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Shams-ul-XJl»ma (Govt. MOSTLY PAPERS READ BEFORE THE BOMBAY BRANCH OF THE ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY By Dr.a. Ph. Officier d'Academie (France. 1893). Fellow of Campbell Medalist (B. PART III. B. Honorary Correspondent of the Archaeological Department of the Government of India (1914) . (BOMBAY Universijy. Royal Asiatic Society (1923). 1902 ). Legion d'Honneur (France. Heidelberg. 1898). B. JIVANJI JAMSHEDJI MODI.ASIATIC PAPERS. Cbevaligr. Officier de Plnstruction Publique (France.(Hungary. . : b. Fellow of the University of Bombay (1887) . 1918). 1925). 1889) . Croix de Merit . 1877) . Poona (1923). 1925) : Officier. (1917). 1912) CLE.. Litteris-et Artibns (Sweden. : The Bmtish India Pbess. Dip!. Honorary Member of the Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. BOMBAY 1927. the B. of India. Royal Asiatic Society. (Honoris Causa.D.

D5 3 OCT I'H^M ^ .

Shatroiha-i-Airan. Text and English Version with Notes. IN ENGLISH. A Catechism of Marriage Customs among the Parsees. i. giya-Seistan.. (Pahlavi Translations. with English and Gujarati translations and notes). and of Jamaspi (Pahlavi Translations.BY THE SAME AUTHOR. Texts' in Gujarati character. Dante Papers. The Naojote Ceremony of the Parsees. from a Parsee point of view. the Zoroastrian Religion. Asiatic Papers. Les Impressions d'un Parsi sur la Ville de Paris. into the Work of the Bombay Branch Royal Asiatic Society during the last 100 years. . Anquetil Du Perron and Dastur Darab. Persian texts with translations). The Marriage Ceremony of the Parsees. va Afdya va SahiThe Memoir of Zarir. Parts I. A few Events in the Early History of the Parsees and their Dates. their comparison with similar customs of other Nations. the Wonders and Marvels of Seistan. Moral Extracts from Zoroastrian Books.e. Education among the Ancient Iranians. Akbar and Dastur Meherji Rana. Part III. Cities of Iran. The Parsees at the Court of Akbar and Dastur Meherji Rana. La Visite d'un Parsi a la Vile de Constantinople. Religious Ceremonies and Customs of the Parsees.Sanjan. A GUmpse Dastur Bahman Kaikobad and the Kisseh-i. Part I. La Ceremonie du Naojote parmi les Parsis. II and III. the Press). Parts I and II. Memorial Papers. Pahlavi. The Parsees at the Court Aiyadgar-i-Zariran. (Part IV in Anthropological Papers. Masonic Papers. Pazend and The Persian Farziat nameh and Kholaseh-i Din of Dastur Darab Pahlan. The Religious System of the Parsees.

^^ <f^^\^ ^$^'^IH (Mithra and the Feast of Mithras). Geography and Articles of Faith of Avesta times). "^iKI ^Pl -^^^ (Iranian Essays. (|lM =»n^ ^ict^l (Jamshed. (Lectures before the Prasarak Society. <ni^l "^il^l (Lectures and Sermons on Zoroastrian Subjects. "^^^ -JjlMl^l (Zoroastrian Rites and Ceremonies). RH*^!. Part ^^l*i*i ^UlCl^Ul ^\[ (Peshdadian Djmasty of Iran). Part III). (History of the Zoroastrian Religion). "Hl^i^^^ <rw'>lll^. the Dnyan <rv^^Uc(l <^^^l^cfl <yv:t^l3:<:(l Hm ^*«i*^ "M-HlTl^ hA^ rl^l^"^ ^^4*1 ^Rl (Zoroastrian Catechism). §H^ ^l^<sV (A Sermon on Death). Part ni'i'H^l^^ Rh'^U <HPl ^l^l (Lectures before Prasarak Society. R?m *1l^Kl ^^^*^l (A Dictionary of Avestic Proper Names). ^Pl 4l<^ (Iranian Essays. Part I). •^^l^^a ^^ ?aA'''^ oim^l ^^ <Hl^<M. '•^^'H^rll'U ^^l*{l Rh'^1. Part II). H^lcfl y^H^l I). ^«^l^$3«^l Minocheher).GUJERATI. ^. Part ill4'MMR?j Rh'^U ^l^l "^^ III). Dnyan Dnyan Dnyan ni'i'M^U?? (Lectures before the Prasarak Society. ^^H^ctl ^\^{[. "ShI^^*^ ^1*^1 (Kyanian Dynasty of Iran). 'HPl 'Hl*^ II). y^Hd . Part I). ^Pl "^^^l Prasarak Society. t^^l41 Rh"^!. «VMHl^\ H\ ^'mH ^«1H§ln -^H^ k\i^\ AnAhita and Farohar.l^**^ ^ll^-iiy' y'41 (Shah-nameh up to the reign of ^11^*11^' "^^ Jfl^ll^ (Shah-nameh and Fridousi). Horn and Fire). (Lectures before the 4H14^U?j Rh'^I. Part IV). t/tci^l^» <nPl "^^"^il (Ancient History of Iran. ^11^ (Meteorology). y^l^l R^^ij oiPl "^^"^tl (Iranian Essays. Part I). <nR^>H^ ^\ ^Q ^^^'i[ Mi^=t ^lOWi ^>1^Hi4(Immortality of the Soul ). ^oll^i ^Tt "sS^Sji^i^rti^ (The Social Life.

<HPl Mi^Ml (Lectures and Sermons on Zoroastrian Subjects. Part '^^^Ucfl IV). Part V). . ^l^<wl. r?H%l ^l^[ ^ ? rl o\[^^ ""H^^^O.GUJERATI-^con^. kWHi R^lX (An Inquiry from Pahlavi. y^fl^l (Heroines of the Shah-nameh). (Bundehesh. H^rt'^l'l "=^1^=11^ rlMl^ Persian and other works on the subject of the Number of Days ^^^•11 of the Fravardegan). compared with the A vesta and other Parsee Books). according to Herodotus and Strabo. ^^^"^141 ^^. Part II).^-ll>i<^(l ^l^ (The Ancient Iranians. Ml^tfl H^M '^Idi'^l (Bombay Parsee Charities).ll^«1l>iHi MU^ ^l^dl^h ^HPl I). K. H['^\. (HiH till (Lectures and Sermons on Zoroastrian Subjects. oiioi Hm H^'^ ^m^l ^^ (Lectures and Sermons on Zoroastrian Subjects. Pazend. Sir J. Madressa Jubilee Volume. Part III). Part II). H^'^Xl »tm^l "a>t^ ^l^<r^. <r/^^l^cft HM ^**n'Hl ^ni'^ill ^^ ^l^<^. Spiegel Memorial VolxTme. II). The Pahlavi MiDiGiN-i-HAZiR DIdistIn. Part VI). J. (Hi^i -^^ a^il^i (Lectures and Sermons on Zoroastrian <r/^^l^c{\ Subjects. WORKS EDITED BY THE SAME AUTHOR. R. ^. "^^til (Episodes from the Shah-nameh. Cama Memorial Volume. (Hi^i Kl*^ (Lectures and Sermons on Zoroastrian Subjects. Cama Masonic Jubilee Volume.) tf^^^l^cU H^ ^V<1 ^IH^l ^l^<^. R. oiPl 'Hl'M (Episodes from the Shah-nameh. Pahlavi Translations. Hn H'H^ <H{^^[ ^^ <5V^'^i:ic(l ^^ ^^ ^l^<fA. Part ^ll^-IRHi Part <tl^«1l^l»ll •H^rir^-ll ^l^ctl^l. K. Transliteration and Translation with *^«{^^^l Notes in Gujarati.

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As AN HtTMBLB TOKEN OF MY APPBEOIATION or THE SPLENDID WORK OF THE AND UnIVHRSITY As A Souvenir of this. MY FELLOWSHIP .tlTo THE CHANCELLOK. ViOB-ChANCELLOB and FEUiOWS OF THE BOMBAY UNIYBBSITr. the Jubelbe YEAR OF MY GRADUATION QtJARANTINB YEAR OF (1877) AND THE (1887).

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19 Jehangir's account of the flower-margs of Kashmir . . . . 11 it 11 . 15 19- Jehangir's fondness for gardens .D. . . . Dal garden . 20 21 ..Jehangiri . and . as displayed in the . Jehangir's six visits of Kashmir Vernag. . . . . Iqbal nameh-i. .. .CONTENTS. . . . .. palaces of Kashmir . . . . . A. . ..8 . .. historically . . . . . . 22 23 23 25 26 26 Pampur Jehangir's second visit of Experiments on saffron Jehangir's fourth and last Kashmir and birds visit to as Emperor . . . . . 3. . Kashmir as described in the Ain-i-Akbari Abul Fazul on the beauty of Kashmir The Vernag spring. . Its central . . . The Garden of Shsilamar .. in 1924. . . position . . described by Jehangir in his Tuzuk-i. . . —The Lake Page: Mogul Emperors at Kashmir : Jehangir's Inscription at Virnag. . . . . . . . . Some further particulars Kashmir in 1926 from Mu*tamad Khan's . . . . . . . .. . Jehangir's taste of art. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 The Moguls and Kashmir Akbar and Kashmir . . Jehangir's hand in beautifying . 10 10- .Jehangir Jehangir's visit to Kashmir in the 14th. 19 Machi Bhavan and Achval (Achibal) The spring of Vernag The origin of the name Vernag .. . I. .. Beveridge's estimate of the taste of Jehangir . .15th year of his 13 reign (1029 Hijri. . . . geographically .. . 17 17 Kashmir . . . 14 . . . 1620) Jehangir's admiration of Kashmir Jehangir's faith in Astrology Jehangir's account of the 9hinars of . . . . described in the Ain-i-Akbari The beauty of Kashmir. . 12 12' . . . . .. . . History of Kashmir before the Moguls . an inscription on the Dal 1 Kashmir. . 16- . . .

. . . . . . . . . . parallel from the Shah-Nameh . . . . . . . 65 to . . . Virnag Shah-Jehan's Inscriptions of Kashmir . . com. . . . . . . . . . . of . . . . . . . . 65 66 66 67 Archery as represented Persia Archery as referred on the ancient monuments in of to the Avesta . 35 36 37 The Mogul Emperors after Aurangzeb The Influence of Persia through the Moguls upon Kashmir in particular and India in general The Persians and gardening. . a monuments bow and arrow bow and arrow upon . Who is the Haidar referred to in the second Inscription Haidar Malik referred to in Muhanimad Aatzinx's His. Who is the king referred to in the The II. . Aurangzeb and Kashmir The Banihal Pass near Virnag . 32 32 . . . . . . The Mogul gardens of Kashmir . 54 57 ordinary Feats Archery among Herodotus the ancient Iranians . . SymboHc Symbolic signification of a signification of . . . . . . by . . 28 29 30 31 Shah Jehan and Kashmir Shah. . ? tory of Kashmir . . . . . . . . . . Another parallel ^An Instance of Royal Swayamvara described in the Shah-Nameh of Firdousi IV. events . of Firdousi . . . . . . Inscriptions . . 39 42 43 References to Jehangir's visits to Virnag .ai ASIATIC P^VPERS Page The memoirs Price . . —according . Iranian . . . . . . . Transport for Am*angzeb's visit to Kashn^ir .Jehan's visit of . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 . . of Jehangir translated . . . . .memorating . . . . . . by Major David . . . A Few Extra- — — . . . . second Inscription ? —The storyplace of the King and the Gardener in The original of the 2nd tablet 44 46 46 51 51 Waki'at-i Jehangiri of Jehangir and its Parallels The Story A III. . . . . • 27 Jehangir's fondness . . . . . . . . . . . ^Archery in Ancient Persia. . .

