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79-83 © 2009, DESIDOC
Different Approaches to the Bionic Eye
Solid State Physics Laboratory, Lucknow Road, Delhi-110 054
There is optimism regarding the bionic eye due to the successes of: • Cardiac pacemakers as neural prosthesis • Cochlear implants to restore hearing to the deaf Dr Kalam initiated a multi-lab multi-disciplinary DRDO programme to develop an affordable cochlear implant. Rapid developments in VLSI design and in Microfabrication technology imply the next step: developing the bionic eye as well as suggest that SSPL should be involved. What is the bionic eye? It is a bio-electronic device that replaces functionality of part or whole of the eye – or adds functionality to it. The approach is to bypass damaged photoreceptors and directly stimulate undamaged neurons. It cannot work on the congenitally blind - trained neurons are needed – or with damaged optic nerves, glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy. The human eye is similar to a camera. The part of the retina that provides the highest resolution of the image. Less than 100 microns thick, the retina is comprised of 10 layers of cells which process the initial “analog”light energy entering the eye into “digital” electrochemical impulses. The human eye has ~126 million photoreceptors: 6 million cones (that provide colour perception i.e. red, green and blue, respond to high light intensity levels, provide sharp high resolution images and are mostly in the central part of the field of view) and 120 million rods ( that provide black and white images, respond to low light intensity levels, provide low resolution images and are mostly in the peripheral field of view). Thus, if you want to see a faint star at night you look at it sideways so it is focused away from the optic axis, whereas if you want to read the fine print in a lawyer’s contract you look at it dead center in bright light. Interestingly, the optic nerve carries only 1 million connections, implying a significant amount of pre-processing of information before it reaches the brain. The bionic eye is largely intended to help patients of macular degeneration and of retinitis pigmentosa. The former is genetically related but occurs mostly in old people (age related macular degeneration, AMD). The cones in the macula degenerate leading to a loss of up to 70% of photoreceptors – leading to a loss, or damage of, central
vision, while peripheral vision is spared. Retinitis pigmentosa is a hereditary genetic disease in which up to 95% of peripheral rods (and cones) are lost. This results in ‘tunnel vision’ and the tunnel shrinks as the disease progresses to the center of the eye (although the foveal region is spared). There are no proven therapeutic remedies for these diseases. Various approaches have been, and continue to be, attempted: • Use of Intravitreal injection of certain growth factors. • Identification of specific gene mutations has led to the development of the gene therapy approaches. • Transplantation can be effective in rescuing the photoreceptors from degeneration • Stem cell based treatments are being developed • Photodynamic therapy to repair damaged photoreceptors has had some success in arresting loss of photoreceptors. There are also attempts to create light-sensitive neural cells by: a) genetic engineering b) photolysis of caged agonists near native cell surface receptors c) photoswitching of special ligands attached to ionchannel receptors However, in this article we shall restrict ourselves to bionic eye approaches. Before doing this however, we shall briefly examine the forerunner to the bionic eye: the bionic ear or the cochlear implant. This has some similarities, although clearly we must substitute light for sound and different nerves in the two cases. In the cochlear implant, the following processes occur: (i) a microphone picks up sound from the environment (ii) a speech processor selectively filters sound to prioritise audible speech and sends the electrical sound signals through a thin cable (iii) a r.f. transmitter - a coil held in position by a magnet placed behind the external ear - transmits the processed sound signals by magnetic induction (iv) a r.f.receiver and stimulator (secured in bone beneath the skin) converts the signals into electric impulses and sends them through an internal cable (v) an array of up to 22 electrodes, or as few as 6 electrodes 79
