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**Separation Process Engineering
**

Includes Mass Transfer Analysis

Third Edition

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Separation Process Engineering Includes Mass Transfer Analysis Third Edition P H I L L I P C . NJ • Boston • Indianapolis • San Francisco New York • Toronto • Montreal • London • Munich • Paris • Madrid Capetown • Sydney • Tokyo • Singapore • Mexico City . WA N K AT Upper Saddle River.

Includes index. please contact: United States Corporate and Government Sales (800) 382-3419 corpsales@pearsontechgroup. please submit a written request to Pearson Education.com/ph Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Wankat. photocopying. July 2011 . TP156. paper) 1. electronic. or likewise. Massachusetts. marketing focus.. New Jersey 07458. Phillip C. Printed in the United States of America. recording. First printing. which may include electronic versions and/or custom covers and content particular to your business. 1944 – Separation process engineering : includes mass transfer analysis / Phillip C. Separation (Technology) I.Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. No liability is assumed for incidental or consequential damages in connection with or arising out of the use of the information or programs contained herein.com For sales outside the United States. or transmission in any form or by any means. or you may fax your request to (201) 236-3290. All rights reserved.. and branding interests. Title.S45W36 2011 660'. Inc. ISBN 0-13-138227-6 (hardcover : alk. but make no expressed or implied warranty of any kind and assume no responsibility for errors or omissions. ISBN 13: 978-0-13-138227-5 ISBN 10: 0-13-138227-6 Text printed in the United States on recycled paper at Courier in Westford. The author and publisher have taken care in the preparation of this book.2842—dc23 2011019427 Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education. To obtain permission to use material from this work. please contact: International Sales international@pearsoned. storage in a retrieval system. training goals. The publisher offers excellent discounts on this book when ordered in quantity for bulk purchases or special sales. For more information.com Visit us on the Web: informit. the designations have been printed with initial capital letters or in all capitals. One Lake Street. Permissions Department. Wankat. Inc. This publication is protected by copyright. p. and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim. cm. Where those designations appear in this book. mechanical. Upper Saddle River. and permission must be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction.—3rd ed.

and Jennie .To Dot. Chuck.

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2.1. 2.2. 1.7.4.5.6. 2. Sequential Solution Procedure Example 2-1.2.1. Basic Method of Flash Distillation Form and Sources of Equilibrium Data Graphical Representation of Binary VLE Binary Flash Distillation 2. Calculation of drum size Utilizing Existing Flash Drums Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix A. 2. 1.11.9.4.1. Simultaneous Solution and Enthalpy-Composition Diagram Multicomponent VLE Multicomponent Flash Distillation Example 2-2.7. 2. Importance of Separations Concept of Equilibrium Mass Transfer Problem-Solving Methods Prerequisite Material Other Resources on Separation Process Engineering Summary—Objectives References Homework xvii xix xxi xxiii 1 1 2 4 5 7 7 10 10 11 13 13 15 18 22 23 26 28 30 34 39 42 45 47 48 51 53 54 54 56 67 Chapter 2 Flash Distillation 2. 2.3. Simultaneous convergence for flash distillation Three-Phase Flash Calculations Size Calculation Example 2-4. 2. Multicomponent flash distillation Simultaneous Multicomponent Convergence Example 2-3.8.10. Flash separator for ethanol and water 2. 1.Contents Preface Acknowledgments About the Author Nomenclature Chapter 1 Introduction to Separation Process Engineering 1.4. 1. 1.6. 2. 1.5. 2.3. Computer Simulation of Flash Distillation 2. vii . 2.4.

9.2.9.4. 4. Feed line calculations Complete McCabe-Thiele Method Example 4-3. viii Contents . 4.4. McCabe-Thiele analysis of open steam heating General McCabe-Thiele Analysis Procedure Example 4-5.15.2.1.1.10. 4. Stripping and Enriching Columns Limiting Operating Conditions Efficiencies Simulation Problems New Uses for Old Columns Subcooled Reflux and Superheated Boilup Comparisons between Analytical and Graphical Methods Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix A.B. 4.9. Developing a Distillation Cascade Distillation Equipment Specifications External Column Balances Example 3-1.9.13. 4.11.3. 4. Summary—Objectives References Homework Chapter 4 Column Distillation: Internal Stage-by-Stage Balances 4.14. Binary Flash Distillation with Excel Chapter 3 Introduction to Column Distillation 3.12. Partial Condensers 4.Appendix B. Total Reboilers 4.6. 4.8.1.5.2. Distillation with two feeds Other Distillation Column Situations 4. Intermediate Reboilers and Intermediate Condensers 4. Spreadsheets for Binary Distillation 73 73 74 79 79 86 88 91 93 95 95 95 101 101 105 109 112 116 121 124 124 127 129 129 134 135 140 140 141 142 143 144 146 148 150 151 153 155 156 158 159 173 177 4. 4. Regression of Binary VLE with Excel 2.3. McCabe-Thiele method Profiles for Binary Distillation Open Steam Heating Example 4-4. Internal Balances Binary Stage-by-Stage Solution Methods Example 4-1.3.16. 4.4. 4.9. 3. Side Streams or Withdrawal Lines 4. 3. Stage-by-stage calculations by the Lewis method Introduction to the McCabe-Thiele Method Feed Line Example 4-2. External balances for binary distillation 3. 4. Spreadsheets for Flash Distillation 2.5.9. 4.2. 3. Computer Simulations for Binary Distillation Appendix B. 4.B. 4.5.7.1.

6. Drying Organic Compounds That Are Partially Miscible with Water Example 8-1.5. Profiles for Multicomponent Distillation 5.Chapter 5 Introduction to Multicomponent Distillation 5. Bubble-Point and Dew-Point Equilibrium Calculations Example 5-2.1. Computer Simulations for Multicomponent Column Distillation 183 183 186 189 193 198 200 203 203 203 209 215 215 217 220 221 221 224 227 229 230 230 230 237 243 243 247 248 252 253 255 257 257 258 265 265 266 266 271 272 Chapter 7 Approximate Shortcut Methods for Multicomponent Distillation 7. Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix.2.3.2.4. Breaking Azeotropes with Other Separators Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation Processes 8.1.3.1.6. Binary Heterogeneous Azeotropes 8. 6. 7.2. Underwood equations Gilliland Correlation for Number of Stages at Finite Reflux Ratio Example 7-3. Spreadsheet Calculations for Ternary Distillation with Constant Relative Volatility Chapter 6 Exact Calculation Procedures for Multicomponent Distillation 6. Gilliland correlation Summary—Objectives References Homework Chapter 8 Introduction to Complex Distillation Methods 8. 6. Introduction to Matrix Solution for Multicomponent Distillation Component Mass Balances in Matrix Form Initial Guesses for Flow Rates and Temperatures Temperature Convergence Example 6-1.1.1. 6. Matrix and bubble-point calculations Energy Balances in Matrix Form Introduction to Naphtali-Sandholm Simultaneous Convergence Method Discussion Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix.3. Bubble-point calculation 5. Total Reflux: Fenske Equation Example 7-1. 7.4.8. Fenske equation Minimum Reflux: Underwood Equations Example 7-2. 6. 7.4.2. 6. Calculational Difficulties Example 5-1. External mass balances using fractional recoveries 5.2.2.2. Stage-By-Stage Calculations for Constant Molal Overflow and Constant Relative Volatility 5.7. Drying benzene by distillation Contents ix . 8. 6.3.

2. 10.6. 8. Binary Batch Distillation: Rayleigh Equation 9. Trays.5.1. 8. 10.7. 8. 10. Two-Pressure Distillation Processes Complex Ternary Distillation Systems 8. 10. Distillation Curves 8. Simple Binary Batch Distillation Example 9-1.3.4. Overall efficiency estimation Column Diameter Calculations Example 10-2. and Weirs 10. Constant-Level Batch Distillation 9.1. 10. Constant Reflux Ratio Example 9-2.3.7.5. Inlets and Outlets Tray Efficiencies Example 10-1. Batch Steam Distillation 9.9. Downcomers. 8.5. Development of distillation and residue curves for constant relative volatility Extractive Distillation Azeotropic Distillation with Added Solvent Distillation with Chemical Reaction Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix. 8.5. Multistage batch distillation 9.2.8. Simulation of Complex Distillation Systems 275 277 279 281 281 285 287 290 296 300 303 304 305 321 329 331 332 334 336 337 340 340 341 344 344 346 347 347 357 357 360 362 365 369 370 374 376 378 383 386 388 388 390 392 397 Contents Chapter 9 Batch Distillation 9. Summary—Objectives References Homework Chapter 10 Staged and Packed Column Design 10.3. Diameter calculation for tray column Balancing Calculated Diameters Sieve Tray Layout and Tray Hydraulics Example 10-3. Packed column diameter calculation 10.1.9. 10.5. Variable Reflux Ratio 9. Staged Column Equipment Description 10.2.6. 10. x .1. 10.8. Multistage Batch Distillation 9.8. Residue Curves Example 8-3.1. 8.5. Steam Distillation Example 8-2.2.4.1. Simple Rayleigh distillation 9.4.9.2.6. Tray layout and hydraulics Valve Tray Design Introduction to Packed Column Design Packed Column Internals Height of Packing: HETP Method Packed Column Flooding and Diameter Calculation Example 10-4. Operating Time 9. Steam distillation.1.7.5.

Absorption and Stripping Equilibria McCabe-Thiele Solution for Dilute Absorption Example 12-1. 11.7. McCabe-Thiele Method for Dilute Systems Example 13-1. Graphical analysis for more concentrated absorber Column Diameter Dilute Multisolute Absorbers and Strippers Matrix Solution for Concentrated Absorbers and Strippers Irreversible Absorption and Co-Current Cascades Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix.5. 12.9.10.10. 12.1. Chapter 12 Absorption and Stripping 12.13.1. Sequencing columns with heuristics Synthesis of Distillation Systems for Nonideal Ternary Systems Example 11-3. 12. 11. Stripping analysis with Kremser equation Efficiencies McCabe-Thiele Analysis for More Concentrated Systems Example 12-3.2. 11. 12. Process development for separation of complex ternary mixture Summary—Objectives References Homework 400 401 404 405 408 416 419 419 425 430 432 433 437 440 442 445 447 447 449 455 457 459 460 462 463 468 469 470 472 474 476 478 482 484 484 485 494 499 499 503 504 507 11. Dilute countercurrent immiscible extraction Contents xi . 13. 12.3. McCabe-Thiele analysis for dilute absorber Stripping Analysis for Dilute Systems Analytical Solution for Dilute Systems: Kremser Equation Example 12-2. Choice of Column Type 10. Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix.11. Extraction Processes and Equipment Countercurrent Extraction 13.4.1.11. Cost estimate for distillation Changes in Plant Operating Rates Energy Conservation in Distillation Synthesis of Column Sequences for Almost Ideal Multicomponent Distillation Example 11-2. 11.12.1. 12. 12. 12. 12.7. Distillation Costs Operating Effects on Costs Example 11-1. 12. 11.3.6.2.2.8.2.5. Computer Simulations for Absorption and Stripping Chapter 13 Liquid-Liquid Extraction 13.6.4. Economic Trade-Offs for Packed Columns 10. Tray And Downcomer Design with Computer Simulator Chapter 11 Economics and Energy Conservation in Distillation 11.

13.13. Settler (Decanter) Design Example 13-5.6.2.2. Single-stage extraction Countercurrent Extraction Cascades for Partially Miscible Systems 13. Countercurrent extraction Relationship between McCabe-Thiele and Triangular Diagrams for Partially Miscible Systems Minimum Solvent Rate for Partially Miscible Systems Extraction Computer Simulations Design of Mixer-Settlers 13. Molecular Movement Leads to Mass Transfer Fickian Model of Diffusivity 15. 13.16.15. Leaching with Constant Flow Rates 14. 13. 13.5.1.1.4. Computer Simulation of Extraction 510 511 515 516 519 520 522 524 528 528 531 531 533 537 537 539 540 542 543 545 549 552 557 558 559 561 572 575 575 576 581 582 584 585 587 590 590 590 591 599 600 602 602 Chapter 14 Washing. Kremser Method for Dilute Systems Dilute Fractional Extraction Immiscible Single-Stage and Cross-Flow Extraction Example 13-2. External Mass Balances 13. 13. 13.6. Generalized McCabe-Thiele and Kremser Procedures 14.3. Washing Example 14-1.1. 13. Mixer Design 13. Leaching.10. 13.3.1. 13. Supercritical Fluid Extraction 14. Fick’s Law and the Definition of Diffusivity xii Contents . 15. Single-stage and cross-flow extraction of a protein Concentrated Immiscible Extraction Immiscible Batch Extraction Extraction Equilibrium for Partially Miscible Ternary Systems Mixing Calculations and the Lever-Arm Rule Partially Miscible Single-Stage and Cross-Flow Systems Example 13-3. Difference Points and Stage-by-Stage Calculations 13.2. Leaching calculations 14.4.10.12. 13. Mixer-settler design Introduction to Design of Reciprocating-Plate (Karr) Columns Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix.11.2.10. Summary—Objectives References Homework Chapter 15 Introduction to Diffusion and Mass Transfer 15. Leaching with Variable Flow Rates Example 14-2.2. Washing 14.7.10. Application to Other Separations 14. and Supercritical Extraction 14. 13.8.7. 13.3.13. 13.14.2. 13.14.1.14. Complete Partially Miscible Extraction Problem Example 13-4.9.2.5.

5.8.4. Fickian Binary Gas Diffusivities Example 15-3.7. Steady-State Binary Fickian Diffusion and Mass Balances with Convection Example 15-2.5. 15. 15.2. 15. Spreadsheet for Example 15-6 604 605 607 609 613 616 616 619 619 622 623 626 628 628 630 635 637 639 640 641 642 644 645 646 647 648 649 651 653 655 655 656 657 661 Chapter 16 Mass Transfer Analysis for Distillation.1. Film Theory for Dilute and Equimolar Transfer Systems 15.z 15. Absorption. Dimensionless Groups 15.3.4. Semi-Empirical and Empirical Mass-Transfer Coefficient Correlations Example 15-4. Unsteady Binary Fickian Diffusion with No Convection (Optional) 15.7.7.7.2. Difference Equation Formulations 15.7.2.6.7.5. Ideal Ternary Systems Example 15-6.1.3. 16. 15. 16.4.4.7. Determining the Independent Fluxes Ni. 15.2. and Extraction 16. Estimation of mass-transfer coefficients 15. Theoretically Derived Mass-Transfer Correlations 15.1.15. Fickian Binary Liquid Diffusivities Linear Driving-Force Model of Mass Transfer for Binary Systems 15.4. Estimation of temperature effect on Fickian gas diffusivity 15.2.6. Transfer through Stagnant Films: Absorbers and Strippers Correlations for Mass-Transfer Coefficients 15. Maxwell-Stefan ideal ternary system 15. HTU-NTU Analysis of Packed Distillation Columns Example 16-1.3. Steady-State Binary Fickian Diffusion and Mass Balances without Convection Example 15-1.3. Correlations Based on Analogies Difficulties with Fickian Diffusion Model Maxwell-Stefan Model of Diffusion and Mass Transfer 15. Relationship between Maxwell-Stefan and Fickian Diffusivities Example 15-5. Maxwell-Stefan Equations for Binary Nonideal Systems 15.3.1.3.2.7.3.2. Distillation in a packed column Relationship of HETP and HTU Mass Transfer Correlations for Packed Towers 663 663 669 673 675 Contents xiii .7. Steady-state diffusion without convection: Low-temperature evaporation 15.5. Maxwell-Stefan nonideal binary diffusion 15.2.1. 15. Stripping. Nonideal Ternary Systems Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Diffusion and Mass-Transfer Models Summary–Objectives References Homework Appendix. Steady-state diffusion with convection: High-temperature evaporation Values and Correlations for Fickian Binary Diffusivities 15. Introductory Development of the Maxwell-Stefan Theory of Diffusion 15.5.9.4.5. 15.2.

5. Area per Volume a and Average Drop Diameter in Mixers 16.3.5.3.6. Well-mixed gas permeation—sequential. Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Drop Swarms in Mixers 16. 16. Simple Correlations for the Random Packings HTU-NTU Analysis of Absorbers and Strippers Example 16-3. Mass-Transfer Analysis to Determine Concentration Polarization Example 17-6.2. 16.4. Multicomponent Permeation in Perfectly Mixed Systems Example 17-3. Absorption of SO2 HTU-NTU Analysis of Co-Current Absorbers Prediction of Distillation Tray Efficiency Example 16-4. Analysis of Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis 17.7.2.2.3. Conservative estimation of mixer mass-transfer coefficients Rate-Based Analysis of Distillation Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix.3. Conversion of mass-transfer coefficients and estimation of stage efficiency in mixer 16. analytical solution Example 17-2. 16.7.3.7.7.4. Mass-Transfer Equations and HTU-NTU Analysis 16.4. RO with concentration polarization xiv Contents . 16.1. Calculation of Stage Efficiency in Extraction Mixers Example 16.1. Gas Permeation of Binary Mixtures 17.7. Determination of RO membrane properties Example 17-5.8.4.4.2.7.1. Mixer Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Individual Drops (Optional) 16.2. RO without concentration polarization 17. 17.1. Estimation of stage efficiency Mass-Transfer Analysis of Extraction 16.4. Detailed Correlations for Random Packings Example 16-2.4. 16.3. Conservative Estimation of Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Extraction Example 16-6.4. Reverse Osmosis 17.3. Multicomponent.2.3. Computer Rate-Based Simulation of Distillation 675 677 682 683 687 688 690 692 693 693 695 698 701 702 702 704 705 705 708 712 713 714 721 725 727 731 733 735 736 739 741 746 747 749 749 755 755 757 758 760 Chapter 17 Introduction to Membrane Separation Processes 17. Binary Permeation in Perfectly Mixed Systems Example 17-1. 17.4.16. 16.7.7. Estimation of HG and HL 16. Determination of Membrane Properties from Experiments Example 17-4. perfectly mixed gas permeation 17.3.3. Mixer Mass-Transfer Coefficients 16. Membrane Separation Equipment Membrane Concepts Gas Permeation 17.1.9. Well-mixed gas permeation—simultaneous analytical and graphical solutions 17.1.

