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The Works of Matthew Arnold ([1903-04]) Vol 9

The Works of Matthew Arnold ([1903-04]) Vol 9

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HANDBOUND AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF

Edition de Luxe

t

THE WORKS
OF

MATTHEW ARNOLD
IN

FIFTEEN VOLUMES

VOLUME

IX

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
ST.
WITH AN ESSAY ON

PURITANISM AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND
AND

LAST ESSAYS ON CHURCH AND RELIGION

BY

MATTHEW ARNOLD

1/ontton

MACMILLAN AND
SMITH,
1904

CO., LIMITED

ELDER AND COMPANY

03 7/5/V Edition consists of Seven Hundred and Seventy-Jive Copies .

ST. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM WITH AN ESSAY ON PURITANISM AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND .

and the peace of the Church. and to urge them as if they were written in most exact form of law. The light. duce more to the saving of souls. than the most specious the most pious.' that unity. the Word of the Lord $ who notwithstanding. let us not be discouraged. when they allege what word and what law they mean.' BISHOP WILSON. will con sects.' We often read the Scripture without comprehending its full meaning 5 however. What is to add to the Law of God if this be not? ' HOOKER. specious pretences. will break out. ' It will be found at last. ' With them to causes the come practice (the Puritans) nothing is more familiar than to plead in their Laiv of God. and disperse the darkness j and we shall see the mysteries of the Gospel. in God's good time. . varnished with BISHOP WILSON. their common ordinary is to quote by-speeches.

and to say nothing about the . and to them this preface is addressed. at concluding essay. was meant to clear away offence or misunderstanding which had arisen out of There still remain one or two that treatise. is as much a stronghold of the distinctive Puritan tenets as the Noncon and that to tax the Nonconformists formists are with these tenets. a large party in the Church of England. The general objection. the so-called Evangelical party. any rate. by the But it is said that there is. and does not characterise the one more essentially than the other. points on which a word of explanation may be useful. vii .PREFACE (1870) THE essay following the treatise on St. that the scheme of doctrine criticised by me is common to both Puritanism and the Church of England. has been removed. at least. I hope. which holds I the of doctrine have scheme called Puritan just . Paul and Protestantism. that this large party. if not the whole Church of England.

But there is this Paul's Epistle to the Romans. difference between the Evangelical party in the Church of England and the Puritans outside her . admitted that the Christian Church is built. alone have prevented our making them jointly answerable with the Puritans for that body of politics opinions which calls itself Scriptural Protestant ism. this party has so strongly loved what is indeed the most lovable of things. the second error of separating for them. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM them too. as we have already noticed. done that which we most blame Nonconformity for not doing they have left themselves in the way of development. They have escaped the thus. Evangelical party in the Church of England we must always. They have also avoided that unblessed mixture of The and religion by which both politics and This. is Evangelical clergy holding injurious and unfair.ST. have a dis inasmuch as position to treat with forbearance. would not religion are spoilt. which arises directly and naturally out of this But they have also separating for opinions. a perversion of St. certainly. but which is. Practically they have . mixing of politics and religion. not on the foundation of Lutheran and Calvinist Let every one dogmas. in truth. religion. but on the foundation that nameth the name Christ of depart from : viii . the Evangelicals have not added to the first error of holding this unsound body of opinions. however.

ix ii. which. by resolving to have no fellowship with the man of sin who holds different notions. ministers of the same confraternity. so felt in a day of general insensibility the power and comfort of the Christian religion. This party. and who hold other notions of their own And thus they do quite at variance with it. nor do their best to cut themselves off from outgrowing them. Spurgeon or the President of the Wesleyan Conference . . as men who hold that their Scriptural Protestantism is all wrong. following in the wake of Wesley and others. is 1 2 Tim. they are worshippers in the same Church. and this admis sion of the relative inadequacy of their notions itself a stage towards the future admission of their positive inadequacy. as Mr. Paul. Ryle or the Dean of Ripon may erroneous notions as to what truth and the gospel really is. On the contrary. professors of the same faith. of an ideal to homage Christianity which is better than either their larger. has not in the so-called Evangelical party of the Church of England its chief centre and stronghold. higher. and notions or those of their opponents. and in respect of which both their notions and those of iniquity^ have as their opponents are inadequate . but they do not tie themselves tighter still to these erroneous notions. In fact. 19. the popular Protestant theology. which we have criticised as such a grave per version of the teaching of St.PREFACE Mr.

during the discussion caused by Dr. its gaiety and audacity.ST. Evangelical clergy no longer recruits itself with success. but transmit it. but on that very account more dangerous. 1 But from which of the members of the younger Evangelical clergy do In a letter to the Times respecting Dr. racy. too powerful without It to lose their own to vigour. and who will then. change and pass away. so evidently a 1 instinctively avoid him. Temple was the total leper. leading of the religion which under now is and done its work. indeed. but hardly urbane. in their turn. Temple's appointment to the see of Exeter. and he ceased to Dr. but which also adopted and promulgated a scientific account so inadequate and so mis . Pusey and Dr. life. Its signs of a vigorous feels that it is losing it. successors to whom was impossible not to admire the genuine and rich though somewhat brutal humour of the Dean of Ripon's famous simili tude of the two lepers. no longer lays hold on such promising It is losing the future and subjects as formerly. from the same cause of the scientific inadequacy of their conception The of Christianity. are confined to its older members. and still less Christian . ! leper that all be dangerous men would X . Pusey was the partial leper. Dr. The will power is passing from it to others. this attracted it. who make good some of the aspects of religion which the Evangelicals neglected. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM and which did so much to make others feel them. less deeply tainted. great party has of transformation and develop law that going ment which obtains in a national Church. because less likely to A piece of polemical terrify people from coming near him. humour. Temple.

of learned ' heresy. Paul and little else ? you to bring in a new religion and found a new church ? Now on this line of expostulation. Another point where a word of explanation seems desirable is the objection taken on a kind of personal ground to the criticism of St. are slipping away from them and he who looks for the source whence popular Puritan theology now derives power and perpetuation. even if the version of St. doctrine it is What which we have attempted. Paul's meaning. if this view of St. were the true one. which is just Nonconformists with. great force. appears to have. ours its argument. yet we do not. so * ' ! ' unlike the received view.PREFACE The best of their the soldiers of their generation. make of it a new religion or set up a new church for its That would be separating for opinions^ sake. will not fix his eyes on the Evangelical clergy of the Church of England. on that account. there are three remarks to be offered. In the first place. there arose VOL. Paul which we propound were both new and true. do you suppose discover it ? it would have been left for you to Are you wiser than the hundreds people who for generation after been occupying themselves with have generation Has it been left for St. no doubt. Paul's such strokes ? now come own younger own training. far as it draws from unworthiness of so which. . Euphrates a sect called xi near the b . ix what we reproach the In the seventh century. said.

are expected to try and make a new sect of Paulicians on the strength of this discovery such being just the course which our Puritan friends would themselves eagerly take in like But the Christian Church is founded. perhaps. and a give plain. or time-spirit. Paul's line of thought is not new. not case. had misunderstood and I suppose. on a correct speculative knowledge of the ideas of Paul. the version we propound of St.' in the air. setting forth this and that of till there is not a part. without. we might change the current strain of doctrinal theology from one end to the other. popular. Paul. and many have long It * been anticipating it. which other Christians. In the second place. for which. holding this to be so. . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM who Paulicians. on that account. setting up any new church or bringing in any new religion. our notions about culture. it. All we have done is to take it as a whole. been said already by others before us. and. they said. about the many sides to the human spirit. about xii . said.ST. is not of our discovering. having dis Protestantism covered how popular perverts St. Paul. connected exposition of it . professed to form themselves on the pure doctrine of St. it is belongs to the Zeit-Geist. preparing it. and said more learnedly and fully than we can say it. And we. part of all we have which has not probably. : from iniquity . but on the much surer ground Let one that the nameth name Christ of every depart corrupted.

little on things ' . once for will grow more. . which has grown to be what it is and which definite. they are not very much at home. in the same fashion as Puritanism put forth its Scriptural Protestantism^ Their truth the Puritans or gospel^ as true. Paul's line of thought as true. Thirdly. just in like manner as it has reached its present stage by development. in short. which they have got all. which exhibit it. and which we now give it which will be developed. we now will not stand just as but which will gain some aspects which will drop some we now fail to show in it. which is the life of popular exposition. . notion of letting their consciousness play freely. farther. in the broad general order of thoughts and words. we conceive rather as of a product of nature.PREFACE making these sides help one another instead of remaining enemies and strangers. Paul diligently are Hebraisers they regard little except the Hebraising impulse in us and the documents which concern it. that. They have some advantage. we by no means put forth our version of St. little ear for the voice of the ' and they are so immersed in an Zeit-Geist order of thoughts and words which are peculiar. xiii . and which can no longer have any thing added to it or anything withdrawn from But of our rendering of St. Paul's thought it. rigid. and complete. have been of For most of those who read St. exhibit as a sort of cast-iron product. and in the last place.

Take the Calvinist doctrine shy. something quite new nor as something quite nor yet as any ground. Calvinist or Arminian. as given everlasting least. to everlasting life and others foreordained. without any foresight of faith or good works in them. the In that scientific form. of election.' doctrine of election begins to look dubious to the Calvinistic Puritan. theology. We could not expect any from heaven out of that misery under xiv . ' Take the Arminian doctrine of justification. for a separate they were quite But so far they are.' that their mere contact seems to make the old Puritan conceptions look unlikely and indefensible. to ' . out of God's mere free grace and love. Puritanism is modern beginning to feel any rate. and he puts it a good deal out of relief sight. according to the un searchable counsel of his will. and think. and begin a sort of remodelling and Let us just see refacing of themselves. new of the c Zeitdevelopment. whereby he extends or withholds mercy as he pleases. at death. a genuine product Geist. of this. we church or religion. even supposing true new and true. The formal and scholastic version how of far its by its in and the enshrined seventeenth-century fathers. has this change practically gone. By God's decree a certain number of angels and men are predestinated.ST. at trust-deeds of so many of its chapels. a fruit of sound and true. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM as Thus we present our conceptions. neither .

the signal and transcendent benefit of our free lie. ' is from reconciling me to an offended God. and the rest A of mankind must and shall be damned. in the forcible I hold which took his hearers' fancy. The same may be said of the doctrine of election in its plain popular form of statement ' I hold.' also. the flow forth upon us.PREFACE were not God's displeasure against This is pacified and our sins remitted. the case different.' says Wesley. popular form of statement. and these must and shall be saved. not somewhat ' to be a little staggered at this sort of expression. the divine grace and bounty may freely In that scientific form. As to the doctrine of justification in its current. my own sufferings. and he tends to put it out of sight.' doctrine of justification begins to look less satis factory to the Arminian Puritan. which we us first justification through the blood of Christ. my own righteousness. that God's offence justly conceived against us for our sins (which would have been an eternal bar and restraint to the efflux of his grace upon us) being removed. are so far . that the most specious of them xv My own works. so far from making any atonement for the least of those sins which are more in number than the hairs of my head. so style ' that a certain number are elected from eternity. or a strenuous Particular Baptist in some remote place in the country.' Calvinistic Puritan nowadays must be either a fervid Welsh Dissenter. says Whitefield.

ST. to minds of this order. nothing sinner poor to plead but Christ died? Deliverances of this Look sort. and find favour . an un and from questionable word and a sure stay theless they . I have no hope but that of is want is a sure trust and that God. having the sentence of death in my heart and nothing in or of myself to plead. no doubt. are expected as of course. as a for sanctification just as you are. is that believeth He saved passed from death in Jesus. through the merits of Christ my sins are forgiven and I reconciled to Believe and thou shalt be the favour of God. that has nothing to pay. which in Wesley are frequent and in Wesley's followers are unceasing. pass current everywhere with Puritanism. which he bestows not on those who are worthy of his favour. till that hour were fit only for everlasting dam nation. not on such as are previously holy and so fit to be crowned with all the blessings of his goodness. still. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM . but on the ungodly and unholy. this point to their final transformation the course is certain. they are just what Puritans commonly mean by Scriptural Never Protestantism^ the truth^ the gospel-feast. The predestinarian and solifidian xvi . . . no longer quite satisfy the better minds among Puritans try instinctively to give some fresh turn or development to them they are no longer. the redemption that being justified freely through The faith I confidence in ! Faith is the free gift of God. need an atonement themselves that. who to life.

new new reason for reason be ? its existing. and it is our assertion and profound belief that Christ and the Apostles have given us all the laws that are necessary for the constitution and government of the Church. . xvii . for the very sake of which our Puritan churches came into existence. c Congregational Nonconformists can never be incorporated into an organic union with Anglican Episcopacy. growth. and ex pediency. and Unity is every one gathers it in his own way. What to tell us.' This makes church-government not a secondary matter of form. and to present us with a c ' .order^ rather than Scriptural Protestantism in church-doctrine. Conder's have quoted in reason.PREFACE dogmas. which we It will be our concluding essay. This . so it has to set forth in Scripture it is not be gathered from Scripture by collection. Dissent has to execute an Puritan generation entire change of front. Scriptural Protestantism in church. is of the greatest importance. but a matter of the essence of Chris Expressly tianity and ordained in Scripture. but that every man of no great importance should live in a church-order which he judges to be scriptural. others slower. Mr. will that It will There needs no conjuror be the Rev. because there is not even the shadow of an outline of it in the New Testament. but all of Under the eyes of this them are doomed. begin to feel the Zeit-Geist some of irresistible breath of the them melt quicker.

ST. old subject of historic and philosophic sense the want of shown by those a matter at present. accomplishments. Winterbotham has since died. Miall's standard-maxim : brings us to The Dissidence of Dissent^ Protestant religion ! and The the Protestantism of the more freely the sects The Church of develop themselves. Mr. What I am now ! concerned with the relation of this new ground of existence. who would make church-government A of scriptural regulation. sect . Nothing in my remarks on speech need prevent me from expressing here my high esteem for his character. the better. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM Mr. * speech which 1 Mr. xviii . which more and more the Puritan Churches take and will take as they lose their old ground.servants. Willey. oratorical faculty and general promise. soldiers men/ He might as well have added that he did not find there anything to the effect that But on this point I they should wear braces am not here going to enlarge. said the other I say nothing c : Wesleyan minister. On the old. What we ought to aim at is perfect equality. and that the other sects should balance her. her the dominant England herself is but the Dissenters within pretensions to bring back her pale are offensive and ridiculous. to the Christian In the is religion. and my sincere regret for his loss. day that at Leeds He did not find anything to in either the Old like or New Testament should or excise the effect Christian ministers become State. Winterbotham made on his Mr. the Rev.

22. peace. self-control} to this keep particular list for the sake of greater distinctness . Francis of Sales. And we say that the newer and specially Christian sort of righteousness is something different from this . and they are offended with us for rejoining that the righteousness of which they boast is the . growth in Paul's signal and eternally fruitful righteousness dates just from his breach with the Puritans of his day. but St. xix . a speech which I had the advantage of hearing. goodness. there were uncommon facilities supplied for judging of this relation indeed that able speech presented a striking picture of it.PREFACE the Education Bill. consisted mainly in and that St. long-suffering. on which we have so often insisted in the pages which follow love. all pointing the same way. faith. Let us revert to Paul's list of fruits of the spirit. deficient in the specially Christian sort of righteousness that men like St. and always have been. joy. mildness. and 1 Gal. v. . show far more of it than any Puritans . Paul has perpetually lists We all of the kind. and Bishop Wilson. in the Church of England. 23. in the Roman Catholic Church. which smiting the Lord's enemies and their own under the fifth rib. that the Puritans are. ! righteousness of the earlier Jews of the Old Testament. good heavens The Puritans say they love righteousness. And what a picture it was. kind : ness.

as specially Christ's qualities. whenever these 1 visitants appear. ordinary place one's happiness in mildness and sweet reasonableness.ST. grace and peace^ which enraptured the assert one's self. won its heart and conquered it. Paul adjured his converts. c ' that I am I beseech mild and lowly in heart" you. as appear for a witness to the vitality of Christianity they daily Sia T^S irpavrijTos /cat OTteiKeia? TOV XptcrTov. a living spring opened beside their way. was a re velation.' said ' and the mildness Paul. gentleness of Christ?**by The word which our Bibles translate by ' gentle reasonableness with ' I beseech sweetness. x. brought all the world after him. I. and out of this spring arose those two heavenly visitants. Charis and Irene. which. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM showing what he meant by Christian righteous ness. to poor wayfarer. the spring of charity . They may all be concluded in two qualities. 2 Cor. and filled him with a joy which And still. c Learn of me. came to the something new.' c means more properly ' sweet reasonableness.' charm they had world as in Jesus Christ. stamped with the individual ness. the qualities which Jesus Christ told his disciples to learn of him. Every one had been asserting his to forbear to ordinary self and was miserable .' said Jesus.' the and mildness sweet reasonableness of you by This mildness and sweet reasonableness Christ? it was. what he found specially in Christ. the qualities in the name of which. XX . As men followed this novel route to happiness.

so full of these. it is from the same spring that they arise and this spring is opened solely by the mildness and sweet reasonableness which forbears to assert . nay. wrath. he says he declares in their name. spirit c There was a the to part take offence . backbitings. by their own confession. of watchful jealousy on which made them prone of the Dissenters. xii. He interprets and the Protestant Dissenters. contentions. our ordinary in effacing it. and the forbearing to assert our ordinary self.PREFACE do. and they declare themselves so full of the very temper and habits against which that religion is specially levelled. and would declare for themselves if they could. Winterbotham . they are all feeling. jealousy. which even takes pleasure And now let us turn to Mr. xxi . self. and the very existence of an organisation of Dissent so makes them a necessity. that they require to have even the occasion of for bearing to assert their ordinary self removed out ! 1 2 Cor. that the State is required to frame its legislation in consideration of them Was there ever such a confession made ? Here are people existing for the sake of a religion of which the essence is mildness and sweet reasonableness. that which their very inner mind.' we know the catalogue. 20. And the Dissenters is ! That are. Established Church country J c therefore statesmen should not introduce the into all the institutions of the positively the whole speech 1 Strife.

What an answer for a Christian are to defer Why ! We giving up our ordinary self until our neighbour shall have given up his that is. and because strife. jealousy. except for a departure from the primal ground of her foundation Let every one that nameth the name of levelled . very miseries against which Christianity is firstly therefore we say that a Christian is inexcusable in breaking with the Church. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM ! of their way. Because the Church cannot help Therefore. and help to win the world to the mildness and sweet reasonableness of Christ. Because the Church is there because strife. : Christ depart from iniquity.ST. and self-assertion are the . Why are we to be more blamed than the Church for the strife arising out of our rival existences ? asks the Dissenter. because they are quite sure they will never comply with it there a more instructive comment was Never on the blessings of separation. we are never to give it up at all. which we are so often invited by separatists to admire. The clergyman poor soul xxii ! cannot help . But I will answer the question on more mundane grounds. and self-assertion are sure to come with breaking off from her . and you can nemo pacificus^ as Baxter himself said in his better moments. Why does not Dissent forbear to assert its ordinary self. contra ecclesiam existing. without this vain contest about machinery ? does not the Church ? is the Dissenter's answer. jealousy. ! .

drew a certain number of people to their own way of thinking. from the ill blood and confusion prevailing. probably the would not much like magistrate the leading people in the parish would it. the magistrate he is a national officer with an appointed function. why. and the newcomers would they could. On the ' side of the newcomers a spirit of watchful jealousy.PREFACE He is there being the parson of the parish. and desires to get And xxiii . If one or two with the voluntary performers. But who would not c smile at these lambs answering Away with that wolf the established magistrate. called themselves magistrates. tried differences and gave sentences among their people in the like . have mortifications and social The that might naturally say the newcomers brought the strife and disturbance with them. established best fashion estrangements to Probably magistrate would call them interlopers probably he would count them amongst his difficulties. not much like it. Winterbotham says. up in each parish of the country. would thus The public interest would suffer be created.' as Mr. the established . dissatisfied were to set themselves magisterial system. and all : established magistrate ground for ' ! jealousy and quarrel between us will disappear talks it is a grievance that the clergyman of Dissent as one of the spiritual hindrances in his parish. endure.

' you by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ that ye all speak the same thing.' 2 Well. by Mr.ST. a the opposite Once admit Christianity All the it is impotent. and Christianity . hindrance. nay. rid PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM it ! of Why. c or i. get rid of what c a spirit of divisions. a disposition just and disposition ' to a spirit of watchful jealousy. are ye not still in bondage to your mere lower selves ? . bondage Christianity was meant causes therefore. He is not asserting his ordinary self 1 I by being there 2 I . placed Cor. he . Paul. 3. Paul's words me rather than I upon the upon clergyman ? Because the clergyman is the one minister of Christ in the parish who did not invent himself. iii. is 10.' a spirit of watchful jealousy. first and above all. is the clergyman to impress St. But from to free us this . is. asks St. and that there be not divisions among you. has lost its virtue other vices it was meant to keep out may rush Where there is jealousy and strife among in. and ' I exhort watchful jealousy. but that ye all be perfectly joined in the same mind and the same judgment. says the Dissenting minister. of watchful in a spirit much as is jealousy/ and this temper a spiritual hindrance. who cannot help existing. says he. but why. XXIV . not carnal?^ are ye you. a temper. in the view of Christianity it is even a more direct spiritual than drunkenness or loose living. and strife. Winterbotham's the Dissenters live c own showing.

Probably he will best do it by never speaking against Dissent at all. and the head and front of this lesson is to get rid of a spirit of watchful jealousy/ which. It is pollutions not the clergyman who is chargeable with * it is the wishing to stamp out this spirit Christian religion. who classes Dissent. according there is ' on public duty. But what is to prevent the Dissenting minister from being joined with the clergyman in the same public function. i. He to the Dissenter's own showing. Dissent. long as duty to get rid of it. full of ' a spirit of watchful jealousy/ along with spiritual hindrances like a pollution of the spirit along with beer-shops. It is not the Bishop of Winchester 1 is clear. and being his partner instead of his rival ? Episcopal ordi If I leave the service of a private nation. it is for his own conscience to tell him. Paul. we propose to make re-ordination a condition of admitting Dissenting ministers XXV .PREFACE charged with teaching the lesson of Christianity. by treating Dissenters with perfect cordiality and as if there was not a But that. is he it his exists. 3 . How the very he is to get rid of how he to win souls to the mildness and sweet reasonableness of Christ. 1 The late Bishop Wilberforce. is 8 It has been inferred from what 2 I Cor. ' . so point of dispute between them. here said that vii. to win souls to the unity which is its opposite. is is spirit which accompanies it. of the flesh 2 it is St.

to or refuses you ad profess the same opinions. perhaps.ST. entitled. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM at company. See the Preface to Culture and Anarchy. too. is really all which A bishop is a the law of the land puts there. unless he compels you. to say nothing of the religious more into ordination feeling. I receive of the public officer in it. but. as the price of your being allowed to work on the foundation Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity ? To recur to our old parallel. Elsewhere I have said seems to impose this condition . will certainly put not than this. Ah. It is as if a man I ! But : how Church of England. he ! holds opinions which I do not share about the What sort of character he confers upon me can that matter. they compel you also to hold these opinions. and to what respectful treatment and fair and equal terms. in my opinion. says Mr. mission if you do not ? in the ministry with which I do not share should be joined men who hold opinions What does that matter unless either. in case of reunion. puts have laid down. Protestant Nonconformity is. I trouble myself Why should public officer. The name of about the name his office bears ? his office cannot affect the service or my labour . XXVI . and enter the public admission designated the to Sentiment and the historic sense. though precisely what the Bishop this which we of Winchester. service. however. hands give it me. Winterbotham. What is said in the text is to the ministry of the undesirable it directed simply against the objection to episcopal ordination as something wrong in itself and a ground for schism.

xxvii or the real presence practise ritualism c VOL. Mackonochie. by believing in it himself ! eloquent as is Mr. and Lord-Lieutenant or because . Liddon asserts the real pre Dissenters. But the Bishop of Winchester cannot. and does not. one of a body of magistrates of whom many had notions which he thought irrational. . were to hold off because he had to receive institution from the the a Lordtitle Lieutenant. ritualist . sence therefore there must be Dissenters. Liddon. therefore a Puritan believe in apostolical succession merely In the same way. . is all which really matters to him. ix . and he did not . the art of so spirit as to against his their gifts cannot yield them swaying a brother clergyman's make him admit conviction. Mackonochie is a there must be Dissenters. The Bishop of Winchester believes in apos tolical succession therefore there must be Mr. when he was instituted.PREFACE who desired the office of a public magistrate and who was fitted for it. his own power to fill it usefully. that he can make . like of Lord-Lieu tenant who was to institute him had a fancy about some occult quality which he conferred on him at institution or because he would find himself. Mr. and devoted as is Mr. The office itself. exclude from the ministry of the Church of England those who do not believe in apostolical succession and surely not even that acute and accomplished personage is such a magician.

For us. too. and leave it wholly to the sacerWhat can be harder dotalists and ritualists ? to upon the laity of the national Church. who are free ritualism. a mere lump than if the Puritans. and official. so. as to leave us at the mercy of one single element in the Church. and of great use to the Church. so does the current unedifying. they have absolutely none. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM . doctrine of imputed righteousness. in the ideas and practice of Nonconformists there is The and the much which we value. and deny us just the elements fit to mix with this element and to improve it ? current doctrines of apostolical succession real presence seem to us unsound and To be sure. they are. or power of stipulating what he shall admit or practise. material control against his will over him. But can anything more tend to make the Church what the Puritans reproach it with of sacerdotalism and being. to come into it with their disregard of sacer dotalism and ritualism and so to leaven it. erroneous human developments. both of them. sacerdotalism and solifidianism stand both on the same footing . To : very take points only that are beyond controversy they have culti vated the gift of preaching much more than the xxviii .ST. But as in the ideas and practice of sacerdotalists or ritualists there is much which seems to us of value. what so inconsiderate of the national good and advan tage. refuse come in.

So long as the Puritans thought that the essence of Christianity was their doctrine of pre destination or of justification. ' ideas and the general movement of men's religious is beginning to reveal that the Puritan is essence of Christianity. by removing the the best xxix . of which the very weakness and danger is that it tends. we have been desirous to spread this revelation to gospel not the of our power. the Church of the Philistines. as it undoubtedly is. as we have formerly said. when once it is clear that the essence of Christianity is not Puritan solifidianism. it can hardly long be maintained that the essence of Christianity is Puritan church-order. When once the way is made clear. it was natural Dissenters that they should stand out. Lastly. and their union with the Church would renovate and immensely amend Church preach ing. if at present they give far too much place.PREFACE clergy . They would certainly bring with them. for this That is why. Because. and by all the aids of plain popular exposition to help it forward. to be an appendage to the Barbarians. when the ' Zeit-Geist essence. if the body of British Protestant is in the main. to which. at any cost. some use of what they call free prayer . if they came back into the Church. nevertheless there could come nothing but health and strength from blending this body with the Establish ment. it is yet to be regretted that the Church gives no place at all.

at any Grace and peace by the annulment the mildness and sweet of our ordinary self through This is the more reasonableness of Jesus Christ. at something very like it. a genuine Christian would regret having to spend time and thought in shaping one. . soon force itself upon our minds that the essence something not very far. ground. but all events. it is. It is to be how much a believed. And matters of machinery and outward form. is not 'the sincere milk' of the evangelical word. already laid down. After all. have not only nothing essentially to do with the sincere milk of Christianity. of Christianity rate. to busy himself so much about a frame for his religious life as well as about the contents of the frame. sincere If there were no national and historic form of church-order in possession. from this is : of that general ground. hardly larger space the mere affairs of his denomination fill in the xxx . like church-order. a man has only a certain sum of force to and if he takes spend a quantity of it for outward things. in having so to encumber him self with serving. particularised in the way above given. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM heresy. of the Christian Church's Let every one that nameth the name existence particular description : If this general of Christ depart from iniquity. are the very matters about which this milk should make us easy and yielding. to solifidian look and see it what the cannot but essence of Christianity really is. he has so much the less left for inward things.ST.

too. such a man should be. middle-class not the rare flower of the Dissenters Philistine. everyday. something of a hindrance to him in what he most wants to be at. but the common staple. and partisanship of a private sect. machinery-work with a real love of the essence of Christianity. find so attractive in Dissent ? Is it not. the crude culture of himself and his fellows ? And as to doctrine. Now all of this kind to a man filled is. by stimulating our ordinary self In through over -care for what flatters this. which is our mainstay. is it not that his taste is pleased by usages and words that come down to him^ instead of drawing him up to them . by services reflect. is it not that his mind is pleased at hearing no which men xxxi . that his fomented by the fuss. as if it were not satisfied with prov But. instead of the culture of great of religious genius. ing its unprofitableness by corroding us with jealousy and so robbing us of the mildness and sweet reasonableness of Christ. something of a concession to his ordinary self. as is to discipline. proves it. disposed to use it and comply with it. political Dissent. than in the time and thoughts of a Churchman. therefore. instead of being lost in the greatness of a public body ? self-importance As to worship. bustle. what is it that the fact.PREFACE time and thoughts of a Dissenter. When an established and historic form exists. Dissent for the sake of church-polity and church-management.

by having in own its for favour. upon being urged ment ? And what is all this but the very feed of our ordinary self. I do t not believe that they. live in the ulcerated condition he describes. flower to this then ordinary self. fretting with watchful jealousy. and serving our ordinary self instead of annulling religion ! What happy furtherance to my part. contentious spirit. a jealous. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM all disputed opinion but its own. in order to gratify in the Dissenters . instead ing and stimulating of the annulling of it ? No doubt it is natural to indulge our ordinary self is the most natural But Christianity is not thing in the world.ST. so far as the best of the Noncon formist ministers are concerned. Winterbotham's For whom hideous confession. one of the two is faults against which Christianity we chiefly aimed. by granted points taken no develop return no to itself. But why ? Because they are things men of genius and character. I believe they have other to think of. at any r ate. were to sweep away our national and historic form of religion. So that if. and if the flower of Christianity be the of annulling our grace and peace which comes it is fatal. I disbelieve Mr. who react against the xxxn . other chief fault it. forms. little I pleased with him imagine they are very for making it. own we and were all to tinker at our should then just be flattering the which Christianity came a to cure. natural . of I know something.

more. founded for godliness. Mr. bent. may grow moderate. feel the secular ambition of being great as a denomination. of giving contentment to this selfimportance. the Wesleyans more and . are Winterbotham's picture is perfectly true. pleased with the bustle and selfalive to importance which . who used always to refuse to call themselves Dissenters. The Wesleyans. its magnitude brings them. whose best men still shrink from the name. Of these. may perceive the effects of religious separatism upon worship and doctrine. of indulging this ordinary self. of being effaced by nobody. and I should not wonder if within twenty years A triumph they were keen political Dissenters. reduces or effaces whatever irritably it on in short. serve them still better if they were placed in a less trying position. affirming their ordinary selves. truth However much the chiefs may feel the of modern ideas. And the rank and file of their ministers and people do yield to the influences of their position. they will probably avail little or nothing the head will be overpowered and out-clamoured by the tail. the Wesleyans. They more and more jealous for their separate organisation. a wing of the Church. with their very growth as a separate de nomination. of Puritanism is abundantly possible we have . and surmount its obvious But their genius and character might dangers.PREFACE harmful influences of the position in which they find themselves placed. xxxiii .

iv. 2 Peter i. and the tendency and powers that carry us towards perceiving and knowing. we. Elsewhere we have drawn out a distinction between between Hebraism and Hellenism. serves Hebraism. but for human perfection. 8 xv. we call the Word of God. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM it. as St. Paul truly styles him. that the triumph of Puritanism will be the triumph of our ordinary self. whose greatest care is neither for the Church nor for Puritanism. xxxiv . can never denied . 1 the tendency and powers that carry us towards doing. 4. to speak 2 this is so. What truly find their account. what we labour to show is. nor yet Hebraism itself. of ourselves only. not the triumph and that the type of Hebraism of Christianity it will establish is one in which neither general human perfection. Paul Hebraises. of * a minister of the circumcision to the truth God/ moral action. John Hebraises. But. and which most of us study far more than any other book. 8. Hebraism. 2 That it is c the divine nature. by our powers of through the perfecting of that Christ leads us to be partakers of is. Isaiah Hebraises. has long been overwhelmingly pre The sacred book which ponderant with us. chap. Jesus Christ himself is. David Hebraises. we said.ST.' for spiritual 3 By far purposes has our chief machinery the like aim and character. and these. Moses Hebraises. the Archbishop of Throughout Europe 1 Romans See Culture and Anarchy.

is the law of man's nature and of his spirit's The powers we have developed at our old task enable us to attempt a new one and this. with serious energy enough to morals and For our totality. the President of the Wesleyan Conference is an agent of Hebraism. and that man cannot well do more than one thing at a time. . the This greater is the task which is given us. The more we grow. Hebraism strikes too exclusively upon one Hellenism does not address itself string in us. all the body of Church clergy and Dissenting ministers are agents of Hebraism. brings with it a new increase of powers. new stage of spiritual progress.PREFACE Canterbury is an agent of Hebraism. is their xxxv history. we need to unite the two now perfection. In their lower forms they are irreconcilably at variance only when each of them is at its best. . for our general righteousness. and how in we our are called to develop more totality. on our perceptive and intelligential side as well as on our moral side. again. . the Arch bishop of York is an agent of Hebraism. we have seen how we are beginning visibly to suffer in this one-sided way to harm from ourselves attending Hebraism. Now. If it is said that this is a very hard matter. Arch bishop Manning is an agent of Hebraism. the answer is that here is the very sign and condition of each increase of task. the two are easily at variance. .

But lower forms of Hebraism and Hellenism make their appearance. the first. simplicity.' Mr. but in a We have to thank spirit of watchful jealousy. of that side in us which is intelligential and required . xxxvi . and in that ' . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM possible.ST. body of impulses whereby we Hebraise. unite and their separation must they are at discord. forms of Hebraism we have been commenting a form which had its first origin. amiable grace and artless winning good -nature. . the second being the perfection of that side in us which is moral and acts. and to On one of these strive to establish themselves. tend always to . and for complete human perfection both are . . no doubt. not in the mildness and sweet reasonableness of Christ. and natural truth the flower of Christianity is annulment of our ordinary grace and peace by the and sweet reasonable mildness the self through Both are eminently humane^ ness of Christ. each of them. perceives and knows. as anything short of this. Winterbotham for fixing our attention on it but we prefer to name it from an eminent and able man who is well known as the earnest apostle of the Dissidence of Dissent and the Protestantism of the Protestant religion. born out of the perfection of lucidity. but which lands us at last. The flower of Hellenism is a kind of continue. harmony Hebraism at its best is Hellenism at its best is beauty and charm As such they can also beauty and charm.

and itself a somewhat spurious and but this sub-form always degenerated form tends to degenerate into forms lower yet. In one of these its further stages we have formerly traced it. born out of the perfection of lucidity. . so to aspects beautiful.PREFACE to call it Mia/ism. ii. And from simplicity. calming. but whom for the dominant sect/ as he calls the Church of the Church of England. ' a kind of humane grace and artless winning good nature. almost feminine vehemence of irritation ? What can we so fitly name the somewhat degenerated and inadequate form of Hellenism as Millism ? This is the Hellenic or Hellenistic counterpart of Mialism and like Mialism it has its further degenerations. in many England. who. 1 See Culture and Anarchy chap. yet flower of Hebraism. seems transport with an and attaching. has its more or less spurious and degenerated sub -forms. in the same way. and natural truth/ can we more properly derive a general name for these degenerations. Mialism is a sub-form of Hebraism. xxxvii . than from that distinguished man. so ' whom his intelligence is in many respects so and accomplish admirable and his dislike truly Hellenic. by ments. and we need not more unworthy of the ideal enlarge on them here. products which may be at once known as degenerations by their deflection from what we have marked as the flower of Hellenism. 1 Hellenism. and .

so hands. and . must needs draw. At present it is such a revulsion which seems chiefly imminent. Give the churches of Nonconformity free scope. Unhappy and unquiet alternations of ascendency between Hebraism and Hellenism are all that we shall at one time. Millism we may see playing into one another's . because of the audacious . what in Mr. and we will renew the wonders of the first times we will confront this modern of bugbear physical science. however and our only its perfection slowly. in PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM it which is still first form. but. however. the real union between Hellenism and Hebraism can never be accomplished. commendable than in its For instance. in some of his disciples. and apparently acting together He and Hellenism of forms long as these lower braism prevail. but a yielding to a spirit of irritable injustice. Mill is less whom truly Mankind. towards Mialism and our is real perfection totality.ST. assumptions and gross inaccuracies with which men's account of it is intermingled. our totality is still as far off as ever. show how hollow . cries an ardent Congregationalist. the indestructible religious see experience of mankind asserting itself blindly at another. . in there appears scarcely anything that is sound or Hellenic at all. goes on and worsens becomes a sort of mere blatancy and it till truculent hardness in certain Millites. a revulsion of the intellect of man kind from this experience. xxxviii .

The endeavour will very likely be in vain for is slow and the are and it ages long. Mill. brought up at the Surrey Tabernacle between two deacons.' and penitently confessing that Science contradicts Alas. and and all sterile. xxxix . ! already sees Professor Huxley in a white sheet. will come another reaction. as of weak mental organisation and strong muscular frame. the real future is likely to be very herself. as a power to work the annulment of our ordinary self. will be clean disregarded and out of mind. . whom that great physicist. find its true self. Then. another. in his own doubt clear and nervous language. and help.PREFACE she and how she contradicts herself In is. when the mildness and and shall not see it sweet reasonableness of Jesus Christ. Rather are we likely to witness an different ! edifying solemnity. that we labour to make Hebraism raise itself above Mialism. not hinder. and another Therefore it is. show itself in its beauty and power. when we shall desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man. will burn come. . would no describe like his disinterred Roman the ' other day at Westminster Abbey. it has been foretold. this mind's enthusiast his Nonconforming eye. man's totality. growth for be that well Hebraism harmonising may with Hellenism more preparation is needed than the as . assisted by henchmen and apparitors. Rather will the time Prayer Books. where his youthful all Mr. perhaps.

may be an aim not in our day reachable and still it is well to has yet had. . and a spirit of watchful jealousy. as well as successes.ST. The cup of cold water could be hardly more than an ineffective effort at succour yet it counted. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM But failures do something. To disengage the religion of England from unscriptural Protestantism. . man level at it. political Dissent. xl . towards the final achievement.

.CONTENTS FACE ST. i PURITANISM AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND in xli . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM .

.

.ST. and the counterpart of Luther. his interesting c volume on After having been for by saying three hundred years. think. the Christian doctor par excellence^ Paul is All now coming to an end of his reign/ Paul : through his book a sense of this M. in our I own country B at . . and such a consummation evidently has M. St. Renan's approval. Renan is possessed with close relationship between St. The Protestantism. Renan has and Paul. RENAN sums up St. to Precisely contrary. IX of things. Protestant Protestant is now Paul is now the coming to an I reign. doctor. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM I M. a strong distaste for this distaste extends itself to the reign of this coming to an end. is the judgment to which a true criticism end of venture his of men and VOL. says with Protestant doctrine Paul is a Protestant M. thanks to Protestantism. Paul and Protestantism. Protestantism has made Pauline he doctrine is identified Paul.

disengaged his ginning from the elaborate misconceptions with which Protestantism has overlaid them. which they spring. These schemes. show themselves in the Prayer Book but they are not what gives the Prayer Book its still England would or the ideas out of . Calvinistic or Arminian. will have an influence in the future greater than any which an influence proportioned they have yet had. Paul is only be fundamental ideas. merely as such. which for Protestantism. from thousands week still every no power and no them in have significance But for the progressive thought of humanity. have made the very substance of its religion. 1 See Culture and Anarchy chap.ST. iv. 1 this country. The Protestantism which St. . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM leads us. and con England Elsewhere tains much besides Protestantism. . existed before Protestantism. to their correspondence with a number of the deepest and most permanent facts of human to an end . so used and abused its Paul is coming active organisations. the reign of the real St. strong and the with are touched as they look. for us in Puritanism is the strong and special The Church of representative of Protestantism. 2 . Remove the schemes of doctrine. sounding forth of pulpits. i any has rate. I have pointed out how. and all that is most valuable in the Church of remain. nature itself. finger of its fundamental death ideas.

originally at least. and the scheme which Puritanism has constructed with them professes to be St. for the sake of these But Puritanism exists importance and value. that Independents and Baptists and Methodists in England. and Presbyterians in Scotland. has been.i ST. like it. Questions of discipline and ceremonies have. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM . Paul. for the present nothing to do. terms come from the writings of St. have been impelled to constitute for inculcating it a church -order where it might be less swamped by the additions and ceremonies of men. or Roman Catholics. Of that conception by the cardinal points are the terms election and justification. or some Paul's scheme. thing very embraced by many adherents of the Churches of England and Rome but these Churches rest their claims to men's interest and attach ment not on the possession of such a scheme. and might stand more absolute and central. 3 Puritanism's . but on other grounds with which we have fixed These . and still is. schemes its organisations are inventions for enforcing them more purely and thoroughly. been always it is admitted to be in themselves secondary of God of the because that conception ways to man which Puritanism has formed for itself appeared to Puritanism superlatively true and precious. than in the church-order of Anglicans . might be more simply and effectively enounced. The same scheme.

at any rate. no else. we knows even readers who Bible. we were led to remark how the over-Hebraising of Puritanism. of the heart into sophisticating simple religion theories of the brain about election complicated and justification. 4 . knows nothing man. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i on the worth very reason for existing depends of this its vital conception. Paul's. keen. and to the study of which it ex 1 clusively rivets itself. Paul's writings . is it does to not rightly understand. indeed. In short. See Culture and Anarchy chap. and its want of a wide culture. but quite apt make from of them they something really are. we in England.ST. and. the And we showed how of and in particular 1 how this had happened with v. pugnacious. Paul and is ending. different what said. and when we are told that a Protestant doctor whose reign is St. do so narrow its range and impair its vision that even the documents which it thinks allsufficient. were speaking of Hebraism and Hellenism. This we propose now to do. when we have already begun. to do it will only be to complete what we For already. can best try the assertion by fixing our eyes on our own Puritans. his Bible attached to essential words and ideas of the Bible a sense which was not the writer's . a Puritan. derived from St. and comparing their doctrine and their hold on vital truth with St.

par Edouard Reuss Strasbourg et Paris (in 2 vols. (1875) an English translation of M. Th'eologie Chretienne Apostolique. Reuss's history of the growth of Christian theology 1 is an admirable works where the entire scheme of specimen. Pauline doctrine is laid out with careful research and impartial accuracy. as to accomplish for itself an operation of the kind needed though it has men whose natural faculties. So long as the well-known enlarged. and upon the elements of its being. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM regard to the Pauline doctrine of resurrection. of holding mechanically their ideas themselves. and au Siecle to Histoire de la . habit. Paul and the Bible from the perversions of them by mistaken men. To give effect to the predominant points 1 in Paul's teaching. lightly disparaging let us if the see needful thing is not Paul. the great name of St. by philosophical works. would un doubtedly prove equal to the task. which exist in sufficient numbers and of which M. The same habit prevents our Puritans from being reached .i ST. but making it their chief aim to work with energy and enthusiasm for the organisations which profess those ideas. were they but free to use them. 8vo). rather to rescue St. Reuss's work. English Puritanism is not likely to make such a return upon its own thoughts. Let us take the present opportunity of going further in the same road and instead of . 5 There is now . on which we have so often prevails amongst our countrymen.

is not the design of such works in view will this with design English by writings Puritanism be reached. nor to abase St. What in St. this. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i exhibit these in so plain and popular a . to be shown 6 . Paul together. manner as to invite and almost compel men's comprehen and only sion. Puritanism has made primary and essential what in St. instead of being a true child to him. however unpalatable. . so much contested by our countrymen. then we cannot but think that even for Puritanism itself. of the primary needfulness of seeing things as they really are. also. we are shown that we ought in real truth neither St. but rather to abase Puritanism and exalt St. Renan does. Paul is figure and belongs to the sphere of feeling. Paul. Our one qualification for the business in hand lies in that belief of ours. Paul is secondary and subordinate. If by means of letting our consciousness work quite freely. Puritanism certainly wishes well to St. and by following the methods of studying and judging thence generated. Paul but exalt Puritanism. Yet this is what it has really done. it will be the best. Puritanism .ST. Paul and Puritanism together. Paul it cannot wish to compromise him by an unintelligent adhesion to him and a blind adoption of his words. to abase as M. nor yet to exalt both Puritanism and St. and of the greater importance of ideas than of the machinery which exists for them.

and belonging (so far as anything in religion can properly be said thus to belong) to the sphere of intellect. essential and subordinate. mean. license of . after all. propensity of religion to neglect those claims. When Calvinism tells us : 'It is . never were so manifest. a greater or less which can be verified. what is with St. Never was the truth of this so evident as now. Paul primary. just the scientific value of his correspondence with important and the light it throws on them.affirmation about God and his pro ceedings. its facts. is more and more met by the demand for scientific sense in so strongly verification. On the other hand. so far as the first And let this We apostle to is concerned. has : us premise what we mean in matter by primary and secondary. in which the religious world indulge. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM transported into the sphere of intellect and made formula. and gives him his permanent worth and vitality. Puritanism has made image and figure. What is. The teaching. Puritanism has treated as subordinate and what is with him thesis. power of explaining them. man never asserted its claim the . essentially characterises a religious teacher. as truth is agreement with and a greater or concerned. a greater or really characterises its less approach gives his what him and teaching so far originality and power. facts less We mean. and the peril and loss to it from The neglecting them.i ST.

Paul. and not further back. surety for the redeemed. Paul's assertion. when the scientific sense in us. professes this exact acquaintance with God and his doings. and enable us to verify it also ? offered ' . Calvinism refers us to St. though 8 . agreed PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i between God and the Mediator Jesus Son of God. could verify that account at any moment. Paul. as parties -contractors. then it treats both St. as of no real consequence. that the sins of the re deemed should be imputed to innocent Christ. It is true. be justified and when Calvinism holden righteous before God tells us this. by the imputation of his obedience unto them. Paul to produce the facts by which he verifies what he says and if he cannot calls . calls for that verification. whose knew and proceedings Calvinism intimately could give account of. that Calvinism. and Calvinism's assertion after him. the scientific sense it calls ' this is upon St. is it not talking about God just as if he were a man in the next street. the seeks exact knowledge. consents unto the covenant of reconciliation through Christ. shall. produce them. No one will deny that such is the behaviour of science towards religion in our day. and he both condemned and put to death for them. from whom it professes to have got this history sense which of what the covenant of redemption. the Christ. that whosoever heartily upon this very condition.' But only pushing the difficulty a stage For if it is St.ST.

and calls by the worthiest and most solemn name he can. this is as much as science can with strictness put there. must stand the tests of scientific examination. which employs a figured and But the language we imaginative language. But however much more than this the heart may with propriety put into its language respecting God. Neither is it that the scientific sense in us refuses to admit willingly and reverently the name of God. too. as a point in which the religious and the scientific sense may meet. it is scholastic and scientific Assertions in scientific language language. might willingly own and call God. as the least inadequate name for that universal order which the intellect feels after as a law. when the 9 . many may And it is not that the scientific sense in us denies the rights of the poetic sense. We. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM deplore it. science also for the fountain of all goodness.' stream of tendency by which all things strive to fulfil ' /aw of their being. Therefore. have just been quoting is not figurative and poetic language. and which. the which is God. if only. you would not pester one with your That pretensions of knowing all about him.i ST. the moment one says God. inasmuch as our idea of real welfare resolves itself into this fulfilment of the law of one's being. man rightly deems the fountain of all goodness. too/ might the men of science with truth say to the men of religion we. and the heart feels after as a * benefit. would gladly say God.

amplifying and again amplifying this its description. and that fashionable newspaper. to which I attached so much value. with the best intentions. to supply in very anxious about the matter. or prevent science from acknow ledging the importance and the scientific validity of propositions which are grounded upon the first have the new notion. researches in this now a good deal eclipsed in sphere are popularity by the sphere of physics. remarks the difference between this second notion and the notion it originally admitted. who proceeds in the fashion laid down in the Calvinistic thesis we have quoted. it said. had been among the main whose acquaintance me to 10 . the Morning Post. then science strikes in. Nevertheless. and no longer have the vogue which they once had. as the first can be facts. undertaking. comes at last. and shed light over it. and that his ideas and writings.ST. and guarding finally it amplified description by the most precise and rigid terms can find. by the first notion. I have related how an eminent physicist with researches in I am honoured. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i bent of trying to religious world. imagines have invented the author of the Sacra Privata . But this does not unsettle verified. and demands to notion verified. laid it down that he was Bishop of Calcutta. following its describe what it loves. as I seemed. to the notion of a sort of magnified and non-natural man. formation as to who the author really was.

British Puritanism exists. as it is called. Calvinism. correspondence with the teaching of St.i ST. and for for with facts scientific validity. without any foresight of faith or good . their posterity as represented in them. out of God's mere free grace and love. Calvinistic or Arminian. they should be disobedient. according to the unsearchable however. counsel of his will. and with entering God made. begins by laying down that God from all eternity decreed whatever was to that by his decree a come to pass in time certain number of angels and men are pre destinated. by which they were assured of everlasting life in return for perfect obedience. for the upholding of which. a fallen angel speaking in the form of a serpent. works in them. which at the same time was written in their hearts with into a contract them. our refresh to it is memory perhaps expedient as to these schemes of doctrine. foreordained. Adam and Eve. Paul. as has been said. then. and others to everlasting life . our first parents. broke this covenant of works. before we proceed to compare them. and of everlasting death if Our first parents. being enticed by Satan. became not only liable to . and their posterity in them and with them. . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM Therefore provocatives of the Indian mutiny. upright and able to keep his law. to everlasting death. n . whereby he extends or with holds mercy as he pleases. by eating the forbidden fruit and hereby they.

the bitter root of all our actual transgres sin sions. freely chosen to life a certain number of lost mankind. is our original tinually. they nature enemies to God and to all became spiritual evil con good. on condition that if he humbled himself so far as to assume the human nature in union with the divine nature.ST. appointed Redeemer. but is rather disposed to lie insensible in it till he perish. he should ransom and redeem them from sin and death. This is the covenant of redemption^ made and agreed upon. between God the Father and God the Son in the Council of the Trinity before the The sum of the covenant of world began. 12 . and inclined only to This. another covenant exists by which his condition is greatly affected. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i eternal death. in thought. and deed. and satisfy justice for them by giving obedience in their name. as . even to suffering the cursed death of the cross. says Cal vinism. but lost also their natural upright ness and all ability to please God . : by . says Calvinism. accepted bargain as Calvinism calls it and in the fulness of time came. The Son of God the or condition. gave them before the world began to God the Son. Yet. nay. word. by the eternal decree already mentioned. though man has neither power nor in clination to rise out of this wretched fallen state. redemption is this God having. submit himself to the law as surety for the elect. and purchase for them right eousness and eternal life.

and the practice of holiness being. applies to the elect the redemption Holy Spirit The Holy Spirit. 13 . They who are thus called and justified are by the same power likewise sanctified . put in their power. into the world. their good works also are But works accepted in him and rewarded. done in obedience to God's moral law. until the Man be partakers in is third person in answer it. through working faith in them. in the sense of deserved condemnation. the Trinity. All those his whom he has predestinated effectually calls to to life he in own time the release offered. . was born of the Virgin Mary. as soon as they give their consent heartily and repentantly. to the covenant of grace. the Bible. the altogether passive enables him to purchased by Christ. subjected himself to the law. and the satisfaction also which upon the cross Christ gave to justice in their name. God justifies them by imputing to them that perfect obedience which Christ gave to the law. God has in his word. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM Jesus Christ. As soon as the elect have faith in Jesus Christ. in this call. and completely paid the due ransom on the cross.i ST. that is. the dominion of carnal lusts being destroyed in them. corruption. revealed to man this covenant of grace or redemption. in spite of some remnants of Good works. are the fruits and evidences of a true faith and the of the faithful elect persons being accepted through Christ.

even in the present life. have the . can The elect can not please God and are sinful. the activity of God. certain souls assurance. and Calvinists again in the resurrection. . It is not necessary to enter into distinctions such as those between sublapsarians and supralapsarians. but shall certainly per and of severe to the end and be eternally saved this they may. very much of what God thinks and does and what God thinks and does is described with such particularity that the figure . ness. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i done by other and unregenerate men. and bodies Finally.ST. after justification and sanctification no more fall from the state of grace. and they remain thenceforth for ever with Christ in glory while all the wicked are sent away into hell . whom they have served. effectual calling. who believed that it was passed and independently. justification through are common to both. though they may be things which God commands. their are joyfully joined together with Satan. 14 . imputed righteous The passiveness of man. Calvinism. are the great features in this scheme there is very little of what man thinks and does. after death. We have here set down the main doctrines of Calvinistic Puritanism almost entirely in words of its own choosing. between Calvinists who believe that God's decree of elec tion and reprobation was passed in foresight of original sin and on account of it. The important absolutely points of original sin. free election.

At the Hampton Court Conference in 1 604. It informs and fashions the whole religion of Scotland. that the act of conversion depends upon the concurrence of man's free will some do teach and preach that good works are concauses with faith in the act of justification some have defended universal grace. that this proach against essential doctrine was not firmly enough held and set forth by her. Some have defended/ is the Puritan complaint. some have As Puritanism absolutely denied original sin. It is the doc trine which Puritan flocks delight to hear from It was Puritanism's constant re the Church of England. .' grew. Of the Calvinistic confes sions of faith of the sixteenth the century. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM we have used of the man in the next street cannot but recur strongly to our minds. the Belgic Confession. and again at the Savoy Conference in 1661. Helvetic Confession. as distin guished from the negative Protestantism of the Church of England. with which we are here concerned. . the re their ministers. proach regularly appeared. the the Calvinism is so Heidelberg Catechism. in the Committee of Divines appointed by the House of Lords in 1641. The positive Protestantism of Puritanism.i ST. the whole gross sub stance of Arminianism. moderate as to astonish any one who has been ' ' . the Calvinistic scheme of doctrine hardened and became stricter. has nourished itself with ardour on this scheme of doctrine. established and nonconforming.

However. a scheme of doctrine is not neces sarily false because of the style. and a sometimes even a philosophic depth. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM its i Even the later developments. and parties -contractors. covenants. or . conditions. such as could have proceeded from no one but the born AngloSaxon man of business. is the one merit of these documents. but it is a seriousness too strife ing. . of the of Dort no canons much-abused Synod one can read attentively through without finding in parts of them a genuine movement of thought. and what in his we call the British Philistine stands religious Seriousness capacity. sheer and stark. this has disappeared . The two Congregationalists form great divisions of English Congregational 16 churches believe/ . free.ST. in which its adherents may have at a particular moment enounced it. mixed with the alloy of mundane and hatred to be called a religious feel Not a trace of delicacy of perception. profession of faith prefixed to the Congregational Tear-Book is one of the Puritans. before us. twenty-five years used only to later. machinery bargains. In the documents powerful religious feeling. of philosophic thinking the mere rigidness and contentiousness of the controversialist and a Calvinism exaggerated till political dissenter it is and to complete the simply repelling a of whole. British or American. From the faults which disfigure the performance of the Westminster divines the . of the Westminster Assembly.

But the authors of the Tear-Book say with pride. and were given by an act of divine sovereignty to the Son of God. in no religious body. disobeyed state of innocence and purity. more whom lifted This is true. and involved all his posterity in the consequences of that fall. and that the Holy Spirit is given in consequence of Christ's mediation. and it is even gregationalists. it made against the call for subscription. To this profession of faith. VOL.' The essential points of Calvinism are all here. of the abler and the younger begin to be by the stream of modern ideas. that though they do not require subscription. 'that the first man fell from his divine the command. subscription is not required Puri tanism thus remaining honourably consistent with the protests which. perhaps.i ST. the Protestantism of one of English Puritans is undoubtedly division great Calvinist . there is. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM tells us. the Baptists holding in general the scheme of Calvinism yet more strictly than the to the Independents. up present time. ix 17 c . such firm and general agreement in doctrine as among Con- their Tear -Book . annually published in the Tear-Book of the Independents. They believe that all who will be saved were the objects of God's eternal and electing love. They believe that Christ meritoriously obtained eternal redemption for us. and it is a common boast of the Independent churches. Still. true of the flocks than of the ministers. at the Restoration.

The Methodist Magazine was and by Wesley the Arminian Magazine^ Arminianism his life. and who decrees . and also shows a deeper sense of reality than Arminianism. is. which. in their zeal to justify the morality. well known. from what perplexes The God of Calvinism is a magnified and nonnatural man who decrees at his mere good and other men pleasure some men to salvation the God of Arminianism is a to reprobation magnified and non-natural man who foreknows the course of each man's life. Wesleyan Methodism called as is Arminian. each of us to salvation or reprobation in accord But so long as ance with this foreknowledge. in a human sense. maintained that he sent 18 .ST. not Calvinist. Calvinism is both : Why theologically more coherent. to escape and shocks us in Calvinism. kept that title all through is an attempt made with the best intentions. in the practical man's fashion. we remain in this anthropomorphic order of ideas did not a the question will always occur being of infinite power and infinite love so make all men as that there should be no cause for this sad foreknowledge and sad decree respecting a number of them ? In truth. the Arminian Remonstrants. but not in a very profound philosophical spirit. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM other great division of English Puritan i The ism but is formed by the Methodists. of God's ways. and with much truth of practical sense. For instance. is apt to scrape the surface of things only.

just as a man. both of them showing with respect that Moses and Christ do and great are. contrary . Here we have the and non-natural man. we nevertheless describe Arminian Methodism. but in they here obtain Arminian the rebutting theory they are in accordance with historical truth and with the real march of human affairs. a theological triumph. who magnified again and and knows likes dislikes. however. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM to as his word one nation rather than another according worthy than another of such a preference. decrees. he says. as if he proceedings were in the next street for people to verify all we say about him. They allow more of in what we the not ourselves for the great fact assert. only on a scale immensely transcending any and whose thing of which we have experience . The better is Calvinists seize. sends his word to one nation rather than Calvinist's fault another at his mere good pleasure. that fact than the Arminians. The foremost place. we say. More and more prominently 19 . in the reasons he gives for it. puts aside the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination. The in his scientific appreciation of the fact. Calvinist doctors of the Synod of Dort he saw that one nation was more The have no difficulty in to the Jewish and not only do the direct nation. belongs in the Methodist scheme to the doctrine of justi fication by faith. God.i ST. which in the Calvinist scheme belongs to the doctrine of predestination.

adopted and developed by Luther. But to destruction sacred and devote He with his whole posterity must die . almost any popular but the following By the classically. does life PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM Methodism . says he Man. of Milton exhibit it of our first parents. God could not follow his Christ by without violating his justice. and current all through the popular theology of our day. said the Arminians) to follow his mercy. and to make with man the covenant of free justification by faith. and admitted to salvation. death for death. which Methodists era of his conversion to set It is the doctrine of Anselm. forth in the Confession of Augsburg. unless for him Some The other able. and as willing.ST. fall. pay rigid satisfaction . i modern elevate this as its essential doctrine and the era in their founder's select to celebrate is the it. By Adam's God's justice and mercy were placed in conflict. losing all. lines fall We shall find it in hymn we happen to take. 1 expiate his treason hath nought left. This doctrine. whereby. like the Calvinist doctrine of 20 . mercy his satisfaction gave the Father the right and power (nudum jus Patri acquire bat. he is held clear of sin by God. if a man has a sure trust and confidence that his sins are forgiven him in virtue of the satisfaction made to God for them by the death of Christ. To jj Die he or justice must .

and gives. do for ourselves.' Wesley's doctrines of conversion. and which has made both these halves of English their sensational side. all of them thus correspond with doctrines which we have noticed in Calvinism. laying all stress on a may wonderful and particular account of what God gives and works for us. known. in combining the tenet of election with the with Calvinism practices and most of the tenets of Methodism. Look for holiness and happiness. out of sin and fear into And again.' it ' ' ' 21 . of sinless perfection. as Puritanism so popular. of the new birth. the blood of his Son as translates us out of darkness into light. of assurance.i ST. The instantaneousness Wesley loved to ascribe to conversion and sanctification points the same ' God gives in a moment such a faith in way. be their called. The word solifidian points precisely to that which is common to both Calvinism and Methodism. Nay. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM whole history of God's predestination. also. and show a common character with them. plus the doctrine of predestination. It has thus an essential affinity . of the direct witness of the spirit. Calvinism is but this doctrine of original sin and justification. the ransom paid for thy proud stubborn soul. involves a proceedings. with disregard to what man does. first and almost sole place to what God does. of sanctification. the Welsh is have no difficulty as well Methodists. indeed. not on what we bring or Plead thou singly/ says Wesley. the blood of the covenant.