7-1. SJTU.of Southern Calif. The first is the Cortical Prosthesis (Dobelle Inst. shunt & series regulators. identify shapes and avoid obstacles while walking around in the lab – and differentiate different grey levels. In this approach an implanted micro-camera and electrode array to penetrate optic nerve and high density electrodes and a large perception field are possible. The other alternative is a penetrating micro-electrode array at the optic nerve (C-Sight.5 turns.Zrenner EpiRetinal Prosthesis USC & NCSU: Wentai Liu and Mark Humayun: FDA clinical trial & US patent 5. & Syst. 5300 ms. The characteristic frequency CF in terms of distance x along the cochlea from the apex (of length L=35 mm): ax CF = A(10 L − K ) = 164. 80 Thus low level. in the latter. the electrodes are placed on the retina. while the cells that respond to low frequency sounds are located at the innermost end of the spiral.f. Custom chips fabricated in 1. For the cochlear implant. derivative circuitry.139.To accommodate factor of 3 load variations. it is necessary to mention two extraocular approaches. with two major approaches: the epi-retinal and the sub-retinal with many publications and patents.. and thus. The cochlea is a spiral with has 2. The frequency used is ~ 1 MHz since there is increased absorption of r.of Utah) which sends input directly to the visual cortex through wires – like in the scifi film Matrix – either by surface or by intra-cortical stimulation.996 • Dean Scribner: US patent 6.52 (2005)2109) are that an inductively coupled coil pair transfers power to medical implants.DRDO SCIENCE SPECTRUM 2009 (wound through the cochlea) sends the impulses to the auditory nerves. some commercial models today have as few as 6 electrodes and allow 90% comprehension/telephone talk (i. U.612 TuebingenUniversity: Southern German Consortium: E. in the sub-retinal space. decoder & power controller using FPGA. the possibility of infection is much reduced. The number of hair cells in the cochlea is ~3. The prototype system delivers up to 250 mW of power over a coil distance of 0.836.865.95 mm.: US patent 6. China) which is supposed to be less invasive and the surgery less complicated.000!) in a trained user.1 x 35 − 1 . Zurich & Univ.109.5 μm technology include analog: ADC.000 while the number of electrodes is usually <22. Chow (Alan & Vince) Loyola Univ. the implantation approach is too invasive and risky to the brain. Switching logic drives an 8-bit ADC for reverse telemetry. The present status is that patients can detect motion. ANURAG has designed an ASIC using 0. However.317 &7. A third approach is also adopted: electrodes are kept in the supra-choroidal space. Crosstalk may be reduced by using lower currents with an implanted microphone but that may require surgery to replace the implanted battery. Japan: Yagi NSWU. Australia: G. Since no wires penetrate the skin (no transcutaneous wires).Mark Humayun. but low frequency sounds (<~500 Hz) are not picked up by the cochlear implant because the electrodes cannot be positioned deep inside the cochlea. adaptive control is used (‘just needed’ power).5(10 2 . increasing the number of electrodes may not help much because of the problem of crosstalk.7 ?m technology with 5V power. 64 (2008) 3159) Initial estimates for an effective cochlear implant suggested as many as ~2400 electrodes. For the sake of completeness. by human tissue above a few MHz. class E control & digital: packet encoder.647. An alternative approach: midIR lasers (1.844 German Consortium: EpiRet Programme E. the apex. so just 4 and 8 electrodes have been implanted. below it. In the former.839 & 5. the problems are that how the information is coded is not clear. that feed into the neural ganglion . a newer design caters to the 10 ? electrode resistance that needs 12V.Suaning Others • John Doorish of Doorish Opthalmic Tech.297 • Daniel Palanker of Stanford: The photoreceptors – the rods and the red. with 6 out of 3. ringing the optic nerve. 2 Hz repetition rate) are used to more precisely stimulate particular neurons than by using electrodes: animal trials conducted (Izzo et al Biophysical J. green and blue cones . increased battery life and implant safety.3 kbps at packet error rate <10-8 from implant to external unit. The audible range for human speech is 100-3500 Hz. SubRetinal Prosthesis Optobionics Inc.0 ) The details of the transcutaneous power telemetry for biomedical implants (G. functuonal vision may be provided by the bionic eye even though the number of photoreceptors in the eye is millions – and current electrode counts are ~60 in the clinical human trials of Dr.e.Wang et al IEEE T-Circ.839. This number of electrodes would allow a patient to decide which quadrant is being stimulated. It results in a limited visual Field and with 64 Pt electrodes a visual acuity of 20/1200.Zrenner MIT/Harvard: Wyatt and Rizzo Nagoya Univ. The cochlea is approximately 35 mm long.5 cms.. however. More than 20 groups are working in the bionic eye field. The back telemetry link sends data at 3. Preliminary animal experiments have been done and biocompatibility and clinical evaluations remain to be addressed. the characteristic frequencies decide electrode placement. From base (20 kHz) to apex (20 Hz). and the hair cells that respond to sound are organized spatially in a way that the high frequency sounds are picked up by those cells closest to the outer end (the base).send signals to the processing cells: amacrine and horizontal cells. This results in more than 2X greater power transmission efficiency versus the open loop case. However.: US patent 5. At present.