Simulated Moving Beds (SMB) Example 18-5.A.3.17.1. Binary Co-current Permeation 17.1. Pressure Swing Adsorption Example 18-4. Sorbent Types 18. Nonlinear Solute Movement Analysis 18.2. 17. Cross-Flow Spreadsheet and VBA Program 17.3.4.4.4.3. Pervaporation: development of feasible design Bulk Flow Pattern Effects Example 17-11. Adsorption equilibrium 18. PSA system 18.2.1.3. Countercurrent Flow Spreadsheet and VBA Program 762 764 765 769 771 778 780 781 781 782 784 786 788 788 790 798 798 800 802 805 806 806 809 811 816 819 819 821 823 823 828 828 831 837 841 846 849 851 852 853 Chapter 18 Introduction to Adsorption.7.2.1.A.7. Definitions 18.2. Prediction of RO performance with concentration polarization 17. Solute Movement Analysis for Linear Systems: Basics and Applications to Chromatography 18. Movement of Solute in a Column 18. Diffuse wave Contents xv .3. Adsorption Equilibrium Behavior Example 18-1. Pervaporation: feasibility calculation Example 17-10. Flow pattern effects in gas permeation 17.1. 17.3. SMB system 18.2. RO with Concentrated Solutions Ultrafiltration (UF) Example 17-8. UF with gel formation Pervaporation (PERV AP) Example 17-9.3. Diffuse Waves Example 18-6.4. Temperature Swing Adsorption Example 18-3.6.1.1. and Ion Exchange 18.7. Co-current Flow Spreadsheet and VBA Program 17. Sorbents and Sorption Equilibrium 18.1. Application of Linear Solute Movement Theory to Purge Cycles and Elution Chromatography Example 18-2. Thermal regeneration with linear isotherm 18.1.2. Example 17-7.2.7. Solute Movement Theory for Linear Isotherms 18. Solute Movement Analysis for Linear Systems: Thermal and Pressure Swing Adsorption and Simulated Moving Beds 18. Binary Countercurrent Flow Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix.A.5.8.3. Spreadsheets for Flow Pattern Calculations for Gas Permeation 17.2. Chromatography. Linear solute movement analysis of elution chromatography 18.3. Binary Cross-Flow Permeation 17.2. 17.1.

Energy Balances and Heat Transfer 18. Mass and Energy Transfer in Packed Beds 18.1. Linear Chromatography Example 18-10. Unit Conversions and Physical Constants Appendix D.4. Data Locations Answers to Selected Problems Index 855 857 861 863 865 866 870 870 873 873 875 875 876 877 877 879 880 882 884 886 888 890 892 892 895 909 915 919 921 923 931 939 xvi Contents . Self-sharpening shock wave 18. Aspen Plus Troubleshooting Guide for Separations Appendix B.7. Shock Waves Example 18-7.7.9.6.5. Movement of Ions Example 18-8. Ion Exchange 18.1.10.6.6. Checklist for Practical Design and Operation 18. Detailed Simulators 18.5.5. and resolution for linear chromatography 18.6. Mass Transfer and Diffusion 18. Column Mass Balances 18. Lumped Parameter Mass Transfer 18. Lapidus and Amundson Solution for Local Equilibrium with Dispersion 18.2. LUB Approach for Nonlinear Systems Example 18-11. Summary—Objectives References Homework Appendix.1.6.8.5. Instructions for Fitting VLE and LLE Data with Aspen Plus Appendix C. Introduction to the Aspen Chromatography Simulator Appendix A.3. Derivation of Solute Movement Theory 18.6.18.6.6. Determination of linear isotherm parameters.3. N.2. Ion movement for divalent-monovalent exchange 18.2. LUB approach 18.7.4. Lapidus and Amundson solution for elution 18.7.2. Superposition in Linear Systems Example 18-9. Ion Exchange Equilibrium 18. Mass Transfer Solutions for Linear Systems 18.

washing. The computer lab includes a lab test to assess the ability of the students to use the simulator. absorption. The second edition was unavoidably longer than the first. and leaching. a Solutions Manual is available to professors who adopt this textbook for their course. The second major change is a much more extensive analysis of liquid-liquid extraction. adsorption. which reflects the addition of Chapter 15. I changed the title of the second edition from Equilibrium Staged Separations to Separation Process Engineering to reflect this broader coverage. Since all of the problems were created and solved as I continued to teach this material at Purdue University. adsorption. if not more important. In addition to the McCabe-Thiele. I now teach the required three-credit. Chapters 13 and 14 in the second edition both covered extraction. junior-level separations course at Purdue as two lectures and a two-hour computer lab every week. Although I use Aspen Plus as the simulator. which includes mass transfer and diffusion. separations remain as important. Chemical engineers must understand and design new separation processes such as membrane separations. The first major addition to the third edition is the extensive Chapter 15. A number of spreadsheet problems have been added. Both the Fickian and Maxwell-Stefan approaches to diffusion are covered in detail with examples and homework assignments. and extraction. I have continued to include process simulation examples and homework problems throughout the text. The development of new industries such as biotechnology and nanotechnology. Chapter 13 now includes a section on the detailed design of mixer-settlers and a shorter section on the design of Karr columns. and chromatography in addition to the standard equilibrium-staged separations including distillation.Preface In the twenty-first century. and the probable need to recover and sequester carbon dioxide have brought new separations to the fore. and ion exchange were included. triangle. In the third edition. is now Chapter 16 with the removal of Section 15. the material is reorganized so that Chapter 13 covers only extraction and Chapter 14 covers washing and leaching. and the third edition is longer than the second. The new title has been retained for the third edition with the addition of a subtitle. and the answers are provided in the Solutions Manual. More than 300 new questions and problems are included. Since process simulators are used extensively in commercial practice. which is now incorporated in the new Chapter 15.1. which applied mass transfer techniques to equilibrium-staged separations. the increased importance of removing traces of compounds. The old Chapter 15. Includes Mass Transfer Analysis. and computer-simulation analyses of extraction. Since membrane separations. chromatography. All of the chapters have many new homework questions and problems. Mass transfer analysis of liquid-liquid extraction systems has been added to Chapter 16. than in the previous century. any xvii .

The material in the third edition has been extensively tested in the required junior-level course on separations at Purdue University. 12. including Purdue. xviii Preface .com for access to this book’s Solutions Manual and PowerPoint slides of figures in the book. The appendices to Chapters 2. 5. I chose to use spreadsheets instead of a higher-level mathematical program because spreadsheets are universally available. topics must be selected in this case. Many schools. Instructors may register at www. 10. and 16 include appendices that present instructions for operation of Aspen Plus.pearsonhighered. allocate a single three-credit semester course for separations. The appendix to Chapter 18 includes brief instructions for operation of the commercial Aspen Chromatography simulator—more detailed instruction sheets are available from the author: wankat@purdue. 4. and all of the material is suitable for seniors. 13. Because there is too much material.process simulator can be used. but almost complete coverage is probably feasible in two quarters. some of which use Visual Basic programs. If mass transfer is included. The book is too long to cover in one semester.edu. this text could easily be used for a twosemester sequence. and 17 have Excel spreadsheets. Several course outlines are included in the Solutions Manual. 8. 15. Chapters 2. Although I teach the material at the junior level. Chapters 1 to 14 could be taught to sophomores. 6.

Alden Emery. I thank the reviewers. I also owe a debt to the professors who taught me this material: Lowell Koppel. The assistance of Lee Meadows. John Heydweiller. and The Norton Co.Acknowledgments Many people were very helpful in the writing of the first edition. is greatly appreciated. who started my interest in separations as an undergraduate. I thank my editor. Schowalter. Stewart Slater. and Becky Weston was essential for completion of the first edition. Chuck and Jennie. Joe Calo got me started writing. Bernard Goodwin. Jenni Layne. xix . Inc. The assistance of Karen Heide in preparing the third edition is gratefully acknowledged. William R. Sung-Sup Suh. David Rockstraw. Kessler. kindly provided photographs. for his continued support and encouragement. Charles Gillard were very helpful in reviewing portions of the text. I could not have finished any of the editions without the love and support of my wife. was very helpful in getting me to prepare the longoverdue second edition and kept me from procrastinating on the third edition. Chris Buehler. A. Professors Ron Andres. Marjan Bace and Prof. for their very helpful reviews. James Caruthers. Leonard Pease. Chris Roesel and Barb Naugle-Hildebrand did the original artwork. The secretarial assistance of Carolyn Blue. for their very helpful reviews. and David P. and personal example. Bernard Goodwin. Christchurch. Finally. and Mr. Chuang. The encouragement and occasional prodding from my editor.. and Karen Heide in preparing the second edition is gratefully acknowledged. Dr. Ken Morison. Karl T. P. Dot. I thank the reviewers. and my children. Margret Shay. Debra Bowman.. who broadened my horizons beyond equilibrium staged separations in graduate school. V. and Narasimhan Sundaram were very helpful in finding errors. and C. and Joe Shaeiwitz. which gave me time to complete Chapter 15 and an opportunity to teach from the ion exchange and extraction sections. and Joe Shaeiwitz. who kept my interests alive while I was a professor and administrator through his articles. book. Judson King. My teaching assistants Magdiel Agosto. Jan Gray. The hospitality of the Department of Chemical and Process Engineering at the University of Canterbury. Glitsch Inc. New Zealand.

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Wankat is the Clifton L. Lovell Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering and the Director of Undergraduate Degree Programs in the Department of Engineering Education at Purdue University. He is the author of two books on how to teach and three books on separation processes.About the Author Phillip C. xxi . He has received a number of national research awards as well as local and national teaching awards. He has been involved in research and teaching of separations for more than forty years and is very interested in improving teaching and learning in engineering.

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Nomenclature

Chapters 1 through 18 a ajl aflow, aheat, amass ap ap1, ap2, ap3, aT1, aT2, aT6 A A,B,C A,B,C,D,E A,B,C,D AE, BE, CE, DE Aactive Ac Ad Adu Af Ahole AI Amixer Anet b b bflow, bheat, bmass B C CBM CC C* C CD CfL CA, CB, Cm Co Cp interfacial area per volume, ft2/ft3 or m2/m3 interfacial area for heat transfer on stage j, m2 eddy diffusion parameters, Eqs. (15-48) surface area/volume, m2/m3 constants in Eq. (2-30) and Table 2-3 area, m2 constants in Antoine Eq. (2-34) constants in Eq. (2-60) constants in matrix form of mass balances, Eqs. (6-13) and (12-58) constants in matrix form of energy balances, Eq. (6-34) active area of tray, ft2 or m2 cross-sectional area of column, ft2 or m2 downcomer area, ft2 or m2 flow area under downcomer apron, Eq. (10-28), ft2 area for flow, m2 area of holes in column, ft2 interfacial area between two phases, ft2 or m2 cross-sectional area of mixer, m2 net area, Eq. (10-13), ft2 or m2 empirical constant, Eq. (13-63b) equilibrium constant for linear equilibrium, y = mx + b eddy diffusion parameters, Eqs. (15-48) bottoms flow rate, kmol/h or lbmol/h number of components bare module cost, Chapter 11 concentration of solute in continuous phase, kmol/m3 continuous phase concentration of solute in continuous phase in equilibrium with CD, kmol/m3 concentration of solute in dispersed phase, kmol/m3 dispersed phase vapor load coefficient, Eq. (15-38) molar concentrations, of A, B, and mixture, mol/m3 orifice coefficient, Eq. (10-25) heat capacity, Btu/lb°F or Btu/lbmol°F or cal/g°C or cal/mol°C, etc.

xxiii

Cp Cp,size CpW Cs Csb d D D D, Dia D′col dhydraulic di dp, dd d° P dtube dsettler, Ds Dlarge, Dpilot D° D Deddy Dtotal e e erf E Ê EV j Ek EML, EMV E0 Eo Ept Êt f fAB f = V/F f f f(x) fk(V/F) F F F F F FD

base purchase cost, Chapter 11 packing size factor, Table 10-5 water heat capacity capacity factor at flood, Eq. (10-48) capacity factor, Eq. (10-8) dampening factor, Eq. (2-57) diffusivity, Fickan m2/s or ft2/h distillate flow rate, kmol/h or kg/h diameter of column, ft or m column diameter, see Table 16-1, ft hydraulic diameter of drop, Eq. (13-62), m impeller diameter, m drop diameter, m characteristic drop diameter, Eq. (16-97b), m tube diameter, m diameter of horizontal settler, m diameters of Karr columns for scale-up, Eq. (13-66), m infinite dilution Fickian diffusivity, m2/s Maxwell-Stefan diffusivity, m2/s eddy diffusivity, Eq. (16-111a, b), m/s total amount of distillate (Chapter 9), moles or kg absolute entrainment, mol/h plate fractional free area in Karr column error function, Eq. (18-70) extract flow rate (Chapters 13 and 14), kg/h mass extract, kg energy transfer rate on stage j from bulk liquid to bulk vapor, J/s value of energy function for trial k, Eq. (2-51) Murphree liquid and vapor efficiencies, Eqs. (4-58) and (4-59) activation energy, Kcal/mol Overall efficiency, Eq. (4-56) point efficiency, Eq. (10-5) or (15-76a) holdup extract phase in tank plus settler, kg friction factor friction coefficient between molecules A and B fraction vaporized fractional approach to flooding frequency of reciprocation of Karr column, strokes/s equilibrium function, Chapter 9 Rachford-Rice function for trial K, Eq. (2-43) packing factor, Tables 10-3 and 10-4 degrees of freedom, Eq. (2-4) charge to still pot (Chapter 9), moles or kg mass of feed in batch extraction, kg feed flow rate, kmol/h or lbmol/h or kg/h etc. diluent flow rate (Chapter 13), kg/h

xxiv

Nomenclature

Flv, FP Fm Fp Fq Fs,Fsolv Fsolid Fweir gap g gc G G′ h h h h h h ˜ h hf hF hheat transfer hL ho hp htotal hw H H H H HV i,j Ht Ht,OD HG HL HOG HOL HETP HTU jD, jH JA k1, k2 kB

WL WV

L′ ‰L = G′ ‰V

‰L ‰V , flow parameter

material factor for cost, Table 11-2 pressure factor for cost, Eqs. (11-5) and (11-6) quantity factor for cost, Eq. (11-7) flow rate solvent (Chapter 13), kg/h solids flow rate in leaching, kg insoluble solid/h weir modification factor, Eq. (10-26) and Figure 10-22 gap from downcomer apron to tray, Eq. (10-28), ft acceleration due to gravity, 32.2 ft /s2, 9.81 m/s2 conversion factor in English units, 32.2 ft⋅lbm/(lbf⋅s2) flow rate carrier gas, kmol/h or kg/h gas flux, lb/s ft2 pressure drop in head of clear liquid, inches liquid height of liquid on stage (Chapter 16), ft height, m or ft height of liquid in mixer, m liquid enthalpy, kcal/kg, Btu/lbmol, etc. step size in Euler’s method = Δt, Eq. (8-29) pure component enthalpy enthalpy of liquid leaving feed stage feed enthalpy (liquid, vapor or two-phase) heat transfer coefficient clear liquid height on stage, m or cm hole diameter, inches packing height, ft or m height of flash drum, ft or m height of weir, m or cm Henry’s law constant, Eqs. (8-9), (8-10), and (12-1) molar holdup of liquid on tray, Eqs. (8-27) and (8-28) stage height in Karr column, m vapor enthalpy, kcal/kg, Btu/lbmol, etc. partial molar enthalpy of component i in vapor on stage j, J/kmol height of tank, m overall height of a transfer unit for mass transfer driving force in concentration units, Eq. (16-83a analog), m height of gas phase transfer unit, ft or m height of liquid phase transfer unit, ft or m height of overall gas phase transfer unit, ft or m height of overall liquid phase transfer unit, ft or m height equivalent to a theoretical plate, ft or m height of a transfer unit, ft or m j-functions, Eqs. (15-50) flux with respect to molar average velocity of fluid empirical constants, Eq. (13-63b) Botzmann’s constant, J/k

