. (3) Rotating Rectifiers: Conversion of AC Current to DC Current – These rectify the AC current generated by the exciter windings and convert it to DC current. This DC current is fed to the rotor / armature to create an electromagnetic field in addition to the rotating magnetic field of the rotor / armature. (4) Rotor / Armature: Conversion of DC Current to AC Voltage – The rotor / armature now induces a larger AC voltage across the windings of the stator, which the generator now produces as a larger output AC voltage. This cycle continues till the generator begins to produce output voltage equivalent to its full operating capacity. As the output of the generator increases, the voltage regulator produces less

DC current. Once the generator reaches full operating capacity, the voltage regulator attains a state of equilibrium and produces just enough DC current to maintain the generator’s output at full operating level. When you add a load to a generator, its output voltage dips a little. This prompts the voltage regulator into action and the above cycle begins. The cycle continues till the generator output ramps up to its original full operating capacity. (5) Cooling & Exhaust Systems (a) Cooling System Continuous usage of the generator causes its various components to get heated up. It is essential to have a cooling and ventilation system to withdraw heat produced in the process. Raw/fresh water is sometimes used as a coolant for generators, but these are mostly limited to specific situations like small generators in city applications or very large units over 2250 kW and above. Hydrogen is sometimes used as a coolant for the stator windings of large generator units since it is more efficient at absorbing heat than other coolants. Hydrogen removes heat from the generator and transfers it through a heat exchanger into a secondary cooling circuit that contains de-mineralized water as a coolant. This is why very large generators and small power plants often have large cooling towers next to them. For all other common applications, both residential and industrial, a standard radiator and fan is mounted on the generator and works as the primary cooling system. It is essential to check the coolant levels of the generator on a daily basis. The cooling system and raw water pump should be flushed after every 600 hours and the heat exchanger should be cleaned after every 2,400 hours of generator operation. The generator should be placed in an open and ventilated area that has adequate supply of fresh air. The National Electric Code (NEC) mandates that a minimum space of 3 feet should be allowed on all sides of the generator to ensure free flow of cooling air. (b) Exhaust System Exhaust fumes emitted by a generator are just like exhaust from any other diesel or gasonline engine and contain highly toxic chemicals that need to be properly managed. Hence, it is essential to install an adequate exhaust system to dispose of the exhaust gases. This point can not be emphasized enough as carbon monoxide poisoning remains one of the most common causes for death in post hurricane affected areas because people tend to not even think about it until it’s too late. Exhaust pipes are usually made of cast iron, wrought iron, or steel. These need to be freestanding and should not be supported by the engine of the generator. Exhaust pipes are usually attached to the engine using flexible connectors to minimize vibrations and prevent damage to the generator’s exhaust system. The exhaust pipe terminates outdoors and leads away from doors, windows and other openings to the house or building. You must ensure that the exhaust system of your generator is not connected to that of any other equipment. You should also consult the local city ordinances to determine whether your generator operation will need to obtain an

approval from the local authorities to ensure you are conforming to local laws a protect against fines and other penalties.

(6) Lubricating System Since the generator comprises moving parts in its engine, it requires lubrication to ensure durability and smooth operations for a long period of time. The generator’s engine is lubricated by oil stored in a pump. You should check the level of lubricating oil every 8 hours of generator operation. You should also check for any leakages of lubricant and change the lubricating oil every 500 hours of generator operation.

(7) Battery Charger The start function of a generator is battery-operated. The battery charger keeps the generator battery charged by supplying it with a precise ‘float’ voltage. If the float voltage is very low, the battery will remain undercharged. If the float voltage is very high, it will shorten the life of the battery. Battery chargers are usually made of stainless steel to prevent corrosion. They are also fully automatic and do not require any adjustments to be made or any settings to be changed. The DC output voltage of the battery charger is set at 2.33 Volts per cell, which is the precise float voltage for lead acid batteries. The battery charger has an isolated DC voltage output that does interfere with the normal functioning of the generator.

(8) Control Panel This is the user interface of the generator and contains provisions for electrical outlets and controls. The following article provides further details regarding the generator control panel. Different manufacturers have varied features to offer in the control panels of their units. Some of these are mentioned below. (a) Electric start and shut-down – Auto start control panels automatically start your generator during a power outage, monitor the generator while in operation, and automatically shut down the unit when no longer required. (b) Engine gauges – Different gauges indicate important parameters such as oil pressure, temperature of coolant, battery voltage, engine rotation speed, and duration of operation. Constant measurement and monitoring of these parameters enables built-in shut down of the generator when any of these cross their respective threshold levels. (c) Generator gauges – The control panel also has meters for the measurement of output current and voltage, and operating frequency. (d) Other controls – Phase selector switch, frequency switch, and engine control switch (manual mode, auto mode) among others.