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
as

i

poor sinner pay, nothing to plead nothing is the side in This died" but Christ Wesley's his followers have above all which teaching seized, and which they are eager to hold forth the essential part of his legacy towards as them. It is true that from the same reason which those who know their prevents, as we have said, Bible and nothing else from really knowing even their Bible, Methodists, who for the most part know nothing but Wesley, do not really know even Wesley. It is true that what really characterises this most interesting and most attractive man, is not his doctrine of justification by faith, or any other of his set doctrines, but
sanctification just

you

are, as

a

that

has

to

is

entirely

godliness.

what we may call Mr. Alexander Knox,

his

genius

in his

for remarks

on his friend's life and character, insists much on an entry in Wesley's Journal in 1 767, where he seems impatient at the endless harping on the tenet of justification, and where he asks if it is not time to return to the word high plain " He that feareth God and worketh righteousness is Mr. Knox is right in accepted with him."
*
:

thinking that the feeling which made Wesley ask this is what gave him his vital worth and character as a man but it is not what gives him his character as the teacher of Methodism. Methodism rejects Mr. Knox's version of its founder, and insists on making the article of
;

22

i

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
Wesley an

justification the very corner-stone of the
edifice.

the truth undoubtedly is, that not by of what man brings, but by his assertion of what God gives, by his doctrines of conversion, instantaneous justification and
his

And

assertion

sanctification,

assurance,
live

does
'

Wesley
think,
I

You

and sinless perfection, and operate in Methodism. must first be or do thus or thus

works unto

Then (for sanctification). If this day.

you may expect it as now. It is of importance
is
:

you are seeking it by you seek it by faith, you are then expect it
;

to observe that there

an inseparable connection between these three expect it by faith^ expect it as you are^ points and expect it now. To deny one of them is to allow one is to allow to deny them all them all.' This is the teaching of Wesley, which has made the great Methodist half of English Puritanism what it is, and not his hesitations and recoils at the dangers of his own
;

teaching. No doubt, as the seriousness of Calvinism, its perpetual conversance with deep matters
Bible, have given force and fervency to Calvinist Puritans, so the loveliness of Wesley's piety, and what we have called his

and

with

the

genius for godliness, have sweetened and made amiable numberless lives of Methodist Puritans. But as a religious teacher, Wesley is to be judged by his doctrine and his doctrine, like
;

23

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

i

the Calvinistic scheme, rests with all its weight on the assertion of certain minutely described of us, proceedings on God's part, independent and leads its our experience, and our will not so much for in to look, religion, recipients on their own an arduous progress part, and the
;

and what

exercise of their activity, as for strokes of magic, may be called a sensational character.

In the Heidelberg Catechism, after an answer in which the catechist rehearses the popularly received doctrine of original sin and vicarious satisfaction for it, the catechiser asks the pertinent ' how do you know Unde id sets ? question all that? The Apostle Paul is, as we have already shown, the great authority for it whom formal theology invokes his name is used by the with same confidence. I popular theology a modern book of open popular religion at the account of a visit paid to a hardened criminal seized with terror the night before his execution. The visitor says / now stand in Paul's place^ and say In Christ's stead we pray you, be reconciled to God. I to ye beg you accept the pardon of all your sins, which Christ has
'

:

;

'

:

:

purchased for you, and which God freely bestows on you for his sake. If you do not I God's ways are not as our understand, say And the narrative of the criminal's con ways.' version goes on That night was spent in the singing praises of the Saviour who had
:

c

:

purchased his pardon.'
24

i

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

Both Calvinism and Methodism appeal, there fore, to the Bible, and, above all, to St. Paul,
for the history they

propound of the
;

relations

but Calvinism relies most, in enforcing it, on man's fears, Methodism on man's hopes. Calvinism insists on man's it then works the sense of being under a curse in him, and appeals pre and terror sin, misery, eminently to the desire to flee from the wrath
;

between God and man

to

come. Methodism, too, insists on his being under a curse but it works most the sense of hope in him, the craving for happiness, and appeals
;

No pre-eminently to the desire for eternal bliss. one, however, will maintain that the particular account of God's proceedings with man, whereby Methodism and Calvinism operate on these desires, proves itself by internal evidence, and establishes without external aid its own scientific So we may either directly try, as best validity.
we
it,

can,

its

scientific validity in itself;

or, as it

professes

to

have Paul's authority to
first

support

we may

inquire

what

is

really Paul's

account

of God's proceedings with man, and this tallies with the Puritan account and confirms it. The latter is in every way the safer and the more instructive course to follow. And we will follow Puritanism's example in taking St. Paul's mature and greatest work, the Epistle to the Romans, as the chief place for finding what he really thought on the points in

whether

question.
25

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
have
is

i

We
what

already

said

elsewhere,

1

indeed,

a man so separated forgotten, that what St. Paul, from us by time, race, training and circumstances, cannot make sure of knowing really thought, we All we can do is to get near it, read exactly. the sort of critical tact which the with him ing mind and its history, and the of human the study acquaintance with many great writers, naturally one gives for following the movement of any writer's thought reading him, also, single great
;

very true,

and what must never be

without

to which we preconceived It his thoughts fit themselves. of the translation the is evident that English to the has been made by men Romans Epistle with their heads full of the current doctrines of election and justification we have been noticing and it has thereby received such a bias, of which a strong example is the use of the word atonement the eleventh verse of the fifth chapter, that perhaps it is almost impossible for any one who reads the English translation only, to

theories

want

to

make

;

m

take into his

mind

Paul's

colouring from the besides discarding the English translation, we must bear in mind, if we wish to get as near Paul's real thought as possible, two things

thought without a But current doctrines.

which have

greatly increased

the facilities for

misrepresenting him. In the first place, Paul, like the other Bible1

See Culture and Anarchy, chap.

v.

26

i

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

writers, and like the Semitic race in general, has a much juster sense of the true scope and limits of diction in religious deliverances than we have.

He

uses within the sphere of religious emotion expressions which, in this sphere, have an elo

quence and a propriety, but which are not to be taken out of it and made into formal scientific
propositions. This is a point very necessary to be borne in mind in reading the Bible. The prophet Nahum

God is jealous^ says in the book of his vision and the Lord revengeth ; * and the authors of the
'
:

'

Westminster Confession, drawing out a

scientific

the proposition that God is a theology, lay jealous and vengeful God, and think they prove their proposition by quoting in a note the words But this is as if we took from a of Nahum. chorus of ^Eschylus one of his grand passages about guilt and destiny, just put the words straight into the formal and exact cast of a sentence of Aristotle, and said that here was the

down

scientific

matters.

teaching of Greek philosophy on these The Hebrew genius has not, like the Greek, its conscious and clear-marked division into a poetic side and a scientific side the scientific side is almost absent. The Bible utterances have often the character of a chorus of ^Eschylus, but never that of a treatise of Aristotle. We, like the Greeks, possess in our and speech thought the two characters but so
; ;

1

Nahum
27

i.

2.

ST.
far as

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

i

the Bible is concerned we have generally confounded them, and have used our double possession for our bewilderment rather than The admirable turned it to good account. maxim of the great mediaeval Jewish school of
Biblical critics
the children
:

The

Law

speaks with the tongue

a maxim which is the of of men, of all sane Biblical criticism, foundation very was for centuries a dead letter to the whole body of our Western exegesis, and is a dead letter to

the whole body of our popular exegesis still. Taking the Bible language as equivalent with the language of the scientific intellect, a language

adequate and absolute, we have never been in a position to use the key which this maxim of the Jewish doctors offers to us. But

which

is

strain the religious expressions of the Semitic genius were meant, in the minds of those who gave utterance to them,
it is

certain that,

whatever

to bear, the particular strain

people put upon them not meant to bear.

is

which we Western one which they were

have used the word Hebraise * for another purpose, to denote the exclusive attention to the moral side of our nature, to conscience, and to
doing rather than knowing so, to describe the vivid and figured in which St. Paul, within way the sphere of religious emotion, uses words, without carrying them outside it, we will use the word Orientalise. When Paul says ' God
;
:

We

1

See Culture and Anarchy chap.

iv.

28

i

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
;

hath concluded them all in unbelief that he might have mercy upon all,' 1 he Orientalises that is, he does not mean to assert formally that God acted with this set design, but being full of the happy and divine end to the unbelief spoken of, he, by a vivid and striking figure, represents the unbelief as actually caused with a view to this But when the Calvinists of the Synod of end. Dort, wishing to establish the formal proposition that faith and all saving gifts flow from election and nothing else, quote an expression of Paul's He hath similar to the one we have quoted, chosen us,' they say, not because we were, but that we might be holy and without blame before him,' they go quite wide of the mark, from not perceiving that what the apostle used as a vivid figure of rhetoric, they are using as a formal
' '

scientific proposition.

Paul Orientalises, the fault is not with is misunderstood, but with the and Western readers who unintelligent prosaic have not enough tact for style to comprehend But he also Judaises his mode of expression. and here his liability to being misunderstood by

When

him when he

;

us

Western people

is

in the critical habit of himself

undoubtedly due to a defect and his race. A

himself, he uses the Jewish Scriptures in a Jew's arbitrary and uncritical fashion, as if they

Jew

had a talismanic character as if for a doctrine, however true in itself, their confirmation was
;

1

Rom.

xi. 32.

29

ST.
still

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

i

if this confirmation was necessary, and as to be got from their mere words alone, how ever detached from the sense of their context,

and however violently allegorised

or otherwise

wrested. To use the Bible in this way, even for purposes of illustration, is often an interruption to the
to use it in this argument, a fault of style way for real proof and confirmation, is a fault of An example of the first fault may be reasoning. seen in the tenth chapter of the Epistle to the Romans, and in the beginning of the third
;

apostle's point in either place, his point that faith comes by hearing, and his point that God's oracles were true though

chapter.

The

the Jews did not believe them,

would stand

much

without their scaffolding of Bibleinstance of the second fault is in quotation. the third and fourth chapters of the Epistle to the
clearer

An

Galatians,

where the

Biblical argumentation
is

by
as far

which the

apostle seeks to prove his case unsound as his case itself is sound.

How
It

these faults are due to the apostle himself, far to the requirements of those for

how
he
is

whom

wrote,

we need

not

now

investigate.

enough that he undoubtedly uses the letter of and Scripture in this arbitrary and Jewish way thus Puritanism, which has only itself to blame for him when he Orientalises, misunderstanding the himself some of may fairly put upon apostle its blame for misunderstanding him when he
;

30

in any series of ideas. we must also find out for our selves the order in which Paul's ideas naturally stand. who did not write scientific treatises. the ideas come is of great importance to the final result. remarked how what sets the Calvinist in motion seems to be the desire to flee from the wrath to come . We j y 1 Acts xxiv. it and Western people as necessary for us modern him.' * to translate . and as Paul.i ST. to have a conscience void of offence towards God and men continually. To get. never set out his doctrine with a design of exhibiting it as a scientific whole. I c exercke myself/ he told Felix. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM Judaises. which has merely taken his letter and recast it in the formal propositions of a but his letter itself modern scientific treatise can be it be must recast before properly conveyed And as the order in which. 1 6. and the connection between one of them and the other. It is the impulse which sets Paul in motion ? we have elsewhere noted as the master-impulse C the desire for righteousness. at is what Paul really thought and meant to say. the desire for eternal bliss. 31 . And not Puritanism. as compared with the schemes exhibited by Puritanism. such by propositions. in order to arrive at the real scheme of his teaching. and for Judaising so strenuously along with him. and what sets the Methodist in What is it motion. therefore. of Hebraism. but had always religious edification in direct view.

Matt. and also his desire to give effect to the 1 commandment. to establish Ps. keep the commandments. 7 xi. precious are thy thoughts unto me. 2 Luke 28 . 32 . the fountain of all the law of God him the giver of goodness. It was the greatness of the Hebrew race that it felt the authority of this order. and just. .' both his conviction that the commandment is 2 holy.' Let no man deceive you. its ' preciousness and its beneficence. cxix. and God. 7. xix. c God The law of thy mouth is better than How ! O ' ' thousands of gold and silver/ soul is con sumed with the very fervent desire that it hath * It was the greatness alway unto thy judgments. i John iii. so strongly. and keep it. in action. 17 cxix. V source of the moral order in especial. cxxxix. the sense of harmony with the access to God^ the . pre-eminently the universal order. was pre-eminently to The end and aim of all religion. 20. this moral order. .' If thou wouldst enter into life. or righteous was ness. and good . Blessed are they who hear the word of God.ST. he that doeth righteous < * ness is is What distinguishes Paul righteous. and harmony with it. To the partaking of the divine universal order that our faith and hope might be in nature God that we might have life and have it more meant for the Hebrew. access to the abundantly. 72 . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i Hebrew.' of their best individuals that in them this feeling My was incessantly urgent to prove itself in the only sure manner. the moral law.

10. enabled him to discern and follow the range of the St. with extraordinary His religion had. VOL. shall see. without specially all good moral them. . which gave this to his after a clear It conscience such endeavour meaning and insight efficacity. of moral habits to Lists of this sort might be pursued or avoided. 9. Paul will they be wearisome. a preponderantly mystic side. sum 1 Rom. to see that there could ' . as we force and closeness.i ST. tribulation and anguish to every one that worketh good^ l and peace glory. nay. It PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM was this it. single words. IX 3-3 D . ' ! Paul's piercing practical religious sense. whoever he may be. honour. both nothing is so natural to the mystic as in rich to granted. desire for righteousness and of his thorough hearty . light. for in making them he touched the solid ground which was the solid ground of his the basis of his religion. as to man's actions and as and to his heart thoughts. Upon every soul of man that worketh evi/. incessant lists. ii. principles enumerating and habits yet nothing is more remarkable in Paul than the frequent. and commandment. such up and take for as faith. love. was which gave him be no radical difference. between Jew and Gentile. in the most particular detail. joined to his strong intellectual power. in a less sincere and profound writer be formal but to no attentive reader of and wearisome St. in respect of salvation and the way to it.

and at points the most opposite.' joy. ness. significance * ' come out. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i on such a ground conception of it. the more does their any one go through for himself the enumeration. for fear he should deep resolve to is that good and by possibility be leaving still behind him some weakness indulged. long-suffering. he marks a duty at every point of our nature.ST. and only was so strong a superstructure possible. His diligent comprehensiveness in his plan of duties is only less admirable than his diligent The sterner virtues and the gentler. c : peace. some subtle promptings to evil not yet brought into captivity. of fruits of the spirit love. or let him of things which are not convenient merely consider with attention this catalogue towards the end of the fifth chapter of the Epistle to the Galatians. 2 R om x jj 2 34 . mildness. 23. It has not been enough remarked how this 1 Verses 22. In make out by actual trial what 2 he goes perfect and acceptable will of God/ back upon himself again and again. 1 The faith. kindness. let . goodness. The more one studies these lists. To illustrate this. too long to be quoted here. self-control. in the four last verses of the first chapter of the Epistle to the Romans. accurately what he meant by his conscience will not let him his rest till he has c embraced them all. sincerity. wrote with this searching man who minuteness knew sin and righteous and did not use these words at random.

unwearying forbearance. and of doing justice to his efforts to fulfil that Never surely did such a controversialist. humble ness of mind. interest. and a man of is a man of But with Paul the feeling feeling. which binds humanity together. Every attentive regarder of the character of Paul. gentleness. not only as he was before his conversion but as he appears to us till his end. . of their qualities. Because they are ardent and severe they have no sense for because they are sweet gentleness and sweetness and gentle they have no sense for severity and ardour. the earnest : with which he recommends bowels of mercies/ as he calls them meekness. crowned all of them with that emotion of charity * which is the bond of perfectness the other. A Puritan is a Puritan. part. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM incomparable honesty and depth in Paul's love of righteousness is probably what chiefly explains his conversion. blameless/ was so large that it carried him out of Pharisaism and beyond it. Most men have the defects. as concerning zeal. the force with which he dwells on the solidarity the joint (to use the modern phrase) of man. as the saying is. the duty of respecting every one's part in life.i ST. same fulness of moral nature which made very him an ardent Pharisee. 35 . insistence ' : ' . touching the righteous ness which is in the law. must have been struck with two things one. ' persecuting the church. when once he found how much needed doing in him which Pharisaism could not do. that is.

with such manifest sincerity and such persuasive emotion. insist so often and so were admirably that the lines of other workers At no time. except in vision. and which were somewhat alien. of Jesus whom. and put so prominently forward. who took ness ! . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i with such energy his own line. and so strive to make himself and others fulfil. the teacher who was meek and lowly in heart. but who was in every one's words and thoughts. so possessed with the hunger and thirst for righteousness. the qualities of meekness and gentle Never surely did a worker. to his Therefore we cannot own particular nature. and ! such a master of sarcasm and invective. and who was so born to preponderate and predominate in whatever line he took. commend.ST. into this but believe that spirit. and activity. precisely because it was so possessed by it. who said men were brothers and must love one another. and that 36 . temperance. the characteristic doctrines of Jesus. that the last should often be first. which brought a new aliment to feed this hunger and thirst. he had never seen. certainly. as his own just as good did Paul arrive at practising quite perfectly what he thus preached but this only sets in a stronger of righteousness which light the thorough love made him seek out. parts of righteousness which do not force themselves on the common conscience like the duties of soberness. that the exercise of dominion and lordship had nothing in them desirable. perhaps.

how. as compared with the doing ready for the crisis doctrines offered standard of perfection. Then. Need it be said that he never forgot them. for the practice of righteousness what the others were for the theory sympathetic utterances. for the very sake of righteousness to put the law of righteousness in the second place. after doing. I say^ he returns again and again to the elucidation of his one sole design in all he is his doing . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM as little children. after the satisfaction thus given to his desire for a full conception of righteousness. new fields of righteous Such ness to the eyes of this indefatigable explorer of it. which made the inmost chords of . we are still unprofitable These teachings were. how he labours to prevent 37 all possibility . came Christ's well as injunctions to make clean the inside as the outside. to beware of the least leaven of not hypocrisy and self -flattery. and which irresistibly drew him sooner or later towards their utterer. and to seek outside the law itself for a power to fulfil the law. the injunction to feel. Paul. finally. being vibrate. all we can. of saying and and.i ST. to a man like servants. how. and had no small part of his conversion. that. and enlarged the domain of duty of which Pharisaism showed him only a portion. we must become sank down and worked there even before Paul ceased to in getting him persecute. and that It is in all his pages they have left their trace ? he is driven to when even affecting see.

Puritanism. Paul's ideas makes a signal difference between him and Puritanism. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i of misunderstanding. and even then cannot rest without perpetually telling us why he is gone there. and good ? Because we are no longer under the law. commandment is holy.ST. and justification is but the keeping of the command nothing. What earnestness and pathos in the assurance c If there had been a law given which could have given life. finds its iii. and to show that he is for a moment in only leaving the moral law order to establish it for ever more victoriously. would have said. said. as we have 1 starting- Gal. could we hear him. out of whom an astound ing criticism has deduced Antinomianism. ments of God. just. righteousness should c Do I condemn the have been by the law I' 1 ' do I forget that the he law ? keeps saying : ' . 21. just what he said about circumcision and uncircumcision in his own day Election is nothing. is in truth so possessed with horror of Antinomianism. are we to Am I seeking to make the course of my sin ? life other than a service and an This man. verily. 38 . This man. that he goes to grace for the sole purpose of extirpating it. whom Calvin and Luther and their followers have shut up into the two scholastic doctrines of election and justification.' This foremost place which righteousness and yours ' obedience ? ' : takes in the order of St.

is of awe and fear caused by the threatening aspect of man's condition under these contracts . what God has done and does. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM point either in the desire to flee from eternal wrath or in the desire to obtain eternal bliss. condition . Puritanism has learned from revelation. as it says. foregone events. of the substance of those contracts. and of man's position under The great concern of Puritanism is them. justified thing and to have the assurance that. of mankind being under a curse. does Calvinism make man's desire Still more righteousness is among the saving graces applied 39 .i ST. a proper result of this condition. if it is a Puritan ism of a gloomy turn. of gratitude and hope caused by the favourable aspect of it. and comes in but to attest and confirm our assurance have seen of what God has done for us. its of righteousness. is the great What there is left for man to do. the matter. with the operation of those contracts on man's leading thought. and works of righteousness mere evidences and benefits of more important things the desire to work . the covenant passed. he is justified and sanctified then the desire and works of righteousness follow as this in : . if of a cheerful turn. without seeking it by works. of certain con tracts having been passed concerning mankind in the Council of the Trinity. a particular history of the first man's fall. But in either case. human work We the first Wesley's words already quoted and for man is to be a sanctified. is secondary.

to establish our assurance. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM the elect. and builds upon that thought his whole system. But this difference constitutes from the very outset an immense scientific superiority for the scheme of Paul. but is to science of none the more value on that account. the Bible . but they are far blinder and less scientific elements of it. Hope and fear are elements of human nature like the love of right. Denique. a clear conscience and righteousness. A which . . of things. the things things it thus declares have the witness of our hopes and fears this is the line of thought followed by Puritanism. Nor does our calling such a scheme a revela tion mend the matter. Spirit to i by the Holy and the last of those graces. fast of al^ after faith in the promises and after the witness of the Spirit. gives the of indeed be of a nature to this. may contrary move our hopes and fears. comes. Instead of covering the scientific of a conception by the inadequacy of a revelation. says the Synod of Dort. But what science seeks after is Bible is c The a divine revelation declares ' certain . and limits the sphere of that authority to the sphere of 40 a satisfying rational conception scheme which fails to give this.ST. who starts with the thought of a conscience void of offence towards God and man. science rather proves authority the authority of a revelation by the scientific of the adequacy conceptions given in it. It is manifest how unlike is this order of ideas to Paul's order.

having begun outside the sphere of reality and experience. . undoubted force and importance for he appeals to a rational con ception which is a part. therefore. makes in the sphere of its first appeal. reality and experience. is That the rationally so little to take it on the not inclines science. hope for science knows that numberless conceptions not rationally satisfying are yet the ground of . is in our actual experience 1^ among the greatest of facts. this scheme. the more will science be inclined to doubt the correctness of any deduction which draws from a scheme it. . for science. i^' he commences has. however this law may have originated. nature so far as this nature as is moral. facts. Things they truly are. does not much mend matters and fear. seems to contain precious and striking things. but to doubt whether it The first appeal which is really in the Bible.D PROTESTANTISM The more an alleged revelation that adequacy. and perhaps the chief part. Paul does not begin outside the sphere of he begins with an appeal to reality and science And the appeal here with which experience. which rationally is not scheme of Puritanism satisfying. are the object-matter of science . PAUL AN. L . fear. satisfying authority of the Bible. the conception of the law of of our experience human righteousness the very law and ground of .i ST. hope and . the appeal to the witness of human to science. within the sphere of these things. and the moral law in human nature.

long-suffering. following a certain necessary orbit. 1 Gal. peace. 22. goodness. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i If I were not afraid of intruding upon Mr. Ruskin's province. I might point out the witness itself bears to this law as a which etymology prime element and ]( clue in man's constitution. the go . v. mildness.ST. the Greek word for justice and righteousness has for its foundation. is to be found in its agreement with the importance attached to this law by teachers the most unlike him . as in the eye of religion ' it seems to Would gain by having uniqueness. science has no difficulty in going along with him. the law of reason and conscience. since in the eye of science an experience gains as much by having universality. The best confirmation of the scientific validity of the importance which Paul thus attaches to the law of righteousness. When he fixes as man's right aim love. God as moral law. But for these fanciful helps there is no need. self-control/ witness to the truth of what he says to an experience too intimate to need illustration or argument. there are way we are meant to going c c the word way or road languages in which is also the word for right reason and duty . some say. * he appeals for faith. 42 . righteousness means going straight. the idea of describing Our word ' ' a certain line. When with affirming the grandeur and necessity of the law of righteousness. kindness. 23. Paul starts ' joy.

i ST. So that glory looking to this clue. Bishop every is conscious of an opposition in him between the flesh and the spirit.' Such was precisely the aim of Paul also it is an aim to which science : . prater amare Deurn. of the wrath of God. way or other. quoted lines of the Roman 43 . like the Manichaean fancy. our partaking. is to follow that unites . says man Wilson. Paul of God or of the says. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM ' you know. For on our following the clue of * moral order.' says Epictetus. Video meliora prothe universal order. depends our happiness or misery . and fearing to lose scientific truth Imitation : hold on it. say the thousand-times- The philo poet. of does not this conflict sophical explanation indeed attribute. we may in strict say with the author of the Omnia vanitas. But clue in to God. does And a satisfying rational conception. as St. central us to our moral being which no easy task and here are on the we most sure again ground of and In some experience psychology. the means to per fection which Socrates followed ? they were in every single matter which came before these him he made the rule of reason and conscience his one rule to follow. or losing it. our life or death in the true sense of those words our harmony with the universal . homage to this aim hope and fear properly attach as themselves. boque deteriora sequor. order or our disharmony with it . serve et illi soli servire.

and impulses driving . they require to be harmonised because this aims directly at our total moral our harmony as moral beings with welfare. and its the forces in And. and is indeed the voice of that order expressing itself in us. Gal< vi> 8> 44 . 5. this with tendency. not evil in themselves. blood and nerves. this individual body. and with desires lusts of the flesh. this arbitrary and unregulated action of theirs can produce only confusion and misery. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM evil to the flesh i any inherent all workings us are. each of us and he says that a 2 his own man who iii. the law of our mind. separate 1 way Col. Paul talks of a man sowing to his 2 because each of us has of his own flesh. this congeries of flesh and bones. though they are right to moderate. the will of God. the evil which flows from these diverse workings is undeniable. inordinate affection^ according to the ad mirable rendering of Paul's Greek word in our English Bible. used by passion. in themselves beneficent. 1 take naturally no account of anything but themselves . takes account of the universal moral order. different from that of every one else. like and tendencies our proper central moral tendency the desire But of righteousness. and derives thence a pre-eminence and a . according to the Greek word Paul. the law of our nature and the law of God.ST. The spirit. The the law in our members.

i ST. and through reason and righteousness we move in this universal order and with it. But he of sowing to the spirit because there one central moral tendency which for us and for all men is the law of our being. those multitudinous. 1 Rom. eager. and dismay. It even enlarges their power. That natural law of reason and conscience which all men have. But to how all to find the energy and power of bring the flesh. and incessant impulses. 9. . swarming. 45 . ungoverned working is increased by being filled with a deepened sense of I was disharmony. is our peace and happiness. tyrants. sows to and can talks is reap sows to a no worthy thousand harvest. because it makes us and the confusion caused feel our impotence . into obedience to the those self. vii. remorse. In this name conformity to the will of God^ as we religiously the moral order.seeking tendencies central tendency is ? Mere commanding and for of no avail. was sufficient by their our c * . of immoral tranquillity could not in man be permanent. . the law alive without Paul once/ says the natural play of all the forces and desires in me went on smoothly enough so long as I did not attempt to introduce order and But the condition regulation among them. and only irritates oppo bidding sition in the desires it tries to control. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM this.

the by the exhibition of the moral sense more poignant and offspring of a little it might show of subtle however stricter. man that I am. righteousness more authoritatively .' 1 All do what they would not. 1 Rom. availed to bind men to So we come to the word which righteousness. who shall deliver me from the * . the Jew with the ' body of this death ' 2 ? Hitherto. than the moral sense insight and delicacy. the word all. miserable. As the word righteous ness is mind and word of with law of Moses. 23.ST. All have sinned. iii. alike fail to achieve righteousness. and do not what they would all feel themselves en O wretched slaved. 2 Rom. 46 . we have followed Paul in the we have now come with sphere of morals . and come short of the glory of God. therefore. nature. the law of nature. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM i by itself to produce a consciousness Matters became only worse and disquietude. Paul's entire life. of rebellion to keep yet did not supply any sufficient power of the law Neither it. Mosaic law. is the governing word of the Epistle to the Romans. vii. impotent. the governing word of St. of the Mosaic code increased the feeling of dismay and helplessness it set forth the law of and minutely. so the word all is the governing The Gentile this his chief epistle. guilty. The very stringency of the mass of mankind. nor the law of Moses. 24.

necessary. and found him always We treading straits solid ground.i ST. 47 . justification.* will proceed to show that Paul has recourse to We nothing of the kind. ' the great cries Puritanism. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM him to the point where he enters the sphere of religion. substitution. there is no issue for him now. but the issue we have always declared he finds. and imputed righteousness. Religion is that which binds and holds us to the practice of righteousness. last. have accompanied Paul.' apostle is about to become even as one of us . He has recourse to our theurgy of election. till he where is a binding and brought to holding power of is this ' kind at Here is the critical point for Now the scientific worth of his doctrine.

Even the points. called upon them to prove anything but themselves. so far as we have followed him. and rests the whole weight of its antecedent theurgy upon the witness to it they offer. and from authority on the other hand. in which they both meet. Puritanism's history of original sin. election and justification. misery and but they can happiness. 48 . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n II We come by have seen its how Puritanism seems to religion in the first instance theo. the joyful witness of a good conscience from righteousness. which this establishes between Paul and Puritanism is immense. Sin and righteousness. psychologically and from experience. and is all in Paul's favour. The scientific difference. from of sin miserable sense unrighteousness. Paul meet. . also. and has not yet. therefore. They are facts of human nature and can be verified by science.ST. as we have already remarked. Paul begins with these facts. these are points in which Puri tanism and St. they have not reached The in the same order or by the same road. But whereas Puritanism. can prove themselves no means by prove. ends with these facts. K logically Paul by his. so far as science is concerned. together with their eternal accompaniments of fear and hope.

conversion of Paul is in itself an incident of precisely the same order a as the conversion soldier of in Sampson the campaign relates Staniforth. and which we may perfectly admit to have happened just in the manner related. for the most part. and that this conversion it was which in his not from any own judgment gave But the version their authority.ii ST. Methodist himself VOL. in E 49 . indeed. without on that account attri buting to those who underwent them any source of certitude for a scheme of doctrine which this doctrine does not on other and better grounds possess. experience. Surely this proposition has only to be The clearly stated in order to be self-evident. derive their doctrines sanction. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM is Puritanism that Paul's fond of maintaining. Staniforth his conversion as follows. the event of Paul's conversion is described. it is clear that. agreement with science and but from his miraculous conversion. his conversion adds to his doctrines no force at all which they do not already possess in themselves. whatever sanction the miracle of his con to them his own eyes have lent to afterwards propounded by Paul. just . with perfect good faith. Paul's conversion is for science an event of precisely the same nature as the conversions of which the history of Methodism relates so may in doctrines many as events described. ix of Fontenoy. for science.

let me be where I would. and I saw Jesus hanging At the same moment these on the cross. journey as we have said. which must prove itself and its own scientific value before 50 . the same still while I was awake.'' Not the to narrative. the same appearance was still before my eyes. I I closed my eyes. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM : n words which bear plainly marked on them the faith very stamp of good c From twelve at night I till two it was my I turn to stand sentinel at a a fellow-sentinel. Thy . of Paul's Damascus. for the scientific truth of any scheme of doctrine propounded by Sampson Staniforth.ST. not to rise. was rilled with wonder and astonishment. and are forgiven thee. honesty makes nothing. desired had did. in the Acts. sins are forgiven thee. which he willingly determined and down knelt I as I was alone. but to continue crying and wrestling How with God till he had mercy on me. : him to As soon : . " words were applied to my heart Thy sins All guilt was gone. could more convince us." my soul was filled with unutterable peace the fear of death and hell was vanished away. but the impression was and for about ten weeks. go away. of its own But this honesty. as every one will admit. and the same impression upon my heart. tell but I cannot that agony long I was in as I looked up to heaven I saw the clouds open exceeding bright. but dangerous post.

All thinking about it. as Puritanism commences. although Puritanism. rely on facts of experience and assert nothing which have now to see whether Paul. to his religion properly so called. subjective with all their great gifts. in passing from the undoubted facts of experience. but an impotence to be got rid of. science can admit it. with a batch of arbitrary and unscientific assumptions. human on which nature. therefore. beyond what rid of We indispensable for the firm effort to get waste of energy and waste of time. has remained intensely absorbed in the con templation of it. unlike Puritanism. so far as we have yet followed them. had this sense not . and indeed has never properly the sense of sin. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM .ii ST. Precisely the same is it with Paul's doctrine and we repeat. however. and the Greeks. thinking this impossible. We left Paul in collision with a fact of We science cannot verify. it is also perished. but in itself a sterile fact. in which so many have This sense of sin. Sin is not a got beyond it. they. with which he begins. a fact it is possible to dwell too long. to have not strongly enough to beget possible the firm effort to get rid of it. monster to be mused on. then enter that element of morbid and is it. abandons in any essential points of his teaching the advantage with which he started. is brooding. and ends. that he and his doctrine have herein a great advantage over Puritanism. in that.

that ' and stands absolute and what in even.' 3 He 1C :new. have taken hold upon me so that I its of this iniquities not able to look up they are more than the therefore my heart faileth hairs of mine head 1 the hairs of mine head. than more are me. . 2 James ii. xl. no satisfaction of all the requirements men may make of us. . ii. 2 he knew it himself. therefore. Paul with himself to difficulty. 12. nothing outward. a dozen others and this it crop up without our expecting it man who deals seriously is which drives the ' . that the law of the moral order l/st stretches beyond us and our private conscience. can give peace of conscience of conscience. whose praise is not of men but of God. Rom. 52 .ST. He knew. and the guilty of all unrest this knowledge gave him was his very . is independent of our sense of having kept it r starting-point. yet this 1 itself it is . members are indeed a hydrabrood when we are working against one fault. I is may know nothing not enough. 29. I may 3 Ps. . though against myself. so far at least as his own conscience and inward satisfaction are concerned. 10. nay to despair. too. also. no privileges of any sort. strongly PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM enough . did not need James to tell him that whoever offends on one point is. n strength in the Hebrew people's mainsprings.' They The motions of what Paul calls ' the law in our am . people is one And no Hebrew prophet or psalmist felt what ' Mine sin was more powerfully than Paul.

ii

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
be
1

still

not
to

just.

Finally,
c

merely

know

all this
;

Paul knew that and say it, is of no use,

advances us nothing the kingdom of God is not in word but in power.' 2 have several times said that the Hebrew race apprehended God, the universal order by which all things fulfil the law of their being, chiefly as the moral order in human nature, and

We

that

it

was

their greatness that they

apprehended

him
it

is

But distinctly and powerfully. also characteristic of them, and perhaps it
as this so

what mainly distinguishes their spirit from the spirit of mediaeval Christianity, that they constantly thought, too, of God as the source of life and breath and all things, and of what
is

This they called fulness of life in all things. of was common to them with the way thinking Greeks whereas the Greeks threw although, more delicacy and imagination into it, the Hebrews threw more energy and vital warmth. But to the Hebrew, as to the Greek, the gift of life, and health, and the world, was divine, ' as well as the gift of morals. God's righteous ness,' indeed, standeth like the strong mountains, his judgments are like the great he is deep
; '
;

'

'

righteous judge, strong and patient, who is 3 This is the Hebrew's provoked every day.' first and as the deepest conception of God, source of the moral order. But God is also, to the Hebrew, our rock, which is higher than
a
'

1

I

Cor.

iv. 4.

2

i

Cor.

iv.

20.

3

Ps. xxxvi.

6

;

vii.

II.

53

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
'
'

H

the power by which we have been upholden ever since we were born/ that has fashioned us and laid his hand upon us and c made us envelops us on every side, that has

we/
'

and wonderfully/ and whose mercy is 1 He is the power that over all his works/ c saves both man and beast, gives them drink of his pleasures as out of the river/ and with whom is 'the well of life/ 2 In his speech at Athens, Paul shows how full he, too, was of and in the famous passage in the this feeling
fearfully
;

c

of the Epistle to the Romans, the existence of the natural moral law, the source he assigns to this law is not merely God in conscience, the righteous judge, but God in the world and the workings of the world, the eternal and divine power from
first

chapter

where he

asserts

and wholesome energy proceed. 3 This element in which we live and move and have our being, which stretches around and beyond the strictly moral element in us, around and beyond the finite sphere of what is originated, measured, and controlled by our own understanding and will, this infinite element is very present to Paul's thoughts, and makes a profound impression on them. By this element we are receptive and influenced, not originative and influencing now, we all of us receive far

which

all life

;

more than we
1

originate.
;

Our
5,
3

pleasure from a
14
;

Ps. Ixi. 2

Ixxxi. 6

;

cxxxix.

cxlv. 9.
i.

2

Ps. xxxvi. 6, 8, 9.

Rom.

19-21.

54

n

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
;

our pleasure, even, spring day we do not make from an approving conscience we do not make. And yet we feel that both the one pleasure and the other can, and often do, work with us in So we get the a wonderful way for our good.

thought of an impulsion outside ourselves which No man,' as at once awful and beneficent. hath quickened his the Hebrew psalm says,
'

is

'

own way

soul.'

l

'

I

of

man
is

is

know,' says Jeremiah, that the not in himself; it is not in man
2

c

that walketh

to direct his
this feeling
;

steps.'

Most

true

and the greater men are, the more natural is this feeling to them. Great men like Sylla and Napoleon have loved

and natural

star

to attribute their success to their fortune, their ; religious great men have loved to say that

their sufficiency

was of God. 3

But

through

every great spirit runs a train of feeling of this sort and the power and depth which there undoubtedly is in Calvinism, comes from Paul is Calvinism's being overwhelmed by it. but it not, like Calvinism, overwhelmed by it mind and before his is strongly agitates always
;

;

The voluntary, rational, and thoughts. human world, of righteousness, moral choice, But effort, filled the first place in his spirit. the necessary, mystical, and divine world, of influence, sympathy, emotion, filled the second ; and he could pass naturally from the one world to the other. The presence in Paul of this twohis
1

Ps. xxii. 29.

2

Jer. x. 23.

3

2 Cor.

iii.

5.

55

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

n

fold feeling acted irresistibly upon his doctrine. What he calls ' the power that worketh in us/ l

and that produces results transcending all our he instinctively expectations and calculations, our personal agencies of sought to combine with conscience. and reason Of such a mysterious power and its operation some clear notion may be got by anybody who has ever had any overpowering attachment, or
has been, according to the
in love.

common

expression,

Every one knows how being in love for the time a man's spiritual atmosphere, changes and makes animation and buoyancy where before One may even there was flatness and dulness.
say

the reason why being in love is so popular with the whole human race, because it relieves in so irresistible and delightful a manner the tedium or depression of common And not only does it change place human life.
that this
is

the atmosphere of our

spirits,

making

air, light,

and movement where before was stagnation and gloom, but it also sensibly and powerfully It is matter increases our faculties of action. of the commonest remark how a timid man who is in love will show courage, or an indolent man will show diligence. Nay, a timid man who would be only the more paralysed in a moment of danger by being told that it is his bounden duty as a man to show firmness, and that he must be ruined and disgraced for ever if he does
1

Ephesians

iii.

20.

56

ii

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
show

not, will in love.

An

indolent

firmness quite easily from being man who shrinks back

from vigorous effort only the more because he is told and knows that it is a man's business to show energy, and that it is shameful in him if he does not, will show energy quite easily from This, I say, we learn from the being in love. that analogy of the most everyday experience
;

to apprehend that for which also I am appre This for which he is thus hended by Christ.' to use his own words, still apprehended is, the righteousness of God ; not an incomplete and maimed righteousness, not a partial and unsatis fying establishment of the law of the spirit, dominant to-day, deposed to-morrow, effective at one or two points, failing in a hundred no, but an entire conformity at all points with the divine moral order, the will of God, and, in consequence, a sense of harmony with this order, of acceptance with God. In some points Paul had always served this He did not steal, order with a clear conscience.
c

powerful attachment will give a man spirits and confidence which he could by no means call up or command of himself; and that in this mood he can do wonders which would not be possible to him without it. We have seen how Paul felt himself to be for the sake of righteousness apprehended, to use I seek,' he his own expression, by Christ. says,
a
'

1

;

1

Philippians

iii.

12.

57

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM
c

n

But he was at he did not commit adultery. the same time, he says himself, a blasphemer 1 and a persecutor and an insulter,' and the con templation of Jesus Christ made him see this,
impressed
it

forcibly

his greatness, and

the

upon his mind. Here was worth of his way of

appropriating Christ. Calvinism vinism, too,

We

have seen

how

Cal
itself

which has

built

upon St. Paul, is a blasphemer, when it speaks of good works done by those who do not hold There would need no the Calvinist doctrine. of sensitiveness conscience, one would think, great to show that Calvinism has often been, also, a
Calvinism, as well persecutor, and an insulter. But as Paul, professes to study Jesus Christ. the difference between Paul's study of Christ

by studying got to know himself clearly, and to transform his narrow conception of righteous ness while Calvinism studies both Christ and Paul after him to no such good purpose. These, however, are but the veriest rudiments of the history of Paul's gain from Jesus Christ, as the particular impression mentioned is but the veriest fragment of the total impression produced by the contemplation of Christ upon him. The sum and substance of that total impression may best be conveyed by two words without sin.
:

and Calvinism's
Christ

is

this

that Paul

;

We

must here revert
1
i

to

what we have already
sound criticism of a

said of the importance, for

Tim.

i.

13.

58

ii

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

man's ideas, of the order in which his ideas come. For us, who approach Christianity through a
scholastic theology, it is Christ's divinity For establishes his being without sin.

which
Paul,

approached Christianity through his per sonal experience, it was Jesus Christ's being without sin which establishes his divinity. The
large and complete conception of righteousness
to

who

which he himself had slowly and

late,

and

only by Jesus Christ's help, awakened, in Jesus he seemed to see existing absolutely and natu
rally.

The
it

devotion to this conception which

meat and drink to carry it into effect, a devotion of which he himself was strongly and deeply conscious, he saw in Jesus still stronger, by far, and deeper than in himself. But for
attaining the righteousness of God, for reaching an absolute conformity with the moral order and

made

he saw no such impotence existing in Jesus Christ's case as in his own. For Jesus, the uncertain conflict between the law in our members and the law of the spirit
with God's
will,

Those eternal vicissi did not appear to exist. tudes of victory and defeat, which drove Paul
to despair, in Jesus

were absent. Smoothly and he the real and eternal order, followed inevitably in preference to the momentary and apparent order. Obstacles outside him there were plenty, He but obstacles within him there were none. was led by the spirit of God he was dead to and in this life to God he sin, he lived to God
; ;

59

ST.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

H

persevered even to the cruel bodily death of the As many as are led by the spirit of God, cross. 1 If this is so Paul, are the sons of God.
says

with even

us,

who render much more who renders

who live to God so feebly and such an imperfect obedience, how is he who lives to God entirely and an unalterable obedience, the unique

and only son of God ? This is undoubtedly the main line of move

ment which
follow.
scholastic

He

Paul's ideas respecting Jesus Christ had been trained, however, in the theology of Judaism, just as we are
;

trained in the scholastic theology of Christianity would that we were as little embarrassed with

our training

as

he was with his

!

The Jewish

theological doctrine respecting the eternal word or wisdom of God, which was with God from the beginning before the oldest of his works,

and

this

which the world was created, doctrine, which appears in the Book of Proverbs and again in the Book of Wisdom, 2
through

Paul applied to Jesus Christ, and in the Epistle 3 to the Colossians there is a remarkable passage

with clear signs of his thus applying it. But then this metaphysical and theological basis to the historic being of Jesus is something added by Paul from outside to his own essential ideas con
cerning him, something which was naturally taken on to them
1

fitted
;

them and
secondary,
vii.

it

is

Rom.

viii.

2

14.

Prov.
3

viii.
i.

Col.

22-31 15-17.

;

and Wisd.

25-27.

60

ii

ST.
is

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM

not an original part of his system, much It fills a very different the ground of it. from the place which it fills in his place system in the system of the author of the Fourth
it

less

Gospel,
Paul's

who

takes his
it

starting-point, and his is the idea of righteousness concern with Jesus is as the clue to righteous

starting-point from it. cannot be too often
;

repeated,
ness,

not as the clue to transcendental ontology. Speculations in this region had no overpowering attraction for Paul, notwithstanding the traces of an acquaintance with them which we find in his writings, and notwithstanding the great This activity threw activity of his intellect. itself with an unerring instinct into a sphere

where, with whatever travail and through what
ever impediments to clear
expression, directly practical religious results might yet be won, and not into any sphere of abstract speculation.

Much more

visible

identification of Jesus

and important than his with the divine hypostasis

the Logos, is Paul's identification of Ever present is his re the Messiah. cognition of him as the Messiah to whom all the law and prophets pointed, of whom the heart of the Jewish race was full, and on whom the Jewish instructors of Paul's youth had dwelt

known as him with

The Jewish language and ideas abundantly. the end of the world and the respecting Messiah's kingdom, his day, his presence, his appearing, his glory, Paul applied to Jesus, and
61

science can neither deny nor affirm. compared with these Jewish ideas. portant the importance is only secondary.ST. that in him any one will feel who genuine display of them like and are spiritualised the that in Apocalypse. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n Of the force and reality which constantly used. It is just what any criticism 62 . the second person of the Trinity. without being let and hindered as we are by the motions of private passion and by self-will. But that the Jesus of the Bible follows the universal moral order and the will of God. of them. some day appear in the sky with the sound of trumpets. to put an end to the actual kingdoms of the world and to establish his own kingdom. That Jesus Christ was the divine Logos. this is evident to whoever can read the Bible with open eyes. as these ideas are in Paul. : of it by Once more we are led to a result favourable to the scientific value of Paul's teaching. to mind a . science can neither deny nor affirm. who will That he was the Jewish Messiah. two remarks calls are needed. The very terms of which these propositions are composed are such as science is unable to handle. as One is. these ideas and expressions had for him there as to his use of them. as he advances in his course they are spiritualised The other remark is. too. that of the great central matter of his thoughts the righteousness of God^ the non-fulfilment man^ the fulfilment of it by Christ. only can be no question . that im increasingly.

spiritualised them more and more he came to think. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM . denying ungodliness and worldly lusts.ii ST. but it has no means Paul. Rom. in using them. we should live should be soberly. of the Gospel-history. v. righteously. Later Christianity has transferred them. 12 14. and death. . ii. to a life . is that by means of them.' 3 By nature and habit. And this is the result which Of Christ's life pre-eminently occupies Paul. long-suffering. will vii. that we works. joy. according to Paul. beyond the grave. 22. like Christ's 1 to ii. more and more of a gradual inward transformation of the world by a conformity Paul's. by spiritual growth advanced. ' ' c ' ' peace. self-control. and godly . in enabled to bear fruit to God love. of God. as his spiritualised them.' death the scope was ' to redeem us from all iniquity. 4 Gal. ii. and with his full belief that the end of the world was nigh at hand. 1 Of Christ's life and mildness. kindness.' are to live thus in the actual world which now ' make with the expectation of the appearing of the glory of God and Christ. tells us of that history. as it has transferred so much else of is. goodness. than of a Tit. 23. 13. s 2 Tit. Tit. the all-importance for us. and 2 us purely zealous for good Paul says by way of preface. faith. which sees that history it is the scientific result as it really is. the . 63 . Paul used to mean a Messianic these words coming and kingdom.

that ineffable force of attraction which doubled the virtue of everything said or done by him. therefore. Paul and he felt.' First of all. also. .' 'Jesus Christ gave himself for us that he might redeem us from iniquity. he of the spirit do his own will. Lastly.ST. Jesus Christ in this persevered uninterrupted obedience to the law of the spirit. he had in . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM . Thirdly. and not first essence of saving grace is always to make us with the righteous. to bring us into conformity * divine law. not to came. but the will of God. Secondly. even to the death though everything befell him which might break the one or tire out the other. felt this power penetrate him might employ was here. If ever there was a case in which the wonder working power of attachment. . n Yet even then they are Messianic advent. the law of the spirit makes men one it is only by the law in our members that we are many. 64 it . himself. using an expressive modern term. to enable us to bear fruit to God. the always second with him. : . Now. in this unfailing sense of human solidarity. Jesus Christ had an unfailing sense of what we have called. in a man for whom the moral sympathies and the desire of righteousness were all-powerful. in all he said and did. the solidarity of men that it was not God's will that one of his human creatures should perish. itself and work its wonders. he rendered an unbroken obedience to the law he served the spirit of God .

' The word : faith points. mission being to Gentiles who had not seen not having with his Jesus either. To this new and potent influence Paul gave the name of faith. to coming by hearing. v. VOL. of holding fast to an unseen power of goodness. Identifying ourselves with Jesus Christ through this attachment we become as he was. power. at some time or is ' word ' other. pre-eminently. could he ever get the confidence and the force to do as Jesus did. and of his special original disciples.ii ST. But the essential meaning of the power of holding on to the unseen/ Other attachments demand fidelity fidelity. of his * own waking eyes. for Paul.' and has possibly a reminiscence. The struggling stream of duty. tidal was wave of sympathy and emotion. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM how by perfectly identifying himself through it with Jesus. 6. this attach ment demands fidelity to an object which both is absent and has never been seen by us. which had not volume enough to bear suddenly reinforced by the him to his immense goal. but faith a . seemed to combine for his salvation.' in absence to an object which. IX 65 F . has been seen . It is therefore rightly called not constancy. and the weak world inside him. nevertheless. We live with his thoughts 1 Gal. More fully he calls it * ' Faith that worketh through love. no doubt. and in no other way. He thus found a point in which the mighty world outside man. like the seen Jesus.

Why. viii. if we take faith in its plain sense of holding fast to an unseen power of goodness. in from the ruinous law in our his obedience to the saving law in his conformity to the eternal and peace of his life to God. It is evident that some difficulty arises out of Paul's adding to the general sense of the word a holding fast to an unseen power of goodness. without this specific sense. of the c and we participate. says Paul. having conveyed his new specific sense into the word faith. freedom in spirit.ST. Paul. for instance. 'freed 1 This is death. it was before and in this way he often applicable and usual creates ambiguity. denote his special meaning. life order. that he was justified by faith. yet it cannot without difficulty and recourse to a strained figure be said of him. 2. 1 still thus employ Rom. still uses the word in all cases where. if we take faith in Paul's specific sense of identification with faith. in the joy The law of the spirit of what is done for us by faith. employing a special term to . however. identification particular sense of his own.' the law of sin and a . does instead of Paul. therefore. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n and his feelings. members. 66 . undoubtedly.' me from in Christ Jesus. it may be asked. faith of Paul's is in truth a specific form of holding fast to an unseen power of goodness and that while it can properly be said of Abraham. It will at once appear that this with Christ. Christ.

other apostles habitually used the word in the same sense. xv. whereto he affixed it and it was at the same time the name given to the crowning grace of the great father of the Jewish nation. 6 . too. this. . sense. Judaise. Paul did not regard. Habakkuk had the famous text * and ' : it was The prophet The just shall live by faith? Jesus. developed meaning.PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM We are inclined to think the general term faith ii ST. 1 Abraham xi. Habakkuk ii. though and with perfect propriety. that he believed God counted to him for righteousness. though not with per fect adequacy. ? it was from that desire to get for his words and thoughts not only the real but also the apparent sanction and consecration of the Hebrew Scrip tures. which we have called his tendency to It was written of the founder of Israel. applied . to the great spiritual operation . 2 4. had used and sanctioned the use of the word faith to signify cleaving to the unseen God's power of goodness 2 Peter and John and the as shown in Christ. . for that vital operation. Gen. the the cases he had considerably the name's usual enlarged with this new and developed Fraught term does not always quite well suit to which it was in its old sense. Abraham. which was Paul retain the heart of his whole religious system. Mark 22. with the modification introduced by This was enough to make Christ's departure. the name of faith. how The term applied ever. with undeniable truth.

it PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n was the prophet Habakkuk's talismanic and consecrated term. to be identified with Christ. In the of Protestant theology. to rest the finished scientific language in c its use with the 'the words of the faith. to have saving faith. has talked of little but faith. to be attached to him how.ST. to embrace Christ. embrace him how ? favourite expression of popular theology conveys perfectly the popular definition of faith : A work of the Saviour. faith is so evidently the central point in his system that their thoughts cannot but centre upon it. such as article. all the fancies of his superstition or of his fanaticism. has given us to its meaning. faith. Paul's line of ideas most completely.' to signify the body of tenets and principles received by believers from the apostle. 1 we reach a point round which the ceaseless stream of religious exposition and discussion has for Even for those who misconceive ages circled. 68 . and so to receive the benefit of justification. as used by St. In this wordfait/i. to embrace Christ. They present * 1 With secondary uses of the word. Paul. to else .' in expressions like no difficulty. every man may put into it almost anything he likes. To say. is to give our consent heartily to the covenant of grace. therefore. is not enough the question is. that to have faith in Christ means to be attached to Christ. the faith. as is well known. we need not here concern ourselves. Puritanism. And the word is of such a that the true clue once lost which Paul nature.

In Christ Jesus neither circumcision availeth anything nor uncircumcision. beat his wings in vain. and gracious spirit.' and here. struggled all his life for some deeper and more edifying account of that faith. but faith that ' ivorketh through _love . see. When Paul said. twenty times over. A solid practical company of Cornish revivalists will have no difficulty in tasting. Have faith in Christ ! these words did not mean for him Give your hearty belief and consent : to the covenant of grace . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM whereby God pardons all our sins and accepts us as righteous for the righteousness of Christ imputed to us. in which. than that it was a hearty consent to the covenant of grace and an acceptance of the benefit of Yet this amiable Christ's imputed righteousness. with his genius for god liness. we have not found Wesley. hearing.' They did not mean ' : Try and 69 . Paul's solution. if only he could have had eyes to see Paul dealing. hear. ' He that believes in spiritual Christ. which he felt working wonders in his own soul. but intellectually slight and shallow compared to Paul.' : says is Wesley. had solved the problem for him.ii ST. to ' discerns things he enabled There is nothing taste. to-night. Accept the offered benefit of justification through Christ's imputed righteousness. nevertheless. and feeling God. and yet may be none the better for it to-morrow morning. see ing.' This is mere theurgy. and feel God. Paul. so far as we have yet gone.

Yet it is impossible to be in presence of this Pauline conception of faith without remarking on the incomparable power It is indeed of edification which it contains.' They did not mean the finished work of Christ the Saviour/ No. in its service the best forces of . but wants a clue for directing its exertion. .ST. hear. and duty has an excellent clue to action. and mode of manifestation. and which in each of us differs immensely in force. volume. Paul takes raptures from both worlds what can help him. c Rest in and feel God. which we cannot measure and control. 70 . but the true criticism of a great and misunderstood author. : and it enlists both worlds. The danger of the one world is weariness in the danger of the other is sterile well-doing and immoral fanaticism. him ! with Die meant they The object of this treatise is not religious edification. and the world The world of reason of sympathy and emotion. and sets it to work with It is at once mystical and rational . he calls into full play. try and taste. but the world of sympathy wants motive-power and influence has an irresistible force of motivepower. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM : n discern spiritual things. see. The elemental power of sym and emotion in us. and leaves what cannot. a crowning evidence of that piercing practical religious sense which we have attributed to Paul. the world of reason and morals. a power which extends pathy beyond the limits of our own will and conscious activity.

said Paul. he suffers with him. Christ throughout his life and in his death presented his body a living sacrifice to God . now take a heightened significance. : This his is the doctrine of the necrosis? Paul's central doctrine. to live with Christ to the law of the mind. Well. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM all its But one strength and in all its variety. it enabled him to Die to them I Christ did. what Christ did. v. he is a new creature 2 he can : . Those multitudinous motions of appetite and self-will which reason and conscience disapproved. 71 . In the central need of his nature. assert itself 1 every self-willed impulse blindly trying to without respect of the universal order. as we have seen. They were the matter by which and minute his faith tried itself and knew itself. ^ Cor. drove Paul almost to despair. unalterable object is assigned by him to this power to die with Christ to the law of the flesh. say If any man be in Christ. First. how did Paul's faith. if man identifies himself with Christ any by attach ment so that he enters into his feelings and lives with his life. then. do. 10. 17. help him here ? It enabled him to reinforce duty by affection. is what yield to them. and had to This. and does. iv. that is. working through love. the desire to govern these motions of unrighteousness. reason and conscience could yet not govern. 2 2 Cor.Ji ST. lists of and practices feelings to be followed or suppressed. and the doctrine which makes His repeated profoundness and originality.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM to. out of love to a friend. if die thus with become transformed him. Then. n he died to do the same. to each as it comes be one that must faith. All impulses of selfishness conflict with Christ's if feelings. You. pride. you shall also be glorified with him. but ordinary very goes human attachment. The real worth of this mystical conception 72 . anger. says Paul to his disciple. therefore. and harshness. clamour. he showed it by dying to them all are one him faith and with by sympathy. glory. Die to them all.ST. your attachment. and which grows more and more till it becomes If you suffer with him. and frees you from the law of sin and death. bitterness. envy. and rise with him. malignity. are Never mind how various and the : impulses to impulses are intemperance. covetousness. you you by the renewing of your mind. unmercifulness. You rise with him to that harmonious conformity with the real and eternal order. because by sympathy multitudinous ! you enter of selfishness into their feelings. that sense of . your In an a little way. out of love to a child. concupiscence. pleasing life God who trieth the hearts. out of love to a woman. which is and peace. and which hitherto you have obeyed. sloth. you secondly. you can suppress quite easily. The law of the spirit of life which is in Christ becomes the law of your life also. you can die them to also. this or that impulse which happens to conflict with them. If you cannot. Christ did.

the most immoral. sympathy. the 73 . If the character and history are eminently such as to inspire it. less friendship and esteem but the inspiration of reason and conscience is the one inspiration which comes from him. adoration. A great solicitude is always shown by popular radical like Christianity to establish a difference Socrates. and right immense emotion of love and sympathy inspired by the person and character scriptural. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM depends on the fitness of the character and history of Jesus Christ for inspiring such an enthusiasm of attachment and devotion as that which Paul's notion of faith implies. be out of Socrates inspired bound place and ineffective. then Paul has no doubt found a mighty aid towards the attainment of that right eousness of which Jesus Christ's life afforded the admirable pattern. most prosaic. between Jesus and a teacher Ordinary theologians establish by transcendental distinctions into But what for science the radical difference between Jesus and Socrates. if applied to Socrates. pity. In the midst of errors the history has proved. is that such a conception as Paul's would. different. and which impels us to live righteously as he did. this difference which makes science cannot follow them. . Christ. the most un- concerning God. does not belong to Socrates. A penetrating enthusiasm of love. reinforcing the inspiration of reason and duty. On this point it is With Jesus it is needless to argue .ii ST. eousness.

having to die and rise with Christ. Paul's mystical conception is not complete without its relation of us to our fellow-men. n of Jesus has had to for righteousness and work almost by itself alone it has worked wonders. and forming by the joint action of its regenerate members the Hence the truth of mystical body of Christ. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM . our duties towards our neighbour we perform. so long as only Jesus himself follows ' : order. In like manner. his aspiration after the eternal order is not satisfied. amongst us this only this or that individual men follows it. The whole race is conceived as one body. not in deference to in ourselves to we ourselves 74 . but saying by sympathy with Christ in his mortification of them. not by that they are sinful. therefore. that which Bishop Wilson says It is not so much our neighbour's interest as our own that we love him. is to prevail in our dealings with others. and reinforces moral effort with it. The motions of sin succeed in mortifying.ST. is not complete. identifies himself with Christ's idea of the solidarity of men. The same law of or emotion and sympathy. Who ever identifies himself with Christ.' Jesus Christ's life. with which we by faith identify ourselves. The of Paul's con surpassing religious grandeur is that it seizes a real salutary faith of ception emotional force of incalculable magnitude. which prevails in our inward self-discipline. as well as its relation of us to Jesus Christ.

like the direction to identify ourselves with Jesus and die with him.ii ST. deceiving my neighbour is the same as deceiving myself. Lecky cannot see that the command to external . a natural sanction. because he seeks to do him good and forbears to do him harm just as if he was himself. and rests upon facts of human nature which experi ence can follow and appreciate. man to truth his Speak every neighbour. for we are members one of another. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM commands and ourselves prohibitions. Mr. and not. if my neighbour is merely an extension of myself. The are three essential terms of Pauline theology therefore. and than self-deceit there is And on this nothing by nature more baneful. It shows a profound practical religious sense. lifeless and unaiding. but through with him by sympathy identifying with Christ who identified himself with him. 25.' 1 This direction to identify ourselves in Jesus Christ with our neighbours is hard and startling. speak the truth to one's neighbour is a command But according to has a clear natural sanction. it which has these Pauline ideas He says ground Paul puts the injunction. we owe no man anything but to love one another and he who loves his neighbour fulfils the law towards him. Eph. Therefore. as popular theology makes iv. : ' . like a set of mere mechanical inspiring commands and prohibitions. like that direction. no doubt. 1 not. For. 75 . But it is also.

2O . Christ's resurrection is his bodily resurrection on earth after his physical death on the cross the believer's resurrection is his resurrection in a future world. Christ died and rose again and revived. For this theology. xiv. in this sense of a physical miracle. ^ai/a(TTacris Phil. and regards any other use For of it as purely figurative and secondary. popular theology. even with able and candid Biblical critics. is the central object of Paul's thoughts and the foundation of all his theology. Nay. the preoccupation with this idea has altered the so that whereas very text of our documents Paul wrote. iv. II 2 av^o-ts et's X/OMTTOV. . . resurrection The order the dead. the force of Christ's resurrec tion is that it is a miracle which guarantees the promised future miracle of our own resurrection. 76 . what we have already pointed out elsewhere. : n them : They dying with Christ. Christ died and lived. this it connects with true. u. Eph. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM calling. * ' 1 a7ro0ai/ii> <rvv X/QMTT<>. 15.' we read. growing into Christ^ from in which these terms are placed indicates. sanctification. popular theology almost exclusively. Rom. It is essential connection with physical death. justification. that Christ's resurrection.ST. resurrection from In Paul's ideas the expression has no the dead. It is a common remark with Biblical critics. the bodily golden city of our hymns and of the Apocalypse. the true are rather these Pauline sense of the expression. Col. Hi. 9.' 2 But .

we have endeavoured mature theology. of what we think we feel there flows With noiseless current strong. he would have replied with entire conviction that he did. the physical and miraculous aspect of the resurrection. But : Below the surface-stream. Not for a moment do we deny that in Paul's and notably in the Epistles to the Thessalonians and Corinthians. As light.ii ST. The central stream of what we feel indeed and by Paul's moral truly characterised. . and miraculous aspect of the resurrection which holds the first place in his mind for under this the resurrection does not fit in with the aspect ideas which he is developing. Very likely it would have been impossible to him to imagine his theology without it. after the Epistle to earlier theology.the Philippians. as well as in his own spiritual and mystical sense. originality lies in the effort to find a side and significance for all the processes. if the Romans. Not for a moment do we deny that to the very end of his life. obscure and deep. it. he had been asked whether he held the doctrine of the resurrection in the physical and miraculous sense. is primary and pre dominant. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM carefully followed whoever has thought the as Paul's to trace line of it. shallow and light. both Christ's and the believer's. it will see that in his as the Epistle to Romans exhibits cannot be this physical . after the Epistle to . this alone are we 77 . Of what we say we feel below the stream.