Nomenclature

xxv

conc_units M M MW _ _ MW n n n1. (16-80c analog) flow rate of mixed stream (Chapter 13). ky kc k′y kx. Eq. or kmol/h⋅m2 overall mass transfer coefficient in extraction based on dispersed phase in concentration units. m/s mass transfer coefficient in Maxwell-Stefan analysis. m/s individual liquid and vapor mass transfer coefficients in distillation. (10-46) slope of equilibrium curve of continuous versus dispersed phase mass or mole fractions. Eq. lb/(s)(ft2) liquid flow rate in gal/min. equilibrium vapor-liquid ratio parameter to calculate uperm for flash drums. (15-30b) ratio HETPpractical/HETPpacking Eq. Eq. (16-108). (16-80a). kLC kL. lbmol/ft2 h. Eq. (16-80b analog). nO-EC thermal conductivity. J/(ms K) individual mass transfer coefficients in liquid and vapor phases. ky kx. Eq. distribution coefficient for dilute extraction yi/xi. Ð/Δz. (15-32f) individual mass transfer coefficient in molar units individual mass transfer coefficients in continuous and dispersed phases. m liquid flow rate. kV k Kd K. Eq. m/s y/x. m/s overall mass transfer coefficient in extraction based on dispersed phase. Eq. kmol/h or lbmol/h mass liquid flow rate. ft length.kconduction kx. kg/(s⋅m3) or kmol/(s⋅m3) individual mass transfer coefficients in continuous and dispersed phases with driving force in concentration units.c. Eq. Chapter 10 linear equilibrium constant. (16-81) xxvi Nomenclature . Eq. (15-25b) mass transfer coefficient in concentrated solutions. see Table 15-4 mass transfer coefficient with concentration driving force. lb/h (Chapter 15) liquid flux. kxD kLD. kg/(s⋅m3) or kmol/(s⋅m3) weir length. kg/h multiplier times (L /D)min (Chapter 7) molecular weight average molecular weight moles number of drops empirical constants. (13-65) number of gas phase transfer units number of liquid phase transfer units number of overall extraction transfer units in dispersed and continuous phases. m/s. n2 nG nL nO-ED. Ky KLD KO-ED lw L L L L′ Lg m m M mCD mCD. (16-80c) slope of equilibrium curve of continuous versus dispersed phase in concentration units. Eq. (2-64) overall mass transfer coefficient in liquid or vapor. y = mx + b local slope of equilibrium curve. Eq. Ki Kdrum Kx.

kg Holdup raffinate phase in tank plus settler. Figure 13-33B. m3/s volumetric flow rate dispersed phase. inches. QD Qflash QL QR Qz r R R RA ˆ R ˆt R Re Resettler S S number of overall gas phase transfer units number of overall liquid phase transfer units moles organic in vapor in steam distillation moles water in vapor in steam distillation impeller revolutions per second number of stages flux of A. etc.nOG nOL norg nw N N NA Nf. 13). (15-33g) number of transfer units total overflow rate in washing. Eq. (15-33b) Reynold’s number for settler. condenser heat load volumetric flow rate continuous phase.9859 cal/(mol⋅K) or 8. kg/h pitch of sieve plate holes.j NV f. lbmol/(h)(ft2) or kmol/(h)(m2) feed stage transfer to liquid from vapor on stage j. psi. bar etc. (15-33c) dimensionless Peclet number in terms of eddy diffusivity. Eq. Eq. (16-111a) flow perimeter. J/s radius of column. ptot p. partial pressure Number of phases power. Eq. Btu/h.j Nmin Nfeed. atm. (16-81a analog) Nusselt number. mol component i/s transfer to vapor from liquid on stage j. Eq.Nfeed NL f.314 m3Pa/(mol⋅K) raffinate flow rate (Chapter. Eq. kPa. m2/s amount of energy transferred. 1. kcal/h. m3/s heat loss from flash drum volumetric flow rate of liquid. m dimensionless Prandt number. Eq. QC Qd. W dimensionless Peclet number in terms of molecular diffusivity. (13-60a) solvent flow rate kmol/h or lbmol/h tray spacing.min NPo NtOD Nu NTU O p p. Eq. kg/h solute radius. m pressure. Eq. (15-33f) LF/F = (L − L)/F. mol component i/s number of stages at total reflux estimated feed stage location at total reflux power number. m mass raffinate. feed quality volumetric flow rate/plate width. kg dimensionless Reynolds number. pB P P Pe Pe Perf Pr q q Q Qc Qc. (10-47) Nomenclature xxvii . (13-52) number of overall extraction transfer units for mass transfer driving force in concentration units. ft or m gas constant. m3/s reboiler heat load heat flux in z direction.

s residence time of dispersed phase in settler. m/s vapor velocity through holes. Eq. Eq.Stokes U Ua v vcharacteristic vc.flood vo vo. f) reference or basis velocity. kg/h Schmidt number for liquid = μ/(ρD) Schmidt number for vapor = μ/(ρD) dimensionless Sherwood numbers. VB vref vy V Vi VA Vliq. (10-8) operating velocity. Eq.residence tresidence. (10-11) permissible vapor velocity. kmol/h or lbmol/h molal volume Eq.S ˆ S S ScL Scv Shc. (Chapter 14). Eq. Eq. (13-1) molar volume solute at normal boiling point. Eq. kg/h or lb/h Nomenclature . kg/h superficial vapor velocity in active area of tray. Eq. m/s continuous and dispersed phase flooding velocities. Eq. (15-15c. s. K reference temperature vapor velocity.dispersed toperating tres ttray T IV TIL j . °F.95 – t0) tL. (13-57). inches temperature.tank Vmax Vmixer Vsettler Vtank Vsurge VP w WL xxviii moles second solvent in constant-level batch distillation mass of solvent. (15-33d) time. (15-15e. ft3 vapor pressure. (13-58) Stokes’ law terminal velocity. d) vertical velocity vapor flow rate. Eq. ft /s characteristic velocity of Karr column. m/s underflow liquid rate. Sty t tbatch tdown (tf. °C. s liquid residence time. Tj Tref u uflood uop uperm ut. Eq. m3 maximum vapor flow rate volume of liquid in mixing tank. m/s superficial vapor velocity. m3 volume settler. same units as p plate width. (10-36) component transfer velocities. Eqs. ut. Eq. Eq. (9-28) down time in batch distillation residence time in extractor for 95% extraction. Shy Stc. Eqs. or °R liquid and vapor temperatures on stage j at the interface. vd. (2-68). tV tL. Stx. ft /s velocity where valve is balanced. (10-30). or on plate. (16-105). m3/kmol volume of liquid in tank. (15-33a) dimensionless Stanton numbers.flood. Shx. (16-35e) tray thickness. Eq. (13-68). s average residence time per pass for liquid and vapor. kg solvent flow rate. s. m liquid flow rate. (16-111c). s operating time in batch distillation residence time in downcomer. m3 volume tank. or h period for batch distillation.bal VA. K. Eq. Eq. Eq. min. (10-29).hindered ut. cm/s or ft /s flooding velocity. (2-64) hindered settling velocity. m3 surge volume in flash drum.

m KA/KB. Btu/lbmol. (15-32d) interfacial mole fraction in vapor mass fraction in vapor weight or mole ratio in vapor weight or mole fraction in feed axial distance in bed (Chapters 15 and 16) distance from downcomer exit to weir. (7-42) equilibrium mole fraction in liquid fractions to calculate velocity of center of total flux. (15-22c) fraction of column available for vapor flow parameter. (8-29) interfacial mole fraction in liquid liquid mole fraction in equilibrium with inlet gas. Eq. viscosity. dynes/cm or interfacial tension Nomenclature xxix . Eq. (10-38) solubility parameter. (16-35a) or in equilibrium with outlet liquid in cocurrent contactor. m characteristic dimension of packing. Eq. m2/s Ahole/Aactive activity coefficient thickness of mass transfer film or thickness of falling film. (16-71) log mean difference. εAB η η θ λ μ μw ρL ρV σ. Table 15-2 and Eq. kg/h or lb/h weight or mole fraction in liquid [L /D − (L /D)min]/(L /D + 1) in Eqs. Eq. lb/s ft2 or lb/h ft2.ref xi.k+1 xI x*out X y yvol y* y*out ylm yI y Y z z zl Greek αAB αthermal β γ δ δp δi Δ ΔEv ΔH Δρ ε εA. m ⏐ρC – ρD⏐ limit for convergence Lennard-Jones interaction energies. (16-35b) weight or mole ratio in liquid weight or mole fraction in vapor volume fraction in vapor equilibrium mole fraction in vapor vapor mole fraction in equilibrium with inlet liquid in countercurrent system. relative volatility thermal diffusity. Eq.εB. (Chapter 16) vapor flow rate. Eq. Eq. (13-1) change in variable or difference operator latent energy of vaporization.WL WV x x x* xA. xi. Eq. Figure 10-20B latent heat of vaporization. etc.γ liquid mass flux. xB.k. cp or Pa⋅s = kg/(m s) viscosity of water. Eq. Eq. Btu/lb. g/cm3 or lb/ft3 or kg/m3 vapor density surface tension. cp liquid density. (15-42b) angle of downcomer. (15-17) trials for integration.ref. inch. kcal/kg. (13-1) steady state height of dispersion band in settler.

(15-23b) relative froth density in downcomer.ς χ ϕc. g/L permeate concentration of solute. (16-37) collision integral. Table 15-2 viscosity of continuous and dispersed phases. aj a a′ ai A b. kPa/mole fraction. (16-109d) ρwater/ρL. cm2 or m2 term in quadratic equations for well-mixed membrane systems. bj c. (16-38) solvent interaction parameter. mol/m3 revolutions per second term in quadratic equations for well-mixed membrane systems. kJ/(kg oC) diameter of tube. Eq. Eq. g/L concentration of solute at wall. cm2/s volumetric flow rate of permeate. (17-74c) and (17-74c) concentration. fractional entrainment. and (17-74a) constant in expression to calculate osmotic pressure. (17-15a) constant in expression to calculate osmotic pressure. Eq. cm2/s diffusivity in the membrane. Eq.feed φ φB φdc ϕe ψ ψ ψ ΩD μC μD μH μL μm ρC. g solute/L solution outlet concentration of solute. kPa/weight fraction. (17-10c). kJ/(kg oC) vapor heat capacity of permeate. Eq. cm tank diameter. (17-74b). Eq. (13-53). Eq. cm3/s volumetric flow rate of solvent in RO. ρD ρm ρm ω Chapter 17 a. Pa⋅s mixture viscosity. Pa⋅s densities of continuous and dispersed phases. g/L water concentration in permeate in Figure 17-17 liquid heat capacity of permeate. (13-55). (17-74a). (10-29) effective relative froth density. (17-15b) activities. and (17-74b) term in quadratic equations for well-mixed membrane systems. g/m3 molar density.p CPV. Eqs. Pa⋅s viscosity of heavy and light phases. ϕd ϕd. (15-14a) term defined in Eq. Eqs. Chapter 10 e/(e + L). (13-49) volumetric fraction of continuous and dispersed phases volumetric fraction of dispersed phase in feed liquid phase packing parameter. cm3/s xxx Nomenclature . Eq. (17-51) membrane area available for mass transfer. cm diffusivity in solution. Eq. Eqs. Chapter 10 packing parameter for gas phase. Eq. g/m3 mixture density. Eq. cm3/s volumetric flow rate of exiting retentate. (17-10d).p dt dtank D Dm Fp Fout Fsolv ^ dimensionless distance. cj c cout cp cw c′ CPL. (17-10b).

etc. In binary system refers to more permeable species. Pa. mm Hg. μm. Pa. total pressure on the permeate (low pressure) side. mol/(s cm2) or kmol/(day m2). cm enthalpy of inlet liquid stream in pervaporation. (17-33) permeability of the solvent through membrane. dimensionless. kPa. kJ/kg mass transfer coefficient.F F′ h hin hout HA Hp k K′solv j J J′ ^ J K′A Km. cm/s partial molar volume of the solvent. g/s. Eq. Eq. In binary system refers to more permeable species. cm Reynolds number. (17-24a) inherent rejection coefficient (M = 1). cm3/gmole wt frac of retentate in pervaporation. etc. etc. cc(STP)/[cm3 (cm Hg)] enthalpy of vapor permeate stream in pervaporation. kg/min. Eq. mm Hg. mol/s. oC reference temperature. g/mol or kg/kmol number of well-mixed stages in models in Figure 17-19 pressure. g/(m s wt frac) rate transfer term for multicomponent gas permeation. etc. partial pressure of species A. etc. atm. dimensionless. g/(s cm2)or g/(m2 day). mm.i L M Mc MW N p pA pp pr PA R Ro Rc R Re Sc Sh tms T Tref ub vsolvent x xg xp xr y ^ molar flow rate. Eq. dimensionless. (17-35b) Schmidt number. Eq. kJ/kg enthalpy of outlet liquid retentate stream in pervaporation. dimensionless. Eq. kJ/kg solubility parameter. Eq. Nomenclature xxxi . etc. wt frac at which solute gels in UF wt frac solute in liquid permeate in RO and UF wt frac solute in retentate in RO and UF wt frac of permeate in pervaporation. mass flow rate. (17-48) tube radius. dimensionless rejection coefficient in conc. cm3/(s cm2) or m3/(m2 day). (17-35c) Sherwood number. (17-1d) solute permeability. total pressure on the retentate (high pressure) side. mol/min. units. dimensionless. Pa. g/min. kPa. (17-1b) mass flux. atm. Eq. dimensionless. cc(STP) cm/[cm2 s cm Hg] rejection coefficient in wt frac units. L /(atm m2 day) or similar units counter for stage location in staged models in Figure 17-19 volumetric flux. Eq. 1 ⁄2 distance between parallel plates. (17-11d) tube length. Pa. mm Hg. kPa. dimensionless. atm. Eq. Eq. permeability of species A in the membrane. (17-35a) thickness of membrane skin doing separation. typically cm/s. atm. or m temperature. oC bulk velocity in tube. cm. cm concentration polarization modulus in wt fraction units. (17-48) molecular weight. (17-17) concentration polarization modulus in concentration units. dimensionless. (17-1c) mole flux. mm Hg. Eq.

concentration of species i. atm. cm2/s mass solvent density. dimensionless viscosity. etc.. with flows in molar units.f heat capacity of the wall. (17-53a) difference in wt frac of solute across the membrane difference in the osmotic pressure across the membrane. Pa. typically equivalents/m3 total concentration of ions on the resin. same units as q/c. typically equivalents/m3 total concentration of ions in solution. heat capacity of particle including pore fluid. typically equivalents/m3 constant relating solute velocity to interstitial velocity. same units as ci concentration of ion i on the resin. dimensionless. pervaporation: Eq. m–1 constant in Langmuir isotherm. centipoise or g/(cm s) kinematic viscosity. RO: Eq. same units as ci fluid concentration at surface of adsorbent pores. Table 18-7 surface area of the particles per volume. ^ ^ cut = F p/F in. kg/m3. Eq. cm or m desorbent rate in SMB. g/L. kPa.A Greek letters α Δx Δπ π θ θ′ μ ν = μ/ρ ‰solv ^ ‰ solv λp ω Chapter 18 a a ap Ac Aw b cA ci ci c* i ci cpore ci. Eq. same units CP. (concentration)–1. (17-20). εp = 0. or concentration of ion i in solution. (18-6c) concentration of species A.f CP. kmol/ m3.f heat capacity of the solid.yp yr yr. Eq. kmol/m3 mass latent heat of vaporization of the permeate in pervaporation determined at the reference temperature. same units as F xxxii Nomenclature . kg/m3 molar solvent density. dimensionless. Gas Permeation: Eq. etc. same units as ci average concentration of solute in pore.p CP. kg/m3. J/(g K).w yt. Pa. dimensionless cut = F ′p/F ′in in flows in mass units. etc. m2 wall surface area per volume of column for heat transfer. kmol/ m3. (17-4b). cal/(mol °C). atm. mm Hg.surface cRi cRT cT Ci CP. typically equivalents/m3 concentration of species i that would be in equilibrium with Ϫ qi . mm Hg. same units as CP. m–1 cross sectional area of column. same units as CP. g/L. Eq. etc. kJ/kg stirrer speed in radians/s constant in Langmuir isotherm. (18-6c) argument for error function. (18-70).w dp D mole fraction solute in gas permeate for gas permeation mole fraction solute in gas retentate for gas permeation mole fraction solute in gas retentate at membrane wall mole fraction solute A in gas that transfers through the membrane selectivity. osmotic pressure. etc. dimensionless. (18-15e) heat capacity of the fluid.f particle diameter. same units as ci fluid concentration at surface of particles.s CP. cal/(g °C).