a famous Iranian Archer 70 70 77 79 82 the Margalla Pass ' Who is the Khan referred The statement of the ? . 68 69 70 Madame Dieulafoy's painting V. unpublished Mogul Inscription AT THE MaRGALLA Pass near Rawalpindi Plan and Tablet Markaleh of the Tablet is —^An Another hunting feat of Behramgour according to Tabari Erekhsha. Another example of present in appreciation Naosari famous for its perfumes 138 . . 139 Regard for the priestly class 139 Two copies of the Chak-niimeh of Mehernoush 157 . 82 89 Rawalpindi Gazetteer examined What VI. — that the Inscription takes a note of ? ^A Farman of Emperor Jehangir in favour of is it 90 TWO Parsees of the Dordi Family of Naosari. . with other cognate documents of the mogul Times The commencement " of the Farman with the words 116 of the Allah Akbar" seal at the The King's (a) (6) head Peculiarities of the Farman — Farman 116 The golden colour And of the square on the seal the red colour of some of its letters lines 121 122 The first two short and the Tughra characters Decipherment Saiyid of other seals 122 Ahmad Kadari 125 125 Nuru-d-din Quli Mahamad Baqur Saiyid Mir 125 126 126 132 138 Muhammad MuUa Jamasp and Mulla Hoshang Jehangir's name for Wednesday Why such a large Reward for four goblets of atar Jehangir's appreciation of atar. .CONTENTS Ul Page Malcolm's story Firdousi's version of this story .

their parallels among the ancient Iranians and modern Parsees Babylon. palm inward The extended or outstretched hands The forearm raised parallel with the face. a country of walls My visit The extent of the Wall 199' A sketch of the history of China and the builder of the Great Wall of the The effect World Great wall upon the history of the 202: . the (asp) — Bawri of the of the Avesta. ^A visit to the Great of China. Its founder Baevar Some hand-poses The praying Archaeology Avesta the Babylonian and Iranian Processions and Processional scenes figures in The use of hands in Prayers The winged genii of the Babylonians and the winged Farohars of the Iranians by the hand Two peculiarities of the Iranian Sculptures in this matter The attitude of the right hand extended and the forearm led . A similar I) of Persia the wonders of the . . palm inward The left hand Both hands folded The " kiss hand " pose or attitude The pointed finger attitude of the hand Various attitudes of the hand and their significations . . — .IV ASIATIC PAPERS. China. . VII. . as observed among the Iranians Hand-postures in Sassanian coins Detestation for the Evil VIII. Wall WALL of King Noshirwan (Chosroes The Great Wall ancient world one of of China. Some Prayer-gestures of the Babylonians AND Assyrians. The various attitudes The attitude of being of the worshipper's hands raised parallel to the face.

—Wine among the ancient Persians The teachings of Iranian Literature The process of constructing wall Persia's communication with China The AfgHxINistan of the Amir and the Ancient IX. . 243 243 Date Wine XII. —Mahomedan view of Comets. 212 212 213 215 225 231 232 234 Classical writers Pahlavi writers 240 241 Usages of Wine drinking Old Wine .D. as given in his Muntakhab-ut Tavslrikh • Jahangir's Wak'a'at-i Jahangiri Mutamadkhan's Ikbal Nameh i Jahangiri Magoudi's comet of 912 A. —A Parsee Prayer. 1578-79) Badaoni's version of the comet of 1578. authors referred to in the paper . The comet referred to in the Nigaristan 254 255 256 257 257 Abul Fazl's comet The comets referred to in the Wak'a'at-i Jahangiri and in the Ikbal Nameh i Jahangiri 259 259 A list of comets . view of 247 the ancient Iranians (PisHiNlGiN) List of . Mahomedan . Presenting Passages paral LEL TO those OF TWO GrEEK AND CHINESE ANECDOTES XT. The .D. of Ahmad Nizam-ud-din's version of the comet of 1578. the twenty-third year of the reign (A. 247 Magoudi's version 252 253 253 254 The version bin Mahmad in his Nagaristan about the comet of 941-942 A.CONTENTS Page The wall of Nosliirwan according to Ma9oudi Turkish 204 207 Nosliii-wan's wall according to Yaqout Der Noshirwan's wall referred to in the bend Nameh Tabari on Noshirwan's spring of water at Dcrbend Professor Jackson's account of his visit to the wall 209 210 211 Wall of Alexander — MAZDAYACNiNS X.D.

. . . . Mahomedan writers on comets Abul Fazl's views Abul Fazl's theory 261 261 261 261 comparison of his view with the modern view Abul Fazl's view about the forms assumed by the comets A 263 The Abul Its influence attributed by the people to a comet appearance Fazl's version of the influence of the comets 265 265 Who comparison with other similar views were the PishinigAn ? ?' 265 269 269 269 270 271 What were A the nirangs of the PishinigAn Origin and meaning of the word Nirang few Parsee Nirangs . What have Pishinigans to say about comets Meteors and comets classed together in Pahlavi Books Reference to the comets in the Bundehesh .VI ASIATIC PAPERS Page An inquiry into the view of the . . . . 272 272 273 Pahlavi words for comets .

Vol. entitled Anquetil and Dastur Darab " (1914). 2. Out of these. Casartelli. L. and settled in the Bombay Presidency.PREFACE. Society during the last 100 years from a Parsee " point of view (1905). Asiatic papers. I have read 47 papers before the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. A. " Anthropological Papers in book forms. In a volume entitled "Dante papers (1914). 35 have been pubhshed in separate Volumes as follows 16. will some day collect his numerous they are worthy of preservation. fleeing from the Arab conquest. Appreciations of this kind from the above and other Literary Journals have encouraged me to publish my Asiatic' and writer. in the Babylonian and Oriental Record. Modi. an educated Parsee Gentleman and a proUfic has recorded in his essays much that would not otherwise be published of his countrymen. " 1. " Eight more are pubhshed in this volume." contributed to (6) "A Parsee Prayer. In a separate volume. In a separate volume. essays into a volume " We Modi . entitled " The Parsees at the court of Akbar and Dastur Meherji Rana" (1903). whose ancestors emigrated from Persia. No. R. presenting passages. Society to the Royal Asiatic Society of London on the (a) ' ' occasion of the celebration of its Centenary. A. 13. to be published in another volume. part I (1905). parallel to those of two Greek and Chinese anecdotes" sent through the B. Modi should continue to write and publish (The London Academy of 14th September 1913). Manchester. 1. '' Du Perron 2. R. There is much to learn of Indian life from his papers which Mr. 31. College. C. April 1896. Bishop of Salford. B. yacanans. In all. p. : Asiatic papers. entitled A glimpse into the work of the B. The Afghanistan of the Amirs and the ancient Mazdathe East and West" of Bombay." (The Professor of St. VIII. trust that Mr. Bedes late Right Revd. read or contributed elsewhere. B. . part II (1917). I also give in this '' Four more remain volume the following 4 papers. Dr. In a separate volume. 72.) Mr.

my dear Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bombay is the foremost. Mohamedan view of comets. Pilot Bunder Road. M. I bow my head of to them that they have given me. among which homage and gratitude . my humble work. May for all the mental nourishment heartfelt they all prosper. this is the Jubilee years.A. This University and the Literary and Scientific Societies of Bombay.prayer. I take this happy opportunity to do myselE the honour and pleasure of dedicating this. So. is my JiVANJi Jamshedji Modi. the Zarthosti Din-ni-Khol Karnari Mandh. continuously year of my Graduation and the quarantine year of my Fellowship of the University. 24th March.) I beg to thank the Editors for this republication. for these last 40 Thus. when the then Governor. 1927. Sir Phihp Wodehouse. I took my degree in the Bombay University on 16th January 1877. 211. " (c) Wine among the Ancient Persians " read before a local Society. The view of the ancient (d)" " Revue Iranians {PtsMnigdnY contnbuted to the columns of the " du Monde Musalman (40 Anne No.. Golaba. have made me what I am. Bomanji Nusservanji Dhabhar. to my mother University. for kindly preparing the Index ' A of this volume. was the chancellor of the University and I was nominated a fellow I have served my Ahna Mater of the University in 1887. Bombay. I give my best thanks to my learned friend ^Ir.Vlii ASIATIC PAPERS. .

I I had the pleasure of visiting the interesting and beautiful time in several country of Kashmir for the first Introduction. at its meeting of 9th December 1 Journal. reminds one of " Les Guebres of Voltaire who. one was Cashmere subjects for study. (Read on 17th July 1917). pp. XIX. he had at the bottom of his heart the question of Toleration and Freedom for his countrymen. while describing thQ persecution of some Persians. B. Ancient Persians. (Vide my Gujarati Thomas Moore in his lala Rookh has sung the praises of the beauty of pp. the Irish. he preaches Toleration and Freedom. The first subject forms an episode in Moore's Lala Rookh. 185-203). Diiyau Prasarak Society. S. Kashmir. that in preaching and praying for these for the Zoroastrians.^ " E. Thomas Moore was an Irishman and the Irish question . A public lecture on Kashmir Gujarati on 21st January 1896. suggested the subjects one on Thomas Moore's poem of *' The of three Readings in Gujarati " on 1st November Fire -Worshippers 1895. and fountains as clear With its Its temple As the love-lighted eyes that hang o'er their waves. A. . is a very old question. and the third on Voltaire's " Les Guebres '* on 31st October 1903 (Videmy Gujarati ^'Episodes from the Shah-nameh"). Thomas Moore's "Fire-Worshippers" in the " Lala Rookh which speaks of Kashmir. the second on that of his '* " Loves of the Angels on 30th October 1896." while picturing the noble fight of one of the flying bands of Zoroastrians after the Arab canquest. Vol. is said to have aimed at the persecution of the Christian Jansenists and desired toleration for them.Worshippers." and a Paper was read on the before this Society." The study of this poem. " He sang : " Who has not heard of the vale of Cashmere roses the brightest that earth ever gave and grottos. wa^i also delivered in and the subject 1895.The Mogul Emperors on at Kashmir : Jehangir^s Inscriptions at Virndg. auspices of the Gujarati " under the Dnyan Prasarak Essays" Part I.. rpj^-g ^-g-^ ^^^^ jgg^ " suggested Of these. In his poem of "The Fire. 237-48. gifter the above visit. and it is said. B. the An inscription Dal Lake.

He kindly forwarded the matter for further inquiry to the officiating Superintendent of Hindu and Buddhist Monuments. XXXIII (1864) pp. whether the inscriptions were published. there were no good roads there. me. In 1895. I took a copy of them. Lahore Circle. Burma. Spooner of the Archaeological Department of the Government of India to make inquiries if the Virnag inscriptions were published. A tonga road had just been made upto Baramula. whether I was anticipated by some one. whereon even motors run now. at the site of the old city of Taxala near Rawalpindi. By a coincidence. Since then. 278 et : 1 The Romantic East. No. Govt.3 The present Paper has been suggested to me by some of the Persian inscriptions which I saw in Kashmir during this second It is especially the two inscriptions at the beautiful spring visit. VI. Walter del Mar says ". pretty good roads have been made up to Srinagar and in other parts of the country. . whence the river Jhelum becomes navigable upwards to Srinagar and further up. the Pandits. Daya Ram Sohani. To make the matter certain. and he wrote to me in his letter " As far as I know. pp. 3 The visit has also been the subject of 19 descriptive letters on Kashmir in the Jam-i Jamshed of Bombay. Assam and Kashmir. 461-85Vide my Anthropological Papers Part II. that no sooner the whistle of a Railway •engine will be heard in Kashmir the Behesht (paradise) will fly away from it to the higer mountains. telling is now contemplated. X. This second visit suggested several subjects of study. (1906) Preface p. the lished. 6.2. 2 Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay Vol. B. during my first visit. Other Persian Inscriptions from Kashmir are published in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal Vol.. One was that of the very interesting people of the country. of Virnag that have suggested the subject. very Uttle suspecting at the time that they have not been pubI inquired at the time from Mr. head of the Archaeological Department of Kashmir. That is quite true." by Walter del Mar.. D. Now is the time to visit As Mr. the last Railway Station whence we start foe " Kashmir. " The Pandits of It formed the subject of my Paper on Kashmir " before the Anthropological Society of Bombay 2 on 28th July 1915. Daya Ram Sohani happened to be the Superintendent. Rahim. of India. ASIATIC PAPERS. and I was told that they were not. A railway line I remember my guide. I had the pleasure of re-visiting Kashmir in June-July 1915. the Directer of Archaelogy. beginning with two on my visit of the interesting Excavations by Sir John Marshal. I wrote again this year on 3rd May 1917 to Dr. Kashmir before the amenities of the Kashmir Valley are "^ endangered by the new railway. Mr. the inscription in dated 22nd June 1917 question has not been published properly at any place.