ST. Resurrection. is living after life is mortifying the flesh. the rising. how could Paul say to the Colossians (to take only one out of a hundred clear texts showing the If ye then be risen with Christ^ seek the things that are above. also. came Paul's conception of life and death inevitably to govern his conception of resurrection. is for Paul life. we have Not death ? seen. their hold all upon us and their command of our nature. in the Epistle to the Romans. iii. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM religious this life. within therefore is sense. obedience to sin by the spirit the deeds of the flesh. He did so treat it and what is original and or later . Death. of the view of strengthening. Real life for Paul begins with the mystical death which frees us from the dominion raised Jesus 1 God Col. for Paul. that the matter of our faith is c that : same thing) c from the dead. he was sure to be drawn to treat Sooner the process of resurrection with this endeavour. in with a way. as the ordinary physical and what is life and death. this is so. i. is just the meaning same. so far as the human believer's resurrection is concerned. 78 . n however mystical. in its essential righteousness. What indeed. obedience to .' 1 But when Paul repeats again and again.' the essential of this resurrection. the sphere of our visible earthly existence. from It is death in this sense to life in this sense. indubitable that. essential in him is his doing so. for him. Else.

that is. wanted to fix the believer's mind.ii ST. they were full heretics . pleased . this was the Philetas Tim. consequently. (2 vii. that Jesus Christ in his earthly existence obeyed the law of the spirit. 1-6. follow ing his essential line of thought. ' that he not sin/ himself/ and that. But if they disputed and separated on account of them. Probably. The resurrection Paul was after for himself and others was a resur striving rection now. 1 From the moment. he was risen and living to God. with much plausibility. in his earthly That Christ 'died to existence. indeed. they were right where iv. is what occupies Paul. instead of their proper chiefconcern. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM of the external shalls and shall nots of the law. they had their hearts and minds of a speculative contention. however. Jesus 1 See Rom. that their error was the error of popular theology. the fixing the attention on the past miracle of Christ's physical resur It has 2 been said that ii. error of Hymenasus and might be rejoined. Paul was wrong. and a resurrection to righteousness? But Jesus Christ's obeying God and not pleasing himself culminated in his death on the cross. Hymenaeus and Philetas controverted some of Paul's tenets respecting the approaching Messianic advent and the resurrection then to take place (i Thess. and bore fruit to God and that the believer should. and losing sight of the continuing miracle of the Christian's spiritual resurrection. Paul's point is. he died. that Jesus Christ was content to do God's will. Christ's physical resurrection after he was cruci fied is neither in point of time nor in point of character the resurrection on which Paul. therefore. through all his life here. If they rejected these tenets. putting on the new man. 13-17). 17). and the imitation of Christ. All through his career. It rection. do the same. 79 .

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM sin. The believer is crucified with Christ when he mortifies by the spirit the deeds of un Christ was crucified when he righteousness not himself.ST. a place for struggle and That self-sacrificing obedience of whole life. n Christ pleased not himself and died to so said. 1 palpable as sacrifice. xiii. any conflict between the law of the flesh and the law of the spirit. ness . which have before so inevitably. 4. therefore. only there. But the Christian needs to find in Christ's dying to of suffering and a conformity of death. dolorous effort. which was summed up Christ's Jesus in this great. 2 Cor. Well. and came to do not his own pleased will but God's. and weakness. obedience. which a<r#ei>ias. that only in the very wrench and pres sure of his violent death did any pain of dying. did But smoothly and he always the moral order. final act of his crucifixion. in Jesus Christ. then. 80 . as is also the believer's conformity to Christ's obedience. in Christ become visible. It is the same with life as with death . in our dying to sin there is great struggle sin a fellowship and weakness. But only in his crucifixion can we see. is. as appear to follow that law of to us it we costs such effort to obey. constantly re garded by Paul under the figure of this final act. it is . the point of Christ's trial and crucifixion is the only point in his career where the Christian can palpably touch what he In all dying there is struggle and weak seeks.

'serve by The spirit of God. are ' seated so entirely. we live. righteousness. the more we are and desire to be this eternal order and nothing else. 6. at this stage we quit. is we is . begins for us for the eternal order never dies. then a continuous and ascending life. at which it ceases to be by impeded. the ground of experience and enter upon the ground of hope. And when. and share with Christ the heritage of the sons of God. G . is life because of righteousness. felicity. eternal The spirit. Even in this life 2 as Christ in heavenly places/ for Paul. he fetches from the travail of the whole universe proof of the necessity and Paul as a stage According to the true reading in Phil. the spirit of God/ 1 and the spirit. the one eternal the spirit of Christ is the same. If the spirit of Christ. we eternal life righteousness. there life. we have fore. as he himself says. VOL. follow the eternal order. If we are led by the spirit of God we are the sons of God. glory. 2 Eph. as he did. IX 81 1 iii. and the more we transform ourselves into servants of righteousness and organs of the eternal order. here the physical death is regarded completed . but on that central concern of Paul's thoughts. righteousness the true life and the But the transformation cannot be true heaven. 3. But. ourselves with through identifying reach Christ's . Christ. moral order. However. ii. peace. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM turns on no physical event.ii ST. by a sublime analogy.

' That Paul. in earthly to the for the of God. of his nation. within the limits of this life and before we have yet persevered end. he and all who persevere to the end as he did are 'sown in weakness but sense.ST. there can be no doubt. that his acceptance of the former gives to his teaching its essential characters. 18-25. their doctrine of the final things and of the summons by a trumpet in the sky to judgment . viii. far more operative after his death on the cross than before it and that in this . We any more should but be continuing. 1 obedience to righteousness like manner. glorious revelation in us of the sons to his . Paul's essential line of thought. as we have said. Just in the same manner he accepted the eschatology. than his acceptance of the latter. of his real life. as it is called. 1 Rom. Jesus Christ entered into his glory when he had made his physical death itself a crowning witness we. must not look for full adoption. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n beneficence of the law of transformation. if we said that the true ascension and glorified reign of Christ was the triumph and reign of his spirit. with strict logical develop ment. he accepted Satan. hierarchies of angels. is. most truly. and an What we deny approaching end of the world. accepted the physical miracle of Christ's resurrection and ascension as a part of the signs and wonders which accompanied Christianity. 82 .

3 spirit. himself knew that he had gone in his irresistible bent to find. as a mere sign and wonder. x. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM in Paul himself. Already. in the Second Epistle to the ' Corinthians. in like manner. and that it establishes a wide difference between the earliest epistles and the latest. is beyond question. yet henceforth he knew him so no more l and in the Epistle to the Romans. 2 Rom. however. on the descent into hell and on the ascent into heaven.ii ST. it had not and could not have. and peace. from the first rank in importance to the second. of which to the Thessalonians he described the advent in such materialising and c popularly Judaic language.' 1 2 Cor. through following this bent. though he had known Christ after the flesh. 3 Rom. That the bent existed. and joy in ' . has become right the holy eousness. that side of moral and spiritual significance which. 83 . shortly afterwards. the kingdom of God. 6-10. he rejects the notion of dwelling on the miraculous Christ. we cannot know with any certainty. v. 17. and fixes the believer's attention solely on the faith of Christ and on the effects 2 In the produced by an acquaintance with it. did not distinctly continue his thought thus. 1 6. and How far Paul neither will we do so for him. what data he himself was raised power/ conscious of having transferred. that Paul felt it existed. same Epistle. he declares that. xiv. for each of the data of his religion.

what makes him original and himself. . The real sitting in heavenly places is the sitting on thrones in a land of pure delight after we are dead serving the spirit of God is only Science sitting in heavenly places figuratively. n These we repeat. of Paul is. Die and come life ! an unsuspected witness. is not what he shares with his contemporaries and with modern popular religion. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM ideas. but this which he develops of his own and this which he . process.ST. this For reverses the science. says Goethe. exactly notion is the real the material one. that. spiritual The astonishing greatness notion is figurative. is real kingdom of excluded others. coming when and where and whence he did. he yet grasped the spiritual notion. assuredly. so long this is 84 . if not exclusively and fully. the God the New Jerusalem with its jaspers and emeralds righteousness and peace and joy are only the kingdom of God figuratively. is own a and bottom scientific ' instead of a to non' scientific structure. . yet firmly religion at this day. and predominantly more and more predomin And antly through all the last years of his life. develops of his his religion at a just of a nature to make theology instead of a theurgy. to the psychological and scientific profoundness ' : of Paul's conception of life and death as Die not and come to life ! for. as may never have they absorb popular popular religion. of Paul's contemporaries which absorbed the most part To .

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM accomplished. moreover. the more will the conviction strengthen. speaks of Christ as declared to be the son of God with power according to the spirit of holiness by resurrection from the ' dead. the essential sense in uses the term resurrection is that of a rising. those commonly assigned by Puritanism. Stirb ! Derm 1 2 Rom. from will venture. Not tradition and not theory. but a simple impartial study of the development of Paul's central line of thought. that from the very outset of the where Paul Epistle. that the sense indicated by the order in which we here class the second main term of Paul's conception. 4. Bist du nur ein triiber Gast Auf der dunkeln Erde. to the life of obedience to the eternal moral 1 ' und werde so lang du das nicht hast.' 2 to which Paul the very end. justification. we repeat. 85 i. . but they are these dying with Christ. brings us to the conclusion. : resurrection And we the dead. in every single place where in that Epistle he has used it.ii ST.' 1 The three cardinal points in Paul's theology are not therefore. sanctification . growing into Christ. from the death of obedience to blind selfish impulse. calling. to affirm that more the Epistle to the Romans is read the and re-read with a clear mind. thou art but a troubled guest upon an earth of gloom. is the essential sense which Paul himself attaches to this term. in this visible earthly existence.

the term faith brought us in contact with the doctrine of Puritanism. never theless. and third are. for we have approached the matter without any. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n in Christ's case first.ST. following Christ's pattern through identifying himself with him. of the Epistle to the Romans than those by which we have been occupied must have chiefly fixed the attention of Puritanism. though not. 86 formal scientific mode . as we have with any scholastic purpose or in any of exposition. but an impartial criticism of Paul's real line of thought. convey Paul's theology. And so it has in truth been. in the believer's case afterwards. as the pattern for order us to follow . Other parts. which. then. professes to have learnt its doctrine from St. the first. second. Paul and from his Epistle to the Romans. of these eleven chapters. have thus reached Paul's fundamental conception without even a glimpse of the funda mental conceptions of Puritanism. Yet the parts of the Epistle to the Romans that have occupied us are undoubtedly the parts which not our own theories and inclinations. for a moment. we may say that of the eleven first chapters of the the chapters which Epistle to the Romans. . as We seen. must elevate as the most important. but only to see that the essential sense given to this word by Paul Puritanism had missed entirely. Once. If a somewhat pedantic form of expression may be forgiven for the sake of clearness.

the eighth is primary down only to the end of the twenty-eighth verse from thence to the N end it is. . Furthermore. The fourth chapter gives to the notion of righteousness through faith the sanction of the Old Testament and of the history of Abraham. and its purport is No more have you. with this design. the history of Adam. The purport is second is to the Jews . so far as to mark that of the two great primary chapters. a PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM of importance fixed by a scientific in scale criticism of Paul's line of thought. But the : : . to the chapters are secondary. only secondary. the sixth and eighth are primary the seventh chapter is sub -primary the ninth. tenth. and eleventh . sub-primary . the fourth and fifth are secondary . The first chapter is to the Gentiles. The fifth insists on the causes for thankfulness and exultation in the boon of righteousness through faith in Christ and applies illustratively. : ' 87 . The seventh Paul. mean ? illustrates and explains the answer. and answers it. however eloquent.ii ST. though you think you have. yet for the purpose of a scientific criticism of Paul's essential . The sixth chapter comes to the all-important ques ' tion What is that faith in Christ which I. theology. the sixth and the eighth. contents of the separate chapters themselves this scale must be carried on. Its You have not righteousness. The third chapter announces faith in Christ as the one source of righteousness for all men.

word. so easy to us. favourable to Israel.' l This is the essential testimony the rise of sin to Paul. and deed. down to the end of the twenty-eighth The verse. He went to experience for it. the bitter root of all our actual transgressions in thought. hard to a Jew. that righteousness is not by the Jewish law but dwell with hope and joy on a final result of things which is to be . fundamental. 88 . and bringing me into captivity. this rise respecting of it in his own heart and in the heart of all the men who hear him. no Paul did not go to the Book of Genesis to get the real testimony about sin. justification. We analysis shall be pardoned us to sin. At quite a later historical The it Adam will ' ! ' 1 Rom.' Ah. This (the transgression of c Adam) is our original sin. 23. tenth. transgression of be observed. all-important place which it holds in the ideas ' of Puritanism. The ninth. and eleventh so chapters uphold the second chapter's thesis. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n eighth. ' a law in my members fighting against the law of my mind. develops and completes the answer. in Paul's occupies.ST. ideas by no means the primary. / see^ he says. vii. this somewhat formal clearness in consideration of the it with and which scheme enables survey the Puritan of original predestination. rest of the eighth chapter expresses the sense of safety and gratitude which the solution is fitted to inspire.

I2-2I. The sense of life.ii ST. then estimate the blessedness of our boon Christ. We come how 1 Rom. delight. . move and have our being. how in Adam's fall one man's one . him he is Adam and to what is called original Paul's desire for righteousness has carried to Christ and to the conception of the which is righteousness of God by faith. where one man's one righteousness ' 1 involves a world of transgressors in blessing in ! This is not a scientific doctrine of corruption to predestination. For the pur pose of exalting it he reverts to the well-known It cannot even be said that story of Adam. which undoubtedly he did not. and wonder. having the advantage of being perfectly familiar to himself and his hearers. v. comes in stage in in a the the allusion to sin. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM his conception of life. We have seen was Paul's consciousness of that strong not in which we live and ourselves. inherited through Adam's fall . 'Think/ he says. Paul Judaises in his use here of this story so entirely does he subordinate it to his purpose of illustration. c expressing his gratitude. it is a rhetorical use of Adam's fall in a passing allusion to it. transgression involved all men in punishment . that it was merely a symbolical legend. and for mere purpose of illustration. the religious subordinate quite capacity. at the boon he has discovered. using it just as he might have used it had he believed. power.

it is as beings acted upon and influenced Well might Paul cry that we are saved out.ST. brings with it a deep and this sense is none grateful consciousness that identifica of our grace. ! : together to God. for the sake of the clear understanding of his essential doctrine. vice and we are virtue. its for to them that love predestinated. for whom alone mercy/ exist all the predicaments of merit and demerit. praise and blame. that those who reached peace with God through identification with Christ were vessels of mercy. that 1 Rom. we are impotent and lost saved through that in us which is passive and we are saved through our affec involuntary tions. and joy. in the gratitude purpose. 2 Rom. it is who gives abundantly beyond all that we ask or think. own it is getting and the free gift making. viii. . No. him that runneth. called. which comes through tion with Christ. that they had been foreknown.' which cannot find words enough to express good sense of boundless favour. and calls things that are not as though they It is not of him that willeth or of were. as this mystical but profound and beneficent 'All things work conception filled his soul * . marked from endless ages . them who are the called according to his 2 Well might he say. of God. ix. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n peace. It may be regretted. justified. glorified. but of God that showeth 1 As moral agents. 1 6. 28. 90 . effort and failure.

prove them than they are proved by the thesis that Abraham in old age believed God's promise that his seed should yet be as the stars for multitude. selves for us much better . it needs all the goodwill in the world. that only through identification these with Jesus Christ can they reach it. in by the tendency which as making his real noticed already and as a writer. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM not c Paul if did stop here. even at any rate. fail of all men themselves ness is life. last. These allurements of But this is not so. never mastered of his interpreters. or opinion of the mind. He Paul. and that this was counted to him for righteousness. in the fourth chapter.ST. in truth. as a thinker both imperfection the tendency to Judaise. and involved him. was led into difficulty we have to bring the case of Abraham within That righteous the operation of this doctrine. The sanction thus apparently given to the idea that faith is a mere belief. that by righteousness. at the word an embarrassment. from which he impatiently tore himself by the harsh and unedifying image of the clay and the potter. Already. and some effort of ingenuity.ii . this tendency had led him to seem to rest his doctrine of justification by faith upon the case of Abraham. It might seem as him on prothesis.' purpose^ lured into speculative mazes. has propositions. fatal to so many have been which speculation. whereas.

that the law and the prophets had said that only a remnant. this one verse of the tenth further. who is and these four rich to all that call upon him. he was to proceed. they did not need anything For us. how ever.ST. and that the rest should be blinded. To establish his doctrine of righteousness by faith. and reprobated other men. in order to invest his doctrine with the talismanic virtues of a verbal sanction from the law and the prophets. he had to eradicate the notion that his people were specially privileged. of another verse For words righteousness heart: : . that we can only speak of ourselves as called and chosen one thing in so speaking. There is no difference between Jew and chapter Greek) for it is the same Lord of <z//. an elect remnant^ of Israel should be saved. To on the other that God has blinded hand. and of its not being our work. put PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM of Paul's n thousands readers on a false track. is to quit the ground 92 . But Paul's Judaising did not end here. He shows. say. therefore. and that. not reach this blessing. faith chapters bristling with Old Testament quotations. is . By quotation. But to say three that necessary object than his ! effect far more for Paul's peace with God through Jesus Christ inspires such an abounding sense of gratitude. we are on the ground of personal experience. having the Mosaic law. so that they shall to it.

Calvinists is their fundamental idea. and due to the necessities of a bad mode of recommending and enforcing It is as if Newton had introduced his thesis.ii ST. Isaiah had said * : O Lord. What with or even less than secondary. 93 . and to begin employing the magnified and non-natural man in the next then require. about light or colours . brought in incidentally. is with Paul secondary. for his proceedings. perhaps erroneous. which with the Calvinist is primary. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM of personal experience. The theological idea of reprobation was an idea of Jewish theology as of ours. into his exposition of the law of gravitation an incidental remark. and extraneous to them . This is Calvinism. and St. that this Calvinism. But the important thing to We remark is. him is clearly established by other considera tions than those which we have drawn from the The place and manner of his introduction of it. the and about the potter is clay very phrase he does but repeat a stock not Paul's own . theological figure. the centre of their theology. such an analogy as that of the clay and the potter. Paul undoubtedly falls into it. an idea familiar to Paul and a part of his training. is for Paul an idea added to his central ideas. in order to account street. an idea which probably he never consciously But its complete secondariness in abandoned. and we were then to make this remark the head and front of Newton's law.

to render to them as liketh him best. for in the very batch of chapters we are discussing he says ' Whosoever shall call upon the name of the Lord shall be : saved. to Israel the in said. 5 Isaiah Ixiv. potter's so man is in the hand of him that made son Paul's 3 him. c : O potter's hand. that which he adopts thus bodily from some one else ? But take Paul's truly essential c We are buried with Christ through idea. the as the clay in the so are ye in mine hand. x. baptism into death.' 5 Still more clear is.' an original man's essential. 8 Ecclesiasticus xxxiii. when 4 he 2 is Judaising xviii.' 2 house of of Sirach comes yet nearer to As the clay is in the words very hand to fashion it at his pleasure. that like as he was raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father. 8. on not this point.' 4 Did Jeremiah say that ? Is any one the author of it except Paul ? Then there should Calvinism have looked for Paul's secret. even so we also shall walk in newness of life. 6. and thou our potter. characteristic Is idea. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n we we had ' are the clay. that he entirely a commonplace to contradicts it even while he is so Judaising.' Jeremiah Lord's name. and not in the commonplace about the A common potter and the vessels of wrath. 4. And place which is him. Israel. : Behold. Rom. : his real 1 mind. Rom.ST. and l are all the work of thy hand. 13. 94 . 13. Jeremiah vi.

' his justice being satisfied by Christ's bear ing according to compact our guilt and dying in 1 I Tim. at any Christ meritoriously obtained eternal re ' If there be anything/ the demption for us.' rate. Paurs whole theology. which he himself. iv. in that as. if all his other writings were lost. finally. choosing. in the grateful sense of a calling. might be striking . then. too.' of Puritanism has lately told quarterly organ ' in hundredth us its number. God. he does not yet.ii ST. 10. Paul abundantly supplies in more than one those that the saviour of all And believe/ 1 men. But. 95 . and from the sixth and eighth chapters of the Romans. turns out to be a secondary notion of his. and cannot. a notion as natural as the Calvinistic doctrine of predestination is monstrous. and salvation. specially of which might seem dangerous for instance. reconstructed). which Calvinistic Puritanism has gathered from Paul. perience never outgrow his necessity for the great truths and provisions of the Incarnation and the sacri ficial Atonement of the Divine Son of God. The grand doctrine. has contradicted or corrected. and leading by eternal goodness. glory. that human ex has made it is that man can certain. where he expresses his humble consciousness that the mystical resurrection which is his aim. passage third of the incomparable chapter Philippians (from which. completely attain. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM is ' God anything.

if we give our hearty belief and This consent to the satisfaction thus made. predestination.ST. The true substitution. <why am I yet persecuted ? why do I die daily ? then is the stumbling-block of the cross 96 . is appeased and set free to exercise towards us his mercy. c hearty belief being given. as predestination the it Protestant theology. is now. and appeasement. Paul.' This doctrine of work finished ' imputed righteousness formerly was. to our Puritans with their magical and mechanical salvation. of popular of And. in his own person. in real truth. and to justify and sanctify us in consideration of Christ's righteousness im puted to us. from St. is not the substitution of Jesus Christ in men's stead as victim on the cross to God's offended justice it is the substitution by which the believer. is Paul knows nothing what Paul knows of a reconciling sacrifice. and imputation of alien merit. repeats Jesus . we rest/ to use the in the consecrated expression already quoted. professes to be specially derived favourite thesis like the doctrine But whoever has followed attentively the main line of St. has no place. Paul's theology. for Paul. Paul says. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n our stead. will see at once that in St. of a sacrificial atonement . Christ's dying to sin. just what he said to the men of circum ' If I preach resting in the finished work cision : of a Saviour. of a Saviour. Paul's essential ideas this popular notion of a substitution. as we have tried to show it.

PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM * annulled. that our whole course must be a crucifixion and a resurrection. no less than the doctrine of the Epistle to the Romans.ii ST. Yet as this is my central doctrine. differs entirely from the common doctrine of Puritanism. v. Nay. we should have no difficulty in making it appear. which he conveys in that phraseology. by texts taken from the Epistle to the Hebrews. that the doctrine of this epistle. however. which science repels. in spite of all that his nation. by the profound religious sense of In none of his epistles is the reconciling work of Christ really presented under this aspect. ix 97 H . time. prove bearing of the documents we canvass. VOL. appeased by and nonand remitting in consideration of it his wrath against those who had offended him. 2. that well-nigh impossible doctrine. this notion of God. were evidently well known to the writer of the Epistle to the Hebrews. which does the apparently present it under this aspect. Epistle Paul's phraseology. the to Hebrews. and even the central idea to favour Paul. One great epistle there is. however.' The natural notion of God a magnified a sacrifice man. was equally repelled. becomes superfluous. we shall by no means do because it is . even as Christ's whole course was a crucifixion and a resurrection. This. and training had in them it. That hard. 1 Gal. if we merely sought to a rather than to ascertain the real thesis.

if he gets the popular derives. and of the analogies to Christ's sacrifice which are furnished by that system. If other proof were wanting. From the like evidence. it is on the other hand the writer's fault and no longer the reader's if out of the Epistle to the Hebrews he gets the popular doctrine.. yet at God ' doctrine out of the Epistle to the Romans. in spite of the hesitation caused by grave difficulties. perhaps. be finally content to leave in considerable part to him. the development of an ascetic system. that the doctrine neither of popular doctrine is really the the one epistle nor of the other. the use of single words. if not a real. what is probably true. the Apocalypse is clearly shown to be not by the . 1 if . own want of penetration. and to fixed his his fault due to prepossessions.place. it is the only one which we may not. the development of a church organisation.ST. Paul. is that internal evidence furnished by the whole body ot the thoughts and style of an epistle . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n our honest opinion that the popular doctrine of the sacrificial Atonement of the Divine Son of ' any rate a strong to the Hebrews. purpose. and this evidence that Paul was not its author the Epistle to the Hebrews furnishes. For the author of not subjugated. 1 Considerations drawn from date. yet it must be a confessed that while it is the reader's fault. that epistle is. yet at least pre ponderantly occupied by the idea of the Jewish system of sacrifices. this alone would make it impossible that the Epistle to the Hebrews should be Paul's and indeed of all the epistles which bear his name. apparent sanction from the Epistle Even supposing. are not enough to make us wholly take away certain The only decisive evidence. for this epistles from St.

will never truly speak to the religious sense. type-finding. 99 . and is not a religious idea. they abound with Pauline things. somewhat dominated the religious perceptions. . The Epistle to the Hebrews is full and what may be called of beauty and power the exterior conduct of its argument is as able and satisfying as Paul's exterior conduct of his argument is generally embarrassed. and are. is a mere notion of the understanding. derives corroboration from the one account of Apollos which we have .' c is just such a performance as might naturally have come from an eloquent man and mighty in the Scriptures . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM Luther's conjecture. This clear evidence against the to St. as a perfect sacrifice which consummated the imperfect sacrifices of the Jewish law. Its details but its apparent are full of what is edifying central conception of Christ's death. that he was an eloquent man and mighty The Epistle to the Hebrews in the Scriptures. and expounding. and the powers of combining. the notion of appeasement of an offended God by vicarious sacrifice. written by an excellent man. which the Epistle to the Hebrews apparently sanctions. Paul. which it is in author of the Fourth Gospel. tradition which assigns them But general characteristic of Paul's own real work to exercise. or bear fruit for true religion. that much in them fails to produce that peculiarly searching effect on the reader. and in an excellent and large spirit.ii ST. Turn it which way we will. . in whom the intelligence. in any case. The serious ground of difficulty as to these epistles will to the genuine critic be. the Epistles to Timothy and Titus do not offer. which ascribes to Apollos the Epistle to the Hebrews.

not now precious in the sense of buying off wrath or satisfying a claim.ST. and it has before like sheep. the notion of winning contains three notions the favour or buying off the wrath of a powerful the being by giving him something precious notion of parting with something naturally and the notion of expiation. through the incompar able power and energy of religious perception in since his it time . But the doctrine itself Paul had really put aside. but that Paul should have been enabled. but of suffering in that wherein we have sinned. It is PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n to Apollos if he was somewhat overpowered by this notion. in : men's natural use of it. not that Apollos should have adopted it. in reality to Figures drawn from the dominant put it aside. up to his time. sacrifice. for the whole world was full of it. The wonder forming his intellectual perception. set forth with Paul's figures. notion of sacrificial appeasement he used. 100 in the Puritan . for the notion has so saturated the imagination and language of humanity that its figures pass naturally and irresistibly into all our speech. Popular Puritanism consists of the apparent doctrine from the Epistle to the Hebrews. in his time. The first notion is. and belongs to the ignorant and fear-ridden childhood of humanity it is . at bottom. . merely superstitious. and had sub stituted for it a better. and no blame driven theologians is. The term . however. the main element.

sacrifice. is the bitter experience that the habit of wrong.' can be good with pleasure. have not of the the in act itself. Jesus to men in is the with what. parted most precious of things.' ' If you shedding of blood is no remission. consummated upon the cross this here is Paul's essential notion of Christ's death . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM f conception of justification. ' God but such is our does not envy you your joy that man cannot be so. The third notion may easily be misdealt in Paul's with. when the sense of right awakens in us. obeying selfish impulse. ' . there justification conception c cease In some way or other. general.' The corruption. . we difficulty present only have the resistance of all our past fire and the We . he who would c must nearly always from sin suffer in the It is found to be true. so far as we ourselves are concerned.ii ST. requires an effort out of all proportion to the actual present emergency. it is the main element in the Pauline conception of justification. died to sin and to the law in our members. to do right. The second notion explains itself. individual self and he pleased not himself.' says Bishop Wilson with his genius of practical religious sense. obeyed the selfishness spirit of God. that to withstand selfish impulse. 101 . so affects our temper and powers. every substantial basis of the notion of expiation. that 'without flesh. but it has a profound truth of is much of it. of blindly .

of the moral law. no resisting past. has the just to happiness. the righteous must actually labour and suffer far more than would be necessary if men were better. which. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n knife. that. a a more than . in order to keep this standard pure and unimpaired. expiate ? their hard and careless breaking righteousness. He has no indurated habit of wrong. cautery and amputation. and hereto belongs What sins. need of the spiritual organs gangrened.ST. to save the ideal of human life and conduct from the 102 example. who is man's ideal. we might have obtained from the natural healthful vigour of our moral organs. are often necessary in order to induce a vital action. Not so the just. no knife and fire smoothly and inevitably he follows the eternal order. the second place. by a superhuman spending himself without stint. he has to make up for the harm caused by our continual shortcomings. This is the real basis of our personal sense of the need of expiating. no perverse temper. gression. and thus it is that man expiates. no enfeebled powers. if it were not for our corrupting past. to step between us foolish transgressors and the destructive natural consequences of our trans no . mortal scale of justice and purity. In the first place. then. men's habitual un ours. In truth. do so tend to reduce and impair the standard of goodness. he has to undergo In our hatred and persecution for his justice. and.

is the expiation of Christ. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM which men's ordinary practice it. Paul's writings. that by it Jesus died to the law of selfish impulse. liii.ii ST.' he was truly 'bruised for our iniquities. according to that true and profound perception of the import of Christ's and sufferings. but ours his good. Jesus is the martyrion^-^ the testimony in his life and in his death. In the first aspect.' he ' suffered in our behoof/ bare the sin of many. 2 Cor. 18. parted with what to men in general is most Paul's second notion is. Paul's foremost notion of this sacrifice is. which. notion. ' he was sacrificed as a blame less lamb to redeem us from the vain conver 2 sation which had become our second nature in this way. of satisfying and appeas an ing angry God's wrath. in all St. 21 3 . But. viii.' 3 in the inestimable First Epistle of St. is presented to us. to righteousness. in either aspect. sin. Is. Is. to the power and In the second aspect he is goodness of God. . I Peter ii. therefore. that whereas Jesus suffered in doing this. Peter. v.' and c made intercession for the transgressors. 103 . he was made to be sin for us. but for ours. 2 Peter i. i 9 . ' knew no Such. though he was rich. does not come into Paul's real conception of Jesus Christ's sacrifice.' l In this way. The 1 ^ Cor. 5 . liii. his not for suffering was not his fault. truly. 12. 19. precious and near. 21. who ' ' . the antilytron or ransom. deterioration with threatens ' In this way Jesus Christ truly became for our sakes poor.

duty. righteousness. Now the influence of Jesus Christ's pregnant For now awakens the really gains us. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n Jesus Christ's solemn and dolorous condemnation of sin does actually loosen sin's hold and attrac upon us who regard it. act greatest work the spirit account. And now. even appreciate it.ST. makes it easier for us to understand and love goodness. the only possible means. to the eternal order the means. to rise above tion self. but cannot create. in Paul's reconciled the sacrifice us thus. there comes a change. was delivered for our sins while we were yet sinners. nation Christ's sacrifice. and the condem of sin it contained. Grace.* a change of the inner man in regard to the moral order. 8. 21. of our being irrespectively sympathise with . Jesus Christ. brought into harmony with this order. which we can concur with. 1 Rom. it was made of our power or inclination to it and Yet. 104 . and beneficent impulsion of things within us and without us. 2 Acts xx. was made for us while we were yet sinners . v. we have a power enabling us to turn this impulse to its full does time. view. the goodness of the as Paul to call that awful loved God. in us for the first now. for it contained to God. to help our impulse towards right eousness. leads us to repentance indeed. to die to sin. towards God. . 1 and before we could But presently yet appreciate what he did. however. nevertheless. spirit.

2 of following the eternal law of the moral order which by ourselves we could not follow. which its doer dispensed with or was too benign to wait for 1 faith working through love towards Christ enters into us. instead of in miserable rebellion to it . Paul continues. we are in order. 6. of putting on the new man which after God is created in righteousness and true holiness. iv. feel that harmony with the universal we are in harmony with it. If by Christ's death. v. his condemnation of sin in the flesh . and If. Then God justifies us. the ! condemnation how remorsefully But we rise with him. have the righteousness of God and the sense of we are freed from the oppressing having it sense of eternal order guiltily outraged and . Christ was delivered our sins. . Christ's death to the law of the flesh and self-pleasing. to life. says Paul.ii ST. We sternly retributive . of imitation of God. we act in joyful conformity with God's will. identify this is the line of Paul's thought. for then. by the means being thus provided for our else impossible access to we have 1 availed ourselves of these died with him. are Gal. 105 . masters us. 24. we were reconciled to God. the only true life. ourselves. through the power this identification. the death how imperfectly. when means and we saved by his life which 2 Eph. God. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM sympathy for the act and the appreciation of it. much more. we repeat. We with Christ of . he was raised for our justification.

figured speech of Paul has its own beauty and propriety. O6 . I 3 2 The 2 Cor. propitiation. We have before seen how it fares with one o~f the two great tenets which Puritanism has extracted from St. much of it. dytao-//. We now see how it fares with the Paul's figures other. His language is. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM 1 n we partake. from glory to glory. His figures of ransom. all subordinate themselves to his central idea of identification with Christ through dying with him^ and are strictly subservient to it. justified but not only in harmony with the eternal order and at peace with God. v. our Puritans have taken literally. cation. Paul says. Paul. imaginative language there is no need for turning it. an advance. redemption. 10. The 1 Rom. This is Paul's conception of Christ's sacrifice. 3 as St. then it is the language into which we have translated it that translates it truly. into the methodical language of the schools. but consecrated 2 and unalterably devoted to them and from this devotion comes an ever growing union with God in Christ. as Puritanism has done. 18. Henceforward we are not only sanctified. . Eastern language. But if it is to be turned into methodical lan guage. flow from a mere mistake in translating . offering. the tenet of predesti nation. blood. the tenet of justification. while for his central idea they have substituted another which . a which Puritanism has wasted upon sanctifimagical filling with goodness and holiness. a setting endless words apart to holy service. iii.os means consecration.ST.

of their mind. rightly attach. it founds organisations of its lost. when in all its countless chapels it reads him and preaches from him. It thunders at Romanism for not preaching it. out His essential idea disappear not turned is And his into a misused. have seen. his figures own to give full effect to : it . 107 . it casts off Anglicanism for not setting it forth alone and unreservedly. govern statesmen. the veil is upon its heart. Paul himself. begins with seeking righteousness and ends with finding it from first to last. 4. they are just the people he would have called 'diseased about * He would have questions and word-battlings. work thus made. central idea they have and have let it almost figure. Puritanism has stamped with Paul's name. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM his. as we cation. a veil will seem to . and called the gospel.ii ST. destroy and they are based upon a institutions blunder It is ! to Protestantism. for sophisticating religion of the heart into theories of the head about election and justifi St. and this its Puritan that the reproaches thrown on St. 1 i Tim. The moment it reads him right. Paul. gospel. vi. the If practical religious sense never deserts him.' told Puritanism that every Sunday. these organisa tions guide politics. an idea essentially not the unedifying patch his substituted for his. he could have seen and heard our preachers of predestination and justification.

and inferior to him. from which. wrath-filled and blood-exacting environed and . PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM its n be taken away from heart * . Meanwhile another ings Gifted men had brought danger was preparing. Paul the habits of the Greek human and Roman schools. before we end. and only through the false idea of sacrifice did true one. 16. to the glorious apostle who has occupied us so He died. who can doubt it ? nay. let us' turn again for a moment. 15. but unlike Paul in this. Augustine. a great genius. a great religious genius. and men's familiar fancies of long. imbrued in the idea of blood. bargain and appeasement.ST. leaving Puritanism and its errors. Back rolled over the And now. that 1 2 Cor. to the study of St. and philosophised where Paul Orientalised. human soul the mist which the fires of Paul's spiritual genius had dispersed for a few short The mind of the whole world was years. Paul had been able to disengage the death of Jesus. it will feel as though scales were fallen from its eyes. by a prodigy of religious insight. of the victim adding his piacular suffer to those of the divine. but it elevates dominated by the idea of of the appeasement magnified and non-natural man in Heaven. fastened on it and made it their own. iii. . men reach Paul's Paul's idea of dying with Christ the Imitation elevates more conspicuously than any Protestant it treatise elevates it . 108 .

the heavy- Sincere.ii ST. and which then was Not in our day buried with him in his grave . There is Paul. stood. ' : ! 109 . which was uncovered by him for some half. destruction by fire forty The church stands a mile or two out of the city. and reserved all his imagination for Hell and the New Jerusalem and his foretaste of them. but the ideas of the true Paul lay lost and buried. the example of finding in Paul's eastern speech. A so-called Pauline doctrine was in all men's mouths. the formal propositions of western Last came the interpreter in whose slowly relaxing grasp we still lie. which Paul never did. idea of man's investiture with the righteousness of God nothing but a strict legal transaction.score years. rebuilt after years ago. prosaic. just as it dialectics. terior has all the costly magnificence of Italian on the ceiling is written in gilded churches Gold glitters and Doctor Gentium. Every one who has been at Rome has been handed Protestant Philistine. with the mystery which was hidden from ages and from generations. the fumum et opes strepitumque Roma .' letters marbles gleam. on The in the way to Ostia and the desert. PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM he confused the boundaries of metaphysics and Augustine set religion. around him reigns solitude. but man and his movement are The traveller has left at a distance not there. Paul. gross of in Paul's mystical he saw perception. taken to see the Church of a St.

consent of happier generations. the be more and more taught by experience that a theology. the applause of less superstitious ages. and more teaches us to few Science. xv. which more . on the other hand. work for Paul's re-emergence. not a false. IIO . The friends of vague religiosity. with his incessant effort to find a moral side for miracle. will want a vague religiosity. the multitude of us want materialism of the Apocalypse find in the unapparent the real. Both these .ST. It will it will have the edify the church of the future influences will The . doctrine of Paul will arise out of the tomb where for centuries it has lain buried. All will be too little to pay half the debt which the church of God owes to this ' least of the apostles. will gradually serve to conquer the materialism of popular religion. with his incessant effort to make the intellect follow and secure all the who the workings of the religious perception. 9. a scientific appreciation of the facts of but a theology religion. because he persecuted the church of God/ 1 1 i Cor. who was not fit to be called an apostle. is wanted for religion which is a true theology. Of those care for religion. will PAUL AND PROTESTANTISM n he relive.

original sin. with its three notable tenets of predestination. . 113. and addressed ourselves directly to the Puritans for the Puritan Churches. many Puritans now profess also the doctrine that it is wicked to have a church connected with the State but . seem to exist specially for the sake of these doctrines. The Church of the Restoration. we said. we took Puritanism to stand for Protestantism. and have tried to show how. and justification. Dr. and missing his essential doctrine. one or more of them. it has been pounding away for three centuries at St.PURITANISM AND THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND foregoing treatise we have spoken of Protestantism. 1 designed to strengthen a 1 In his very interesting history. Ill . this is a later invention. Paul's wrong IN the And words. parties were advocates for a national establishment of religion? : p. It is true. that both Vol. i. Stoughton says most truly of both Anglicans and Puritans in 1660 'It is necessary to bear in mind this circumstance.

but meanwhile. three A People are not necessarily monarchists or re publicans because they are born and live under a monarchy or republic. like those is otherwise these Rome. or a man who lives and thrives under a republic. for the most part. may be a part of their but certainly traditions. quite in this respect between the the difference clearly historic Churches and the churches of separatists. But a man. jointly or little consideration will show severally. who have gone out of an established polity from zeal for the principle of monarchy or republicanism. noticed in due course . trouble their heads much about particular theoretical principles of government.PURITANISM AND It requires to be separation previously made. their theological stock no one will say that either of these Churches existing. . or body of men. doctrines may be in them. was made these for the express purpose of upholding theological doctrines. we say that the aim of setting forth certain Protestant doctrines purely and integrally is the main title on which Puritan Churches rest their right of Churches. With or historic of England it . and have set up a polity of their own for the very purpose of I 12 . but they do not. They avail themselves of the established government for those general purposes for which governments and politics exist. the principle of republicanism. Nay. it may well happen that a man who lives and thrives under a monarchy shall yet theoretically disapprove the principle of monarchy.

is .THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND giving satisfaction to this * they have unsound. which shall be pre or solifidian absolutely. justification. for position whenever it zeal principle. Now. VOL. are in a false shall appear that the which constituted their separate existence. when their people from historic zeal for these dogmas find Church not predestinarian or solifidian enough associations for them. and have either to own them without a reason for existing. the associations are destinarian too. and she and her But task will remain what they were before. may appear in the theology of a national or historic Church. will naturally cling to these dogmas Therefore longer and harder than other people. or to discover some new reason in place of the old. they will be dropped out of the Church's theology. and make new of their own. then. ix 113 r . charged ever since the rise of Christianity with the task of develop ing the immense and complex store of ideas and when the stage contained in Christianity of development has been reached at which the unsoundness of predestinarian and solifidian dogmas becomes manifest. Calvinism and Lutherism. when the dogmas are undermined. So predestinarianism and solifidianism. we have treated the Puritan bodies in this country as the great stronghold here of these doctrines . nothing which exists likes to be driven to a strait of this kind so every association which exists because of zeal for the dogmas of election or undermined selves . from zeal.

in anything that we do or say in this matter. which is not peculiarity. and it To saddle may be said Calvinistic Church. that we we do. they say. besides. Now. they even no man in his senses can deny declare that that the Church of England was meant to be a one insignificant exception. by ill-will to Puritanism and the Puritans.PURITANISM AND a perversion of Paul's real ideas these doctrines commonly called Pauline are. with sectarian Nay. on the contrary. wrong we think Paul's writings. a device which can injure nobody but its author. and in showing what But those who speak in the Puritans' name a as say that we charge upon Puritanism. we have tried to show that the Puritans are quite wrong in imagining their doctrine to be the inevitable result of an honest interpre tation of St.' Puritanism in special with the doctrines we have called Puritan is. is. the creed held in common by Puritans and by all the churches in Christendom. just because of our hearty respect for them. Certainly we consider 114 them to speak as be in . we have addressed ourselves to the Puritans. c thoroughly Protestant and Evangelical. doctrine result of an honest inter inevitable the only but which pretation of the writings of St. that it is. Paul. That they are is certain . and from our strong sense of their value. a piece of unfair ness which has its motive in mere ill-will to Puritanism. but so far are we from being moved.

that the larger and more various the body of members. so long as Puritanism imagines itself to possess. so long as it judges others as not holding the gospel^ or as holding additions to it and variations from it. an obstacle to progress and But this is because their true civilisation. in its two or . one feeling when we regard them. from they are now separated. But the waste of power must continue. not of ill-will. but others. such that not only to must one turned to for their own sakes wish to see it more advantage. the more elements of power . This fatal self-righteousness. .THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND the main. and our whole collective force of growth and progress be In short. and the comprehension is impossible. makes comprehension because it takes for granted the impossible of the truth. but of regret at waste of power our one desire is a desire of comprehension. would greatly gain by conjunction with them. our thereby immeasurably increased. grounded on a false conceit of knowledge. so long as three signal doctrines. and this is a position ing how others violate it and suits of superiority. whom what it calls the gospel . at present. is a feeling. and the power of decid possession it . The good of comprehension in a national Church is. conquest rather than comprehension. in our opinion. constitutes itself separately on the plea of setting forth purely the gospel^ which it thus imagines itself to have seized . worth is.

PURITANISM AND and will life the Church be of will contain. to separate not. prevents also collective growth. and to frustrate the hope of growth in common. and that and that it is the duty Puritans have done so of men. if it had these a higher why we wish for the Puritans in the Church. the more points more mutual more growth in per support and stimulus. meanwhile. by life. therefore. who like themselves have extracted it. the The fection both of thought and practice. which. not worth their while to separate themselves. 116 . mainly because it believes that a certain set of opinions or scheme of theological doctrine is the gospel . that it is possible and profitable to extract this. But. and to themselves from those who have set themselves apart that they may profess of this error. waste of power from not comprehending the Puritans in the national Church is measured by the number and value of elements which Puritanism could supply towards the collective The national growth of the whole body. . the there contact. . it is necessary to show them that their extracted scheme of theological doctrine is not To it purely. Church would grow more vigorously towards stage of insight into religious truth. disabuse them preventing collective really the gospel it is and that at any rate. and consequently towards a greater perfection of elements . and this is practice. Puritanism will not contribute to the common growth.

that the national and historic Churches of Christendom do equally with Puritanism hold this scheme. or main parts of it. showing how. but from esteem for their fine qualities and from desire for their help. Therefore. nor falling into separatism for it. and the historic Churches do not. as we have said. that we have addressed ourselves to to the historic the Puritans.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND merely for this scheme's sake. as they allege. but which would be yet greater and more fruitful still. and not Churches. if the historic Churches combined the large and admirable contingent of Puritanism with their own forces. as a matter of of England (which is the historic Church Church practically in question so far as Puritanism is concerned) seems to us to have displayed with respect to those very tenets which we have are said to criticised. because the Puritan Churches found their very existence on it. We propose the to complete now our dealings with this subject by fact. doctrine in question. and a power of even in respect of the very scheme of growth. that in showing the and invalidity unscripturalness of this scheme we should address ourselves. And not founding their existence on it. it is out of no sort of malice or ill-will. and for which we 117 have . And even if it were true. supposing them to hold it. the historic Churches have a collective life which is very considerable. still it would be to Puritanism. far greater than any which the Puritan Churches show.

been the favourite and distinguishing doctrine it was the doctrine which Puritan flocks greedily sought.PURITANISM AND unfairly made Puritanism continual power of growth alone responsible. The two great Puritan doctrines which we have criticised at such length are the doctrines of power Of the aggress predestination and justification. ive and militant Puritanism of our people. and it became nonconforming because it well known that the High Church divines of the seventeenth century were Arminian. and called others carnal gospellers for . Now. the probability of this greater of growth seems to follow. a which has been This wanting to the Puritan first we propose to show congregations. that the Church of England was the stronghold of Arminianism. how. from or national Church. and wish endeavour was to establish both great the one and the other absolutely in the Church of England. is the as said. and we will . it is is. we have sense to get rid of 118 . the Geneva Puritanism's first panied discipline. show the very theory of a historic secondly. almost up to the present day. and what is eminently worthy of remark. and that Arminianism failed. pre destination has. This Geneva doctrine accom not preaching. an effort of man's practical what is shocking to it good in Calvinism. which Puritan ministers powerfully preached. that we may commend that theory a little more to try and the thoughts and favour of our Puritan friends. But what is not so well known.

Yet there is to very catena of testimonies to prove it from Elizabeth's reign to Charles the show us.ecclesiastical bias. inasmuch as the Church party was not the party of civil liberty. which is natural enough. steadily resisting. clergy written always with an anti. with the instinct of a a . Calvinism. trying to and get decisive command of her formularies the Church of England. know how far Nonconformity is due. to put the Calvinistic doctrine more distinctly into her formularies. Second's. the constant resistance offered by the Church of England. Everybody knows how far Nonconformity is due to the Church of England's rigour in impos ing an explicit declaration of adherence to her formularies. and averse to 119 fetter future. body meant to and engage its live and grow. But only a few. also. . conferences shows at least as signally as it shows the domineering spirit of the High Church but our current political histories. to the Church of England's invincible reluctance to narrow her large and loose formu laries to the strict Calvinistic sense dear to Yet this is what the record of Puritanism. .THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND constant pressure applied by Puritanism upon the Church of England. who have searched out the matter. and to tie her up more strictly to this doctrine . and the large degree in which Noncon formity is really due to this cause. as a power both within and without the Church of England. leaves this singularly out of sight. .

it was usual from 1552 onwards to print in the English Bibles a catechism assert ing the Calvinistic doctrine of absolute election In the first Bibles of the and reprobation. at his accession in 1603. the Hampton Court Conference. But. meaning an uniformity in Thus from the this sense of strict Calvinism. Here. was for opening . the commencement Church.PURITANISM AND Articles of 1595 exhibit Cal vinism potent in the Church of England herself. as we have said. what was it that the Church was pressed by Puritanism to concede. the but could it establish itself there ? The Lambeth . Again. narrowing. in 1604. Then came. Lambeth Articles were recalled and suppressed. met James the First. but Yet the Puritans had it was removed in 1615. political historians the Church with having conceded so reproach little. think solely of the Puritans as the religious party favourable to civil liberty. with the petition that there may be an uniformity of doctrine prescribed . authorised version this catechism appeared . These historians. and among the bishops of the Church. and Archbishop Whitgift was threatened with the penalties of a prtemunire for having published them. and what was the character and disputes 120 . as regards very Puritanism was for doctrine. and on that account desire the preponderance of Puritanism in its with the Church. True No . as usual. as regards freedom of thought and truth of ideas.

The Bishop of London answered. might be inserted into the Book of Articles. according to the Calvinistic interpretation put upon God's Word by Calvin and the Puritans after him an interpretation which wa have shown to be erroneous and unscriptural. in love with my I follow neighbour." which . and here are the words of their spokesman. This Calvinistic doctrine of predestination the Puritans wanted to plant hard and fast in the Church's The formularies. : destinated and chosen me to life. and the Church resisted. laid all their religion upon predestination^ " If I shall be saved. showing it to be : contrary to good divinity. The Bishops resisted. neglecting holiness of life. 121 . my vocation. Puritan foreman complained of the loose word ing of the Thirty-nine Articles because it allowed an escape from the strict doctrine of Calvinism. therefore. etc. I shall be saved. the Bishop of ' London.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND The first tendency of the Church's refusal ? Puritan petition at this Conference was 'that the doctrine of the Church might be preserved in purity according to God's Word.. that too many in those days. which is " God hath the usual course of argument pre . therefore I trust that God hath elected me and pre " destinated me to salvation not thus. strictly Calvinistic.' That is. which teaches us to reason rather ascendendo than descendendo^ thus " I live in obedience to God. he termed a desperate doctrine. and moved that the Lambeth Articles.

laying all their religion upon predestination. in the foregoing treatise. when Puritanism was Some in the Church strongly in the ascendant. that is.' What we insist upon is. of salvation Lord's day constitution . that late repentance. wanted to make the Church do the same. are here shown to be in the Church and that on these two cardinal doctrines of gross substance . upon the last bed of sickness. at least. is unfruitful. as it was consonant to good sense ? ' We have already. predestination and justification. that good works are concauses with faith in the act of justification . kept merely by ecclesiastical some have defended the whole of Arminianism. that the act of conversion depends upon the concurrence of men's free will some have denied original sin some have broached out of Socinus a most uncomfortable and desperate doctrine. . say complainers. with 122 which we . I shall not be damned. on religious matters. for whom he once loveth he loveth to Who will deny that this resistance the end. quoted from the complaints against the Church by the Committee of Divines appointed by the House of Lords in 1641.PURITANISM AND though I sin never so grievously. was as favourable to growth of thought and to sound philosophy." of the Church to the Puritans. who. c Puritan the teach. that the growth and movement of thought. to reconcile the penitent to God. . some have oppugned the certitude some have maintained that the is .

were to be in the Prayer Book. but by casting out the Prayer Book altogether. was forbidden also for all private places and families all copies to be found in churches were to be delivered up. ' Because Liturgy seems very defective. and justification. unyieldingness. not by importing strict Calvinism into the Prayer Book. of these tenets of predestination. free development the Puritans was say again who were for narrowing. while the Church did are not. By ordinance in 1645. on persons retaining them. we it full sin. original which we are accused of charging upon them exclusively and un the Puritans complain that the Church fairly. Their heads Having in view doctrine and of thought. We come to to the occasion where the Church is have most decisively shown her thought the Savoy Conference in 1661. after The made King Charles the question was what Second's alterations restoration. it was the Church men who were for keeping open. Puritanism did really want to make the national religion hinge. which for churches had already been forbidden. the use of the Prayer Book. and heavy penalties were imposed . but resisted.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND accused of unfairly saddling Puritanism alone. why ? the systems of doctrine of a church should 123 . so as to enable the Puritans to use it as well as the Church party. The resistance of the Church was at that time vanquished.

that which is either Liturgy but evidently the Word of God.' And It is the the answer of the bishops ? answer of people with an instinct that this definition and explicitness demanded by the Puritans are incompatible with the conditions of so explicit as what is 'The church/ they of a historic church. ' the Confession/ they say. summarily comprehend to sin. * and in Who thought. The Catechism is defective as to many necessary doctrines of our religion. ' is For instance. The Puritans had requested that ' the Church prayers might contain nothing questioned by pious. some even of the essentials of Christianity not being mentioned except in the Creed. bishops the very language of good sense : Are we are pious^ learned^ to take for such all and orthodox persons ? who ? shall confidently affirm themselves to be such If by orthodox be 124 . or what hath been generally received in the Catholic Church. life and orthodox persons? Seizing on this expression. ' hath been careful to put nothing into the say. wherein is contained the ground of learned^ that separatism for opinions which we hold to be so fatal not only to Church life but also to the natural growth of religious the ask. and there not ought to be in a catechism. not clearly expressing original very defective.' The Cate a chism is not intended as whole body of divinity.PURITANISM AND all such doctrines as be are necessary believed/ and the Liturgy does not set down these explicitly enough.

without metaphysical articles so to make them articles of peace showed a true conception of the conditions of life and growth in a church. for the Puritans themselves expressly admitted its truth. undoubtedly he shall be saved . with what is so often said. For the Church of England. The readiness to put a lax sense on subscription a proof of the same disposition of mind. can have no metaphysical But no one then thought of doing value. and urged It is in consonance this as a reason for altering the Liturgy. that whosoever believes it and lives according and that to it. is Chillingworth's judgment about the meaning ' of subscription is well known. 125 . they the Articles scientifically worthless. drawn up with a studied design for their being vague and loose. . indeed. I am persuaded that the constant doctrine of it is so pure and orthodox.' the Liturgy This allegation respecting the character of is undoubtedly true. Persons want the book to be altered for their own satisfaction. It was the wisdom of our reformers to draw up such a liturgy as neither Romanist nor Protestant could justly except against. Meta physical propositions. that articles are This. such as they in the main are. and truly said. we do not yet know that any part of our Liturgy has been questioned by such. makes of peace.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND meant those who adhere to Scripture and the Catholic consent of antiquity. of the Thirty-nine Articles.

and there always 126 will be a certain . and therefore inexcusable in a Christian church. held on this point a like opinion with him. This^ in my /> opinion. was nearly as ill-disposed as the Church to the Puritans . Certainly the Church of England was in no humour. to It was too much deal tenderly with the Puritans. a very different man from Chillingworth.PURITANISM AND there or is no error in it which may necessitate warrant any man to disturb the peace or renounce the communion of it. at the time of the Savoy Conference. the Church.. and who deserves therefore to be studied. A Church now. all that is intended by subscription' Laud. who was put forward to thwart Tillotson's projects of com certain number of Dr. moreover. And disposed to show to the Puritans the same sort of tenderness which the Puritans had shown to nation. Regius Professor of Divinity at Oxford and Dean of Gloucester. prehension in 1689. Examples of Churchmen so speaking and dealing may be found in the transactions of 1661 but perhaps the most offensive example of a Churchman of this kind. The what the narrowness and dominant had really of Puritanism tyrannousness been. there have Janes always been in the Church. is a certain Dr. Jane. There are a certain number of them in the and this proves well . But the Church undoubtedly said and did to Puritanism after the Restoration much that was harsh and bitter.

and it was with the diction of the the Prayer Book. and to narrow the Church's latitude. ' And was this is how the ' Reformed Liturgy 127 Eternal. in order to comprehend the full bitterness and resentment of Puritanism against the Church of England. which made . but from a real sense that their formularies were made so large and open. and the sense put upon subscription to them was so indulgent. after attentively and impartially observing the two parties. Nay. Baxter had his rival Prayer Book which he proposed . No Church could exist with many of them but one should have a sample or two of them always before one's mind. not as the political historians would have it. .THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND number of them. the Puritans stand out. are always apt to stand for the whole. . and those the worst. of their excluders. Else one would be inclined to say. and remember how to the excluded party a few. that the persistence of the Church in pressing for conformity arose. incomprehensible and to begin : invisible God. that any reasonable man could honestly conform and that it was perverseness and determination to impose their special ideas on the Church. as it was with its doctrine Church took the side which most commands the sympathy of liberal-minded men. to ' substitute for the old one. from the lust of haughty ecclesiastics for dominion and for imposing their law on the vanquished.

' etc. ill . and ten thousand times ten thousand stand before thee. openness. and latitude. as far as regards doctrine. indeed. Puritan innovations. spoil angry drive by violence. Dearly beloved brethren . that for the doctrines of predestination. when the other party will not move by reason. again. seems to have filled her mind during her dealings with the Puritans and that her impatience with them was in great measure impatience at seeing these so ill-appreciated by them. -appreciated by them they certainly were and. I say. as far as doctrine is concerned. Blame she deserves. 128 more dogmatic . the Church had shown the same largeness in in power. unto thee. Worse Act of Uniformity. finally no doubt appears . was to have taken the place of our old friend.PURITANISM AND infinite goodness. the wish to still. the in wisdom and light which no man We consenting to relax ceremonies. but what has and she has had it plentifully not been enough perceived is. and the Church has much to blame herself for in refusing diction. . can dwelling thousand thousands minister where approach. Puritanism wanted more exclusive prominence. Very in the . This. and here. to which or she showed to tighten dogma. we can hardly refuse approval to the Church's resistance to could wish. that really the conviction of her own moderation. original sin. and justification. the quarrel between the Church and Puritanism undoubtedly was.

ix 129 K . so. what it needed insight to To whom way is this it ? who were the beginners of say then. on these three favourite tenets of Puritanism. of disengagement from the stock notions of popular theology about predestination. . that ' it were to be wished the Quinquarticular points were all reduced to this one. development And as the instinct of the Church always made her avoid. . and not among Puritans.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND bar to future escape and while the Church resisted. The very complaints which we have quoted from the Puritan divines prove that this was so. it is among Churchmen. namely. That none shall be saved without VOL. Puritanisrn itself no it longer holds these doctrines in the rigid change owing ? They were men that comparative openness of mind and using accessibility to ideas which was fostered by the Church. saying in the heat of the Calvinistic controversy. Henry More. Few will deny that as to the doctrines of predestination and original sin. the mind of religious men is no definition. the stringency of definition which Puritanism tried to force upon her. but what almost every one's common sense says now. if we look for the positive beginnings and first signs of growth. original sin. always made her leave herself room for growth in regard to them. There has been evident growth and emancipation once did. and justification. at any rate. that we shall find them. more longer what it was in the seventeenth century or in the eighteenth.

the stream. sin. On the contrary. Here the We have occasion by and by to discuss Wesley's Words Plead thou solely the blood of the Covenant the ransom paid for thy proud stubborn soul ! and ' : .PURITANISM AND ' sincere obedience ' : . they hold that 'all heretics have continually failed in this one point. which commonly explicated. Puritans . That Puritanism is yet emancipated from the popular doctrine of justification cannot be as serted. Wesley's. that first introduced into our religious world the current of more independent thought concerning the doctrines of predestination and original sin. puddled and that he stamped puddled it more. Jeremy Taylor saying in the teeth of the superstitious original sin popular doctrine of Original . themselves. Like Luther. that they do not rightly understand or know the article of holding standard and this 130 . has now made its way even amidst Puritans emancipation has reached the but it proceeded from the Church. the more it loosens its hold on the doctrine of predestination the more it shall tightens it on that of justification. teaching tracts which have been me in sent many lately reference to this subject go all the same way. ' to show how modern aloft as its Methodism glories in this teaching of The above all.' this sort of utterance from Churchmen it was. as it is at this day was not the doctrine of but when Pelagius had the primitive church Austin was so angry St.

