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Running head: EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS

Lesson Plan I: Educational Equity, Gaps, & Barriers: Student Leaders Debbie Park, Liz McCarrell, and Sam Godfrey SDAD 578 Erica Yamamura Seattle University 02/26/2012

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Introduction

Multicultural competence is ones ability to interact effectively and respectfully with individuals of varying cultural and ethnic backgrounds and includes being aware of ones own cultural worldview, ones attitudes regarding cultural and ethnic differences, ones knowledge of different cultures and ethnicities, and ones cross cultural skills (Pope, 2004). Understanding the idea of educational equity and how it relates to educational opportunity and best practices is one more small but important piece of developing multicultural competence. According to Rose (2009), all opportunity is not experienced equally- gender and race, social class, disability, economic policies, and social programs greatly affect opportunity for people in the United States. This workshop seeks to delve deeper into the general concept of educational equity using key topics to develop workshops such as a general definition of educational equity, gaps and barriers to equity, marginalization and discrimination, roots and manifestations of educational inequity, and equality versus equity in order to further students multicultural competence. Understanding the origin and influence of inequity will help student leaders to see that manifestations are still rampant in our society today and begin to develop multicultural competence by becoming aware of personal attitudes regarding cultural differences, in order to then understand the effects of educational equity and strengthen cross-cultural skills. Discussing scenarios that student leaders might encounter will help make connections between what they have learned in the workshop, what they might experience in the field, and how they can assist undergraduate students in building similar awareness. Hicks, Smith, Winton & Wood (2008) state that responding to diverse students needs requires that educators actively, collaboratively, and consistently discuss and investigate multiple human perspectives, while considering their impact on educational experiences.

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Lesson *Candy, lesson handout, and feedback form. Kolb (1984) states that learning is a person-environment transaction that is created

through the transformation of experience using four combinations of perceiving and processing that determine four learning styles. To accommodate various styles, methodology has been modified to include visual and auditory needs and incorporates verbal and written learning, and sharing in pairs, small groups, and large groups using scenarios and discussion to incorporate: Assimilating (think and watch- sample definitions and examples from instructors), Converging (think and do- creating definitions and discussing them), Accommodating (feel and do), and Diverging (feel and watch). Activities Candy Introduction (4-5 min.) Facilitators will distribute the handout and go over the objectives and briefly discuss Popes (2004) definition of multicultural competence and how it relates to educational equity. Undergraduate Leaders (UL) will be given three candy options and choose two pieces of candy each. The types of candy will correspond to a specific question that focuses on their work with undergraduate students to initiate the thought process of multicultural competency and educational equity as leaders. The UL will give their name and answer their questions so that as discussion progresses, students and leaders can address and establish connections with one another in order to create safe spaces necessary for dialogue (Knefelkamp, 1999). Handout Activity 1: Large and Small Group Sharing (10 min.) Then we will move into a handout and discussion activity about this question: How would you define or explain educational equity? Facilitators will read the question aloud and

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS

then students will write down an answer/definition on their handout using pens/pencils. This step incorporates Kolbs value of multiple learning styles by offering visual and audible interactions. Facilitators will ask for individuals to share in a large group and expand upon their definitions. Receiving immediate feedback will enable the facilitators to gauge the volunteers levels of multicultural competency and understand their level of intellectual and ethical development for application later on in the lesson. This step utilizes Yossos (2005) application of Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) in appreciating the experiential viewpoints that each student may bring and depicts the volunteers cultural knowledge and skills in their specific developmental stage (Perry, 1968). Next, small group discussions will be conducted (or large group, depending on the size of the class) regarding the similarities and differences of the definitions. Establishing one common definition for the purpose of the workshop is necessary because misunderstandings exist even among scholars, policy analysts, and policy-makers regarding the definition of equity (Espinoza, 2007). Thus, Opheims (2004) definition will be used: Educational equity refers to an educational and learning environment in which individuals can consider options and make choices throughout their lives based on their abilities and talents, not on the basis of stereotypes, biased expectations or discrimination. The achievement of educational equity enables females and males of all races and ethnic backgrounds to develop skills needed to be productive, empowered citizens. It opens economic and social opportunities regardless of gender, ethnicity, race or social status (emphasis added). Activity 2: Pairwork (10 minutes) The second activity will begin with a question asking students to consider: What are some examples of educational gaps and barriers? UL will volunteer answers and facilitators will