3 seq. . as it were. at some greater length. the of India. and to identify the person Haidar named in the second inscription. the Inscriptions at Vimag. at Virnag. Kashmir. As a supplement to the Paper I will refer to an inscription on a tomb on the Dal Lake. down below Kashmir are the vast hot plains of Punjab. (6) The second stage is Kashmir's o\\ti. —A Short II. VIII. watered by a river and a number of streams.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. I will dwell. Vol. 112. and a few observations on them. in which it."! (c) Then the third stage is that of the : higher sides. I will. A my subject under the following heads short account of the rule and visits of Kashmir : I. 1 Nouvelle {a) The first is that. in the middle of three stages (a) In the first stage. of which she can be said to have three which can be called the written history. a short account of the rule and of the the mogul Emperors. The Text and the Translation of Jehangir's Inscriptions II. I will divide I. In this account. Ggographie Universelle. On Himalayan mountains by which account of its it is surrounded on all position near these mountains also. the E-ajataranp. Account of the Rule and Visits of Kashmir BY the Mogul Emperors. 2 Ibid. there are few valleys more beautiful than this part of Kashmir. j)re-historical period. Sind and other parts of India. first was Akbar who first conquered Kashmir and it. its (daman -i Kuh) I it is. in a higher region.2 In the matter of History periods or stages. In this matter. give visits of Kashmir by It is the hand Its of God beautiful. forms the most beautiful of the beautiful valleys of the world. the Indian Piedmont. on the visits of Jehangir. and among them great it fnd^Sstoiically. by the Mogul Emperors." Journal for the first time. that I publish in our p. was Jehangir who embellished Geographically. it hand. '^eo*" ra h FcTu"" add "^^^^ Emperors that has made Kashmir naturally but the hand of man has tried to to its beauty. and Proeedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (1880) Such being the case. I think. 54. at first. As said by " a French writer. III. Among the Mogul Emperors. Kashmir stands. as it were.^ had a Jehangir especially. because we have to identify the events and dates given in his above inscriptions.

p.^- XIX. attempts on the part of foreigners to invade and occupy Kashmir and the attempts on the part of the Kashmiri kings to both. too. It has the same blue sky and brilliant sunshine. Younghusband (1909). some Mahomedan books of history. We will give a short bird's eye view of the second period. produced the graceful Greeks. and brightened by the constant sunshine. " Part I. while speak" ing of its history. (c) The last period is that which The is subsequent to this second and which extends up to row. it may comparatively be called the golden or the glorious period of its history. and that the most important period. The Pahlavi Bundehesh before. and if it has no sea. and the still more impressive snowy mountains. of field and forest. but its purple hills are on a far grander scale. According to Parsee books and gini gives us a little glimpse. Mogul period can be said to belong to the last part of the second or the middle period which was a long extensive period. In spite of a number of inglorious pages here and there.237-48. we have by the Rajatarangini. of rugged mountain and open valley. period.4 ASIATIC PAPERS. Tibet and Badakhshan. A?9F^*^ ^ 2 ^."' (6) Its second historical stage or period. It has. have produced a refined and noble Amid these glorious mountains. surely.e. PP. period of its history. its dancing seas and clear blue sky. the early ancient Iranians had some relations with Kashmir as with northern India. : — A and bracing air. Vide my " Asiatic Papers. great variety of natural scenery.. But Kashmir is more beautiful than Greece. Ill Sir Francis History of Kashmir before the ^^S^^at some people. Has it ever made Sir any such impression ? Francis Younghusband replies that the noted shawls of Kasmir pp. The beautiful Greece. who have seen both countries. says country of such striking natural beauty must. Kashmir by F. in his interesting and beautifully illustrated book on Kashmir. with its purple hills and varied contour. .^. breathing their free Younghusband. entitled Cashmere and the Ancient Persians. Kashmir seems much the more Hekly to impress a race by its '2 natural beauty. 99-110. 194. most of which is principally referred to by the Rajatarangini. is the one mostly des- my cribed what " Sir Francis inward effort i. I have spoken " this subject. there must have sprung a strong virile and yet aesthetic race. And to me. During this " " terms outward effort and the Younghusband " conquer adjoining countries like Punjab. Early writers speak of it as a part of India. it has lake and river. on speaks of Kashmir as a part of India. in paper before the Society.

The modein village of Prandrathan. that we see on old Fvashmir temples the influence of Greco-Buddhist art. and his invasion is said to have made some Greek influence on Indian Architecture. as well as for what Cunningham describes as the graceful elegance of their " " its outlines. on Kashmir buildings. but their Buddhism was 1 Ibid. This fine of kings also was Buddhist. had preceded Alexander and had also left some Hence it i}races of Iran's Persepolitan influence on Indian Art."! '' The people that built the ancient temples of Kashmir must have been religious. though few. was the site of the old city founded by Asoka. its natural l)eauty made up for that barrier. 1148 and brought down to later times by additions by Jotraj in 1412. but still that long question. e. the massive boldness of their parts. written by Kalhana in a. begins the history with a reference to the times of Asoka (about 250 B. c). . 2 The name signifies "old " capital (puranadhisthan. and with sufficient pliability to assimilate that influence and turn it to " profitable use for their own ends ? Younghusband answers this the race was indigenous. Though its surrounding lofty mountains acted as a barrier against foreign influence. " The Rajatarangini.. Hence it is. that inhabitants have a sense of form and colour and some delicacy and refinement. the relics of whose Buddhist temples are still seen in this country.g.d. three miles above Srinagar. that we see some traces. and the remains Egyptian of its old temples.g tlie ruin and the present excavations on the site iif the agreeable company of Mr.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. and they must have been men of strong and simple tastes averse to the paltry and the florid. who ruled in the north and even on the north-western frontiers of India. indicate. What was their history ? Were they a purely indigenous race ? Were they foreigners and conquerors settled in the land. and to still later times by further additions by Shrivar Pandit in 1477. is. on the great Martand temple. 5 remarkable for their almost simplicity and durability. solidity. of the Persepolitan influence.) After Asoka and his heirs. much influenced from outside. there came the Indo-Scythians under Kanishka (about a. the Superintendent of the Archaeologcal Department of Kashmir. c. Darius. Daya Ram Sohani. 1915. the great Persian. for the remains are all of temples or of sacred emblems. because it attracted foreigners in spite of the difficulty of access. on 18th June. . Alexander the Great had invaded India in about 327 B. 2 I had the pleasure of visitu. commercial offices or hotels they must have held at least. and not of palaces. 40) and his successors. d. by saying !it was subject to foreign influence. or were they a native race. one large idea to have built on so enduring a scale.

as can be seen from their Indo-Scythic coins. the founder of Avantipura. The name Mihrcula is a Persian name. the later form of Avestaic Mithra. A century later. Vide my Asiatic Papers Part IL . A. Then. The kings of this 1 I had the pleasure of visiting this beautiful spot on 14th June 1915. the Mahomedan power had made great strides in Punjab^ and in the adjoining country. Not only did he rule Kashmir well. driven away from India. This fact appears from the writings of the Chinese traveller. we come to a reigning family. By 1339. D. 699 to 736). had the names of Zoroastrian deities on them. was one of his dynasty. 631. as showed by Sir Aurel Stein. K. there was an excursion of the White Huns headed by Mihrcula. 588. is spoken of as the seat of a- known Buddhisatva. 3. went ta Kashmir. who. deposing the widow of the last ruhng Hindu ruler. Gandharwa Brahmins to supercede the orginal Hindu Kashmir Brahmins. whose ruins we still see. Hieun Tsiang. visitig Kashmir in. which are connected with. Kanishka is^ said to have held in Kashmir the Third Great Council of th© " Buddhist Church. point to his being one who can be called an Iranian Hun. S. XXIV. partly infused with some Zoroastrian ideas. The Buddhism of Asoka and Kanishka was overthrown by Brahmanism. and paying ungratefully the hospitaUty of the ruler.^ one of the several beautiful places of Kashmir. the High or the broad liberal way). 1015) which was unsuccessful. No. which council is said to be the author of the '' " Northern Canon or the Greater Vehicle of the Law" (Mahayana. there came the first invasion of Mahomedans under Mahmud Gaznavi (a. Vol. which. A Mahomedan ruler.d. B. A number of weak rulers followed him and there was a good deal of disorder for a number of years. d. 2 Journal B. Its famous king was Liladitya (a. 855 to 883). Tibet and Badakhshan. Nagarjuna.^ Then. read last year before the Society on the subject of the Huns. d. Harwan.^ ASIATIC PAPERS. p. A. deplored. Mihr. He is said to have founded the temple and the city of Mihreshwara and Mihirapur. Ut. Rajatarangini condemns him for having introduced in Kashmir. I have referred to Mihrcula at some length in my paper. that Buddhism was neglected there. at present a site oi the Water Works for Srinagar. but he coi^quered adjoining countriessuch as Punjab. He was the builder of the celebrated temple of Martand whose ruins still appear tobe grand and majestic. named Shah Mir. which belongs to Kashmir itself. All these names. founded for the first time a Mahomedan dynasty. captured his throne. which had several weak kings till the time of Harsa (1089-1101). King Avantivarman (a. who. There were dissensions in the family of the ruHng dynasty.

It is not indeed without reason that the Moguls called Kachemere the terrestrial paradise of the Indies. Nishat. thus established. was in the Court of Aurangzebe for about 12 years." i Taimur. Then. ..) i. IV. Akbar's generals conquered it. d. we come work who in this line. as he saw it in the time of Aurangzebe "I am charmed with Kachemere. He was tolerant to the Hindus. and he often declared that he would rather be deprived of every other province of his mighty empire than lose Kachemere. the kingdom surpassed in beauty all that my warm imagination had anticipated. 1688). 7 dynasty were not strong. It ^ ^^ ^^^ Jehangir especially who had done a good Kashrair. who had written his auto-biography known as " Malfuzat-i-Taimuri ((^j^^J= ol^>i. the King. A. The Shalimar.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. whose taste for art led them to give a helping hand to beautify Kashmir. It is probably unequalled by any country of the same extent... of whom the people still speak as the Padshah. of India. 1 Constable's Oriental Miscellany of Original Bernier's Travels. Disorder and internal struggles continued and the country was no way better than during the last 200 years of disorder and misrule of the Hindu rulers. His reign was.. Bernier. Mogul nobleman named Danishmand who accompanied AurangHe says. The Mogul rule.e. I. pp. paradise of India. .d. His memoir is also known as Tuzuk-i Taimur ( ^^ jj*i^ : . continued for about 200 years. In truth. In 1536. as " " said by Younghusband. at the head of some Turks from the northern regions. 400-401. the ancestor of the Mogul Emperors of India. He thus speaks of the beauty of Kashmir. Vol. to the Moguls. both those who preceded him and those who followed him till 1532. ^^T^ura^dKathe Words or Memoir of Taimur. as it were. what. that the Moguls considered Kashmir to be the . so much so. Virnag and many other gardens point to this king's handsome Now. He visited Kashmir in the company of a zebe. a French physician and traveller. He was to Kashmir. conquered Kashmir and ruled for some years. and Selected Publications. 1658-1668 (1891). lived in the 17th century (died a. . latter on. when Mirza Haidar. there came Zain-ul-abad-din (1420-70). Jehanguir became so enamoured of this little kingdom as to make it a place of his favourite abode.^^^ deal in this matter. 8 out of which he served as a court physician. Akbar was to the whole of India including Kashmir. and it became a part. i.e. refers to Kashmir. a mere oasis in the dreary record of a long line of Mahomedan kings. that he contributed money for the repairs of old Hindu temples^ and for the revival of old Hindu learning.