each approximately 20×20-μm square and separated by 10. This then sends a signal (and power) on to Þ intraocular parts (signal transceiver.DHAR:DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO THE BIONIC EYE cells of the optic nerve. the retinal neurons migrate into the porous interface with the subretinal implants this provides intimate proximity between the stimulation sites and the neural cells . ~ 3 mm in diameter. the first patent was taken by Tassicker in 1956 who implanted a single Se photodiode. and the ultimate target is 20/80 vision. The process flow for a MPDA follows standard steps: (i) Implant shallow P+ wells in N-Si wafer. and thus lower resolution is achievable. & they expect pre-processed. powered only by incident ambient light have given way to active MPDAs which require an external source of power. Tracking the implant in real time (using a tracking 81 . Gen II for 20/200. except for well openings (iv) Deposit Cr/Ti bonding layer: front & back sides • (v) Deposit Au. about 4mm square. The requirements placed on the components of the bionic eye are to: (i) Minimize size and power needs: ~1V. Ir/IrOx or Pt transparent electrode: front & back sides (xii) Square devices.Med.μ m channel stops. In the epi-retinal approach The bionic eye consists of the following elements: A miniature camera worn in a pair of dark glasses. and the electrodes are far from the retina so heat damage is less likely. However. 35(2006)). behind a blind person’s retina. 50 mm thick. ~10 mA-mA ? ?W-mW power (ii) Deliver wireless signals and power to reduce infection (iii) Manage data transfer between internal & external components (iv) Microelectronics should survive in the saline environment of the eye & be biocompatible with the body.5-1.000 hexagonal array. Javaheri et al Annals Acad. was liquidated in 2007. Electrodes stimulate the cells in the retina to perceive images. which transmits images to • a radio receiver (telemetric inductive link) implanted next to the patient’s eye. The chip’s Pt electrodes stimulate • the ganglion cells that transmit visual information to the optic nerve and • onwards to the brain.and sub-retinal implants. The Subretinal Approach involves implanting the artificial silicon retina (ASR) or microphotodiode array (MPDA) chip behind the retina to stimulate amacrine. The suprachoroidal retinal prosthesis (Zhou et al J. Another group at SVEC. it has the disadvantage of a higher threshold current for stimulation because of greater distance between electrodes and inner retinal cells. The chip uses a 0. Current approaches involve a microphotodiode array (MPDA). A tiny video camera is mounted on VR style pulsed IR goggles. filtered info that they would have gotten from bipolar cells.2008) has the advantages of less invasive surgery (no retinal tears) and that higher choroidal blood flow should efficiently remove heat.Biomed. Optobionics Co.1x105 cm-2 and the array contains ~5. data is transmitted at 125 kbps and 2. Passive MPDAs. telemetry. Although devices implanted sub-retinally in cats functioned electrically and were powered only by incident light (Chow et al IEEE Trans.8 μ m CMOS process. A portable wallet-sized computer processor. and charge-balanced biphasic stimulation must be enabled. that sits on the retina. It creates a 5x5 pattern with 16 grey levels.1 μ m range. Gen I of the system is designed for visual acuity (VA) of 20/ 400. The resulting micro photodiode density is approximately 1. 8 mA and 8bit. a solar or RF-powered battery is implanted in the eye. and then polished to produce the final round implants There were problems with MPDAs. Firstly. according to later reports (e.Neur. is stuck with Ti tacks and cyanoacrylate glue on the retina.essential for high resolution stimulation. The Epiretinal Approach involves a semiconductor based device positioned on the surface of the retina to try to stimulate the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) of the retina. 7 current sources are used. stimulation unit & electrode array): • a tiny chip of silicon and platinum.Systems (2001). At Stanford.&Biotech. the group of Daniel Palanker has devised an approach that is suitable for both epi.5 MHz with PWM via a class E tuned power amplifier. Epi-retinal implants stimulate RGCs directly. horizontal and bipolar cells. Using the sub-retinal approach. and a 3-mm diameter light-sensing chip is implanted in the retina. Upgrades of the processor do not require surgery since it is outside the body. were made by diamond sawing.000 P-i-N microscopic solar cells that respond to light in the 0. Tested in rats. 2 mm on a side. separated by channel stops: front side (ii) Implant N+ layer on back-side of wafer (iii) Deposit Si nitrate on front. Chow’s approach “was not feasible because it lacks a source of viable power” and was “abandoned”. Chow now believes that the stimulation achieved by the ASR could only be “therapeutic”. The ceramics are considered to be bio-compatible and rabbit trials have been done – and nutrient flow is compatible with these devices. Texas has made ceramic thin film 30 ?m sized microdetectors in a 100. devices need ‘fenestrations’ so that nutrient flow to neurons is not stopped.g. A low-power CMOS camera mounted on eyeglass frame captures image and transfers visual information and power to intraocular components via r. These photoferroelectric PbLaZrTiO3/BVMnO3 detectors are so thin that they are mounted on a 1 mm x1 mm polymer substrate (that will later dissolve in the eye) to enable handling by surgeons. The polyimide based Au electrode array consists of 750x300 μ m2 strips. square 5.f. comprised of a regular array of individual photodiode subunits. A 5x5 Pt electrode array fabricated on silicone rubber. which can then construct a visual image.4 mm side. Only NIR 850 nm laser diodes (not LEDs) can deliver enough light intensity to stimulate the chips to drive the neurons.