Methodism. Paul's writings we have : ' ' ' ' very visible a tendency in the minds of religious people to outgrow it. such as Bishop Wilson. is true. Let it be remembered in that day that not only does the movement come to Puritanism from the Church. shown that there is ! 1 For : example. that these should have been discerningly judged by that mixture of piety and sobriety which marks Anglicans of the best type. but which are the essence of Wesleyan Wesley. the tenets of conversion. and which have in them so much that is delusive and dangerous. assurance. but it comes to Churchmen of our century from a seed of growth and development inherent in the Church.' . what * an antidote to the sanctification is perilous Methodist of Bishop doctrine of instantaneous this saying Wilson He who fancies that his mind may effectually be changed in a short time. but by the precious blood of the Son of God. The inevitable movement of growth will in time extend itself to Puritanism also. but where alone does this tendency mani In the fest itself with any steadiness or power ? Church. and sinless per tenets which are not the essence of fection. and which was manifest in the Church long ago That the accompaniments of the doctrine of justification. deceives himself.' That this doctrine is founded upon an entire misunderstanding of St.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND justification do not see (to continue to use Luther's words) that by none other sacrifice or offering could God's fierce anger be appeased. instant aneous sanctification. 1 will surprise .

therefore. and justification. the fontal doctrine itself.PURITANISM AND But years before Wesley was born. and is thus opposed to that and which development 132 . to these doctrines. not existing for special opinions. has shown much greater freedom of mind as regards the doctrines of election. separatist to those opinions. proper to rivets the Puritanism. She the thus both has been and for more serviceable than . but himself to proceeding by development. to make them is all in all. than the Nonconformists have and has refused. ism it is worth remembering what Epiphanius observes of the primitive times. c ' : ' first s true elements of his task. from the Lutheran doctrine of justification given The solifidian looks upon his faith as the utmost accomplishment and end. Puritanism to religious progress because is separating opinions. that wickedness was the only heresy. which ting is. Wesley's Plead thou solely had been criticised the blood of the Covenant ! the and signal of deliverance by Hammond thus. that having them renders his condition safe. to tie herself too strictly . The solifidian believes have the only sanctified necessary doctrines. the super- of good life. and every man who believes them a pure In respect of solifidianChristian professor. and not only as the no one. in spite of Puritan pressure.' In point of fact. the historic Church in England. original sin. that impious and pious living divided the whole Christian world into erroneous and orthodox.

have to account/ says Dr. of justification. for it is written in its institutions and history. ' We which embarrasses us when we would consult history for the true idea of Christianity. 'for that apparent variation and growth of sense of Scripture . both persuasively of this sort which Church -history pression cannot but convey. A historic Church cannot choose but allow the principle of development. in his Essay on Development. it seems probable and natural that so this should be. The increase and expansion of the Christian doctrine . perhaps. but which contains. purpose antecedent likelihood. even a greater number of profound and valuable ideas than any other one of them. and to cut yourself off from growth and gradual illumination. destination. is to be false to the idea of develop and Christianity. An admirable writer. the im forth. Newman. is what I have been in what remains I trying to show hitherto to as a show matter of theory and how.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND gradual exhibiting of the full sense is of the Bible religious To separate for the doctrine of pre progress. in a book which is one of his least known works. to imagine that you can seize the absolute from your own present point of view. has set and truly. of scriptural church discipline. which essential to ment. That a comparison between the course things have taken in Puritan ism and in the Church goes to prove the truth of this as a matter of fact.

' Ideas may remain when the again of them is expression indefinitely varied. . and the variations which have attended the process in the case of individual writers and churches. to its spirit. as admitted and transmitted by minds not inspired. human time is the nature of the mind. are the necessary attendants on any philosophy or polity which takes possession of the intellect and heart. and an obstinacy in the notions of So our Lord found his people the past. . and through media which were human. the more various will be 134 . necessary for the full comprehension and perfection of highest and most wonderful communicated to the world truths. The the development of the Law Gospel yet what difference seems wider than that which separates the unbending rule of Moses from the grace and truth which came by Jesus Christ ? The more claim an idea has to be considered living. have required only the longer time great ideas. Nay. The and deeper thought for their full elucidation. its development. could not be comprehended all at once by the recipients but. one cause of corruption in religion is the refusal to follow the course of doctrine as it moves on. is that is.PURITANISM AND creed and ritual. though once for all by inspired teachers. in their obedience to the letter precisians he condemned them for not being led on And ' : . and From has had any wide or extended dominion.

or If expands to is in his heart in and and time. and the longer and its its more eventful will be its course. at first vaguely and fall as generally.' notion thus admirably expounded of a gradual understanding of the Bible.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND aspects . such as the Holy Scriptures. comes it inspiration supplied the of this development in the first recipients place of Christianity. and would afterwards be completed said .' be objected that inspired documents. perfection that the course of by developments. ' : Such is It may yet once more Christianity. But they were in tended to create an idea^ and that idea is not in the sacred text. is the same which The was in down many he not in Bishop Butler's mind when he laid his Analogy that ' the Bible contains as truths * yet undiscovered. still the time at length came and when its recipients ceased to be inspired on these recipients the revealed truths would in other cases. the more complicated and subtle will be its developments. whether that reader . And idea communicated to him and minute accuracy on its is in its first completeness apprehension. intellect. a progressive development of Christianity.' c And as/ is says. and the more social and political is nature. so. yet whole scheme of Scripture understood. at once determine doctrine without further trouble. if it ever comes the 135 to . but in the mind of the and the question is.

comparing. but one state of our life and being is appointed by God to be a preparation for another. . God operates in the very same manner as in the dispensation of Christianity making one thing subservient to another. and pursuing intimations scattered up and down it. or which seem to come into our minds by chance/ And . things must be ' all by thoughtful improvements are made men's tracing on obscure hints. must be of necessity. in the same way as natural knowledge is come at. through progressive both which extend backward and forward. accomplishing his natural ends by slow successive steps. by the continuance and progress of learning and of liberty. c again as it : Our existence is not only successive. Thus. our utmost view. this to somewhat further and so a of series means on. Men are impatient and but the author of for precipitating things nature appears deliberate throughout his opera tions. and by particular persons attending to. which are overlooked and disregarded by the generality For this is the way in which of the world. 136 . childhood to youth. youth to mature age. in the daily course of natural providence. infancy to childhood. Of this manner beyond . and that to be the means of attaining to another succeeding one . . before the restitution of all and without miraculous interpositions. dropped as by nature accidentally..PURITANISM AND be it understood. as it were.

as Both Purgatory. than the doctrines you reject. and true ' the whole Bible is principle of development. or in the plain teaching of the ante Nicene Church. 137 . namely. Newman. uses developments written on the . in arbitrary uses and it He support of the pretensions of the Church of Rome to an infallible authority on points of doctrine. the much of as the are them developments made by Church. he declares. by -Nicene Church. to Protestants : The doctrines you receive are no more on the face of the Bible. indeed. in itself reasonable.Nicene Church. beyond any doubt. and with Dr. Newman we may. The doctrine of the Trinity doctrine post the is a of development.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND of operation everything we see in the course of nature is as much an instance as any part of the Christian dispensation. The determination of Canon of Scripture. that ' legitimate.' All this is indeed incomparably well said . on the c strength of it all. Newman post. a thing of vital im the portance to you but Scripture. fairly conclude that Christian doctrine admits of formal. He says. would compel Protestants to admit that which is. who acknowledge is a no authority development due to the And thus Dr. this idea in a manner which seems to us condemned by the idea itself.' Dr. with much ingenuity. which alone you consider pure.

in and of the in doctrine This is the they grow. and extended to speculative doctrine as well thought as well discipline. or of any mechanism of reasoning. and obedience faith of of the Church. Dr. thereby separating them from the practice mass of mere human speculation. though with the use of reflection and argument and original 138 an of forced not . but or of any mere subtlety of intellect . to to Christian seems at practice. founded on the prob in its declarations ability of its never erring or commands. fallibility towards the Church.' But Dr. or enthusiasm. extravagance. out of which corruption. and error.' Now. Newman c says : Development is effect of wishing and resolving.PURITANISM AND 6 the probability of the appointment in Chris external authority to decide tianity of an upon the true developments of doctrine and in it. Newman's conclusion variance with his own theory of development. and to be something like an instance of what Bishop are Butler criticises when he c says : Men impatient and for precipitating things. asserted in this absolute as as way. Dr. Newman has himself supplied us with a sort of commentary on these words of Butler's which is worth quoting. comes of its own innate power of expansion within the mind in its season. because it throws more light on our point than Butler's few words can throw on it by themselves.

contains speculative philosophical ideas. So far as Christian doctrine theology. does abundantly deal. for the true elucidation of such questions.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND more or less as it may happen. upon it. as any great one can see. And so far as Christianity deals. than we have had already. Well.history proves.' It is impossible to point out more sagaciously . which certainly so dauntlessly strove to determine them. p^ ^ determining these adequately in not the mediaeval Church. with a dependence on the ethical growth of the mind itself. And therefore on every Creed and Council is judg ment passed in Bishop Butler's sentence ' The present for : Bible contains The many truths as yet undiscovered. it must surely be admitted that for its true and ultimate development in this line more time is required. free character of true development how such a development must follow laws of its own. it as. in its metaphysical with thought and speculation. its and aim but it raises. and as Church .' Christian religion has practice for . cannot be stopped. and for their end 139 . and expressively the natural. and other conditions have to be fulfilled. may often require vast periods of time. spontaneous. since its origin have the conditions never been . and with a reflex influence thought. numerous and great questions of philosophy and of scientific criticism. cannot be hurried.

present time. carried with them the occasions of a criticism and a philo sophy. and the time that is improper for solving one sort of them truly. appearance. or have had one of them in the Christian churches. as All these questions hang together. since. down burst fontal ever conditions such have existed. Well. for determining adequately the questions of philosophy and scientific criticism which the Christian religion starts God) creation^ will. their times for successful development. ? evil. and the question is whether it has ever yet appeared there under conditions favourable to its true development. surely. which must sooner or later make its It did make its appearance in the Church. however many more of much they might the Bible be used in a concrete and prac manner. yet plainly had in themselves a provocation to abstract thought. in the Christian communities. time and favourable developing From the conditions are confessedly necessary.PURITANISM AND final solution. historic criticism. these terms and immortality. Surely this by considering whether of and criticism questions philosophy in general ever had one of their happy moments. of and the great end of the apostolic age to the of Christianity. such. in the early and middle ages of Christendom at all. criticism of 140 . propitiation^ the in tical same kind. is improper for solving the is best elucidated others.

or Aristotle's. it revived died quite out very slowly. inadequate. logy. they are made 141 .THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND of nature. in whatever state they left it. is an elaborate attempt at at a a philosophical criticism. are of necessity. doctrine of universals is a question of philo sophy discussed in Greece. St. the mediaeval Church waned. When in decadence Christianity began. original sin. of criticism God's eternal decrees. Augustine's and the criticism of justification. How then should style. it ? For the same reason. no one would go middle ages of the Church for illumination on these matters. a criticism of physics and metaphysics. and re-discussed in Whatever light this doctrine the Middle Ages. and as The it waxed. which involves the three other criticisms and more besides ? Church-theology philosophy of theo In Greece. . . there had been a favouring period for the development of such a a considerable movement of it took criticism and considerable results were reached. place. receives from Plato's treatment of it. before Christianity appeared. and from the very nature of things. or could develop St. will any one say that the Nominalists and Realists brought any more light to it. this movement was it declined more and more till it . to the early or criticism those ages develop successfully a philosophy of theology. or in other words. the decisions of the Church on them. Thomas Aquinas on them. because being philosophical developments. that they developed it in any way.

velopments. only deduced they are out of Scripture by collection' when Hooker thus points out. says when Hooker most truly ' : Our belief in the Trinity. doubtedly the truth. the co-eternity of the Son of God with his Father.PURITANISM AND in an age when are development So the forces for true philosophical waning or wanting. notwithstanding in Scripture nowhere to be found by express literal mention. with other the necessity whereof is by none principal points are denied. The Church had no means of solving either the one problem or the other. any more than it has had the conditions for developing out of what is said in the Book of Genesis a true philo sophy of nature. It matters nothing whether the scientific truth was there. and to determine the 142 . or out of what is said in the Book of Daniel. what is un Spirit . and the relation borne by what . a true philosophy of history. 'was there to the scientific truth. and the problem was to extract it or not there. they are developments of a kind which the Church has never yet had the right conditions for making adequately. And this from no fault at all of the Church. we may add this other truth that being philosophical de equally undoubted. and the problem was to understand why it was not there. the proceeding of the from the Father and the Son. that these Church-doctrines are developments. but for the same reason that she was unfitted to solve a difficulty in Aristotle's Physics or Plato's Timceus.

and the Church slowly absorbs and And whatever hinders their incorporates them. we entirely agree with Dr. hinders truth and the natural progress of things.doctrine. as to a great extent it is. in and filtering becoming incorporated. and not inside them. and inevitably tend to alter and develop Church. so far as it was and critical development from Scripture. which in the early and mediaeval Church were not to be found. It worked in men like Descartes and and not in men like Luther and Calvin Bacon. so far a philosophical as sonages. And so it has gone on to this day. Newman and with the great Anglican divines . this move ment was almost entirely outside the Churches. While. philosophical and critical . Philosophy and criticism have become a great power in the world. but its influences filter elsewhere strugglingly into the Church. conditions. Luther this doctrine is. Yet the seat of the developing force is not in the Church itself. therefore. so that the doctrine of these two eminent per criticism requires certain . which for success in philosophy and .THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND historical value of Herodotus or Livy simply from the natural operation of the law of de velopment. had no more likelihood of being an adequate development than the doctrine of the Council of Trent. and Calvin. And when the movement of philosophy and criticism came with the Renascence. whether Catholic or Protestant.

describes as a divine exhorts to unity. and St. the Church. Thought and science follow their own law of development. they are slowly elaborated in the growth and forward pressure of humanity. and produce new combinations from them 144 . Paul in the same breath . we yet cannot agree that for that the whole Bible of the adequate development of Christian doctrine. and to be less open to new general ideas than the main -body of men therefore St. New man most truly says. are not an effect of our Rather do they seem wishing or resolving. brought about by a power such as Goethe figures by the Zeit-Geist or Time-Spirit. that in her idea of a continuous developing power in united Christen dom to work upon the data furnished by the Bible. has ever yet furnished a channel. far as theology exhibits this metaphysically and scientifically. But sects of men are apt to be shut up in sectarian ideas of their own. Paul power revealing additions to what we possess already. whether anteNicene or post-Nicene. so in what Shakspeare Of the calls the prophetic soul wide world dreaming on things to come as . Dr. What may justly be conceded to the Catholic Church is. and their ripeness and unripeness. doctrine and discipline is and must be a develop ment of the Bible.PURITANISM AND is written on the principle and that Christianity in its development.

immortality. many and great questions of philo and criticism still. The Bible raises. we have An ingenious writer. Terms like God. Newman as it is possible to conceive.' And why ? 'Because this Protestantism enables the saint to prove to L 145 . With developments of discipline and churchorder it is very different. as unlike Dr. then. and her attempts in this direction were at most but a prophecy of this power. creation. velopments she vainly imagined herself to have had the power to produce.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND as the a true instinct. evil. as alchemy is said to have been a prophecy of chemistry. to ' quote quite literally. the only form of Chris tianity which is worthy of the serious considera tion of rational men. growth of time required But the right she followed philosophical de it. is Protestantism as stated by Paley and VOL. and must evoke. essentially the Church sophy was not a corporation for speculative purposes. propitiation. a philo sophy but to evoke this was the accident and not the essence of Christianity. In an article in Eraser's Magazine. but a corporation for purposes of moral growth and of practice. evoke. sooner or later. or rather. was the essence ? . has lately told us. because the real important essence of Christianity. whom we were beginning to neglect. . will. What. an article written with great vigour and acuteness. as seen. ix his school. this writer advises us to return to Paley. as we have said.

serve its Benthamite author's object. 1 Nothing can be more certain than that the kingdom of God meant originally. then was. the third place.PURITANISM AND Christ threatened him with hell-fire. it is the view best fitted to ' assertions . was not that by rising from the dead and ascending into heaven he enabled the saint to prove to the worldly man the certainty of hell-fire (for he had not yet done so) but that he talked to them about the kingdom of God. a Messianic kingdom speedily to be revealed . and proved his power to threaten by rising from the dead and ascending into the worldly man that heaven . The power of Jesus upon the multitudes who heard him gladly. and was understood to mean. 146 . and these allegations are the fundamental of Christianity' Now it may be said that this is a somewhat c contracted view of the unsearchable riches of but we will not quarrel with it. In the second place. its shortness gives us courage to try and do what is the hardest thing in the world. But nothing is more certain. the view often taken by popular theology. which is to In get Christianity out of the way altogether. it is this for several reasons. or The kingdom of good news ? It was this God is come unto you. And Christ In the first place. and that to this idea of the kingdom is due much of the effect which its preaching exercised on the imagination of the first generation of Christians. 1 And what is the 4 ' : What . in brief. to pack a statement of the main drift of Christianity into a few lines of nearly as short compass. namely. the Christian gospel.

147 . This being saved from our sins ? Entering into the kingdom of heaven by doing the will And how does of our Father which is in heaven. and in its own realisation to place the ideal of the true kingdom of God. as the vision of an approaching Messianic kingdom was dissipated. longsuffering. from the kingdom itself. the way to the end.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND kingdom of God this : or kingdom of heaven to ? It is God's will done. 23. and was bathed in the same light and charm. the duties of humbleness. was necessarily something intangible and future.^ arose the this foundation Christian the Spirit. ii. On also. v. the Messianic kingdom. mildness. goodness. as he elsewhere Let him bring forth the fruits of expands it that St. Paul : : love. 19 . and learn of him to deny our selves and and to lose our take up our cross daily and follow him. Christ enable us to do this ? By teaching us to take his yoke upon us. in the teaching of Jesus something so ever-present and practical. than that while the end itself. joy. pureness. for which there was then in the world the most crying need. Then. that the way to the kingdom grew inseparable. 1 2 Tim. self-control. justice. Gal. the doing the will of God by intently following the voice of the moral conscience. above all. in thought. faith. So life for the purpose of saving it. became from the very first self-denial. charity. might say most truly that the seal of the sure foundation of God in Christianity was this Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity. as in heaven so on earth. this to And how was "Jesus is come mankind ? Because : come is And what save his people from their sins. in those duties. after a time. 22. or. peace. the idea of the perfect accomplishment on earth of the will of God had to take the room of it. and so associated with the essence of Jesus himself. kindness.

supplies a more animating force of sympathy and mutual assur ance. than the acting separately. the kingdom would be drawn to coalesce into one society for this business. It is quite clear that the more strongly Christians felt their in setting common business forward upon earth. as they came to know of one another's existence. drew together in one body. united in the joy of Christ's good news. naturally. and not on any foundation of specula It was inevitable that the tive metaphysics. the danger of the Christian Church was that she should take people them for the foundation. not how. say. : We 148 . have shown for matters of philosophical judgment. Dr. the more they spirit. The who were built on the real foundation. but they were not the foundation. with an organisation growing out of the needs of a growing body. Only the sense of differences greater than the sense of sympathy could defeat this tendency.PURITANISM AND Church. through Christ's of God. Newman has told us what an impression was once made upon his mind by the sentence Securus judicat orbis terrarum. and above all. naturally. as their relations with one another multiplied. as the sense of sympathy in who were the possession of a I common treasure deepened. presents fewer distractions. speculative metaphysics should come. When they came. with the natural and true notion that the acting together in this way offers to men greater helps for reaching their aim.

But points of speculative of the question. seems to carry little or no weight at all indeed. that . as to judgment on these points.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND yet settled but requiring development to clear them. : securus colit orbis terrarum pursue prevented by extraneous causes. and to say Securus delirat orbis terrarum. to pursue it together. . yet one Church ? theory of unity in separation is a theory palpably invented to cover existing facts. and There are four evangelists. and their argu ment from the evangelists is a paralogism. . Newman. the consent of the world. yet one they say gospel why should there not be many separate But their religious bodies. as the history of the Church's growth purpose best who it those pursue this For unless together. we should be quite disposed to concede to Dr. we should rather be inclined to lay down the very contrary of Dr. ' . Newman's affirmation. For the Four Gospels arose out of no thought of they were not designed as correc divergency tions of one prior gospel. shows. at a time when this clearing development cannot have happened. or of one another they were concurring testimonies borne to the same fact. they manifestly tend. 149 . But the several religious bodies of Christendom plainly grew out of an intention ' : . and the out theology being and practical ground purpose of man's religion being broadly and plainly fixed. Nonconformists are fond of talking of the unity which may co-exist with separation.

No to the contrary. . and not extending beyond the moral and practical sphere which was the sphere of its existence. are legitimated by the very of the Church having in the natural evolu its life tion of and growth made them. and since they naturally. because things sprung out of concord may make one. it could not but make developments. men united a clearly defined common by the pursuit of aim of irresistible coalesce attractiveness naturally coalesce . The living edifice planted on the Let foundation. therefore several wars may make without some strong motive a peace too. . nor a man those of a boy yet they are all engaged in the one same business of developing their growing life. if it lived at all. fact original foundation. A . make a peace. they are clearly right in coalescing and find their advantage in it. is like saying that because several agreements may . If it grew. All that Dr. every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity^ could not but grow. boy does not wear the clothes or follow the ways of an infant.PURITANISM AND of divergency clearly they were designed to correct the imperfections of one prior church and of each other and to say of things sprung out of discord that they may make one. and to the 150 . Newman has so excellently said about development applies here legitimately and Existence justifies additions and stages in fully. and all developments not inconsistent with the aim of its original founda tion.

nature will. and . They coalesced with the State because they grew by doing so. such as the practice of infant baptism. or cipline of the general body of Christians. because such was ? It had nothing the natural course of things. direct The several scattered congregations of the first age of Christianity coalesced into one community. which was not that of the first times they developed church-usages. the general or universal faith. They called the faith they possessed in common the Catholic^ that is. profession became . . . which were not those of the first times they developed a church-ritual with ceremonies which were not those of the first times they developed all these. just as the several scattered Christians had earlier still coalesced into congregations. dogma or a dis theological philosophy. and it was approved They by their growing and enlarging in it. inconsistent with the fundamental ground of Christians. Let every one that nameth the name of Why Christ depart from iniquity . because they were no longer in the first times. developed a church-discipline with a hierarchy of bishops and archbishops. required for their expanding growth what suited their own times. in them safely. also. They developed. just as they developed a church-architecture which was not that of the first times. as we have seen.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND clothes to be for worn and the ways to be followed the purpose of doing this. general. Both dogma and a part of the Catholic faith.

even scientific dogma dogma which the Church developed it may be said. of the dispute between Arius and Athanasius. and the sense of being in the divine hand was the feeling which it was good for Christians to be filled Whatever may be scientifically the merits with. the more suited to the actual condition of the Church's life. who differed of that difference. and who separated from her on account People. or form of the outward itself. the doctrine most helpful to that moral life which was the true life of the Church. and to the due progress of the divine work for which to Now develop a life for . for the Church of the fifth century. however. For instance. as compared with the opposing dogma over which it prevailed. from the very nature of things.PURITANISM AND discipline. there were in abundance on points both of discipline and of from the rule which obtained in the dogma Church. like every other living to develop thing. for 152 the sake of . as has been said. Pelagianism was the less inspiring and edifying doctrine. it was probably. that. for the Church of their time whatever most exalted or seemed to exalt Jesus Christ was clearly the profitable doctrine. Church. the requisite qualifications But of the it had not. it is evident that. she existed. separatists^ as the These were the heretics : name implies. whatever may be scientifically the rights of the question about grace and free-will. had necessarily.

Valentinians. implies were wrong in separating. and found their bond of union. to the notions of Pelagius ? Does any one imagine that all who stood with the Church and did not join themselves to the . because. instead of separating for such points. the true instinct lay in those who. Nestorians. as a matter of speculative opinion. while neither they nor the Church had the means of determining such points adequately. Manichaeans. Pelagians. Does any one imagine that all the Church shared Augustine's speculative opinions about it were wrong : grace and predestination ? that many members of it did not rather incline. and in dividuals are bound to sacrifice their fancies to . Arians. because for developing its own fit outward conditions of life the body of a community has. if Apollinarians. Eutychians. we have if they separated on points of dogma they also. con ceded them as the Church settled them. Montanists. not for the sake of opinions. as one. where it in truth really was. the Church exists. seen. but in the principle Let every one that nameth the name of Christ depart from iniquity. but for the sake of moral practice. Novatians.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND the very name. and a united endeavour after this is stronger than a broken Marcionites. And that they . a real natural power. they separated on points of discipline they were wrong. not in notions about the co-eternity of the Son. therefore. Donatists. and that the body which held together was right because opinions.

This. vitally which discerns. when the time is come for them. and for what they were not given them . And though it will be said that separatists for opinions on points of discipline and dogma have often asserted. divided the whole Christian world into erroneous and orthodox and that it was not worth while to suffer them selves to be divided for anything else.' they could see that impious of Epiphanius we according to that sentence have quoted from Hammond. . Is right and reasonable there not. any separation which is ? Yes. ' and pious living. least But fidelity to it leaves. whether they . is the true religious instinct. I say. what is seldom are in truth thus concerned or not and. separation on plain 154 . also. were speculatively Athanasians ? but they had a true feeling for what not so purpose the Gospel and the Church were given them. and to the incorporation of these closed to true developments with the ideas and practice of Christians. then. if they are not. instinct is that so very obscure. the instinct which most clearly seizes the essence and aim of the Christian Gospel and of the Christian Church. . that piety and impiety were vitally concerned in these points yet here again the true religious ' ' . and sometimes believed.PURITANISM AND It was Arians. the way the admission of true develop ments of speculative thought. cannot be perverted into fancying them con cerned and breaking unity for them.

a cosmopolitan church-order. The and sale of indulgences. if deliberately instituted a valid reason for breaking of purgatory. did not. on the other On hand. and it raised no insuperable bar to continued religious Church with Anglican liberties might union. their account. and being replaced by the national type. presence. com menced when the political organisation of Chris tians was also cosmopolitan. any extent required. and solely on their account. essence of the Christian Gospel. when. if . But this was a political difficulty. A it have been in religious communion with Rome. that is.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND For these involve the very points of morals. occasion difficulties as the nations solidified into independent states with a keen sense of their independent life . persisted in Church. and the very ground on which the Christian Church is built. were a real ground for separation. the nations of Europe were politically one in the might well unity of the Roman Empire. The moral corruptions of Rome. or of the real the doctrine unity . the cosmopolitan type disappearing for civil affairs. the English national spirit being what very well. the same dis appearance and replacement tended to prevail in ecclesiastical affairs also. so that. not a religious one. and yet have been safely trusted to maintain and develop its national liberties to is. afforded by the main body of the However.

PURITANISM AND they could not be got rid of. Catholic Church of England still. It has always been the averment of the Church of England. to this day easily recognise in a 156 Roman Catholic . really moved her to separation. and fancifully to put into the word Catholic some occult quality. but it had a clearlymarked common character and this well-known type Bede. or Wiclif himself. The right to this title of Catholic is a favourite matter of contention between bodies of Chris customary seems that unless one chooses to fight about words. But let us use names us in their and natural senses. Undoubtedly this general profession and worship had not a strict uniformity everywhere. historic. that the change made in her at the Reformation change which was absolutely No doubt she used the opportunity necessary. or Anselm. was separation not only lawful but necessary. and remained the old. of her breach with Rome to get rid of several doctrines which the human mind had outgrown but it was the immoral practice of Rome that was the very least . To it impaired profession its was meant to Catholicity. one must allow that the changes made in the Church of England at the Reformation tians. tained that she merely got rid of And she main Roman corrup tions which were immoral and intolerable. would . describe the The word common or Catholic general and worship of Christendom at the time when the word arose.

to which there was all fell. as in a Nonconformist meeting house. of making improved speculative opinions the main ground of her is Nonconformist newspaper. of the past to preserve. namely.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND service. in her greatest praise. so much other to draw her. but the loss was. at any rate. in a Roman Catholic religious religious service an ordinary Anglican finds him self as much in a strange world and out of his usual course. on the other hand. must be allowed to that she kept enough the Church of England. while. her continuity. A true. incurred for the sake of something yet more the purity of that moral practice precious still. by a conjuring with words. captious to incur voluntarily a loss for a great and worthy object. and that she avoided the . error. it proaching the Church with what opinion. as far as this nation was concerned. re our is. but hardly in an Anglican . So on the word Catholic we will not insist too jealously but thus much. and at the same time. and into which the reformed Churches doctrinal separation. as we Protestants maintain. that on a Church of doctrinal theology she is points ' . it seems profession and worship existed. Something precious was no doubt lost in losing this common profession and worship . which was the very cause for which the common Now. to be still the historic Church of England . to try and make it appear that we have not suffered the loss at all.

the old practical work and proper design of the Christian Church .' we have already mentioned.PURITANISM AND that does not asserts. but we can disprove it. and it may be said Calvinistic Church. too. and to draw them into their Church communion could this by varying as little as they ' from the Romish forms before in use . out of the mouths of the very At the Savoy Conference Puritans themselves. She set 158 . and fighting for them. the Puritans urged that our first reformers out of their great wisdom did at that time (of the ' Reformation) so compose the Liturgy. the .' But not only does the whole course deny that the Church of be a thoroughly Protestant of Church-history disprove such an assertion. roundly that 'no man in his senses can England was meant to and Evangelical. and Liturgy. and what the Church would never be made. and till this day has continued to be. herself to carry forward. and they alleged as their great plea for purging And the Bishops resisted. No the Church of England did not her give energies to inventing a new churchorder for herself and fighting for it to singling out two or three speculative dogmas as the essence of Christianity. and as much as possible on the old lines. and show that this is what the Puritans always wanted to make the Church. upheld the proceeding of the reformers as the essential policy of the Church of England as indeed it was. . . as know her own mind. as to win upon the Papists.

' say the Independents. and it is our assertion and profound belief that Christ ' ' . because there is not even the shadow of an outline of it in the New Testament. a matter of ecclesiastical constitution. . and that they have adopted it that there is a doctrinal scheme of faith. for the admission of open. and criticism. and this as is what left we have . on moral Congregational Nonconformists. proves just This openness of mind the Puritans have not shared with the Church. and imputed righteousness. can never be incorporated into an organic union with Anglican Episcopacy. . as union impossible. as they slowly de philosophy veloped themselves outside the Church and an admission which confessedly filtered into her of now capital importance. justification. which is the test of a standing or falling church and the essence of the gospel. church-order is founded and though she develops not allow that this or does speculative dogma. The Church makes practice. they make are assumptions which. and that they have extracted it. that dogma is the essence of Christianity. so also make growth These impossible. and how should they have shared it ? They are founded on the of development which of that idea negation a so part in the life of the plays important Church on the assumption that there is a divinely appointed church-order fixed once for all in the Bible.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND her mind comparatively seen.

of the real presence. too. G. evangelical will give up man of sin. this is the doctrine of justification by 'pleading solely the blood of the covenant.' of the Wesleyan Conference. and as many others have said. President the says ' we are determined to be simple.' of which we have said so much. but which holds the doctrine of priestly absolution. Conder 1 at Liverpool. and other doc trines of like stamp Congregationalists cannot unite with a church which.' as Dr. ment of the Church. Methodists cannot unite with a church which does not found itself on this doctrine of justifi cation. besides not resting on the doctrine of justification. drawn out in black and Scriptural Protestantism. Now as Hooker truly says of those who c desire to draw all things unto the determination of bare and naked Scripture. the Bible does not exhibit. . 1 Address of the Rev. has a church-order not prescribed in the New Testament. the with ship life itself rather than be unfaithful to the truth.' We We " It is to ours to cry everywhere And the gospel -feast !"' : Come. gospel. this sinners. we are determined to be true to Scriptural Pro would be friendly with all testantism. Newman. has said. but we will have no fellow churches. earnest Whatever may come.PURITANISM AND and the Apostles have given us are necessary all the laws that for the constitution 1 c and govern Whatever may come. in the Lancashire Congregational Calendar for 869-70. 60 . this truth. 1 W. preachers of the gospel.

the second is an unsound development in a line where neither the Church nor Puritanism had But the power of making true developments. and to think it his word/ ' what he A process of is perfectly true. some inference and criticism must be employed to get at them. in a line where there was a power of making a true development. ' It is say. that the doctrine Protestantism . We : VOL. therefore.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND white. to abate the confidence of the their Scriptural Protestantism is the first step towards their union. so much to be desired. what warrant have they that any one of them doth mean the thing for which it is alleged ? ' Nay. and where the Church made it . this of the Puritans discipline and this doctrine are developments. ' For the most part. ix 161 M . or possibly can. assure us that we do well So says Hooker. And the first is an unsound development. and the falsehood of the Anglican church-order which has much less of Puritans in it. as it is the truth of its Scriptural Protestantism which in Puritanism's eyes especially proves the truth of its Scriptural church-order which has this Protestantism. with the national Church. and collection is reasoning necessary to get at the church discipline and the Scriptural Scriptural says in short. it is not the word of God itself which doth. even such as are readiest to cite for one thing five hundred sentences of Scripture. the precise tenets and usages of any Christian society .

by the imputation of his obedience unto them. Paul we have shown at length that the received doctrine of justification is an unsound development. and he both condemned and put to death for them upon this very condition. be justified and holden righteous before God/ we say that this doctrine is as much a human development from the text. they are remitted unto them. as parties-contractors. Whose soever sins ye remit.' or the doctrine of the real presence from the text. or truth. that the sins of the re deemed should be imputed to innocent Christ. eat.' In our consents unto ' treatise on St. c Take. she does not insist that all who are in communion difference is here : not . in our opinion are so like the are. presence are unsound developments also. But the doctrine the Church of England does identify Christianity with these unsound she does not call either of them developments Scriptural Protestantism.PURITANISM AND agreed between God and the mediator Jesus Christ the Son of God. Christ Jesus came into the world to save sinners. that whosoever heartily the covenant of reconciliation offered through Christ shall. surety for the redeemed. It may be said that the doctrine of priestly absolution and of the real True.' as the doctrine of priestly absolution c is a human development from the text. or the gospel . 162 . they they of justification. . developments made under conditions which precluded the possibility of sound developments in this line. this is my body.

because they seem to interfere with it. find in this doctrine.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND with her should hold them she does not repel from her communion those who hold doctrines at variance with them. it calls it . of justification. just as it tied itself up formerly to the doctrine of predestination . But to the doctrine of justification Puritanism ties itself up. and therefore the most inevitably defective. see the Prayer Book rid of. none who do not hold it it repels communion with any who hold the doctrines of priestly absolution and the real presence. does the received doctrine tie which she does not herself up. at the present moment. parts of the Prayer Book. while it is place possibly held in such a fashion ? Every one who perceives and values the power contained in Christianity. must be struck how. the progress of this power seems to depend upon its being able to disengage itself from speculative accretions to see that this encumber it. Yet it is really itself no better than But how can growth they. the Athanasian Creed and the Thirty-nine our generation will not improbably Articles. The most nakedly speculative. She treats them as she . A considerable movement to end is visible in the Church of England. people to hold it if they provides room for growth and further change in these very doctrines themselves. truth^ the gospel it Scriptural Protestantism^ will have communion with . But the larger the 163 . to but leaves She thus please.

164 ubi supra. they and Noncon of the England. . good thing ' The mixture. and cut them off from aiding those in the Church who carry it forward. a good thing. 1 The Rev. Conder. But righteousness is religion . The political dissent of the Nonconformists. Nonconformity formity alone. is just one of those speculative accretions which we have Politics are spoken of as encumbering religion. . and not religion at all. G. the greater If the Church of the movement. if only because of the immense power for development which a national body possesses. W. the despotism. based on their condemnation of the Anglican church -order as unscriptural. which absorb their energies too much to surfer them to carry forward the work of development themselves. and what eminent force and faculty many of them have for contributing to the work of development now before the Church. power of England were disestablished to-day it would be desirable to re-establish her to-morrow. has been the salvation of England from Papal tyranny and kingly misrule and l This is the favourite boast. that we cannot bear to see the waste of power caused by their separatism and battling with the body in which is the Establishment.PURITANISM AND this movement works.' familiar strain but this is really politics. and religion is a but make a fractious . It is because we know something of the Nonconformist ministers.

much for we much one . We have seen how St. because he was so dissatisfied with a righteousness which was. be denied that the more eminently and exactly Christian type of righteousness is the type ex hibited by Church worthies like Herbert. rent his life in the middle and began it again. and that there are even great advantages in separatism. but it does make against their allegation that it does not matter whether the society of Christians is united or not. be it remembered. no for the sterner virtues. the cause being that religion so mixed politics with more than did the first. Paul tore himself in two. rather than that exhibited by the worthies of Puritanism these last . Ken. too. make against the Puritans' refusal to take the law from their adversaries. If Anglicans maintained that their church-order was written in Scripture and a matter of divine command.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND and the Nonconformists say so c : Who ' have done For as ? righteousness as will as with righteousness go politics. for the virtues of the . and Wilson. condemned disunion in the society of Christians as much as he declined politics. Puritan. Jews of the Old Testament but these are only half of righteousness and not the essentially Christian half. much Paul. to the controversy between them there could be no 165 . we freely own. in its main And surely it can hardly features. after all. This does not. Congregationalists maintaining the same thing. then.

But now. two of the most estimable names in the English Church. but that their same ? Then might power of indeed. the so-called Scriptural Protestantism of imputed righteousness. which are developments of the thing. drawn up in 1689. refute no one they take the basis of existing facts. Tillotson's proposals for comprehension. just as they have allowed Church music and Church architecture. and that the essence of Christianity is in nowise concerned with such matters. and endeavour to build on it a solid union. cannot be too much studied at the These proposals. but only to the renouncing an imagined divine superiority and to the recogni tion of an existing fact. Anglicans maintaining no such church-order is a matter of historic development and natural expediency. 166 . absolution mighty and which would of priestly but which the and the real presence. which is evident enough. and which would do more for real righteousness and for Christianity than has ever been done yet. there arise a joint life. and I conclude . his name and that of Stillingfleet. are specially associated. with which present juncture. equally. which constrains them to no admission of inferiority.PURITANISM AND end. would transform. and allow Church bishops as a development of Catholic antiquity. doctrines undistracted transform. humiliate no one. They are worth quoting entire. that it has grown. why should not the Nonconformists adopt this moderate view of the case.

commended in the Liturgy or Canons be left indifferent.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND with them. That a new body of ecclesiastical Canons be made. and such alterations and changes be therein made as may supply the defects and remove as ' much as possible all ground of exception to any of it. it shall be sufficient for them that are admitted to ' the exercise of their ministry in the Church of England to subscribe one general declaration That we do and promise to this purpose. particularly with a regard to a more effectual provision for the reformation of manners both in ministers and people. 167 . and in many other particulars. by leaving out the apocryphal lessons part and correcting the translation of the psalms used in the public service where there is need of it. of Church-reform plan That the ceremonies enjoined or re i. That instead of all former declarations and subscriptions to be made by ministers. That the Liturgy be carefully reviewed. : submit to the doctrine^ discipline^ and worship of accordingly. 2. 3. stances c Their details . c 5. the Church of England as it shall be and promise to teach and practise e established by law^ 4. That there be an effectual regulation of remedy the great abuses and inconveniences which by degrees and length of time have crept into them and particularly ecclesiastical courts to . our present circum their spirit any sound would modify must take as its rule. viz.

it shall be sufficient for such persons to receive ordination from a bishop in " If thou art not this or the like form already as in case a ordained. But because many have and do still doubt of the validity of such ordination. and not to be exercised for trivial matters. and is by law required. to render them capable of preferment in the Church. That for the future those who have been ordained in any of the foreign churches be not required to be re-ordained here. 7. I baptize that the ' . who that in the . : tbee. but upon great and weighty occasions. where episcopal ordination may be had. That for the future none be capable of any ecclesiastical benefice or preferment in the Church of England that shall be ordained in and that England otherwise than by bishops those who have been ordained only by presbyters shall not be compelled to renounce their former ordination. : ." etc. doubt be made of any one's baptism.PURITANISM AND power of excommunication be taken out of the hands of lay officers and placed in the bishop. ' 6. I ordain thee. also. it is appointed by the Liturgy that he be baptized " If thou art not in this form baptized."' cannot see that the power of joint life already spoken of would be far greater and stronger if too ? And it Who These are proposals to be made by the Church of England for the union of Protestants" c comprehended Roman Catholics cannot 168 see.

What may be done in our day. nor is it business this generation is set to do. so long as they take this for the Gospel or good news of Christ.THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND churches of the most strong and living Roman Catholic countries. to bring about. 169 . what our generation has the call and the means. in France and Germany. is the union of Protestants. But this union will never be on the basis of the actual Scriptural Protestantism of our Puritans and because. if only it has the resolution. If we have succeeded in doing even so much towards union as to convince one of them of this. the first step towards union is showing them that this is not the gospel. they cannot possibly unite on any other basis. we have not written in vain. this will not But which the England of . movement is in progress which may one day make a general union of Christendom possible ? a be in our day.

.

LAST ESSAYS ON CHURCH AND RELIGION 171 .

Qu'on fonde la foi profonde ! 172 .

fact. cerning religion Indirectly such questions must often. been What I wished to say has been said. proposed to myself to do has. in all serious literary* but in this volume I make them my direct object for the last time. present themselves . and it is with upon that but reluctance I now anything part from Neither can I be ignorant what offence them. it was not for Assuredly my own pleasure that I entered them at first. my handling of them has given to many whose goodwill I value. But the work. what remains to me of life I thing which as far 173 . done. Personal considerations.PREFACE THE present to volume deal closes the series of my attempts directly with questions con and the Church. bring to an end the work which I had been pursuing. however. . ought not in a matter like this to bear sway and they have in determined me to not. and with what relief they will learn that the handling is now to cease. And in returning to devote to literature. so my powers enabled me to do it. more strictly so called.

their greater or lesser adaptedness to the mind of masses of our people. to take place. But it is an error to imagine that the mind of our masses. can be accomplished only by carrying the qualities of flexibility. leisure. Mr. may be admitted that religion ought to be capable of reaching the mind of masses of men. A survey of the forms and tendencies which religion exhibits at the present day in England has been made lately by a man of genius. for persuaded that the transforma which is petuance. energy. It may be admitted that a religion not plain and simple. in that mind Gross . classes of the community which now next to nothing of them. and that religion will have to adapt itself to that mind is just as it now is. a religion of abstractions and in tellectual refinements. and by procur ing the application of those qualities to matters where they are never applied now. which are the best fruits of letters. and will have as in religion. or even the mind of our religious world. though indirectly. I to a field where work am returning. and judgment. tion of religion.CHURCH AND RELIGION and strength and all. and sympathy Mr. for to whole know those It several forms. cannot influence masses of men. At least as much change required. now to I am be done. after of the most important essential for its per- kind has Treligion. perceptiveness. is something which may remain just as it now is. Gladstone seems disposed to fix as the test of value. Gladstone.

that the partisans of popular truth. giving to this religion a form still materialising. suited in many respects to such a mind. that 175 they can make terms . to those habits while yet. at Yet at the same* present. It is to be imputed. to fancy that the difficulties of their case are much less than they are. still disposed to be. to the grossness of habits of the perception and materialising popular mind. at least an equal degree. that old religion cannot maintain its sway. And a it is to be remedied by gradual transformation of the popular mind.PREFACE of perception and materialising that mind is. religion are easily led to entertain illusions . not by keeping religion materialistic that it may correspond to them. profoundly misapprehended in this In England and in America religion country. from other causes. which unfit it for any religion not lending itself. . by slowly curing it of its grossness of perception and of its materialising habits. like the old popular religion. It is not to be disturbance to the right cause. But let us impute the to religion thence arises. no longer reaches and A check and disturbance* rules it as it once did. has retained so much hold upon the affections of the community. the it undeniable that old anthropo is time morphic and miraculous religion. to the imputed merely inadequacy of the old and to be remedied by materialising religion. The in conditions of the religious question are. in but more acceptable.

in general. Particularly striking. natis is perhaps the most accomplished man in he is certainly one of the most intelligent. Lacour has become an ardent M. men's treatment of the religious question. was going to ruin as fast as could fairly be astonishment. for a book revolutionary and passes. Some 176 known how in . Challemel-Lacour is. and they cannot illusions A good medicine for such save. or was. one of the best. my memory as ChallemelIt is politician. would be the perusal of the criticisms which Literature and Dogma has encountered on Here in England that book the Continent. ment and impatience should be set impatience. Italy M. articles of French read a if I most deeply interesting and instructive. the old ground having in the judgment of all rational persons given way. in this respect.CHURCH AND RELIGION which they cannot make. that religion on new grounds when they had hoped that religion. well France. Challemel-Lacour. govern politics. Professor de Guberde Gubernatis. were the remarks upon Literature and Dogma of M. that any man of liberal expected tendencies should not agree with them. in France. His admirable series of on Wilhelm von Humboldt. anti-religious. writers. which I good many years ago in the Revue des still Deux Monde s^ live as fresh in had read them yesterday. . save things which school it In foreign critics of the liberal provokes a feeling of mingled astonish . in Italy. gravest. and of Professor .

however. . that any one should wish to make it so. and on the attempt made in that book to give a new life to religion by giving a new sense to words of the Bible. attempt for priests. religion raises in a man's mind simply the image of the clerical party and of his sworn political foes. says Gubernatis. a politician . a book full of for the learned. ix N 177 human ing in . . must necessarily in this case be some little when Gubernatis is not an independent friend of pro His gress. what warped.' Professor de Gubernatis adds.' And how ' wonderful. and never will be. and should . very But it never has been. 'In Italy the Bible is just this: a sacred text for infidels. Perhaps a man's view of religion. with such treacherous ground under one's feet. and of intelligence. . such an and no has can have interest whatever. Professor de is he remarks on Literature and Dogma. a ' fruitful inspirer of men's daily life. Challemel-Lacour's. therefore.PREFACE temper and heat are excusable. with such a cloudy sky over one's head and all this in the name of VOL. obscurities and contradictions an historical document to be used with great caution for lovers of literature. raise intellectual and literary discussions having ' this for their object ' ! It is strange that the genius should take pleasure in combat such narrow lists. of high studies. undoubtedly. a collection of fine specimens of Oriental poetic eloquence. For Italy and for Professor de Italians. have even a greater significance than M.

CHURCH AND RELIGION What would the author of Literature and Dogma say/ concludes c Professor de Gubernatis. of superstition and obscurantism speak of the probable development of opinion in those classes which are to be called progressive . but It is not an opinion it is the genuine opinion. as a basis for human life. avesse fondata la sua Repubblica sopra un testo That is to say. has befallen the thought of this country since the Continent was opened at the end of the great war. in other matters where tradition and convention were the obstacles to change. consider the immense change which. if Plato had based his se Platone republic upon a text of Hesiod . the mere barriers of tradition at which and convention will common European lish itself. finally level of way. and Such classes are 178 . Here we have. and unusual frankness with stated clearness. we cannot doubt that in religion. undoubtedly. if we judge the liberal. And I say that. Of course there will be backwaters. that a thought will estab give and will spread to America also. more or less but I strong. too. than the Theogony. the genuine opinion of Continental liberalism concerning It is the religion of the Bible and its future. the Bible has no d'Esiodo?' freedom of discussion ' ' ! more solidity and value. present prevails at all widely either But when we in this country or in America. undoubtedly the multiplying and prevailing body both here and in America.

' and the religion of tradition. as unsound and untenable. and it will not. The partisans of traditional religion in this*! country do not know. the opinion of the Continent. all concern with the ' 179 . of liberal is to opinion reject the whole I ency and miraculous anthropomorphic religion ofj On thej tradition. permanent. these classes. Rejecting. in fact. so far as traditional religion is concerned. A greater force of tradition in favour of religion* is all which now prevents the liberal opinion^ in this country from following Continental That force is not of a nature to be opinion. long. be drawn opinion almost inevitably into that opinion. Catholic or Protestant. They dream of patching upj of things unmendable. is unsound and untenable. will. of stopping change at a point where it can never be The undoubted tend-^J stopped.PREFACE future from the past. hold out But a very grave question is behind. One cannot blame the rejection. Things are*" what they are. with time. Continent such opinion has rejected it already. how decisively the whole force of progressive and liberal opinion on the Continent has pronounced against the Christian religion. They do not know how of the force whole surely progressive and liberal present isolates opinion in this country tends to follow. retaining what can never be retained. in any matter where it is tradition and convention that at them from the common liberal of Europe. I think. henceforth.

' ' conclusion. meets with little direct discussion or this to : opposition. and in the immediate present this way of putting the question tells. of modern life. footing and the cause of Christianity in general.CHURCH AND RELIGION obsolete religion of tradition. the liberalism of the Continent rejects also. will at last And liberal opinion to everywhere finding that grow accustomed 180 . in their favour. which can never come to anything. little way into the future . In the as they clearly perceive. we hear. that /Christianity in general stands on the same V footing as traditionary religion and must share its fate. as if Plato had upon a 'sought to found his ideal republic is The real question whether text of Hesiod. in any all way. and on the like grounds. like the conclusion that tradi And tionary religion is unsound and obsolete. concern with the Bible and Christianity. Obscurantists it does not find many gainsayers. must For they see but very stand or fall together. of modern liberalism is be admitted. too. is. . but which prevent their seeing the So the thesis real character of the situation. are glad to see the question placed on this that the cause of traditionary religion. with fantastic projects. To claim for the Bible the direction.immediate present many will be tempted to cling to the traditionary religion with their eyes shut. of modern liberals on the Continent. rather than accept the extinction of Other friends of religion are busy Christianity.

so is the other. For Pro testantism was undoubtedly. Meanwhile the day will most certainly arrive. an assertion of hold least. will suppose that no one in itself will tend to withhold serious return upon their own minds in the matter. the natural truth of Christianity for the mind The question is. will admit that traditionary religion untenable. foward as certain. when the great body of liberal first men from any opinion in this country will adhere to the half of the doctrine of Continental liberals . does liberal opinion show this tendency among the Latin nations. those Latin nations of whom Protestantism laid and Spain. is untenable. and from seeing the thing treated as certain. And the danger is. and to bring this out all we can. and from hearing nothing urged against putable the it. that is utterly from the habits of their minds. Liberal opinion^ as to treat traditional we have tends. such as Italy and conscience of men. seen.PREFACE thesis put it. And therefore is it so all-important to insist" on what I call the natural truth of Christianity. if one is identical religion and Christianity as unsound. Especially. on whom Protestantism did not lay hold and it shows it most among . our liberals may admit as indis second half of the doctrine too : that Christianity. also. whatever may have been its faults and miscarriages. however. will become familiarised with disputes This it. this Christianity 181 . whether It has natural truth or not. .

must admit proposition that conduct is a very important I have called conduct three-fourths of matter. stand. Challemel-Lacour quarrels greatly with life. ought possible. one would think. its meta his tf* V fOur /finds that he runs head against a traditional ^ ^ physical proofs of God are mere words. Certainly people in general do not behave as if they were convinced that Butler well conduct is three -fourths of life. the same of natural truth as our traditional religion is . in bringing out the truth of a with Christianity. natural truth. plain proposition such as the everybody. the only one. question about it religion. did not happen . and he to who contradicts them facts. or has not Christianity. out not to turns have. a of immense Of important truth Now. in fact. religion in fact. the proposition. belongs wall. whoever of a general use. that even are religious people always for says of their stress the placing religion anywhere : be for professes to be as simple as try not to allow himself to 182 . Has want ? It importance. seeks to to show the to natural thing which He ought have any recourse either to intellectual refine ments or to sentimental rhetoric.CHURCH AND RELIGION is In the end the victory a question of fact. ike other miracles. the only truth which can The miracles of our traditional religion. for a serious man. M. may be said to be questions at the present time. And therefore it is well to start.

leading us to gratify any^*i : l^ inclination that ally a self. But that conduct life. exact proportion of said to be. name them how we will. spirit. or instincts.PREFACE virtue being simply the other than on virtue of conduct. and made their virtu mean a love of the fine arts and And we see the fruits of of intellectual culture. or forces. and however we may suppose them to have arisen. a 1 movement of reflection and more voluntary. or passing the other. This. It will generally be will generally as to experience fact of be admitted. 183 agree. We the new and eighteenth centuries. desire of sense. will. movement of man's ordinary appetite. too. a movement of first impulse and more involuntary. leading us to submit inclination to some rule. and called generally a movement of man's higher The or enduring self. there being all this opposition. too. life definition in the Italy of the seventeenth will not. of reason. that all conduct brings us at last to the two selves. direction know. a very considerable part of admitted. that good the Italians at the Renascence changed the very meaning of the word virtue altogether. but as to the thing itself they all. contending for the mastery in man one. We offer to settle the which conduct may be is. or all the most serious and important among them. may solicit us. . is described in different words by different thing nations and men relating their experience of it. then. at any rate. . and called gener .

that they all come to the conclusion that for a man to obey the higher self. or the set of thoughts. whatever is to hold their attention and to rule their practice. which men body should use for this purpose. or what be called. again. And the more the precepts are used. It will be allowed. precepts. unless he every day utters the same things. the more will men's sentiments cluster around them. and applies ever it is to to ' ' . is happiness and life m. and sayings. this kind. evident that to what they called righteousness^ Now is 184 . the truth. ' them withal life. and the shall know says Jesus. or reason. that whatever men's minds are to fasten and rest upon. a that Epictetus. a set of thoughts cannot abide with If ye abide in me/ men and sustain them. and the more dear and solemn will they be. commending itself to their minds for respect and attention. principle can hardly establish itself with a man. hears the same things. to his to apply this to It Christianity. ought to be those which most impressively represent the principle.CHURCH Nor will it be denied I think.' And naturally the of and examples precepts. 'ye truth shall make you free not if you keep skipping about all over the world for various ' It behoves us to know/ says renderings of it. will be admitted. to which they Without a frame or body of perpetually recur. obey the lower is death and misery. naturally embodies itself for them in certain examples.

PREFACE a name which duct. when their ceived righteousness. and admittedly which the Jews thought of paramount import ance. : 1 John xx. they took refuge in imagin ings about the future. and filled themselves with hopes of a kingdom of God^ a resurrection^ a judgment^ an eternal life^ bringing in and establish ing for ever this misconceived righteousness of theirs. As God's agent in this work of restoring promised to them selves an Anointed and Chosen One. covers all that we mean by con the Jewish nation attached pre-eminent. authentic. Christ the the kingdom to Israel they son of God. This impassioned testimony of theirs to the weight of a thing admittedly of very considerable importance. has its own value But it is well known how of a special kind. all these phrases and ideas ruling Conduct or righteousness. universal fact of experience about it the fact of the higher ancTlower sclfjn man. 185 . the Jewish nation con amiss and imperfectly And finally. misconceived righteousness failed them in actual life more and more. of very considerable importance. a matter their minds. when he came among his countrymen. unique importance. What did Jesus do ? From his countrymen's errors about righteousness he reverted to the solid. 1 Jesus Christ found. and had created an immense poetry of hopes and imaginings in favour of their misconception. they had come entirely to misconceive. 31.

the bringer-in and founder of this reign of the higher life. Observers say. the it. and appetite.life4tt^rre^gh Judgment ? Yes. and first impulse. this true \Jdngdom of God. he connected this profound of experience with that attractive poetry of hopes and imaginings which possessed the minds of his countrymen. He it the centre of his teaching. He that will save his life shall shall lose do lose his save it. It is evident.' And by his he that admir able figure of the two lives of man. so he : made secret in the well-known formula. amongst mankind of the higher life. also. the real life and the seeming fact life. and the decision between them.preservation. Resurrection ? Yes. T tlie_. that they are directly controlled 186 : .CHURCH AND RELIGION inheritors the one of them of happiness. It is evident to what these instincts will in themselves carry the man who follows the lower self of sense. Krmi^ i>fia ? Yes*. life his it . much of with truth. that all our appearance passions may be run up into two elementary the reproductive instinct and the instincts instinct of self. the reign higher. in conscience. the rising from bondage and transience with the lower life to victory and permanence with the The kingdom of God ? Yes. f*made it ' He possessed himself of other of misery. the trying. But we can go farther. of the claims and instigations of the two lives. The Christ the son of God ? Yes.

life by two forces which that law of the higher which : ' life shall lose it . And it is enjoined by experience if experience shows that it is necessary to human happiness.PREFACE following St. we We suppose. in all quarters and by all channels. could stand for the whole of Christianity. That the 'new commandment' of charity is enjoined by the Bible.' There is purity. these Let us have them from the mouth might. having to establish the natural truth of Christianity. as it is called by modern philosophers. the law of our mind. the line of thought of the spirit^has kindness and set up as its two grand virtues If any virtues*' pureness. of Jesus Christ himself. charity and chastity. it is the lesson of the solidarity. There that ye love one another" ' Blest are the pure in heart. Paul names indifferently the law of God. gives it therefore. unless it turns out to be enjoined also by experience. it was the notion that the rule of * was the rule of every man for himself shall ' 1 <j>p6vrjfJM TOV 187 . for they shall see God. that men cannot get on without it. If there was ever a notion tempting to common human nature. no force at all. Now if there is a lesson which in our really day has come to force itself upon everybody. a new commandment give I is unto you charity. He that loveth his Christianity. go here simply on experience. of men.

for the notion of commandments in this sense is giving And on its natural truth. and so plainly that it is coming it turns out to be even generally admitted. that the only real happiness is in a kind of impersonal higher life. long supposed to conflict with experience. the other great Christian virtue. doubts are thrown. experience must decide. in the name of science and reason. own doubts raised. thing comes to be tested by experience. as to the natural truth of this virtue. as a truth confirmed by experience.CHURCH AND RELIGION happiness. turn out to lose it. While science has adopted. As a mere commandment this virtue cannot have the authority which it once had. Well. c I pass for having enjoyed Ninon in old age. when the way. pureHere the case is somewhat different. the Christian idea of charity.' said had told me beforehand what my life was going hears 188 . ' but if any one life. nowadays. and the new commandment proves ness ? its And One truth by experience. on the truth and validity of the Christian idea of pureness. ' It is a question of fact. ** But at last it turns out as a matter of experience. There is no honest woman who is not sick of her trade/ says La Rochefoucauld. and has decked it out with the grand title of human solidarity^ one may hear many doubts thrown. where the happiness of others counts with a man as essential to He that loves his life does really his own.

have to learn by experience. kindness and pureness. And all such well souls will inspired perceive the natural truth of the idea of pureness. die sich auf den Bissen erstreckt Mund nehme. side is question human which the And will those who and doubt on raise natural truth. that of the two great Christian virtues. that the more boldly it is challenged. and long before the palpable proof by experience convinces all the world. itself extending take into 1 and clearer So prayed Goethe. profound and will be sure therefore.PREFACE to is would have hanged myself. the very morsel which I mouth. the more sharply and So signally will experience mark its truth. grow ever clearer in ' May to ' the other is expecting it. They have it quite independently of their attitude towards tradi tional religion. immer lichter in mir werden ' ! 189 . the one has at this moment the most signal testimony from to its intrinsic truth and experience weight. and ! me my the idea of pureness. who question. charity and chastity. All this may enable us to understand how admirably fitted are Jesus Christ and his precepts to serve as mankind's standing reminder as to 1 * Moge in den ich den die Idee des Reinen. But finely touched souls have a presentiment of a thing's natural truth even though it be questioned.' On which side is natural right be I ? Who" truth ? It will *be admitted vital that there for can be a more hardly society.

and it in the Jesus religion makes it still. even from the first. of first instance. Jesus Christ and his precepts are found to hit the moral experience of mankind. then to come out stronger than And we know how Jesus Christ and his ever. This they certainly in great part owed. and which they made up along 190 . as we have said. Moreover. Jesus Christ and his precepts. unerring felicity.CHURCH AND RELIGION T conduct. and are now the religion of all that part of the world which most counts. precepts won their way from the very first. the impression left by Jesus is. Jjhe critical points. the natural truth he gave them. to when doubts are thrown upon their really hitting it. perfect balance. to hit it in hit it lastingly and. which amidst misapprehensions of them they inspired. we call sweet reason in the highest by of consummate justness in what he For said. this impression has been a great element of half the charm of the It made progress. But it also serves in an admir able way against the misapprehensions with which men received. to -that instinctive sense of their natural fitness for such a service. and soon became the religion of all that part . we must always keep in sight one specially important element in the power all exercised And degree that Vof what . of the world which most counted. to serve as men's religion. and could not but receive. of their natural truth and weight.

and a host of sentiments the most tender and profound. medieval charity and medieval chastity are manifestly misgrowths. have attracted to themselves. is what we has natural 191 mean truth. the figure and sayings of Jesus. always an appeal perversion open. serving them as a perpetual^ reminder of it. by saying* Christianity By this . cannot be what Such Jesus Jesus meant. misgrowths unworkable and of the of kindness and ideas dangerous. . to his c grace and truth. . false. that it must be human cannot be from Jesus There is of him. finally. and a return possible. by the very force of time. self-readjustment which is of the highest value. they inference and is the inevitable Christianity here touches a spring for self-correction and : find in their religion itself a . a mass of additional use.PREFACE For it is with that truth into their religion. and and association. attachment. that then. and thus attaching them. distorted. however natural. by a fixed form of words and observances holding their attention to it. And. Then cannot have come from they pureness. felt that anything exaggerated. thus Christians.' . This. instead of sticking for ever because of their religion to errors which they themselves have put into their religion. to the acknowledged sweet reason of Jesus. And ground for breaking For example with them.T embodying and representing men's moral ex perience to them.