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS

assist with further definitions and examples as needed. Then UL will be broken into pairs to talk about personal experiences that shaped their definitions of gaps and barriers to begin exploring what shaped their view of educational equity and serve as a primer for the scenarios that follow. Facilitators will sit in on various groups and share personal experiences if students do not feel comfortable sharing their own experiences. Organizing students into pairs will create a safe environment where risk can be taken and partners can offer diverse perspectives (Knefelkamp, 1999). Individuals in the workshop may demonstrate different levels of meaning making and may exhibit duality, multiplicity, and relativism in accordance with Perrys Theory of Intellectual and Ethical Development (1981), which further incorporates diverse perspectives. For dualist thinkers, meaning is made dichotomously and cognitive dissonance is required to transition into making meaning characterized as multiplicity. Those who make meaning in this manner exhibit improved analytical thinking and may consider peers legitimate sources of knowledge. Knefelkamp (1976) calls this Plus-one Staging as peers teach one another and the goal of seeing the value of relativist thinking begins. Additionally, this will help demonstrate the various levels of development that UL might encounter when working with undergraduate students and how they can meet individuals at their position to provide the appropriate amount of challenge and support (Perry, 1981). Centering discussion around educational gaps and barriers will encourage the students to delve deeper into their own multicultural awareness and experiences with educational inequity and create an opportunity to understand different styles of learning and create a supportive environment where they can be challenged by a more advanced reasoning (Evans, 2010). The ultimate goal here is to assist students in reflecting upon what has shaped their definition of

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS educational equity. Then they can begin to bring meaning to the past by questioning that understanding and develop new knowledge to take on challenges regarding equity. Scenario Activity: Small and Large Group Discussion (17 minutes)

The last activity will utilize scenarios (see scenario handouts) to integrate theory into practice and delve deeper into how inequality manifests itself in the classroom so that UL can begin assisting undergraduate students develop awareness of these gaps and barriers. Students will be randomly separated into three groups (or one group depending on the size of the class) and move to different parts of the room where facilitators will each assist one cluster. The scenario can be read aloud or silently and discussion will begin. Facilitators will assist in identifying the gaps and barriers in each scenario so that they can jointly grow in awareness to support the practice of life-long learning (Freire, 1970). They will also help determine who is being marginalized and discriminated against and conversely who is marginalizing or discriminating. The discussion will delve deeper into why these gaps and barriers occur and how UL can create equity within these contexts. Discussion will also touch upon how UL can assist undergraduate students in expanding their perspectives through self-reflection so that they can develop greater awareness, specifically related to their skills in understanding how educational equity relates to educational opportunity, which is a facet of multicultural competence (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, and Renn, 2010) and will affect the students in the Bailey-Gatzert community. If time permits, groups will share their scenarios and its main points in a large group setting. This activity applies Yossos (2005) Theory of CCW by increasing the undergraduate students awareness of the reality of the educational inequity at Bailey-Gatzert and the marginalization the students encounter despite the cultural wealth and knowledge each student brings as an individual. They can further challenge

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undergraduate students to acknowledge the unique contributions of Bailey-Gatzert students. Looping in the awareness of the cultural knowledge, skills, abilities, and contacts of those who are socially marginalized redefines knowledge in a way that places those who have been historically oppressed in a place of privilege and power (Yosso, 2005) rather than people of color becoming marginalized by a privileged white view (Evans, 2010). Using their own history as a starting point, UL will gain a stronger understanding of educational equity and assist US in furthering equity in the classroom using the cultural wealth that is available and accessible to them. Furthermore, the knowledge of the ULs can be used to educate the Bailey-Gatzert students on how they can become agents in fighting for equity and eliminating gaps and barriers. Feedback Activity (3 minutes) In conclusion, UL will complete a feedback form to help students process what knowledge was achieved. The form will ask students to define educational equity and educational gaps and barriers to see if students have gained and retained this information. It will also pinpoint areas of disequilibrium or cognitive conflict so that facilitators can better create scenarios that stimulate internal contradictions in moral reasoning processes (Kohlberg, 1976) to promote growth. Students will then be asked to identify what existing beliefs about gaps and barriers were confirmed or challenged and one way to combat this in their work with undergraduate students at Bailey-Gatzert. Finally, the feedback form will address strengths and weaknesses of the workshop itself to incorporate the reflective observation stage in Kolbs (1984) Theory of Experiential Learning by seeking feedback on the usefulness of the lesson and methods (Evans, 2010) so that future lessons can be adjusted to provide more supportive, inclusive environments that foster learning and development.

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Conclusion and Lessons Learned Key Lessons Learned

In the first workshop, the student leaders engaged in deep conversations about their experiences with educational equity and how they could encourage multicultural competency at Bailey-Gatzert. One key lesson learned was the significance in selecting one definition of educational equity. Another was the value of student feedback. The lesson plan centered around Opheims (2004) definition of educational equity. Utilizing one definition eliminated confusion and differing interpretations. It also served as a foundation for the workshop and allowed us to guide the group discussions around the key terms and enhance the depth of the students reflections and conversations. Additionally, it helped gauge the students comprehension of the material by comparing their definition of educational equity on the feedback form with Opheims (2004). Selecting one definition was challenging but it grounded the entire lesson plan and allowed for more fluid and robust discussions. The second key lesson learned was the value in the students feedback form completed at the end of the workshop. The final questions addressed the strengths and weaknesses of the workshop, specifically the leadership and its methods. The students offered detailed and constructive criticism on the need for clearer directions and more interaction. This information allowed us as facilitators to adjust the second lesson and incorporate an interactive activity, ultimately creating a more engaging environment for the second workshop. The texting activity and additional movement held students attention throughout discussions the second day, which were seen as strengths while conducted in a safe environment and will be discussed in the section that follows.