m or cm diffusivity including both molecular and Knudsen diffusivities.c K′i. dimensionless. (18-62) partial pressure of species A. (18-56a) and (18-57a) lumped parameter mass transfer coefficient with amount adsorbed driving force. dimensionless. Eq. mol/kg adsorbent. units are units of q/c. m or cm length of mass transfer zone. (18-78a) amount of species A adsorbed. Eq. (18-5b) size exclusion parameter. (18-53) error function. cm/plate. g/mol or kg/kmol multipliers in Eqs. (18-41) Donnan exclusion factor.c km. Eq. (18-29). Eq. m2/s or cm2/s effective axial dispersion coefficient. units are (pressure)-1 linearized adsorption equilibrium constant in terms of partial pressure.. dimensionless.max desorbent to feed ratio in SMB. e. kPa. m2/s or cm2/s. dimensionless. units are (concentration)-1 linearized adsorption equilibrium constant in terms of concentration. same units as KA adsorption equilibrium constant in terms of partial pressure. following Eq. mm Hg. mm Hg. (18-7a). Eqs. (18-78b) film mass transfer coefficient. kg/kg adsorbent. Eq. J/(K s m2) or similar units height of equilibrium plate. m2/s or cm2/s. Eq. m2/s or cm2/s thermal axial dispersion coefficient. same units ED. m2/s or cm2/s. Eqs. or kg/L Nomenclature xxxiii . Eq. mm Hg. m/s or cm/s lumped parameter mass transfer coefficient with concentration driving force. (18-4) Knudsen diffusivity. m2/s or cm2/s surface diffusivity. (18-68) volumetric feed rate. same units as cT/cRT. (18-56b) and (18-57b) mass action equilibrium constant for monovalent-monovalent ion exchange. mol/kg adsorbent. (18-6b) pre-exponential factor in Arrhenius Eq. (18-44) length of packing in column. Eq.q KAB KA. dimensionless equivalent number of plates in chromatography. m3/h. or other pressure units Peclet number based on length. Eq. or other pressure units low pressure. or kg/L maximum amount of species A that can adsorb. (18-78) Peclet number. J/(K s m2) or similar units wall heat transfer coefficient. kPa.p Kd KDB KDE L LMTZ M Mi N NPe pA ph pL PeL qA qA. kg/kg adsorbent. m or cm molecular weight of solute. Eq. (18-40a) adsorption equilibrium constant in terms of concentration. Eq.g. liter/h particle heat transfer coefficient. Eq. dimensionless mass action equilibrium constant for divalent-monovalent ion exchange. Figure 18-23. Eq. cm3/min.p K′A. m2/s or cm2/s effective diffusivity. dimensionless column diameter.c KAo KA. (18-70) and Table 18-7 axial dispersion coefficient due to both eddy and molecular effects. kPa. or other pressure units high pressure.D/F Dcol D Deffective DK Dmolecular Ds erf ED EDT Eeff F hp hw HETP kf km. m/s or cm/s. (18-51) molecular diffusivity in free solution. units are units of qA/pA. m/s or cm/s.

min. or h time center of pattern exits column. s. Eq. or kg/L amount adsorbed that would be in equilibrium with fluid of concentration ci.314 ) mol K Reynolds number. Eq. kg/m xxxiv Nomenclature . min. min. m/s or cm/s = (B Product)/(εe Ac) interstitial velocity of desorbent if it was in the column. (18-2b) superficial velocity.ion. m or cm resolution. Eq. s. s. or h breakthrough time. same units as qA volumetric flow rate. oC or K velocity of ion i. dimensionless. wB W amount adsorbed in equilibrium with feed concentration. m3 width of chromatographic peak. min or hours weight of the column per length. s. m/s or cm/s interstitial velocity of A Product if it was in the column. s.i ush ush. Eq. mol/kg adsorbent.i uth utotal_ion vA. m/s or cm/s shock wave velocity of ion i. (18-85b) elution time. m/s or cm/s = (A Product)/(εe Ac) interstitial velocity of B Product if it was in the column. m/s or cm/s. or h. dimensionless. m/s or cm/s = F/(εe Ac) interstitial velocity. m/s or cm/s. (18-2a) volume available to molecule. L /min. same units as qA average amount of species i adsorbed. min. m3 volume feed gas. s. dimensionless. min. (18-60) Schmidt number. kg/kg adsorbent. min. (18-1a) volume purge gas. m3. cm/s. tfeed tMTZ tR tsw T Tamb Ts uion.qF Ϫ qi q* i Q rp R R Re Sc Sh t tbr tcenter telution tF. m/s or cm/s = D/(εe Ac) interstitial velocity of feed if it was in the column. m3/s. m/s or cm/s velocity of total ion wave. m/s or cm/s thermal wave velocity. min. Figure 18-23. (18-60) time. s.ion.product vB. Eq. s. oC or K solid temperature. dimensionless. or h temperature.. m3. s. m/s or cm/s average solute velocity. (18-82) m3Pa gas constant (e.g. Eq. or h time of mass transfer zone. min. Eq. pore radius. or h switching time in SMB. m3 volume available to fluid. or h retention time. etc. (18-83) diffuse wave velocity of ion i. Eq. m/s or cm/s shock wave velocity.product vD vFeed vinter vsuper Vavailable Vcolumn Vfeed Vfluid Vpurge wA. Eq.i us us us. oC or K ambient temperature. (18-60) Sherwood number. R = 8. or h feed time. m/s or cm/s average of solute velocities for A and B. Eq. (18-1c) column volume.

same units as c heat of adsorption. etc. Eq. dimensionless. dimensionless internal or pore porosity. Eq. dimensionless axial distance in column. (18-79) standard deviation in length units. (18-3b) fluid density. kg/m3. (18-4) Greek letter zeta used as dummy variable in Eq. °C or K increment of column length. cal/gmole.x xl xt x xi Xbreakthrough (z. kg solute/kg gas. dimensionless = ci/cT equivalent fraction of ion in solution. Eq. dimensionless Eq. (18-70) Nomenclature xxxv . m volumetric purge to feed ratio in PSA. same units as c. kmol/m3. s. or h change in fluid temperature. kg/kg adsorbent. Eq. (18-80a) weight or mole fraction solute in liquid. Eq. change in partial pressure. kmol/kg adsorbent. (18-80b) deviation from peak maximum in time units. min or s. atm. min. (18-79) deviation from peak maximum in length units. dimensionless = cRi/cRT equivalent fraction of ion on resin. or kmol solute/kmol gas. kg/m3 standard deviation of Gaussian chromatographic peak. kmol/m3 particle density.t) y yi z deviation from the location of the peak maximum. kg/m3 molar density of fluid. Eq. dimensionless change in solute concentration. Eq. (Measured from closed end for PSA pressure change calculations) Greek letters βstrong Δc ΔHads ΔpA Δq Δt ΔTf Δz γ εe εp εT ‰b ‰f ‰f ‰p ‰s σ σl σt τ ¸ ratio velocities of strong and weak solutes. m or cm. dimensionless general solution for column breakthrough for linear isotherms. Eq. (18-27). Eq. kg/m3. (18-1b) bulk density of adsorbent. m or cm. change in amount adsorbed. (18-80a) tortuosity. kg solute/kg liquid or kmol solute/kmol liquid. Eq. (18-80b) standard deviation in time units. Eq. etc. dimensionless. kPa. Eq. dimensionless total porosity. or kg/m3 change in time. (18-72) weight or mole fraction solute in gas. dimensionless. J/kg. (18-26) external porosity. (18-3a) structural density of solid.

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Matar and Hatch (2001). Since separations are ubiquitous in chemical plants and petroleum refineries. The two separated phases are assumed to be in equilibrium with each other. Products must be further separated and purified before they can be sold. These separations all contact two phases and can be designed and analyzed as equilibrium stage processes. in distillation. chemical engineers must be familiar with a variety of separation methods. Above the plate the vapor disengages from the liquid. batch distillation. (2003). Couper et al. 1997). absorption. We will first focus on some of the most common chemical engineering separation methods: flash distillation. continuous column distillation. A typical chemical plant is a chemical reactor surrounded by separators. solute can transfer from one phase to another. a vapor and a liquid are commonly contacted on a metal plate with holes in it. For example. Because of the intimate contact between the two phases. The equilibrium stage concept is applicable when the process can be constructed as a series of discrete stages in which the two phases are contacted and then separated. the engineer can calculate concentrations and temperatures without detailed knowledge of 1 .CHAPTER 1 Introduction to Separation Process Engineering 1.1 IMPORTANCE OF SEPARATIONS Why does chemical engineering require the study of separation techniques? Because separations are crucial in chemical engineering. (2005). Both liquid and vapor can be sent to additional stages for further separation. Chapters 17 and 18 explore two important separations—membrane separators and adsorption processes—that do not operate as equilibrium stage systems. This type of arrangement is very common. unreacted feed is separated from the reaction products and recycled back to the reactor. Assuming that the stages are equilibrium stages. Chenier (2002). Examples for a variety of traditional processes are illustrated by Biegler et al. and extraction. as diagramed in the schematic flow sheet of Figure 1-1. and Turton et al. Chemical plants commonly have from 40% to 70% of both capital and operating costs in separations (Humphrey and Keller. whereas recent processes often are shown in Chemical Engineering magazine. Raw materials are prepurified in separation devices and fed to the chemical reactor. Shreve and Austin (1984). Speight (2002). (1997). stripping. Several other separation methods that can also be considered equilibrium stage processes will be briefly discussed.

Since distillation and absorption are both liquid-vapor contacting systems. Liquid molecules are continually vaporizing.Figure 1-1. Matrix solution of the mass and energy balances will be used for detailed computer simulations. If two chemical species are present. This similarity is useful because it allows us to apply a very few design tools to a variety of separation methods. A second useful concept is that of a unit operation. We will use stage-by-stage methods where calculation is completed for one stage and then the results are used for calculation of the next stage to develop basic understanding. the rate at which each species condenses is equal to the rate at which 2 Chapter 1 Introduction to Separation Process Engineering . etc. This method is a major simplification in the design and analysis of chemical engineering separations that is used in Chapters 2 to 14. extraction. the basic principles of distillation are always the same whether we are separating ethanol from water. we will see that the staged design method can also be used for packed columns where there are no discrete stages. Although this example shows the applicability of the equilibrium stage method for equipment built with a series of discrete stages. in general. At equilibrium the temperatures. For example. separating several hydrocarbons.2 CONCEPT OF EQUILIBRIUM The separation processes we are studying in Chapters 1 to 14 are based on the equilibrium stage concept. When not at equilibrium. The idea here is that although the specific design may vary depending on what chemicals are being separated. as are absorption. the liquid and the vapor can be at different pressures and temperatures and be present in different mole fractions. Typical chemical plant layout flow patterns and heat and mass transfer rates. What do we mean by equilibrium? Consider a vapor and a liquid that are in contact with each other as shown in Figure 1-2. which states that streams leaving a stage are in equilibrium. while vapor molecules are continually condensing. Although molecules continue to evaporate and condense. and fractions of the two phases cease to change. A more general idea is that design methods for related unit operations are similar. the design is much the same for both. they will. condense and vaporize at different rates. or separating liquid metals. 1. the basic design principles for a given separation method are always the same. pressures. Consequently. distillation is often called a unit operation.

on the macroscopic scale. 1999. If the compositions were equal. 2006. Sandler.. Denbigh. 2005.Figure 1-2. Eq.g. Balzhiser et al. 1962). Vapor-liquid contacting system it evaporates. In this case the Laplace equation can be derived (e. Although on a molecular scale nothing has stopped. Walas. no separation could be achieved in any equilibrium process. mechanical. pliquid = pvapor (at equilibrium) (1-2) If the interface between liquid and vapor is curved. the rate at which each species is vaporizing is just equal to the rate at which it is condensing. see Levich. 1985) but is beyond the scope of this book. the forces between vapor and liquid balance. In real systems this relationship may be very 1. However..g. Equilibrium conditions can be conveniently subdivided into thermal. Tliquid = Tvapor (at equilibrium) (1-1) In mechanical equilibrium. including the necessary definitions and concepts.2 Concept of Equilibrium 3 . in general.. pressure. and chemical potential equilibrium. Thus for the cases in this book. or composition. this usually implies that the pressures are equal. In phase equilibrium. The resulting condition for phase equilibrium is (chemical potential i)liquid = (chemical potential i)vapor (1-3) The development of Eq. is the subject of a large portion of many books on thermodynamics (e. 1981. In the staged separation processes we will study. In thermal equilibrium. Elliott and Lira. (1-3). equal rates of vaporization and condensation require a minimum in the free energy of the system. the compositions of liquid and vapor are not equal. where we usually observe processes. However. there are no further changes in temperature. Thus there is no change in composition (mole fraction in Figure 1-2). If temperature and pressure are constant. heat transfer stops and the temperatures of the two phases are equal. 1972. equal forces do not imply equal pressures.. (1-3) does require that there be some relationship between liquid and vapor compositions. Smith et al.

4 for details) and use a driving force that is the difference between the actual concentration and the concentration we would have if equilibrium were achieved. The details are discussed in Chapter 15. the simplified model represented by Eqs. 1. 4 Chapter 1 Introduction to Separation Process Engineering . yA* is the mole fraction in the gas in equilibrium with the actual bulk liquid of mole fraction xA. The area is the area across which mass transfer occurs in m2 or ft2. By transferring mass from one phase to the other we can approach equilibrium. For equilibrium staged separations we would ideally calculate the mass transfer rate based on the transfer within each phase (vapor and liquid in Figure 1-2) using a driving force that is the concentration difference between the bulk fluid and the concentration at the interface. This can be achieved by having significant interfacial turbulence or by using a packing material with a large surface area (see Chapter 10). We will assume that the equilibrium data or appropriate correlations are known (see Chapter 2). For example. xA* is the mole fraction in the liquid in equilibrium with the actual bulk gas of mole fraction yA. we often make a number of simplifying assumptions (see Section 15.” Generally speaking. Since increases in temperature decrease viscosity. the mass transfer coefficients will be higher if diffusivities are higher (details are in Chapter 15). In order to be reasonably close to equilibrium. Mass transfer rates will also be increased if there is more interfacial area/volume between the gas and liquid (higher “a”). and the term “a” is the interfacial area per unit volume (m2/m3 or ft2/ft3). (1-5) approach zero and mass transfer rates decrease. and so forth. and we will confine our discussion to the use of the equilibrium data in the design of separation equipment. Note that as yA→yA* and xA→xA* the driving forces in Eqs. By definition. which occurs with fluids of low viscosity. The driving force is the concentration difference that drives the mass transfer. Rate / volume = Kya(yA* − yA) Rate / volume = Kxa(xA − xA*) (1-5a) (1-5b) In these equations Ky and Kx are overall gas and liquid mass transfer coefficients. The value and units of the mass transfer coefficient depend upon which driving forces are selected. The basic mass transfer equation in words is Mass transfer rate = (area) × (mass transfer coefficient) × (driving force) (1-4) In this equation the mass transfer rate will typically have units such as kmol /h or lbmol /h. a difference in concentrations in kmol / L.3 MASS TRANSFER In the vapor-liquid contacting system shown in Figure 1-2 the vapor and liquid will not be initially at equilibrium. we could use the following rate expressions. for the system shown in Figure 1-2 with concentrations measured in mole fractions. a difference in partial pressures.complex and experimental data may be required. at equilibrium we have yA* = yA and xA* = xA. This driving force can be represented as a difference in mole fractions. Since this is difficult. (1-5) shows that we need high values of Ky and Kx and/or “a. increasing temperature is favorable as long as it does not significantly decrease the differences in equilibrium concentrations and the materials are thermally stable.

the explore or plan steps. and I can Define the problem Explore or think about it Plan Do it Check Generalize Step 0 is a motivation and confidence step. new subproblems may arise. I want to. It is a reminder that you got this far in chemical engineering because you can solve problems. 1. recycle to the appropriate step and solve the problem again. 4.. 3. The appropriate theory and principles must be selected and mathematical methods chosen. If your plan was incomplete. If not. and calculator. and an answer is generated. Experienced problem solvers always include an explore step even if they don’t explicitly state it. 2. revise the problem statement and continue. which is a modification of the strategy developed at McMaster University (Woods et al. and then go back to step 1 to make sure that you are still looking at the problem in the same way. What are you really being asked to do? What basic principles should be applied? Can you find a simple limiting solution that gives you bounds to the actual solution? Is the problem over. is often the first step that inexperienced problem solvers try. we don’t need to know the details as long as we are willing to assume we have equilibrium stages. you may be unable to carry out this step. an explicit strategy. the numbers are plugged in. Remind yourself that you want to learn how to solve chemical engineering problems. 1. The more different problems you solve. In step 2 you explore and think about the problem.or underspecified? Let your mind play with the problem and chew on it. In that case. you may find there are not enough data to solve the problem. In step 5. you will probably be unable to solve it.Although some knowledge of what affects mass transfer is useful. return to step 2 or step 3. and you can do it. the better a problem solver you will become. 1975).4 PROBLEM-SOLVING METHODS To help develop your problem-solving abilities. In this step the mathematical manipulations are done. we will delay discussing the details until we need them (Chapters 15 through 18). In step 1 you want to define the problem. commercial distillation columns are neither 12 centimeters nor 12 kilometers high. and recycle through the process. Draw the system and label its parts. do it.4 Problem-Solving Methods 5 . List all the known variables and constraints. Recycle through the problem-solving sequence to solve these subproblems. If you cannot define the problem clearly. paper. is used throughout this book. check your answer. Step 4. Describe what you are asked to do. The problem solver assembles required resources such as data. Does the answer seem reasonable? Have you avoided blunders such as plugging in the wrong number or incorrectly punching the calculator? Is there an alternative solution method that can serve as an independent check on the answer? If you find errors or inconsistencies. Is it the right order of magnitude? For instance. In step 3 the problem solver plans how to subdivide the problem and decides what parts to attack first. 5. 6. The seven stages of this strategy are: 0. While doing this. 1. Thus. Make sure that you clearly understand all the words.