Wyatt and Rizzo of the Harvard/MIT group started with an epi-retinal approach – but later abandoned it for sub-retinal work.c.9 x 3.4 mC/cm2 and also allow smaller electrodes than with Pt. IEEE EMBS Lyon Aug. It is known that human skin is sensitive to deformations of ~0. Photodiode panel captures processed signal transmitted by the laser pulse (from the glasses) and the stimulator chip passes this information to the microelectrode array on the epi-retinal surface of the eye. corres. Mechanical stimulation of neurons is more natural than electrical stimulation for tactile-sensitive cells. grown on the membrane. and thus a sharper image.voltage pulses (negative phase cancels the positive phase) avoid charge buildup.to 1600 pix/mm2 in the central 2-3°. flexible membrane covers a photo-diode array with 10 μ m pixels.000 pixels. The device is double coated with 1 μ m of parylene N and 5 μ m of parylene C.2x0. Larger electrodes will be safer. pulses.of Edinburgh): Guided growth of neurons on microfabricated patterns of Parylene-C on SiO2 Biomaterials (2009).5 pW @ 50Hz frame rate. The stimulus is set at 0. and with a max 45 mW NIR power. Each Pt electrode (w: 25 μ m.8 μ m diameter channels. for 0. The extraocular unit mounted on a pair of glasses: i) CCD camera (ii) signal processing unit (iii) laser. Neural cells. used to couple the Si MUX to the retina. Some additional features: . corres. (Any image stabilized on the retina for >100 msecs fades from perception). Nanochannel glass (NCG) channels are filled with microwires. Biphasic 0.5 msec at 50 Hz. The In bump technology.7 mm). The patient’s spectacle holds the CCD camera and power source a laser diode (820nm wavelength) and a microelectrode array replaces damaged photoreceptors. apart from being invasive even if biocompatible.which is ~ impedance of typical of biological tissue. would not involve an implanted cable or power supply.Phys. lastly. and are 50 μ m high. The symmetric biphasic pulses were 100 ms long at 100 Hz repetition rate and 600 mA amplitude.15 μm thick) conductive. The closer the electrodes are to the neural cells. A 3 mm diameter implant is equivalent to 700. The electrodes are mounted on 10 ?m thick polyimide strips. Electric charge. t: 0. needs >100 electrodes. The membrane electrostatically deflects by 1 μ m if 10V is applied. This approach. For functional sight one needs: a) a minimum FOV of 10°. is also followed by Poher et al (J. An air-gap capacitance of a 10 ?m pixel. Battery pack is also external to the eye. The pillar electrodes have been fabricated by photolithography (analogous to In bumps). the threshold strength for stimulus increased exponentially.8 mW power would result in 20/40 VA. 10 ?m in diameter: SU8 polymer implant.1 ?m. The reason a multiplexer is needed is that activities of daily life (ADL). has many advantages – but it presupposes that the RGCs/bipolar cells have been light-sensitized by viral re-engineering them. A novel retinal prosthesis (K.Exp.Neural Eng. The MUX is coated with silicone moulded to a curve fitting the eyeball. Activated Ir oxide film (AIROF) electrodes are used since the charge density exceeds the electrochemically safe limit for Pt electrodes of 0. it was found that as the stimulus duration decreased. power consumed 2. would have the potential to both excite and inhibit action potentials. Based on studies of strength-duration products. Another group has fabricated a 100-electrode retinal prosthesis using a multiplexer (Terasawa et al IEICE Electr. chemical products and corrosion that would occur with d.Mark Humayun of Second Sight. and 1.5 msec long with a max current of 20 mA and a max charge density of 0. 