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Key Strengths

In relation to the discussion on lessons learned during the student leaders workshop, there were also some key areas of strength that emerged. One area was the depth and quality of discussion during the workshop. Another strength included efforts to incorporate different student learning styles into the lesson while creating a safe atmosphere for meaningful conversation. The first strength, depth and quality of discussion, resulted from needing to alter the lesson plan due to a change in the availability of technology. Instead of having to rely on a power point presentation, the group relied on written prompts and questions. The way the session was structured included giving a prompt question, allowing time for student leaders to personally reflect, discussing the question with a fellow group member, then sharing and comparing their answers with the whole group. The opportunity for students to individually reflect on their own answers helped to make both the pair sharing and large group sharing higher quality. Another strength was including a variety of activities to address different learning styles of the student leaders. This included verbal, auditory, and written activities, as well as sharing in pairs, small groups, and large groups using scenarios and discussion. Although this area was stronger in our second lesson plan, planning for multiple types of learners was something that was a focus of the first lesson plan. The final identified strength of the student leaders workshop was the ability to create an inclusive and safe community atmosphere in a limited time. This was done through allowing time for introductions from both students and group facilitators. Also, since the group was relatively small, there was more opportunity for students to be involved, and it became necessary for students to participate in the activities to move forward within the lesson.

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Areas for Improvement

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While we found strengths in our lesson we also found areas for improvement. The lesson was created with Kolbs (1984) Theory of learning in mind, to cater to a wide audience regardless of learning style. However, the lesson plan was more auditory than visual and very sedentary in nature despite the robust discussion elicited. Initially, we had discussed an activity similar to the privilege walk but chose not to implement the idea because we were unsure of the size of the group. However, some sort of movement would have been beneficial in increasing engagement and creating truly interactive, experiential learning moments. A learning moment that we as facilitators experienced was adjusting our mindsets to be more flexible. Our lesson plan should have been written so that modifications could easily be made to adjust to different room settings and situations. We had to restructure the lesson prior to the first workshop due to technology issues and it became laborious to re-write our original plan and would have been difficult to do on-the-spot. This was a learning moment in terms of implementing theory into practice. We understood the main tenets of Kolbs (1984) Theory but making sure that each aspect of our lesson actually catered to different learning styles was more difficult than we anticipated. Finally, our group neglected to anticipate how much practice we would need prior to the first lesson. Mocking certain portions prior to the lesson to include the language we would use may have been helpful to put our nervousness at ease. It would also have helped to establish more authority as facilitators for students approaching the lesson from Perrys (1981) dualistic viewpoint. Part of this was due to the fact that much of our planning was conducted via e-mail, due to scheduling conflicts and thus communicating how to conduct the lesson and who was responsible for each part was made more challenging.

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS References

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Espinoza, O. (2007). Solving the equityequality conceptual dilemma: A new model for analysis of the educational process. Educational Research, 49( 4), 343-363. Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido, F. (2010). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (2nd edition). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. (M.B. Ramos, Trans.). New York, NY: The Continuum International Publishing Group, Inc. (Original work published 1968). Hicks, M., Smith, D. R., Winton, S., & Wood, D. R. (2008). SEEDs of promise: Transformative learning communities for diverse schools. Multicultural Perspectives, 10(1), 30-34. Pope, R. L., Reynolds, A. L., Mueller, J. A., & Cheatham, H. E. (2004). Multicultural competence in student affairs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Rose, M. (2009). Why school? Reclaiming education for all of us. New York, NY: The New Press. [Opportunity p. 8-17] Yosso, T.J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 69-82.

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Lesson 1 Handout February 26, 2012 SDAD 578- Facilitators: Debbie Park, Liz McCarrell, & Sam Godfrey Objectives

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Define terms: educational equity, educational gaps, and barriers with a deeper knowledge of the roots and manifestations of educational inequity, gaps, and barriers because knowing and understanding these terms helps begin/further multicultural competence. Multicultural competence is ones ability to interact effectively and respectfully with individuals of varying cultural and ethnic backgrounds and includes being aware of ones own cultural worldview, ones attitudes regarding cultural and ethnic differences, ones knowledge of different cultures and ethnicities, and ones cross cultural skills (Pope, 2004). Explain what shaped your beliefs and values by bringing meaning to the past in order to take on new challenges to achieve educational equity in the classroom and empower undergraduate leaders to do the following.

Candy Introduction Choose two pieces of candy/chocolate Organize yourself into triads or pairs with individuals you do not know State your name and answer the questions that correspond to your type of candy: Snickers Why did you become a student leader? Starburst What is one thing you are hoping to take away from working with undergraduate students and Bailey-Gatzert students? Jolly Rancher What is your dream job?