CHURCH AND RELIGION truth things must stand.renouncement. not by people's wishes Omnium Deus and asseverations about them. then we belong to him whether we . in a fantastic paradise to come. writer. Jesus. says that both Jesus and Schopenhauer taught the true doctrine of self. 192 . not wkere popular religion placed it. whereas Jesus sought to escape from it by the dream of a paradise to come. will or no. turn out to be as he says ? c does. This critic credits as with the usual. says est. cujus^ velimus Tertullian. being admittedly most im If it portant. omnes aut nolimus^ sumus. is God that we The . ' . Does the thing. . and the strength of Jesus would have of us The natural that he explains it right.' wishing to exalt Schopenhauer at the expense of Jesus. very misconceptions It was the effort against which he strove. experimental truth of his explanations is their one claim upon us but this is claim enough. of Jesus the * eternal life this was his . 'The God all of to all of us is the whether we will belong makes for righteous that Eternal or no. but that Schopenhauer faced the pessimism which is that doctrine's natural accompaniment. A recent German of Jesus to place the bliss.renouncement.' and he is the God of ness is such a God Jesus explains what this God Christianity. but This was /fin the joy of self . the eternal life of popular"""religion-.

ix than to receive. a paradox. the earth may be glad ' right to give VOL. in which and a it takes blessing exactly here is his superiority to Schopenhauer. Schopenhauer feels it to ' is just be absurd. disciples. that of the universe. and constantly improvable. his Tightness.' more rational. c might have he desired that full and have might complete. This would gradually about the extinction of our species.renouncement is joy.' His depth. that he saw that self. ' It is evident. therefore benefit. Jesus hits the plain natural truth that human life is a blessing and a benefit. since the universe requires for its existence the co-operation of human thought. and that it is the domain of irrationality. bring with our and.' Not only. king. is The Eternal life is a blessing and a benefit. extinction.PREFACE 'joy'. because in selfrenouncement is a fount of joy. come out in this very point . ' springing up unto everlasting life. the joy too. It is more thereof. place. that it is somehow or other. fulfilled in themselves. and that human thought (I say it with due deference to the many persons for whom plainly. which his truth. even a priori^ that the world is doomed to evil. In abstinence from the further propagation of mankind is salvation. And just while Schopenhauer misses it.' Human now in fashion) instinctively The fact is with Jesus.' The fault of this sort of thing is. and that is human a life. 193 o .

metaphysics into Christianity means the arrival of Greek thought. the law of evolution. * must be a higher stage than the ideas of the great prophets and wise men of the eighth and ninth centuries. Righteousness tendeth to life^ the righteous is an everlasting foundation with a later Aberglaube. the imports us to reach. evolution. apparently. contrast of the doctrine of Jesus with the meta M. ThereProgress must have gone on. The importation of Again. judgment. and knowledge.' such as we find in the Book of Daniel. The A real fact^ what it He objects to the with. .' writer of remarkable M. therefore. the law of evolution must have been at work. fact^ I say. Western thought. objects to the contrast of an earlier intuition of Israel. Maurice Vernes. impartiality. of evolution. the en richment of the early Christian thought with new elements. is one of those. development. a history ruled by the law of progress. Maurice Vernes physics of the Church. the Athanasian Creed This is And be a Let us salute with respect that imposing But let us generality. 'It is more is blessed to give than to receive. as Jesus had to deal have a philosophical system of history. of the Revue Scientifique. but. Between the eighth century before our era and the second. 194 must higher stage than the Sermon on the Mount. of whom there are so many. fore the Messianic ideas of the Book of Daniel who . and such ' .CHURCH AND RELIGION more necessary .

fact. our business is with the fact. surely. is here as we have stated it. he those data he what should also was. personage that his followers imagined ? The 1 more reasonable Jesus more real one.PREFACE particular case which comes before us. surely. what concerns us is. being by have been at the same time the thaumaturgical . But here. Vernes further objects to our picking and choosing among the records of Jesus. again. the ideas of the great prophets and wise men of the eighth or ninth century before Christ are profounder and more true than the ideas of the eschatologist of the Book of Daniel. and pro nouncing that whatever suits us shall be held to come from Jesus. remember in each * matter of fact. and whatever does not suit us . more likely that Jesus. as a fact as to that particular case. the I u \ ' 195 . M. . As a matter of fact. of fact . should have been in many points misunderstood &* and misrepresented by his followers or that. again. likely ? things is. the ideas of in the Sermon on the Mount are surely Jesus more true than the ideas of the and profounder the Athanasian Creed. a it is a question. in fact. being what we can see from certain of the data about him that he was.. which of two question more in It is. the And surely. that. .. from his reporters. surely. of Ins and theologian outs of this kind may settle their business with the general law of evolution as they can but And the fact. is likewise.

And. I because its we do. might But to really be possible for Catholic worship ? rule over the moment and the credulous 196 . will have to return to The Latin it again. indeed. Latin will the southern even nations. those who had thrown it aside because what was presented to them under its name was so unreceivable. one must wonder at the fatuity of the Roman Catholic Church. the real Jesus. and a text of to discover wherein it differs from Neither will the old forms of Chris Hesiod. and to learn it better. among the Catholic nations will this De the case. then. which is vainly claimed for Catholic dogma and the ultramontane system.fancied that they natural truth.' tian worship be extinguished by the growth of a truer conception of their essential contents. They will survive as poetry. that she should not herself see what a future there Will there never arise among is for her here. Above all. 'belong to them. to perceive that the ' eternity and universality. will not disappear. and which are now surrounded with such an atmosphere of tender and profound sentiment. that the real God. will continue to command allegiance. nations.CHURCH AND RELIGION believe. Catholics some great soul. thrown out at dimly-grasped truth. Those forms. have to acquaint themselves with that funda mental document of Christianity. the Bible. in fact. had done with it.' I believe that Christianity will survive because of Those who. approximative and provisional representations of it.

And we cannot. background. and knowledge. ducing famous thesis. will find the ways for own future. more general. ' in the preface intro his translation of Plato's Protagoras^ to that lost This is an aspect of the truth almost as soon as it was found and yet has to be recovered by every one for himself who would pass the limits of proverbial and popular philosophy. doing homage. and and imply as the indispensable the It is true. are inseparable. The moral and in-\ tellectual are always dividing. Christianity. three-fourths of life. while the remaining fourth is ill-cared for. But this does but bring us to the old and true Socratic thesis of the interdependence of virtue rest against . the three-fourths themselves must also suffer with it. however. its. What is certain is that it will Whatever progress may be made however literary culture.' J 197 . yet they must be ] reunited.PREFACE has more attraction than to work for the future and the sane. Christianity will be still there as what these not disappear. Jowett. in science. then. art. and in the highest conception of them I which was . do better than conclude with some excellent words of y Mr. much higher. and more effective than at present the value for them may become.

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259 342 IV. II. A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL . . III. BISHOP BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST . . .. A LAST WORD ON THE BURIALS BILL . 380 199 .. THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND . ..CONTENTS PAGE I.201 .

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or . not what perishes and what offers us points of contact with the religion of the community. . deluded blunderers. not negative. are full of reward. dwelt upon. renounce my public worship and solemnities renounce all communion with me. as posture and falsehood on your part. as an im Quit. Other parts in to And none more work however. all those doctors and lights of the Church who have 201 . so than those. rather than motives for breaking with it. not dividing in Christianity is in which what survives . in which the be done is positive. Take me ' in the lump/ it ' cries. uniting. Popular religion is too forward to employ arguments which may well be called arguments of despair.A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL WHOEVER has to impugn the soundness of popular theology will most certainly find parts in his task which are unwelcome and painful. weak-minded. and it. or give up Christianity as I altogether. Construe the Bible do.

requests for But the discussion of a subject. avowals of difficulty upon certain points. explanation. and who may have in general followed one's treatment of it with sympathy.CHURCH AND RELIGION Those teachers i long served you. I was bound in glad to leave. courageous and consistent. . and it happens to me. if he is do. Only. I order to aid those I wished wished to say it. aided you. in your set forth what are. and go on grounds which you Whoever thinks as you believe to be hollow. whom honesty to make clear what But having said. I suppose. partly in embarrassed the popular conception partly because. more especially of a religious subject. but to remain staunch by his new lights and himself. sort of Christianity I meant. may easily be pursued longer than is advisable. having frequently occasion to assert the truth and importance of Christianity against those who disparaged them. I will conclude with what cannot. been dear to you. to trust such blind guides no more. what I wished. to most people who treat an interesting subject. 5 happens. On the immense difference which there seems to me to be between the popular conception of Christianity and the true conception of it. however imperfectly. one may 202 . ought. I leave. I have said what It to say. opinion. to receive from those whom the subject interests. a discussion where the hope to do good must always be mixed with an apprehension of doing harm. errors. in leaving and am it.

and study. Paul. the great word of Chris hope. my questioner c 203 . tianity he deserves. of popular religion. I have formerly spoken at much length of the writings of St. do '. pointing out what a clue he gives us to the right understanding of the word resurrection. which whoever does not admit of necessity the miraculous cannot but suppose. who does not admit the miraculous. Paul surely no imbecile or vouches for the reality credulous enthusiast of the (physical) resurrection. and how our special interest also in the miracle of the physical resurrec tion. of the appearances Must of Jesus after it. but who yet had continued to think St. Paul worthy of and his teaching full of instruc all honour tion. Paul. brings forward to me a sentence from an eloquent and most popular author. It is the spiritual resurrection of which he is thus the instructive expounder to us. and of his own vision. But undoubtedly he believed . if he was mistaken in thus vouching.' then St. both of Jesus himself and for mankind at This belief those who do not admit the large. be an imbecile and credulous enthusiast.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL harm : an endeavour to dispel some difficulties raised by the arguments of despair as I have called them.' and his words and character of no more value to us And than those of that slight sort of people ? author the same finds again. And one miraculous will not share with him. he asks. wherein it is said that 'St. on this account.

and this in men who have taught the spirit of truthfulness as a primary duty of the religion And he inquires preached. Paul did. were really founding the faith of Christendom on most facile and reprehensible credulity. in admitting the miraculous. Paul primary duty of the religion which they preached. and were false to the spirit of truthfulness taught by themselves as the which they whether St.CHURCH AND RELIGION saying. Paul's enthusiast. The argument is that St. does either the belief of these things by a man of signal truthfulness. to the miracles which 'insinuate that the faith of Christendom was founded on most facile and reprehensible credulity. an imbecile or credulous St.' and the Evangelists. while yet they must own that St. only But they say it is to be explained naturally. and mental power in 204 . Paul. vision we need not take into account. i Paul and the Evan mistaken is about they allege. do not admit the of the they physical reality resurrection of Jesus and of his appearances afterwards. that to suppose gelists St. supposing those alleged facts not have happened. The question is. by believing and asserting the reality of the physical resur rection and subsequent appearances of Jesus. because even those who do not admit the miraculous will readily admit that he had his vision. answer by putting a parallel case. to Let me proves himself. judgment. and an unprofitable guide.

II I have craft. But this was a matter of expectation. it is argued. such as the bodily resurrection of Jesus. Matthew The contemporary records of this belief our own in country and among our own people. They throw an invaluable light for us on the history of the human spirit. I think it is not an illusion of self-esteem to flatter ourselves that ' good nature and something of the English is not absent even from these humour good that from the traits of records repulsive national ' . Paul was mistaken about the imminence of the end of the world.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL Paul's . 1 God and the Bible. he must. and mental power ? Undeniably St. 371. St. 205 . prove that he cannot have been a man of great truthfulness. If he was mistaken about a grave fact alleged to have already positively happened. have been a credulous and imbecile enthusiast. really happened in spite of their not having really happened. circumstances. prove them to have or does his believing them. are of extraordinary interest. judgment. p. and when the printing press fixed and preserved the accounts of public proceedings to which the charge of witchcraft gave rise. Sir already mentioned elsewhere Hale's belief in the reality of witch l in a century of great intellectual force and achievement. not experience.

. in 1716.CHURCH AND RELIGION i infuriated. by its alldisbelieve. called spiritualism. which was long-prevailing beginning of the eighteenth century Addison. too. Nevertheless. And by the end of the eighteenth century. It is incredulity the exception. also. beginnings of that revolt of good sense. that this credulity of the seventeenth century is distinguished from modern growths which are sometimes compared with In the addiction to what 206 is it. gleams of that reason. the majority of rational people had come to not in witches only. two women were hanged at Huntingdon for witchcraft. that They reveal. but in ghosts Incredulity had become the rule. a survival from times of ghosts and de Coverley's ignorance. criticism. Credulity about witchcraft was the rule. credulity the exception. But they were the last victims. and in 1736 the penal statutes against witchcraft were repealed. though he himself looks with disfavour on a presently to disperse the belief in witchcraft. they are in a great measure free. infernal cruelty which characterise similar records elsewhere. particularly among the Latin nations. At the man who wholly disbelieves in apparitions. yet smiles at Sir Roger belief in witches. its seemingly natural character. inevitable and pervadingness. But through the greater part of the seven teenth century things were just the other way. as a belief which intelligent men had outgrown.

Sack and Sugar.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL is something factitious and artificial. man who scouted the belief. to titillate in ourselves the fibre of superstition. and created an atmosphere for his thoughts which they could not help feeling. He will instinctively apply that we have all Goethe's excellent caution of us a nervous system which can easily be worked upon. to the Jarmara. who even A infidel. He may make : acquaintance with their new spiritual visitants have succeeded to the old-fashioned imps of the seventeenth century. there is . on the belief in witches and their works met a man at every turn.' They had their caution c to him to take heed how he either despised the 207 . Whoever runs after our modern sorcerers may indeed find them. will in even temper. the his head about them and their masters. seventeenth century. Elemauzer. and that it is foolish. general pay none. and Grizzel Greedigut. of our trials for witchcraft. was called Sadducee. that we are most of us very easily puzzled. by idly per plexing our understanding and playing with our nervous system. Vinegar Tom. It quite easy to pay no attention to spiritualists and a man of serious and their exhibitions a man of matured sense. disparaged it. and Relations of the conviction of witches had their sharp word of * condemnation for the particular opinion of some men who suppose there be none at all. who But he may also pass his life without troubling In the other hand. atheist.

and specify the imps. whom they have All this. Sir Matthew Hale. here particularly busy. and were possessed in a penetrating judgment. mind an atmosphere from which it was hard to escape. vigour of intelligence. evidence which would now be accepted by no reasonable man. vigour of intelligence. Burnet notices the remarkable mixture in him 208 . created for the at their disposal. or familiars. They confess their compact with the Devil. signal degree by the famous Chief Justice of Charles the Second's reign. and penetrating judgment on other matters.' a took leading part in the proceedings ligion the Puritan ministers were witches against . where a witch was in question. was in the seventeenth century quite compatible with truthfulness of disposition. And. Scripture had said Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live. Again and again we hear of the sufficient justices of the peace and discreet magistrates/ of the persons of great knowledge/ who were satisfied with the proofs of witchcraft : ' e abundantly clear that to take as solid and convincing. offered to It is them. of disposition.CHURCH AND RELIGION power of God i in his creatures. or vilipended the subtlety and fury of the Devil as God's The ministers of re minister of vengeance. I say. the poor creatures tried and executed for witchcraft appear to have usually been themselves firm believers in their own magic.. strange to say. ness truthful Certainly these three advantages.

IX 2O9 P . and that evidently demonstrated. VOL. London. but was not published till eighteen years afterwards. Two widows of Lowestoft in Suffolk. the author of the Religio Medici and of the book on Vulgar Errors. . 1 trial for witchcraft before Sir Matthew Hale. so to the three forenamed advantages we may add gentleness of There is extant the report of a famous temper. than the arguments and reasons of other very learned men that probably may not be so intelligible to all readers especially. learning. that c so exact a relation of this trial would probably . Edmunds. a believer and he considered. this being held before a judge whom for his integrity. were tried before him at Bury as St. Court during the trial. at the Spring Assizes in taken in witches. Every decade. he tells us. The person published the report was. and law. 1 Reprinted in^ Collection of Rare and Curious Tracts relating to Witchcraft. saw a progressive decline in the belief in witchcraft. however. .i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL of sweetness with gravity. who give more satisfaction to a great many persons. but had the assistance and opinion of several other very eminent and learned persons. The report was 1664. named Rose Cullender and Amy Duny. in 1682. by reason that it is pure matter of fact. 1838. at that time.' One of these persons was Sir Thomas Browne of Norwich. hardly any who not age either before or since could parallel took a of deal and only great pains spent much time in this trial himself.

and itself dispels the They were accused of charge against them.' While c she sat there. two of whose children. other prisoner Amy is Duny. Elizabeth and Deborah. of the ages of eleven and nine. The younger child was too ill to be brought to the Assizes. a merchant of Lowestoft. though his children were so greatly afflicted. but the elder was produced in Court. and to bring up pins and nails. had on a sunshiny day in October desired to be carried on the east part of the house to be set upon the bank which looketh upon the sea. causing them to have fits.' to live how in a certain ' He deposed that his younger daughter. that of Samuel Pacy. their father. a man who carried himself with is described as much soberness during the trial. because it shows us so clearly relation of the trial of The atmosphere of belief will govern men's conclusions from what they To us who do not believe in see and hear. and Amy Duny were convicted carries its own natural explanation with it. having bewitched a number of children. Several of the witnesses were poor ignorant The weighty evidence in the case was people.CHURCH AND RELIGION Rose Cullender and Amy Duny is indeed most interesting and most instructive. Samuel Pacy. were said to have been bewitched. on which Rose Cullender evidence the witches. who as well as the shown by the evidence to have 210 . from whom proceeded no words either of passion or malice. being lame and without power in her limbs.

did suspect the said Amy Duny for a witch. not explain them. So ten days afterwards her according to his own deposition. was seized with fits like her sister's ' insomuch that they could not open her mouth to preserve her life without the help of a tap which they mouth with . and in regard Amy Duny is a woman of an ill fame and commonly reported to be a witch and a sorceress. she replied that she had been fain to open her child's ' father. and charged her with the injury and wrong to his child.' Being asked what she had done to hers. and for that the said child in her fits would cry out of Amy Duny as the cause of her malady. but let him stay until he hath done as much by his children as I have done by mine. Mr. came to the house to get some herrings. Elizabeth.' The 21 I children in their . and went away grumbling. Pacy's child.' Two afterwards elder days Pacy's daughter. were obliged to use. as the child in the interval of her fits related. At the same moment the child was seized with The doctor who attended her could violent fits. and that she did affright her with apparitions of her person.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL been by her neighbours commonly reputed a witch. She was refused. by reason of the circumstances aforesaid. Pacy keeps a great stir about his child. : ' ' a tap to give it victuals. and caused her to be set in the stocks/ While she was women her the asked reason of the two there. She answered illness of Mr.

These poor rickety full of disease with morbid tricks. but makes : me ' And when their father speak right well. without recourse to witchcraft and magic.CHURCH AND RELIGION fits would cry out There stands Amy Duny or Rose Cullender (another reputed witch of Lowestoft) the fits were over.' It : almost an impertinence nowadays any one can require telling how self-explanatory all this is. seems whom eyes. threatening them. have their imagination possessed by the two famed and dreaded witches of their native place. they own whose presence has 212 have often seen with their startled one of . or Jesus. fits." asked them why they could not pronounce the words Lord. when and.. that tale. they answered Amy Duny saith. would relate how they had seen Amy Duny and Rose Cullender shaking their fists at them and ' : ' ' ' . But when they came to the name of Satan or Devil they would clap their fingers upon " This the book. I must not use that name. crying out bites. or Christ. of whose prowess they have heard tale after to suppose. During their illness their father sometimes made them read aloud from the New Testament. or Jesus. carried They said that bees or flies into their mouths the pins and nails which they brought up in their fits. and children. He observed that they would read till they came c or Christ^ and then before they could pronounce either of the said words they would suddenly fall into their to the name of Lord.

converge and cluster. with needles and nails. 213 . as Mr. the light to be got from writer on Vulgar ILrrors. for he conceived that these swooning fits were natural. Sir Thomas Browne was clearly of opinion that the persons were bewitched . . being Elizabeth Pacy's case and that of two other children who on similar evidence were said (who appears in the Brown. and round whom those ideas of diabolical agency. present. However. Thomas Browne ' report of the trial as Dr. a person of great know desired to give his opinion on ledge'). as these pins were. of Norwich. Serjeant Earl. The speech of the accused witch in the stocks the most natural speech possible. in this trial. there were divers known Serjeant Keeling. Mr. at whose instance he doth these villainies... to have been bewitched by the accused. in which they have been nursed. and nothing else but what they call the mother^ but only heightened to a great excess by the subtlety of the Devil. and the is fulfilment which her words received Elizabeth Pacy's Sir fits is in the course natural of perfectly also. Serjeant Keeling seemed much Serjeant Bernard. who used the very same way of afflicting persons by conveying pins into them. And his opinion was that the Devil in such cases did work upon the bodies of men and women upon a natural foundation. persons. Yet reason. Mr.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL in her them all hour of suffering. co-operating with the malice of these which we term witches. and crooked. and Mr. was not left quite without witness all That was the celebrated : At the hearing the evidence. and said that in Denmark there had been lately a great discovery of witches.

which they did accordingly.' and in this condition were again ' touched by Rose Cullender and again they screamed out. said he. And Amy Duny was conveyed from the bar and brought to the maid . it can never be applied to the prisoners upon the imagination only of the parties afflicted. Sir Edward Bacon. prisoners for In order. and then one other person touched her hand. yet. that the Lord Cornwallis. The children were blinded with their own aprons. Serjeant Keeling. therefore. and thought it not sufficient to convict the admitting that the children were in truth be witched.CHURCH AND RELIGION unsatisfied with . whilst she was in her fits. would attend one of the distempered persons in the further part of the hall. 214 . it was privately desired by the judge. to avoid this scruple. who might altogether be innocent in such matters. The children screamed out at their touch. Mr. and some other gentlemen then in Court. i it. they put an apron before her eyes. and then to send for one of the witches to try what would then happen. : Wherefore. Whereupon the gentlemen returned. which produced the same effect as the touch of the witch did in the Court. For if that might be allowed. It was objected. for perhaps they might fancy another person. openly protesting that they did believe the whole transaction of this business was a mere imposture. no person whatsoever can be in safety . not that the children's heads were full of Rose Cullender and Amy Duny and of their infernal dealings with them. they were made to touch the children whom they were said to have bewitched. the better to establish the guilt of the prisoners. but that the children might be counter feiting their malady and pretending to start at the witch's touch though it had no real power on them .

secondly. as well they might Nothing material to that had Hale then been proved. .' anything the He did not even go over jury. were not shamming out of malice or from a it is love of imposture. the Scriptures had affirmed Only this he acquainted them First. For. put the Court and all But at length persons into a stand. ' : The When accused did not asked what they had to say for themselves. However. ' this wrong are near. and that when they apprehend that the persons who have done them . the wisdom of all nations had provided laws against such persons. whether the prisoners at the bar were That there were such creatures as witches he guilty of it. made no doubt at all. we are c told. they do use more violent gestures spirits of their bodies. secondly. then.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL This.' Such was the evidence. so much . their being more than ordinarily moved with and rage anger. then very evident that the parties were bewitched. they replied. Pacy might be deceived by a suspicion that the witch touched her when she did not.' And nothing more but does this That the what prove ? likely child's terrors were sincere not that the socalled witch had done the acts alleged against her. Pacy's solution of the diffi If the children culty was readily accepted. : to inquire after. which is an argument of their confidence 215 . charged the evidence to them : that they had two things whether or no these children were bewitched . first. did declare that possibly the maid Mr. confess themselves guilty. Mr. or touch them.

as the belief in 216 Now. provided offence. and to let the guilty go free. only Susan Chandler felt a pain like pricking of pins in her stomach. The jury retired. i And kingdom. Pacy did affirm. the belief in witchcraft was in the very atmo sphere which Hale breathed. perfectly restored : Mr.' The whole But history of his life and doings disproves it. They were much urged That morning we departed for to confess. and desired the great God of Heaven to direct their For to con hearts in this weighty thing they had in hand. as appears such hath been the judgment of this by that Act of Parliament which hath punishments proportionable to the quality of the And he desired them strictly to observe their evid ence. and slept well that 'night . Cambridge . but they confessed nothing. the inference to be drawn from this not by any means that Hale was ' an imbecile or credulous enthusiast. and thereupon gave judgment against the witches that they should be hanged.CHURCH AND RELIGION of such a crime. that within less than half an hour after the witches were convicted. were both an abomination to the Lord. demn the innocent. but would not. been produced in court were brought to Hale's lodgings. but no reprieve was granted. the judge and all the court were fully satisfied with the verdict. In half an hour they came back with a verdict of guilty against both Next morning the children who had prisoners. the iyth of March (1664) following. and they were executed on Monday. they were all of them restored. And this seems to have removed : all shadow of doubt or misgiving In conclusion. is trial .

but to what he was fit to undertake. on by a foregone conclusion as to and credible.' John Smith. college . a fellow of Queens' College a tutor and preacher in his died there. The worthy and I in question rejoice to is very little known. Paul. He proceeded ' leisurely by orderly steps/ Bishop of Ely. ' says Simon Patrick. was admitted a scholar of Emmanuel College at funeral-sermon. and mental power.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL miracle was in the very atmosphere which St. have an opportunity of men tioning him. He became in 1636. He died at the age of thirtyfour. born in 1618 near Oundle in Northamptonshire. Cambridge in 1644. Ill certain subjects. 217 . is another supplied by worthy of the seventeenth century. ' after a tedious sickness/ on the 7th of August 1652. that a man of veracity. may have what is his mind thoroughly governed. But I will not likely further enlarge on the illustration which Hale furnishes to us of this truth. having risen to no higher post in the world than a college fellowship. judgment. and was buried in his He was one of that band of college-chapel. What the trial shows us is. John Smith ! the name does not sound promising. yet applicability to St. Paul breathed. preached his afterwards who not to what he could get. An illustration of a with closer it.

or latitude men^ as in their own day they were called. or that. 2nd edition. 1 Rational Theology and Christian Philosophy in England in the Seventeenth Century . to take men off from being in parties. the certain doom of both saw that stand permanently such developments of religion could not. profound. book * is delightful. to their disquisitions It is not by spirit and incorporeal essence. but was on . they will be brought back to them. Principal Tulloch has given. . 1874. of the Laudian clergy on the one side. these that they merited to live. somewhat too much space to their" Platonic philosophy. from superstitious conceits and fierceness about opinions. and the notional religion of the Puritans on the other. 218 .CHURCH AND RELIGION Cambridge Platonists. at Cambridge. and just conception of Placed between the sacerdotal religion religion. I cannot but think. studied to propagate better thoughts. they saw the sterility. and it has. But in his account of the most serious value. Their immediate recompense was a religious The religious world isolation of two centuries. ' whom Burnet has well described as those who. inasmuch as Christianity was not what either of them supposed. Edinburgh and London. or from narrow notions.' Principal Tulloch has done an excellent work in seeking to reawaken our His interest in this noble but neglected group. It is by their extra ordinarily simple. having passed away from men's minds. at the same time. his worthies. a temper^ a behaviour.

the ever memorable Mr. But in a of the of the works Cambridge Platonists. as a republication of their utterances as show us their real spirit and power. Church conception of knew and and disappeared with the century. The Cambridge band ceased to acquire recruits. And this was in part for the reason already . the sermon preached by Cudworth before the House of Commons with the second sermon printed as a companion 219 . have said. Individuals used their writings Bishop Wilson of Sodor and Man. this is wanted. had profited by them. in part because what passed for their great work was that revival of a spiritualist and Platonic philosophy. be classed along with them.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL for was not then ripe more than the High Christianity on the one or the Puritan hand. notwithstanding that he was at Oxford. they and writings of Owen are not more extinct than the Intellectual System of Cudworth. The remains of Hales of Eton. in particular. But they made no broad and clear mark. seems to me to much prominence. fill a large Therefore it is not so much a history of space. to as I which Principal Tulloch. John Hales. conception on the other.' must this group which of such ' not certainly. the sermons and aphorisms of Whichcote. perhaps. history of Intellectual Cudworth's magnitude System of the Universe must necessarily. have given too attempted revival By not and The theology could cannot live. assigned. Their spiritual brother. Cambridge.

religion. found that the Cambridge Platonists. history of literature that these men are mainly eminent. and the Select Discourses of John Smith. Barrow. not to the history of literature that Whichcote and Smith belong.CHURCH AND RELIGION to i it. to give what at critical moments the religious life of mankind needs and can use. and for which the hour of light has at last come. It were well if Principal Tulloch would lay us under fresh obligations by himself extracting this and giving it to us but given some day. from the superb 220 . indeed. it will surely be. although they may also be classed. such as we shall demand in vain from the soul and poetry of Taylor. single sayings and maxims of Henry More. And it will be Their contemporaries were Bossuet. long obscured. take rank as great works of literature and It is style. Taylor. Platonists here formulated with sufficient distinctness. but to the history of offer. although neither epoch-making philosophers nor epochmaking men of letters. have in their concep tion of religion a boon for the religious wants of our own time. from the sense and vigour of Barrow. is. For Hales and the Cambridge among religious writers. What counts highest in the history of religion as such. and by ! . Their productions will not. however. a conception of religion. some hand. there are our documents In them lies enshrined what the latitude men have of value for us. true. It is in the Pascal. of course.

we might have. not literary.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL of Bossuet. of presenting Christianity to us in this fashion. in a theological instructor. to read candidates for orders were simply. instead of being. On the Excellency and Nobleness of True Religion^ together with M. as we now see it. siderable work school. religious. in preparing and digest Smith's great discourse. or the passion -filled reasoning and rhetoric of Pascal. and nothing further except the Bible itself. Their grand merit is that they insist on the pro found natural truth of Christianity. Singularly enough. but in general the whole plan for grounding and buttressing it chosen by our theological in structors is false. after his death. Select Discourses is. and thus base it upon a ground which will not crumble under our feet. collected exercitations and published from his papers are. since it is false. about fifteen years before 221 . a hope of at last getting. in my opinion. Signal and rare indeed is the merit. as our national guides in religion. Christianity is true . for their examination. perhaps. Reuss's History of Christian Theology at the time of the Apostles. I repeat. a clergy which could tell its bearings and steer its way. it must fail I have often thought that if us sooner or later. The Select Discourses of John Smith. and. too often conspicuously at a loss to do either. by much the most con left to us by this Cambridge to a place in English a have right They Yet the main value of the literary history.

a witchcraft.CHURCH AND RELIGION the trial at i Bury St. having once stained the original beauty and glory of the divine workmanship. the bottomless pit hath not yet shut its mouth upon . had to preach this sermon. the Certainty of and Victory in this Spiritual Warfare. ' its Diabolical Contracts. them. the Evil and Horridness of Magical Arts and Rites. with the title : A Conquests . though it be prepared for them .' preacher sets out with the traditional account of ' the prince of darkness. On Lady-day Fellow of Queens' College. text the words will flee The discourse has for : Resist the devil. a Discourse concerning the Devil's Active Enmity and Continual Hostility against Man. . It is printed tenth and last of his Select Dis Christian s Conflicts and courses. etc. but this is too. Smith. as one of the Fellows of Queens'. John Smith. the author of the Select Discourses. and he from you. the Success Warfare of a Christian Life. who. . Cambridge. 222 . out of the world into outer darkness. had in those very eastern counties to deliver his mind on the matter of every year. that we never want the secret and latent Those evil spirits are not yet cast attendance of them. or. too certain. Edmunds of the Lowestoft witches. was required to preach at Huntingdon a sermon against witchcraft and diabolical contracts. is The continually striving to into his mould and shape likeness/ It it more and more : own He says were perhaps a vain curiosity to inquire whether the spirits number of evil exceeds the number of men .

rites or ceremonies not understood. that which human nature. is present to all his own rites and ceremonies. the real exordium and his conclusion Like Hale. And he adds the caution. it might be thought needless to persuade men to resist the devil when he appears in his own colours to make merchandise of them. this indeed is nothing else but a kind of magic which the devil himself owns and gives life to. though he may not be corporeally present. withal in a way of light and understanding. as an idea influencing thought and conduct. and comes in a formal way to bargain with them for their souls. no question. though men discern him not.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL And he concludes his sermon with a reflection and a caution. with their several modes and manner of pronunciation. of which we can give no rational or divine account. The reflection is that Did we not live in a world of professed wickedness. The devil. called for. or require presently any further covenant from the users of them. by the particular occasion. and whatsoever else pretends to any strange effects which we cannot with good reason either As God will only be conversed ascribe to God or nature. astrological arts. and none admit but those who are quite degenerated from human kind. abhors. and may upon the use of them secretly produce those effects which may gain credit to them. so the devil loves to be conversed with in a way of darkness and obscurity. however enthralled to sin and Satan in a more mysterious way. to have accepted the belief in witchcraft and in diabolical contracts which was regnant in his But when he came to deal with the belief day. he says. Smith seems appears. wherein so many men's sins go in open view before them to judgment. he But between his man 223 . Among these rites we may reckon insig nificant forms of words. that The use of any arts.

but that spirit of apostasy which is lodged in all men's natures. hell. and witches.CHURCH AND RELIGION could not take it. in the common conception of them as external things. therefore. and conversing with him. I mean not See. when these ideas had bearings upon religion. does nothing else in reality than entertain an incubus demon. him took ground for It was his nature to seek a firm the ideas admitted by him above all. i it as the people around . 22 4 . And as the enjoying of God. so our conversing with the devil is not so much by a mutual local presence as by an imitation of a wicked and sinful nature derived upon men's own souls. And the whole effort of the sermon is to substitute this for what men call the devil. . he could find no solid ground. formed by him profoundly they are trans After his exordium he makes an entirely fresh departure When we say the devil is continually busy with us. as an object for their serious thought and strenuous resistance : As the kingdom of heaven is not so much without men as within.' Here. He that allows himself in any sin. how ! ' : only some apostate spirit as one particular being. And for witchcraft and diabolical operation. or useth an unnatural dalli ance with any vice. . in this spirit of apostasy which is lodged in all mens natures^ Smith had what was at bottom experimental and real. . . consists not so much in a change of place as in the participation of the divine nature and in our assimilation unto God . so the tyranny of the devil and hell is not so much in some external things as in the qualities and dispositions of men's minds. as our Saviour tells us . fiends. for there was none and therefore he could not so use them.

injustice. justice. and where we find any true participa tions of these. without any clear or distinct apprehensions of him. which may be anything but what they themselves are. and glory in their highest elevations and most unbounded dimensions. etc. defy the devil so much with our tongues. VOL. And where we find wisdom..i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL This. Let us speak the truth. that commonly reigns so much and acts so violently in the minds and lives of men. that spirit of pride. covetousness. uncleanness. that is He . ix Q 225 . these expressions will j but I ambition. there is a true communication of God j and a defection from these is the essence of sin and the foundation of hell. that so they may most freely spend their anger and hatred upon him . so much as there is of sin in any do we man. men sportingly bereave themselves of the supremest good. but the eternal foundation of the Divine Being is immutable and unchangeable. goodness. to hell and misery . as much as may be. whereby black. however. Finally (and I quote the more freely because the author whom I quote is so little known). loveliness. was by no means a view of diabolical possession acceptable to the religious world and to its Puritan ministers : I know unwelcome will call seem to some very harsh and would beseech them to consider what they that spirit of malice and envy. vain-glory. and call things by their own names . they may thus cheat themselves for a while. so they make a devil most unlike to themselves. merry kind of madness. while we entertain him in our hearts ? As men's love to God is ordinarily nothing else but the mere tendency of their natures to something that hath the name of God put upon it. love. so much there is of the diabolical nature. and Why insure themselves. so their hatred of the devil is commonly nothing else but an inward displacency of nature against some And as they commonly thing entitled by the devil's name. such a one as they can but comply with and love. just as they say of some of the Ethiopians who used to paint the devil white because they themselves are This is a strange. make a God like to themselves.

fortunate for O Huntingdon admitted even ! proves nothing against his being a man of This veracity. judgment. we have a man who accepts the erroneous belief in witchcraft. in our Cambridge Platonist. pro fesses it publicly. having an eternal existence of its own. Church. we only give life to them which indeed are our death.CHURCH AND RELIGION finally i our preacher goes on to even confute his : own exordium It was the fond error of the Manichees that there was some solid princlpium mali^ which. preaches on it . . by some hidden influences irresistibly But we ourselves uphold incline and enforce them to evil. that kingdom of darkness. he is of help to generally. Phillimore That a man shares an error of the minds around him and of the times in which he lives. and. seating itself there. and yet is not of veracity and intelligence. an aspect. had also a mighty and uncontrollable power from within itself whereby it could forcibly enter into the souls of men. we saw by the case of Hale. in spite of his error us in respect of that very error itself. But here. 226 only a man . which indicates its Not only is he of help to us erroneousness. All sin and vice is our own creature . and mental power. which else would tumble down and slide into that nothing from whence it came. which one day such a counter blast to the doctrines then sounding from and still enjoined by Sir Robert every pulpit. and would soon wither and fade away did we substract our concurrence from them. but actually manages to give to the error adopted by him a turn.

It was inevitable that they should believe their Master to have risen again his had in lifetime own coming resurrection. moreover. 1 i Cor. great Apostle of the Paul's writings are in every one's have myself discussed his doctrine at for our present purpose there is length. 4. Paul. no need of elaborate exposition and quotation. that when 'many bodies of the saints it which was consummated. the old prophets. he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once. 227 . St. 5. spoken frequently of his Such beliefs as the belief in bodily resurrection were thus a part of the mental atmosphere in which the first Christians lived. and was entertained by St. Paul declares his belief that Christ rose again the third day. I little -known the teenth century and hands. risen from the dead. supposed that John the Baptist was risen from the dead. xv.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL Now. In tell ing the story of the crucifixion men added. then of the twelve after that. Herod at once. The Jewish people without that Jesus might be one of difficulty supposed And ' . quite naturally. and without difficulty.' 1 Those who do not admit the miraculous can yet well conceive how such a belief arose. and was seen of Cephas. herein is really a most striking analogy divine of the seven between our Gentiles. Every one knows how St. 6. slept arose and appeared unto many" Jesus himself. The resurrec tion of the just was at that time a ruling idea of a Jew's mind.

used for religion. Paul. 14. in becoming a Christian. v. therefore. One died in the name of all.CHURCH AND RELIGION i in the body. He should no more live unto themselves. bodily resurrection. 228 . but a dying to sin rising to life no longer a a living to God. should receive the belief and build Cambridge Platonist. Paul. At the very same moment that he shares and professes the popular belief in Christ's miraculous bodily the idea by which our Saviour's resurrection. but unto him who died and rose again in their name/ Dying became thus no longer a bodily dying. 15. like our religious experience such side could and become presented resurrection as a spiritual rising which could be appropriated If and enacted in our own living experience. and that St. then all died and he died in the name of all. that they who live ' . own idea of resurrection has been overlaid and St. in in an idea. as is well known. therefore. But Paul. l . by a prodigy of religious insight seized another aspect for the resurrection than the aspect of upon it. upon that very idea of death and resurrection which was the central idea of Jesus himself. 1 2 Cor. but St. Paul seizes also this other truer effaced. physical miracle. afforded be No by the mere external fact and miracle of Christ's bodily resurrection. stinctively sought a side by which the idea could enter into his real to him. Paul here comes.

the aspect which will survive and profit when the miraculous He may give us. the partisans of miracle. to throw aside as imbecile or instructors and inspirers who have untruthful all their ever admitted 229 . in the very aspect has faded. Their opponents.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL is idea or seized its witness to by it. we see that even while affirming such preternatural incidents. is Where. current error and also fruitful and profound new truth. Nay. the force of that argument of despair'. Paul for the bodily resurrection of Jesus ' vouches and for his appearance after it. that if St. I see them encountered by scruples of their own. as we called it. he may with profound insight seize the true and natural aspect of them. am treating of these matters for the And those who no longer admit. then he must be an imbecile and credulous enthusiast/ We untruthful. proves nothing at all against his general truthfulness and sagacity. if they refuse to admit miracle. then. of a kind admitted by the common belief of his time. the old basis of the preternatural. unprofitable ? see that for a man to believe in preternatural incidents. the error's future corrective. IV But last I time. and is mistaken in so vouching. as well as by scruples raised by their opponents. in religion. re quire them. same work. and bears unconscious unique legitimacy.

but of really meriting to be called so. not only of being called inconsistent and insincere. as I have whether a man who with St. the view of Christianity offered in Literature and Dogma. Formerly a deacon subscribed to the Thirty-nine Articles. For the Church of the question rejects miracles must break examined England presents salvation. and to 230 . if they do not break decidedly with the religion in at I which they have been brought up. are sometimes afraid. all if they it. when we have first to declare our belief in a quantity of things which every intelligent man rejects ? Now. Paul because Paul asserted them. so let me. what it to as science. try still have now conform to it and to use before me a remarkable letter. too. as the writer of the above-quoted letter supposes. i But they themselves. say. a man taking orders in the Church of England who accepts. but how can we do so. and as necessary to show is the very object of that book to be not science and not necessary to salvation. too.CHURCH AND RELIGION it. examine the question whether such a man must break with the Church of his country and childhood. to in which the writer says : There is nothing I and many others should like better than to take service as ministers in the Church as a national society for the promotion of goodness . And at his ordination a man is required to declare that he. before I end. as the Church does. Certainly it is a strong thing to suppose. accepts this for science.

is in a test which lies outside of the Ordination Service itself. ever else the Three Creeds may be. And no one who feels convinced that they are not. and as true science. it will be observed. as contained in the Prayer Book. professes to receive the Three Creeds as science. whether one professes an unfeigned assent and to this Article. declares the Three Creeds to be science.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL declaration that a he acknowledged ( all and every the articles therein contained to be agree able to the word of God. And this is the very point where it is What important to be explicit and firm. I think. or can at present. The obstacle. or merely 'a general consent to it. admitted to a benefice with cure. But the Book of Common Prayer contains the And the Eighth Article Thirty-nine Articles. be ordained a minister of the Church of England. as contained among consent the Thirty -nine Articles.' clerk. therefore. one certainly. The test is a remnant of the system of A c ' ' ' subscriptions and tests formerly employed so 231 . can sincerely say that he gives even a general consent to whatever is contained in the Prayer Book. science ' thoroughly to be received and believed/ Now. truly formulating the Christian religion. all that is is a required general consent to whatever is contained in the Book of Common Prayer. they are not science. declared his unfeigned assent and consent to all the matters contained in the Articles/ At present. by consenting to it at all.

however. and the use of the Church services politicians they would turn afterwards. Apart. i It was meant as a reduction and of To obtain such a that old yoke. from such mere matters of taste. has now no longer a place in the Supremacy Ordination Service. in the Ordering of Deacons. a very considerable But the times move rapidly. Newman has showered such exquisite raillery. there was and still is the requirement. and of which only the Philistine element in our race prevents But the Oath of our seeing the ridiculousness. Perhaps this declaration can have a construction put upon it which makes 232 it admissible. their minds to the removal of a test of this sort. alleviation reduction seemed once to generous and ardent minds. instead of playing with political dissent or marriage with a deceased wife's sister. a part.CHURCH AND RELIGION vigorously. The Ordination Service itself. But by . Things were put into the Ordination Service which one might have wished otherwise. even the reduced test has now a great power of exclusion. and conquest. If it were possible for Liberal ever to deal seriously with religion. are a sufficient engagement. Some of them The introduction of the Oath of are gone. of a declaration of unfeigned belief in all the canonical Scriptures of the Old and New Testament. and indeed once was. on which Dr. on a man's entrance into orders. no doubt. of all that lion was Supremacy and unicorn business which is too plentiful in our Prayer Book.

The last of Butler's jottings in his memor andum-book is a prayer to be delivered from He was quite offendiculum of scrupulousness. that I can see. Reformers. producing most serious mischief. I suppose. when things had not 233 . nor is there any other serious difficulty. Religion scrupulousness has been far too active. themselves would be glad to substitute for this declaration the words in the Ordering of Priests. .' These words present no difficulty. and where it is singularly out of I am the place. very last person to wish to it. Those. therefore. raised by the Ordination Service for either priests or deacons. it could not easily be got rid of. where the candidate declares himself persuaded ' that the Scriptures contain sufficiently all doctrine required for eternal salvation through Holy faith in Jesus Christ. The declaration of a general consent to the Articles is another matter although perhaps. the narrow and Biblical inspiration formerly prevalent. and who are usefully engaged in the ministry of the Church. who declared their deny consent to the Articles long ago. pre valent with the Fathers as well as with the but which are now. ' would in my opinion do exceedingly ill to dis themselves about having given a consent quiet to the Articles formerly.' is a matter where right.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL and appears to letter -bound views of recalls. I imagine the clergy generally abandoned. in the present temper of men's minds. its form of expression it adopt.

The rest he may rehearse as an approximative rendering of it as language thrown out by other men. Much of these he may rehearse as the literal. They aim the exactitude of a legal document. For society him it is such he ministers in it as such.CHURCH AND RELIGION moved did to i the point where they are now. and which deeply engage his also objects concerning which. They are a precise profession of belief. of the part prayers and services which he . He has to rehearse the prayers and services of the Church. and appear to men's minds as they now ' appear. He has never to use the Articles. It is a great error whatever is thus perceived to be The poetry ceases to be available in religion. The Church is properly a national for the promotion of goodness. therefore. . this approximative possible. engaged their affections and awe. beautiful rendering of what he himself feels and believes. at immense objects which deeply not . in other times. amongst things. noblest races are those which know how to make at the most serious use of poetry. never to rehearse them. to parts 234 men of our own nation . But the Articles are plain prose. moreover. formulated by three hundred years in other ago. Forgetting those things which are behind and reaching forth to those things which are before/ should in these cases be a man's motto. regard. rehearses will to think that be poetry. adequate statement is im To him.

not now this. One the point is sufficient. the cardinal belief for either the society member but or : points of the minister Salvation of such by Christ. than more great. and in a which he might right-judging a rejoice to minister. inadequate need question of their general inadequacy we . cannot accept. a present exact science time of day. are two of the Old Testament : Righteousness by Jesus 235 . and at many He cannot rightly. to which a man cannot but wish well. strive so far as they can It will stand to act as if it did not exist. and other serious men who think as he does. then.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL of those services of the Church of which we have been speaking. take orders. the more that he. It will insensibly dwindle. stiff and bristling the more they act as if it were The Church of our insurmountable. cannot. At all points the Articles but into the are. country is to be considered as a national Christian society for the promotion of goodness. To mind. and it is expedient for as he may suppose him rather to think it less great than it is. They . man .'* Righteousness and Righteousness by Jesus there is the sum Salvation by Righteousness. profess in any way to accept it in consequence. enter. and must be. very . But it is easy for such a man to exaggerate barrier between himself and to himself the The barrier is not so great popular religion. present the Creeds as science.

CHURCH AND RELIGION
Christ,

i

For the sum of the New. popular religion, the cardinal points of belief are of course a good deal more numerous. Not without adding many others could popular religion manage to benefit by the first -named But the first-named two have its adherence. two. It is from the very effort to benefit by them The services that it has added all the rest. of the Church are full of direct recognitions of the two really essential points of Christian
there
is

Salvation by Righteousness and Righteousness They are full, too, of what by 'Jesus Christ. be called may approximate recognitions of

belief

:

them

;

efforts

of

the

human mind,

in

its

gradual growth, to develop them, to fix them, make them clearer to to buttress them, to
itself,

to bring of miracle and

them

nearer,

metaphysic.

by the addition This is poetry.
poetry
is

The
prose.

Articles

say that this But the Articles are

exact
a
real

no more

element of the

Tate's metrical has now happily been expelled. And even while the Articles continue to stand in the Prayer Book, yet a layman can use the Prayer Book as if they and their definitions did To be ordained, however, one not exist.

Prayer Book than Brady and version of the Psalms, which

must adhere
the
is

to their definitions.

But, putting

Articles
to

free,

aside, would a clergyman,

will

a

layman, since he if he were free,
all

desire

abandon the use of
236

those

parts

i

A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL

of the Prayer Book which are to be regarded as merely approximative recognitions of its two central truths, and as poetry ? Must all such one our widens and this as experience parts day, view of their character comes to prevail, be eliminated from our public worship ? The
is a most important one. For although the Comtists, by the mouth of their most eloquent spokesman, tell us

question

pedantry of sect alone which monopolise to a special creed those precious heirlooms of a common race/ the ideas and power of religion, and propose to remake religion for us with new and improved personages, and rites, and words yet it is certain that here as elsewhere the wonderful force of habit tells, and that the power of religious ideas over us does not spring up at call, but is intimately dependent upon particular names and practices and forms of expression which have gone along with it ever since we can remember, and which have created special sentiments in us. I believe, that the indeed, eloquent spokesman of the Comtists errs at the very outset. I believe that the power of religion does of nature
that
'

'tis

the

can

dare

to

;

belong,
to

unique way, Christianity, and that
sect

in

a

to
it

the
is

Bible

and

no

pedantry

of

which

affirms

Yet even were it as tianity were not the one proper bringer-in of
237

experience. he supposes, and Chris

this,

but

CHURCH AND RELIGION

i

righteousness and of the reign of the Spirit and of eternal life, and these were to be got as well elsewhere, but still we ourselves

about them from then for us to be taught them Christianity, in some other guise, by some other instructor, would be almost impossible. Habits and associa tions are not formed in a day. Even if the time have before them to enough very young

had

learnt

all

we know

with new personages and precepts, the middle-aged and the old have not, and must shrink from such an endeavour.
learn to associate religion

Mane
the

does the whole form and feature of changing to turn out that it even unsettles be, religion all other things too, and brings back chaos. When it happens, the civilisation and the
society to

nobiscum, Domine, nam advesperascit. Nay, but so prodigious a revolution

which

it

and
took
old

men have to place when

happens are disintegrated, This is what begin again.

may
to

religion of say that there

Christianity superseded the the Pagan world. People
is

a fund of ideas
least

common

religions, superior and civilised

all

at

to
;

all

races

religions of and that the

personages and precepts, the form and feature, of one such religion may be exchanged for

of another, or for those of some new religion devised by an enlightened eclecticism, and the world may go on all the while
those

without

much

disturbance.

There were philo-

238

i

A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL
who
out

sophers

going The whole civilisation they were mistaken. of the Roman world was disintegrated by the change, and men had, I say, to begin So immense is the sentiment created again. the things to which we have been used by in religion, so profound is the wrench at parting with them, so incalculable is the trouble and distraction caused by it. Now, we can hardly conceive modern civilisation breaking up as the Roman did, and men beginning again as they did in the fifth But the improbability of this implies century. the improbability, too, of our seeing all the form and feature of Christianity disappear, For so vast a of the religion of Christendom. revolution would this be, that it would involve the other. These considerations are of force, I think, in regard to all radical change in the language It has created sentiments of the Prayer Book. can see or measure. than we Our deeper not does connect itself with any lan feeling and about righteousness guage religion, but of it we with that language. much Very can all use in its literal acceptation. But the question is as to those parts which we cannot. Of course, those who can take them But literally will still continue to use them. for us also, who can no longer put the literal
239

thought so when Paganism was But and Christianity coming in.

CHURCH AND RELIGION
meaning on them which others

x

do, and which we ourselves once did, they retain a power, and something in us vibrates to them. And

not unjustly.

For these old forms of expression were men's sincere attempt to set forth with due honour what we honour also and the sense of the attempt gives a beauty and an emotion to the words, and makes them poetry.
;

The Creeds
exalt
to

are in this way an attempt to the utmost, by assigning to him all the characters which to mankind seemed to I confer exaltation, Jesus Christ. have else where called the Apostles' Creed the popular science of Christianity, and the Nicene Creed and in one view of them its learned science
;

another and a better view of them, they are, the one its popular to borrow the poetry, the other its learned or,
they
are
so.

But

in

word which Schopenhauer applied
philosophy,
its

to

Hegel's
the

scholastic

poetry.

The one
images,

Creed

exalts

Jesus

by concrete

other by an imaginative play of abstract ideas. These two Creeds are the august amplifications, or the high elucidations, which came naturally
to

working in love and awe theme of profound upon truth Salvation through Jesus Christ. As such, and poetry consecrated, they are poetry for us been on the tongue of moreover, by having all our forefathers for two thousand years, and on our own tongue ever since we were
the
spirit

human

that

inexhaustible

:

;

240

i

A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL
As
such,
then,

born.

we

can feel

them,
;

even

when we no

longer take

them

literally

while, as approximations to a profound truth, we can use them. cannot call them science, as the Articles would have us but we can still feel them and still use them. And if we can do this with the Creeds, still more can we do it with the rest of the services in the Prayer Book. As to the very and true foundations, therefore, of the Christian religion, the belief that salvation

We

;

by righteousness, and that righteousness is by we are, in fact, at one with the Jesus Christ, As to the true object religious world in general.
is

of the Church, that it is the promotion of good And as ness, we are at one with them also. to the form and wording of religion, a form and wording consecrated by so many years and even as to this we need not break memories, with them either. They and we can remain in sympathy. Some changes will no doubt befall the Prayer Book as time goes on. Certain
things will drop away from its services, other But such change things will replace them. will happen, not in a sweeping way it will
;

come very
It

will

gradually, and by the general wish. be brought about, not by a spirit of

scrupulosity, innovation, and negation, but by a prevalent impulse to express in our churchservices

somewhat which
to

is

felt

to

need ex
expressed

pression, and

be not sufficiently
241

there already.
VOL. ix

R

CHURCH AND RELIGION
After
all

i

the great confirmation to a man in that the cardinal points of our religion believing are far fewer and simpler than is commonly

supposed, is that such was surely the belief And in like manner, the of Jesus himself. for continuing to use the familiar great reason language of the religion around us as approxi

mative language, and as poetry, although we cannot take it literally, is that such was also For evidently it was the practice of Jesus. And evidently, again, the immense mis so. apprehension of Jesus and of his meaning, by popular religion, comes in part from such having been his practice. But if Jesus used this way of speaking in spite of its plainly leading to such misapprehension, it must have been because it was the best way and the only For it was not by introducing a brandone. new religious language, and by parting with all the old and cherished images, that popular but by keeping religion could be transformed the old language and images, and as far as
;

possible conveying into new Christian ideal.

them the

soul

of the

When Jesus

talked of the Son of

Man coming

in his glory with the holy angels, setting the good on his right hand and the bad on his left, and sending away the bad into everlasting fire

prepared for the devil and his angels, was he Did Jesus mean that all speaking literally ? this would actually happen ? Popular religion 242

i

A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL
so.

Yet very many religious people, now, suppose that Jesus was but using the figures of Messianic judgment familiar to his hearers, in order to impress upon them his main point what sort of spirit and of practice did really tend to salvation, and what did not. And surely almost every one must perceive,
supposes

even

:

Jesus spoke to his disciples of their of sitting on thrones judging the twelve tribes with wine or their new of Israel, drinking
that

when

him

in the

kingdom of God, he was adopting
beliefs,

their material images and

and was not

Yet their Master's thus speaking literally. material their images and beliefs adopting could not but confirm the disciples in them.

And
them

so
;

did, and Christendom, too, after yet in this way, apparently, Jesus chose
it

But some one to proceed. used this language because

may

say, that Jesus

he himself shared

the materialistic notions of his disciples about the kingdom of God, and thought that coming upon the clouds, and sitting upon thrones, and drinking wine, would really occur in it, and was mistaken in thinking so. And yet there are plain signs that this cannot be the right account of the matter, and that Jesus did not really share the beliefs of his disciples or con For ceive the kingdom of God as they did. even the wisest of they manifestly thought, them, and after their Master's death as well as before it, that this kingdom was to be a
243

CHURCH AND RELIGION

i

sudden, miraculous, outward transformation of things, which was to come about very soon and in their own lifetime. Nevertheless they themselves report Jesus saying what is in direct contradiction to all this. They report him de of God as an inward the kingdom scribing change requiring to be spread over an immense time, and coming about by natural means and gradual growth, not suddenly, miraculously. Jesus compares the kingdom of God to a grain of mustard seed and to a handful of leaven. He says ' So is the kingdom of God, as a man may cast seed in the ground, and may go to bed and get up night and day, and the seed shoots and extends he knoweth not how/ 1 Jesus told his disciples, moreover, that the good news of the kingdom had to be preached to the whole 'world. The whole world must first be evangelised, no work of one generation, but of centuries and and then, but not till then, should the centuries end^ the last day, the new world, the grand trans formation of which Jewish heads were so full, True, the disciples also make finally come. Jesus speak as if he fancied this end to be as But it is quite manifest that near as they did. to them, at different times, of two Jesus spoke ends: one, the end of the Jewish state and nation, which any one who could c discern the signs of the other, the end of that time might foresee the world, the instatement of God's kingdom
:

;

'

;

;

1

Mark

iv.

26, 27.

244

the more we shall find it to be not language all of the speaker's own. one like the Son of days did sit man came with the clouds of heaven. therefore. and in vented by him for the first time. It is impossible to understand anything of the New Testament. 1 Dan. 10. on which all that is said turns. 44 . And the more we examine the whole language of the Gospels. and the Ancient of and. 13. such as never was since there was a I beheld. he uses it. 9. Nevertheless. then. it cannot have been because he shared their illusions. . How deeply all the speakers' minds are governed by the contents of one or two chapters in Daniel. 2 . And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake. but to be full of reminiscence and quotation. is supplied by half a dozen verses of Daniel. vii. trouble. some to everlasting life. 245 . I. And if he uses their materialising language and imagery. everybody knows. The God of heaven shall set up a shall never be destroyed.' 1 The language ' . and some to shame and everlasting contempt. xii. without bearing in mind that the main pivot. thrones were cast down. Undeniably.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL and that they confused the two ends together. till the nation even to that time. and much truer. and which kingdom There shall be a time of shall stand for ever. behold. Jesus saw things in a way very different from theirs. and came the judgment was set to the Ancient of days and the books were opened. ii.

ix. but is language of the Old Testa ment. to it. 3 Zech. I think. adopted by Jesus. a Exod. familiar to himself and to his hearers. 8. But if we confine to the Old Testament alone our search for parallel passages. literally. which has not its original in some Even where the scope of Jesus is most prophet. Matthew. 1 blood points to Exodus. The it uses it as poetry. old. also. xxiv. to an expression in that strange but then popular in my 3 These phrases. There is profoundly as far as new and his own. governs the whole language of the New Testament speakers. n. the book of Zechariah. he can have no notion. 246 .CHURCH AND RELIGION disciples use i of this group of texts. and with a sense of his own communicated hardly a trait in the great apo calyptic speech of the twenty-fourth chapter of St. institution of the Lord's Supper his new covenant is a phrase from the admirable and forward-pointing prophecy in The covenant the thirty-first chapter of Jeremiah. Those texts from Daniel almost every reader But unless a man has an of the Bible knows. the religious language on which both he and his hearers had been nourished. medley. exceedingly close acquaintance with the prophets. 2 and probably. may be. I say. we shall have a quite insufficient notion of the extent to which 1 Verses 31-34. In the his phrase is still. Jesus But all use it. how very much in the speeches of Jesus is not original language of his own. Jesus willingly adopted.

and every into the Canon. to heightening by Jesus. as is well known. That book. for admission perhaps it is full of interest. l Verse 14. as every one will 1 remember. And just this farther growth of Messianic language and imagery it was. this deal with had to speaking to them Jesus familiarity. in the Epistle of Jude. of the materialistic data For if he furnished by the Old Testament. though the for it came too late.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL the language of Jesus is not his own original language. if we had not be an enlargement and this explanation. contains things too strange. explains what would certainly appear. he must But the Book surely have taken them literally. it may be said. in speaking about the end of the world. The Hebrew original and the Greek version. It is this which gives such pre-eminent value to the Book of Enoch. therefore. one should read it. thus added to them. between the earlier decades of the second century before Christ when the Book of Daniel was written. Uncanonical. and be. quoted. but language and images adopted from what was current at the time. and an ^Ethiopic manuscript of it was brought Book of Enoch . and the later decades to which belongs the Book of Enoch. with which the minds of the And in contemporaries of Jesus were familiar. are lost but the book passed into the ^Ethiopic Bible. reached farther of Enoch exhibits just the stage by these data. 247 .

CHURCH AND RELIGION to this i country from Abyssinia by Bruce. contemporaries' ready-made notions 1 These additions to the Old language had passed. as sanctions of his used them. The first translator and editor of it. and the Son of Man sitting on the throne of his glory. the Chosen One in Luke 35 . did his work. Son of of Son man. 248 . it has its outer darkness and the ' : its hell -fire. Bristol. again and again. children of light. the traveller. apparently. He did not create them. the well-known phrase of the New Testament the day ofjudgment . Just One. the Lord of Spirits^ would give us the : and designations for the Messiah. the Just One in Acts xxii. God. Testament Christ came. Orientalists say. get from the Old. an ^Ethiopic scholar. It has in frequent use a designation for God. when Jesus The Father of xxiii. Archbishop Laurence. Spirits in Hebrews xii. imperfectly. Messiah. 14. which we come upon in the New Testament.' It has. 9 . I believe. book correctly in English. It has the angels accompanying the Son of Man to judgment. but he found them and He employed. It has its beautiful expression. 1 but which the New Testament did not. the Chosen One. and the English version cannot be There is an excellent German version trusted. The Book of Enoch has the names and terms which are already familiar to us from the Old Testament Head or Ancient of days. but I wish that the Bishop of Gloucester and . who is. into the religion of the time. his doctrine.

