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Bo co ti

Mch d kim loi s dng mch dao ng Colpitts

I.

C s v tnh ton tng thit k

I.1.

Pht hin kim loi phi da vo cc c tnh ca kim loi. Trong iu kin thng ngoi mt s kim loi nghch t nh st, titan cc kim loi cn li u thun t .Nhng khi t vo trong mi trng t trng bin i cc kim loi u xut hin dng in cm ng v tr nn thun t, ng thi n cng xut hin mt t trng ngc bin i chng li t trng bin i bn ngoi. Vy pht hin kim loi ta da vo vic pht hin t trng ngc ny l kh thi.
I.2.

Thit k mch colpitts

Hnh 1: Mch colpitts thit k trc tnh ton A.Tn s dao ng ca mch:

f =
Trong

1 2 LCT

f : tn s dao ng ca mch L : gi tr cun cm CT: gi tr tng in dung ca t trong vng dao ng

CT = C v + C12

CV =

C4 C3 C= , C4 + C3

C1 C2 12 C + 1 C2

B. Phm cht ca mch dao ng

QV = QT =

1 = RQC, QV RS 2 C f V R S REQ 2 L f R = , RQL RQ /C / EQ

Trong : QV : phm cht bin dao ng.

QT : phm cht tn s dao ng.

RS : tr khng hi tip

RQL , RQ C : tr khng ni ca L v C
C. in p dao ng u ra

VO 2 IQ REQ VO I QREQ 1.4

J1 ( ) J 0 ( )

: H s khuch i transistor

D. iu kin dao ng v hi tip Gi tr hi tip:

1 g m REQ , n

C1 + C2 n = C 2

iu kin hot ng ca mch dao ng :

REQ gm ? 2 (2 f C1)(2 f C2) QT


( Vi t l nh nht l 2:1 n v ) I.3. Phng php tnh ton v kt qu

a. Phng php tnh ton Da vo cc cng thc c trn ta tnh ton cc gi tr linh kin ph hp cho mch dao ng, phng php s dng l chn cc gi tr ca cc t, h s khuch i tn s bit trc tnh ton cc gi tr cn li ca mch . b. Tnh ton Cc gi tr bit:
-

in p cung cp : Vcc= 12V Tn s : 370kHz. in p u ra: Vpp 7V H s khuch i : 90 - 150 Gi tr t : C1 =22nF, C2 = 2.2nF ,C4 = C3 =2.2nF. Gi tr tr : R1 = R2 = 22K.

Cc gi tr sau tnh ton :

Gi tr cun cm : 51uH Hnh 2: Gi tr mch sau tnh ton

Hnh 3: Gin xung m phng ca mch Kt qu m phng ta c : Tn s v bin nm trong di d kin cho php v tng i n nh, mch t yu cu c bn t ra.

II.

Thit k hon chnh

1. Ngun cung cp A. yu cu Ngun cung cp in p DC n nh cao cho mch : - in p u vo 12VAC , u ra 12VDC , dng cung cp >1A - Nhiu thp B. s mch

2.

Mch dao ng chun

A. Yu cu To dao ng chun v n nh theo yu cu: -

Tn s 370kHz in p xung Vpp =7V.

B. S mch

C. Mch dao ng d kim loi A. Yu cu


-

To dao ng trung tm tn s 370kHz iu kin thng, v thay

i tn s khi gp vt l kim loi.


-

in p xung Vpp = 7V

B. S mch

C. Mch so snh v khuch i A. Yu cu So snh s sai khc gia tn s ca mch dao ng chun v dao ng d kim loi, ng thi khuch i sai khc bin thnh mc in p u khin cung cp cho mch cnh bo.

B. S mch

C. Mch cnh bo A. Yu cu To tn hiu cnh bo di s iu khin ca tn hiu cp t mch so snh v khuch i.

B. S mch

III.