This heuristic encapsulates one of the major reasons for doing homework. Problem-Solving Heuristics: 1. and make them a regular part of your problem-solving method. Don’t quit. It works much better on difficult problems than a “start calculating. but it is always there. 6. The other six steps will usually be explicitly listed and developed. Ask someone for a little help. but what do you do when you get stuck? In this case heuristics or rules of thumb are useful. 2.. Ten heuristics is probably too many to use on a regular basis. 1995). The more you use this or any other strategy. This approach may provide information that allows you to solve previously unsolvable parts. but you must check your guess. Then complete the problem on your own.The last step. 1993) that are often helpful to students. the more familiar and less artificial it will become. Try solving simplified. 4. 1994) and Strategies for Creative Problem Solving (Fogler and LeBlanc. Solve for ratios. this may lead to an answer. 8. If you want to read more about problem solving and heuristics. or could you have ignored it? Generalizing allows you to learn and become a better problem solver. A heuristic is a method that is often helpful but is not guaranteed to help. 10. and sometimes the details help. I have listed ten (Wankat and Oreovicz. What have you learned about the physical situation? Did including a particular phenomenon have an important effect. Often problems can be solved for ratios. At first these steps will not “feel” right. I strongly encourage you to use this strategy and write down each step as you do homework problems. Try to guess and check. Select four or five that fit you. 9. but do something else for a while. Do the solvable parts of the problem. Coming back to the problem may help you see a solution path. is important but is usually neglected. 5. A large number of problem-solving heuristics have been developed. maybe something will work” method. In this book. Generalize the problem. Heuristics 3 and 4 are the opposite of each other. If you have a strong hunch. A problem-solving strategy is useful. In this step you try to learn as much as possible from the problem. Relate the problem to one you know how to solve. 6 Chapter 1 Introduction to Separation Process Engineering . example problems are solved using this strategy. Sometimes it is easier to see a solution path without all the details. I recommend How to Model It: Problem Solving for the Computer Age (Starfield et al. 3. 7. generalize. Try putting in specific numbers. To avoid repeating myself. but there is not enough information to solve for individual values. but they are always present. Stick with a systematic approach. In the long run this method will improve your problem-solving ability. On the simpler examples some of the steps may be very short. limiting cases. You will want to get on with it and start calculating instead of carefully defining the problem and working your way through the procedure. I will not list step 0. Look for information that you haven’t used. Take a break.

then the teaching 1. Thus. In general. since many of the design methods are graphical methods. and 17 are not required for the understanding of later chapters and can be skipped if time is short. Many students use other students. A knowledge of the basic ideas of phase equilibrium. Because conversion of units will remain necessary throughout your career. Although problem solutions and Appendix C show conversion factors. The ability to solve problems is a prerequisite for all chemical engineering courses. it is assumed that you are very familiar and proficient with unit conversions. you may search on the term “Felder” using a search engine such as Google. Of course. Silverman. A second set of prerequisites involves certain mathematical abilities. Since students (and professors) have different learning styles. and some preparatory material is always required.5 PREREQUISITE MATERIAL No engineering book exists in a vacuum. The only chapters requiring calculus are Section 8. energy balances. Although the basics of mass and energy balances can be learned in a very short time. is that you must be able to read well. get help immediately. which was developed by Richard M. there will undoubtedly be parts of this book that do not make sense to you. Because the chemical engineer must be a good problem solver.2.6 OTHER RESOURCES ON SEPARATION PROCESS ENGINEERING Since students have different learning styles. familiarity with graphical representations of equilibrium data. Alternatively. as these skills are used throughout the text. you must do conversions throughout the book. and a working knowledge of vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) correlations will be helpful. including the concept of equilibrium.1. Another required mathematical skill is graphical analysis. you will have to take charge of your learning and do this for yourself. and phase equilibria. If you are interested in exploring your learning style. and Chapters 9 and 15 through 18. later chapters depend on the earlier chapters. This includes conversion from weight to mole fractions. Thus. 1. 14.6 Other Resources on Separation Process Engineering 7 . facility with their use requires practice. and vice versa. which is often overlooked. You need to be competent and to feel comfortable plotting curves and straight lines and solving simultaneous algebraic equations graphically. it is important to develop skills in this area. You need to be comfortable with algebra and the manipulation of equations. This index is available free on the Internet at www4. I have used data in the units in which they were originally presented. Chapters 11. Units are a fourth critically important area. distribution coefficients. 16. If you don’t read well.edu/unity/lockers/ users/felder/public/ILSpage. you need to customize the way you use this book to adapt to your learning style. Gibbs’ phase rule. Thus. Figure 1-3 should be useful in planning the order in which to cover topics and for adapting this book for special purposes. The United States’ NASA program crashed a space craft into Mars because of failure to convert between the metric and English systems of units. no single approach to teaching or writing a book can be best for all students.html. Felder and Linda K. The first prerequisite. this book will normally be preceded by a course on mass and energy balances. The third area of prerequisites concerns mass balances.5. Familiarity with exponential and logarithmic manipulations is required for Chapter 7. a good place to start is the Index of Learning Styles.ncsu. as shown schematically in Figure 1-3. A fifth area of prerequisites is problem-solving skills.

Bioseparations.. Downstream Processing for Biotechnology. 3rd ed. 2009. Cambridge. NJ. Transport Processes and Separation Process Principles. 2003. New York. and W. Separations textbook with emphasis on bioseparations. P.-S. Diffusion: Mass Transfer in Fluid Systems. Geankoplis. A large number of useful Web sites are available but are not listed because URLs change rapidly. L. E. J. Malone. McGraw-Hill. UK. New York. Prentice Hall PTR. Upper Saddle River. 2001.. E. Advanced distillation textbook that uses residue curve maps to analyze complex distillation processes. L. Hu. TABLE 1-1. Cambridge University Press. Annotated bibliography of resources on separation process engineering Belter.. F. 1988. and finally the professor as resources. and M. Table 1-1 presents a short annotated bibliography of some of the available handbook and textbook resources. a number of good textbooks and Web pages exist that can be helpful because their presentations differ from those in this textbook.. A. 4th ed. Chapter interdependency 9 10 11 assistant. Fortunately. Conceptual Design of Distillation Systems.. Wiley-Interscience. F. Cussler. 8 Chapter 1 Introduction to Separation Process Engineering . Unit operations textbook that has expanded coverage of separation processes and transport phenomena. M.. C.1 VLE 2 3 4 5 6 12 13 15 14 7 Matrices & Aspen Plus 8 Heterogeneous binary & steam Aspen Plus Non ideal 17 18 16 Figure 1-3. Cussler. Doherty. Textbook on basics of diffusion and mass transfer with applications to a variety of separation processes in addition to other applications. They can be accessed by searching on the term “separation processes” using any popular search engine.

P. 2011. Seader. Rousseau.org/research/kdb/ (click on box Korean Physical Properties Data Bank) are excellent sources for data needed for separation problems. Unit operations textbook that includes extensive coverage of separations and transport phenomena. C. 1997. P.engineeringtoolbox. Harriott.. ion exchange. C. R.. Extensive encyclopedia with many entries by authorities on separation processes. W. Handbook containing detailed information on a number of different separation methods. J. 2004. Roper. A. Advanced textbook on crystallization. P. 1. McGraw-Hill. Schweitzer. L. New York. 3rd ed. Separation Process Technology.. and P. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill. Perry. McGraw-Hill. 8th ed.. Wiley. and P..W. King. 2004. Handbook of Separation Process Technology. Coverage often assumes reader has some prior knowledge of technique. 3rd ed. Separation Processes. General handbook that has extensive coverage on separations. 2003. 5th Ed.. 1997. Handbook of Separation Techniques for Chemical Engineers.. Rudge. Cambridge. Berlin. D. NJ. Maddox. Separation Process Principles.com/ and http://www. (Ed.).. Industrially oriented book that includes performance. W. New York. Perry’s Chemical Engineers’ Handbook. E. Smith. 1980. New York. C. D.TABLE 1-1. Cambridge University Press. R. E. L. (Ed. Annotated bibliography of resources on separation process engineering (continued) Harrison. Hines. 2nd ed. Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering. J. Todd. 2008. G.). 1985. A. J. Textbook covering an introduction to mass transfer and a large variety of separation processes..6 Other Resources on Separation Process Engineering 9 . Mass-Transfer Operations. J. 7th ed. E. Textbook on basics of diffusion and mass transfer with detailed applications to separation processes. S. Treybal.). WileyInterscience.. Seidel. and D. Principles of Chemical Separations with Environmental Applications. Green (Eds. New York. New York. M. H. adsorption. Basic separation principles with environmental examples and problems in a non-calculus based format. L... selection and scaleup information. UK. A. R. Mass Transfer: Fundamentals and Applications. Upper Saddle River. New York.). Henley. J. Keller II. 1987. Petrides. and R.. (Ed. 2004. J. 1990. New York. PrenticeHall PTR. Mass Transfer Limited Separations. R. and D. http://www. New York. Oxford University Press. R. Textbook that seeks to integrate knowledge of separation processes and has extensive case studies. Wankat. Wiley-Interscience. 1980.. Noble.cheric. McGraw-Hill. Handbook containing detailed information on many separations. Humphrey. McGraw-Hill. Separations textbook with emphasis on bioseparations. chromatography. P. Terry. but coverage often assumes reader has some prior knowledge of technique.. and G. New York. and D. McGraw-Hill. and membrane separations.. Springer. A. Bioseparations Science and Engineering. Textbook on basics of diffusion and mass transfer with applications to separation processes.. McCabe. R. Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. New York.

E. Chemical and Process Design Handbook. G.. 2nd ed. R. Hatch. R.. J. B. M. Levich. Walas. Gulf Publishing Co. N. the Summary—Objectives section can help you decide if you got there. K. Entropy. Grossman. Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. New York. E... Physiochemical Hydrodynamics. McGraw-Hill. F. 1994. Prentice Hall.. Smith. R. M. 1962. 3. Couper. Upper Saddle River.. Fair. and S. V. S. 2nd ed. T... New York. NJ. I. and Equilibrium. Sandler. 2nd ed. R. 2003. G. Survey of Industrial Chemistry. A. Eliassen. 2002. Available free at https://engineering. Chemical Process Equipment: Selection and Design. Samuels. 1997. L. McGraw-Hill. New York. Biegler. Abbott. S. R. LeBlanc. M. 6.. 2005.. I. 4th ed. Lira.7 SUMMARY—OBJECTIVES We have explored some of the reasons for studying separations and some of the methods we will use. 1984. J. Walas. A. Oreovicz. Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes.. J.. R. C. Phase Equilibria in Chemical Engineering. McGraw-Hill. Shaeiwitz. Boston. C. S. Bailie. Chenier. 2002. Fogler.. 2. Elliott. Cambridge University Press. New York. 2005. REFERENCES Balzhiser. Introductory Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. R. and G.. New York. 7th ed. D.. Humphrey. E. and J. How to Model It: Problem Solving for the Computer Age. Cambridge.edu/ChE /News_and_Events/teaching_engineering/ index. Amsterdam.. NJ. H. J. 2nd ed. T. R. New York. W. Elsevier. 5th ed... Bleloch. Prentice Hall. Smith. Springer-Verlag. Shreve. and F. Houston. Strategies for Creative Problem Solving. Whiting. Chemical Process Industries. M. Prentice Hall. 1999. and A. Van Ness. Upper Saddle River.html. 1972. 10 Chapter 1 Introduction to Separation Process Engineering . Englewood Cliffs. Prentice Hall. and G. Speight.. At this point you should be able to satisfy the following objectives: 1.. K. 1993. and J. Matar.purdue.. Explain how separations are used in a typical chemical plant Define the concepts of equilibrium stages and unit operations Explain what is meant by phase equilibrium Explain the basic concepts of mass transfer List the steps in the structured problem-solving approach and start to use this approach Have some familiarity with the prerequisites Note: In later chapters you may want to turn to the Summary—Objectives section first to help you see where you are going. TX. and C. Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics. Penney. Turton. and S.. New York. 1997. P. 4th ed.1. Prentice Hall. Berlin. R. J.. Denbigh. S. E. Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics: The Study of Energy. Starfield. Wankat. Upper Saddle River. Chemistry of Petrochemical Processes. J. UK. NJ. 2001. Then when you’ve finished the chapter. 1985. Hatch. and M. 2006. W. McGraw-Hill. Butterworth. J. A. S. Separation Process Technology.. M. Westerburg. L. P. Analysis. Wiley. Keller II. and L. McGraw-Hill. C. Upper Saddle River. Teaching Engineering. NJ. 5. 4. NJ. T. Upper Saddle River. H. 1995. Prentice Hall. McGraw-Hill. NJ.. M. L. and A. The Principles of Chemical Equilibrium. Systematic Methods of Chemical Process Design.. W. 1981.

the define. Doig. plan. d. The equilibrium stage concept a. A5. Did you eventually do most of the steps listed? Usually. If you have studied heat transfer. A4. B4. and I. Without returning to the book. B2. Homework 11 . Organize it in your own way. assumes that phases leaving the stage are in equilibrium. Did you check your solution? If not. A2. Finally. it will include equations. c. Wright. Some separation methods are common in homes in the United States. List the separations that you employed in various chemistry labs. List as many products and how they are purified or separated as you can. D. do that now. What is the equilibrium stage concept? c. J. A3. Give a few examples. Separation operations are very common in chemistry laboratories. Did you follow a structured method? Most people don’t at first. B3. Write the mass and energy balances (in general form) for the separator shown in Figure 1-1. C. What are the steps in the systematic problem solving approach? Explain each step in your own words. sketches. Define a unit operation. List the separations that you are familiar with and briefly describe how you think they work. Do you satisfy the prerequisites? If not. R. “Teaching Problem Solving Skills. try generalizing your solution. Go to a large supermarket and look at some of the household products.Woods. K. Discussion Problems A1. Rearrange your solution so that these steps are in order. How many of these could you separate? At the end of this course you will know how to purify most of the liquid products. Derivations C1. Swartman. HOMEWORK A. 66 (3). relate Eq. and do it steps are done sometime during the solution. b. D. If you have difficulty with this. D. answer the following: a. is useful even when phases are not in equilibrium. The body uses several membrane separation methods. List as many of these as you can and describe how you think they work. This will greatly aid you in remembering the material. B. W.” Engineering Education. T. Most of these are concerned with water treatment. review a book on mass and energy balances. In general. Look at this solution but from the point of view of the process used to solve the problem instead of the technical details. how can you remedy this situation? A6.. 1975). explore. (1-4) to the similar basic definition of heat transfer by conduction and convection. R. 238 (Dec. Return to your successful solution of a fairly difficult problem in one of your previous technical courses (preferably chemical engineering). b. and key words. Hoffman. The purpose of developing a key relations chart is to force your brain to actively organize the material. Generation of Alternatives B1. Develop a key relations chart (one page or less) for this chapter. A key relations chart is a summary of everything you need to solve problems or answer questions from the chapter. all of the above. is a hypothetical construct.

solve the following problem: We have a flow rate of 1500 kmol/h of a feed that is 40 mol% ethanol and 60 mol% water. Problems Using Other Resources F1. F. Look through several recent issues of Chemical Engineering magazine or similar technical magazines and find an article that contains a process flow chart. G. Arrange a tour of the unit operations laboratory in your institution to observe the different types of separation equipment. Problems D1. Computer Spreadsheet Problems There are no computer spreadsheet problems for this chapter. One of the prerequisites for study of separations is the ability to convert from weight to mole fractions and vice versa. What is the weight fraction of ethanol. Complex Problems There are no complex problems for this chapter.D. Explicitly comment on whether the flow sheet for the process fits (at least approximately) the general flow sheet shown in Figure 1-1. F2. Simulator Problems There are no simulator problems for this chapter. Read the article and write a short (less than one page) critique. As a refresher in this conversion. H. it is much smaller than industrial-scale equipment. 12 Chapter 1 Introduction to Separation Process Engineering . Note that although this equipment is often much larger than the separation equipment that you used in chemistry laboratory. and what is the total flow rate in pounds per hour? E.