'the congregation of the just' are those who follow the Just One. The saints. as Socrates talked of the rivers of And often. : ' ' . Jesus was but re For in that book calling the Book of Enoch. never been born when he because names are written Rejoice your . ' ' . and others make the foundation for the most illusory pretensions. c : in heaven when he said Their angels do the behold face of Father which is always my in heaven when he said The brother shall deliver up the brother to death and the father the child when he said Then shall the shine forth as the sun in the kingdom righteous of their Father/ he was remembering the Book When he said of Enoch. which now seem to us to be his own. He talked of the outer darkness and the unquench able fire. 249 . the Just One's '. upon my church^ and the gates of hell shall not prevail against it/ expressions which. when Jesus used phrases Tartarus. that said : When ' he said ' : It were better ' for man he had ' . the company or congregation (in Greek ecclesia) of the just or righteous of the destined rulers of the coming kingdom of the has become a consecrated phrase. because of the word church^ some reject. Tell it to the church when he said to Peter Thou art and this rock I build will Peter. is the Just One. Messiah.j A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL of hell and judgment. he was adopting phrases made current by the Book of Enoch. just as Socrates did. : c : ' c . the founder of that kingdom. : the expression.

should be our incessant endeavour. beauty. to use them as Jesus did. Peter's Tu es Petrus^ et super ham : petram cedificabo ecclesiam meam ! The practical lesson to be this is. Pro found sentiments are connected with them that . Jesus answered Rock is thy name. company or ecclesia. made his ardent declaration of faith.' Behold at its source the colossal inscription round the dome of St. They are to be used as poetry while at the same time to purge and raise our view of that ideal at which they are aimed. ! imperfectly did his disciples ap how imperfectly must they have But the result has justified his 250 . around them give them always pathos and solemnity. the same final ! aim How prehend him reported him . and on this : rock will I build my company. Else the use of them is mere dilettanteism. the associations which at . therefore. we yet what a difference between the meaning he put upon them and the meaning put upon them In how general a sense alone \:an by the Jews ! it with truth be said. we they imperfectly gives cluster are aimed them the highest good.CHURCH AND RELIGION * i When Peter. that he and even his dis ciples had the same aspirations. should seek. drawn from all should avoid violent revolution in the words and externals of religion. How And freely Jesus himself used them. and the power of death shall not prevail against it. We see. however Their form often apprehended. therefore.

as the But by putting Gospels deliver them to us. in using that poetry. his disciples. that shows and shines clearly out. But an aim which may well indeed be pursued to with enthusiasm. and all who even now see was him through he yet also the eyes of those his first generations. perhaps I And may seem to 251 . world For while he carried with possible. as time goes on. any more than when Jesus came. and experi satisfy the ence widens. to all whom. and the them.i A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL proceeding. For the immense pathos. this essay should seem to want due balance. go far wrong. make the true meaning of Jesus. And it old imperfect apprehension dissatisfies. well-known sayings of Jesus himself. not to be supposed that a rejection of all the poetry of popular religion is necessary or advis is able it is now. however. What this was. so perpetually enlarged upon. from my to bring out elsewhere. : have said in this essay a great deal about what was merely poetry to Jesus. and more things are known. of his life and death. so far as after way of him. so in marked it own real meaning delibly. silence about it here. but too little about what was his real meaning. emerge and prevail. and entitles it Christ's religion. will not. does really culminate here that Christians have so profoundly mis understood him. I have tried Yet for fear. let me end with what a man who writes it down for himself. It is but a series of perhaps. and meditates on it.

He that is of God heareth the words of God. and believeth him that sent me. And why call ye me Lord. and I will raise him up in the last day. and cometh not into judgment. to mistake . for have not come of myself. both what Jesus himself taking the sayings singly and interpreting them by the light of their preconceptions. and do not what I say ? If ye know these things. I unto The hour cometh and now is. and they that hear shall live. We must begin. He that my word. I am come forth from God and am here. and by enable ourselves. happy are ye Cleanse that which is within the if ye do them. hath eternal life. my doctrine receiveth is I No man not mine but his that sent me. them. but hath passed from death to life. . and how his disciples came with ease.CHURCH AND RELIGION them together to in x the connecting understand better meant. 252 . Lord. shall voice dead hear the of the Son of God. and wherein it the kingdom of God. when the say you. Verily. but he sent me. we following way. I think. receiveth He that me him that sent me. with that where with both he and they began with Christianity itself begins. verily. can come unto me except the Father that sent me draw him . with that where them. surely.' ends ' : The time is hand! change news ! fulfilled and the kingdom of God is at the inner man and believe the good He heareth that believeth hath eternal life.

i

A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL
And

evil thoughts from within, from the heart, they defile the man. why seest thou the mote that is in thy

brother s eye, but perceives? not the
thine

beam that

is

in
in

own

eye ?

sincerity ; pure in heart, for they shall see

Take heed to yourselves against knoweth God your hearts ; blessed are

the

God

!

unto me, all that labour and are heavyTake my yoke burdened, and I will give you rest. learn am and me that mild and lowly I of upon you,

Come

in heart,

and ye
is

shall find rest unto your souls.

For
shall

my

yoke

I am

kindly, the bread

and my burden
of life
;

light.
to

he that cometh

me

never hunger, and he that believeth on me shall never I am the living bread ; as the living Father thirst.

and I live by the Father, so he that eateth he shall live by me. It is the spirit that even me,
sent me,

maketh live, the flesh profiteth nothing ; the words which I have said unto you, they are spirit and they are life. If a man keep my word, he shall never see death. My sheep hear my voice, and I know and them, they follow me, and I give unto them eternal life, and they shall never perish. If a man serve me, let him follow me ; and where I am, there shall also my servant be. Who soever doth not carry his cross and come after me, cannot be my disciple. If any man will come after me, let him renounce himself, and take up his cross For whosoever will save his daily, and follow me. lose it ; but whosoever shall lose his life for shall life my sake and the sake of the good news, the same shall For what is a man profited, if he gain the save it.
253

CHURCH AND RELIGION
I lay down my life that I may take it again. new commandment give I unto you, that ye love
another.
to

i

'whole world, but lose himself, be mulcted of him self ? Therefore doth my Father love me, because

A

one

The Son of man came not to be served but serve, and to give his life a ransom for many.

I am

the resurrection

and

the life

;

he that be-

lieveth on me, though he die, shall live ; liveth and believeth on me shall never

and he
die.

that

I am

come that ye might have life, and that ye might have I cast out devils and I do cures it more abundantly. to-day and to-morrow ; and the third day I shall be
perfected.

Tet a
;

little

while,

and

the

world
live

seeth

me

no more

but ye see me, because

I

and ye

keep my commandments ye shall as I have kept my Father s my love, commandments and abide in his love. He that loveth
shall live.

If ye

abide in

like

me shall be loved of my Father, and I will love him, and will manifest myself to him. If a man love me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come unto him, and make our abode with
him.

I am
down

the

good shepherd ; the good shepherd lays

them also must I bring, and they shall be one flock, one shepherd. Fear not, little flock, for it is your Fathers good pleasure to
give you the kingdom. kingdom is not of this world ; the kingdom of God cometh not with observation ; behold, the kingdom

his life for the sheep. which are not of this fold ;

And other

sheep

I

have,

My

of God

is

within you

!

Whereunto shall I 254

liken the

i

A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL
,

It is like a grain of mustard seed, kingdom of God ? which a man took and cast into his gar'den and it grew, and waxed a great tree, and the fowls of the

air lodged in the branches of

it.

It

is

like

leaven,

which a woman took, and hid in three measures of So is the kingdom meal, till the whole was leavened. of God, as a man may cast seed in the ground, and may go to bed and get up night and day, and the seed shoots and extends he knoweth not how. And this good news of the kingdom shall be preached in the whole world, for a witness to all nations ; and then shall the end come.

With such
to

a

construction in
it,

his

thoughts

govern adopted the common wording and imagery of In dealing with the popular Jewish religion. the popular religion in which we have been
ourselves bred,
his
its

his use of

Jesus loved and freely

we may

the more readily follow

example, inasmuch as, though all error has side of moral danger, yet, evidently, the

misconception of their religion by Christians has produced no such grave moral perversion as we see to have been produced in the Scribes and Pharisees by their misconception of the religion The fault of popular of the Old Testament. Christianity as an endeavour after righteousness by Jesus Christ is not, like the fault of popular Judaism as an endeavour after salvation by right It eousness, first and foremost a moral fault. But it is is, much more, an intellectual one.
255

CHURCH AND RELIGION
'

i

not on that account insignificant. Dr. Mozley that is no urges, inquiry obligatory upon of in the supernatural minds matters religious and miraculous/ because, says he, though ' the

human mind must
thing contrary to
'

refuse

to

submit to

any
yet, fact

there

is

moral sense in Scripture/ no moral question raised by the

of a miracle, nor does a supernatural doctrine As if there challenge any moral resistance/

were no possible
but
a

resistance to religious doctrines resistance on the ground of their im
!

morality

As

if intellectual resistance to
!

them

counted for nothing

The

objections to

popular

Christianity are not moral objections, but in tellectual revolt against its demonstrations by

To be intellectually miracle and metaphysics. convinced of a thing's want of conformity to truth and fact is surely an insuperable obstacle to receiving it, even though there be no moral And no moral advantages of obstacle added. a doctrine can avail to save it, in presence of the intellectual conviction of its want of con And if the want formity with truth and fact. of conformity exists, it is sure to be one day
found

Things are what they are, and the consequences of them will be what they and one inevitable consequence of a will be thing's want of conformity with truth and fact
out.
'

'

;

is, it.

that sooner or later the

And whoever
is

of Christians

human mind perceives thinks that the ground-belief true and indispensable, but that 256

i

A PSYCHOLOGICAL PARALLEL
it,

for

in the account they give of holding it, there is a

and of the reasons

want of conformity

with truth and fact, may well desire to find a better account and better reasons, and to prepare the way for their admission and for their ac quiring some strength and consistency in men's minds, against the day when the old means of
reliance
fail.

But,

meanwhile, the

ground -belief of

all

Christians, whatever account they may give to themselves of its source and sanctions, is in itself an indestructible basis of fellowship.
believes the final triumph of Chris the Christianisation of the world, to tianity, have all the necessity and grandeur of a natural law, will never lack a bond of profound sym

Whoever

pathy with popular religion. Compared with and on difference this agreement point, agree ment and difference on other points seem trifling.

To

believe
in

that,
'

whoever
c

righteousness

them

is salvation, derision ; to believe

ignorant that the Eternal shall have
that,

are

whatever

may be the substitute offered for the righteous ness of Jesus, a substitute, however sparkling, yet whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst to desire truly to have strength to again all the which shall come to pass escape things and to stand before the Son of Man/ is the one authentic mark and seal of the household of faith. Those who share in this belief and in this desire are fellow - citizens of the 'city
'
'

'

;

VOL. ix

257

s

CHURCH AND RELIGION
which hath foundations.' Whosoever shares in them not, is, or is in danger of any day becom
ing, a wanderer, as St.

Augustine

says,
;

through

a wanderer 'the waste places fertile in sorrow' ' In all things none.' rest and finding seeking all the Creator of I sought rest ; then things gave me commandment and said : Let thy dwelling be in

Jacob, and thine inheritance

in

Israel

!

And

so

was I
power.

established in Sion

;

likewise in
in

the

beloved

he gave city

me

rest,

and

Jerusalem was my

258

II

BISHOP BUTLER AND ZEIT-GEIST
1

THE

imagine, you have in your philo sophical studies small experience of the reverent devotion formerly, at any rate, paid at Oxford to text-books in philosophy, such as the Sermons of Bishop Butler, or the TLthics of Aristotle. Your students in philosophy have always read pretty widely, and have not concentrated themselves, as we at Oxford used to concentrate ourselves, However, in upon one or two great books. your study of the Bible you got abundant ex perience of our attitude of mind towards our
IN Scotland,
I

two philosophers.

Your

text- book
there.

there were no mistakes

was right ; If there was

anything obscure, anything hard to be com prehended, it was your ignorance which was in
1

The two

following discourses were delivered
Institution.

as lectures at

Edinburgh Philosophical
fore,

They had
;

the the form, there
in

that form in

of an address to hearers, not readers which they were delivered.

and they are printed

259

CHURCH AND RELIGION
fault,

n

your failure of comprehension. Just such was our mode of dealing with Butler's Sermons and Aristotle's TLthics. Whatever was hard, whatever was obscure, the text -book was all right, and our understandings were to conform

What agonies of puzzle has themselves to it. Butler's account of self-love, or Aristotle's of the intellectual virtues, caused to clever under
and by what graduates and to clever tutors of astonishing explanation, astonishingly Yet acquiesced in, were those agonies calmed the true solution of the difficulty was in some cases, undoubtedly, that our author, as he stood, was not right, not satisfactory. As to secular
;

feats

!

authors, at any rate, it is indisputable that their works are to be regarded as contributions to

human knowledge, and
been

not more.

It

is

only

experience which assures us that even the poetry and artistic form of certain epochs has not, in
fact,

classical.

improved upon, and is, therefore, But the same experience assures us

matters of knowledge properly so above all, of such difficult knowledge as called, are questions of mind and of moral philosophy, any writer in past times must be on many points capable of correction, much of what he says must be capable of being put more truly,
that in
all

put clearer.

Yet we

at

Aristotle or our Butler with the

Oxford used to read our same absolute

faith in the classicality of their matter as in the
classicality

of Homer's form. 260

ii

BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST
The time
inevitably arrives, to people who seriously, when, as their experience

think at all widens, they ask themselves what they are really to conclude about the masters and the works thus authoritatively imposed upon them in their Above all, of a man like Butler one youth. an Englishman, a is sure to ask oneself this, Christian, a modern, whose circumstances and point of view we can come pretty well to know and to understand, and whose works we can be sure of possessing just as he published them And and meant them to stand before us. Butler deserves that one should regard him

very attentively, both on his own account, and also because of the immense and confident laud
ation bestowed

upon

so pro completely the law of that convinced 'virtue, foundly is the law we are virtue written on our hearts, a man so staunch in his respect born under
satisfies
'

us

his writings. or no, a

Whether he

man

;

ful allegiance to reason, a

man who

'

says

:

I

express myself with caution, lest I should be mistaken to vilify reason, which is indeed the only faculty we have wherewith to judge con a cerning anything, even revelation itself in and so earnest, man, finally, evidently deeply filled with so awful a sense of the reality of things and of the madness of self-deception Things and actions are what they are, and the consequences of them will be what they will be why then should we desire to be deceived ?
;
:

'

'

;

261

c sermons explained according to the strict truth of our mental constitution. is irresistible. more rationally connected with each other. more satisfactorily by him. because they contain his famous doctrine of a doctrine which.CHURCH AND RELIGION such a man. and therefore more worthy of established 262 . perhaps the three most valuable essays that were ever published. may yet well challenge the most grave consideration from our mature manhood. even potically if n he was somewhat des imposed upon our youth. Butler placed on the firm basis of observation and experiment. being in those conscience. which till then had nothing to support it but mere abstraction or shadowy speculation. And even did we fail to give willingly.' And Sir : James Mackintosh c says of the Sermons in general In these sermons Butler has taught truths more capable of being exactly distinguished from the doctrines of his predecessors. in the words of another of his ' admirers. the strong consenting eulogy upon It his achievements would extort it from us.' They are this. in c it is his three Sermons on Human the department of moral philo sophy. to have formed and concluded a alliance between faith and philosophy/ ' : happy And again Metaphysic. asserted that are. more comprehensively ap plied to particulars. by pursuing precisely the same mode of reasoning in the science of morals as his great predecessor Newton had done in the system of Nature nature.' Butler is therefore said.

' most original and profound work extant in any Such language on the philosophy of religion/ are Butler's claims upon our attention. ' . points out how characteristic and popular in the French Encyclopaedia was c earnest enthusiasm for all the its authors' purposes.' says he. for physical science and the practical how this was felt to be a welcome relief arts to people tired of metaphysical and religious It is true. John cannot get on without them. with some hesitation. in physical science and the practical arts. when an and an interest in the processes of productive industry. to except the first steps of the Grecian philosophers towards a theory of The Analogy Mackintosh calls the morals. 263 . ' ' in when And undoubtedly there are times words. when men seem of to them out their minds. is interest in morals and religion called an interest in words. it was Intellectually. intents. to try whether they Mr. the substitution of interest in things for interest discussions. to disposed put shelve them as sterile. and details of productive industry. if we any with which ought not.' a reaction of this sort sets in. is called an interest in things. the we ' there are moments when the of religion and the theory of morals philosophy are not popular subjects. in of that series articles on interesting Morley.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST name of are discovery. than acquainted. Diderot which he has lately published in the Fortnightly Review.

sermon on Self-Deceit is c : Religion If it be not. it be true. However. nor in any propriety of speech be said to know. : true. concern about it. in his serious way ' cannot be acquainted with.' If. yet here in the capital of Scot land. of that country which has been such a stronghold of what I call Hebraism. as Butler says in his . however.' And he speaks of the ' disregard of men for what he calls the reproofs and instructions that they meet with in religion and morals. anything but what we attend to. and that the positive and practical thing to do is to give up religion and turn to them.' of deep and ardent occupation with righteousness and religion. he course of their behaviour' would certainly have thought. And though the posture of mind of a good many clever persons at the present day is that of the French Encyclopaedists. you will not complain of my taking 264 . than being in structed how buttons are made. I am entirely of Butler's opinion. or it reason for any is We ' c . it is and then it as in requires attention important. they shall find some new and untried that our prospects from this sort vital resource of study have something peculiarly hopeful and animating about them. or papier mdche.CHURCH AND RELIGION n People really do seem to imagine that in seeing and learning how buttons are made. the same sermon Butler says. as a disregard of what is exactly suitable to the state of their own mind and the more suitable. there is no not. or papier mdche. ' .

at Wantage in Berkshire. His father was a retired tradesman. and he wrote to a friend that he designed to make truth the Dissent did not satisfy him. in Butler's case. a Dissenter. on a man's behalf. to which his father belonged. and one who is said for of these matters to have established his doctrine so firmly and I can conceive no claim more impregnably. and none to advance great which it more behoves us to test accurately. Dissenting school. he had his first correspondence with Dr. at Oxford. in 1714.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST my subject so eminent a doctor in the science as Butler. Samuel Clarke on certain points in Clarke's Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God. at It led to his being appointed preacher the Rolls Chapel in 1719. should have before our minds a notion of the life and circumstances of the man But first we with whose works we are going to deal. and brother to the future Lord Chancellor Talbot and this friend ship determined the outward course of Butler's left He the . at Oriel College. Joseph Butler was born on the i8th of May 1692. life. a Fellow of Oriel. There he formed a friendship with Edward Talbot. son of Bishop Talbot.' ' Presbyterian body. the claim is solid. and was entered. and the son was sent to a Even before he left school. the year after his 265 . Let us attempt to satisfy ourselves how far. business of his life.

in the debates.CHURCH AND RELIGION ordination priest. then the poorest of sees. twenty-six years old. It was four a before second edition of them was years however. Bishop Talbot appointed him. and Butler returned to Stanhope. ship at the Rolls. 1726. when he resigned passed his time between Bristol acquiring a house at Hampstead. and George the Second. but took no part. They made no noise. and published his Fifteen Sermons. transferred him to the rich living of After obtaining Stanhope. He attended the House of Lords regularly. afterwards. knew his of the Closet to Queen Caroline. Butler in resigned. to the living of Haughton. in 1738. strongly recommended him to her husband . the wife of George the Second. Queen Caroline died the year after But wards. in the same diocese. his preacherStanhope. About eighteen months Stanhope and and London. In 1746 he was made Clerk of the Closet to the King. death. lain to Lord Chancellor Talbot. had friends who and in 1733 he was made chap worth. in 1722. In this year he published the Analogy. as n and when he was only There the famous Sermons were preached. in the diocese of Durham and. in 1725. 400 a year. with an income of but some of St. Butler. . Butler was appointed to the deanery Paul's. so far as is known. made him Bishop of Bristol. in 1736 Clerk required. between 1719 and 1726. Caroline before her Queen had. and in 1750 he was translated to the great and rich see of 266 .

He expresses his gratitude to the King. the external facts of To fill up the outline Butler's life and history. and that he was greatly pestered by beggars because of his known easiness. in some the accident. But there has been preserved Butler's letter to Sir Robert Walpole on accepting the see of Bristol. Nor is it possible. and was buried in his old When he died. me. and then proceeds thus : greater obligation than to find the Queen's condescending goodness and kind intentions towards me trans ferred to his Majesty. of He was never married. he was just cathedral of Bristol. All he could gather was. whether must. depend upon not very suitable either to the condition of my for this 267 . in outline. to be I know no without the most grateful sense of the effects of it be greater or less measures. that he rode about on a black pony and rode very fast. as coming from such a man. age. while I live. bishopric of Indeed. the famous charge upon the Use and Importance of External But in June 1752 he was taken in a Religion. one or two letters. Butler in the living of Stanhope. remain a very few anecdotes. only charge to the clergy of Durham. and Bishop Philpotts. of Exeter. Bristol is his favour to . died there on the 1 6th of June.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST Butler's health had by this time In 1751 he delivered his first and given way. that Butler had been much beloved. sought eagerly at Stanhope for some traditions of his great predecessor. afterwards followed who and a passage in this letter is curious. for us there Durham. state of extreme weakness to Bath. sixty years Such are.

you will please let his Majesty know that I humbly accept this instance of his favour with the utmost possible gratitude. ' : . As one reads that passage. He said to his I should be ashamed of secretary myself if I could leave ten thousand behind me. could not have written it. sir. I desire. if I think of this last with greater But with sensibility than the conduct of affairs will admit of. The steward answered that he had five hundred pounds. Austerely just. nor. century.' pounds There is a story of a man coming to him at Durham with a project for some good work. have written it and in Butler's own century that survivor of the saints. But you will excuse me. his eye was single. answerable to the recommendation with which I was honoured. 'Five hundred to . and asked him how much money there was in his hands. And his liberality and his treatment of patronage. out entering further into detail.CHURCH AND RELIGION n fortune or the circumstances. he follows with awe-filled observance the way of duty this is his stamp of character. Ken or in the seventeenth could not Leighton. . it is impossible not have the feeling that we are in the somewhat arid air of the eighteenth century. are yet thorough and admirable because they are determined by this character. sir. even though we may not find in him the delicacy of the saint. ^268 . Wilson of Sodor and Man. Nobly severe with himself he was. The plan struck Butler's mind he sent for his house-steward. And indeed the peculiar delicacy and loveliness which attaches to our idea of a saint does not belong to Butler. as I should have thought.

give it to this all He had long been disgusted. with the fashionable expense of time and money in entertainments. He writes to one who congratulated him on his translation to If one this Open Durham. 'what a shame for a bishop have so much money Give it away. for in fortune to be sure it will. gentleman for his charitable plan house and plain living were Butler's rule at ! ' Durham : is enabled to do a little good. and I foresee many difficulties in the station I am coming into. though I am and fears how far the occasion of them doubts my a real subject of congratulation to me. from something in the and mode of expression. I mean in respect to the peace and happiness of one's own mind. and was determined it should receive no countenance from his example. and to prefer worthy indeed is a valuable of life. and will afford satisfaction at the close of it . and no advantage worth thinking of. in the close of life. and of getting into new forms of living . that one is phraseology in the eighteenth century. It would be a melancholy thing.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST ! to pounds!' said Butler. Increase of fortune I thank you is insignificant to one who thought he had enough before . but the station of itself will in nowise answer the trouble of it. except some greater power of being serviceable to others . and whether this be an advan tage depends entirely on the use one shall make of it . he said. men. but at the same time what a perfect impression of integrity and sim To another plicity do Butler's words leave he writes congratulator Again one has ! : not without is for your kind congratulations. to have no reflections to entertain oneself with but that one had spent the revenues of the bishopric of 269 . a sense. I pray God it may be a good one.

helped to baffle us. and to walk at night. and a strength of mind to withstand solicitations.' His silent. that all my and papers whatever. Butler himself. locked. and enriched one's with the promotions of it. Like Bishop Philpotts. not months before his death. letters preserved. It is said of him that he read every book he could lay his hands upon but it was all digested silently. which are in a deal box. . directed to Dr. A characteristic habit is mentioned of him. as soon as may be after my decease. Forster. and would give no more. to quote this to his congratulators. and promote worthy men . to quote his letter to Walpole . one may well be tan talised at not purpose. He was an immense reader. greater (I wish I may not find it) than I am master of. 270 . made in 1752. and express will. concludes thus : two ' It my positive letters. yet this right use of fortune and power is more difficult than the generality of even good people think. There are not half a dozen of Butler's private It was worth while. and now standing in the little room within my Hampstead. however. after quoting that letter. sermons. concentrated nature and decided what it meant to give well pondered to the world gave it. that he loved to walk alone. not exhibited library at . and who knowing more of a man so full of has made his mark so deeply.CHURCH AND RELIGION Durham friends u in a sumptuous course of living. be burnt without being read by any one. inward. therefore. and requires both a guard upon oneself. instead of having really set oneself to do good. The is codicil to his will. and it was but just.

what they did and what they neglected. Paul's. and is altogether so characteristic. tastes and habits. further. is too bare of wood. not much amiss as to that. take up my leisure time. the many things of the kind I have just mentioned : 271 . that he was fond of religious music. I seem to have laid out a very long life for myself . with which I am much pleased. we are informed. Thus. This will give an opportunity. so valuable. and as you take so kind a part in everything which contributes to my satisfaction. in one view. Unlike the seventeenth-century divines. just after he had taken possession of the see of Durham it. with some little improvements and very great repairs. and took for his under-secretary an ex- him upon might play to He liked building and the organ. and one of his few letters preserved bears witness to these tastes. These. the park. that he concerning Butler. the old pale being quite decayed. and. planting. And when I consider. but I am obliged to pale it anew all round. and (from accidental circumstances) the very place itself. to take in forty or fifty acres completely wooded.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST the in way of As to extract his and citation. madam. : I had a mind to see Auckland before I wrote to your Grace . and fully answering expectations. he hardly ever quotes. that I will quote It is to the Duchess of Somerset. everything I see puts me in mind of the the arms and inscriptions of shortness and uncertainty of it my predecessors. which is very pretty (the river Wear. in the paucity of records chorister of St. yet. in reality. except that one of the chief prospects. and the rooms I walk through and sit in. though with that enlargement it will scarce be sufficient for the hospitality of the country. with hills much diver sified rising above it). I am sure you will be pleased to hear that the place is a very agreeable' one. and written in 1751.

that it should never be said that Bishop Young had pulled down what and the cross Bishop Butler had set up the burnt and the until was remained palace marble altar-piece destroyed in the Bristol riots in 1831. is For plain. to have it taken down. and Lord Chancellor Hardwicke begged a subsequent Bishop of Bristol. in his Durham Charge. Archbishop Seeker thought it necessary inlaid which . building and im While proving is connected a notable incident. on the Use and Importance of External Religion^ and caused it to be reported that Butler had died in the communion of the Church of Rome. . is not my concern. and taking in all circumstances. or at least to begin . and in the chapel he put up an altarc of black marble. Dr. I feel the burlesque of being employed in this manner at my time of life. But in another view. gave offence. no less than things of greater importance. Young made the excellent answer. But the erection of this cross was connected with his remarks. which is described as Butler's for With with a milk-white cross of white marble. at Bristol he restored the episcopal palace and chapel.CHURCH AND RELIGION n which I have upon my hands. these things. Young. as trifling as they may appear. whether I am to live to complete any or taste all of them. to write in denial of his 272 friend's perversion. seem to be put upon me to do. Pamphleteers and newspaper -writers handled the topic in the style which we know so well. piece.' those bare Hanoverian times this was a reredos Butler's cross excited astonishment and case. and has a good effect.

and that he was yet of opinion there is not anything owning. much towards that superstition. from his of Romish . now read the Durham Charge without feeling that its utterer lives in a higher world than VOL. as Phileleutheros.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST as he did so. not from the New Testament. it is considered that it. ix 273 T . and their books of mystic drawing his notions of teaching men religion.' but volun very c tendency this This he did from the way. his great fondness for the lives saints.' Another writer not only maintained that the cross and the Durham charge together amounted to full proof of a strong attachment to the idolatrous communion of the Church of Rome. but from philosophical and political opinions of his own and.' natural melancholy and gloominess of Dr. accuser replied.' to Seeker. Butler's ' he called ' disposition. and his sudden and unexpected elevation to great wealth and dignity in the It was impossible that Butler should Church. Butler's as teered to account for it. when at Bristol and in his last episcopal charge has squinted improbable in . that for himself he wished And Butler's the cross had not been put up. when the same prelate put up the Popish insignia of the cross in his chapel. above all. ' that such anecdote had been given him. from his transition from a piety . from strict Dissenter amongst the Presbyterians to a rigid Churchman.' be understood by the ordinary religious world But no intelligent man can of his own day.

grieving his soul. But all that we know is this that when Butler was at Bristol. and a in the generality. and with the single desire to beget a practical sense of religion upon their ' The form of religion. and one would like have a full record of what passed at such a meeting. grace at meals. and questions of going over to c Rome. Butler speaks as a man with an awful sense of the de religion. for serious conversa : tion with them and for turning their thoughts towards religion. Butler met John Wesley. and where not practised. that the clergy should visit their parishioners and should lay hold of natural opportunities. with his invincible sense for reality.' he says. but the thing itself cannot be preserved amongst mankind without the form. immoral thoughtlessness. as he called of the bulk of mankind astounding and it. who to : 274 .' He growing speaks. Wesley.' enjoined family prayer. yet plainly seeing. to be hearts. of his own age to be ' an plorable distinction ' c avowed scorn of disregard with 'the to it religion in some. such as confirmation or sickness.' And the form he exhorts to is no more than what nowadays all religious people would think matter of course to be practised.' have their being. as he says. or at any rate squinting very much towards that superstition. may indeed be where there is little of the thing itself.CHURCH AND RELIGION that in n which disputes between Catholicism and Protestantism.

that here at any rate. had an inter and that Butler view with him expressed the . a divine animation seemed to pervade whole manner. another source we hear : his face thin and of a most reverend aspect . and mind. that violent excitement which tioning physical was considered almost a necessary part of the his pleasure at the seriousness so-called I new birth. his whole figure was patriarchal. 275 . and it may be thought.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST '. already marked with the progress of disease. he retained the same genuine modesty and native sweetness of disposition which had distinguished him in youth and in retirement. admired the Analogy and to who was then preach ' ing Kingswood miners. During the ministerial perform office. doubtless. the historian of Durham. of Butler's person and manners : During the short time he conciliated all hearts. if not in the letter to Sir Robert Walpole.' have kept for the last the description we have from Surtees. that he held the see (says Surtees) In advanced years and on the episcopal throne. and lighted up his pale. perhaps. which Wesley's blamed him for sanc but preaching awakened. wan countenance. which inspired veneration and expressed the most benevolent His white hair hung gracefully on his shoulders. This description would not ill suit Wesley him self. where the eye single and the thoughts are so chastened as they were with Butler. but there was a divine placidness in his countenance. we find is the saint. so And. ance of the sacred his From He was pale. the But still saintly character will never be far off.

makes his treatment of his subject more Nearly always he has in mind something with which he has actually When he recurs so per come in conflict. that of a saint. Pattison's admirable sketch. and other things of the like kind. and with what is the A present state of opinion in the world concerning such subject. This will create a difficulty of a very peculiar kind. and to the men of his generation. it This reference to contemporary opinion.CHURCH AND RELIGION n the total impression left by Butler is not exactly. if sometimes occasions difficulty in following Butler. and even throw an obscurity over the whole before those who are not thus informed . but those who are. in Essays 5 276 . real. and representing the whole of life as nothing but one continual exercise of self-love. himself has pointed this out as a possible cause In the preface to the second of obscurity. in his writings. I repeat. there is constant reference to the controversies of his He time. Butler stood alone in his time and amongst his generation. by which he had so often been made impatient. will be disposed to excuse such a manner. One of the signal merits of Mr. edition of his Sermons he says subject may be treated in a supposes the reader acquainted with it : manner which all along what has been said upon both by ancient and modern writers. to self-love. he is thinking of the sistently and earnest. Yet the most cursory reader can perceive that. c strange affectation in many people of explaining away all particular affections. as a saving of their patience.

Butler must often have felt the impotence of reply in detail. in argument. and had borne the rub of controversy. in my opinion.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST religious ideas to the middle and Reviews. It was in society. of objections to eternal punishment as inconsistent with the Divine goodness. and seen. And in a further sentence Mr. Society was full of discussions about religion. where these topics (the deistical objections) were canvassed with earnestness and freedom. between what English society argued and what English theology answered. and This connecting of the Analogy with the Queen's philosophical parties seems to me an idea inspired parties The by true critical genius. of the course of in England from the Revolution of the eighteenth century. that Butler had learned the weight of the deistical arguments. how impossible a cursory conversation. at the time when Butler wrote. and not in his because they were genuine. Pattison. study. as he says. and a clever Queen Caroline. is that it so clearly marks this correspondence. The objections the Analogy meets are not new and unreasoned objections. has almost certainly put his finger on the very determining cause of the Analogy's existence : At the Queen's philosophical parties. given by 277 . Pattison) formed the atmosphere which educated people breathed. and to a system of future rewards as subversive of a disinterested love of virtue : The deistical writers (says Mr. but such as had worn well. to unite all into one represent it as it ought to be.' ' it must be.

without more attention than is usual in common talk. could it be done. It consists of a long series of things. and regularly. to the Durham clergy. is the result. as it must be done amidst the gaiety and carelessness of common conversation. say was 278 surely thinking of . Cavilling and objecting upon any subject is much easier than and this last part will clearing up difficulties be the defenders of religion. And 'tis easy to see how impossible it must be.' strain ' . yet I know not why he should be forward to undertake it upon so great a disadvantage and to so little good effect. So that notwith standing we have the best cause in the world. from the very beginning of the world to the present time. how utterly indisposed people would be to attend to it. there Butler no doubt heard in abundance the talk of what is well described as the c loose kind of deism which was the then tone of fashion The Analogy^ with its peculiar and temper. as her Clerk of the Closet. ' ! entire : Then. the general evidence of religion is complex and various. in a cursory conversation. and which is worth quoting able circles. and though a man were very capable of defending it. In Butler. whereas unconnected objections are thrown out in a few words and are easily apprehended. to unite all this into one argument and represent it as it ought .CHURCH AND RELIGION strong-minded woman. to attend Discussion was free at them. I say in a cursory conversation. again. n the recluse and grave Butler had. and.' always put upon c Surely that must be a reminiscence of the loose kind of deism and of its maintainers And then comes the very sentence which Mr. those I remarks again. Pattison has in part quoted. one prepara tory and confirming another.

as if discovered to be groundless. do not content themselves with a bare neglect of reli men among us.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST difficulties with which he had himself wrestled. and enjoying their imaginary freedom its restraints. and take all occasions to manifest a scorn and contempt of And habitual. What a sceva indignatio burns in the following passage from the conclusion to that work : Let us suppose that the evidence of religion in general. in 1751. from it in his own person. and whether they intend this effect or not. This amounts to an active setting themselves against religion. and of which the remembrance made the strenu ous tone of his Analogy^ as he laboured at it. yet are in avowed opposition to religion. has been seriously inquired into by all reasonable reject both. And with who has seen suffered the same penetrating tone of one with his own eyes that of which he complains. render revelation. They renounce his protection and defy his justice. which they cultivate themselves. his life. who are not chargeable with all this profligateness. yet more strenuous. and of Christianity. he thus begins his charge to the clergy : of Durham 279 . speaking in the last year but one of talks of 'the ' . from that profligateness of manners and scorn of religion which so generally abound and. They deride God's moral govern ment over the world. others. They ridicule and vilify Christianity. upon speculative from gion. Butler. in dark prospects before us 1740. and blaspheme the Author of it . of them Yet we find many professedly to And all principles of infidelity. has heard it with his own ears. Some go much beyond this. as a good man does the contrary principle. to what may be considered as a within positive principle of irreligion.

upon our first meet of this to forbear kind. would 280 . even of those who do not pretend to enter into speculations upon the subject. one of religion in our country at this hour. that France had look at Turgot. I say. the minds of men. ask oneself. cannot but ask oneself whether Butler was not over -desponding. when one con through the the considers siders the steadiness of our country when one religion. whether he saw the whole real state of things. increases. and with their numbers their zeal. all could have cured effort I the other physicians. reminds me of Butler. a man who. ing lamenting with you the general decay of religion in this nation. my brethren. which is now observed by every one. whether have been possible. that others did something. its strength. and has been for some time the complaint of all serious The influence of it is more and more wearing out of persons. had the evil it.CHURCH AND RELIGION It n is impossible for me. doubt. whether he did not attach power and prevalence of over-importance to certain workings which he did see. and their Yet. One cannot but French Revolution. the has ever greatest. Look at a contemporary of Butler in France. But the number of those who do. Granted that he himself did something to cure the evil which he describes granted . Turgot was like Butler itself . even. more than any one else. even after for what impairs been made deduction has every the power and prevalence. and it. I doubt whether Wesley. in my opinion. existed fully as he describes he. and who profess themselves unbelievers. the great French statesman.

masque* says adopting expression of ' own he He that mask. 'interested Turgot. Every science. an Michelet. just as rise from somewhat which was thought of too little importance to be attended to. hazard thoughtlessness of men ous way in which they deal with things of the .' And for these serious natures religion. of the immense. Turgot. quences age of twenty-five.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST his in mental energy. with Butler's them from the conse of at the it. . oppressive sense of 'the immoral of the heedless. awful. every business. with Butler's sacred horror at men's frivolity. greatest moment to them calculable misery which ' . could stand religion. sceva indignatio.' But that in which Turgot most resembled Butler was what Michelet call calls what I should rather his his ferocite. pared to take orders. like Butler. ' .' says Michelet.' . every language. The greatest evils in life. Turgot was ' filled with an aston ished. Turgot. as in France religion then sacred ardour for rescuing // jeta ce presented itself to him. in is due to this cause. have had their Turgot held. every literature. Like Butler. is the line of labour which would naturally first suggest itself. the true spiritual yoke-fellow of Butler.' ' Butler did. Turgot's flung away took to the work of civil government in what 281 . no longer. And Turgot was destined for the Church he pre But in 1752. when Butler lay dying at Bath. one would think. his in his deep moral and ' intellectual strenuousness. ardour.

a religion c . his work. in the admirable essay which I have mentioned. whatsoever things are of good that is the history of Turgot's admin report.CHURCH AND RELIGION spirit n of us know. in we many not know which for thirteen years he showed what manner of spirit he was of. whatsoever things are just. he became Minister and Controller-General. the influence of it more and more wearing out of the minds of men/ The very existence and work of Butler proves. our country. Pattison. man like Butler is is still possible in in France he only possible in civil is what I call a true government. Nine years afterwards began his glorious administration as Intendant of the Limousin. When.' He was a Joseph Butler in govern istration ! True. But indeed Mr. in spite of his own desponding words. that matters had not in his time gone so far as this in England. whatsoever things are pure. that And Amongst show the a instructive quotations to state of religion in England between number of 282 . supplies us with almost positive evidence that it had not. in the middle of the eighteenth ment. whatsoever things are nobly serious. he showed the same thing on a more conspicuous stage. . : century. in 1774. has in fact and reality a religious all work like his has a religious char character But the point to seize is here that in acter. and whoever of us does should make it his business to learn. c What soever things are true. decay of religion. though done as secular administration.

peculiarly try circumstances special an to earnest dealer. and the never-to-be-shaken constancy of the multitude. in 1720. one be almost certain.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST 1700 and 1750. it other evidence to prove the same thing. such as he was. and counselling them to mend : their ways. And then the article goes on The High Church at this advice. proves that religion. nevertheless. to my mind. it did not suddenly cease to be so And certainly between 1720 and 1750. The language friends the well-known language of Liberal speak of persons and in But stitutions which are inconvenient to them. Popish clergy will laugh in their sleeves is folly enough yet left among the laity to support their authority . Butler's mournful language has in it. of progress. Mr. of his time. Pattison gives an extract from a violent newspaper. and think there The is date of that extract is 1720. and will hug themselves. the panic of the tender sex. The Independent Whig^ which had been attacking the clergy for their many and great offences. and there is plenty of it proves. will always afford plenty of matter for apprehen And to add to this were certain sion and sorrow. something of exaggera may To a man of Butler's seriousness the world tion. still a serious power in this country. the stupidity of the drunken squires. with ing No. whatever the deficiencies of itself and of when they may have been was very great and its friends. and rejoice over the ignorance of the Universities. 283 .

who might choose to lend half an ear for half an hour to the ' It must gain. half con ' of a state of things temptuous. in a manner irresistible to any fair thinker. will have the thing out with his adversaries. therefore Butler. and He will prove to them.CHURCH AND RELIGION of deism which circles. it was the period from the Revolution to 1750. pulpit. half indignant.' n There was great thoughts and great interests.' we are told.' Hence the sava ' indignatio. c his bitter personal experience of the loose kind was the tone of fashionable There was his impatience. But to whom was abstract speculation required thus to make itself intelligible ? To the 'fashion able circles/ to the whole multitude of loose thinkers and loose livers. the religious writer had now to appear at the bar of criticism/ but if ever there was a of such criticism For. again.' This in itself was all very good. He will c unite it all into one argument and And represent it as it ought.' says Mr. when he gets into the or when he sits down at his writing-table. that they are wrong. will place himself on their own ground. and Butler would have been the last man to wish it otherwise. when abstract speculation was brought down from inaccessible heights and compelled to be intelligible. says. the wits and the town. c Pattison. great argument. and that 284 . as Pattison where. take their own admissions.' and he will fairly argue his objectors down. Mr. c ! time.

yet in fair logic and fair reason he ought to yield. of hold it. Epieikeia is the very word to char And true Christianity acterise true Christianity. not by an argumentative victory. is of truth and likelihood. though without does. by virtue of reasonable and prepossessing. but it puts something which tends to transform him and his practice. not by going through a long debate with a person.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST make their life and practice. and with my use of which some of those who hear me may possibly be familiar the Greek word or epieikeia. the whole scheme 285 . was this quality in the talkings and dealings of all Jesus Christ. wins. religious. No. or ' having And epieikeia prepossessing. and making him confess that. whether he feels disposed to yield or no. There is a word which I have often used. very often. examining the arguments for his case from beginning to end. they are bound to what it is not. it puts this particular thing in such a way before a man that he feels And he disposed and eager to lay hold of it. therefore. is prepossessing. meaning that which is at once epieikes : sweet reason The original meaning of the word ableness. above things. lay at all perceiving. and which.' be cause that which above all things has an air this air. that which.' that which has an air of consummate is. therefore. epieikes truth and likelihood. ' is well rendered by sweet reasonableness. is whatever is You know what a power sweetly reasonable.

But religion. has had its end upon all persons to whom it has been proposed with evidence sufficient in reason to influence their practice . to be Christianity's most true and characteristic way of getting people to embrace religion. in such a making How way as to silence their side. concern the personal concern of each man in particular. done if it has been proved to people. 286 . it must strike every one that the way followed by Christianity has the advantage of a far greater effectualness than Butler's way since way it is to Butler's. Butler seems to think that enough has been ever. such evidence for religion sufficient in reason to influence it is men to embrace it. let them behave as they will in it. object that probation. for by this means they have been put into a state of probation.CHURCH AND RELIGION to n which it changed. although Butler's object is to get people to the same as Christianity's And the object being the embrace religion. considered as a indeed. : . every one will admit . to show how in reason they ought to behave. but what the light and knowledge which is afforded them requires they should be . that they ought to make arguments on the other a change. what sort of creatures mankind are. not how in fact they This depends upon themselves and is their own will behave. to not to be imagined mankind will be influenced by such evidence is nothing to the purpose of the foregoing For the purpose of it is not to inquire treatise (his Analogy). as is as I have shown. same. does too fully show. experience. it is to be observed how totally unlike a and thus his practice gets belongs This. Now. And how little regard the generality have to it. I think. For he says expressly : There being. people are much more easily attracted into a change than argued into it.

it is what they are which determines their sense of how they ought to behave. we are not concerned unless their And and their data are ours too. is the use of saying that you will inquire not what people are^ but how in reason they ought to behave ? Why. then. For. and that Butler 287 . However. after all. it is affirmed. so to feel what they are. With his argumentative triumphs over the loose thinkers and talkers of his day. farther. We are can use of it. that the Analogy is unanswerable. therefore. Make them. Probably no one can hear such language without a secret dissatisfaction. Butler's notion of converting the loose deists of fashionable circles comes to this by being plied with evidence sufficient in reason to influence their practice. and to change people's behaviour. . in short. as they will in it. as to get a fruitful sense of how The Founder of Christi they ought to behave. not only they are not. so far as it is a triumph concerned with what we won by taking their own data and using their own admissions.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST So that. the object of religion is conversion. and whatever success Christianity anity did so has had. But it is affirmed. But where. It is asserted. Butler's line is what it is. they are to be let them behave put into a state of probation : . not only that Hobbes or Shaftesbury delivered an unsatisfactory theory of morals. has been gained by this method. admissions that the loose deists of fashionable circles could not answer the Analogy .

for Butler's first publication. You have heard. that Butler. on the evidence of religion.CHURCH AND RELIGION in his n Sermons disputed their reasonings with but it is asserted. 3 Let us begin with the Sermons at the Rolls. what is it ? and if he remains a great man to us still. pursued precisely the same mode of reasoning in the science of morals as his great predecessor. But what we can use supposing he should turn out not to have accomplished all this. why does he ? this Achievement of sort An unanswerable work . had done in the system of nature/ and that by so doing Butler has c formed and concluded a happy alliance success ' between of this faith and philosophy. he does indeed give us he is indeed great. a science of human nature and of morals reached by a method as sure as Newton's. what then ? Does he Does he give us nothing which vanish away ? we can use ? And if he does give us something which we can use. on his side. I have quoted it. Newton. will certainly respect. the unbounded praise which 288 . is deeply concerns us. . what can concern us more deeply ? If Butler accomplished all this. farther. a happy alliance between faith and philosophy. which sweeps away so much that local and personal.' is kind Achievement what the 'Time -Spirit/ or Zeit-Geist.

and liking of what is fair and just. Their argument is Let me recite familiar.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST has been given to the three sermons On Human And they do indeed lay the foundation Nature. that one of those principles of action conscience or reflection compared with the rest as they all stand together in the nature of man. ix 289 in . according to the constitution of their body and the external The circumstances which they are in. from the temper and circumstances one happens to be in this is not to u VOL. to allow or forbid their gratification . it of the best all briefly by abridging possible accounts of it. a disapprobation of reflection being in itself a principle manifestly And the conclusion is. and it is by this nature. the love of power. grati tude . take their turn amongst the other motives of action. to let it govern and guide only occasionally common with the rest. generality of mankind obey their instincts and principles. plainly bears upon it marks of authority over all the rest. they are frequently influenced by friendship. and even a general abhorrence of what is base. to many of us. all of them. that to superior to a mere propension. They are not wholly governed by self-love. Mankind in thus acting would act suitably to their whole nature. This is the partial inadequate notion of human nature treated of in the first discourse. that the world is in fact influenced and kept in that tolerable order in which it is. Somewhat further must be brought in to give us an adequate notion of it namely. But that is not a complete account of man's nature. for the whole doctrine of the Sermons at the Rolls. compassion. allow no more to this superior principle or part of our nature than to other parts. Butler's own account in his preface : Mankind has various instincts and principles of action. probably. if one may speak so. as its turn happens to come. and claims the absolute direction of them all. if no more were to be said of man's nature than what has been now said. and sensual appetites . those propensions we call good as well as the bad. of the body of sermons wherein is given Butler's system of moral philosophy.

corresponds in a general presiding way with facts of which we are all conscious. it and vice in deviating from the assertion is true. abundantly confirmed from hence that one may determine what course of action the economy of man's nature requires. says this. When Butler says 4 Let any plain honest man before he engages " Is this in any course of action. Butler describes thus : And They were nature of man. without so much as learning in what degrees of strength the several principles prevail. ask himself. neither can any human creature be said to act conformably to his constitution and nature. unless he allows to that superior principle the And this conclusion is absolute authority which is due to it. he is on solid ground. or is it wrong ? " and I do not in the least good or is it evil ? doubt but that this question would be answered agreeably to truth and virtue by almost any fair man in almost any circumstance when Butler action. of a it Butler's notion may be at once allowed that of human nature as consisting instincts number of and principles of as a superior principle over them. with conscience : ' . or which of them have actually the greatest influence. intended to explain . the whole scope and object of the three sermons On Human Nature. Is it I am going about right. what is meant by the when it is said that virtue consists in following. and his whole 290 . and by explaining to show that Now.CHURCH AND RELIGION H act conformably to the constitution of man. and if practically acted upon would be found to work satisfactorily.

a fellow-feeling from the reflection mutual sympathy between each par be distinct common to mankind' ' . curiosity as proceeding as if there ' or pride . as nothing but regard to his which errors scheme indeed. when he Had has it it govern contact and so strength as it manifest authority. is scheme has ground that solid. and encountered by the objection that one may be not convinced of this happy tendency of virtue or may be of a contrary opinion. far as this truth and reality inform the ' finely says of conscience. is designed to correct. in the sense that this he calls our nature ' the within us or when he suggests When ' ' . meets the objection by 291 . or Hobbes. or of being.beloved. it would absolutely the world in all this. his scheme has life in it. a ticular of the species. if these delineators of human nature represent it thus. scheme which he has drawn out nature. Butler is in with the most precious truth and reality. they represent it fan If Shaftesbury. If the . virtue is the happiness of man. Equally for human may it be allowed. c or any one else. has right. even in the virtuous most character. from interest were no such passions in mankind or of as desire . laying it down that tastically. are Epicureans. explain the desire of praise and of being beloved. had it power as . as no other than desire of safety regard to our country. of reason. that the errors. voice of God there may or indeed. ourselves .ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST its rise. knowledge of esteem.

was so. and Butler. is its being the law of your nature/ But let us vary the question a ' : ' ' : little. what obligations are we And he under to attend to and follow it ? Your obliga answers this question quite fairly tion to obey this law. and let us ask scheme of human general way. it. and to promise to work practically well enough. into distresses run the extremes of insensibility towards the if this of their fellow . and by know some is means or other the whole world. All that we not yet be yet 292 . with facts of which we are conscious. what obligations are ' Butler Suppose your nature to correspond in a : we under to attend cannot now answer obey this to and follow ' : ' it ? Butler to us is Your the obligation is law. then the fashionable theory of human nature was vicious and false. is its being just law of your to nature. set up for suppressing the affection of com c passion as a weakness. If Butler then this noble moralist moralises ill. in seeking to substitute a better for right.creatures '. almost. upon principle. was quite But Butler himself brings in somebody as Allowing that mankind hath the rule asking of right within itself.CHURCH AND RELIGION determining that the case is without remedy. found some persons (probably the loose deists of fashionable circles) who. but no more.' For this what suppose made out. so that there is I not what of fashion on this side.

they which seemed to lend a credibility to the scheme proposed. to comes. made out about according as it does or does not come out undamaged. They ask them selves what this sense of general correspondence is really worth. with facts whereof they are conscious. a Newtonian work. ' an irresistible doctrine be called then justice. after all this process has been If Butler's scheme of human gone through. and people want surer holding-ground than a sense of general correspondence. in any scheme and rule of human nature proposed to them. siding. and everything is in question. falls ' 293 .ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST Butler's its scheme of human of instincts and principles nature. They insist on strict verifi cation of whatever is to be admitted and the of the them or scheme stands with authority . individuals and even to societies. array with the superior principle of conscience pre that the scheme has a general is. It is a work c placed on the firm basis of observation and experiment . as its admirers call it. it is a true His doctrine may. correspondence with facts of human nature whereof we are conscious. nature comes out undamaged after being sub mitted to a process of this kind. then it is indeed. when the foundations of the great deep are broken up. They sift the facts of which are and their consciousness of conscious. with work of discovery. But the time sooner or later the time comes.

and to the circumstances God has placed us in.' our nature for appear * Butler.' argues Butler is Reason alone. but this reason.' Let us take Butler's natural history of what he calls our instincts and principles of action. Butler 294 . but under strict government and direc tion of reason. placed Perfect goodness in the Deity.' It is this They have been implanted in us : .CHURCH AND RELIGION made out according * n to the strict truth of our mental constitution. and when these are allowed scope to exercise themselves. it as placed plainly there. to serve certain ends intended by the Author of our nature. whatever any one may wish. against goodness and benevolence. verse was brought into being. When put into see we what each of them in c 'is in itself.' law great of our passions and propensions seem to go However. and is . difficulties are purposely given. us ready-made. joined with those affections which God has impressed upon his heart . not in reality a sufficient motive of virtue in such a creature as man . And says even those affections.' says is the principle from whence the uni Author. because ' that would leave of action. then it is we act suitably to our nature.' ' us without a sufficient principle Reason alone. by what ends it was its will by which it and general benevolence is the preserved of But some the moral creation. we could not do without our stock of passions and propensions of all sorts. which seem to create for us.

of which no occasion or use in a perfect state. it is not based on observation and ex that say It is not physiology. which arise from. by giving us several passions and affections. some in behalf of others j of them to put us upon. they themselves This is Butler's natural history of the origin I take leave to of our principles of action. 295 . those disorders. will prove to him more satisfactorily established by him. Therefore it is not Newtonian. and more than perhaps worthy of the name of discovery. and looking earnestly for something which he feels he can really go upon and which a sure stay . compassion. or whose objects are. Of this sort are fear. great suppose : unsettlement. but in should be exposed to greater inconveniences though there are very considerable ones which are the occasion of. a course of behaviour suitable to our condition. And for Newton said Hypotheses non Jingo. there could be the present we without them. For As God Almighty foresaw the irregularities and disorders. as Mackintosh says. hypothesis. because he hears that in the ethical discussions of his sermons ' truths Butler supplies. and as a guard against the violent assaults of and in our own defence . which would happen in this state of things. suppose such a man coming to Butler. but fanciful periment. resentment. and help to carry us through.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST Some of them all others. and others. both natural and moral. in and a time of doubt a man. finding many things fail him which have been confidently pressed on his acceptance. he hath graciously made some provision against them.

I am afraid. when he finds that Butler's with. I think. any with which we are acquainted. our passions and affections. And disconcerted and impatient. to an immense hypothesis to start the origin and final causes of all 296 .' such a man. we must for the present leave him. cannot but feel dis concerted and impatient.CHURCH AND RELIGION ethics involve as n Well.

there was therefore no need of a distinct 297 . ance of another . and. tells us how we originally came by our instincts and in us affections. that compassion for the dis tresses of others is felt much more generally than delight in their prosperity. he. as we have seen. And he says : The reason and account of which matter is this when a man has obtained any particular advantage or felicity. placed by God.' Here. to put us upon and help to carry us through a course of behaviour suitable to our condition. and the construction he puts upon them. carries us along with it. to make good his theory of their origin and final causes. They were. we cannot directly verify the truth of what our But he also examines such and author says.BISHOP BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST II BUTLER designs to found a sure system of morals. And here we can verify the degree in which his report of facts. and he does not. he tells c us. inspires us with confidence in his scheme of human nature. Butler notices. in that particular. in order to found it. such of our affections in themselves. as every one will admit. his end : want the assist is gained.

other hand. raises that anger . and compassion leads us directly to assist them. The object of would such the former is the present felicity of another . theory of the origin and final causes of all our affections. it is resentment against vice and wickedness. neither affection directly carry him on to do good to that person . and there is deliberate anger The reason and the end for which man was made liable : the passion of sudden anger is. It is easy to see that the latter wants a particular affection for its relief. that he might be better and likewise (or perhaps chiefly) to resist and defeat. he says. no Butler's doubt. violence. and merely as such. and that the former does not want one. is given us to further the ends of justice . And The natural object of settled resentment. being easy to see that to 298 . was well suited. any more than Hobbes's resolution of all bene volence into a mere love of power ? that it is not just as fantastic ? Again. not suffering but injury. whereas men in distress want assistance. it then. as distinct from pain or loss. is injury. considered It stands in our nature for self-defence. on the not for the administration of justice.CHURCH AND RELIGION affection H towards that felicity of another already obtained. Deliberate anger. the object of the latter is the present misery of another. anger and resentment. take Butler's account of the passion of There is sudden anger. to qualified to prevent. not natural but moral evil. But will any another's to one say that it carries a real student of nature along with it and inspires him with confidence. and opposition. is distress compassion at than satisfaction stronger why prosperity. sudden force. Such another's at an explanation. because it does not want assistance.

look it is And likely enough. even when the arbitrary and fantastic character of his psychology is not so apparent. this sort of natural history may. to tell us how anger may be innocently and rightly employed. the founda tions of the great deep are broken up. as I say. for the very subsistence of the world. But Since it is necessary. come when. or reflection. that injury. when a man searches with passionate earnestness for something certain. when no one looks very closely into himself or into what is told him about his moral nature. would render that execution of justice exceedingly difficult and un easy. injustice. and cruelty should be punished . then the arbitrary asser tions of such a psychology as this of Butler's will be felt to be perfectly fantastic and unavailing. which is so natural to mankind. so as to serve the end for which God placed it in our nature. and also to anything else which would prevent the necessary methods of severity.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST prevent and to remedy such injury. and can and will henceforth build upon facts only . In times when everything is conventional. anger has evident dangers and abuses. But let a time and may even pass for Newtonian. But True. perhaps. and the miseries arising from it. Butler will be felt constantly to puzzle and 299 And . and since compassion. indignation against vice and wickedness is a balance to that weakness of pity. the business of the faculty of con science. is the end for which this passion was implanted in man.

with this theory. rather than to satisfy us. of assigning to certain among them a natural superiority. And Butler's theory following it. and from the same cause namely. one out of our many affections. just as hunger was from the first to lead us to our implanted own personal good. that they all have a useful end to serve and have that the principle of respect to that end solely conscience is implanted in us for the sake of affections are all . along carry be convincing. moreover. of using each in its right measure and of guiding it to its right and that the degree of strength. He has his theory that our appetites and placed in our nature by God. that it shall have a strictly defined end of its own. we find him declaring that which nobody is Such is Butler's compassion lead us to is us from the first a primitive affection implanted in by the Author of Nature to spirit. we will say. felt not to us with not to him. in which any one of our affections exists. that shall be but self-love requires. tempted to confound with it. that they are all equally natural. affords no reason end at . as it is from those. that reason and cool self-love would not by themselves have been sufficient to lead us to public in us : 300 . and which are therefore often con founded with it. and such are its requirements. and be as distinct from those affections which seem most akin to it.CHURCH AND RELIGION n He will be perplex. arbitrating between them. And theory. such as all for benevolence.

hunger and a settled reasonable self-love. notwithstanding that without them reason would assure us. and asking if it could ever occur to a man of plain ' that there was abso understanding to think lutely no such thing in mankind as affection to the good of others. without which it would not be taken due It is manifest. without the appetite and the affection. without affection (the affection of compassion). for the calls of hunger and thirst and weariness. of the individual would not be by reasonable and cool self-love alone . our life would be neglected were it not care of. suppose of parents to their As if the affection of parents to their children? children was an affection to the good of others of just the same natural history as public spirit ' ! 301 . absurd to imagine that in this manner. that the recruits of food and sleep are the necessary means of our preservation. It is therefore absurd to imagine that. to use Butler's words. compassion and of reasonable principle benevolence to mankind/ did really have their rise in us ? c Presently we find Butler marvelling that persons of superior capacity should dispute the obligation of compassion and public spirit.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST the end in view. ? but can is unsatisfactory And it ' not. therefore the appetites and passions are placed within as a guard and further security. The argument may anything be more be ' ingenious. and by this parallel plan. the same reason alone would be more private interest sufficiently provided for The effectual to engage us to perform the duties we owe to our fellow-creatures. and thus to supplement one another.

and says say : : That we can do one with is greater success than we can the no proof that one is less a violation of nature than the other. argument by which this as a practical to bring a man. we are to consider himself compassion. other. Compassion is a call. in order to get this Yet Butler professes to argument out of them Surely. beside or Let me take 302 . not to refine. to cultivate in Now. obvious. never the other ? But do continually Butler insists. a demand of nature. by keeping from the sight of food. not to sophisticate. Surely such an argument would would astonish rather than convince ' him ' ! He Can it be so.CHURCH AND RELIGION as if n the two were alike in their primariness. must be used here in a manner. the other is a slow conquest from rudimentary human nature. first appearances of things. since we see that men the one. to relieve the unhappy. by turning from the wretched. all unsettled about the rule of his conduct. beyond upon the subject of morals and religion. as hunger is a natural call for food. notice (he says) of the danger of going the plain. And To endeavour to get rid of the sorrow of compassion. alike in their One is an affection of rudi kind of evidence mentary human once more : nature. nature^ natural^ artificial somewhat ! stick to plain facts. ! alike in their date of obligation. is as unnatural (says Butler) as to endeavour to get rid of the pain of hunger.

suggests the following lesson for us : And it 303 . precisely in the same manner as hunger is a natural call for food and to say that to neglect one call is just as much a violation of nature as the other ? Surely Butler could not talk in this way. that this world one is hungry. also. unless he had first laid it down that all our affections are in them selves equally natural. Yet once more. nor to be a state of any great satisfaction or high enjoyment. and of decides how when voice God. voices of God. obvious. higher And when Butler has each is to be followed. according to him. when conducts him to such an affirmation. but in doubt whether he ought one that it have laid it down. he has no difficulty in affirming But in accordance .ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST is it with the plain. They But are all. Only one hungry. and that no degree of greater strength and frequency can make one affection more natural than the other. to pronounce com passion to be a call. laid this down. not to eat when one not convinced and to sees satisfied. a demand of nature to relieve the unhappy. that as it is as unnatural not to relieve the distressed is feels. The affection of compassion not only proves that it is as unnatural to turn away from distress as to turn from food when It proves. first appearances of things. or a the principle of reflection conscience. was intended neither to be a mere scene of unhappiness and sorrow.

to and pleasure be constantly hurrying about after some gay amusement. No we do wrong to make them escape from misery rather than positive happi ness. 304 . pain. has 'The aim for man is to said admirably the feeling of joy.' man will dispute. to make our augment expansive energy bear fruit. ' Rejoice evermore ' ! exhorts the New. that these do not confer Butler so-called high happiness. man goes on to enumerate several enjoyments. This. Senancour. what no wise appetite. that provision made for abating its sorrows more than for increasing its positive happiness. the principle of degradation and misery/ But Butler goes counter.CHURCH AND RELIGION There being of n that distinct affection implanted in the nature tending to lessen the miseries of life. Butler goes clean counter to the most intimate. keep free from uneasiness. As a little-known but profound French moralist. the most sure. also. Rejoice and exhorts the thanks Old Testament give ' ! . and sorrow. the most irresistible instinct of human : nature. to ' the clear voice of our religion. and that And doubt our end in life. in all thinking beings. yet meanwhile. some new gratification of sense or And he points out. such us 'to make mirth and jollity our business. and to combat. namely. to endeavour chiefly to escape misery. this may suggest to us what should be our general aim respecting ourselves in our passage through this world. in his main assertion that man's proper aim is . or to get relief and mitiga tion of them j to propose to ourselves peace and tranquillity of mind rather than pursue after high enjoyments.

will point out how Butler's own arbitrary definition of self-love. as ' He describes self- love. that it is the pursuit of our temporal good. ix 305 x . creates the difficulties of his assiduous. and sorrow. when we find it strongly at variance with the facts of that constitution on a point of capital importance. however ingenious. VOL. c to God's commands. laboured. and unsatisfying attempt to reconcile self-love with benevolence. a own that interest and and the obedience happiness. so terrible to undergraduates.' Nevertheless. must be in every case one and the same thing. cannot. of Butler's account of self-love. with a shiver of uneasiness. or getting mitigation of them. Even at past fifty years of age I approach the subject.' And a scheme of human nature. pain. Butler's constant notion of the pursuit of our interest is. as he calls it the cool consideration of our own . rightly understood. be said to explain things irresistibly according to the strict truth of our mental constitution. And he knew happiness. is what (to turn Butler's words against himself) ' the consideration of nature marks out as the course we should follow and the end we should aim at.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST and not mere escape from misery.' the pursuit of our own general desire of our well enough. meant to serve as a rule for human conduct. getting freedom from uneasiness. a definition which the cast of his scheme of human nature renders Yet I necessary. occasionally.