Ph lc hot ng cc khi v linh kin

1. Mch ngun

Da vo IC n p tuyn tnh LM317 l trung tm mch, ngun in c nn t 12VAC qua cu diode chuyn thnh 17VDc (12 x 1.4).LM 317 c tc dng n p cho u ra, R1 v VR1(s dng tr vi chnh) c tc dng hiu chnh li gi tr in p u ra. Cc t c tc dng lm phng in p u ra ca cu diode v LM317. Mch phi cn chnh sau lp rp 2. Mch dao ng chun L mch dao ng da vo nguyn l Colpitts c bn. Trong mch cc t C2, C3,C4,C6 v L2 c tc dng l thnh phn c bn quyt nh tn s dao ng ca mch. Ngoi ra trong mch cn cha thnh phn hi chnh tn s da vo diode bin dung (varicap) D1 b sai s cc linh khin nhm t c tn s mong mun ( trong iu kin thc t do sai khc v nhit v ch to m cc linh kin b sai s). VR1 s dng bin tr loi nm xoay do vic hiu chnh c l tng i nhiu nn s dng tr vi chnh kh bt tin. C1,L1,R1 nhm chng nh hng nhiu ngun vo mch dao ng v ngc li. C5 ghp vi mch ly tn hiu ra nhm, tc dng lc DC trong tn hiu ra. Cc in tr R2, R3 l cc in tr phn cc v n nh lm viccho transistor, R4 tc dng nng cao bin tn hiu ra. Ch L2 c qun trn li ferit t t cm n nh.L1 l cun chn bn sn.
3.

Mch dao ng d kim loi C nguyn tc hat ng tng t nh mch dao ng chun. Nhng trong

mch ny lc b cc phn t hiu chnh tn s b sai linh kin, ngoi ra t gnh (t C2 bn mch dao ng chun c b i, c tnh ton li) nhm nng cao gi tr ca L2 v c l tng tnh bt n tn s ca mch (tr s L2 tng gip din tch dy cun tng, vng in t ca cun cm tri rng hn, mt khc lc b t s lm vic sai s tn ln hn khi c bin thin in trng tng nhy do h s

phm cht ca mch dao ng gim xung). L2 trong mch ny cun rng- li khng kh, cch cun tri rng trn cng mt phng l tt nht khi cun dy s rt nhy cm vi in trng xung quanh) 4. Mch so snh v khuch i Mch s dung OA mc theo kiu vi sai, khi tn s u vo ( 2 u a ca 2 mch dao ng) l ging nhau th u ra mch lun mc cao (~10V), khi c gi tr sai khc ca tn s u ra s chuyn xung mc in p thp hn ty vo sai s ca u vo. Cc linh kin D1, D2,L1,C1 c tc dng dp xung v chuyn gi tr tn s thnh gi tr in p (u ra c gi tr tn s cao, h t - cm vi mi tn s khc nhau s c gi tr dung-cm khng khc nhau s cho ra gi tr in p khc nhau), cun cm y c th s dng cun dy cun trn li ferit 5mm vi s vng khong vi chc vng dy 0.1mm (cun ny khng cn chnh xc lm, gi tr qu ln ca cun dy c th gy ra qun tnh qu ln ca in p gy ra vn nhn bit chm cho mch ), t nn chn loi c in p cao s dng loi ~ 1kV m bo. Cc diode l cc diode xung cao tn khng c s dng loi diode ngun (do ngng tn s hot ng l khc nhau khng ph hp). Cc bin tr y c tc dng hiu chnh in p u vo vo ra ca mch (VR1,VR2 s dng loi bin tr vi chnh nh, VR3 s dng loi bin tr nm xoay- do u ra cn hiu chnh nhiu bin tr vi chnh khng ph hp). 5. Mch cnh bo Mch s dng IC 555 lm trung tm mch, n v loa c nhim v pht xung m tn cnh bo (tn s c bn ph thuc vo VR1,R4,C1). u vo ca mch chnh l u ra ca mch so snh v khuch i. Trong iu kin thng (khng c kim loi, khng c sai s tn, mch so snh u ra mc cao ~10V) in p t

mch so snh lm transistor c1815 m hon ton lm in p trn chn 7 ~ 0V, lc ny iu kin dao ng ca mch l khng c u ra loa khng c m thanh. Ngc li khi bt thng in p t mch so snh ra gim l c1815 kha bt in p trn chn 7 khc 0V , mch c dao ng v trn loa c m thanh. Ty vo mc p u vo mch s dao ng tn s khc nhau, in p cng thp (sai s tn ln) m thanh nghe cng chi tai (tn cao). Linh kin trong mch khng c g c bit.