618. 331–332 simple. 494 – 496 tray design. 459. 811 data. 416 – 418 troubleshooting guide. 814 Activated alumina. 71 simulations for binary distillation. 286. 67– 68 LLE data fitting. 465 Acetic acid data. 476 – 478 efficiency. 904 Acetone data. 403 computer simulations. 21–22. 469 – 470 equilibria. 266. 494 – 496 azeotropic distillation. 810. 459 – 462 irreversible. 815. 490. 595 Batch distillation binary Rayleigh equations. 459 – 462 operating lines. 919 –920 Avogadro's number. 620 Aniline data. See also Computer simulations absorption. 812. 376. 463 – 469 mass transfer. 67– 69 error messages. 688 – 690 Absorption chemical. 816. 683 – 688. 688 – 690 column diameter calculation. 474 – 475 column failure. 459 – 462.Index A Abietic acid data. 67 stripping. 915 –917 two-pressure distillation. 455 co-current absorbers. 524. 482 – 484 Kremser equation. 824 Aspen Chromatography. 721–724 simulating input data. 336 –337 939 . 321–323 VLE data analysis. 617. 457– 459 graphical analysis. 455 dilute multisolute. 482 – 484. See Ethanol Alcohol dehydrogenase data. 909 –913 Aspen Plus. See also Sorption processes definition. 824 Alcohol. 900 Acetylene data. 506. Simulated moving bed. 815. 321–327 decanters. 805 example. 853 Activated carbon. 815. 899 Acetonaphthalene data. 816 – 819 materials (See Sorbents) processes (See Pressure swing adsorption. 323 downcomer design. 267 Azeotropic distillation. 683 – 690 matrix solution. 173 –176 start-up. 823. 853 Argon data. 815. 296 –300 B Balances. 456. 416 – 418 drawing flowcharts. 494. 565 Anthracene data. 626 – 628. 463 – 482. 899 –900 Adsorption. 437– 442 Ammonia data. 516 Almost-ideal separations. 490 Aspartic acid. 809 data. 494 – 496 concentrated. 600 Azeotrope. 69 –70. 506 Absorbers. 814 – 815. 919 –920 multicomponent distillation. 478 – 482 McCabe-Thiele diagrams. 70 VLE data fitting. 70 extractive distillation. 478 – 482 cross-flow. 237–242 rate-based analysis of distillation. 283. 332 –336 constant-level. 487. See specific balances Barium sulfide data. 570. 810. Temperature swing adsorption) Alanine. 459 – 462 physical. 325 –328 flash drum setup. 489 definition. 626 – 628. 538. 823. 455 Absorption factor.

112 –116 profiles. 272. 458. 428 estimating. 458 Chromatography. 127–129 solution methods. 736 Carbon molecular sieves (CMS). 296 –297 Butane data. 909 –913 definition. 331–332 simple. binary Boiling point. 861– 863 Checklist for sorption system design. 823 – 827 resolution. 809 Co-current absorbers. 458. 795 –797 Binary distillation. 310. 589 Capital costs design variables. 344 Batch extraction. 105 –112 McCabe-Thiele method. 798 – 803 Binary countercurrent flow. See Flash distillation. 81– 84 definition. 620 Chlorobenzene data. 334 –336 simple binary distillation. 566. 153 –155 Bolles-Fair correlation. 455 Chemical plants. 345 examples low temperature. 81 versus recycling. 265 –275 Bubble-caps. 736 Carbon tetrachloride data. 809 Carbon monoxide data. 239. 287. See Publications Bovine serum albumin data. 337–339 variable reflux ratio. 458 Chlorine data. 177–182 stage-by-stage methods. 330 solvent-switching. 340 –344 operating time. 620 Chloroform data. 620. 173 –176 equilibrium relationships. See Constant molal overflow (CMO) CMS (carbon molecular sieves). 846 – 851 solute movement. 105 –112 spreadsheets for. 266. 359 Bubble-point equilibrium calculations. 827 example. 365 Chlorinated compound data. 784 –786. 217 Bubble regime. 359 Bubble-cap trays. 506 –507. 823 – 826 solute movement analysis.Batch distillation (continued ) constant reflux ratio. 589 940 Index . 198 –202 Bubble-point procedure. 506. 882 – 886 purge cycles. typical layout. 334 –336 history of. 802 – 803 Binary cross-flow permeation. 341–344 Rayleigh equations binary distillation. See Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). 283. 815 Breaking azeotropes. 307. 639 – 640 Chimney trays. 331. illustration. See also Column distillation computer simulation. 827 displacement chromatography. See also Solute movement analysis computer simulation. 355 multistage. 83 superheated. 617. 570 Cascading flash separators. 883 – 884 simulated moving bed (SMB) systems. 340 –344 versus continuous operation. 332 –336 Binary co-current permeation. 227. 419 – 425 Carbon dioxide data. 329 inverted. 782 –784. 33. 336 steam. See Bubble-point Boilup column distillation. 331 energy requirements. 618 Bibliography. 827 temperature gradient method. 827 temperature programming. 283. 3 Chemical reaction distillation. 617 C Caffeine. 827 examples elution chromatography. 79 – 84 Cation-exchange resins. 86 Bulk density. 8 –9 Binary batch distillation Rayleigh equations. 805 elution costs. 617. 2 Chemical potential equilibrium. 520 –522 Benzene data. 266 –270 Binary VLE. 605 – 607 multistage distillation. 786 –788. 823 – 826 flow programming. 618. 300 –303 Chilton-Colburn analogy. 688 – 690 Coffee. 440. 675 – 677 Books of reference. 823 – 827 solvent gradients. 617. binary Binary heterogeneous azeotropes. 823 – 826 CMO (constant molal overflow). 808 Butadiene-butylene separation process. 618 Butanol data. 344 –346 schematic. 827 Gaussian solution. 890 – 892 Chemical absorption. 105 –112 Binary flash distillation. 458.

109 –112 versus McCabe-Thiele method. 129 –133 operating equation. 133 –134 composition profiles. 127–129 condensers intermediate. 79 –90 example. 156 –157 flow regime. external balances. phase and temperature effects. 93 –95 external balances. 152 –153 enriching section balance envelope schematic. 88 reusing columns. 127–129 total reflux. 112 –116. 153 –155 superheated boilup. 115 –116 passing streams. 80 – 81 liquid carry-over between stages. 109 –112 McCabe-Thiele method. 81– 84 photograph. 83 recycling versus reflux and boilup. 86 froth regime. 140 –141 constant flow rates. 112 –116 distillation with multiple feeds. photograph. 107–109 subcooled reflux. 141–143 Column mass balances. 153 –155 flowcharts. 437– 442 Index 941 . 127–129 Lewis method constant molal overflow (CMO). 129 –133. 88 –90 spray regime. 129 –133. 124 –127. 91–95 feed lines.Column distillation. 147 reboilers intermediate. 107–109 feed lines. 80 debottlenecking. 144 –145 equilibrium relationships. 88 –90 Column distillation. 86 stages. 88 diameter too large. 135 –140 internal stage-by-stage balances. 81– 84 reflux ratio. 106 –107 example. 106 stripping columns. 150 –151 Sorel's method. 152 rectifying section. 107 pinch points. 135 –140 open steam heating. 79 – 84 concurrent cascades. 148 –149 open steam heating. 141 sidestreams. 83 – 84 sieve trays. sorption processes. 146 –148 McCabe-Thiele method description. 116 –124 feeds distillation with multiple feeds. 81– 84 bubble regime. 151–153 design problems. 88 –90. 133 –140 versus Lewis method. 129 –133 problem algorithm. 155 –157 efficiencies. calculating number of Lewis method. 124 –127. 88 –90 specifications. 86 increasing capacity. 83 entrainment. 106 constant molal overflow (CMO). 102 definition. 134 minimum reflux. 151–153 isothermal distillation. 148 –149 enriching columns. 135 –140 examples. 146 –148 Murphree efficiency. 86 cascading flash separators. 132 –133 stripping section. 105 –112 column sections. 88 purity levels. 87 simulation problems. 155 –157 open steam heating. 86 equipment. 151 –153 schematics. 146 –148 withdrawal lines. 105 –112 McCabe-Thiele method. 83 – 84 variable pressure distillation. 121–124 Lewis method. 86 optimum feed stage. 80 – 81 countercurrent cascade. See also Binary distillation boilup. 144 –145 subcooled reflux. 83 reflux. 155 –157 stage-by-stage calculations. 116 –124 flow rate profiles. 116 –124 phase and temperature effects. 153 –155 temperature profiles. 106. 143 –144 total. 135 –140 feed line calculations. 153 –155 superheated boilup. internal stage-by-stage balances analytical methods versus graphical. 129 –133 feed. 873 Columns coupling. 155 –157 limiting conditions. 135 –140 general analysis procedure. 127–129 binary solution methods. 141–143 simulation problems. 80 – 81 variables. 155 –157 binary distillation profiles. 101–105 examples distillation with multiple feeds. 85 pressure in. 86 foam regime. 143 –144 partial.

494 – 496 azeotropic distillation. 370 –374. 283 distillation curves. 827 equipment costs (See Capital costs) estimating. 193 –198 Computer simulations. 281–285 drying organic compounds. See also Aspen Plus absorption. 427 sections. 336 –337 Constant molal overflow (CMO) column distillation. 143 –144. 397– 400 packed column flooding. cost effects. 106 leaching with. 768 –770. 112. 237–242 multicomponent distillation. 92. 425 – 432 reflux ratio. 219 Conjugate lines. 127–129 multicomponent distillation. 392 –397 examples. 392 –397 sieve trays. 133 –134 staged (See Staged columns) Complex distillation processes azeotropic distillation. 427. 67–73 rate-based analysis of distillation. 861 Constant reflux ratio. 266 solvents adding. 155 –157 Constant pattern waves. 321–323 Component mass balance. 275 –279 ternary distillation. 296 –300 binary heterogeneous azeotropes. 67– 68 flowsheets. 442 – 447 packed columns. 419 – 425 coupling columns. 374 –376. 416 – 418 VLE data analysis. 290 –296. 922 Continuous column distillation. 420 nonideal separations. 721–724 stripping. 400 – 401 packings. 416 – 418 extraction. 474 – 475 balancing. 173 –176 chromatography. 482 – 484. drawing. 439 – 442 long-term trends. 340 –344 Constants. 285 –290 schematic. 221–227. 428 estimating. 272 –275 steam distillation. 325 –328 polarities of compounds. 70 Concentrated absorption. 295 residue curves. 266 –270 breaking azeotropes. 420 – 425 heuristics. 437– 442 elution chromatography. 420 heat exchange. 300 –303 computer simulation. 572 –574 extraction. 377–378 partial. 386 –387 packed (See Packed columns) pressure. 215 –217. 265 –275 chemical distillation. 437– 442 capital costs design variables. 295 –296 steam distillation. 297–300 selecting. 376 –378 description. 433 Marshall and Stevens equipment cost index. 155 –157 definition. 442 – 447 942 Index . 909 –913 downcomer design. 279 –281. 69 –70. partially miscible. 430. 98. 277–279 extractive distillation. 237–242 multicomponent flash distillation. 494 – 496 tray design. 227–228 Costs of distillation almost-ideal separations. 106. 321–327 binary distillation. 189 –193 validity. 427 energy costs. 758 –764. 434 – 436 heat exchangers. 425 synthesizing column sequences almost-ideal separations. 437– 442 nonideal separations. 67– 69 input data. 474 – 475 valve trays. 690 – 692 Condensers intermediate. 286. 80 – 81. 321–327 distillation boundary curves. 428. physical. 281–290 two-pressure distillation. 542 –543. 140 –141 total. 522 –523 Constant flow rates. 751–755. 370 –374 stripping. 851– 852. 271–275 examples drying organic compounds. matrix method. 572 –574 flash drum setup. See Column distillation Convergence. 793 Concentration profile. 433 – 436 feed rate. 133. 582 –584 Constant-level batch distillation. 430 operating effects. 195 –198 Concurrent cascades. 478 – 482 Concentration polarization. 430 – 432 factors effecting column pressure. example. 433 state of the economy.Columns (continued ) diameter calculation absorption. 106 stage-by-stage calculations for. 34 – 42 Composition profiles column distillation. 544 –545. 71 multicomponent distillation.

476 – 478 Index Dinitronaphthalene data. 727 Elution chromatography. 281–285 equilibrium stages. 437– 442 Cross-flow extraction. 543 Murphree.stage balances) multicomponent distillation. 538 –539 external mass balances. 904 Dispersion coefficient. 733 Drying organic compounds. 366 –367 O'Connell correlation for absorption. 509 –511 McCabe-Thiele diagrams. 227. 300 –303 configurations (See Complex distillation processes. external balances. 151–153 Decane data. 599 examples. 33. 900 Diagrams. 865 – 870 Documentation. 619 – 622 Fickian model. 549 –552 DePriester charts. 367 Electrodialysis (ED). 599. See Publications Double-pass trays. 605 – 607. 277 Decanters. 148 –149 mixer-settlers. 528 –530 Cross-flow pattern. 358 –359 E Economics of distillation. 31–34 Dew-point equilibrium calculations. See Enthalpy-composition diagrams. 815. 239 Difference points. 873. 1–2 rate-based analysis of. 602 – 616. 607– 609 Diffusivity definition of. 194 Dextran data. 648 – 649 irreversible thermodynamics model. elution Energy balances binary flash distillation sequential solution. 727 Diameter calculation. 476 – 478 Dilute multisolute stripping. 641– 655 steady-state binary with convection. 877 Displacement chromatography. 533 –537 dilute systems. 308 Dilute fractional extraction. See Costs of distillation Efficiencies column distillation. 367–368 estimating. example. internal stage-by. diameter calculation Dichloroethane data. 823 – 827 Coupling columns. Twopressure distillation) sequencing (See Synthesizing column sequences) Divalent-monovalent ion exchange. 356 Cyclohexane data. 616 – 619 Fickian binary liquid. 708 –712 stage-by-stage methods. 923 –929 Debottlenecking. 533 –537 Diffuse waves. 283 costs (See Costs of distillation) curves. 852 – 855 Diffusion definition of. 504 –509 equilibrium stages. columns. See Chromatography. 369 valve trays. 602 Diisopropyl ether data. 369 –370 Murphree. Y-x diagrams Dialysis. Column distillation. 360 –362. See Columns. 504 –509 stage-by-stage calculation. 283. 731. 148 –149 trays determining. 853 D Data. 655 Maxwell-Stefan model of.Countercurrent extraction difference points. 531–533. 609 – 616 without convection. 416 – 418 Driving force. 655 Fick's law. 640 – 641. 516. 604 – 607 unsteady binary. See also Column distillation as chemical reactors. 613 – 616. 514 –518. 599 examples temperature effect. 198 –202 Dew point temperature. 271–275 Dry tray pressure. 2 unit operation. 323. 533 –537 Counterflow. 360 Downcomers. 619 Fickian binary gas. 531–533 Kremser method. Temperature-composition diagrams. 23 –28 simultaneous solution. 28 –30 column distillation (See Column distillation. 511–514 Dilute multisolute absorption. Extractive distillation. 189 –192 943 . 360 Cumene data. See also column distillation and specific types of distillation boundary curves. 602 – 604 thermal. 469 – 470 O'Connell correlation for distillation. 2 Distillation columns. 387 and vapor velocity. 368 –369 scaling up. 827 Distillation.

See also Extraction. 520 –522 concentrated solutions. 618. 518 –520 countercurrent extraction. 506 Ethylene data. 509 –511 dilute systems. 528 –530 single-stage extraction. 290 –292. 617. 693 –708 McCabe-Thiele diagrams concentrated immiscible extraction. 23 –28 simultaneous solution. 518 –520 countercurrent. 528 –530 examples countercurrent extraction. 86 inlet ports. 776 –778 sequential solutions. 620. 511–514 distribution coefficients. immiscible computer simulation. 537–539 cross-flow extraction. 533 –537 cross-flow. immiscible. 2 – 4 distillation stages. 23 –28 sign convention. 124 –127. See Batch distillation Excel binary flash distillation with. 34 – 42 pervaporation. 367 Equilibrium adsorption. 92 sorption processes. 177–182 multicomponent flash distillation with. column distillation. 648. 878 Esterification in distillation column. 440. 812 Ethanol data. 538 –539 external mass balances. 863 – 865 K values (See K values) mechanical. 504 raffinate.Energy balances (continued ) multicomponent flash distillation. 500 examples countercurrent immiscible extraction. applicability. 542 –543. 513 –514 mixer-settlers. 75 regression of binary vapor-liquid equilibrium with. 287. 370 –378 example. 239 Ethylene glycol data. 383 –385 hydraulics. 310. 297–300 Ethyl acetate production. 514 –518 definition. 504 –509 cross-flow extraction. 28 –30 sequential solutions. 23 –28 Error function. 543 –557 nomenclature. 811– 816 chemical potential. 18 –22 isotherms. 378 –385 vapor velocity. 378 –385 tray layout. 528 –530 944 Index . 522 –523 countercurrent difference points. 73 –74 External mass balances binary distillation. 15 –22. 240. 101. 774 –775 Ethanol-water separation processes. 516 –518 single-stage extraction. 33. 91–95 Extraction solid-liquid (See Leaching. 365 sieve trays column diameter. 91–95 column distillation. 23 –28 Entrainment bubble-cap trays. 1–2 thermal. 3 Equilibrium equations binary flash distillation sequential solution. 812 Ethylene dichloride data. 19 –20 Enthalpy equations. 302 –303 Ethane data. 433 – 436 Enriching columns. 74 –75. 300 –303 Ethyl benzene data. 499 dilute fractional. 572 –574 conjugate lines. 503 –511 cross-flow. 292. partially miscible batch. 618. 83 – 84. 516 –518 Kremser analysis countercurrent extraction. 504 single-stage. 506 Extraction. Washing) solutes. 507 equipment used. 531–533 stage-by-stage calculation. 509 –511 mass transfer in. 3 plotting. separating (See Dilute fractional extraction) Extraction. 506 equilibrium data. 362 –365 outlet ports. See also Extraction. 101–105 stages. 292 Evaporation. 531–533. 507–509 cross-flow extraction. 514 –518 solvent selection. 359 definition. 503. 3 phase. 3 description. 533 –537 equilibrium stages. 514 –518 fractional extraction. 875 Energy costs. partially miscible. 377 Enthalpy-composition diagrams graphing binary VLE. 376. 144 –145 Enriching section. 24 relationships. 33. 1–2 ion exchange.