Activity 1 Kolb (1984) states that learning is created through the transformation of experience. His theory consists of four learning styles: Assimilating (think and watch- sample definitions and examples from instructors), Converging (think and do- creating definitions and discussing them), Accommodating (feel and do), and Diverging (feel and watch). In order to accommodate the various styles, our lesson incorporates verbal, auditory, and written learning, and sharing in pairs, small groups, and large groups using scenarios and discussion.

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Individually reflect upon and answer this question: Q: How would you define or explain educational equity?

Share your responses with one another and discuss how your definitions are similar or different. Opheim (2004) says, Educational equity refers to an educational and learning environment in which individuals can consider options and make choices throughout their lives based on their abilities and talents, not on the basis of stereotypes, biased expectations or discrimination. The achievement of educational equity enables females and males of all races and ethnic backgrounds to develop skills needed to be productive, empowered citizens. It opens economic and social opportunities regardless of gender, ethnicity, race or social status.

Activity 2 Individually reflect upon and answer this question: Q: What are some examples of educational gaps and barriers?

Q: What personal experiences that shaped your definitions of gaps and barriers?

Share them with a partner! Pairs can create a safe environment where risk can be taken and partners can offer diverse perspectives (Knefelkamp, 1999). Perrys (1968) intellectual and ethical development model says that pairing students for a match or developmental mismatch (Evans, 2010) helps use peer teaching to understand educational gaps and barriers. Reflecting upon what has shaped your definition of educational equity can assist in bringing meaning to the past by questioning your understanding and developing new knowledge to take on new challenges regarding equity. Scenarios (one person read scenario aloud)

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Please reflect upon and answer the questions listed below. Q: Who is being marginalized or discriminated against? Q: Who is doing to marginalizing or discriminating? Q: What might drive these thoughts and actions? Q: What could be done to create multicultural understanding or awareness? If time permits, share scenarios and responses as a large group. Expanding perspectives through self-reflection can lead to greater awareness, specifically related to skills in understanding how educational equity relates to educational opportunity, which is a facet of multicultural competence (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, and Renn, 2010). This affects the students in the Bailey-Gatzert community!

Feedback Form Please answer the questions honestly and hand in questions when complete. Assessment is an important component of learning and can help process what knowledge was achieved to pinpoint areas of disequilibrium or cognitive conflict so that facilitators can better create scenarios that stimulate internal contradictions in moral reasoning processes (Kohlberg, 1976) to promote growth. It also addresses strengths and weaknesses of the workshop and applies to the reflective observation stage in Kolbs (1984) Theory of Experiential Learning by seeking feedback on the usefulness of the lesson and methods (Evans, 2010). Reflection provides constructive criticism so future lessons can be adjusted to provide more supportive, inclusive environments that foster learning and development.

Feedback Form, Lesson 1- Undergraduate Leaders February 26, 2012

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS SDAD 578- Facilitators: Debbie Park, Liz McCarrell, Sam Godfrey Please take a few minutes to answer the following questions. Thank you! 1. Define educational equity

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2. Define educational gaps and barriers

3. What are some beliefs you previously held about gaps and barriers that were confirmed or challenged?

4. What is one way you can combat a gap or barrier in your work with undergraduate students who work with students at Bailey-Gatzert schools?

5. What are some things you liked and disliked about this workshop? How would you make the workshop better?

Scenarios for Student Leaders

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1. You overhear a Seattle University student talking about an elementary aged student you know who comes from a home where English isnt the primary language spoken in the home. They say something to the extent of, I told him to just go home and ask his mom to help him with his English homework thats what I always did when I had trouble, problem solved!

2. A Seattle University (SU) student working with a high school student is using an interest inventory tool to help the high school student explore career and educational options. The SU student has been guiding other students through the exploration process. The high school student has constantly talked about how he wants to go into graphic design because he loves to draw and is a talented artist, which his career inventory showed as well. He is very excited at the prospect that his passion could turn into a fulfilling career for him. A few days later, the high school student has suddenly changed his decision to explore graphic design schools and instead decided that after graduation he will be staying home and getting a job so he can help pay some of the expenses at home. He prides himself on his ability to take care of his family, but also has been very excited at the possibility of attending college. The SU student is unsure about how to advise the high school student and they come to you and ask your advice

3. As a student leader, you are constantly interacting with the Seattle University (SU) students who volunteer in the K-12 schools. One day, one of the SU students approaches you and wants to talk about something. You find a place to meet and this is what they say: So I have been working with a group of middle school students and I just cant seem to relate to any of them. I am all for diversity and justice and stuff, but it seems like these kids dont even care about college or moving up in the world. I try and tell them that they should go if they want to get a good job and not end up like their parents, but they just ignore me. You think I could switch to working with a different group of kids?