(9) Main Assembly / Frame All generators, portable or stationary, have customized housings that provide a structural base support. The frame also allows for the generated to be earthed for safety.

Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic induction is the production of a potential difference (voltage) across a conductor when it is exposed to a varying magnetic field. Michael Faraday is generally credited with the discovery of induction in 1831 though it may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in 1829. Around 1830 to 1832, Joseph Henry made a similar discovery, but did not publish his findings until later. Faraday's law of induction is a basic law of electromagnetism that predicts how a magnetic field will interact with an electric circuit to produce an electromotive force (EMF). It is the fundamental operating principle of transformers, inductors, and many types of electrical motors, generators and solenoids.[ Electromagnetic induction was discovered independently by Michael Faraday and Joseph Henry in 1831; however, Faraday was the first to publish the results of his experiments. In Faraday's first experimental demonstration of electromagnetic induction (August 29, 1831), he wrapped two wires around opposite sides of an iron ring or "torus" (an arrangement similar to a modern toroidal transformer). Based on his assessment of recently discovered properties of electromagnets, he expected that when current started to flow in one wire, a sort of wave would travel through the ring and cause some electrical effect on the opposite side. He plugged one wire into a galvanometer, and watched it as he connected the other wire to a battery. Indeed, he saw a transient current (which he called a "wave of electricity") when he connected the wire to the battery, and another when he disconnected it.This induction was due to the change in magnetic flux that occurred when the battery was connected and disconnected.[6] Within two months, Faraday had found several other manifestations of electromagnetic induction. For example, he saw transient currents when he quickly slid a bar magnet in and out of a coil of wires, and he generated a steady (DC) current by rotating a copper disk near the bar magnet with a sliding electrical lead ("Faraday's disk").

ELECTRIC ENERGY GENERATION IN POWER PLANTS

Electric Power Plants: Electric Power Plants have a number of components in common and are an interesting study in the various forms and changes of energy necessary To produce electricity. Boiler Unit: Almost all of power plants operate by heating water In a boiler unit into super heated steam at very high pressures. The source of heat from combustion reactions may vary in fossil fuel Plants from the source of fuels such as coal, oil, or natural gas. Biomass or waste plant parts may also be used as a source of fuel. In some areas solid waste incinerators are also used as a source of heat. All of these sources of fuels result in varying amounts of air pollution, As well as, the carbon dioxide ( a gas implicated in global warming problems). In a nuclear power plant, the fission chain reaction of splitting nuclei Provides the source of heat. Turbine-Generator: The super heated steam is used to spin the blades of a turbine, which in turn is used in the generator to turn a coil of wires Within a circular arrangements of magnets. The rotating coil of wire in the magnets results in the generation of electricity. Cooling Water: After the steam travels through the turbine, it must be Cooled and condensed back into liquid water to start the cycle over again. Cooling water can be obtained from a nearby river or lake. The water is returned to the body of water 10 -20 degrees higher in Temperature than the intake water. Alternate method is to use a very tall cooling tower, where the evaporation of water falling Through the tower provides the cooling effect.

Creating Electricity using a Generator: If a magnetic field can create a current then we have a Means of generating electricity. Experiments showed that a magnetic just sitting next to a wire produced no current flow Through that wire. However, if the magnet is moving, a Current is induced in the wire. The faster the magnet moves, The greater the induced current. This is the principal behind simple electric generators in which a Wire loop is rotated between to stationary magnetic. This produces a continuously varying voltage which in turn produces an Alternating current. Diagram of a simple electric generator is shown on the left. To generate electricity then, some (mechanical) mechanism is used To turn a crank that rotates a loop of wire between stationary magnets. The faster the crank turns the more current that is generated. In hydroelectric, the falling water turns the turbine. The wind can also turn the turbine. In fossil fuel plants and nuclear plants, Water is heated to steam which turns the turbine.

Hydroelectric power plant

Hydroelectric power plants use the potential energy of water stored in a reservoir to operate turbines. The turbines are connected to large generators, and can operate on varying volumes of water to adapt to changing demand for electricity. A hydroelectric power plant capacity is related to the height and capacity of a reservoir and require certain conditions in local geography in addition to a water source. Hydro is a renewable energy source and more costeffective than many other renewable sources of energy such as photovoltaic. Hydropower currently provides about 25% of the world's electricity and is very flexible in scale. Commercial installations range from 1 MW up to the largest installation to date of 18,400 Megawatts (China). Mannvit Engineering is a leading engineering firm in hydroelectric energy and has designed and built complete hydropower plants (impoundment type), ancillary systems and power transmission systems in Iceland and abroad. With installed systems from 1MW to 690MW, Mannvit has completed a number of large and small systems, including:

Thermal power plant
A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. Water is heated, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. Some prefer to use the term energy center because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity.[ Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes, for district heating, or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. A large part of human CO2 emissions comes from fossil fueled thermal power plants; efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread.

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