107–112 internal stage-by-stage balances. 540 –542 mixing point. 23 –28 simultaneous solution. 71 basic processes. 13 –14 equipment required. 86 Flowcharts column distillation. 802–803 binary cross-flow permeation. 118 –124 subcooled reflux. optimum. 599. optimum location. 51–53 requirements. 34 – 42 Rachford Rice equations. 223 –228 Fibrinogen data. 51–53 multicomponent flash distillation. 781–782 overview. binary energy balance sequential solution. 42 – 44 overall mass balance. 117–121 multiple. 13 reusing. packed columns. 107–109 plotting. 53 –54 setup. 640 – 641. 325 –328 F Fair method for column diameter calculation. 23 –28 examples. 382 valve trays. sizing. 800 – 801 binary countercurrent flow. 34 – 42 example. computer simulation. 24 –25 equilibrium equations. 380. 290 –296. 360 Index 945 . 156 –157 drawing. 234 –237 Feed rate. 37–38. 23 –28 enthalpy equations. 781–782 spreadsheet calculations. 620 Fickian model. 47– 48 Flash distillation. 23 –28 simultaneous solution. 386 –387 Flood regime. 135 –140 effect on flow rates. 523. 115 –116 Fenske equations. 153 –155 Feed plate. 602 – 604 Film theory. 528 –530 solubility envelope. 782 –784. 116 –124 intersection of operating lines.minimum solvent rate. 233 –237 Fire prevention. 23 –28 simultaneous solution. 116 –124 distillation with multiple feeds. 430 Feed stage. See also Flash drums adiabatic. 602 – 616. See also Flash distillation example. 121–124 column distillation. 795 –797 example. 370 –374 Feed lines calculating line slope. 655 Fick's law. 34 – 42 wide-boiling feeds. 37–38. 45 – 47 multicomponent component mass balance. 26 –28 fraction vaporized (V/F). 522 saturated extract. 23 relative volatility. 28 –30 equilibrium equations sequential solution. 45 – 47 simultaneous solutions. of diffusion. 23 –28 operating equations. 526 plait points. 522 –523 single-stage. 23 mass balance. 403 – 404 Fish liver oil data. 67– 68 sizing. 39 – 42 simultaneous convergence. 23 –28 equilibrium data. 48 –53 Flooding packed columns. 153 –155 superheated boilup. 39 – 42 with Excel. 28 –30 sequential solution energy balance. 34 – 42 description. plotting. 370 –378. 798 – 803 trays. 524 saturated raffinate. 522 Extractive distillation. 75 Newtonian convergence. cost effects. 623 – 626 Finite reflux ratios. 13 –15 degrees of freedom. 28 –30 Flash drums. 597 Flash distillation. 88 –90 phase and temperature effects. 13 –14 examples flash drums. 67– 69 Flow patterns membrane separation binary co-current permeation. 27–28 simultaneous solution. 42 – 43 simulating (See Computer simulations) spreadsheets for. 135 –140 optimum location. for mass transfer. 116 –124 q value (feed quality). 392 –397 sieve trays. 522. 784 –786. 73 –77 three-phase. 34 – 42 energy balance. 786 –788. 39 – 42 simultaneous multicomponent convergence. 28 –30 mass balance sequential solution.

98. 439 – 442 Hexane data. 420 – 425 Heat transfer. 620. 728 –729 946 I Ideal gas constant. 767–771 Gilliland correlation. See Mass transfer analysis (HTU-NTU) HTUs. 620 Gas permeation binary mixtures. 376. 220 Ion exchange calcium-form resin. 383 –385 Hydrogen data. 440 Isopropanol-water VLE. 19 –20. 774 Hydrophobic membranes. 506. 193 –198 Flow programming in chromatography. 391–392 Heuristics for distillation. 849 cation-exchange resins. 861 resin data. 922 Immiscible extraction. 811– 816 K Karr columns. binary permeation. 127–129 multicomponent distillation. 861 Ion movement. 362 –365 Intermediate components. 397. 882 – 886 Gel formation. 390 –392 Helium data. 51. 617. 875 Heat transfer coefficients. 143 –144 Internal stage-by-stage balances. 221–227 Foam regime. internal stage-by-stage balances Interstitial velocity in sorption columns. 233 –237 Glucose data. 747–748. 292 –296 HETP measurement. 557–558 Knudsen diffusion. 220 –221 theta (τ) method convergence. 620. 463 – 469. 862. 33. 184 Heavy non-key (HNK) components. 620 Henry's law. multicomponent distillation. 355 Inverting tridiagonal matrices. 457– 459 Heptane data. 189 –192 initial guess. See Extraction. 23 Froth regime. 33 Isopropanol data. 427 Heavy key (HK) components. 920 Isopropyl ether data. 727 Hemoglobin data. 369. 864 strong resins. 331. 815 Hydraulics. 33. 45. 197 Intermediate condensers. 898 Heptane-toluene separation process. 86 Fouling. 456 Gaussian solution for linear elution chromatography. 908 Furfural data. 815 H Heat exchange. sieve trays description. 815. 565. 506. 143 –144 Intermediate reboilers. 831. 865 – 870 Irreversible absorption. 807– 808 Inverted batch distillation. 863 – 865 example. multicomponent permeation. 538 Isothermal distillation. immiscible Inlet ports. 865 – 870 equilibrium. 739 –745. 861– 863 definition. 864 – 866 overview. 805 divalent-monovalent. 735 –739 concentration polarization. 774 G Gamma globulin data. 665 Human serum albumin data. 735 overview. 812 Hydrogen sulfide data. 736 –746 perfectly mixed systems. 765 –766 Fraction vaporized (V/F). 746 –748 rate-transfer (RT) equation. 755 –756 membrane types. 86 Fructose data. 509 –511 Index . 865 – 870 monovalent. See Column distillation. 369. 827 Flow rates multicomponent distillation correcting. 793 examples. 509 –511 extraction. 736 Hemodialysis. 184 Height of packings. 506 HTU-NTU (mass transfer analysis). 617 Isopentane data. sorption processes. 900. 866 – 870 ion movement. 815. 80 – 81 Isotherms. 736 –737 Gas treatment plants. 733 –735 perfectly mixed systems. 378 –383 example. 482 – 484 Isobutane data. 617 Hollow-fiber system. 458 Hydrophilic membranes. 397. 434 – 436 Heat exchangers.Flow profiles column distillation. 33. 736. 872 Kremser analysis absorption.

459 – 462 bottom operating lines. 33 selection guide. 630 – 635 Mass transfer analysis (HTU-NTU) absorbers. 524 –527 Lewis method calculating number of stages. internal stage-by-stage balances) with convection. See Computer simulations Lang factor. 641– 655 molecular movement in. 609 – 616 multicomponent distillation. 4 –5 absorbers. 419 Langmuir isotherms. 688 – 690 basic equation. 812 – 815 solute movement with. 599 dimensionless groups. 155 –157 Light key (LK) components. 28 –30. external balances. partially miscible Liquid membranes. 189 –192. 31–34 Raoult's law. 584 stripping. 622 – 628. 649 – 653 nonideal ternary system. 577–581 K values activity coefficient. 663 – 664 Bolles-Fair correlation. 32 L Labs. 655 Linear isotherms. 184 Linear chromatography. 582 –584 example. 28 –30 Index column distillation (See Column distillation. 667– 668 overview. 23 –28 simultaneous solution. 23 –28 without convection. 600. 626 – 628 theoretically-derived correlations. 639 – 640 coefficients. 693 –708 examples absorbers. 863 – 690 analogous correlations. 675 – 683 random packings correlation. 215 –220. 30 mole fractions in liquid. 655 Maxwell-Stefan model of. 217–220 sequential solutions. 478 – 482. 626 tray efficiency. immiscible. 595 with constant flow rates. Extraction. 675 – 683 strippers. 675 – 677 co-current absorbers. 623 – 626 irreversible thermodynamics model. 542 –543 Maxwell-Stefan model. 34 constants. 31–34 equilibrium equation. 575 –576 leaching. 420 Mass balances binary flash distillation sequential solution. 677– 682 packed column distillation. 759. See Extraction. 687– 688 HG estimation. 626 – 628. 653 – 655 McCabe-Thiele diagrams absorption. 813 – 814 Lapidus and Amundson solution. 665 extraction. 655 linear driving force model. 877– 879 Leaching. 604 – 607 Mass transfer. 600 – 602. of diffusion and mass transfer. 33 DePriester charts. 618 Lever-arm rule. 882 – 886 Linear driving force model. 35 in three-phase flash calculation. 821– 851 Linoleic acid data. 873 – 875 M Marshall and Stevens equipment cost index. 468 – 469 washing. Column distillation. 628 – 640 correlations. 631. 655 strippers. 628 – 630 empirical coefficient correlations. 600. 688 – 690 coefficients.generalized process. 184 Light non-key (LNK) components. 665 McCabe-Thiele diagrams. 635 – 638 examples. 622 – 628. 692 – 693 HTUs. for mass transfer. 690 – 693 Matrix solution. 32 multicomponent VLE. 663 – 672 packed tower correlation. 506 Liquid carry-over between stages. 677– 682 HL estimation. 105 –112 constant molal overflow (CMO). 886 – 890 Lennard-Jones parameters. 683 – 688. 86 Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). 106 –107 example. 114 947 . 109 –112 versus McCabe-Thiele method. 585 –587 Length of Unused Bed (LUB) approach. 641– 655 example. 522 –524. 637– 638 film theory. 47– 48 vapor phases. 727 LUB. 669 – 672 stage efficiency. 683 – 688 sum-of-resistances model. 648 – 649 ideal ternary system. 663 – 667 packed columns. 155 –157 stage-by-stage calculations. See Length of Unused Bed (LUB) Lumped parameter mass transfer. 631. 874 definition of.

133 –140 generalized extraction process. 731. 750 strength. 735 overview. 731 purifying liquids (See Ultrafiltration (UF)) retained fluid. 477 dilute systems. 513 –514 general distillation analysis procedure. 463 top operating lines. 133 column distillation. 747–748 membrane types. 735 hydrophilic. 727 hollow-fiber system. 728 –729 liquid membranes. 727 permeate-in-series system. 731 polymer. 729 –730 reverse osmosis (RO) with concentrated solutions. 800 – 801 binary countercurrent flow. 795 –797 example. 736 –737 gel formation. 135 –140 equilibrium relationships. 757–758. 769 –771 flow patterns binary co-current permeation. 727 retentate-in-series system. 3 Membranes definition. 522 –524 generalized procedure. 729 –730 retentate-recycle mode. 514 –518 description. 798 – 803 fouling. 583 versus Lewis method. 113 triangular diagram relationship. 767–771 hemodialysis. 726 thickness. 112 –116 examples. 727 for gas permeation. 749 –755 overview. 755 –756 semipermeable. binary permeation. 504 –509 cross-flow extraction. 727 material. 731 properties. plotting. 771–780 plate-and-frame system. 762 –764 membrane properties. 112 –116 leaching. 134 stepping off stages. 781–782 overview. 115 –116 problem algorithm. 755 –758. 732 permeate. 764 –765 concentration polarization. 786 –788. 24 –25. 518 –520 countercurrent extraction. 746 –748 rate-transfer (RT) equation. 727–731 examples pervaporation. 113 –116 stripping. 463 – 469. 129 –133. 727 osmosis. 124 –127. 725 –727 passed fluid. 577–581 Mechanical equilibrium. 802 – 803 binary cross-flow permeation. determining. 727–729 948 Index . 762 –764 permeability.McCabe-Thiele diagrams (continued ) calculating number of stages. 736 –746 perfectly mixed systems. 784 –786. 539 –540 washing. 155 –157 mass transfer analysis (HTU-NTU). 760 –762. 112 optimum feed stage. 729 –730 pervaporation. determining. 749 –755 overview. 667– 668 open steam heating. 135 –140 fractional extraction. 112 –116. 739 –745. 755 –756 versus osmosis. 728 –729 system properties. 727 retentate. 129 –133 operating lines. 132 –133 CMO validity. 735 –739 examples. 727 microfiltration. 727 energy balances. 732 tube-in-shell system. 727 performance prediction. 774 liquid. 504 –509 distillation with multiple feeds. 733 –735 perfectly mixed systems. 733 Membrane separation concentration polarization (See Concentration polarization) dialysis. 765 –766 gas permeation binary mixtures. 575 –576 internal stage-by-stage balances. 112 –116 concentrated immiscible extraction. 112 –116 dilute multisolute absorbers. 731–733 permeance. 749 spiral-wound system. multicomponent permeation. 781–782 spreadsheet calculations. 727–729 polymer membranes. 727 driving force. 774 hydrophobic. 727 nanofiltration. 733 electrodialysis (ED). 782 –784. 758 –764 examples. 778 –780 ultrafiltration (UF) with gel formation. 776 –778 equipment.

193 –198 computer simulation. 34 – 42 Multicomponent VLE. 184 –189 external balance equations. 617. 233 –237 minimum reflux ratio. 366 –367 N Nanofiltration. 232 –233 feed plate. 234 –235 Fenske equations. 227–228 non-key (NK) components. 184 temperature profile. 193 –198 heavy key (HK) components. 184 –189 flow rates correcting. 45. 39 – 42 Rachford Rice equations. 184 heavy non-key (HNK) components. 540 –542 Mixer-settlers. 184 –189 flow profile. approximate methods examples Fenske equations. 232 –233 number of stages. 189 –192 initial guess. 33. 617. 765 –771 vapor permeation. 237–242 concentration profile. 37–38. 220 Multicomponent flash distillation example. 189 –192 examples matrix solution. 524 –527 Mixing point. 543 –557 Mixing calculations. 814. 565 Methylisobutyl ketone data. 727 Minimum reflux definition. 215 –217. 37 multicomponent flash distillation. 221–227 energy balances. 600 – 602 Monovalent ion exchange. 618. 649 – 653 Naphthali-Sandholm simultaneous convergence method for. 812. 184 profiles. 184 light key (LK) components. 736. 221–222 external mass balances.ultrafiltration (UF). 727 Methane data. 146 –148 Minimum reflux ratio. Temperature) bubble-point procedure. 185 vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). 228 –233 stages. determining number of. 340 –344 Murphree efficiencies. 146 limiting condition. 217–220 narrow-boiling procedure. 148 –149. 526 Molecular movement. 186 –189 matrix method. 193 –198 trial-and-error. 217 bubble-point temperature. 235 –237 optimum feed plate location. in mass transfer. 506 Methylcyclohexane data. optimum location. 233 –237 total reflux. 217 (See also Bubblepoint) temperature estimation. 193 –198 total flow rates. 864 – 866 Multicomponent distillation calculational difficulties. 837. 823 Naphthali-Sandholm simultaneous convergence method. 506 Metric units. 195 –198 examples bubble-point calculation. 221–223 theta (τ) method convergence. 228 –233 Multicomponent distillation. 39 – 42 sequential solutions. 7 Microfiltration. 217 Newtonian convergence determining V/F. 184 light non-key (LNK) components. 360 Multistage batch distillation. 99. 220 mass balances. 587. 184 Maxwell-Stefan equations. 217 temperature calculations. 235 –237 total reflux. 620 Methylcellosolve data. 183 –189 complex methods (See Complex distillation processes) composition profile. 816. 223 –228 finite reflux rations. 235 –237 minimum reflux. 184 –189 theta (τ) method convergence. 221–223 (See also Temperature) computer simulation. 227–228 Gilliland correlation. 524. 727 Naphthalene data. 223 –228 Underwood equations. 227–228 Narrow-boiling procedure. See Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE). 227–228 Underwood equations. 237–242 convergence. 37–38. 42 – 44 Index 949 . 233 –237 Gilliland correlation. multicomponent Multiple-pass trays. 184 intermediate components. 221–227 Thomas algorithm. 193 –198 sandwich components. 197 key components. matrix method boiling point (See Bubble-point. 197 schematic. 493. 900 Methanol data. 129. 228 –233 Minimum solvent rate. 220 –221 inverting tridiagonal matrices. 184 –189 theta (τ ) method convergence. 197–198 Multicomponent distillation.