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Lesson Plan II: Educational Equity, Gaps, & Barriers: Undergraduate Students Debbie Park, Liz McCarrell, and Sam Godfrey SDAD 578 Erica Yamamura Seattle University 02/27/2012

Introduction

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Multicultural competence is ones ability to interact effectively and respectfully with individuals of varying cultural and ethnic backgrounds and includes being aware of ones own cultural worldview, ones attitudes regarding cultural and ethnic differences, ones knowledge of different cultures and ethnicities, and ones cross cultural skills (Pope, 2004). Understanding the idea of educational equity and how it relates to educational opportunity and best practices is one more small but important piece of developing multicultural competence. Equity must be determined one student at a time (Murphy, 2009) in order to prevent students from falling into a pattern of school failure and inequity, unable to access the education to which all children are entitled (Brown, 2010). However, humans hold certain biases and prejudice so certain inequalities will exist and their sources must be reflected upon to pinpoint the reasons for it (Secada as cited in Espinoza, 2007) so that teachers are equipped and prepared to internalize and teach social justice. This workshop seeks to delve deeper into the general concept of educational equity using key topics to develop workshops such as a general definition of educational equity, gaps and barriers to equity, marginalization and discrimination, roots and manifestations of educational inequity, and equality versus equity in order to further undergraduate students (US) multicultural competence. They must first develop multicultural competence, specifically in areas of cross-cultural skills and becoming aware of personal attitudes regarding cultural differences in order to understand the effects of educational equity. Discussing scenarios that student leaders might encounter will help make connections between what they have learned in the workshop, to what they might experience in the field, and how to respond to the needs of students in the Bailey-Gatzert schools. Lesson

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*Learning Support: Computer, screen, internet access, Power Point presentation, different types of candy/chocolate, online class poll (polleverywhere.com), lesson handout (numbered on back with 1, 2, or 3), and feedback form. Kolb (1984) states that learning is a person-environment transaction that is created through the transformation of experience using four combinations of perceiving and processing that determine four learning styles. To accommodate various styles, methodology has been modified to include visual and auditory needs and incorporates verbal and written learning, and sharing in pairs, small groups, and large groups using scenarios and discussion to incorporate: Assimilating (think and watch- sample definitions and examples from instructors), Converging (think and do- creating definitions and discussing them), Accommodating (feel and do), and Diverging (feel and watch). Activities Candy Introduction (4-5 min) Facilitators will distribute the handout and go over the objectives and briefly discuss Popes (2004) definition of multicultural competence and how it relates to educational equity. US will be given three candy options and choose two pieces of candy each. The types of candy will correspond to a specific question that focuses on their work with Bailey-Gatzert students to initiate the thought process of multicultural competency and educational equity in that context. The US will give their name and answer their question so that as discussion progresses, students and leaders can address and establish connections with one another in order to create safe spaces necessary for dialogue (Knefelkamp, 1999).

Handout Activity- Large Group Share (10 min)

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Facilitators will distribute the handout and ask students to think for a moment about the differences between equity and equality. The US can write their definitions down prior to sharing them together in a large group. This activity incorporates Kolbs (1984) value in multiple learning styles by offering visual and auditory interactions, as well as individual work and group work. Then Opheims (2004) definition will be shared since misunderstandings exist even among scholars, policy analysts, and policy-makers regarding the definition of equity (Espinoza, 2007). His definition is as follows: Educational equity refers to an educational and learning environment in which individuals can consider options and make choices throughout their lives based on their abilities and talents, not on the basis of stereotypes, biased expectations or discrimination It opens economic and social opportunities regardless of gender, ethnicity, race or social status (emphasis added). To further the distinction between equity and equality, facilitators will use the analogy of equality being like a pair of shoes but equity being like a pair of shoes that fits (S. Perkins, class discussion, February 6, 2012). Facilitators will ask how the definition can be applied while working at Bailey-Gatzert schools and begin to utilize Baxter-Magoldas (2001) Development of Self-Authorship, which plays a key role in being adaptive in helping US define their individual beliefs, identity, and social relations (Evans, 2010) in an open and supportive environment. Facilitators will also be on hand to create this safe space so that US can feel comfortable sharing these experiences. Additionally, as US think about the classrooms they will be working in, Yossos (2005) application of Community Cultural Wealth (CCW) will direct thought towards the unique experiences that shape knowledge for Bailey-Gatzert students and the gaps and barriers that may hinder that growth. Polling Activity- Pairwork (12 minutes)

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Next we will move into a polling activity set up prior to class using this link:

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http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/LTEyODAyOTkyMDk. Using the computer and Internet access: Share 2 or 3 examples of gaps and barriers that you have faced personally will be projected onto the screen. The facilitators will verbalize and model the process of submitting answers and offer their personal cell phones for US use in case students want to preserve their cell phone texts. Students will then text in an answer using their mobile phones or write their examples on their handout if this is preferred. Examples will appear instantly and anonymously on the screen so that everyone can view the various responses. Next, this question: What are some gaps and barriers that Bailey-Gatzert students might face? will appear on the screen using this link: http://www.polleverywhere.com/free_text_polls/LTE5MzQyNDg5NzA. US will respond to this question via text or written form and divide into pairs to talk about how their personal experiences with gaps and barriers are similar or different to the gaps and barriers that Bailey-Gatzert students might face. Both questions encourage the students to think critically about their own multicultural awareness and experiences with educational inequity to determine the basis for that definition and question its validity. Organizing students into pairs will create a safe environment where risks can be taken and partners can offer diverse perspectives in what is called Plus-one Staging (Knefelkamp, 1999). Often, these student pairs will be a match or developmental mismatch (Evans, 2010) in order to assist students in using peer teaching to understand educational gaps and barriers. This creates an opportunity to understand different styles of learning because experiences will demonstrate various levels of meaning making: duality, multiplicity, and relativism according to Perrys (1981) Theory. For dualist thinkers, meaning is made dichotomously and cognitive dissonance is

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS required to transition into making meaning characterized as multiplicity. Those who make

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meaning in this manner exhibit improved analytical thinking and may consider peers legitimate sources of knowledge. From this stage, paired peers can teach one another in hopes of showing US the value of relativist thinking in a supportive environment where they may be challenged by more advanced reasoning (Evans, 2010). The ultimate goal here is to assist students in reflecting upon what has shaped their definition of educational equity and how others have similar or different ways of making meaning to encourage awareness of these same concepts while assisting at Bailey-Gatzert schools. Scenario Activity- Small Groups (15 minutes) The last activity will utilize scenarios (see scenario handouts) to integrate theory into practice and delve deeper how inequality manifests itself in the classroom so that US can begin to see the effects of inequity through gaps and barriers in the classroom. Students will be separated into groups depending on the number listed on the back of their handout (or one group depending on the size of the class) and then one student from each group will come and select a scenario. Groups will go into different corners of the room and US will read the scenario silently or aloud and begin discussion. Facilitators will each join one group to help determine who is being marginalized and discriminated against and conversely who is marginalizing or discriminating and how this is occurring. The discussion will delve deeper into why these gaps and barriers occur and how US can create awareness and equity within these contexts. Discussion will also touch upon how facets of multicultural awareness, specifically related to their skills in understanding how educational equity relates to educational opportunity (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, and Renn, 2010) and affects the students in the Bailey-Gatzert community. If time permits, groups will share their scenarios and its main points in a large group

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS setting.

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This activity applies Yossos (2005) Theory of CCW by increasing the US awareness of the reality of the educational inequity at Bailey-Gatzert and the marginalization the students encounter despite the cultural knowledge and unique experience that each student has to offer. Yosso (2005) redefines knowledge in a way that places those who have been historically oppressed in a place of privilege and power rather than people of color becoming marginalized by a privileged white view (Evans, 2010). By addressing the inequities in the context of personal experience, students will gain a stronger understanding of educational equity, which can be used to work against systemic inequity that manifests in the classroom so that US can begin advocating for equity and eliminate gaps and barriers. Feedback Activity (3 minutes) In conclusion, the US will complete an assessment to help students to process what knowledge was achieved and apply the reflective observation stage in Kolbs (1984) Theory of Experiential Learning by seeking feedback on the usefulness of the lesson and methods (Evans, 2010). The form will ask students to define terms covered in the workshop to see if students gained and retained this information. It will also pinpoint areas of disequilibrium or cognitive conflict so that facilitators can better create scenarios that stimulate internal contradictions in moral reasoning processes to promote growth (Kohlberg, 1976). Students will then be asked to identify beliefs that were confirmed or challenged and one way to combat this in their work with students at Bailey-Gatzert. Finally, the feedback form will address strengths and weaknesses of the workshop itself to provide constructive criticism so future lessons can be adjusted to provide more supportive, inclusive environments that foster learning and development. Conclusion and Lessons Learned

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Key Lessons Learned

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When reflecting on the undergraduate student workshop, the students demonstration of multicultural competency incorporated reflections of their experiences and dedication. One key lesson was the strength of incorporating personal experiences to enhance dialogue. The other was understanding how integrating and advocating for educational equity is a life long lesson. The students demonstrated great knowledge and commitment to understanding multicultural competency using personal experiences. As they began sharing personal instances, our discussions became very robust and students began to make connections to educational equity. One student, Nathan, experienced an Aha! moment when he explained how the best teachers at his school taught the Advanced Placement (AP) classes. He did not qualify for AP courses and was not able to learn from the best teachers. Nathans Aha moment is an example of why encouraging students to use their personal experiences enhances their comprehension of the topic. The second key lesson learned was how integrating and advocating for educational equity is a life long lesson. Developing strong multicultural competency and understanding educational equity takes time, experience, and exposure. In order to understand inequity, every individual must develop his/her multicultural awareness and how it impacts or hinders society. Defining educational equity and gaps and barriers is just the beginning. As individuals are exposed to injustice, they will develop deeper understandings of equity and how to create change. The undergraduate student workshop was incredibly focused and engaging because of the students ability to hold deep conversations and their willingness to share personal experiences.