1585) *^^^ Akbar invaded Kashmir. The river passes on and joins the Chinab above Multan. The buildings of the city are very large and are all of wood and they are four or five stories high. spring from one source. When this river passes out of the confines of Kashmir. the city has a large river running through it. 2 Elliot's History of India. These are constructed of wood. the ruler of the country. 522.nuktah as (z). The inhabitants have cast bridges over the river in nearly thirty places.8 ASIATIC PAPERS. The above generals resolved to make peace. V. vij^j ) i."* ."^ . A. They settled that Yusuf ATT \.000 horses. with about 5. 4 Ibid. . and Kash- ^kbar 1 I think it is a corruption of Nagar. . tlie final Persian. the river of Jand. 450... Taimur refers to Kashmir and to " I made inquiries about the the Spring of Virnag. 476."^ a city named Naghaz. to effect the conquest of Kashmir. . p. It was written in Turki and then translated into Persian in the reign of Shah Jehan. which is a very partial bioand is based of Timur written in A. comparable country . the Institutions or Regulations of Taimur. In these Memoirs. The source of this river is within the limits of Kashmir in a large lake. Like Bagdad. stone or boats seven of the largest are within the city and the rest in the environs. He says country and city of Kashmir from men who were acquainted Kashmir is an inwith it and from them I learned that. II.i the country dwell there. which is the residence of the rulers of the country. He advanc^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ j^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ Bhagwan Das. graphy " There is read there upon the Malfuzat-i-Timuri. This name Nagar then is a contraction of Sri-nagar (Cf. Nagar for Ahmednagar.^ They were opposed by Yusuf Khan.) 3 Ibid. . (r) being by mistake wriken with a.. 1424. which source is situated in this country itself and is called Vir. 478. as large as the Tigris at Baghdad and the city is built upon both sides of it. find a short account of Kashmir in the Zafar-Nama " of Sharaf-ud-Din Yazdi. We We : V It was in the 31st year of his reign (Hijri 993. p.e. Shah Kuli Mahran and other well-known Amirs. some parasangs in length and breadth which is called Virnak. . The rulers of very large and populous city called Naghaz. as the river of it is named after each city by which it passes Damdana.. 5 Ibid. d. p. II. . Vol. but the waters of this river exceed those of the It is extraordinary that the waters of so great a river all Tigris. p. They are very strong and will stand for 500 or 700 years. who came and blockaded the pass. d. A large river runs through the middle of this city. In the midst of the country there is a : .

in a. 348. north and south by mountains and it is thirty kos in circumference. had raised the standard of revolt and declared himself as the Sultan. known as Wular Lake. . 2 Ibid. find m the some handsome rojal Wular Lake. along with Kazi Sadru-d-din.THE MO<4UL EMPKROR>> AT KASHMIR. we Iniildinps. he heard that Yadgar. . embarking in a boat.. 453. 1586 and visited it three times. 465. on the w ay to Pakhali.'^ ."^ In 1592. In the midst of one of these. Alikhan. This reservoir is enclosed on the west.. On the road he saw a reservoir called Zain-lanka. Akbar paid three visits to Kashmir. p. » may pay some tribute to Akbar in saffron. Akbar disapproved of the terms of peace and at first was angry with his generals. wliicli is in India. 1 Ibid. His son Jehangir completed it. We read in the Tabakat-i-Akbari. 4 This reservoir is now 5 Udaipiu. he proceeded towards Baramula on the confines of Kashmir. read as " follows in the Tabakat-i-Akbari The rulers of Kashmir had always been well-wishers and servants of the Imjoerial house. shawls and some money. p. his governor of Kashmir. Sultan Zain-u-l-'Abidin carried out a pier of stone to the distance of one jarib into the lake and upon it erected a high building. that he "stayed there eight days. Mewar (Kajpntana) is spoken of by some as tlie " Kashmir of Rajwe see beantifnl artificial hikes. he paid another visit. Vol. one of the old servants of the Court. riding about and hunting water-fowl."6 In all. he went on express. 457. Its water is very pure and deep. p. he directed the fort of Hari Parbat to be built. So he sent Mulla Ishki. Akbar took Kashmir During one of these visits. fidelity Akbar then paid a running visit to Kashmir in 1589 (Hijri 997) when on his way to Kabul. Jarret's Translation II. 6 Elliot v. to pay a visit to the tomb of Saikh Farid Shakarganj and to visit the Panjab. p. p. This rebellion w^as put do\Mi and Yadgar was killed before Akbar reached the capital. V. Vol.in There. His Majesty now intended. Owing to the dissensions among the Kashmiris. Leaving the ladies of the Court on " this side of the mountains of Kashmir.* The river Bahut (Jilam) passes through this lake. . after performing his usual pilgrimage to A j mere. Nothing like this lake and building is to be found in India. 411. i Akbar then sent Kasim Khan Mirbahr to conquer Kashmir. "^ : We respectfully. ^ After visiting this edifice he went to Bara Mula. On his way thither. ^ said to be the largest lake putana. a nephew of Yusuf Khan Rizani." On his return journey. the task of conquest was easy. but he afterwards admitted them into his audience. entertained them nobly and and exhibited his and devotion. 3 Ibid. v.. These may be an imitation of the abo\-e building 7 Ain-i-Abkari. to Kashmir. the ruler of Kashmir. d.

3. Arabs seem to have followed the ancient Iranians who had In our inscriphaft keshwars. seven regions or climates. from South to North. these lines being determined by the different lengths at different places. 4. the word' was apphed to belts of the earth's surface divided by lines parallel to the equator. the Pir Pangal route was the one adopted by Akbar in* " his three visits to the rose garden of Kashmir. Imperial Administration. II. p. Akbar had divided his Empire into divisions called Subahs* Kashmir as des.''^ Abul the Abul Fazl beauty Kashmir. Ibid. The flowers are enchanting. of the shadow cast by a gnomon of the same altitude. tions.. . the heart with delight. Kashmir belonged to the Subah of Kabul which comprised* ' . thus speaks of " on of fittingly called a garden of perpetual' spring surrounding a citadel terraced to theskies. Kandahar and Zabulistan. Violets. There were in all 105Sarkars. Jarret's Translation 189L Ibid. p. Ain-i-Akbari Vol. 115. at noon of the same day.10 ASIATIC PAPERS. p. Bk. Each Subah was sub-divided into Sarkars. .Each Subah was known from the name of cribed in the Ain. Kashmir. 348. 115.. Fazl. Kashmir Ues in the 3rd and 4th chmates. when Berar. mir be * The country is Kashand might enchanting 1 . n. XL. . " climate meant a slope or inclination and was used in the mathematical geography of the Greeks with reference to the inclination of various parts of the earth's surface to the plane of the equator. III. and its cUmateis invigorating The lands are artificially watered or dependent on rain for irrigation. Before the globular figure of the earth was known. PakU. Bajaur. e. the great historian of Akbar. and fill. The capital of this Subah was Kabul.the tract of the country or its capital city. Swat. the red rose and wild narcissus . Khandesh and Ahmed. its waterfalls music to the ear. Binbar. Its streams are sweet to the taste.' But face. Jehangir is spoken of as the king of these seven regions.737 townships. . Of the several routes leading tothis country encompassed on all sides by the Himalayan^ ranges. and deservedly appropriate to be either the deUght of the worldhng or the retired abode of the recluse. The Araba "^ Th& adopted tliis system. All the Sarkars were subdivided into 2. . Latterly. .. and this was called as the science of mathematical geography advanced. 2. ^ Th© i-Akbari.nagar were conquered there were in all 15 Subahs. it was supposed that there was a general slope of its surMima. Each Sarkar was divided into parganahs or Mahals. i. but restricted the number to seven. The term Subahs were spoken of as being in such and such a climate.

of their country as "an emerald set in pearls. II. Kailasa is the best place in the three worlds. Its . and Kashmir the best part in Himalaya. that it "is one of the most. on the roofs which present a lovely sight in the spring time. 2 The Ain-i-Akbari. beautified at the hand of Jehangir. iced water and grapes which. and because we have to explain and beautifying it. green turf.because he had a great hand in beautifying hand in gir's Kashmir. Lawrence. ] t cover the plains. II. In his work of beautifying Kashmir by laying gardens at various beautiful places. 1 Aln-i-Akbari. 348-49. Now we come The beauty of to the reign of Jehangir. 361. magnificent trees and mighty mountains. the saffron. High school-houses. We know that this queen had great influence upon Jehangir in various matters. p. his inscriptions. Vol. Himalaya the best part of Kailasa. are rare even in Heaven are common here. Jarrett's Translation. that he wrote from Jehangir's Court to his people at Surat my solicitor and her brother my broker " (Early English Adventurers in the East by-Arnold Wright. foam with an astonishing roar and its depth is unfathomable.. and is "2 temples of stone. Jehangir was ably assisted by his Nur Mahal."* Abdul Fazl thus describes the Vemag spring " In the Ver tract The Vemig ^^ ^^^ country is the source of the Behat. : . while speaking of " Kashmir's beauty. clear streams. even in state matters. Perhaps in the whole world. . where men are strong and women vie with the soil in fruitfulness.. described Ain-i< It is a pool measuring a jarib which tosses in Ati *-^^ Akbari. . ambassador at the Court of Jehangir. spring and autumn are extremely beautiful Tulips are growa."^ Bemier says of the Dal Lake of Kashmir.THE MOGUL EMPKRORS AT KASHMIR. beautiful spots in the world. 3 Kalhana. "^ The Kashmiris speak. : spring. Uie first English. It goes by the name of Vemag surrounded by a stone embankment and to its east are VI Jehangir's visits of Kashmir. To enumerate its flora would be impossible. 163.) 4 As quoted by Sir W. where the air is cool and the water sweet. 1917. Kashmir. p. was so much helped and supported by Nur *' Xoor ]^Iahali» Mahal. Jehan. Jarrett's Translatioa. 5 Ibid. as he saw it later orw. Roe. ^^^ connection with We will speak of Kashmir at some length. says It is a country where the sun shines : mildly. identify the events and dates referred to in. Vol. a land of lakes. 3 She had a powerful hand in helping the cause of Sir Thomas Roe. . . being the place created by Kashyapa as if for his glory. the author of the Rajatarangini. pp.

two of which were in the company of his father Akbar six Jehangir's visits of Kashmir. we will speak of his impressions about Vernag. In connection with Jehangir's detailed admiring description and of its of the beauties of Kashmir various one may notice what flowcrs. Had James I. ^^^ J^^' . 4 The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri.!2 ASIATIC PAPERS. Julian." Of the very R. 213. but also of his admiration for Vernag. of Scotland) been. where we find his two inscriptions which have suggested to me the subject of this paper. Moving about in your boat in the calm and clear water of this lake. pp. Younghusband^ says Sir beautiful lake of Manasbal. was beautiful and Jehangir vied with Nature to make it more beautiful. i. V-VI. includestimate the taste of Jehangir. they would have been better and happier men. " a jewel among the mountains. M^. 1 Kashmir by Younghusband. briefly refer to these visits as described by him in his This description will give us an idea. and four during his own reign. (and VI. Trajan. Beveridge's of {^^-^^ jiJ^ "^^^i ) he spoke of i-^-> the as it it heart-ravishing Kashmir. &c. and under the influence of their favourites. delpazir {ji^'^^Ci)^ Kashmir. and at least two of them were fond of dabbling in theologj^ All three were wrong in their places as rulers. was the Caesar of the East. ing Augustus. p. as he half wished. the Keeper of the Bodleian. of Bengal. he often spoke of Kashmir as " Behesht-nazir Kashmir'' At times." I was pleased with that it is no lake of Kashmir so much as with this beautiful gem. and if the manysided Akbar was the epitome of all the great Emperors. At first. and so bore a close resemblance to our James I. Kashmir. If Babur. and Jahangir been head of a Natural History Museum. you feel. 213. Jahangir was certainly of the type of the Emperor Claudius. there is no corner so pleasant as the Dal Lake. Marcus Aurelius. as described by these writers... Hadrian. All three were weak men. who was the founder of the Mogul Empire in India. and his desire to do justice. in all. not only of his tastes and of his love of Nature.e. old and modern. "^ Jehangir had paid. 240. Preface. and Justinian. pp. 37j 2 Vide the 1865 edition of the Asiatic Society (^^"ii^^^t^ 3 Ibid. Jahangir's best points were his love of nature and powers of observation. as if you see beautiful pictures moving in a cinematograph before j^ou. as formed during his visits in the life time of his father Akbar. and all three were literarj^. the p. Beveridge says of the scientific tastes of '' the Emperor. In his memoirs. II. six visits to Kashmir. Vol. We will Memoirs. paradise-like Kashmir.