5 (2008) 574). dia = 200 ?m) on to a 4. will heat the retina by ~0.29th Intern. induces an opposite charge on the membrane and the attraction deflects it. 1 ?m electrode spacing is 1 fF. An SEM of NCG shows 0. are mechanically stimulated by optical illumination of the photodiodes. is of interest to SSPL.BIOS SPIE 5688A-37 (2005)).5 msec a.8 mC/cm2. Similar approaches were followed by Yagi of Nagoya University and A. Dean Scribner has worked with Dr. walking and recognizing faces. The tradeoff leads to an optimum electrode size of 200-400 μ m – still 10-20X the neural cell size. 2 (2005) S105). The NCG array is hybridized to a Si demultiplexer chip. The proposed alternative. and holds an interesting patent.Nikolic et al Proc. but higher charge density may burn the retina. (Palanker et al J. Palanker’s group has exhaustively studied many of the design aspects of retinal implants. Electrodes on other end of polyimide strip attached to epiretinal surface by small Au weight and viscoelastic hyaluronic acid.to 3 mm dia on the retina is needed b) a Snellen visual acuity (VA) of 20/ 100. l: 200 μ m) has R>10 K Ω .c. would allow better spatial and temporal resolution as well as flexible spatial control (the ability to target individual receptor fields and cells) and.2007) is needed since metal electrodes have major issues such as: dielectric tissue build-up and electrolytic degradation.Murray (U. A thin (0. energy stored at 10V is 50fJ.57 mm board for stimulating electrodes. and also have problems with accuracy and retention of position. and one surface of the NCG is ground to a spherical shape conforming to the inside of the retina (r~12.41(2008) 94104). Terasawa proposes a MUX mounted by flip-chip bonding by a 10x10 array of Au bumps (h = 30 μ m. optical stimulation would involve minimal damaging surgery. the lower the stimulating currents that are needed – thus reducing crosstalk and tissue over-heating. called biochemical retinal prosthesis. Cornea and lens are transparent in the 800-850 nm range. Smaller electrodes deliver more localized stimulation. Pillar electrodes allow retinal cell migration that reduces separation.D.3 ?m amplitude.2 °C – which is deemed acceptable.DRDO SCIENCE SPECTRUM 2009 camera) will allow position-dependent image processing that may be needed to translate visual information into electrical signals that can be properly interpreted by the brain.Conf. 82 A novel approach has been proposed relying on tactile stimulation by an opto-mechanical array (Palanker Proc. Granted that has been achieved. optical stimulation. Visual acuity of 20/80 needs a pixel size of 20 μ m or an array density of 2500 pixels/mm2 (20/200= 400 pixels/mm2) and the separation of electrodes and target cells should be <7 μ m. but images less distinct. transmitted through the illuminated photodiode.