Key Strengths

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Adding to the discussion on lessons learned in the undergraduate student volunteer workshop, a discussion of identified strengths is also warranted. Strengths of the student volunteer workshop included incorporating innovative technology into the workshop and

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engaging discussion amongst students. It was also an opportunity to critically apply new ideas to relevant scenarios. The ability to use technology for this workshop greatly enhanced the learning experience, including an activity using the website: www.polleverywhere.com. Through this website, facilitators were able to show a prompt and students were able to text message their answers in anonymously. The text messages would pop up on the screen for all students in the groups to read. All students participated and had opportunities to read and see the entire groups answers on screen. Using text messaging to enhance an educational experience was new to the students, therefore engagement in this activity was strong and students appeared to enjoy it. Strength of discussion topics was also identified as a positive aspect of the lesson. Students were able to individually reflect on questions and then discuss their reflections with a partner. Since there were three facilitators and fewer students, facilitators were able to sit in on partner discussions and help students further understand concepts of educational equity by guiding the conversation. A final strength in the workshop was applying the students experiences and concepts learned during the lesson to possible Bailey-Gatzert scenarios. This enabled students to see how the topic of educational equity is played out everyday in the schools they work in, and helped them to begin thinking of their role in regards to promoting educational equity. Allowing them to make connections on their own promoted greater personal growth and self- awareness. Areas for Improvement

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Finding the balance between improving using self-awareness and self-authorship (BaxterMagolda, 2001) rather than peer teaching and constructive criticism was difficult in this shared leadership role. Learning from conducting Lesson 1, our group met in person prior to the second session to establish our roles and practice aspects of the lesson. However, a deeper awareness of individual strengths and weaknesses in a leadership role would have been beneficial in taking the initiative in deciding who needed to practice a bit more prior to the lesson. A greater understanding of how to challenge one another supportively also proved difficult because all three facilitators wanted to be encouraging of one another rather than offer critical suggestions for improvement. Additionally, instances of communication breakdown were still present at certain times while conducting the lesson, though fewer and less noticeably. Additionally, learning to go with the flow is a skill that must continually be developed. At one point, the Internet was not be available and this caused some stress and panic regarding how to adequately and quickly restructure the lesson to meet the objectives and include various learning styles. Learning to be flexible often becomes more difficult the more planning is implemented. Those moments of cognitive dissonance when reality contradicted with the vision led to increased realization of our developmental stages (Perry, 1981), immediate actions that needed to be taken, and areas for reflection later on. Reflection proved helpful and led to adding movement to some activities in the second lesson. This increased the level of engagement and led to higher productivity of discussions, although adding more interaction would have been better. Moving around also expanded the diversity of opinions as students sought new partners to share with and were challenged by various developmental stages and meaning making (Perry, 1981). References

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Brown, K. M. (2010). Schools of excellence and equity? Using equity audits as a tool to

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expose a flawed system of recognition. International Journal of Education Policy and Leadership, 5(5), 1-12. Espinoza, O. (2007). Solving the equityequality conceptual dilemma: A new model for analysis of the educational process. Educational Research, 49( 4), 343-363. Evans, N.J., Forney, D.S., & Guido, F. (2010). Student development in college: Theory, research, and practice (2nd edition). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Murphy, J. (2009). Closing achievement gaps: Lessons from the last 15 years. Phi Delta Kappan, 91(3), 8-12. Pope, R. L., Reynolds, A. L., Mueller, J. A., & Cheatham, H. E. (2004). Multicultural competence in student affairs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Yosso, T.J. (2005). Whose culture has capital? A critical race discussion of community cultural wealth. Race Ethnicity and Education, 8(1), 69-82.

Lesson 2 Handout: Undergraduate Students February 27, 2012

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS SDAD 578- Facilitators: Debbie Park, Liz McCarrell, & Sam Godfrey Objectives

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Define terms: educational equity, educational gaps, and barriers with a deeper knowledge of the roots and manifestations of educational inequity, gaps, and barriers because knowing and understanding these terms helps begin/further multicultural competence. Multicultural competence is ones ability to interact effectively and respectfully with individuals of varying cultural and ethnic backgrounds and includes being aware of ones own cultural worldview, ones attitudes regarding cultural and ethnic differences, ones knowledge of different cultures and ethnicities, and ones cross cultural skills (Pope, 2004). Explain what shaped your beliefs and values by bringing meaning to the past in order to take on new challenges to achieve educational equity while working with students in the classroom.

Candy Introduction Choose two pieces of candy/chocolate Organize yourself into triads or pairs with individuals you do not know State your name and answer the questions that correspond to your type of candy: Snickers What made you want to work with Bailey-Gatzert students? Starburst What are you hoping to take away from the experience of working in the schools? Jolly Rancher Name one personal goal.