"i learn from this passage. p. that Vernag was a favourite place of Jehangir and that he had been twice there during his father's time. (jT ). i. He thus describes Vernag : The source of the Bihat is a spring in Kashmir called the Vir-nag in the language of India a snake is Vir-riag. I had passed one night in one of the houses over the spring referred to by Jehangir in the above passage. After accession. Vol. The first inscription. Beveridge . Jhelam on the banks of which he had pitched his tents. 1. a grain of poppyuntil it touches the bottom.. During my first visit of Kashmir in 1895. referred to in the inscription. and the night in the pavilion over the main canal.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. the i-Jehangiri. 92- of Jeahangir. learn further. Jhelam makes him speak of Vemag. his journey to that city in his ^iHrfh^^TAzuk. There were many fish to be seen in it. the jui or db-shdr. mir. I ordered them to throw in a cord with a stone attached. and. translated by A. As I had heard that it was unfathomable. when it speaks of the order of His Majesty ( We We „ ^^ o^^A. pure. 1 The Tuzuk-i-Jehangiri. Clearly there had been a large snake at that place. or Memoirs (1909). Rogers. While of his reign.e. I went twice to the spring in my father's lifetime it is 20 kos from the city of Kash. spring round with stone. The mention of the source of the river Jhelam. that after his accession to the throne. . 13^ Jehangir came to the throne on 24th October 1605 (1014 In the second year Hijri) at the age of 38.describing Memoirs he refers to the river Bihat. we had to pass the day in the adjoining garden under the shady chindrs. The water is exceedingly . It is an octagonal reservoir about 20 yards by 20. I ordered them to build the sides of the Although I could not guess is visible my . Near it are the remains of a place of worship for recluses cells cut out of the rock and numerous caves. the building has been destroyed by fire. during my second visit on 30th June 1915. seems to refer to the order mentioned in the above passage. and when this cord was measured in gaz it became evident that the depth was not more than once and a half the height of a man. and they made a garden round it with a canal and built halls and houses about it and made a place such that travellers over the world can point out few like it. he had ordered the sides of the tank to be built up with stone and a garden to be made near the place. edited by H. Since then. he went to Kabul. seed its depth. desNernSg.

An officer of his court was drowned while bathing in the river. Jehangir's impressions of the beauty of Kashmir and of its interesting places and m : ' features. pp." On coming is. the king and the court ladies were overtaken by a snow-storm. The king describes a Zampa or a rope-bridge. green and pleasant) was a flat place of ^0 cubits. were dispatched with him. to language they call the boar's place. I sent off Nuru-ddin Quli to hasten on before. and that the men should not undergo labour and hardship. So Jehangir notes with special satisfaction the fact of a proper place being found by chance. the 1st of Farvardin) on the banks of the river Kishan •Ganga. II. Vol. p. March 1620. He says 2 "On the top of this (a ridge overlooking the water. The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri by Rogers and Beveridge. etc. to repair as far as was possible the ups and downs of the Punch route to it. 128-30- . of thig firs^ thought " As the purpose of visiting the eternal spring of the rosegarden of Kashmir was settled in my mind. Ibid.hi 4 ASIATIC PAPERS. pp. to whom an elephant was also given.. 1 " in the Hindi Baramula. spadesmen. In some of the mountainous tracts of this country. A large number of artificers. A. He . (1914). "3 On the ixoad up.. one is the boar incarnation and Barah mula by constant use has become Bara mula. such as stone-cutters. II. 1620). carpenters. Among the incarnations that belong to the religion of the Hindus. Hijri. The thought of visiting the 14th year i4th-l5th year of Kashmir occurred to him Jiis He thus speaks of his reign reign (1029 (1619-20).D.. Jehangir visited Kashmir in the 15th year of his reign. he was told that a boar Bdrdh (Varaha) and mula a place that — 2 The Tazuk. 130-31." i I will give here a short account of this visit.. and to prepare it. as given in his Memoirs. it is oftai difficult to find a flat place for a camp. The aforesaid officer (Mu 'tamid Khan) had made ready everjrthing necessary for the New Year's feast on the top of that ridge which was much approved. gives a rather extensive account of it in -toKaE/inThe W^ Memoirs. which one might say the rulers of fate had specially prepared for such a day. Mu 'tamid Khan was much applauded for this The 15th year of the reign of this suppUant at the throne of Allah liis : commenced happily and auspiciously. so that the passage of laden beasts over difiicult hill-tops might be accomplished with ease. Jehangir started for Kashmir at the end of the 14th year of He celebrated the Naoroz of the 15th year (10th reign. S Ibid.. Vol. because we learn therefrom. 9".

Ibid. ^ territories of Jehangir then refers to the Raja-tarang (Rajatarangini) which father had got translated from the Sanskrit into Persian. 137. he I write of-? And how many can I describe ?"2 . p." A kos equalled 5. The king took 168 days •to travel from Agra to Kashmir. 139. came to view. walk. 145. It On one. the city of Srinagar. The length was found to be about ^7 kos^ and the breadth from 10 to 25 kos* liis While describing the capital. 1312-13) illumined by the religion of Islam. * by Jehangir. holding in their hands the other two which are higher up. the subject of this Paper and the Bihat river flows through the midst of it. violet and strange flowers The flowers that grow in this country.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. the inscription of which forms a part of "The name of the city is Srinagar. of Kashmir are beyond counting and calculation. they is made up of three ropes. The fort begun by Akbar was completed by Jehangir. II p 140 6 or 56 kos. By my : — 1 Vide Ibid p. that Kashmir was first 'Thirty-two Mahomedan princes reigned over it for 282 years nintil in 994 (1586) my father conquered it. Sweet-smelling plants of narcissus. These ropes are tied with two big strong trees on the banks. I tried Only one man can walk at a time. to walk over one. i by an and nervous travellers experienced footman on his " : It Of the beauty of the counrty higher up. if " the boundary of a country Is the place up to which people •speak the language of that country. "3 Travelling onward by boat. but soon got During nervous and could not go over it for more than a few feet. for the description 2 Ibid. . Jehangir came to the capital. . now my first visit. that ''it was in Hijri 712 (a. Jehangir thus refers to Virnag. and mead after mead of flowers. and landed on •that bank of the Dal. his father Akbar had directed the construction of a fort. . There were 102 marches and 63 halts. 40 ah^isht made on^ Ilahi gaz. are carried blindfolded shoulder. and plain after plain.000 yardx. He then takes a note in his account of his arrival at the •capital of Kashmir. on the Hari Parbat hill. d. 5 Ibid. where. each of which again was 24 digits or anjusht. a distance of 376 hos. . Jehangir says was broad. which is the lower one. Each vard was eqira! to two shari yards. -which a traveller even 15 sees occasionally on the river. It is 14 kos to the south. p. Which shall Later on. 3 Ibid. p. 134. that "the flowers that are seen in the Kashmir are beyond all calculation. again says of the flowers."^ He then got a survey made of the country in order to ascertain the length and the breadth of the valley. They call its fountain-head Vir-nag.

I frequently went round the Thank saffron fields and beheld the spectacle of the autumn. Jehangir then describes at some length the buildings of its various products fruits. : . IJ. Wherever the eye reaches. and a heart-expanding heritage We have referred : — Its pleasant meads and enchanting cascades are beyond all description. there are all kinds of flowers and all sorts of sweet-scented herbs more than can be calculated. 150-51. spring. light- what increasing. II. and in the city gardens it is the 9th and 10th of that month. What ways of travelling. In short. the walls. the violet and the narcissus grow of themselves in the fields. ." 2 Kashmir and grains. 148. garden kings a delightful flower-bed. it is the first Farwardin (March 10). hills and plains are filled with blossoms the courts. In the soul-enchanting spring the the gates. order they have maxie a building and a garden at that source. they are as dirty outside as 'inside. . silk. The red rose. cloths.. nn. God that on this occasion I beheld the beauties of the for dervishes. wine."' Jehangir makes a longer mention of Vimag in another part of his Memoirs. the roofs. . He *' thus speaks of it further on Kashmir is a or an iron fort a palace of of eternal to spring. there are verdure and running water. Jehangir's admiration of Kashmir. What shall we say of these things or of the The Avide meadows {julgahd) and the fragrant trefoil ? finest inflorescence is that of the almond and the peach.'^ 1 Ibid. oils. pp. p. 141-142.16 ASIATIC PAPERS. and music. without any cleanliness. and the end of their blooming In joins on to the commencement of that of the blue jessamine. dress. . 4 Ibid. 3 Ibid. Outside the hill-country the commencement of blossoming is the In the territory of Kashmir first Isfandarmuz (February 10). travellers observe now about the cleanliness was observed by Jehangir about 400 years ago. are lighted up by the torches of banquetadorning tulips. one sees in Jehangir's Memoirs a somedetailed description of the fort of Hari Parbat and the garden attached to it which he n^iiaed Nur-afzdy i.e. attendance on my revered father. vegetables. — animals.. ' 2 The Tuzuk by flogers Beveridge. i3-i4. pp. "3 of the people " He : Proceeding further. Although most of the houses are on the river-bank says not a drop of water touches their bodies. There are running streams and fountains beyond count. shawls. above to Jehangir's admiration of Kashmir's beauty and of its flowers..