' as : private interest. does not help such a student. does not carry such a student with him.CHURCH AND RELIGION temporal advantage. that there is no a general desire for our own of our neighbour. and a love to say. Butler may make it is to sophisticate things. so little. then to say. his self-love.' ' a cool pursuit of our the favourite expression tracted affection. The truth is. just as he makes out that not to relieve the distressed is as unnatural to a man as not to eat when he is hungry. our private interest. finds us. that from self-love. business is to help towards practice. consisting in a cool deliberate pursuit of our private interest. therefore. has nothing puzzling in it. But to define self-love as a private contracted affection. which satisfies us so little. does not convince a serious student by these refinements. thus defined. as Butler does. n And he ' which he names 'a a expressly defines private con regard to our private Private interest is good. of because its radical effectiveness unsatisfying 306 .' Now opposition between happiness. all this elaborate psychology of Butler's. out by stipulating that self-love shall merely mean pursuing our private interest. a And a moralist's step nearer towards practice. to is use Coleridge's excellent expression. and not and pursuing it in any particular manner. by stipulating that all our affections But he shall be considered equally natural. love of our neighbour is no more distant than hatred of our neighbour.

and your account of What is its ment. now finds them. which are in truth the most obscure. and will have the naked truth. and principles of action. changing. but were capable of being And a resolved and decomposed much farther. and compassion a desire to relieve misery. who imagined things to be elements which were not. fixed. and palpable as the bodily organs which the dissector has on his table He takes them as if. resent . must feel that it is with Butler's principles and affections as it was with is man who the elements of the early chemists they are and of resolved decomposed much being capable farther. secretes bile. and conscience right verdicts. and all the rest of them ? Till I know this. in mankind/ of or conscience reflection ciple but what and answer the student True/ may ' ' . there they had always been. that of the early chemists. natural genesis. and there they must always be as if benevolence had always gone on secreting love of our neigh bour. compassion. and what the natural benevolence.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST What he calls our instincts as natural history. There is this prin they are thus decomposed. Butler's error is thrown fairly upon himself. just as he before him. interdependent of phenomena. ' whence is it ? It had a genesis of some kind. Butler takes as if they were things as separate. just as the liver . and solid ground is not reached until . I do not know where I am in talking about 307 genesis of your its genesis is fantastic.

and not authoritative. and de fines self-love as the cool pursuit of our private is so anxious to interest. according as they serve this deep instinct or thwart it. grew our affections. superior in strength. treat as only one motive out of many. that desire which Butler. prim region of the natural genesis of man's affections and principles. 308 . with which Butler denies that it con But it has the call to contend with flicts at all. practical reason. are And our affections of not in present strength. in their result upon the instinctive effort to live. There. and the source of his ruling faculty of conscience is to be traced back thither. kinds. and out of the experience of those affections. dimly lighted. or a regard to our private interest. instinct or effort to live. this instinct rules because And it is that no strongest . too. the all-ruling desire for happiness . grew And the reflection. out of the which we may call the simple primary instinct. . or a regard to the good of others. conscience. effort to live in other is.' ordial H But into this vast. Butler never enters.CHURCH AND RELIGION them. does often conflict with the private contracted affection of self-love. but in permanent strength and have degrees of worth according to that superiority. because he identifies it with self-love. words. of our temporal good. although instinct shall rule all Butler because is so anxious it is strongest. And benevolence. Yet in this laboratory arose those wonderful compounds with which Butler deals.

in other words. and not co-partners in a question of conflict between a regard to the good of others and a regard to our private good. our desire for happiness. they have not got thing is so. But whatever may be the case as to our pre-adaptation to it and presentiment of that it. finds in us a pre-adaptation to it. if we follow it.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST and the right its it. that the People may say. the experience reported by it is true . . isolated. this sense that their instinct to live is served by loving their neighbour . and slowly acquired. from this reason of men's being in a con really solidary. And this superiority it derives from the experience. For men are solidary. of own to get the better of it. ment of its truth. and a presenti from its being inferred be may a sense of facts which are a real condition of human progress. if is thwarted. That this sense it does not. is the sense of experience having proved and established. a dull and uninformed But that does not make the experi conscience. 309 . . our private good ought and that our flict of such kind to give way that is. And conscience. better than the private contracted affection does that the private contracted affection. or thwarts this instinct. they may say that they have. . ence the less a true thing. our instinct to live nature is violated. the great matter in favour of the sense is. that. the real experience Neither does it make the sense of of the race. that it serves our painfully instinct to live. because superiority in permanent strength.

let such a man get con And if the man science. n science. and life is a better and more exact word to use than happiness. of the individual. get right experience. the case of a man thinking Shaftesbury supposes vice and selfishness to be truly as much for his advantage as virtue and benevolence. one permanent and imper sonal. one higher and real. he becomes aware of two lives. moreover. it any the less. and of the contracted judgments. does not. that he is lost. . and con cludes that such a case is without remedy. thing. or desire for answer is : Not at all . and not is served by following the second. desire for the first self happiness. indeed. the then the difficulty vanishes. the other transient and bound to our con tracted self he becomes aware of two selves. the result is not that he goes on just as well without it . For. as man advances in his development.CHURCH AND RELIGION this experience to be. the result is. was evidently afraid of making the desire of happiness to be that which we must And set out with in explaining human nature. It is not 310 . the to live. he was afraid of it for this reason because he was apprehensive of the contracted self-love. Butler. Bible-word. and it is. the But if we say the instinct desire . because what does apprehends really serve our instinct And it is And when happiness. : to live instead of the and the two mean the same of happiness. genuine con genuine conscience. the other inferior and apparent and that the instinct in him truly to live.

but one correcting and at last domin that the psychology of Jesus ating the other. And so true is this history of the two lives in man. as human ' nature. the two selves do not conflict It is not true that the affec they do conflict. if he gain the whole world. says. erroneous in our us. capital fact ' Renounce said Christ Jesus : What is a man and yet he also said thyself lose profited. which is the voice of our authentic nature. out of the feeling after happiness. But the satisfaction of our in stinct to live. interpretation by long. both arising out of the instinct to live in us. the two selves. the desire for happiness. many a heavy blow. I say. the voice of God. It is a hasty. as Butler the self-love of Butler. And it has to be corrected by experience. struggling development. an evident. Butler's benevolence. Love of the . Many a hard lesson does the experience involve.ji BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST case that . is the affection by which experience bids us correct it. and yet ' ! : . these two of this psychology. Christ. tions and impulses of both alike are. the voice of God ' cool study of our private interest/ is not the the voice of God. as well as incomparably more illuminative and fruitful. which without the least apparatus of system is yet incomparably exacter than Butler's. tentative. of our desire for happiness. one with man. depends on our making and using the experience. carries every it when it treats these two lives in selves. upof the instinct to live. our neighbour.

is the long. cutting and carv committing some great injustice. and says very truly that a man is not on that account to commit it. for the happiness of others. and with mis taken judgment.' So certain is it that we have two lives. Now.CHURCH AND RELIGION himself^ n be mulcted of himself?* He said: 'I am come that men might have life^ and might have it more and ye will not come to abundantly me that ye may have life ! And yet he also . in desire for because he imagines each man ing arbitrarily for his own private interest in pursuit of happiness. two and that there is no danger in making selves the instinct to live. shall lose it. that which we must set out with in explaining human nature. with the set out. He supposes a man fancying that an overbalance of happiness to mankind may be produced by explaining happiness. to . so he apprehends a man's cutting and carving arbitrarily. is the instinct truly served and the desire truly satisfied ful. And he concludes that 'we are constituted so as to condemn injustice abstracted from all consideration what conduct is likeliest to pro duce an overbalance of happiness or misery. the desire of happiness. as it really is. that experience that experience. if we add that only in the impersonal life. pain of this establishment glorious and that conscience is the recognition of . fact.' 312 . as Butler fears to human nature. be. irresistible. ' said ' : Whosoever will save his /ife. and with the higher self.

of all aim at happiness. himself the production simply of his own happi But experience of what made for tAis. men's for form of carving apparent happiness in defiance of the common rules of justice and . as it now is seen by us to be. and implying our But experience did not solidarity with others. his theory of the dignified independence. of every man just aiming. that man did not even propose to himself the worthier aim. ness. in feeling He proposed to his way to the laws of virtue.' to this. : . of the production of general happiness. and what conscience is con brought him to. is thereby proved. such experience slowly led him to the laws of laws abridging in a hundred ways what virtue at first seemed his own happiness. bring him to the rule 'according to the best of his judgment/ at what ' might have the appearance of being likely to produce an overbalance of happiness to mankind It did not conduct him in their present state. on the part of virtue and conscience. a number of laws determining cerned with our conduct in many ways. It is not in the conscience turns on experience. ready-made and full-grown. So far from it.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST And he thinks that his theory of our affections being all implanted separately in us. by a Divine Author of Nature. or establish for him any such rule of This is not his experience^ and action as this. and implying the solidarity of himself and his happiness with This is what experience the race and theirs.

conform himself to such safely experience than to his own crude judgments upon appearances nay. In morals. which. may much more c ' . a much stronger hold is upon his conviction. but on the experience of the race as to happiness. as one of the race. had indubitably in great part their rise in the ex happiness makes perience. by seeking solely his own private happiness. as the result of experience in the race. if he deals with himself fairly. His thought of the obligation laid upon him by those rules of justice : and virtue. however. we must not rely just on what may 'have the appearance' to the individual. but in the form of an obedience to the common rules themselves of justice and of virtue.CHURCH AND RELIGION virtue. The transient individual must not cut and carve in the results of human experi silently ence. that the n duty of caring for other men's itself felt to us. a man made shipwreck of life. has and slowly determined our calling actions virtuous or vicious. with that overbalance which each transient individual may think he can foresee. according to his crude notions of what may constitute human happiness. that. Those rules. neither shall oblivion ever put it to sleep/ But . the individual. wherein the moral experience of our race has been summed up. To that experience. must rather be c The will of mortal man did not beget it. Butler confuses the fore seen overbalance of happiness or misery. He profoundly and intimately adapted. such experience has.

setting forth Butler's theory of the foundation of morals. more likely to attempt a highly systematic. will satisfy in disquietude. is important. then. and seeking earnestly for a sure stay.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST the rules had their origin in man's desire for happiness notwithstanding. So. as one regards the thing from the point of view of a more mature age oneself. of of over-partiality that unpopular condition which I am myself . And if he does attempt it. was Butler forty-four. and much as they contain which is precious. it cannot well be satisfactory. as the Sermons at the Rolls are. at least. The Analogy did not come The Analogy till ten years after the Sermons. all were preached in the eight years between They 1718 and 1726. Perhaps it will seem in me the very height to the merits of old age. one is disposed to say. appeared in 1736. when It is a riper work than the Sermons at the Rolls. in human nature and morals. between the twenty-sixth year of Butler's life and the thirty-fourth. he has not had enough experience. The date 1726. than he is afterwards. I think. comes for help to them. But the Sermons at the Rolls were published in any one who when Butler was but thirty-four years old. The man is hardly tricate theory ripe for it. I do not think that these sermons. At of that age a man is. Impressive.

I have drawn your attention to the terms of unbounded praise in which the Analogy is It is 'unanswerable/ most original and profound work extant in any language on the philosophy It is asserted. that. of religion. also dating from the close of his life. but the intellectual con duct of the work. But let us be thankful for what we have. if I say. delivered the year before his death . extolled. is. many trains of thought and many single observations which are it. that I would rather have had the opus magnum of such a man as Butler. more free from embarrassment and con Of course the fusion.. so to speak. and on such a subject as the philosophy of I would religion. like the Sermons. to be much firmer and clearer.CHURCH AND RELIGION n approaching. But the mental grasp. ten years later from him still. the most entirely satis factory productions of Butler are the Six Sermons on Public Occasions^ all of them later than the the Charge to the Clergy of Durham. too. To me.' by his Analogy. visibly stronger in the Analogy. said to It is called be * the 316 . Analogy is a work of great power . seems to me to be more that of a master. . I think. and a few fragments. than that of the Sermons. is The Analogy profound and precious. form of the work gave Butler advantages which with the form of a sermon he could not have. to read a very valuable mental exercise. Not only does it contain. rather have had it from him at fifty-four than at forty-four.

what we all ought most to religion. calculated to make the loose Deists of fashion life. To those who search earnestly. which is for some clear undeniably befalling our age. as I said the other straws. and argumentative positions of those Deists we do not. to every one with whom be full the impediment to its reception is not simply moral. afford it to them ? A religious work cannot touch us very deeply as a mere intellectual Whether the Analogy was or was not feat. and some sure does the Analogy light stay. its conduct. What has the Analogy got to and enlighten help us ? is the one important question. feel uncomfortable. Its object is to And desire for that : is just to make men embrace religion. able circles. or else a secret leaning . Butler in a work like the Analogy. amid that break-up of tradi tional and conventional notions respecting our and its sanctions. to make men embrace see which we may them. culpable levity. embrace it ! of what is salutary Yet how many of them will not Now. unless we hold the . care in the year of grace 1736. night. on the firm basis of observation and experiment/ I have also told you what is to my mind the one sole point of interest for us now. which till then had nothing to support it but mere abstraction or shadowy speculation. we do two not.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST c placed metaphysic.

and to embrace it. in his Analogy that they ought to embrace it. : says Butler. such good against Butler ? one who has no wish How at all does to it affect doubt or cavil. to establish this by the analogy of first of natural religion. The reality The argument is of this kind of the laws of moral government of this world. of laws world. revealed laws of nature. in the line of argument which he But how does his argument in itself chose. still less any wish to but who comes to the Analogy with honest desire to receive from it anything which he finds he can use ? Now. The . a like reality government in the second shall where we be hereafter. which such an inquirer must. like the loose wits of fashionable society who angered Butler. moreover. I do not remember to have anywhere seen pointed out the precise break-down. implies. in the form of what orthodox Christianity. mock an . And he theosophy and miracles.CHURCH AND RELIGION to n Butler professes to make out clearly vice. to make thesis. it seems to me. then of to the constitution and religion. stand the scrutiny of one who has no counteras that of the Deists. is called with its professes religion. of moral by analogy. be conscious of in Butler's argument from analogy. Elsewhere I have remarked what advantage Butler had against the Deists of his own time.

it is the experience present world a place in us.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST analogy is. supposing that second manifested. Show like we may say to Butler. no For it is probability whatever. but also the probable existence of that future world in which they will be It does only prove the probable of the laws of moral government continuance in the future world. like the positive existence of the present world. And of this experience Butler's argument furnishes. and these laws are manifested. used to prove not only the probable continuance of the laws of moral government. which actually exists. Butler with the belief already established. of the world to come must be proved. in general consider that they get such grounds And people who come to from revelation. in There may be other reasons for believing Christians a second life beyond the grave. supplies moral not the laws of government which of this us proof present world in which give world to they that is are this manifested . are not likely to ask themselves very closely what . But for that existence it exist. not one itself tittle. and we will allow that by analogy the same moral laws will probably continue to govern it. But this is all which analogy can The positive existence prove in the matter. that a over again after we place presents are dead. and can furnish. by experience. in truth.

of behalf is in is exercised does not require its on For example in the : The states of life in which we ourselves existed formerly. the from Analogy through beginning to end. that we are to exist hereafter in a state as different (suppose) from our present as this is from the former. womb and in our infancy. be proved from experience. is but according to the analogy of nature. different state beyond the limits of this life. as our state is to our state in the womb or in infancy. to Butler in a state of genuine uncertainty. will soon discover their The weakness goes fundamental weakness. There it is ! We Again : 320 . Therefore. we might freely admit that analogy renders it probable that that state may be as unlike to our actual actual state. for the argument from analogy to take effect. and has to lean with his whole weight on Butler's reasonings for support. But that there is the further different state must first.CHURCH AND RELIGION Butler's n analogical good for. in the first chapter But we have of the several different states experience succeeding one another in man's present life . that is what makes us believe in their succeeding one another have no experience of a further here. If we had. The a reasoning reasoning thesis which support But whoever comes to be made out for them. are almost as different from our present in mature age as it is possible to conceive any two states or degrees of life can be.

' Once more. or. who is dealing quite power. simply with himself. and then off he goes upon a metaphysical argument about consciousness being a single and indivisible But a doubter. Therefore. being not go destruction the presumption of death's of living beings does then cease.' So says Butler. their organs of sense. and even the greatest part of their bodies. is the reason of the thing/ in this matter. simply experience . 'that ' We see by experience. Or. and yet remain the same Y VOL. but its vice being still All presumption of death's same character being the destruction of living beings must ' : go upon supposition that they are compounded and so discerptible. again. upon the supposition that they are it goes upon compounded and so discerptible the unbroken experience that the living powers . will stop Butler before ever his metaphysical argument begins. ix 321 . however. a swoon. and we have experience of the living powers existing on through a swoon. and c say : Not the at all . and when there is no present capacity for exercising them. the form of the argument being of just the altered. we have none of their existing on But ' through death. Butler.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST Sleep.' men may lose says their limbs. shows us (says Butler) that our living powers exist when they are not exercised. there can no probability be collected from the reason of the thing that death will be their destruction.

therefore. and that there is no help to be got from it. a man who ' is the touchstone. is a fact also. and there are is analogies in this life to the supposed system of natural and revealed religion. cannot but soon come to perceive what Butler's argument in the Analogy really amounts to.' life is n Yes.' Nay. " there is no shadow of life. c There is no shadow of any in thing unreasonable/ begins Butler always. for the whole 322 . it a fact that this life exists." thing conceiving we experience it.' As to the fact^ experience I is ' : say.' argues Butler God.CHURCH AND RELIGION living agents. The existence of that system. will reward and punish is ' 'There that men for their actions hereafter. looking seriously for firm ground.' ' but we affirm the fact of this is the answer. the moral and intelligent again. c c because not incredible. Author of all things. conceiving so natural religion. admit the first because it is shown any. We . we have no experience of to us by experience the second. nothing incredible. But that conscious possible with some of our bodily organs not prove that it is possible without does gone. and in the conception of so. we do. in the conception of revealed The answer of any earnest man religion.' says Butler.' But.' must be in some words of Butler's own c Suppositions are not to be looked on as true. not because any in unreasonable but because it.

ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST of nature that is course a present instance of his which exercising government But implies in it rewarding and punishing. suggested to mankind the notion of a second a restitution of all things. a ruler all. 323 this intelligent . experience For he says that a uniform course of operation.wise and all-powerful. nature^ necessarily It necessarily im implies an operating agent. a Being moral and intelligent.human agent. But Butler alleges. and inward dissatisfaction another and. a will and plies an intelligent designer with a character. with But. we have no experience. And this quasi. who thus rewards and punishes us. have been what well. indeed this more that we have. that also outward rewards and punishments do very generally follow certain actions. be that as it may. life. completely and regularly might quite one would think. that our not being punished and rewarded matter that ? What is fact inward satisfaction . whom Butler calls the Author of Nature. this. surely. have no experience that it is a quasi-human agent. not of but demonstration. In this sense we are punished and rewarded that is certain. world as we see it.' how far does our positive experience go in this over us of positive experience is. we I say what is the mere undoubted fact. moreover. us fully concede (let this to Butler) follows one sort of actions. And one must add. .

nay.' from which Butler was said to have rescued us and placed us on the firm basis of observation and experiment. a quasi-human agent and governor. but be felt. and since he governs the world. exercises but admittedly not more than in some degree. moral government over us here. will the supposed demonstrably true starting-point. The proposition that world. as we see it. an intelligent designer with a all : -wise and and a character. I think. by what we see of natural rewards and punishments. by any one who is brought fairly face to face with it and has to rest everything upon it. necessarily im an intelligent designer with a will and a plies character. We world of 'mere abstraction or shadowy speculation. And the strength of Butler's argument against the Deists lay that they held. was demonstrably author and governor of nature.CHURCH AND RELIGION is u designer with a will and a character. since he all-powerful. to be utterly impalpable. that a quasihere human agent. cannot. and evidently. this Governor must be reserving the complete consummation of his moral government for a second world hereafter. as he did. not yet the perfection of moral government. not to be selfdemonstrating. common both to Butler and to this But in the Deists. Evidently it is not of the same experimental character as the proposition that we are rewarded this 324 . are in that we are in full metaphysics.

and this anthropomorphic tendency when we examine the tendency. It appeals. It does not appeal. a sense of satisfying can go on to build upon it. is vain. foundation of puzzle for religion.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST . can produce in any one a sense of satis . thing coolly. thought to have being^ support in arguments drawn from But even thus supported it never. when conviction. or to stand firm. Sibi pcsna est omnis inordias St. and with a view to substituting a surer foundation. the deep we feel that we cannot trust. and can in like manner be built upon ? It cannot. But will any one say that the proposition. have their rise. The assertion 325 . it produces. to it is we what is solid. really. upon else which is anything such a sense as this. the proposition scientific essence. like the other. at most. and urged. Religion must be built on ideas about which there is no Therefore. a sense fying conviction of puzzled submission. : and punished according to our actions or that. To build religion. to in man . produces or can produce a like sense of satisfying conviction. is However. Augustine natus animus. Augustine says The proposition of St. produces. in order to get rid of this puzzle. I have elsewhere tried to show in what confusion the metaphysical arguments drawn from being 9 essence^ for an intelligent author of nature with a will and a character. that the course of nature implies an operating agent with a will and a character. I think.

but that of the fact of a tree being made by such a designer he has none. all-powerful designer. Butler admits that the assertion of his all- foreseeing. plain he is asked how he can affirm that when man. may well be thought a difficulty in speculation/ But he appeals.CHURCH AND RELIGION of such an author is n then left with our anthropo morphic instinct as its sole warrant. he of our ignorance. must surely answer that he affirms a house to have been made by such a designer because he has experience of the fact. my judgment. and is seen not to be a safe foundation whereon to build all our is It is not axiomatic. to the sense we must have Difficulties of this kind. says. in not experimental. that it is wonderful they should be insisted upon by any but such as are weak 326 ' Why c . and no man ever appealed more impressively than he. altogether beyond our experience it is purely abstract and speculative. A and yet doubt whether a intelligent designer with a will and a character. And if pressed. are so apparently and wholly founded in our ignorance. anything of hazard and danger should be put upon such frail creatures as we are. how then can the tree possibly be there ? surely the answer Perhaps from the tendency to grow a will tree and a character. involves grave difficulties. with a will and a character. it religion. a house is made by an intelligent designer with certainties in . It deals with what is. is made by an ' ' : ! is not so very unreasonable.

that the used to solve our difficulties.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST enough to think they are acquainted with the whole system of things. although. Butler. does not Butler's own assertion of the all-fore that infinitely seeing. understand how an almighty It is world may have been intended by for c its infinite the generality of men pline. and more than by that the appeal to our supposition ? an to in fact us. should have so contrived things that the moral disci pline altogether fails. because do not improve or grow better in it we see that 'of the seeds of vegetables. of the case are not the difficulties alleged created ? And And is not : for granted has a satisfactory solution somewhere beyond the reach of our knowledge ? Then. to take effect. however. urges. go upon the supposition that we know. a very great deal. quasi-human designer.' But does not the common account of God by theologians. designing the world as a place of moral discipline for man. to take something more for granted namely.' And he speaks of ' absurd supposition that we know the whole of the case. however. in a vast number of cases. with a will and a character. having taken appeal ignorance a great deal for granted. that what we at first took we actually do know. at any rate. even. the argument from analogy is again moral hard to Creator and Governor. far the greatest part decay 327 . almighty Author and Governor moral disci bodies of animals. and ' .

but that the difficulty in the because we do suppose God such a . even on the part of an inquirer who feels that Butler's metaphysics.CHURCH AND RELIGION to be utterly destroyed/ before they are improved to maturity. and his argument from c ' ' : assuming quasi-human agent. as a necessary conception. and generally known and confessed to be proved/ But. a wisdom and power with a will Being of infinite analogy. just what the mass of its adherents have miracles and the always supposed it to be And from a man like fulfilment of prophecy. However. and appear But surely the natural answer is. But any clear-sighted inquirer will soon perceive that Butler's ability for handling these important matters of miracles and prophecy is not in proportion to his great powers of mind. Butler this dictum will certainly require atten tion. Butler in his Analogy affirms also the (and the thing is important to be noted) direct and fundamental proof of Christianity to be. however. his Analogy the validity of this conception is a principle gone upon as proved. and to his vigorous and effective use of those 328 . because do not suppose nature an Infinite Almighty is and Moral Being other case Being. are unavailing. a against the Deists who started with and a character. that there is no difficulty about we millions of seeds missing their perfection. Butler's argument is And he says expressly that in very effective.

there are characters in the Bible with all the internal marks imaginable does.' by the offering for man's sins of the body of Jesus Christ upon man like Butler could not nowa the cross ? an use argument like that. a fulfilment. mine ears hast thou of prophecy out opened^ and gets his fulfilment A of that false rendering . to the Hebrews. therefore. of them is. That is the they come to see things differently. their point of view .ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST powers on other topics. It ' . changes. indeed. he asks. but a body hast thou prepared me. He could not days be unaware that the writer of the Epistle is using the false rendering of the Greek Bible. Neither could Butler now speak of the Biblehistory being all of it equally authentic genuine of this thesis as he history. manifest. why men are now able to view miracles and prophecy more justly than The insufficiency of his treatment Butler did. 329 . indeed. he argues now. which is none at all. reason. a body hast thou prepared me^ instead of the true rendering of the original. Butler could not well. than the fulfilment of prophecy mentioned in the Epistle the fulfilment of the words. satisfactorily Men's knowledge increases. have then handled miracles and prophecy the time was not ripe for it. Can anything be more express or determinate.' or argue in behalf ' must evidently all stand or fall together. ' Sacrifice and offering thou wouldest not. without any pretence of intellectual superiority.

one Gospel makes Jesus disappear into Egypt directly after his birth. yet that the martyrs of the next age. and Simon Peter are real characters does not make . John the Baptist and Simon Peter have all the internal marks imaginable of their being real characters But granted. this consistent history. No. had ' : 330 . is the answer there is plenty of fact in the Bible. another makes him stay That John the Baptist quietly on in Palestine. ' The belief of miracles Again. and then to come back after some time and resume his career in France. would not jar.CHURCH AND RELIGION n .' Yet further Though it is of it is not of weight. an addi tion to Louis the Sixteenth's history which made to As be spirited away from Varennes into Germany. Apostles and their proof of those facts. notwithstanding they were not eye-witnesses of those facts. is worth. under certain cir cumstances. of their being real/ Most true. are legends. there is also plenty of legend. well say that because Mirabeau and Danton are real characters. Things are what they are. as were the Apostles and their contemporaries. under the observation by the contemporaries must be a for they were such as came of their senses. and very many ' him things in the Bible besides. and the con sequences of them will be what they will be/ And the accounts in the Gospels of the Holy Child's incarnation and infancy. equal weight.' The simple answer is: 'But we know what the observation of men's senses.

doubting apprehension that it may ' be true. only evidence and ' own Bible-history. metaphysics. the puny total outcome.' If Butler cannot prove religion and Christianity by his reasonings from meta physics and from analogy. he says. judgment. of all this accumulated evidence from analogy. of such immense practical import ance as religion. history. It is. and could not have dreamed of it.' In a matter. most certainly he will not prove them by these reasonings on Bible.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST however full opportunity to inform themselves whether they were true or not. unhesitatingly to act upon imperfect evidence. after all. But the wonderful thing about the Analogy even in Butler's is the poor insignificant result. where the bad consequences of a mistake may be so incalculable. and gave equal proof of their believing them to be true. which keeps the mind utmost in it is doubt.' and condition necessarily says Butler. to have nearly were it if as influence upon practice.' ' serious a is. its infinite ought.' However. in the daily course of life.' The simple answer again is: 'The martyrs never dreamed of informing themselves about the for they never miracles in the manner supposed dreamed of doubting them. thoroughly It t . in all reason. The perplexity. considering the same importance. our nature much lower require us to act upon evidence than what is ' perhaps in calculated to beget commonly called probable. then. we ought.

motive always supposed in the book itself of our religion. and a travelling menagerie is taking the same road. Such is. much lower than . it is certainly possible that a tiger may escape from the menagerie and devour me if I take that road but the evidence that he will is certainly. tell you the truth^ why do ye not believe me ? the evident truth.' But we do not. Well. the upshot of the Analogy. that whoever comes to me has How ! ' ! ' ! 332 . above all. ' happy alliance ' achieved by it ' upon evidence which we ourselves conceive to than what is commonly called If I am going to take a walk out probable. also. in the Bible After reading the one goes instinctively to bathe one's Analogy spirit in the Bible again. in the daily course of life. to be refreshed by c its boundless certitude and exhilaration. is commonly called probable. act be much lower of Edinburgh. I do on that low degree of evidence. avoid the Portobello road and take another.CHURCH AND RELIGION ' ! n believed And such is. is this motive to the unlike. when all is done. But the duty of acting on such a sort of evidence is really made by Butler the motive for a man's following the road of religion. the way of peace. what not. The c Eternal is the strength of my life The that is the foundation of God standeth sure c If I constant tone of religion in the Bible. really. and thought of choosing the Portobello road. the between faith and philosophy.

and it has the spell and the serve. in fact. and we rub our eyes. built of old to control the kingdom of evil but the gates are open. as the least they could say as another mode of c little of religion in general. designed. spell and a but the Zeit-Geist breathes power upon it. life and evident. I think. with thick and high walls. that the loose Deism of fashionable circles. there can be no doubt. to reduce and impair their authority. : We 333 . . who felt to the bottom of his soul the obligation . is.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST . Butler's Deists were. power no as I longer. For to control the kingdom of evil the work Whatever may be was.' Butler. the great work on which such immense praise has been lavished. no doubt. for all real intents and purposes now. of a stately and severe fortress. confess it to Analogy. a failure it does not . The ourselves plainly. That is the evidence to constrain our gets which is offered practice by Christianity. it ! Let us. for the most part free-living people who said. We are Deists. then. because whoever ' does come. contemplate it. It seemed once to have a . the proper tendencies of Deism as a speculative opinion. and the guards gone. It has the effect upon me. think saying and of Christianity in particular. as seen by Butler. had a tendency to minimise religion and morality.

' ' 334 .CHURCH AND RELIGION of religion in n particular. And the religion and the Chris of Butler set himself to establish which tianity. and even vexation of mind upon that which he remarks of the appearances of things and of what is going The result of the forward upon this earth. so as to satisfy himself fully. set general. the obligation. were religion and Christianity in the form then received and current. and gloom man who cannot get beyond c evidence which . and of Christianity in himself to establish the obligation of them against these lax people. pain. But he could not establish them so as quite to suit his own mind and soul. sorrow. Hence his labour and sorrow. keeps the mind in doubt. as the true account ' of what man may expect here below Great of the of God and works method the ignorance of his providence in the government of the world great labour and weariness in the search and observation he employs himself about and great disappointment. : .' Preacher's whole review and inspection is. And in this form he could establish their obligation as against his Deistical opponents. perhaps in perplexity.' says Butler.* He quotes the Preacher's account of what he himself had found in life.' Butler most readily acknowledges that the ' is (his Analogy] foregoing treatise by no means satisfactory very far indeed from it. perplexity. . a sense of his ' ' . his air of the air of a weariness. who in fact denied it. depression.

Butler remains a personage of real grandeur for us. and was only saved by animating return. sense. in spite of his gloom.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST That is certainly a true necessary ignorance/ of the impression the Preacher leaves description on us of his own frame of mind and it is not a bad description of Butler's frame of mind also. its strenuous rectitude. in spite of the failure of his Analogy to serve our needs.' But yet. does in some measure help us. and that their truth. that religion govern them. which seems to recommend that temper. that the Book of Ecclesiastes.' also. with its earnestness. its firm faith both in religion and in reason. . to the ' Let us hear the genuine tradition of Israel fear God and conclusion of the whole matter its : : is the whole commandments. that inattention to dissolute immoral temper itself Butler's profound ' a religion implies of mind. moreover. This pathetic figure. in its last verses. keep duty of man. in themselves and Christianity do somehow entirely fall in with our natural sense of things/ that they are true. ' engraves upon his readers' thoughts and comes His conviction. is somehow to be established and justified on this wholesome and plain grounds of reason. to 335 . But so far is it from being a true description of the right tone and temper of man according to the Bible-conception of it. was nearly excluded from the Canon on this very account. his for that does point the way for us.

which is indeed the . by this bishop with the strange. was Butler's fidelity to that sacred light which religion reason. saluted. gains us as we read him.. c It is fit things be stated and considered as 'Things are what they are. ' only faculty we have wherewith to concerning anything. than he has of the importance of external religion.' But Butler did believe in the of this law. novel. who written on their hearts. of this law. whatever that nature was for perfect fairness of mind And lie in considering the evidence for this law. universality. and he set With awful reverence. The pamphleteer.' judge Such to false. It was the real foundation certainty of things for him. even religion itself. also. makes too many people 336 . The ordinary religionists of Butler's day might well be startled. this ' himself to study and to course of life marked out for man be. he follow.CHURCH AND RELIGION n invaluable conviction.' accused Butler of dying a Papist. clearness. etc. then. lest I should be mistaken to vilify reason. full of dangerous consequence. declares plainly c that he for his part has no better opinion of the certainty. as they were. should we desire to And he believed in reason. they really are/ and the consequences of them will be what they will be why.' by nature. or for anything else. c I be deceived ? express myself with caution. and unhallowed * notion. uniformity. of refer ring mankind to a law of nature or virtue.

in sense. ix And he can 337 see. sion. that effects c it is no more than that the most knowing are acquainted with.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST It ' always seems to me. seemed to Butler indispensable. nay. He finds a tendency of even in this world. But a second world under a righteous judge. favour of virtue and against vice/ True. is no objection against its having. that with Butler's sense that c the government of the world deep is carried on with his deep by general laws . ' essential nature of the thing. without determining. indeed. Our finding virtue to be hindered from procuring to itself its due superiority and advan in the tages. too. ' ' ' . Yet no one has spoken more truly and nobly than he. who should re dress the imperfect balance of things as they are of ' in 'this world. tendency to he says. in determinate Nature. which he can only describe as somewhat moral in the essential constitution of a declaration from the Author of as things and not to be evaded. general. or thinking that he had the means to determine. a procure them/ VOL. of the natural victoriousness of virtue. virtue to prevail. 'in z .' as an idea equivalent to the religious idea of the power of God. for as to causes. virtue But this is plainly a perver is often overborne. of our ignorance. they are as entirely in the dark as the ignorant/ difficulty in most he would have found no insuperable bringing himself to regard the power the law of virtue we are born under. whether this power was a quasi-human agent or not.

in a greater degree than they do in produce them. it is by obstacles which the state of this world unhappily throws in its way. the very expression which I have just 338 . and that it must be meant to come to pass in another world beyond the grave. ' degree of distributive justice. expression the kingdom of God. and made to depend upon it. cannot. as of reason. Now. decides that good men cannot ciently to However.' our happiness and misery are trusted is as it is to our conduct. in a : way which to our thoughts and our brings straight lips the Bibleunite . where 'this happy tendency of virtue/ as he calls it. be brought about in the present known course of nature.CHURCH AND RELIGION n the nature of things. is prevented for a time from taking place. whereas required for working this fully out * men are impatient and for precipitating things. ' .' There must be sufficient length of time the complete success of virtue. be otherwise than Still. a tendency in virtue and vice to produce the good and bad effects now mentioned. and which are in their nature And Butler supposes and describes temporary. which nature points out and leads towards.' And our comfort of hope is.' an ideal society upon earth. should at last higher come to to prevail. that though the fact is . therefore. from the nature of the thing. c . Butler now suffi it bring this better society about that cannot. however.' Length of time. the constitution of our nature gradual.

however little it may at present be usual with religious people to think so. whom he called God. it does certainly suggest a different conclusion from Butler's. we find the kingdom of God. and goodness will finally come to prevail in this present world so as to transform it. experimental sense of the truth of Christianity which is of the strongest possible kind. and what the Bible calls righteousness.' the disciples ' preaching the kingdom of God/ ' testifying concerning the kingdom of God/ And still in their Master's manner and words. This transform the great original idea of the Christian Gospel nay. ' . entirely in the Founder of Christianity. also. said Jesus Christ. the kingdom of God^ does certainly. . who believes that they are even now surely though slowly prevailing. 339 In like manner. it does suggest such transformation ation is as possible. and himself does all he can to help as he acquires in this way an the work forward. It does point to a transformation of this present world through the victory of what Butler calls virtue. and what in general religious people call goodness .' ' to follow him. ' ing ' ' about the kingdom of talked to the people He told the young man. it is properly the Gospel or good ' The kingdom of God is at hand/ news itself. so he the tradition and ideas of is.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST used. it is undeniable that whoever thinks that virtue when he first came preach and the good news/ Jesus believe repent. . to go and spread the news of In the Acts.

which are among things that his pen wrote before death brushed it from his hand for ever. have borne the embarrassed. to God. as St. is memoranda the last for his own use. who and immortality to light through the Gospel/ And could Butler. we insisted. I think. his work would not. and happier.CHURCH AND RELIGION whoever places immortal life in n to live. or underrate his consola The power of religion which actuated tions. Paul says. whose work has many precious and instructive pointings this way. which c apparent in it now. than the scheme of religion which he could draw out in his Nowhere does this power show itself books. more touchingly than in a fragment or two. with that higher and impersonal life on which. have boldly entered the way and steadily pursued it. profounder. him was. and even mournful character. overrate the mournfulness of this great man. however. does entirely conform himself to the doctrine and example of the Saviour of mankind. using divine nature and underscoring words of the Latin Vulgate which are more earnest and expressive than the and thirst after ' ! 340 . Jesus annulled death. ' Hunger ' till righteousness/ he writes. in speaking of selfand in thus no longer living love. to himself but living. as is the case with so many of us. and brought life Christ. filled with it by being made partaker of the And again he writes. better. coming even here in this present world. Let us not. inconclusive.

and the eyes of a maiden towards the hand of her mistress. sicut oculi ancilla domina suce^ ita oculi nostri ad Deum nostrum.' Let us leave Butler. after all our long scrutiny of him.ii BUTLER AND THE ZEIT-GEIST in words of our English version ' that place : Sicut oculi servorum intenti sunt dominorum suorum. until he have mercy upon us. even so are our eyes towards our God. with these for his last words ! ad manum ad manum . are bent towards the hand of their masters. As the eyes of servants donee misereatur nostri .

But meanwhile there comes to your President. and that to undertake its defence before a plain audience of working men would be hopeless. and presses me to comply with it this very 1 me my friend. 342 . on behalf of the Church of England. must be sought in reasons so extremely far-fetched.Ill THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND 1 I HAVE heard it confidently asserted. The following discourse was delivered as an address to the London clergy at Sion College. that only to see that highly trained and educated people can be made it has a possible defence at all. that the Church of England is an institution so thoroughly artificial. . if any justification for it can be found. It would be very interesting to try the experi ment and I had long had a half-formed design of endeavouring to show to an audience of working men the case. as I for my part con ceived it. and of which the justification. and reminds me of an old request of his that I should some day speak in this hall.

but troubled not their heads with what was the duty of the Scribes and Pharisees. a lecture on disestablishment.' And certainly one should not defend the Church of England to an audience of clergy and to an audience of artisans in quite the same way. John the Baptist told the soldiers what the soldiers should do.' Yet this is not so. an exhortation to ' happy despatch. but not of the absent. and they are the parties inter and to commend their own case to the ested . St. but what to may do its them most good is rather show them in this view. And be. to take that . subject ? : says Every minister ought to concern himself in the faults of them that are Jeremy Taylor ' present. though before a very different audience. interested is useless. case of the Church of England is supposed to be their own case. perhaps.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND And if I season. the profitable thing for the London clergy at Sion College to hear. how can I help remembering my old design of speaking about the Church of England remembering it. and being tempted. But perhaps one ought not to care to put at all before the clergy the case for the Church of England. parties defects. ought to preach to his hearers and urge their duty .' Every minister/ * he says again. and to the London clergy. am to speak at Sion College. for the simple reason that would 343 . and at this juncture. but rather one should For the bring before them the case against it.

so as to set them in a clear light to oneself again and to make sure of them. also a small minority of the nation. priety do this. members of the community. reasons for existing . cannot well. so neither will it be maintained to gratify the interest of the Public institutions must have public clergy. and if at any time there arise circumstances and dangers which induce a return to those reasons. the clergy may with just as much pro nay.CHURCH AND RELIGION the Church of England a national institution. are a very small minority of the nation. But some one will perhaps be disposed to say. as any other they are as much bound to do it. 344 . is m not a private sect but mistake than to There can be no greater the cause of the Church regard of England as the cause of the clergy. yet there is an impropriety in my defending it to A man who has published a good deal you. or assist at its being done. and the clergy as the parties concerned for the main The clergy tenance of the Church of England. As the Church of England will not be abolished to gratify the jealousy of this and that private sect. stand up before the clergy as a friend to their cause and to that Professed ardent enemies of the of the Church. it may be thought. that though there is no impropriety in your hearing the Church of England defended. which is at variance with the body of theological doctrine commonly received in the Church of England and commonly preached by its ministers.

sayings more readily to my mind because I have been our province is very busy with him lately. the science of improving the temper and making the heart This is the field assigned us to cultivate better. Perhaps that opinion is shared by some of those who now is hear me. the come whose province/ says Butler. says the suam ad emendationem disponunt. true religion.' . I make bold to It is founded totally erroneous. the only means which are really and truly effectual for the object through the means of the This plain Christian religion and of the Bible. //// sunt vert ' Imitation. say that it in an entire misconception of the character and scope of what I have written concerning religion. regard the Church of England as. true Christianity. Undoubtedly 345 .' qui totam vitam fdeles Tui. one of the worst enemies that the Church has. life and manners. a great national society for the promotion of what I is commonly called goodness^ and for promoting through the most effectual means possible. how much it has lain neglected is indeed aston He who should find out one rule to ishing. in fact. in their opinion. ' * virtue and religion. the is object of the undeniably practical object it : Our Church of England and of the clergy.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND that I Church have assured me am really. assist us in this work would deserve infinitely better of mankind than all the improvers of This is indeed other knowledge put together. a much worse enemy than them selves.

' we may all ' c 346 . motive to practice. ' ' which Butler And when assigns to it we will not quarrel.CHURCH AND RELIGION this it is m and feel so .' Bringing things to light to be is not spoken of. that of any avail to us. c us in the discharge of it.' and that men of research and curious inquiry should just be put in mind not to mistake what they are doing. or assistance in . I think. . or c assists says he. and the more we come to see to be so. Butler urges that knowledge is not our proper happiness. Perhaps he goes too far when he disparages it so absolutely ' ' as in another place ' Moses conclude. is of no things light. and appears in concluding.' If/ the discoveries of men of deep research and curious inquiry serve the cause of virtue and religion. the more shall we get a of clearness and certainty in religion. is exactly the sort of other knowledge which Butler disparages by compari son with a knowledge more important. is he does. Now. in the way of proof. with Still. errors in the dealings of theologians with it. quite in properly the low comparative rank this fashion. then unhappy but bringing they are most usefully employed and to alone of itself. to put a new construction happy sense upon many things that are said in the Bible. manner of use any otherwise than as entertain ment and diversion. less it or if they tend to render life and promote its satisfactions. where he makes to agree with Moses that the only knowledge^ which is which teaches us our duty. to point out errors in the Bible.

If the two are to conflict. writings which seek to put a new construction on much in the Bible. are times when practice itself. certainly biblical . or the demolition improved of the systems of theologians. with many 347 . to invalidate the conclusions of theologians from it. the promotion of goodness through the instrumentality of the Christian religion and of the Bible. even. do really and truly interest more. no one can very much give himself to such objects without running some risk of over valuing their importance and of being diverted itself assist avail to teach men their them in the discharge of it. by them from But there practice. I had rather that it should be the object and business of should have to give the establishment of an way. business of the clergy.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND And therefore is of us readily admit that his admonitions are wise and salutary. than the and business pursued those writings of mine which are in question. and do appear in in my eyes as things object more valuable and important.criticism. which is to in me duty and to assist them in it. to alter the current criticism of it. is endangered. large the promotion of goodness. which and the teach men their the discharge of the object of the Church. will never in those writings which Most duty or to Perhaps. when the very object of the Church and of the clergy.

It is evident that the author of such criticism. the criticism which I have attempted is designed to come in . and often their whole spirit is bewildered by them and their former hold on practice seems . and from the want of and better construction than theirs upon the Bible. their practical on the Bible to Christian something and universally salutary indispensable. far less hold upon as any substitute for a practical and the of at all com Bible. at least. Well for want of some such new hold criticism. that we had threatened. new put of this kind are all such. as holding this to be its relation to the object 348 . or Christianity The user may even. and resolve not to trouble ourselves with speculative questions of biblical and theological criticism. when. then. if he likes. No such in catch men a and season manner questions which does not depend on their own will. free to is my conviction. presented The religion criticism is not seems and on the be threatened. Nor better persons say of us stick to practice. in the risks which view having beset practice from the misemployment of such criticism. m systems a to from the predominance of the of theologians. parable value with it. at this point and for those persons. say while he uses it that he is but making himself friends through the mammon of unrighteousness.CHURCH AND RELIGION persons. And ours is a time .

but what may be resolved up Butler. 349 . II have called the Church of England. but should give to it a There may be very im public institution. . generally given find. Art and literature are very important things. then. reason real its I for it the promotion of goodness.' in the Supreme Being. after all. in Sermon Upon the Love of Our Neighbour. that they are things of which the whole community does not strongly feel the importance. is by no means constituted. . it is often urged. and art and literature. much and is in very human nature that what interests men much they should not leave to private and chance handling. and holding it so cheap by comparison with that object and that business.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND of the Church of England and to the business of the clergy. so Nothing goodness interests x . or precluded from feeling and expressing a hearty desire for their preservation. an enemy of the Church and clergy. are not matters of public institution in England The answer why. through the fact of his having published it. 1 * We have no clear conception of any positive moral attribute into goodness. to the plainest and most direct idea I could of give a great national society for existing. should religion be ? are not literature and art as far that so is. not portant things to which public institution is shall we turn it will but out. as people.

this is because the whole community has not felt them to be of vital interest and importance to it. It is true. notwithstanding. has the people at large felt art and literature to be necessaries of life. we to find have public organisation given to it. and where. as with us the people at large has felt religion literature to be. of . just like social order and security. in ancient Athens art matters of public and like In the religion. it cannot be said that religion does not interest people. That community was ancient Athens. had in this country been led to adopt the theory and the habit. novel. we the Atlantic. States were colonised by people who. In only one famous community. as it feels religion to be. from where special circumstances. And were and national institution. there is no public institution and organisation But that is because the United of religion. theory already The same is and there gave effect to it. then and who carried the separatism formed and habit into America.CHURCH AND RELIGION m matters of public institution like religion. to be said of some Their of our chief colonial dependencies. perhaps. communities 350 are made . because alone of spiritual concerns religion was felt by every one to interest the nation profoundly. had a regular nations of modern Europe alone of spiritual concerns. the see a great community across United States of America. Christian religion.

' surely. All be so. owing to certain old religious conflicts in this country. a standing he again and again insists. already. itself.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND up. Still. to me of an evidence and solidity quite indis The public institution of religion. their plain first impulse in the matter . of separatism The theory and the habit soon make a common form of religion seem a thing both impossible and undesirable . he says. in a remarkably large proportion. with a publicly instituted form like a city upon a of religion is. continually. putable. is a call serious of the Gospel. all this does not make the public institution of a thing so important as religion to be any the less the evident natural instinct of mankind. and without a common form of religion there cannot well be a public institu tion of it. both by example .' publication of therefore and to attend men to it/ upon A an effect very important and valuable. to the world of the memorial a hill. standing ' duty which we owe our 35i Maker . neither does in it make that first impulse to be a any the less in itself a just one. and whose practical view of things is seems almost always so sound and weighty. out of that sort and class of English people in whom the theory and habit of separatism exist formed. to call men and instruction. For that is just one it is said to make it out to ' ' ' visible Church. said whom I have already by Butler for instance. quoted.

CHURCH AND RELIGION to m attend to it. and the face of it has been kept up with great reverence throughout all ranks and without from the highest to the lowest a great . were religious reflec go on quietly an tions forced oftener upon less I consequently. has had. a society with a public character and a publicly instituted form of proceeding.' he says again. amendment. with Here. And yet with what enemies and dangers is this reasonable encompassed and natural arrangement now I here open the Fortnightly ! 352 . such as the Church of England in its fundamental design is. generally speaking. somewhat of this even worst among will nature. why a society for the promotion of goodness. if the thing were not already clear enough of itself. in his charge to the ' clergy of Durham. . should at the same time be a national society. and. probability of their say.' religion. and. piety will grow languid the better sort of men. and the in abandoned course. .' minds. to the reality to be the repository of the oracles of God to hold up the light of revelation in aid to that of nature. ' form of religion remind them of and conspicuous part in all public appearances. by the ever before their eyes. is surely abundant their reason suggested. and to propagate it throughout all generations to the end of That which men have accounted the world. with fewer interruptions from within than they would have.

Even the Tapers and Tadpoles of this party is rapidly politics must admit that becoming really formidable. he adds. Well. 1 1876. union between the most important groups of Liberals. It is is political movement the that has taken place in our time. Review in order to read the political summary. we are told. has . he the whole body of the Protestant Noncon But formists this is. of the Church of England the very Spirit of Time which agitation. that I am ' told in the summary the is disestablishment a question borne on into The Spirit of Time is a the first place/ personage for whose operations I have myself the greatest respect whatever he does. of the gravest effect. and to find there what lines of agitation are in to prospect political for us. one subject on which you are most certain of having a crowded meeting in any large the one bond of It is town in England. indeed. is.nr THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND for the 1 beginning of the present year.' Then our says. And he has borne. in my opinion. sure be written with ability and vigour. a thing of course. the question of the disestablishment of the Church of England into the very first rank of questions in agitation. writer proceeds to enumerate the It forces of his party. are almost certainly . comprises practically. the Wesleyans. IX 353 2 A . VOL. too.' continues the least factitious of any ' The the ' summarist.

exasperated by State connivance From within the Church gradually coming allies : with a Romanising reaction . secondly. and vigorous health of conscience. but is already strongly and 354 . Not a single leader of the . The Church does indeed.CHURCH AND RELIGION about to join it . thing could not well be more forcibly and the prospect for the Established stated. and.' says. apart from personal or local considera tions of accidental force. religious portion would follow the policy of the sect to which the individual happened to belong while that which is not attached either to church portion or chapel. are beginning to see that the straining to make the old bottles of rite and formulary hold the wine of new thought withers up intellectual manliness. both in those who practise these economies and in those whom their moderation fascinates. as thus presented. that a laity in a Free Church would hold the keys of the treasury. Evangelicals. straightforward ness. As for the working * the writer the classes. and would therefore be better able than they are now to secure liberality of doctrine in their clergy . seem black enough. with any pretence to a repre sentative character. while of the Catholics calculated that two-thirds would vote for it ' m is the policy of taking away artificial advantages from a rival hierarchy/ itself (he goes on) there are of each of the three colours Sacramen talists. But we have still to hear of the of the disposition great body of the flock. would certainly go for disestablishment. who are beginning to see. weary of the Erastian bonds of Parliament and the Privy Council . Broad Churchmen. industrial class. first. of ' the working multitudes.

but let us understand. . I think. to Dissent. and other distinctly things should be treated as secondary and con ' Let us reform our electoral tributory to it. but it is the living and leading part of the whole to which it Its sentiment tends to become. the writer argues. machinery. overwhelming in numbers. is in fact a cause to which a greater number of Radicals of all kinds may be expected to rally than to any other cause whatever/ And there fore this cause should be made by all Liberals. no attachment which has them. but which is simply zealous about social and This part may not be political questions. ment is unalterably hostile to the Church of such England. is the estrange of that part of ment of the working classes. the real object. so far from being cause the the forlorn crusade of a handful of fanatics.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND * pledged/ And the conclusion is. that we only seek this because we seek something else the disestablishment of the Episcopal Church in Such is the programme of what calls England. by all means. with belongs. then far the the question of disestablishment 355 is. if the character of the Church is that this must needs be so and remain so. and make others understand. too. that of disestablishment. the sentiment of the whole.' says he. If its senti time.' most formidable force in the array By of dangers which this critic has mustered to threaten the Church of England.' ' : itself ' scientific liberalism.

them favouring immobility. does not in here in the Christian religion. reserving transformation in ing for the other side of the grave. that 356 . a in short. a devoted obsequiousness to the landed and propertied and satisfied classes. general Such a Church. The ideal of the < a future shall working classes is a future. classes generally communists are fierce. But if we say. in joke. because we see that . on the one hand. I admit. on earth. cannot possibly nowadays attach the working classes. nay. that the Bible utterly condemns all violence. then we may safely say. a good coming. revolt. insurrectionary people. not up in the sky. stand. fierceness.CHURCH AND RELIGION settled. The Church does not get it from the Bible. violent. with temper and actions abhorrent to the spirit of the Bible. but also to the propertied and satisfied for social . which profoundly change and ameliorate things . But certainly the superstitious worship of existing social facts.' And the Church an to be is supposed appendage to the Barbarians.assertion. preach and submission. as their song transformation time goes. m The Church of England cannot. an immense social progress. or be viewed with anything but disfavour by them. an as I have somewhere. Exception is taken to its being said that there is com munism in the Bible. ' . in the long run. on the other hand. and self. called it institution devoted above all to the landed gentry.

The the Bible enjoins endless self-sacrifice truth is. propertied And the Christian Church has. idea. what But listen " I '"This dog belongs to me" " that children place in the sun poor Behold the beginning and the image of to Pascal. have been exempt from this superstition. to his estates : 357 .in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND is communism in the Bible. impossible. so I leave them on one side. open. having grasped this the reverent devotedness is to the and satisfied classes. the poets and the saints. and the line is natural to it and which will one day prevail in it. which the The Christian tone of the saints. been those inspired idiots. is to be judged from the saints and in the end. from their great Church. and to any one who has grasped all round this idea. if there have been any people in the world free from and divine illusions about the divine origin sanctions of social facts just as they stand. Nobody nowadays attends much to the poets say. the superstitious worship of property. said these is mine all usurp ation upon earth ' ! Listen to him instructing the young Duke of Roarmez as to the source and First as sacredness of his rank and his estates. Now really. to the popular hopes of a pro it has found renovation and a happier future. there certainly . listen to a saint on the origin of property . they take their line men. Institutions are to be judged by their great men . therefore. I boldly say. been the fruitful parent of men who. .

these possessions. Why ? because such has been men's will and pleasure. after having been held by your father during his lifetime. there the youngest son. per haps. comes the turn of the rank There are two sorts of grandeurs in the world . in another commoners . grandeurs which men have set up. They are poured out in full flood on the superstitious awe in question. A different turn of imagination in the law-makers would have and it is only that combination of the chance left you poor which produces your birth with the turn of fancy producing law advantageous to you. speaks a great voice of religion without any superstitious awe of rank The treasures of Pascal's scorn and of property are boundless. who may have had good reasons for what they did. But in what secular we find anything to match them ? 358 . you would have had no Thus your whole title to your property from nature. And then. country they honour nobles.CHURCH AND RELIGION Do you imagine (he says) m that it is by some way of nature that your property has passed from your ancestors to you ? Such is not the case. certainly. but a title of human creation. too writer shall overwhelmingly. and they are magnificent. If they had chosen to ordain that this property. whether they are not poured out on it too ! cruelly. but not one of their reasons was taken from any natural right of yours over these possessions. which makes you the master of all ground is for complaint. This order is but founded on the simple will and pleasure of legislators. the property having been dealt : with. and natural grandeurs. The only doubt may be. The grandeurs which men have set up depend on the will and pleasure of men. In one Dignities and nobility are grandeurs of this kind. There. title not a . should revert to the commonwealth after his death. here the eldest son.

some one If there say. John Morley. by the way.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND will is Ay. or in what saint or doctor.' says Mr. is the ally of tyranny.' You will observe. of the Church of England ? a stronghold of stolid deference to the illusions of the aristocratic and propertied classes. as would have so influenced men's dealings in regard to each other as to prevent our present misery and suffering. the Church of England. There of touching thing to witness. is 359 . the champion of ! intellectual bondage. complainants I wish/ Mr. Goldwin I wish Smith. the complaint which ' ' ' ' sion. is that stronghold. It is complaint against creates its most serious danger. that the complaint the real sufferers. as they think themselves. of the us the give opinion clergy could not take money from the employ ing classes and put it into the pockets of the employed but they might have insisted on such a humane consideration and Christian regard for human welfare. There is like the nothing having very words of the in themselves a case of this sort. says the clergy would consider whether something of the decline of Christianity may not be due to the fact that for ages Christianity has been accepted by the clergy of the Established Church as the ally of political and social injustice/ The Church of England. the organ of social oppres the the most formidable Church.' and the Beehive shall ' The rank and file. many people will maintain. and it is a are the leaders .

instead of contending with them. together with all other infelicities and inconveniences) were the by-blows of our guilt . particularly to prevent the strife and whence 360 . or according to primitive design. I say once more that every Church is to be judged by its great men. They lay hold. to this on 'the seem enormous discrimination/ as the speaker ingly calls it. They survive. on the minds of Churchmen to whom they come down. so charitable as we should be. so just. ': That is it ? seemeth so which thou standest upon. I say. 'among men distinction vast. Inequality and private interest in things (together with sicknesses and pains. then. and created so much mischief in the world . and which between thy poor neighbour and thee. and in proportion to their impressiveness and truth. it begot those ingrossing and inclosures of things . God. what did it come ? whither tends it ? It is not any wise natural. meum and tuum^ which have engendered so much strife among men. Listen. indeed (for promoting some good ends and for prevention of some mischiefs apt to spring from our ill-nature in this our lapsed state. the upshot of the complaint is the same with both. brooded by our fault. and are in great part fostered and maintained thereby . especially in that measure they do. m calm and mild how milder than the invective of their literary leaders Still. it devised the names of rich and poor . Theirs are the much ! authoritative utterances. these preternatural distinctions were. The Church shares and serves the prejudices of rank and property.CHURCH AND RELIGION in a strain comparatively . for were we generally so good. they could hardly subsist. sooner or later. Now. sin introduced these degrees and distances . it forged those two small pestilent words. They strike the note to be finally taken in the Church.

and perpetuity of existing is not the authentic tradition of the Church of England. He has been observing that Christianity. and property. Church. perfectness.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND disorder which scrambling would cause among men. ' : 361 . that it should carry Suffer me. a belief in the divine ap pointment.' Here is the great lesson And he proceeds : ' . sober-minded. station. quoting to you Jeremy Taylor and Butler and social arrangements. Who who says that ? It . after the working classes with it. a fascinated awe of class-privileges. then. doth suffer them in some manner to continue . Well. is it is one of the eminently representative men of the English Church. It is important to insist upon this. as he calls them whom the State and religion neglected equally. esteemed And it is Barrow in the full blaze of the Restora tion. because no institution with these prejudices could possibly carry the work And it is necessary for the ing classes with it. But what I orthodox personage am going to quote from him is profoundly true. presuming on equal right and parity of force). Renan. important for the Church to feel and avow it. in his Hospital Sermon of 1671. but we mistake if we think that natural all equality and the word community is so cantonised are in effect quite taken away . its best and soundest moralist a man it is Barrow. had an immense attraction for the popular the popular classes classes. weighty. . if it is to live. Pascal and Barrow. at its outset. or that among a few that the rest have no share therein. to quote to you a much less M.

the Church tends. * . it is true. very great.CHURCH AND RELIGION of this history to m our own age the times another the future will correspond belong to that party which can get hold of the 'But in popular classes and elevate them. and its disadvantages insisted upon. also the ideal of our religion. in view of a power of comprehending popular ideals and sympathis ing with them. for for their physical well-being in But this is not enough without countless ways. one hears this lamented. an the great popular is. and the Church is the right power to do it. yet in itself it it is is observe. And have said. one . sympathy with popular ideal as I ideals. I think.' But the thing is great. And let precious. a far better and happier society in the future Mixed with all manner of than ours is now. people say. But. and a positive for their classes . They Sometimes recruited from a wider field. to to Now. alloy and false notions this ideal often is.' M. it has. difficulty has to be done. No one can overlook or deny the immense labours and sacrifices of the clergy for the improvement of the condition of the popular. immense renovation and transformation of things. the difficulty is far And this is true the greater than it ever was. are the working instance. at become more mixed and popular than present it used be in the composition of its clergy. for . Renan adds. 362 me It . schools. its advantage.' our days.