• Active MPDAs in the sub-retinal form show promise long-term.DHAR:DIFFERENT APPROACHES TO THE BIONIC EYE Head-mounted microLED arrays used to excite the photo-sensitive cells • Minimum number of photons needed to excite one cell:~105-106 • Cell size~100 μm2 & Energy flux needed ~5 pW/ mm2???5 nW per optical ‘electrode’ of size 200 μ m2 • Assuming 1000 electrodes. Work is proceeding on: the Bionic ear (cochlear implant). etc. piezoelectrics. using hemispherical elastomer transfer element. Bionic heart: increased strength and endurance. All defense agencies are working towards the Bionic Man: unlike prosthesis. been recently fabricated by Yuan et al (Appl. In the proposed hybrid bacteriorhodopsin (bR) protein. heart rate. Bionic liver. which means a brighter image.2008) has reviewed the status of the bionic eye. Intelligent Medical Implants & EpiRet GmbH): ongoing clinical trials with chronic implants. the image falls upon the curved retina. Bionic tongue: detect pollution & CW agents. The bR has a quantum yield of 65% to green light. potential crosstalk and increased power required. The suprachoroidal approach will deliver low resolution and require high charge thresholds. Bionic brain (memory to replace damaged areas). Another biochemical method involves light-sensitive molecules made by bacteria that are similar to those analogues found in the human eye. • 8x8 LED array used. DRDO is interested in the societal mission of helping patients of Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). biocompatibility and electrode degradation are problems for all intraocular devices. Curved photodetectors with specially fabricated light-sensitive Ge nanomembranes are attached to any polymer substrate.Si CID neuro-morphic photosensor (Martin et al 1997 Proc. light enters though a single lens. Ge nanomembranes. thin layers by ‘Si knife’. BLEEX: Berkeley Lower Extremities Exoskeleton: 40 sensors. The status of optical stimulation is that animal studies planned in 2009. bR is similar to a X-type RGC with differential photosensitivity that allows edge detection and motion enhancement as well as having no response to static image – just like the human eye. hydraulic mechanism. CAIR. An earlier report has succeeded in just that: fabricating a Hemispherical Detector Array H. DIPAS. and with what intensity.C. with stretchable interconnects 360 μm long and 50 ?m wide. eliminating distortion. Advantages over planar detector arrays: a) more uniform focus from centre to edge b) wider FOV c) more homogenous intensity . noses etc. Bionic nose: ditto. allow one to make cameras that mimic the human eye. Humayun) has the short-term advantage of being proven. for how long. NSTL. In the eye. Osaka & Australian Bionic Eye Foundation) have completed ‘acute clinical trials’. so far. DEBEL. brain-circuit interface (BCI). Bionic lung: ditto. IRDE & SSPL. microfluidics etc The bionic eye is a multi-disciplinary project that will involve ANURAG. a readout has not been integrated as yet with the detector array. bionic implant mimics original function. ~1 μm thick. 3 groups (Boston. 268-297). P~5 mW: tolerable value. Bionic arm: ditto. “Current & future prospects for optoelectronic retinal prostheses”. but at the back of the eye. pp. position using piezoelectric film gauges and ultrasonic detection of wound track. DRDO will in future work on bionic arms.Phys.b) projectile impact. • Biochemical retinal prostheses are promising (animal trials planned). In a recent article. thermoelectrically-cooled garments. J.Lett. microelectrodes fabricated by MEMS. can the bionic eye enable HUD or telescopic/IR/UV vision? SSPL will be interested in the bionic eye since it has expertise in the wide variety of materials and areas that are involved: CCD/CMOS sensors and multiplexers.The illuminated bR polymer on top of the CID drives it further into accumulation. laser diodes.94 (2009) 013102).Ko et al (Nature 454(Aug.: the bionic person. the e-nose. carrying 100 lbs feels like 4 lbs. DRDO is also interested in bionic devices are being developed to do more than replace defective parts e. motion. • • Epi-retinal approach (Second Sight. Biocomput. Increasing number of electrodes is constrained by safety. Symp. Sensate Liner: combat casualty bodysuit monitoring a) BP. • Hermetic encapsulation. However. each element 500x500 μm2.cos(θ) variation. conducting polymers. blood loss. tongues. light-sensitive nanoparticles. instead of cos4( θ ) d) reduced geometric distortions e) reduced number of optical elements needed. strap-on legs. Bionic eye (ability to get HUD or telescopic/IR/UV or polarizationsensitive vision). • Passive microphotodiode arrays (MPDAs) as proposed by the Chows of Optobionics appear to have failed. neuroprosthetics to allow telekinesis. • Long-term problem is spatial resolution. are curved cylindrically–needed are hemispheric nanomembranes. 83 • • • . Bionic leg: ditto. Bionic Stomach… CONCLUSION • • • DRDO is interested in the bionic eye as a follow-up to its work on the bionic ear (the cochlear implant). Bionic kidney. A Si 16x16 photodetector array. In bumps/pillars. The nanomembranes. ferroelectrics.g. upgrade to 128x128 GaN LEDs planned • There are 12 different ganglion cell types that differ in their characteristics • Optical stimulation will allow flexibility in choosing which RGC to stimulate.Dowling (Nature Eye Dec. was fabricated on a hemisphere of r~1 cm. • 3 epi-retinal companies (Second Sight. to surpass power of the original organ or other body part.2008)748-53).
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