partially miscible Particle pellet density. 620 Prandtl number. 403 – 404 flooding. 33 Nonideal separations. 455 Pinch points definition. 5 planning an attack. 309 Oldershaw design. 522 Plate-and-frame system. 617 Octanol data. 474 – 475 economic trade-offs. 388 –390. 390 –392 HETP measurement. 388 –390. 736. 886 – 888 Outlet ports. 516 Polymer membranes. 806 – 807 Packed columns diameter calculation absorption. 5 generalizing to other problems. 392 –397 internal parts. 3 Physical absorption. 6 How to Model It: Problem Solving for the Computer Age. 729 –730 Pervaporation. 5 prerequisite skills. 88 –90 Osmotic pressure. 5 – 6 950 Index . 184 Nonlinear isotherms. 774 –775 Phase. 808 Passing streams. 393. 841– 846 nonlinear systems. 368 –369. 824 – 827. 140 –141 Partially miscible extraction. 394 –395. 675 – 683 Packings costs. 45. 6 motivation. 750 –751. 731 Polystyrene resins. 391–392 illustration. 683 description. 756 Outlet concentration profiles chromatography. 630 Pressure drop per foot. 861– 863 Ponchon-Savarit diagrams. 731–733 Permeance. 5 exploring the problem. 391–392 illustration. effect on feeds. 388 –390 mass transfer analysis (HTU-NTU). 617 Pentanol data. 51. 837– 846 Problem-solving checking answers. 394 –395. 882 – 884 linear systems. 683 description. 442 – 447 Non-key (NK) components. 617 Perforated plates. 5 – 6 defining the problem. 388 –390. 359 –360 Permeability. 397– 400 stripping. 727 Permeate-in-series system. 388 –389 Packed tower correlation. 23 Optimum feed location. 682. 33. 425 data. 388 –390 height of. 403 pressure drop per foot. 33. 401 Pressure swing adsorption (PSA). 727–729 Polarities of compounds. 369 –370 Oleic acid data. 736 P Packed-bed column. 401 safety. 391. 732 Permeate. 362. 831– 835. 98. 851– 855 O O'Connell correlation. 228 –233 Plait points. 403 Partial condensers. 487 Nitrogen data. 682. 393. 663 – 672 overview. 388 –390 height of. 391. 506 Open steam heating. 313. 393. 771–780 selectivity data. 425 – 432 Operating equations. 314. 629 Pentane data. 675 – 677 random. 401 reflux ratio. 315 Nonane data. 403 – 404 turndown capabilities. 107–109 Phase equilibrium. 390 –392 HETP measurement. 147 minimum reflux ratio. 6 heuristics. 402 structured. 388 packings costs. 388 –390. 474 – 475 description. See Extraction. 295 –296 Poly(ethylene glycol) data. 392 –397 example. 814 Nitromethane data. 403 structured. 81– 84 Peclet number. 129 –133 Operating cost effects. See Enthalpycomposition diagrams Potassium chloride data. 365 Oxygen data. 400 – 401 fire prevention. 393. 389 random. 388 –390 mass transfer analysis (HTU-NTU). 425 data. 469 – 470 Octane data. definition.Nitrobenzene data.

427. 544 Random packings. 749 Reynolds analogy. 639 Reynolds number. 344 Regeneration steps. 620 Proportional pattern waves. See Reverse osmosis (RO) ROSE. 851– 852 Propylene data. 504. 83 Reference books. 757. 146 –148 versus recycling. 240. 812 Propanol data. 377–378 partial. 401 Underwood equations. 589 Resins. 121 –124 q-line. 524 Saturated raffinate. 189 –193 Residue curves. See Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction (ROSE) RPC. 146 Salt data. 755 –756. 153 –155 total. See Publications Retentate. determining. 440. 233 –237 packed columns. 403 Raoult's law. 892 total reflux distillation. 7 Liber de arte distillandi.reaching an answer. 755 –756 versus osmosis. 587–589 Index 951 . 331–332 Reboilers intermediate. 721–724 Raffinate. 8 –9 batch distillation. See Composition profiles. 285 –290 example. 81– 84 definition. 88 finite. Temperature profiles Propane data. 340 –344 constant. 5 – 6 Profiles. 764 –765. 736 –740. 445 – 447 Residuum Oil Supercritical Extraction (ROSE). 749 –755 overview. see RT equation Rayleigh equations. 388 –390. 151–153 Reverse osmosis (RO) with concentrated solutions. 708 –712. 329 How to Model It: Problem Solving for the Computer Age. 6 steps involved. 33. 118 –120 examples. 861– 862 Resources. 823 – 827 Purity levels. 754. 727 Retentate-in-series system. 237–242. 33 Publications annotated bibliography. 5 rules of thumb. 892 fire prevention. 33 Rate-based analysis. 39 – 42 RADFRAC. 729 –730 Retentate-recycle mode. 819 Relative volatility. of distillation. sieve trays. 403 – 404 respirators in adsorbers. 566 Q q (feed quality). 835 bed fires. 105 total. See feed lines R Rachford Rice equations. 758 –764 examples. 219 Reciprocating-plate columns (RPC). 721–724 Rate-transfer (RT) equation. 369 SCFs (supercritical fluids). 428. 522 –523. See sodium chloride data Sandwich components. 618. 378 Purge cycles. 197 Saturated extract. 729 –730 Reusing distillation columns. 767. 433 determining. 764 –765 concentration polarization. 557–558 Rectifying section. 225 stage-by-stage calculations for. See Publications Reflux class distillation. 778 –779 S Safety hazards absorption column failure. 141. 37–38. 83 – 84 Recycling versus reflux and boilup. 329 Chemical Engineering magazine. See Reciprocating-plate columns (RPC) RT (rate-transfer) equation. 329 VLE data sources. 430. 81 minimum. 16 –17 Punched hole pattern. 6 Index of Learning Styles. 760 –762. 762 –764 membrane properties. 27–28. 393. 420 Das New gross Distiller Buch. 522 –523 Scaling up tray efficiencies. 629 RO (reverse osmosis). 403 activated carbon solvent recovery. Flow profiles. 83 subcooled. 775. 152 Pyridine data. 143 –144. 228 –233 variable. 340 –344 cost effects. 755 –758. 146 –148 Reflux ratio batch distillation. packed columns.

Ion exchange. 851– 852. 851– 852. 620. 629. binary energy balance. 34 – 42 Single-stage extraction. 809 bulk density. 823 – 826 in a column. 823 – 827 elution chromatography. binary. multicomponent. 823 – 826 for linear isotherms. 830 – 831 examples diffuse waves. 750 Separation methods. plotting. 806 equilibrium behavior. 835 simulated moving bed (SMB) systems. 849 – 851 temperature swing adsorption (TSA).Selectivity. 667 Simulated moving bed (SMB) systems. 549 –552 Sherwood number. 815. Membrane separations. 811 activated carbon. 295 –296. 807– 808 isotherms. 23 –28 enthalpy equations. 141–143 Sieve trays. 27–28 flash distillation. 759. 875 – 876 derivation (physical) of solute movement theory. 837 Sodium chloride data. 851– 855 overview. 333 –336. 822 – 823 overview. 831– 835 thermal regeneration with linear isotherm. 774 –775 RO. 851– 852. 874 Shock waves. 861 diffuse waves. 816 – 819 interstitial velocity. 522 Solute movement analysis basic chromatography analysis of. 633 – 635. 735 –736 pervaporation. 808 carbon molecular sieves (CMS). 814 – 815 equipment. 898 – 899. See Aspen Plus. 828 – 837 true moving bed (TMB) systems. Stripping. See also Sorption processes activated alumina. 857– 861 shock waves. Distillation. 806 – 807 particle pellet density. 847– 849 nonlinear systems constant pattern waves. 42 – 47 Simultaneous solutions flash distillation. 343. 831– 835 linear systems concentrated systems. 26 –28 fraction vaporized (V/F). 806 – 807 example. 815 Sequencing distillation columns. 595. 756. 24 –25 equilibrium equations. See Trays. 809 definition. 857– 861 Semipermeable membranes. 821– 823. Computer simulations Simultaneous convergence. sieve Silica gel. 837 temperature swing adsorption (TSA). See Leaching Solubility envelope. 23 –28 operating equations. 506 Solvent-switching. 811 data. 831. 23 relative volatility. 819 purge cycles. 658. 520 –522 Sorbents. 23 –28 equilibrium data. 837– 846 safety hazards. See Absorption. 756 Self-sharpening waves. and Washing Sephadex. 851– 852 proportional pattern waves. 336 –337 batch extraction. Extraction. 857– 861 shock waves. 836 pressure swing adsorption (PSA). 703. 855 – 861 Solvent gradients. 811– 816 Langmuir isotherms. 792 Solid-liquid extraction (SLE). 808 952 Index . 819 – 821 counterflow. 852 – 855 nonlinear isotherms. 900 Simpson's rule. 34 – 42 Settler design. 23 mass balance. 297–300 selecting. 846 – 851 Skarstrom cycle. 23 –28 examples. 514 –518. See Synthesizing column sequences Sequential solutions flash distillation. 638. membrane gas permeation. 810. 823 – 827 regeneration steps. 852 – 855 pressure swing adsorption (PSA). batch distillation. 827 Solvents adding. 811– 816 equilibrium constants. 28 –30 multicomponent flash distillation. Chromatography. 753. 819 derivation (mathematical) of solute movement theory. Adsorption. 846 – 851 Simulations. 528 –530 Skarstrom cycle. 566. 857– 861 simulated moving bed (SMB) systems. 851– 852 self-sharpening waves. 841– 846 self-sharpening waves. 813 – 814 packed-bed column. 855 – 861 Sidestreams.

362 –365 valve trays. 873 design checklist. 474 – 475 stripping. illustration. 811 structural density. 457– 459 matrix solution. 808 Structured packings. 403 Subcooled reflux. 463 O'Connell correlation. 445 – 447 T Temperature calculating. See Column distillation. 106 Sorption processes. 621 Strippers. 879 – 880 Surface diffusion. 275 –279 Steam heating. 872 Synthesizing column sequences almost-ideal separations. 810 silica gel. 626 Supercritical fluids (SCFs). 367 equipment description. Ion exchange. 362 –365 perforated plates. 359 weirs. heat transfer. 478 – 482 definition. 337–339 Steam distillation. internal stage-by-stage balances Stage-by-stage distillation. See also Trays bubble-caps. 683 – 688 Stripping analysis. 358 weeping inlet ports. 86 Spreadsheets for binary distillation. 112 –116. 594 Sulfur dioxide data. 371–372 Spiral-wound system. 687 Sum-of-resistances model. 107–109 estimating. 357–359 turndown. 437– 442 nonideal separations. 589 Spacing trays. 474 – 475 computer simulations. 809 – 811 zeolite molecular sieves. 872 thermal regeneration with linear isotherm. mass transfer analysis (HTUNTU). 365 vapor velocity. 890 – 892 energy balances. 359. 21–22 Index 953 . 209 –213 Stage-by-stage balances. 362 weirs. 359 diameter calculation absorption. 357–365 inlets. 217 effect on distillation feeds. calculating number of for distillation Gilliland correlation. See also Adsorption. 661– 662 for ternary distillation with constant relative velocity. 129 –133 Stokes-Einstein equation. 359 –360 performance issues. 808 superficial velocity. 494 – 496 concentrated. 359 inlet ports. 153 –155 Superposition. 620. Chromatography. 469 Stripping distillation columns.properties of. 604 – 607 Steam batch distillation. illustration. 221–223 Temperature-composition diagrams. 661– 662 for flash distillation. 587–589 Superficial velocity. 474 – 475 downcomers. 362 –365 outlets. 105 –112 McCabe-Thiele method. 728 –729 Spray regime. Sorbents column mass balances. 876 – 877 and diffusion. 831– 835 Soybean oil data. 870 – 872 film theory. 393. 875 equipment. 360 –362 entrainment bubble-cap trays. 144 –145 Stripping section in distillation. 807 tortuosity (See tortuosity) types of. 861 Structural density. 132 –133 Steady-state binary diffusion. 478 – 482 McCabe-Thiele diagrams. 83 – 84 Strong resins. 809 Sorel's method. 455 dilute multisolute. 476 – 478 equilibria. 357–359 valve assemblies. 624 lumped parameter. 362 –365 outlet ports. 792 Sugar data. 73 –77 for mass transfer. 807 Superheated boilup. 873 – 875 surface diffusion. 153 –155 Sucrose data. 360 –362 Stages. 2 Staged columns. 388 –390. 626 – 628. 177–182 for diffusion. 872 mass transfer detailed simulators. 233 –237 Lewis method. 462 – 463 column diameter calculation. 827 Knudsen diffusion.

127–129 multicomponent distillation. 767–771 retention data. 383 –385 illustration. 378 –383 example. 847– 849 Toluene data. 360 selecting. 367–368 estimating. 902 Tortuosity. 281–290. 370 –378. 387 flooding. 524 –527 mixing point. 386 –387 turndown properties. 383 –385 hydraulics. 223 –228 Trays. 383 –385 hydraulics. 370 –378 example. 426 description. 359 chimney. 367 flow patterns. 386 –387 costs. 358 –359 design. 370 –378 costs. 827 Temperature profiles column distillation. 87. 828 – 837 Ternary distillation. 469 – 470 scaling up. 378 weeping. 388 –389 staged columns. sieve column diameter calculation. 506 Thomas algorithm. 383 punched hole pattern. 370 –374 example. 358 –359 Two-pressure distillation. 359. 374 –376 computer simulation. 279 –281. 146 –148. 227. 522 –523 lever-arm rule. 358 –359 efficiencies. 570 True moving bed (TMB) systems. 209 –213. 193 –198 Temperature programming in chromatography. 363 operational limits. 898. 360 efficiencies determining. 808 typical values. 828 – 837 Tube-in-shell membrane systems. 539 –540 mixing calculations. 221–227 Thiodipropionitrile data. 283. 360 –362 spacing. 360 double-pass. 416 – 418 cross-flow pattern. 365 column diameter calculation description. 386 –387 dry tray pressure drop. 220 TMB (true moving bed) systems. 522 –523 Trichloroethane data. 727–729 Turndown packed columns. 766 Underwood equations. 383 –385 mechanical supports. 380. 378 –383 example. 378 –385 examples entrainment. 528 –530 multiple-pass. 765 –771 gel formation. example. 378 –385 tray layout. 378 –383 example. 363 layout description. 831– 835 Theta (τ) method convergence. 369 –370 mass transfer. 847– 849 TSA (temperature swing adsorption). 3 Thermal regeneration with linear isotherm. 649 – 655 Thermal diffusivity. 383 –385 layout.Temperature gradient method. 383 –385 mass transfer analysis (HTU-NTU). 360 layout description. 528 –530 Murphree. 357–359 valve trays. See also Staged columns bubble-cap. 368 –369. 141 Total reflux. 426 description. 602 Thermal equilibrium. 228 –233 954 Index . 526 saturated extract. 383 –385 flooding. 366 –367 O'Connell correlation. 522 –524. 383 Triangular diagrams conjugate lines. 239 Triethylamine data. 369 and vapor velocity. 810 Total flow rates. 357–358 entrainment column diameter. 524 –527 McCabe-Thiele diagram relationship to. 524 saturated raffinate. 382 hydraulics description. 358 –359 Trays. 321–323 U Ultrafiltration (UF). 193 –198 Total reboilers. 371–372 valve column diameter calculation. 827 Temperature swing adsorption (TSA).

457– 459 intensive variables. batch distillation. 751 Vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) absorption and stripping. 17 multicomponent basic equipment. 307–309. 17 Henry's law. 15 –22. See Trays. 21 Z Zeolite molecular sieves. 18 –22 heterogeneous azeotrope. 383 valve trays. 16 –17 Vapor permeation. 899 Y y-x diagrams equilibrium data. 73 –74 extensive variables. 648. 141 –143 X Xylene data. 33 –34 multicomponent distillation. 18 –19 temperature diagrams. 921–922 Unit conversions. 287. 359 weirs. 620. 566. 99. 774 –775. 21–22 saturated liquid curves. 809 data. 749 Water softening. 19 –21 graphical representations. 756. 478 Withdrawal lines. 280. 846 – 847 Vapor velocity entrainment. 24 –25 isotherms. 70 binary enthalpy-composition diagrams. 2 UOP (Universal Oil Products). 31–34 K values. 506 –507. plotting. 80 – 81 Variable reflux ratio. 197–198 resource bibliography. 360 –362 Wide-boiling feeds. 617. 618. 362 –365 sieve trays. 292.Units and unit conversions. 362 Weirs. 538. forms and sources. 31–34 Raoult's law. 595 Water data. 266 –270 maximum boiling azeotropes. 17 Gibbs phase rule. 21–22 minimum boiling azeotropes. 815 Water desalination. 42 – 43. 506. 831. 344 V/F (fraction vaporized). 367 Variable pressure distillation. 367 tray efficiencies. 15 –18 description. 18 –19 y-x diagrams. 792. 266. 30 DePriester charts. 18 data. 810. 458 – 459. 870 Weeping inlet ports. illustration. 7 Unit operation. 18 –19 saturated vapor lines. 23 V Valve assemblies. 812. 575 –582. 272. 129. 457– 459 analysis simulation. 814 Index 955 . valve van't Hoff equation. 861. 727 W Washing. prerequisite skills. 358 Valve trays. 15 –18 with Excel.

Separation Process Engineering

Separation Process Engineering

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