IV p. What Jehangir says of the enormous bulk of a plane tree 4 . .) 2 Tnzuk bv Rojrei-s and Beveridge." hi the Journal of the Anthropolojiieal Society -of Bombay. Ill 1230. 159-GO. 8. I 1 M. 5G7. who is one of the most skilled of the class in astrology. I continually kept him in sight.THE MOUUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. 2U0-207.. but was Firdousi fortunately saved by having fallen on a carpet below and on carpet-spreader who was sitting there. In connection with this event Jehangir says strange thing was that three or four months before this event Jotik Ray. while playing in one of the palace buildings on the Dal lake. Vol. A Padshah Banu Begam died. p.") •> . Vide my j)jii)er on *' The V'jiu ration paid to the plane tree in Persia. Jehanoir's ac-count of the chi- {chindr)^ in Kashmir is worth-noting. 17 as a country of refers to this fact.. Vol. Kashmir. : "A were unpropitious to him.-lmiir. and it was possible he might fall down from some high place. 151. that haJ3|)ened to his child Shuja. this dread dwelt in my mind. Le Livre des Rois.-^ The child.. He had discovered this from the horoscope of my destiny and it fell out "4 accordingly. The huge shady Chindr trees are the beauty of . " : strange thing is. that it was predicted from the Pfince's horoscope that these three or four months a. iu The Mosul Enii!oroi-s are said to have further spread the plantins of chituxrs Ka. we find the following instance .' both during my first visit and the second one (3rd June 1915). had represented to me without any intermediary. . l. Vol. a chindr at Sumbal. VI. of Jehangir's faith in astrology . >^o. "3 Further on.i in his account of present Jehangir. 4 Ibid. but that the dust of calamity wOuld not settle on the skirt of his life. I saw. II. this unavoidable catastrophe occurred. The chinar-s were Im'M in reverence in Persia. p. pp. the astrologer two months before this. (Meccau'3 Calcutta edition. Vol. Mohl. nilsl'ro"o''"'''^'''*^' Kashmir.-)2-53. 704 : Small editiou. 3 Ibid. As his prognostications had repeatedly proved correct. pp. had informed some of my servants that one of the chief sitters in the harem of chastity would hasten to the hidden abode of non-existence. and took the greatest When I arrived in Kashmir j^recautions with regard to him. which. Part I. God be praised that it ended well. pp. fell out of a window from a height of 7 yards. IV. the astrologer. and on these dangerous roads and difficult mountain passes I was never for a moment forgetful of that nursling of the parterre of b^ortune. Kashmir was known to the ancient Persians good astrologers. which shows his faith in astrology. describes an accident. that Jotik Ray. . Vide my AnthfOpolugieal Papers.<dr6^ of Kashmir.

was " In the village of Eawalpur. This place is one of the sights of Kashmir. but there is also a fine road passing through pleasant beautiful surroundings. which comes down from the hills. sleeping accommodation on the ground within its hollow trunk which was eaten away and hollowed by age. He says Brara there is a meadow (julga) exceeding^ clean and pleasant. It has a pleasant stream. 154-5. . pp. Whenever I had chanced to mention this. I saw another big chinar tree Bijbiara on the way to Islamabad. rp. with seven lofty plane-trees in the middle of it. we went inside it.'* a tablet. when I myself was riding on a horse. This Panj It is one of the great resorts of Kashmir. II. and flows into the Dal Lake. 3 Ibid. people were surprised. the present Maharaja Saheb has improved the surroundings by a beautiful garden. and people from the ci^y of Srinagar visit it during the afternoon. It was not in so good an order when I first visited it about 20 years ago. Phak is the name of a pargana situated on the other side of the lake (Dal). "3 Shalamar is still a sight of Kashmir. with five other saddled horses and two eunuchs. : Jehangir had further beautified the place of Shalamar which was beautiful in itself. p. But now." ^ Jehangir. Once a week.18 ASIATIC PAPERS. "^ the big Brara is the modern Bijbihara. kos from the city towards Hindustan. and a stream of the river flowing round it. and what I had in my mind came to pass in the same manner. and I think. It is still one of the picturesque spots of Kashmir. Twenty-five years before this. later on. 151. : — — I Ibid. We read as fol""^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Tuzuk in his account of the fort ShalrmS-*'^'^^*'^ of Hari Parbat built by his father "I frequently embarked in a boat. The Kashmiris call it Satha Bhuli. 2J He says larger than this. to a family of 7 or : burnt in the inside. think. It bears (26 June 1915) at *' Level. They generally go by boats. Shalamar is near the lake. 2 Ibid. plane trees referred to by Jehangir are of the spot referred to by me above. more persons. refers to a place known as Panj Brara and to the large "In the neighbourhood of Panj chinar trees there. there is a plane-tree. saying 54 feet circumference at G (ground) But the plane (chinar) tree which Jehangir describes. This time I -Bgain ordered some of the men to go inside. and was delighted to go round and look at the flowers of Phak and Shalamar. all the fountains and they are numerous are made to play. I bade my son Khurram dam it up and make a waterfall. could easily give. It has been noted in the Akbar-nama that my father took thirty-four people inside and made them stand close to each other. 171-72. which it would be a pleasure to behold.

and . top of the pass. p. pp. Probably there were others that I did not see. n. Ibid. whatever praise they might use in speaking of that flowery land would be permissible. Although they sent them by runners from Kabul as well. 16.' Humayun and and that of beautiful places known as margs or as Sona-marg. Shah Abbas. They are situated on higher mountains at some distance from the capital city and people go there the summer. I went to see it. the last two (7th to 13th July 1915)."^ Of the Ilaq of Kiiri-marg* Jehangir's account of the flower: . 1."^ further on. The shdh-dlu of Kashmir is not inferior to that of Kabul it is even better gro\\Ti. 2 Ibid. ^^ *h® ^ost honoured positions were the likenesses of ""^ Kashmir.. p. iind as I had expected. . such Kailan-marg. " The 3 Ibid. 163. with various little flowers. For a distance of 2 kos very elevated ground was crossed with difficulty. Undoubtedly. : We .. Jehangir thus speaks of one of them during *' I rode to see the summer quarters of Tusi-marg. As far as the eye reached flowers of all colours were blooming. yet to pick them oneself froin one's home garden gave additional sweetness. .59." Ibid .THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. yet I did not see so many as they had represented to me. n. Kashmir has several opposite to "3 my own. 19 see in the following passage. " The picture-gallery in the garden Jehangir says been ordered to be repaired it was Jehangir's taste : had .. Ibid.. of LawTence. from what Jehangir Jehangir's fondness for gardens. that learn. From the top of the Kotal to the Ilaq (summer quarters) was another kos of high and low land. There were picked fifty kinds of flowers in my presence. nieadows. 164.. p. Although here and there flowers of various colours had bloomed. Valley . pp. 161-162. especially in the spring. he says Every day I plucked with my own hand sufficient to give a flavour to my cups. as display"^ ^^^ - *^® adorned with pictures by master hands. cherries of speaking " Kashmir.e. We was he who ordered the further cultivation of this fruit in Kashmir. 162. 1. Gul-marg. These soft grassy meadows are covered. He says " I strictly ordered the officials of Kashmir it : says "2 to plant shdh-dlu (cherry) trees in all the gardens. I had the pleasure of seeing margs of Kashmir. Ourais of Lawrence." Ibid.^ ArrivI reached the ing in two marches at the foot of the Kotal. plaoe is the Tosh Maidan " 6 162-163. p. Jehangir's desire that one should have his own fruit-garden. 16. now ^^ for art. While of the shdh-dlu. 2. i. I heard that in this neighbourhood there was a very beautiful valley. The largest of them weighed one tdnic five surkhs. of my father my brother 1 4 r.

So. above which Ray Bihari Chand. "^ of From Machhi Bhawan. lest what they see at the above spot at the time of their visit may disappoint them and lead them to think that the Mogul Emperor's description of the beauty was an exaggeration.a-beautiful garden J«7^r?' flowers had bloomed. Around it lofty planetrees and graceful white poplars. Perhaps it is the very spot which Jehangir refers to in his Memoirs. shady and beautiful. even now. the ground is not kept well-cleaned. The buds of hearts break into flowers from beholding it. perhaps. because it contains. 172. and large trees of ancient years. The springs are beautiful. Jehangir says: "The water of this spring is more plentiful than that of the other (Machhi Bhawan). one they of the servants of my father. Undoubtedly : there is no comparison between this and other Ilaqs and it be said to be the place most worth seeing in Kashmir. A play with the fish is enjoyable. no doubt. built aii idol temple. "^ 1 may say here a word of warning to modern tourists. perhaps a modern sees at present some dirt and filth in the midst of beauty. may. a ^^1-) number of fish. The beauty of this spring is more than one can describe. As far as one could see. :i IbiU.20 : ASIATIC PAPERS. . I remember having a hasty standing breakfast there on a picturesque shady spot opposite the temple on the side of the stream running from behind the temple. have grown up Machhi Bhavan and Aclival (Achi: round I passed the night at this place. 3 Ibid. p. The trees are grand. When royal personages and grandees go there the place also it. He says " There is a fountain that called Machhi Bhawan. But at times. ' ' 1 IbidU). 16i. when I paid a second visit to the temple and entertained its fish with the delicious Bhavan bread. I remember the noon of 27th June 1915. at times. Jehangir stayed at Machhi Bhavan. have made enchanting places to sit in. ITS. planes. white and black poplars. and in the reach could midst of the flowers and verdure beautiful streams of water were flow^ing one might say that it was a page that the painter of destiny had dra^vn with the pencil of creation. consider Jehangir 's description a little kept scrupulously clean. "i may In his tour towards the celebrated stream of Virnag. bringing their heads together. so that one might say it was a piece of Paradise. The air is bracing. is tourist. who exaggerating. '* How shall I write its praise ? As far as the eye he wirtes flowers of various hue were blooming. so called. sold there for the purpose. Jehangir went to the spring of Achibal. which he speaks as Achval. p. and it has a fine waterfall. La-.

When I was a prince. from the abundance of trees and the extent of green and grass. which had exactly the appearance of the variegated tail of a peacock.e. From the edge of the pond to the gate of the garden there was a canal 4 gaz in width and 180 gaz in length and 2 gaz in depth. Its water. 1 Ibid. it is in the above passage. because. . and among them was seen a stem. It waved about in the ripple and bore flowers here and there. notwithstanding its 4 gaz of depth. where the inscriptions stand " When I was a prince. that Jehangir refers to his orders for the erection of the buildings. which forms a part of the subject of my Paper. it is this visit of the 15th year of his reign." *' Of the trimness of the canal and the verdure of the grass that Various sorts of grew below the fountain. From AchibaJ. in the upper part of Kashmir) bears no comparison with {i. the soil of which. Jehangir went The Spring of camp near The to Virnag. in the whole of Kashmir there is no sight of such beauty and enchanting character. is far superior to) what is down stream.. I had given an order that they should erect a building at this spring suitable to the place. A. halls with domes had been erected.. and there was a garden in front of them. permission Filling brimming cups. — . Again." I have quoted at some length this rather long description of Virnag from Jehangir's Memoirs. i. In short. pp. T gave my private attendants to sit down. This spring is the source of the river Bihat and is situated at the foot of a hill. forty-two yards in area and fourteen gaz in depth. what can one write plants and sweet-smelling herbs grew there in profusion. on the banks of the canal . had assumed a hue of verdure. Hijri 1029. is not seen. I gave them Kabul peaches as a relish and in the evening they returned drunk to their abodes.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. I had given an. commemorates. One should stay some days in these regions and go round them so as to enjoy oneself thoroughly. 173-74. It was now^ completed. There was a reservoir of an octagonal shape. 2 In the 15th j'ear of his reign. I gave an order that plane-trees should be planted on both sides. . Round the reservoir was a stone walk {Khiydbdn-i-sang). It appears to me that what is up stream in Kashmir {i. .e.. 21 " :^ Vimag.. The water of the reservoir was so clear that. that the Inscription. from the reflection of the grass and plants on the hill..order that they should erect a building at this spring suitable to the place.e.B. . He says of I pitched the fountain Vir"%- feast of cups . was prepared at the spring. it could have been seen. &c. It . 'I above-mentioned. Many fish swam in it round it.. 1620. if a pea had fallen into it.