Discussion Activity Kolb (1984) states that learning is created through the transformation of experience. His theory consists of four learning styles: Assimilating (think and watch- sample definitions and examples from instructors), Converging (think and do- creating definitions and discussing them), Accommodating (feel and do), and Diverging (feel and watch). In order to accommodate the various styles, our lesson incorporates verbal, auditory, and written learning, and sharing in pairs, small groups, and large groups using scenarios and discussion. Please individually reflect upon and answer this question.n

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS Q: What is the difference between equity and equality?

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Please share your definitions with your grou.p Opheim (2004) says, Educational equity refers to an educational and learning environment in which individuals can consider options and make choices throughout their lives based on their abilities and talents, not on the basis of stereotypes, biased expectations or discrimination It opens economic and social opportunities regardless of gender, ethnicity, race or social status. Equality is like a pair of shoes but equity being like a pair of shoes that fits (S. Perkins, class discussion, February 6, 2012). Q: Does this apply to a classroom setting? How?

Defining personal beliefs, identity, and social relations is an important aspect of developing Self-Authorship (Baxter-Magolda, 2001). Students at Bailey-Gatzert have a lot to offer form their own unique histories and experiences (Yosso, 2005). _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Online Class Poll (Cell phones are available upon request) Poll: 1. Share examples of gaps and barriers that you have personally faced?

2. What are some gaps and barriers that Baily-Gatzert students might face? Share your answers with a partner!

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Pairs can create a safe environment where risk can be taken and partners can offer diverse perspectives (Knefelkamp, 1999). Perrys (1968) intellectual and ethical development model pairs students for a match or developmental mismatch (Evans, 2010) to use peer teaching to understand educational gaps and barriers. Reflecting upon what has shaped your definition of educational equity and questioning its validity can begin to bring meaning to the past. By questioning that understanding and developing new knowledge you can take on new challenges regarding equity and apply that within the classroom setting. Add to your discussion using the following questions: How were your personal experiences with gaps and barriers similar to the gaps and barriers faced by Bailey-Gatzert students?

How were your personal experiences with gaps and barriers different to the gaps and barriers faced by Bailey-Gatzert students?

What would be possible causes of these similarities and differences?

How do your experiences impact or shape your definition of educational equity?

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ Scenarios (One person reads scenario aloud) Please reflect upon and answer the questions listed below. Q: Who is being marginalized or discriminated against? Q: Who is doing to marginalizing or discriminating? Q: Why do these gaps and barriers occur? Q: What could be done to create multicultural understanding or awareness? If time permits, share scenarios and responses as a large group.

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Expanding perspectives through self-reflection can lead to greater awareness, specifically related to skills in understanding how educational equity relates to educational opportunity, which is a facet of multicultural competence (Evans, Forney, Guido, Patton, and Renn, 2010). This affects the students in the Bailey-Gatzert community!

Feedback Form Please answer the questions honestly and hand in questions when complete. Assessment is an important component of learning and can help process what knowledge was achieved to pinpoint areas of disequilibrium or cognitive conflict so that facilitators can better create scenarios that stimulate internal contradictions in moral reasoning processes (Kohlberg, 1976) to promote growth. It also addresses strengths and weaknesses of the workshop and applies to the reflective observation stage in Kolbs (1984) Theory of Experiential Learning by seeking feedback on the usefulness of the lesson and methods (Evans, 2010). Reflection provides constructive criticism so future lessons can be adjusted to provide more supportive, inclusive environments that foster learning and development.

Feedback Form, Lesson 2- Undergraduate Students February 27, 2012

EDUCATIONAL EQUITY LESSON PLANS SDAD 578- Facilitators: Debbie Park, Liz McCarrell, Sam Godfrey Please take a few minutes to answer the following questions. Thank you! 1. Define educational equity

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2. Define educational gaps and barriers

3. What are some beliefs you previously held about gaps and barriers that were confirmed or challenged?

4. What is one way you can combat a gap or barrier currently in your work with students at Bailey-Gatzert schools?

5. What are some things you liked and disliked about this workshop? How would you make the workshop better?

Scenarios for Undergraduate Students

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1. You are excited to begin teaching your second-grade students a lesson regarding kindness and not judging someone by their looks. You start with the example of Cinderella and then realize that many of the students are silent and that some of them look confused. You are taken aback and at a loss for what to do because everybody has heard of that story and wonder why the students are being difficult and unresponsive.

2. Several Bailey-Gatzert students are talking about Christmas presents they received and ask a student what he/she got for Christmas. The student responds that he/she does not celebrate Christmas because he/she is Buddhist. The other students laugh and run away.

3. You have been working with a group of middle school students and you feel like you just cant seem to relate to any of them. It seems like the students dont even care about college or moving up in the world. You try and tell them that they should go to college if they want to get a good job and not end up like their parents, but they just ignore you. You are thinking of asking to switch to work with a different group of students.