' Into of God. the business of our religion to make us it is the business believe in this very ideal of the clergy to profess and to preach it.in is THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND .' He ' be proclaimed in the whole world.' righteousness news of it should be published throughout the ' This good news of the kingdom shall world. Thy told them to seek and He come kingdom Seek first God's study it before all things. for a witness And it was a kingdom here on to all nations/ 363 . the good news of God and saying proclaiming The time is fulfilled and the kingdom of God is at hand repent and believe the good news. or good news. and what passes with us for the gospel.' turn on quite other matters from the fundamental matter of the primitive gospel. say to them The king dom of God has come nigh unto you. This gospel was the ideal of popular hope and longing. how en our religious teaching and preaching. ' : : ' ! kingdom of God. of our Saviour himself. Jesus went about the cities and villages 'pro claiming the good news of the kingdom.' spread the news of the kingdom whatever city ye enter.' the : . and told his disciples to preach this. In this view it is really well to consider. an immense renovation and transformation of things tirely ' : 'Jesus came into Galilee kingdom of God. said that the He and kingdom.' The multitudes followed him.' He told ' to pray his disciples to pray for it. and he took them and ' talked to them about the Go thou. and our creeds.

and the name of Jesus Christ* him 'delivering (to the eunuch) the good news of Jesus.' Christ's death and resurrection. True. at Ephesus. delivers the good news concerning the * kingdom of God.' He tells the proclaims the kingdom of God. so on earth. faith in Christ and crucified and risen. ' that he is the Son of God] proving that he is the Christ? putting.' the good news of the kingdom of God. 5 m was preaching went on for our Saviour's death. And therefore the preaching concerning Jesus had necessarily to be added to the preaching concerning the kingdom. 364 . not in some other world unseen.' Paul. Philip. The The kingdom of God was impossible realisable only through Jesus. ' in God's will done. I freely admit. additions soon to the original gospel. The kingdom was to be won through in Christ crucified and risen. Accordingly. we find Philip deliver ing the good news concerning the kingdom of We find God. it. he ' testifies to the kingdom of God.' Corinthians that Christ sent him not to baptize but to deliver the good news. in ' Samaria. as the foremost matter of the ' good news. c We c ' ' . which explain appear in this line the after And some time ' c how preaching came to diverge from additions were inevitable. discusses and persuades concerning the kingdom of God.' At Rome. in the And. plain material sense of those words. as heaven.' find Paul proclaiming Jesus .CHURCH AND RELIGION It earth. was without Jesus.

it. or to leave in the one primitive gospel.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND ' ' the kingdom was conceived by the the as triumphant return of Christ. does imply an immense renovation and trans that is formation of our actual state of things certain. or of the German Anabaptists.' it was therefore. which is the ideal of the . how thus. to the the good news of an primitive gospel immense renovation and transformation of this world. the good background. Yet whoever reverts to . but by the establishment on earth : of God's righteousness.' the establishment This was the ideal of Jesus on earth of God's kingdom. to moreover. not by the violent processes of our Fifth Monarchy men. 365 . judge the world and saints. This. or of the French Communists. came more and more its to drop. amiss hardly possible for them But we can readily understand not to do so. in apostles of the lifetime the very generation then living. I say. by the establishment of what the Sermon on the Mount calls (in the most authentic reading is which of the passage) ' God's righteousness and kingdom. then. with his the conceived disciples kingdom. of felicity. and does not also take into view the establishment of the And the establishment of the kingdom kingdom. news of the kingdom^ and to settle on other points. reverts. But it is a contracted and insufficient concep tion of the gospel which takes into view only the establishment of righteousness. Christian preaching to reign in glory ' The . as time went on.

And a Church of England. from the Church of England. or from the secularists. m is of the multitude everywhere. from a representative man among the clergy of that But it is important that the clergy. by accustoming themselves to see that the ideal is the true original ideal of their religion and of its Founder. persuaded. wealthy. if it is right on this head. I feel convinced. nothing to fear either from Rome. sympathy does. the most clear voice one could even desire in favour of such an ideal is found to come. of the popular classes it is also out of the of with which the ideal gospel. as we have seen. it has. If the Church of England is right here. Church. because of its extreme importance. I think. as a body. I am ideal . a legitimate ideal. But. coincide with theirs. and 366 . any of them who may require such bring ing. perfectly satisfied with things as they are. devoted to the service and ideals of any limited however distinguished. should sympathise heartily with that And this they can best bring themselves ideal. or from the Protestant Dissenters. in the main. or power is which ful. True. it may. to do.CHURCH AND RELIGION popular classes. I have dwelt a long while upon this head. is not only out of sympathy with the class. unless it And it It cannot. flourish and be strong with their sympathy. stand secure has the sympathy of the popular classes. cannot have the sympathy of the popular classes unless it is right on this head.

good humour of the English people. and acquaint themselves a little with religion. and it is almost is too late for However. now that they see its day by no means over. But. ently to a them to begin such new wave of religious reaction over studies. piety. so serious. which they were themselves And per particularly strong. half Bentham. For perhaps the younger men of the party may take heart of grace. one could hardly help smiling at the and manifest of such of one's chagrin perplexity friends as happen to be philosophical Radicals and secularists. and a kind of new gospel. in be compassionated than an elderly or middleaged man of this kind. such as several of their Parliamentary spokesmen and representatives are. is evid passing Europe . due very much our revolutionary and philosophical friends having insisted upon it that religion was gone by and unnecessary.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND what Burke. there no one more is who deserves to haps half Cobden. and that they need not study it any more or take account of it any more. was coming in. for the older ones. at having to reckon with religion man. For it has that gifted Irish and inbred and integrity. so finely the ancient again when they thought its day was quite gone by.' It has an ally in the If the matter were not English people's piety. when it was neither the one 367 . but it was passing out. their mental habits are formed. calls ' with that of the nation natural allies in in general. good nature.

the leaders of parties will certainly be able to serve themselves of that superstition. and likewise lays us under the the contrary. superstition laying hold of those who seemed the last people likely to be laid hold of by it. up that place in the mind which superstition would usurp. and by its general prevalence the evil will be For the common people. does not one see at the present day. amongst creatures naturally formed for religion. which is getting ground . and that it should prosper. instance. such as religion. the danger strongest obligations to oppose it. of superstition cannot but be increased by the prevalence of irreligion . superstition is an evil which But even against this.CHURCH AND RELIGION nor the other. and elsewhere. in the very places where irreligion had prevailed most. yet so much under the power of imagination. as men are. wanting a religion. 368 . true religion can never be out of sight. and in process of time. . you prophecy (if of really are not yet tired of Butler) read : makes some words Indeed (he says). And how even a superstitious one. amidst the infinite vicissitudes of the political world. and politicians making their game out of this state of Yet that there should spring up in things ? for Paris. will surprise no one who considers how strong is the need in human nature for a moral rule and bridle. a Catholic Working Men's Union. so apt to deceive themselves. affords and the Paris workman was without entirely La Rochefoucauld. Butler like a m And what one sees in France. and the only one. unavoidable. True religion takes is a great security . and so leaves little room for it . who anything of the kind. whatever it be. and will not fail to carry it on to the utmost lengths their occasions require. will of course take up with almost any superstition which is On thrown in their way .

and morbid restlessness VOL. makes our popular classes very unapt to cheat themselves in religion. there as is in this it. ix 369 2 B . plain honesty. I say Higher up. sentiment and fantasy. And less Paris workman to swallow Undoubtedly. with individuals. is a real need of human nature above all. and to swallow things down wholesale out of sentiment. Rome was not a real danger for us. and that in the integrity of the English people the Church of England had a this in view of the popular natural ally. driven with the wind and it is religious obedience. there are in the popular classes of every country forces of piety and religion capable of being brought into an alliance with the Church. hard to a beliefs which one would have thought impossible for him. Burke calls native people an fund of which downrightness. then. like a wave of the sea. integrity. or even out of weariness of moral disorder and from need And therefore I said that of a moral rule. classes. most It is harder to says truly keep oneself from being governed than to govern others. and even with small classes. moral and ' .in is THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND here a witness : whom no one will challenge.' Obedience. tossed. Still. strange as it may -sound. the national society for the promotion of goodness in that country. than to go on in life and conduct in unchartered freedom. And of no people may this be more certainly said than of ours. English a integrity.

the doctrine. But with the popular classes and with the English people as a whole. ' intellectual veracity. should we desire To take in and to digest such to be deceived ? a sentence as that. of a future state all. of Butler's Things are what and the they are. yet careful at the same time to warn us. in a theologian. intensely yet Butler came to because at the bottom after which of rewards and punishments. impossible to be carried into effect) but show me in another Church a theologian arguing thus. And Butlerian as the sentence it is. of his nature lay such a fund of integrity.CHURCH AND RELIGION m and weariness. because he is English . and what it is sometimes reproached for being : a reasonable Establishment. said. is an education in moral and . . and in the sense. I men. then. Show me another great Church. it is in favour of the Church that it is what Butler called it. again. consequences of them will be what they will be why. I must confess. * splendide verax. let us suppose. have other by their great Churches are characterised. may come in. I know of no other Establishment reasonable. And good so it is a reasonable Establishment. may yet properly be made to sway his conduct and practice (a recommendation which seems to me. that we have no business to tamper . Show me any a great Church of which : chief doctor and luminary has a sentence like this sentence. arguing that a religious doctrine of the truth of which a man is not sure.

all the constituents assigned to the English people's our people's piety.' he says.' The force of integrity. To this absence of charlatanism. but above all. so much sincere desire as there is in the Church of England. to this pressing to the genuine root of the matter. so much disposition to see and to admit with Butler. say. their good humour.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND with our sense of evidence. That the Church should show a like in clination. Butler says To be influenced. good nature. I believe. in as well as in to clergy laity. is And. in regard to such points and to the root of the whole matter in religion. in no other great Church is there. by believing the doctrine any the more on the ground of its For this is what practical importance to us. their tegrity. Equally are these constituents of the English false . I can no farther go. to this largeness of view. to believe or indeed as much prejudice upon as anything whatever. distracted as is opinion amongst us at this the state of religious moment. that ' mankind are for placing the stress of their religion any where rather than upon virtue/ and that man kind are wrong in so doing. contribute to incline them. their integrity. their in nature by Burke. little pretence of assured knowledge and certainty on points where there can be none . this consideration in it. is in its favour as a National Church. by ' c : disbelieve our judgment. get at the real In no other great Church is there so truth.

But surely. that a certain Church-order is alone scriptural and is therefore necessary. be clear that the contention no longer is. the moment we consider religion . . a Dissenters. for the Dis the present moment. the nation in general will no longer regard this contention The as serious. At any rate. A and Christianity a Church as all in a large way as goodness. are not favourable judges. Church as regards sense grievances and for their operations.CHURCH AND RELIGION character. men's eyes as a city set upon a before society 372 . for their senters at naturally springs from them. and a society for the promotion of that is said about having such a goodness. while the Church does not. and largeness good-naturedness of mind. serious contention is. that there ought to be per and that fect religious equality. I think. of piety and religion in the nation is to be And I suppose it to supposed to start with. as it is called the State ought not to adopt. and the way of thinking which in favour of the the attacks of the political Plain directness of thinking. even on the part of the Dissenters themselves. one form of religion out of the many forms that are current. and that the Dissenters make it so to consist. and by adopting to favour and elevate above the rest. not of the Church the Gospel consists in one or two famous pro positions of speculative doctrine. even if some Dissenters do. and that it is that of or that the Dissenters.

and whether they are or no. as Butler says. form of A reasonable establishment has] surely. equally concerned in promoting that end/ then. Upon the whole. and quite impossible upon such as every one would think unexceptionable/ which is scarce practicable think ours liable possible they themselves may be mistaken.' But what seems to me quite certain is.in hill.' That seems to the plain language of think what follows is true also 'And it is more over necessary for the encouragement of learning. And I c ' ' do it more effectually they it . is certainly 373 . to : me to be no more than common sense. some parts of which the Scripture -revelation absolutely requires should be cultivated. these far they persons would do well to consider how can with reason satisfy themselves in neglecting of what is what is right on account as for such. if goodness is the end. the very nature of society requires some compliance with others. a tendency to keep in up a sense of real religion and real ' which seems best suited even though it may not be and putting that forward as the national that ' religion. therefore. and all good men are/ as Butler says. applies in favour of the State adopting some form of more and more about making the Gospel religion or other. as ' to objection. perfect . that. Christianity a nation. to the majority. THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND all that is said a witness to mankind. ought to unite in yet promoting upon any new models. it And he says. as he goes on to conclude.

after they .' Henry More. which by its good nature and good humour has a natural turn for it. which is the case of our English Church.CHURCH AND RELIGION m doubtful whether it be wrong .' And the more a large way of thinking comes to spread in this nation. that same effect. effectual. the more will this view come to prevail. beautiful ' A spirit. more in it. At least. and it is the ground which the largest amongst us have always pitched the most moderate upon. of men and the most disposed to comprehension.' Here Butler seems to me to be on impregnable ground. is exactly to the a little religion may make man a schismatical. said but they had narrow souls. Those of the separation were good men. fore. who would break the and surest spirits Sir Matthew Hale. and ought to stronger that to make its operations. It will be acknowledged that the Church is a society for that such a society the promotion of goodness for is the being national. there be national . all good men ought to unite and that the objections of the Protestant Dissenters to uniting in it are trivial. but a great deal will surely make man decline division where things are tolerable. annoyance and mortification 374 at having. . * : peace of the Church about such inconsiderable matters as the points in difference were. and when the right is of so much greater consequence one way than the supposed wrong can be the other. their religious objections to uniting Their objections from the in it are trivial.

But. the more will the present attitude. which. And many preferences. yet urged in Radicals in To and complaints are. will be more and more distinctly perceived that their objections truly. the whole community may and must establish. as men's minds grow larger.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND have once separated and set up forms of their own. may well be studied and followed. all But that will above of the prevent the objections and complaints from and from Dissenters winning sympathy in the second place. the sense of the beauty and rest of religion. to speak and objections and complaints. the sense that its charm lies in its grace and peace. But the more the sense this will seem nothing. who think that religion is all a chimera. is given for the sake of it. for its own sake and for what it judges to be the public good. and their allegations of their natural jealousy at having to see. whose political aid is valuable. or out of philosophical Parliament. in the first place. to give in and to accept the established form. the whole community. irreligious the sphere of religion. 375 . and of religion in a large way. not of those preferred. and that in a matter so little important the fancies of the Dissenters. if they do not accept the clergy preferred before them by being invested with the status of national ministers these objections are much more of religion of note. is that. what worthy ever preference is given. it attaining effect. of religion grows.

Chamberlain. and the rest of his band then from time to time he comes up to the metropolis. that in any proffered terms of union they are more . and gives a public ex And a very powerful hibition here of his skill. the will be likely to seize occasion for fresh cavil than But the new generations occasion for peace. want of grace and peace in disputing the ground with Dissent. 376 .CHURCH AND RELIGION objections. m and complaints of the Dissenters indispose men's minds to them. for being men of war in a And they turn sphere of grace and peace. is. where he does with Mr. and division. Dale is unfeignedly admire : really a pugilist. Mr. He has his Birmingham. He that being constrained to stand on his defence. ground they hold of the new generations. the justice of what Barrow says more and more is felt c : assaulted . Jesse and Collings. They will.' But the Dissenters have not this. who is much before the public. and whose abilities I Mr. Dale. and Mr. to London. I fear. Church's excuse. themselves into men of war more and more. In most of the mature Dissenters the spirit of scruple. And the Times observes. objectiontaking. As to the Church's will be otherwise minded. Look at one of the ablest of them. may not be said to be in peace yet his not being so (involuntarily) is not to be imputed to him. it performance often is. practice . so ingrained. I lose will not keep firmly believe. a his arena down at brilliant pugilist.

Dale's intellectual muscles what I am a . of practice is just the right thing for bracing a man's in I have no fears tellectual muscles. peace busy with his anti-Church practice. and the less has the Church to fear from their pugnacious self-assertion. come to place it in sheer goodness. and one's rights. and the clergy have to desire. instead of always thinking about one's freedom. Mr. to be. in grace and peace. for the time and energy given to his pugilistic interludes. the less I think. yet his cultivation of grace and peace can be none the better. The And essence of religion is grace and peace.' is the very temper of will arbitrary Butler says. concerning Mr.in THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND this sort that the chief Dissenting ministers are becoming quite the intellectual equals of the ablest of the clergy. when he at other is not times. instead of placing little their religion in all manner of things where it is not. to eschew self-assertion. favourable will public opinion be to the pro ceedings of the political Dissenters. with the English people. And the more that mankind. ' and one's equality. and and this is the tendency. Very likely . religion. and must naturally be something the worse. no doubt. Indeed. uneasy about is his religious temper. Dale cultivates grace and though. to be. hear to the clergy of London may well bear 377 What . as as much afraid of subjection to mere and pleasure in ourselves as to the will arbitrary of others.

and to end. as regards this vexed question of burials. and often was. has been the opening afforded. as a body. the need for further occupying themselves with public good. in the special circumstances of this I do not believe it would be country. One can hardly speak about the Church at this moment without touching on the Burials Bill. it seems to me. m have. that Christ sent him not to but to the baptize. were also given. is an occasion for remembering c St. if the option of silent funerals. to do. Give me leave to say. Paul's dictum. action at all . What 378 .' If this preach exclusion were wholly abandoned. necessary to do more. intelligence. good news.CHURCH AND RELIGION this. surely. the exercise of mere arbitrary will and pleasure in the individual clergyman. in the exclusion of unbaptized persons. for sensible people. is the character of simple instruments for the who they have to shun. that the dangerous thing to the Church. and of funerals with a shortened service. This. ought certainly to be abandoned and here. I think as much would have been done as it is for the public advantage (I put the advantage of the clergy out of question altogether. they have none but that of the community). to the exercise of what might always seem. been so honourably distinguished for their moderation and their what the clergy have to aim at. is their the appearance of mere having arbitrary will and pleasure of the individual. in order to remove all real sense of grievance.

which the attachment inspires it will as nothing be will that is. . it will inspire attachment. last. : And and peace oneself. I became ever. one feels that it is not one's business to go on for ever expostulating with other people upon their waste of life. but temper and strifes . I. by fidelity to reason. not on its powers of force. by cultivating to grace and peace. being by particular circum stances to remark the deteriorating effect of the my I my of Dissent upon good men. but on its powers of to attractiveness. And by opening itself the glow of the old and true ideal of the Christian the Gospel. as long as this nation. How ever. now leave this question. be sure.in this THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND And whole barren and retarding question of Church and Dissent. to make progress in grace this is the real business of the : Church of England has certainly some perhaps But its true strength is in relying. a good deal. for part. led from will. Church. deep though . by placing stress of its religion on goodness. but by comprehension and union. 379 . the lamentable waste of power and usefulness and from being which was thereby caused convinced that the right settlement was to be not by disestablish reached in one way only ment. for engaged in it against hope. it which now. too Force the to make progress in grace and peace. as one grows old.

such an and that it would be for the advantage assertion of the Church to abandon this right. and not unfrequently was. as much would have been conceded to the Dissenters. resembled an arbitrary assertion of his own private will and pleasure should be shunned by that the exercise of his right clergyman of refusing burial to unbaptized persons often resembled.IV A LAST IN a WORD ON THE BILL College I BURIALS moment on my address at Sion touched for the now much of the Burials Bill. and if the option of a silent service. that whatever to concede. I added that if this were done. in the matter of burials. Mr. were also given. in place of the present Burial Service. . finally. as justice requires. or of a shortened service. be found necessary to concede. discussed question I observed. I think. as much as it is for the public interest a . But much more than this is claimed for the Dissenters. Osborne Morgan's Bill lays 380 . and as much as it will.

and practice. treated it too. really seem late in the day to have to prove that the imposition of a service at variance A with the whole course of a man's life. will be no injustice or untruth. in the debate on Lord Granville's resolution as a upon the subject of burials. or to choose his own pursuits. let Lord Selborne. Osborne Morgan's Bill down. just as he has a right to dress as he likes. is an injustice and an untruth. Englishman has a right to worship in the style he thinks truest and best. and the incumbent cease to intrench himself in the vain illusion of an inviolable churchyard in a parish which has long ceased to be his exclusive domain.' And the Times says in recommenda tion of Mr. matter quite clear and self-evident. being in accordance with his or their It does wishes. that to deny this right to Dissenters was a violation of the established English principle of religious liberty : Is there any conceivable logical answer (he asked) to the observation. minister then (concludes the Times) enter the churchyard. and what.iv ON THE BURIALS c BILL and right to permit the performance parish churchyards of other burials than those of the Church of England. to select his own acquaint An Let the Dissenting ances. and have his own say over his own spiritual son or daughter . that in these cases you deny after death that in every other respect is given to the religious liberty which You deny this deceased during the whole of their lives? in the present state of things in two ways by refusing : liberty to them the by in their own way. opinions. and by other persons than the ministers of that Church. that it is just in : just legislature has to put the business on the basis of It will consider what a Dissenter or his justice and truth. and liberty of being religious of the them being religious in your necessity imposing upon 381 . friends desire.

A number of clergymen. will who of the established principle of religious liberty go more and more with those complain of this grievance. it is argued.' says the Times of the clergymen's We ' proposal. necessity of nature.' to recognised minister a reasonable concession to the feelings c grant permission to a religious body funeral service consisting of passages of Holy But absolute Scripture. with such observances as the principles of his communion may prescribe. he must be 382 buried. it is to be apprehended^ of the essential nature of a Nonconformist^ to suppose that he would ever pledge himself to conform to anything.CHURCH AND RELIGION way. and these limita c tions are evidently inconsistent with it.' * while every other public incident of a man's life must be optional. feelings of the great majority of the laity (Lord when it is brought home to them that there this violation in dealing with interments. is iv The Selborne adds). which the necessity of nature compels him to use. are afraid. prayers. many of them bear ' ing names well known and respected. restriction leaves out of account some communities for whose rights the supporters of the Bill would contend as But it is a strenuously as for those of others. misapprehension. have pro posed. Yes. as of Nonconformists. that even this with the most liberal interpretation.' And .' ' For. and hymns/ representative of any to perform in the churchyard a or liberty is the right claimed. The essence of his demand is to claim free access to sacred places.

fectly disinterested. is con ceded to Dissenters. contends the Times to exactly the same Lord Selborne. than what natural justice and the of religious liberty recognised English principle almost is what universally con require. c let the natural necessity of burial be once admitted. no like myself. have They. is a reason why in England too the clergyman cease to intrench should. And here again. and have Dissenting own his over his own say spiritual son or ' ' ' .' I have been asked. and the necessity of according religious freedom in the satisfaction of it must inevitably be allowed. except Spain. and than ceded in the rest of Christendom ? And I am asked this by those who approach the ques in a spirit per tion. then.' Finally. with their own services and their own ministers. I Dissenters themselves and their friends demand. it is said that in all other Christian countries. than what some of the best of the clergy offer to concede. the right of burying their dead in the parish churchyard. of an inviolable illusion vain in the himself churchyard in a parish which has long ceased should let the to be his exclusive domain the enter minister ground. daughter. a in it to serve by answering way political object 383 . how the concession which suffi spoke of at Sion College can be thought the than less what much so it is when cient.iv ON THE BURIALS BILL effect as therefore. as the Times says. just as I approach it myself.

moreover. and bears with it a public character. They simply want to get the question answered in a way to . without the least touch of ecclesiastical bias. credit and advantage from it if public gets The done worthily. is compromised and harmed by it if it is done unworthily. popular. I return for a moment to this matter of burials. II the intention of ceremonial and ministration is What all ? forms of public It is. And. feelings of the Dissenters are strongly interested. before finally leaving the satisfy their own minds and is what whole question of Church and Dissent that I may not seem to be leaving it with a curt and inconsiderate judgment on a matter where the . The it is public is responsible for it. find out consciences. hand. of performing public functions in places invested with a public character is not left to the will and pleasure of chance individuals. want to the really right and reasonable course to pursue. And for their satisfaction. on the other taking thing so to answer it. should be done and said worthily. It to is rise above the level expressly designed 384 . The mode. there fore. they have no need to bid for the support of the clergy they are. and also for my own. they do not care whether or not it is the liberal-looking.CHURCH AND RELIGION iv favourable to the Dissenters. that what is done and said in a public place.

are designed to take a kind of schooling. noble. of all forms for public use on the design ently serious and solemn occasions. there emerges the requirement On VOL.hand pure. is evid public and representative. public forms. the English to old and than more attachment to save us from it. No one will say that the elevated. forms what ground as the use of all appointed ever. he falls with great But no people has shown ease into vulgarity. in a higher strain and of recognised worth. and to save our character as a community. as and to its own discredit meanwhile may prevent This.iv ON THE BURIALS given. It is designed to save public places and occasions. They are which may educate gradu such performance into something better. and the contrary. in public places and on serious occasions. and it from standing forth. to that of all of us. ally the place of such crude performance. vulgarity of individuals might prompt The moment a place has a public and national of a character. from what the caprice and being discredited through them to. I say. BILL If there is which would be thence a sort of ignobleness and vulgarity (was uns alle b'dndigt. das Gemeine) which comes out in the crude performance of the mass of mankind left to themselves. dignified forms calculated Such is the origin and such is the defence of the use of a set form of burial-service in It stands on the same our public churchyards. common Englishman strain and by nature into a glides off. IX 2 C .

to find a man of Lord marvellous really quite Selborne's acuteness maintaining. ' is to deny after death that religious liberty which in every other respect is given to the deceased during the whole of their lives ? True. that to with hold from the Dissenting minister the right. where perhaps it is lawful to employ any fallacy which your adversaries can not at the moment expose. In private places. ' to enter the churchyard and have his own say over Jiis own spiritual son or c daughter/ is to deny after death that religious liberty which in every other respect is given to the deceased during the whole of their lives/ To be sure. the deceased have had religious liberty during their lives. no where ? have They more been free. to have what proceedings they liked in the parish church and in the parish churchyard. during their lifetime. have been free to choose ' But what religious services they pleased. Lord Selborne was speaking in a parliamentary debate. But is it possible that Lord Selborne can himself have been deceived by the argument. that these for the same reason in each case : places are public places. than to have what proceedings they liked in the House And of Lords or in the Court of Chancery.CHURCH AND RELIGION iv And therefore it is public form for use there. -and that to safeguard 386 . as the Times says. that to refuse to Dissenters the liberty to have what services they please performed over them in the parish churchyard.

were need rather than in other matters. Even it is sometimes said . man enjoys. it would prove for exemption in burial. whomsoever he likes enter the ground and have his own say/ He is not free to have it after his death. burial is necessary. people. is places. is just the same abridgment of his religious liberty. abridgment of his life. in general. in such a place. from the requirement of public Burial is necessary. then. mankind to in and regard purposes. or which any English proceedings. ' It is impossible to establish a distinction between a man's rights and his rights in regard in regard to his burial. forms in public places. liberty. as they are called. to other public incidents. enjoys To refuse liberty after his death. the course whole He has during never during his whole life been free to have. But the pro this true. The just the same to any and every individual the liberty to dictate after his death what shall be done and said in a a liberty exercisable only in private like other Dissenter. place set apart for national use. nothing as to a For practical practically not true. They are optional. position is 387 . of his life. but not burial in public places. as much and as little an of as he has been subjected to it.iv ON THE BURIALS That BILL we have public the worthy use of public places forms. in his choice of religious which the deceased Dissenter en joyed during his lifetime. and belonging to the public.

' said Sir Wilfrid Lawson at Carlisle if you let the Nonconformist into the church yard. about it. then a Dissenter his own minister 388 . same footing. in fact. do not conceal that they believe also in a man's natural right to have in the parish church a Let me be honest worship to his own liking. in his own parish church. like burial. that is only a step towards letting him c . may be said about the naturalness of his wishing to be married in the parish church in like fashion. not even true that religious worship is optional.CHURCH AND RELIGION it iv is not true that It is marriage is optional. conducted by a And the hearty minister of his own selecting. And the same of worshipping in It is natural that a man the parish church. c into the church. natural in a man's believers right to have in the parish churchyard a burial to his own liking. If the him his can urge a right to do right to have wishing for a thing it. be called necessary. They come in the regular course of things and engage men's sentiments widely and deeply. And everything that can be said about the naturalness of a man's wishing to be buried in the parish churchyard by a minister of his persuasion and with a service to his own liking.' The two stand on precisely the naturalness of a man's creates for rights do. and society being what it is. own should wish to enjoy. Human nature being what it is. religious worship and marriage may both of them. worship of his own choice.

The will and pleasure of individuals is not to have sway there. in say his say over : solent. to such ' clergymen. can he urge his right to have his own Equally minister say his say to him in the parish church. at the doings of some of their brethren. public observed in public places. by admitting Dissenting to perform burial-services in the churchyard. too. forms are appointed to be community. This is what bars the Nonconformist's right to have in his lifetime what minister and service he likes It is also what bars his in the parish church. in exercising the power given to them by that rubric which excludes the unbaptized persons from a legal claim to I can burial-service of the Church of England. Certain clergymen have been arbitrary. to ministers concede to Dissenters what they desire in the I can understand their being matter of burials. What bars the right is in both cases just the higher right of the com the same thing the credit and welfare of the For munity. disposed to concede it. understand people being provoked into a desire to give a lesson/ as Lord Coleridge said. death what minister and right to have after his service he likes in the parish churchyard. and vexatious. out of love of peace. .iv ON THE BURIALS BILL him in the parish churchyard. I can understand the better spirits among the out of shame and regret clergy being disposed. and from the wish to end disputes and to conciliate adversaries by abandoning 389 a privilege.

Osborne Morgan proposes. or in order to confer upon the clergy a privilege. the service is to be retained enjoined for the sake of this principle. or out of generosity on the part of the more liberal clergy. If the principle on which it has been is sound. if the community runs risk of discredit from suffering individuals to say and do what they like in such places. Mr. to Lord Granville stipulates that the decency. and if is the burial-service of the Church of England enjoined on this principle. but a safe If it is for the advantage of the guard of ours. They are generous with what is really. community that in public places some public form should be followed.' 390 . It is not to be abandoned out of resentment against those who abuse it. And so evidently sound is the principle. not a privilege of theirs. It is made for the benefit of the community. while allowing the Dissenters to have their own services in the parish church ' make proper provision for order and yard.' c services shall be conducted in an orderly and But unless these are mere Christian manner. however it may appear to them. that the politicians who take the Dissenters' cause in hand cannot help feeling its force. then it is not to be given up in order to punish the folly of some of the clergy or to gratify the generosity of others.CHURCH AND RELIGION But the requirement of in iv a fixed burial-service the parish churchyard is not made for the benefit of the clergy.

of the offices of a prived. this character. The burial-service So it is of the Prayer Book was meant to be used in the parish churchyard over all Christians. meant to suit all. we are thus brought back to the use of some public and recognised form for burials in the parish churchyard. and c liable to bear the marks of their natural taste for the bathos/ as Swift calls it.iv ON THE BURIALS BILL words. where Such . On the other own minister of their persuasion. and which ensured an orderly and Christian character to proceedings in the parish church yard. Some the service itself. who advocate the Dissenters* a case for revision of the public form of burial at present imposed. which people at large could accept. And the burial-service of the Church of England for a public and recognised form of this kind. More object to being strictly confined to that More still object to being de service only. meant to save appearances but not to have any real operation. place ought to have it. Proceedings dependent solely on the will and pleasure of chance individuals. cannot ensure was meant ' ' But proceedings in a public And that they ought. in their burial. and cruel. It does not suit all. a self-willed clergyman is rubric of the burial-service to withhold its use people object to things in in to some cases where its use is withhold it is both foolish and 39i desired. the very politicians cause admit. enabled by a hand.

with by means of some change or other.CHURCH AND RELIGION is iv dealt And it has to be the present state of things. Germany. In Ireland it is so. Catholics are in an enormous majority. it is said. Now. And except in England is There division country are they the In churchyard Scotland there is. and much inter mixed. an Established Church yet in Scotland the forms and ministers of other religious bodies are admitted to the In France the use of the parish churchyard. . it is right to remember one character which distinguishes it from all of them. Different bodies of Christians have their own forms and ministers. have. in comparing the Church of England are found in with other Churches. as in England. in 392 . without abandoning the principle of requiring proper and worthy forms to be observed at pro ceedings in the parish churchyard. yet these different in bodies common. and in all found no agreeing to adopt the same forms and ministers of religion. the churchyards of the one confession are open to the burial-rites of the other. The Church of England was meant. Protestants can be buried with their in own forms In the graveyards of Catholic churches. where both Catholics and Protestants great numbers. shall which remove causes for just discontent. Ill among Christians.

does not manage to satisfy every one any more And than the Churches in other countries. things otherwise than they The Church may have been its design. that here is truth and everywhere else is error. and receivable by it. in offering its formu them with the offers laries to Englishmen. but her direct design. meant to include both Catholics and Protestants in a compromise between old and new. whatever special 393 . not only of her also of her success in profession of the truth. and thus to provide a revised form of religion. whole And therefore no other Church in stands precisely on the to formularies ground offering its For whereas other people. However. rejecting Romish corruptions and errors. the denial. offer them with the recommendation recommendation that here is truth presented and unite the English expressly so as to suit And therefore to no Church can dissent nation. the Church of England. this cannot make be so mortifying because dissent as to is are. the Church of England . satisfy English It was people and to be accepted by them. in offering formularies to people. their like Churches. mortification she may have whatever of England. adapted to the nation at large as No things then stood. but retaining from Catholicism all that was sound and truly attaching. other Church has been settled with the like design.iv ON THE BURIALS who the to BILL it the intention of those settled at the Reformation.

In a silent interment there can be nothing offensive. if the English 394 . Great bodies. forms and ministers of religion other than her own. Nay. And if we had only to deal with the Presbyterians and the Catholics. in silence. and to Catholic churchyards in Ireland. the burials question would present itself under conditions very different from those which now do actually attend it. In either case we have the security for decency which the deliberate public consent of large and well-known bodies of our fellow-Christians affords on behalf of the burial-rites in use with them. in seeing. The Catholic offices for the dead are the source from whence our own are taken. is but fair. that is no reason why she should be less liberal in her dealings with them than the Churches in Either she must manage to suit other countries. If Reciprocity. The funerals of Scotch are Presbyterians are conducted. There can be no fear that the burial-rite of either should do discredit to the churchyard.rites of Scotch Presbyterians and of Irish Catholics ought surely to be admitted to Anglican churchyards. the burial -rites of the Church of England admitted to Presbyterian churchyards in Scotland. around her. are not likely to have given their sanction to a form of burialservice discreditable to a public churchyard and inadmissible there. or she must be liberal to them. them herself. like these. at any rate. I believe. the burial.CHURCH AND RELIGION iv cause for.

Religionists. one hundred and thirty-eight. suppose to the well-known three de and either there were a common nominations. Peculiar People. to a few great divisions. 'It is a misapprehension. even. or to one out of two or three then. but in. and to adhere either to a single form of Dissenters' burial-service. 395 The . also. obscure sects as much as Recreative Ranters. . I believe. the case would be different. Baptists. and as great. sects as new sects as much as old. form of burial-service among these denominations. we are dealing with the burials question. they have still their right to the tention churchyard. 'of the essential nature of a Nonconformist. The dissidence of Dissent and the Protestantism of the Protestant religion have brought the Dis senters in England to classify themselves. tells us.iv ON THE BURIALS BILL Dissenters were reducible. small much famous. But these are not the conditions under which . or each denomination had its own and if the Dissenters were content to be thus classed. not in two or three divisions. That would be restricting their religious liberty. And their con no how that matter is. as much is man And no as Presbyterians and entitled to tell them that they must manage to agree among themselves upon one admissible form of burialservice or upon one or two admissible forms. they may split themselves up. their advocate.' the Times. to suppose that he could ever pledge himself to conform to anything.

Or they may think that it does not matter much. and that the observances of one body of religionists are likely to be about as good as those of another.CHURCH AND RELIGION iv essence of his demand is to claim free access to sacred places. are not to ask. and how they propose to ensure the and Christian order for which they stipulate.' Whether the observances are seemly. a great mass of educated people. and possessing a well-known reason for existence. there is likely to be a wide difference between the observances of a body like this. having existed for a long time. amongst its adherents. counting its ad herents by hundreds of thousands. Perhaps they have not looked into the thing much. Yet surely there is likely to be a wide difference between the observances of a great body like the Presbyterians. which the necessity of nature compels him to use. And what Lord Granville and Mr. and such as to befit a public and venerable place. counting. also. Osborne Morgan and the to political friends of the Dissenters think on this matter. Probably the Dissenters themselves we think that a man's conscience recommending them him makes them so. and at the same time not to violate that essential principle of a Nonconformist's decent nature which forbids pledge himself to not quite appear. and the in religion ever to conform to anything.' does him ' 396 . with such observances as the principles of his communion may prescribe.

is a mere plunge into barbarism. and of the foreign countries most like our own. for a public and national any purpose. where religious ' essential it is the observances are concerned. that its one proceedings in a parish churchyard will be The decorous. In France there are 397 .iv ON THE BURIALS BILL observances of such a body. where there are no cemeteries. if they object to the burial-service of the Church of England. other affords no such security at all. by requiring or more one to to sects agree eight Dissenting them for authorisable forms of burial-service selves. affords the same sort of security. the use and national character. because. if accessible to them. France and Germany. and not in great And we are not to take towns. which Anglicanism itself affords. for these sects are found above all in country places. But People. can only be in he is content to forego. where these are. say. And it is precisely in the country churchyards. to not nature of a Nonconformist pledge himself But the Noncon to conform to anything ' ! formist's pretension. exercising it. The example of foreign countries is quoted. that the observances of ignorant and fanatical little sects would parade themselves . as the Peculiar Both are Dissenters in England. a place with character. to be dispensed from pledg allowed so long as ing himself thus. a violation of the parish such security against and thirtythe hundred churchyard. with a of places public To admit such a pretension in those using.

accept. Ranters or Recreative Re ligionists or Peculiar People are all of them free c to have their say in the parish churchyards ? Do they imagine that in the use. these are all rites. Church. self to conform to anything. such as it is. Church a Church well known. own yards by their own ministers. known rite. what Protestants ? In France. the ' essential principle c not to pledge him English Nonconformist. a recognised rite. France or Germany. and paid and recognised by the In State equally with the Catholic Church. and to the Church formed by the union of the two. to the Lutheran Protestants belonging Germany. whose liberality is vaunted at the expense of ours. and Protestants are buried in Catholic church ministers. with a wellhistory. as has been pointed out. and in this separate portion Pro testants are buried with their own rites and by This. a Church with a great or Calvinistic. to the Calvinistic Church. Protestants belonging to the Reformed. of Catholic churchyards by Protestants in France of our and Germany. of them their public bodies.CHURCH AND RELIGION many churchyards with their a iv separate portion for Protestants. with their own But. is not what our Dissenters wish for or would In Germany there is no such separation.' is allowed to ' ' 398 . in either case. . Like the Reformed Church in France. and offering sound security for proper use of a public place like the Do English people imagine that in churchyard. with a public status.

that would be. And there are other reasons. one may say that the whole Christian community has at and present a legal right to her burial -offices. proposing such an arrangement in In the first place. in the example of France and Germany condemns the taking a security from those who are admitted to use their burialrites in the parish If Catholics and churchyard. a following of the precedent set by France and at Germany any rate. propose it. not bury Protestants. idle to required in order to ensure religious burial for The Church of England. to our churchyards. The Catholic Church does does obtain them. therefore. of the precedent set But to this the Nonconformists by Germany. speaking broadly and generally. each with a recognised burial-service. was expressly meant to And serve the needs of the whole community. for not too. customed from of old to see used in the parish and to see churchyards this burial-service only. 399 . in a general way. Then. the burial-service of the Church of England And the country is ac without objection. never themselves will consent. but the Church of England buries Protestants and Catholics alike. use Dissenters Protestant the of mass the too. the three Dissenting denominations were admitted. as has been already said. If they do.iv ON THE BURIALS ? BILL much have sway mistaken. therefore it is . Christians of all kinds. it is not this country. they are very Nothing.

without to tempt Catholics to make capital out of the admission of their this rites would burials to the parish churchyards. to render it subservient to And this danger farther ends of their own. 400 . it iv Public a start urgent Again. out of that event. if they were admitted with their ceremonies to the parish churchyards. as I offence) a sufficiently great (I may mean affair it.CHURCH AND RELIGION performed by the clergyman only. is now. As to the free choice of rite in a public place. to make capital. where position towards the what it say it. the Established Church is not Scotland. All incline one to keep the practice as to in the main as it is English churchyards. without And there is no urgent need. enough has been said and it is admitted that in itself the burial-rite of the Church of England is not generally unacceptable. unless there hardship in it. might disposed. I hope. feeling would certainly be displeased by ling innovation in such a matter. in the some clear Such a hardship is found by some people in the mere fact of not being free to choose one's own rite and one's own minister. as the phrase is. there is certainly a danger that Catholics. does not exist on the Continent. There remains the hard. their Church of England being be is. need. for there the Catholics stand towards no Protestant Church in the position which here they hold towards It does not exist in the Church of England.

This being once secured. whose services we require to bury us. is the great matter. feelings may pleased by the thought that the service over one's remains will be performed by a friend and But to say acquaintance.iv ON THE BURIALS BILL ship of not being able to have one's own minister to bury one. Dissenters. expect that the minister. the better. that is so the sentiment demanding this satisfaction deep and natural that its demands must to without fail be obeyed. to are. fit acceptable. That the form fixed for him to follow in ministering over us shall in itself be proper and acceptable. ix ! 2 D . The language used by Lord Granville on this topic was surprising. No the be soothed and doubt. For The tian burial-service this is surely enough. things. almost every word of VOL. is such really ridiculous. it. the parish a person appointed to read it In itself. the Anglican burial-service : From the nature of cannot generally be chances being what they considered. from the Catholic offices of religion. shall be at any rate a man of our own choosing. by the great majority of Protestant (has And and is clergyman. the old common form of a national Chris worship for Christendom. not by a stranger. the functionary in the the more we forget The Anglican burial-service service. shall be at the same time a friend or acquaintance. it is taken. a sentiment Life and its indulged. is extravagant. and that much ought be sacrificed in order to enable us to obey them.

to mark baptism being taken as the stamp common to all Christians. practically. A parishioner's right to be buried in the parish churchyard. and infringed very improperly and The means for infringing it are vexatiously. office evaded by treating the suicide as of unsound mind. afforded by the rubric prefixed to the burialservice. with this approved and may also approvable burial-service. however. or excommunicate. The real this is what we is really grievance It is when right is infringed. no doubt. occasionally infringed. it But Lord Granville's sentiment. The office is meant for Christians. approve the minister who is to read it over him. To refuse the burial -office in the to suicides is a penal measure.CHURCH AND RELIGION service is iv both approved and approvable. unless he seems. and this was what the rubric intended. have to guard. abstract perhaps consonant with public opinion. I should never have credited him with so much scrupulosity. In the denial of the burialto c any that die unbaptized ' lies the true source of grievance. the is Baptists. is wounded. or have laid violent hands upon themselves/ Excommuni cation is no longer practised. baptism until the recipient of adult 402 . a rubric directing that c the office ensuing is not to be used for any that die unbaptized. well-known defer sect of Christians. But a large and . in all but extreme cases.

immense power and do a great deal of of the no There is stronger proof which attachment of inspiring noise. therefore. a few may not be many of such men. and often withhold it. To inquire whether a child die unbaptized. was The office meant for for Christians. likely sense to see this. which enables a violent and unwise man to play tricks that might. if they die. he can refuse the burial-service outright to innocent infants and he can. when he has not eyes to There see what harm he does to himself. 403 . and their children. where he has not. Adult baptism was undoubtedly the primitive usage. and Baptists are do not cease to surely they Christians. children the most piously brought up and under pretence of doubt inquiry. be so because of their tenet of adult baptism. indeed. is an inquiry which humane clergyman would make. but make a great mischief. .iv ON THE BURIALS BILL age. make the angels weep. the rubric dresses the clergyman in an authority for investigating and excluding. adjourn. presented for burial is a Baptist's child or no judicious and not. Where he has the law on his side. although the change of usage adopted by the Church was natural and legitimate. Such a man does harm to the Church that he will have the but it is not . and the sticklers (as may so often be said of the sticklers in these questions) would have But been wiser had they acquiesced in it.

If the Church ever loses it and is broken It was the up. and of the lovable and admirable qualities of the clergy. the plea of unsound mind is at present used to prevent their ex clusion. upon their relations and friends. of all man kind that can write and read The truly desirable. the view of their mischievous action. in spite of such mischief-makers. and take the worst measure of human affairs.CHURCH AND RELIGION the iv Church of England possesses. is to remove the power of doing mischief which such persons And the best way to remove now enjoy. a sincere friend of the Church of England. than that the still shown by many Church should have so strong a hold upon the affections of the country. from the natural feeling that to exclude there altogether. who understand the least. view of this sort of people with their want of temper and want of judgment. out the first rubric to the strike is to it. to that terrible sentence of his ' Clergymen. it will be by their fault. not upon but them. : ' ! burial .service exclude. and of their fatal prominence. are none to Excommunicated them really to visit their offence. the indispensable change in the regulation of burials. exerting itself with all the pugnacity and tenacity of the British character. which moved Clarendon. What is persons on the of exclusion suicides ? gained by insisting In nine cases out of ten. to punish the living for the fault of the 404 is .

than merciful in giving or It the test of baptism withholding Christian burial ? Of we have just now spoken. the who of those reject Christianity. have nevertheless been baptized. great majority and who openly say so. end be by severity what harm Those who were avowedly and prevented ? not Christians. and excluding to be more discouraged. condemning. If their friends do bring them. the mere rite of baptism is a rite the nonhis performance of which on a man during of burial Christian lifetime makes the him. at least. a vain and impious mockery ? to refuse ! him 405 . in fact. will. was meant as a test of the Christian profession of those buried in a Christian churchyard. and to make him Surely the Church can profess Christianity. where ought rigidity in sentencing. the to widest of be more permitted. again. But with regard to this pro fession. as not burial But. where is the virtue of being jealously critical after a man's death and when test he can is brought served for burial ? What good here. that is in fact to recant on behalf of the dead his errors. it may be notoriously have forbidden their friends to bring supposed. them for Christian burial. be satisfied with that. and cannot be excluded from Can it be imagined.iv ON THE BURIALS Where ought construction BILL latitude dead. so far. The excludes many whose Christian profession is undoubted. that Christian burial. after his death.

CHURCH AND RELIGION Yes. are exactly what our Saviour meant. might If advantage be expunged altogether. reliance on external rites of any kind. to use them. Except a man be cleansed and receive a new influence^ ' he cannot enter into Jesus meant to say. the thing is so common. because Jesus Christ said Except a man be born of water and of the Spirit. be found who imagine Clergymen write and print that their conscience will not suffer them to pro nounce words of hope over an unbaptized ' person. say just the c of he to what meant very opposite say. The with question. But this misinter of Christ's words is Jesus pretation peculiarly him because it makes perverse. and a mere mockery. merely even : : miracles. that be shall then clergymen complain they compelled to pronounce words of hope and assurance in cases where it is shocking. in the in the words . to condemn rubric in reliance on anything. it is to be said that this they are just as much compelled 406 . given Fourth Gospel. therefore. the kingdom of God/ And St. he cannot enter into the kingdom of God/ Perhaps no vagaries in the way of misinterpreta tion of Scripture -texts ought to cause surprise. Peter explains ' The answer of what this being cleansed is a good conscience towards God/ of which the is Reliance on baptism figure. iv clergymen can this. except an interior change. reliance on supposed privileges.

so long as the service stands as it does now. buried. and this equally whether the rubric out or not. not this life/ is exactly right. But perhaps what has been said of the unadvisableness of using the occasion of burial for passing sentence of condemnation or pronouncing an opinion against the particular good person in a dead. not to BILL a to But no doubt such necessity be imposed upon the ought clergy. We for affirm our sure and certain eternal hope. its being a service over man lies ' too much beyond our in We the ground in the sure body and certain hope of the resurrection to eternal The resurrection. though it much less degree. 407 . the general burial-service has another function.iv ON THE BURIALS do now. is true also. It moves in a higher region than this region Its grandeur of personal application. who know the history of the departed. We are things intruding At any rate. may well in their hearts apply specially to him the hopes and promises for the righteous. is struck The words expressing hope concerning the particular person buried impose it. in of using his certainly for pro nouncing an opinion into favour. even though the bystanders. commit his to or that individual's to resurrection. ken. To add this anything like a pronouncement concerning not the is in or that man's special share it. And in some cases. life that man a resurrection there is. it is imposed upon them.

With hymns the case is different. consecrated by use and sentiment. and impressivebe better away. We at least and we are safe in know what they will be. The requirement of a fixed and noble form. And if ness. its truth. are a sort of do not at all admire. I have often said it before. I regret their prevalence and popularity amongst I composition which as I 408 . and which.CHURCH AND RELIGION iv The words. them from the incalculable surprises and shocks of a speech or an outpouring. what it is sought to occasion. they them a source of shock and distress to the conscience of the officiating clergyman. as the national burial-service in our parish churchyards. ' as our hope is this our brother doth/ would For the sake of the really be better away. substitu or additions of individual invention. which exists exist now. province of a general service. Hymns. give utterance to by them can find its proper expression in the funeral-sermon at another time. they would there would be were removed with away. freely say so now. solemnity. Speech -making and prayer -making. he might say. such as we know them. is a thing of the highest importance and value. would even more were the introductory rubric expunged. service itself. They are not inventions made off-hand by individuals round the grave. tions hazarded ex tempore^ seem to me unsuitable and undesirable for such a place and such an In general.

at Here are means detriment. O happy place ! when shall I be. to whatever good and useful purposes a man often may manage themselves mischievous and deteriorating to him. I hope. the pleasure when we shall feel the unsatisfactoriness of our present hymns. they exist for us. then. are public religious services from which they present free . as in the use of speeches and a source of risk to our as . pay and It is to suffer a loss for taking bad for people to hear such words and such a tune as the words or tune of. In the use of hymns we have not. an element a good deal less worthy. We must deal with circumstances suddenly. for offering. time will come. ON THE BURIALS BILL Taking man in his totality and in the long run. but also a certainly. Hymns are extremely popular both with Church -people and with Dissenters. and for gratifying their wishes. and at some time or other. good deal less fixed. bad music and bad poetry. a for they allow of hymns already. in a common ground hymns. Many of them would 409 . and will not be brought about soon or yet. Somewhere and somehow. extemporaneous prayings. than the regular liturgy. are in to a penalty delight in them. and they will disappear from our But that time has not come religious services.iv us. he has to turn them. without public concession to Dissenters. Church and Dissent meet here on and both of them admit. my God^ with worse for them to take thee^ to see thy face? in And it.

taken by themselves. as a whole. free and ample let a hymn or hymns be admitted as a part of the regular service at The mourners should have to give the grave. were it not that many people cannot conceive of an inspired writer as ever I will not raise embarrassed. an improvement. The passage taken is very long. yet it is also. . I cannot but The burial-service has think. and. which which most grand and most edifying also. to sing a at the grave. interesting as it is.CHURCH AND RELIGION iv like. and got might which would moreover in itself be. I should like to service. Some concession has hymn been already proposed in the way of allowing a hymn to be sung as the funeral enters the Let the concession be made more churchyard. But difficult the lesson certainly is . taken out of the fifteenth chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians. This hymnody would lengthen the burialIn view of this. and also very long. notice beforehand to the clergyman of their wish for the hymn. questions of this kind now. eloquent and . but one lesson. one alteration in that beautiful and suggest an alteration by which time noble service for be the hymn when desired. in burying their friends. and it ought to be taken from one of the collections in general use. 410 . are quite are . I should say that it is difficult as a whole because as a whole it is embarrassed. very difficult to understand. and clear. Let them. Yet it has parts difficult.

as far as possible. for the most part made up out of the old Catholic offices. Above all. and at producing one distinct. all of them. not merely a lection. And they then real lesson^ It should be a are. as has been already said. should do this. general are very much shorter than are There shorter. but simply favour produce a clearer and stronger impression. and with the hearers' minds affected as . and in which many matters are treated. the common Now religious divided. least related brought together. and parts of them taken by themselves. our lessons read in church too often are. complete wholes in themselves. and things which are naturally . which. from our habit of taking for this purpose long readings. follow. total impres sion which is the right aim for lessons to To this end chapters are broken up.iv ON THE BURIALS BILL a lesson of Scripture should make. single impression and it should bring out that impression quite clear. The unknown lessons has arranger of these old 411 . a broad. or to doctrines. a lesson used at the burial of the dead. simple. are offices But of Christendom before it was whoever looks at a Catholic that service-book will find in the lessons there ours. the offices in our Prayer Book are. and verses left out. powerful. with a controversial And this not in the what to are called Romish design. deep. hardly ever less than an entire chapter. more of them and they much aiming at being as far as possible.

and a most impressive Another admirable and homogeneous is given by taking the verses from the 4ist (There is one glory of the sun). that practically. are less superstitious in their way of dealing with the Bible than Protestants. and Thus the seven producing a greater effect. and (I think it will be found) more impressive by being detached from it. to the end of the 26th (The last enemy that shall be destroyed is . And in following this. in many cases. Here we have two even separate lessons. 412 shorter. verses from the beginning of the aoth verse (Now is Christ risen from the dead). lesson form one lesson. he an instance of the truth of what I have gives somewhere Catholics said. to be desired also. one. then passing from thence to the beginning of the 53rd (For this corruptible must put on incorruption). than the present lesson. the promptings of a sound natural love for what is clear and impressive. death). much both of them together. to the end of the 5<Dth (Neither doth corruption inherit incorruption) .CHURCH AND RELIGION iv simply followed the instinct of a true critic. and continuing down to the end of the next verse (Death is swallowed up in victory). . The fifteenth chapter of the First Epistle to the Corinthians appears in the Catholic offices for the dead. But a lesson from the Old Testament is surely Who would not love to hear. but in detached portions each thus more portion becoming intelligible.

to have in our burial- the This also service a . the first thirty-seventh chapter is to be found as one of of Ezekiel ? the lessons in the Catholic offices for the dead. In the same offices is another lesson. and the most rubric Let follows changed to run as be read one or more of and we shall have these lessons following the means of making time for the hymn. they that Thus we have. four clear. ing the service we shall be richer in our lessons than we are c : Then shall ' . when the hear shall live. Dissenters prefer Silent funerals are the practice in the Church of . the resurrection of the dead. But the hymn at the grave is not the only con cession which we can without public detriment make in this matter to the Dissenters. instead of one long and . from the of the passage the passage 24th verse to the end of the 29th is hour The coming. ones. : difficult short. that magnificent prophecy on the breathing of life into the dry bones. a lesson. even more desirable.iv ON THE BURIALS ten verses of BILL in such a service. and God. now. if hymns are desired. Simply that short fifth chapter of St. Many to bury their dead in silence. and now containing the verse dead shall hear the voice of the Son of r. it seems to me. the most explicit we on lesson from our Saviour himself have. without unduly lengthen and if hymns are not desired. . John. powerfully impressive before the existing lesson be lesson.

with Presbyterians gener To silent funerals in the parish churchyard. Whenever. and the reasons for making it. on the score of order. stated. from one of the collections 414 in . : ' . A clergy cannot feel himself aggrieved at having to perform them. and recommended. and at which a certain dissatisfac tion was expressed by some whom I am loth The precise amount of change to dissatisfy. no objection. I believe. The first rubric to be four lessons to be substituted for the expunged and the rubric preceding present single lesson. and. the words. there can manifestly be. it is desired that burial in the parish churchyard should take place in silence. therefore. have now been fully To sum up the changes recommended. for not making it greater. The public cannot feel aggrieved by their being performed in a place of solemn and public character. and dignity. ' Then shall be read one or more it to run of these lessons following . hymn or hymns. the clergyman should be authorised and directed to comply man with this desire. IV Thus I have sought to make clear and to justify what I meant by that short sentence about burials which occurred in what I said at Sion College.CHURCH AND RELIGION iv Scotland. ally. as our a hope is this our brother doth^ to be left out they are as follows : . propriety.

but simply to arrive at what is most . as people sometimes mean.iv ON THE BURIALS BILL general use. have proposed is not to punish certain of the to mortify certain of the clergy. honestly taking the circumstances of our country into account and the best way of settling this vexed question of burials. to find out what to such a man would seem to be reasonable and expedient. would probably find that they could inflict upon these men of arbitrary temper no severer punishment. Nor are the concessions and changes proposed so I believe the majority of the insignificant. some of them. And those who are incensed with the folly of some of the clergy in this matter. than by simply taking away from . any more than Dissenters. and do not mean by Dissenters. and their political friends try to get a great deal more for them. without any political and partisan bias whatever. to be sung at the grave if the friends of the deceased wish it. Dissenters themselves would be satisfied with them. What I have endeavoured is to find out what to a fair and sensible man. them. The Dissenters. and if they notify their desire to the clergyman beforehand silent burial to be performed on the like conditions. the political Dissenters only. my object in what I exercising it. the scope for However. where burials are concerned. demand a great deal more than this. and desire to punish them. Certainly this would be the case if we count the Methodists with the Dissenters.

and the It must be clear to value of them.' have some of mankind's deepest and truest instincts against them. I am sure. and cannot openly avow but in his heart he consents to it. quia credis. and of beauty. Whether the Dissenters will believe it or not. as I promised. and of elevation. the truth And now I do really take leave of the question of Church and Dissent.CHURCH AND RELIGION for the iv good and for the dignity of the whole community. of Dissent. that what is here proposed is more reasonable and desirable than what his Dissenting friends demand. Scio. and his Drusilla Collings. my wish to reconcile them with the Church is from no desire to give their adversaries a victory and them a defeat. if he at all knows what one but any things lovely and of good report are. many of adversaries of the the warmest Church. He is keeping company with his Festus Chamberlain. rex Agrippa. But must this be one would clear. but from the conviction that they are on from sorrow at seeing their fine a false line qualities and energies thrown away. who is a lover of culture. from Mr. John Morley himself. and cannot 416 ' . It is not hidden. from hope of signal good to this whole nation if they can ' ' . Certainly it is postulated that to accept some public form shall be the condition for using public and venerable places. think. to really a partisan. and of human dignity. . I am sure he feels. The dissidence be turned to better account. and the Protestantism of the Pro testant religion.

and will have to said. an eternal aspiration of Christendom . that Paradise of the sects. they will confess It is it. in their present For the growth will not see. there are signs of reaction. in the first year of the present century. ix 417 . in the end. one must rely. is to extend and prolong the of a Catholic Church. This at any rate is certain. miseries. too. That. that already in America. A Catholic Church transformed is. Unity and continuity in public religious worship are a need of human nature. impossibilities. it has now one in six or seven. had but one in two hundred of the population of the United States. both in the among the Dissenters themselves and E 2 VOL. however. but unity and continuity in religious worship joined with perfect mental sanity and freedom. a is only temporary stage in man's . at present effect. that whereas the Church of Rome. is what state.iv ON THE BURIALS fail BILL history If they prevail for a time. by their false aims and misused powers. of insight to recognise it. good authority. cannot and the Dissenters. that finally prevail. But what the Dis the Church of the future. It is said. ^^transformed. I believe. that the great and sure gainer by the dissidence of Dissent and the Protestantism of the Protestant religion is the Church of Rome. with reign all its conflicts. senters. and that the multi tude of sects there begin to tend to agglomerate and on what seems themselves into two or three great bodies.

on the help of time and progress time and progress. in alliance with the ancient to . and good humour of the English people.CHURCH AND RELIGION nation iv judge their aims and pro ceedings. LIMITED. CLARK. & R. END OF VOL. good nature. which has and inbred integrity. IX. . piety. Printed by R. Edinburgh.

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9 Arnold. MAR 2 8 1968 PR 4020 Al 1903 v. Matthew The works of Matthew Arnold PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE FROM THIS CARDS OR SLIPS POCKET UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .BINDING SECT.

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