and Virnag and the above joint spring are said to form the springs of the Jhelum. there is a spring The water of this spring has a flow and ebb twenty times during an hour. Two tanks are pointed out to us bearing these names. Augra and Marich. . the goddess Vitashta ( Jhelum) wanted to take her rise from this place. Vishnu. so joined. On the subject of its origin and the legend about the origin. 1. it came " to be called Verah-nag or Virnag.e. abundant mirror-like water in the 15th year of his accession to the throne. n.. that Pa van Sandhya. "^ : . it from vir. joins that of the Sapta-rishi group. it appears that he must have ordered the Inscriptiontablet to be placed there during the very time he was there. . As to the origin of the name of Virnag.'' They say that at Virnag they the worship Panchayet of the Gods. 1 Tuzuk-i Jahangiri by Ro gers-Beveridge. 142. Bard wan. . because. Thereupon she had to go back. when she came. Shiva was staying here. Some derive name Virnag. while those of the other two Achibal and Virnag get a little spoiled and assume colour. The water from the Vitashta tank {kund) flows to that of the GangaJamna. Bhagwan and Ganesh. and thence the joint water of both the tanks. It says as we will see later on King honor to this fountain-head the of of did coming Jehangir. but the joint group at Virnag is believed to be the true main spring. as he says. ' . p. Atri.' And as Vitashta had to go back from the place. the five (panch) gods viz. The other group is that of Vitashta and Ganga.Jamna. but it happened that. according to a legend. The springs of Achibal. that the building was then finished. a spring. All the waters. called It is said.. viz. As a proof. that the water of this group remains pure even in the rains." Again. because they are believed to be some underground streams was now completed. willow so Virnag means willowfountain.. we saw above what The origin of the Jehangir 's information was. Brahma. about a mile to the Northwest of this place. There is another. : ' ' ' ' ' * — — — coming from a distance. Verah means to go back and nag' means spring. I will quote here from a ^vritten Hindu account shown to us here by the Pandit who acted as our guide *' The spring is called Virnag. Gaotama. Then. about eight miles from here. We read all this in his account of the 15th year of his reign and the Inscription very properly " bears that date. This group is made of three springs. 11. Augashta. it is alleged..22 ASIATIC PAPERS. i. flowing out. Vasishtha. Maheshwar. One is that of the Shapta-rishi from the seven (sapta) Rishis or saints. she took her rise from Vithavatru (Vithashta)." There are two groups of springs here at the distance of about one mile from Virnag. form the Vitashta river.

which was not produced in Kashmir but was brought from India. pp. p 179. which contains the following order Bsed to be impressed for this work without any wages except a little salt. Jehangir speaks of the kalgi. very strange and wonderful. p. liOewenthan gives an article. Jehangir Avent to Lake Bhawan. the labourers must be satisfied and receive proper wages and whatever grows on lands. Therein. The feast of cups saffron field. a spring °^ ^ pleasant spot. at each stage in Kashmir to accommodate his royal party. and plains on plains were in bloom."i The cultivators of the saffron took their wages in half the weight of the saffron in salt. et seq. known as Pandar Sandhya. I had never seen such a beautiful waterfall. and thence to Andha Pdmpur. it is a sight to be seen. Jehangir visited the saffron fields at Pampiir. men Jaban. and thence by the road of the springs of Machhi Bhawan and Inch back to Srinagar. From Virnag.THE MOGUL EMPEKORS AT KASHMIB. In this return journey as the saffron had blossomed. . let the whole saifron in Idnd be delivered to the Jagirdar that he may gather it as he pleases. granted in jugir. ^ is Kashmir there was held in a 'i. *' In the whole country of saffron only in this place. 2 Vide Journal Bengal Asiatic Society. Groves on groves. he went on an autumn tour in the direction of Safapur and the valley of Lar. He Emperor in 1624. an inscription on"the Jami Masjid contains a firman.. commencing with 10th March " I at ease As was this of in Tuzuk the his in account year says Jehangir's second of his reign. the royal standards were raised to return to Hindustan. or what are now called Travellers' Bungalows. : 1 Ibid. in the months of Vaishakh and Jaith. the plumes or feathers. as one of the excellencies of Kashmir. I passed the time there in enjoyment till the third watch of the day and filled my eye and heart with the sight. "3 : In his account of Pampur. Vol. Nag which contained blind (andha) fish. entitled :" Some Persian Inscriptions found in Srinagar Kashmir. On the 27th of the Divine (Ilahi) month of Meher. Rev. Without hesitation. The breeze in that place scented one's l)rain. where. He says What can be written in its praise % The water pours down in three or four gradations. water alternately rushes forth once every hour and then stops altogether for the next hour. : . and hence the people are guttering much distress. 279. He then refers to a waterfall " in the neighbourhood of Hirapur." 3 Ibid. of Shah At the time of collecting the saflfron. After a stay at the city." In that article. Jehangir paid a second visit to Kashmir during the 22nd year It seems that he had formed visit of Kashmir as the intention of going there in the 18th year 1623... 177. He also refers to an order to build houses. 23 ^bout five miles distant. . XXXIII. We ordered that no man should by any means be molested as to gathering the saffron and as to saftron grown on cro\vn-lands.e.

gives a proof of his knowledge. when Istakad Khan presented to His Majesty some delicacies of Kashmir. 1. that. with regard to the affair of Bidaulat^ and the heat of Hindustan did not agree with mj^ constitution. 2 Tuzuk-i-Jehangiri by Roger-Beveridge. 21. p. Bengal Asiatic Society's edition of 1865. taste and fondness of flowers. as the Pass of Pir Panjal was covered with snow.. that it' grows so large. 4 Ibid.e. 224. He arrived at Kashmir on the 19th of Khordad of the 19th year of his reign. ^ He says. "2 We have no account of this visit of Kashmir in Jehangir's Tuzuk or Memoirs which are translated and edited by Rogers and Beveridge. corresponding with the 1st of Safar (1 Safar 1033 H. 19. 14th November 1623). 20 et seq. 1. In this account of the visit he speaks " and of this stream as the source of the river Bihat (Jhelum) " a house of as of and pleasure of soul-ravishing place delight of his reign." ^ Ai^j ^'->^^). he entered Kashmir by way of the lower hills of Punch ^y~^^) or Punj. and.. 5 Iqbal-nameh. in this description. p. my camp started from Ajmer for a tour and to hunt in the pleasant regions of Kashmir. In the beginning of the 20th year of his reign which fell on 10th March 1624. ' [j^*^^ (^^j-* ^r-)^ is^J^^^ c5^'^-?'"'**) The author says that he does not give a description of this place as it has been already given before. 229. They extend only up to a part of the 19th year Elliot's quotations from other sources also are not So we have to resort to the original Persian of the Iqbal-nameh for reference to this and the subsequent visits. Vide the Ikbal-nameh. i. II. 8. ( o. he says of one species.sxi^ vs*-*^ j ^ J ^^ ^j^i^ Of the oranges of this mountainous place (Punch). 282. .24 ASIATIC PAPERS. Bengal Asiatic Society's Text of 1865. that they remain on the trees for two or three years and a tree gives "^ ^^ 1 From the time Shah-Jahan of him as the Bi-daulat. the latter i. p. he says. p. rebelled against his father Jehangir. he paid another visit to visit of Kashmir Kashmir. 11.e.^ On the 1st of the month Shahrivar^ Jehangir was at Virnag. spoke- the unfortunate. of which he speaks as the gar^^^^* den of roses and the (seat of) perpetual Jehangir's third Kashmir. From Virnag he started on the 5th of Shahrivar for Lahore. He describes at some length spring ( ^Ji*'^^ J IfJ (jc-'^J the beautiful flowers he saw there. on the second of th& month. having hunted ( Ji»5') at Bhimbar. that it cannot be contained in both the hands *^^ j-*^ ^r cA^^)joined together. sufficient. 240. ^ 3 Iqbal-naraeh. In the account of the different flowers. p..

). It is lucky for a man. Jeliangir sent ^ p i- . double the quantity was given. The mounsaffron Experiments on for its saffron. and they said.. The above referred to bird weighed 1037i miskdh. Th© king thus proved that the common belief was wrong.e. From Baramula. which is believed tobe very auspicions. 25^\ 1. i. the food-receptacle to be brought out. The people of Kashmir said.. or(_^U. so that it may be discovered what food it ate. Next day. eagle ( v ^a^ ). What. that the eating of it produced laughter. is : i. youth and beauty to the beholders. Jehangir tried to verify what he had heard! of a bird known on the mountain of Pir Panjal as Homa (U. oeliei.000 oranges. if the Homai flies over his head. i. that it lived only on bones. We find. . because it eats bones and hurts no animals. resulting from this new condition accrued to the land and time ? " The beautiful lines cannot be well rendered into English. the following couplet in praise of the beautiful place :-^ meant is thi^ The sight of the beautiful place gives. it threw. Wherever it saw a bone. Both. I A miskal is 13 drahm. The crop was opened and bone particles were found in it. '*what is this new youth and beauty for this world. It produced no laughter.i. taineers explained to the king. falling on_ there.e. to verify this i- x t i • and birds. It is generally believed that this bird Homa is the well-known bird Homai (pelican or royal eagle). The king offered a prize of Rs. get. as it were.e." In strength and form. went high up into the air again. having shot it merely on one of its legs. the royal party got into boats and went to the paradise -like ((^jT ^^^^fj) Kashmir.. So. as it were. broke into small pieces which it then picked up and ate. • tor. During this visit. The following couplet is quoted on the subject : ''Homai holds dignity overall birds. this bird is like an. One Jamai Khan brought it alive. the bone on strong ground. refreshed. Space and Time. The bone. looking to the ground. that it always flew in the air. Kashmir •nr • is ^ known i irom the prison.. but that also had no effect. a stone. a criminal who was condemned to death for theft him to eat one -fourth of a sir {^^xx^ ^j^) and gave equal to 40 mislcdls.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. and is always seen in the air and very little on the ground. it came down and From! lifting it up in its beak. The king ordered its crop. 500 to any hunter who would shoot a bird of that kind and bring it to the royal court.

He liked nothing but a few glasses of grape wine (ti>j^' v'^*^ ^^^«*^). not good health necessitated a change to Kashmir. Lees.9th. p. the envy of paradise ( '^^^. so that the note of the auspicious event may remain commemorated on the page of tim^. He continued to lose strength and grow weaker.26 ASIATIC PAPERS. fell down a hill and died. to a place where he sat and he shot from his seat. jj-^^ j'^^ jj^^ f-J^^ ^^ '^'^ (^ *. one of the footmen slipped. t-^^j ) ^• Abd-ul-Rahim Khaja was given a sum of Rs. We read the following Jehan iri angiri. From the fort Bairam. This event and the grief of the mother of the deceased -affected him. They were in from particulars Mu'tamad Khan's the 14th.j-^i^ rJ^j^.e. During the course of this hunt. * 1 Ibid.000 for preparaA female elephant with a litter was prepared for the tion. He could not ride and went out for airing in a palkhi ( i^^^^)^ He lost all appetite and even gave up taking opium {iDji'^). X. Want of pulsory. 2 The Iqbal nameli-i Jehangiri of Mu'tamad Khan. 290. the land of perpetual spring ( ^i-^*. the paradiseJehangir's fourth and last visit to Kashmir in 1626. year on the 21st of the Asfandarmaz. that. 16th. 127. Deer were driven of Bairam (^j-t-i). and he did not recover from the shock. j L)^^ T^^ u'j'^j^ j^-^^ -)^t-). : "^^^^'^ — 13 ^hl^ c*Aj . He died on the ' O >^ J next day. He then resolved to return to Lahore. Jehangir paid another visit to Kashmir in the 22nd year of his He started for it at the end of the 21st reign. which he was in the habit of taking for the last 40 years. like land of roses. 186 213.Society of Bengal (1865). edited by Mawlavvis Abd Al Haii and Ahmad All under the superintendence of Major W. From the Iqbal-nameh-i Jehangiri or Wakiat-i Jehangiri of Mu'tamad Khan. they went to Tahna and from Tahna to Raj our the way further. king. 30. army may be Order was issued that the date of the stay of the victorious inscribed on a stone tablet. pp. published by the Asiatic . He asked for a drink which )• He died on ^as brought but which he could not sAvallow. 229. in one beautiful place.^ We find from this book. 1. 290. .. His Iqbal-nameh says that this visit was comvoluntary icfj^^^^ ^ ^^jjjjk^\ ). His health continued to be bad during this visit. we learn that Jehangir had further Some in all six visits of Kashmir. On the way at the fort a hunt was arranged. His body was taken to Lahore and buried there. 20th and the 21st Y^ars of his reign. 18th. he ordered an -inscription to be put up to commemorate his vibit of the place.

For example. The Emperor's account in his Tuzuk is simple. to his I have given Jehangir's account of his visit to Kashmir on the The Memoirs of authority of his Memoirs. There were some orange trees. The animal was so much domesticated in the company cf the goat. having three beautiful : — A -colours. there is another Persian text. a •controversy in which the well-known orientalist Sylvester de Sacy of Paris. pp. that when the latter was removed. which Major Price translated. beg to doubt its genuineness. and says nothing of any enormous loss of iives of persons sent to recover the dead body.Tuzuk-i J^hangiri and (6) as Iqbal-nameh.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. When the same goat was 4:estored to him in the cage.y ^^j' not be contained in two hands. there is a good deal of exaggeration. when Jehangir was on his way to Srinagar during his first visit after his accession to the throne. who translated it in 1829. The lion then at first smelt the goat. giving 1. Tarikh-i Salim-Shahi by Major David Price. I sent nearly a thousand of the best swimmers into the in the hope of recovering the lifeless body of the young Tiyer MiTza. of some of its statements. During the return journey.. was unmatched in colours and beauty c^^-O**-^*^ J '^) The flower grew so large that it could (^jjJai ^i is^. river. not finding At to be its own companion. ^^52-257. ted by Major But. No doubt. was drowned while bathing in the . The king ordered another goat of the same size and colour to be put in the cage.000 oranges {^^/^) each. flower. and. ( (J»ji j-^). There was some controversy •on this work. not seen up to now. The people of Kashmir call it It makarbush 2. . killed it. a lion was presented Majesty which lived with a goat in the same cage. But look to the following exaggerated account as given by the writer of Price's work " : Without enlarging further on a subject to me so painful. speaks in very great •exaggeration of the loss of life caused by the force of the torrent of the river and of the rigour of the climate. 3. and having seen the force of the torrent of its river Jhelum. . styled David Price. in order to give it the last mournful proofs of affection : my 1 Elliot II. the lion embraced and kissed him.. known (a) as the -Jehangir transla. it roared and cried. Suhrab Khan. also took some part ^ Without entering much into the controversy. the son of Mirza Rustam Khan. the Memoir. having been to the country twice. I. 27 In the account of the fourth visit the following matetrs are inoted as novelties or peculiarities 1. at least the genuineness. as to whether it was genuine or spurious.

to camp. in extraordinary numbers. What became of his poor remains was never discovered. learn from Jehangir's Memoirs. camels and horses. ^3 2 Elhot. and most experienced man present united in declarthey had seen at different times and in every variety of season. The army was accompanied by fakirs or religious mendicants. 1620. VI. pp. and fuel of any description was not to be procured.. 257-260. inscriptions. hut all search proved in vain. for never in the very hottest temperature. Memoirs of the Emperor Jehangir. we find.. had perished during the night. that. independently of what belonged to the army in general. Archibald Constable's Translation. edition. the Mogul Emperors took special care to take as small a number of army and followers as possible. pp. that he was fond of certain. it did not occur to them ever to have witnessed such severity ot cold as that which this year had proved so destructive on hill and plain. by Major David Price (1829). ^ The . so severe. revised by Vincent Smith (1914). belonging to the imperial stables alone. and. and perished to the number of fifty thousand persons. that it was reported to me the next morning that nearly ten thousand elephants. to visits Commemorating his enchanting beautiful places in Kashmir by notice two instances of this inscriptions. secou* . Impatient of restraint. the foot of the mountains of Kashmir the snow fell without intermission for seven days and seven nights. I ordered a lakh of camels belonging to the imperial equipnient to be employed forthwith in conveying such fuel as could be procured at a distance. the 15th year of Jehangir's fondness of commemorating events by We We 1 Bernier's Travels in the Mogul Empire. to so many animals of every description. 139-40. otherwise their destruction' would have been inevitable. a. 391. that in all that /' At. Again. t^e unreflecting multitude plunged in heedless throngs into the stream. looking to the difficulties of the route and to the small capacity of the valley to supply provisions for a large number."^ The writer seems to have had no sense of proportion in the matter of his figures. as they must have perished if not preserved by some immediate intervention. Elliot gi^/es several instances ^ of exaggeration and the above is one more instance. p.d. The cold on the banks of the river was.^^ occurred during the return y^^^^ journey via Pir Panjal (1029 H. But this is not all that I have to>^ record of this fatal river. oldest ing. rpj^^ g^. and these fakirs to be supplied from the very first convoy. moreover. was there an instance of such extensive destruction at one time..28 ASIATIC PAPERS. Blessed be God. from Bemier's account of his visit of Kashmir with Aurangzebe. not having the common sense to wait until the waters should have subsided. for the greatest heat of the dry season.

50 cubits in height and 4 in breadth.^ Elliot. i. we see the fondness of Jehangir to commemorate his visits to picturesque and beautiful x^^^ces in Kashmir like that at Virnag. but does not give any account pleasure of Kashmir. only refers to this visit. drank wine. a VII.e. find a dstailed account of his first visit during We of it. d. in the end. After having enetred into the limits of Kashmir by the Punch (Punj) route. intheKhurdad month. {j-i^^'^) i-e.."^ We find the second instance. We read the following about the beautv of Itashmir : — J . he came to a place. Ills 20 waterfall and Jehangir went to see a beautiful reign). The country is spoken of as nazhat-gah (slST «^r-)^)-i-Kashmir. the i^lace of the 7th year of his reign (1043 Hijri a. '* which he calls a sight to be spring at Bahraingalla. to Kashmir in 1625.^ in its account of his third visit. Shah Jehan is Shah Jehan and Kashmir. in his Iqbal-nameh. ordered that the date of his arrival there may be inscribed on a tablet.y heart-ravishing Kashmir. said to have visited Kashmir several times.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. an account of the four roads leading to Kashmir. in the Badshah Nameh by Abdul Hamid Lahoari. stone tablet on the top of the terrace. and. Thus. as referred to above. in his extracts from the Badshah Nameh^ or Shah Jehan Nameh of this author. 1633). Shah fJehan went by the Pir Panjal Route (J^^-^J^-iJ 5^'j). He sat for an hour before it. It is aLo spoken of as Kashmir-i-delpazir. *' ordered that they should engrave on ijeen" and there the date of the crossing. in these instances. where there was a very large waterfall. We read in the original. and place it s.

. which were shown to me. as well as the gardens along its borders. were shorn of their grace and loveliness. He stayed at the fort of Hari Parbat. built at the direction of his grandfather Akbar. that the ruined baths were built by Shah Jehan. 1 Ibid. and those in the suburbs of the city. the best of the beautiful places of the world. p. 97-8. Towards the close of the spring. some ruins at Virnag are associated Shah Jehan's visit of Virnag. Kashmir. the Subahdar of Kashmir^ for the conquest of Tibet. d. Elliot VII. It seems. there are several ruins. Just about this time. He visited the Mosque built by Mulla Shah Badakhshani at a cost of " Rs. he quitted j. roots. that Kashmir was then^ as now. that they even poured into the garden below the balcony of publie audience. and beautiful islands^ fountains of wholesome water like that of the fountain of Paradise and lakes like the river of Paradise. all the verdant islands in the middle of the Dal. that a part of the water of the canal was carried from under the road to the baths. principally poplars and planes. the place whence there was a route to Tibet. Zafar Khan.000. many trees. on account of the heavy rain and tremendous floods. Near the garden opposite to the spring tank. longer sojourn in which tore up by the A that region was consequently distasteful to the gracious mind so notwithstanding that the sky was lowering.. by the people there with the name of this monarch. But. 281. 40. too. We still see ruins of two pipes there. and most of its trees were swamped. Shab Jehan sent from there. Vide also Elliot VII. 2 Inayat Khan's Shah Jahan-Nama. which became one sheet of water from the rush of the foaming tide. pp. "2 Though the inscriptions at Virnag have nothing to do with Shah. produce. ^ Shah Jehan visited Kashmir for the second time in the 25th year of his reign (a. I am not in a position to say. 1650-51).30 fruits' ASIATIC PAPERS. on the left of the adjoining tonga road leading to the spring. water-courses and enchanting mountain resorts. We find from the Badshah Nameh. p. and joy -increasing. and hurled down from on high all the blooming foliage of Kashmir. how far what the people said there was true. as. it is certain that Shah Jehan also had paid visits to Kashmir. a violent hurricane of wind arose. those of the hot water and cold water baths of Shah Jehan^ A ruin is shown as that of the place where hot water was boiled. The waters of the Dal rose to such a height. 98. and pleasant gardens. in all the gardens. Jehan.

that he may have issued the order before coming to Kashmir in the preceding February (Asfandarmuz).^ The Farmdn did : Kashmiris (1) Another inscription on the same Jami Masjid refers to the that if a man did some good work.. in. Bengal Asiatic Society. On Shah Jehan's Shah-Jehan'a rule in Kashmir is commemorated by an In- bearing his name and giving his Farmdn on the Jami Masjid of Kashmir. did not grow good fruits. Loewenthal's article. 289-90. . but his father and forefathers got the advantage or benefit of the belief. we pass over the some old water works. to avoid this. the 7th month of that year. this restriction from the Subadars was removed. the It Rajab. seems.. fell in June of 1651.d. Vol. 3. (2) A tax for wood used by the people was charged by the Subadars. "On the 4th Rajab. His Majesty paid a visit to the read Mosque which had been erected in the most exquisite style of art. That charge of tax was on the growth of rice in villages abolished. We : justice to the following grievances of theThere should be no forced labour for the purpose of collecting saffron. scription. pp. (5) The Subadars kept their own men in private fruit gardens to watch over the best fruits. No. or belonging to.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. length. forms. (4) The poll-tax of 75 dams on each boatman was reduced to the previous tax of 60 ddms. a. pp. a bridge over a streamlet. VII. (3) An impost *' whose rental was more than 400 Kharvar of rice. perhaps. 287-88^- 2 Shah Jahan Kama. as it were. MuUa Shah Badakhshani. for the asylum of learning. So. The result wao. not only he. A very large stone. Anything unusual in size is often pointed out to us in many places in India as connected with. The Farmdn was given by Emperor Shah Jehan on 7th of Isfandarmuz (February) and inscribed in Adar. to have them. entitled "Some Persian Inscriptions found in Srinagar Kashmir. which charge was increased by the government of Itiqad Khan.* Inscriptions on Kaslimir." was abolished. that the owners. 97. So. Bengal Asiatic Society. about 10 ft. XXXIII. XXXIII. On his arrival in Kashmir. the time of the Panda vas." Journal. 3B ruins of proceeding from this site to the village. 3 Journal. 1650-51 that the King's Farman was inscribed on the Juma Masjid. he went to see how his Farman was inscribed."^ The year 1061 Hijri began on 25th December 1650. The year is not given but it seems that it was during his second visit of 1061 Hijri. Here is an instance of this kind. p. therefore. 1 I Rev. Elliot. No. and the order was inscribed in March. 3. This is pointed out to us as that of the time of the Panda vas.

Francois Bernier (1620-1688). We dated 1056 Hijri. in an interesting way. a traveller and many a poet. Bernier. 280 2 Constable's Oriental Miscellany of Original Berniers's Travels (1656-1668) (1891). Aurangzeb's visit to Kashmir in 1665."^ for i)oems in praise of the favoured referred above to Bernier 's own view about the beauty of Kashmir. V Second edition revi?' 401. there were 6.e. accompanisd by a large number of traders who opened their shops wherever the camps were pitched. inscription. .t32 ASIATIC PAPERS. amoving throne. by which Banihal the Mogul Emperors.. 1914. there was " Kashmiri and the Mogul poets contest between the " I have land. I had attempted this ascent during im The iirst visit of Kashmir in May 1895 on all . "^ builder and his father. guarded by The King marched with a .gourz-barddrs. but had failed. As said sung by many " by an emulous during Aurangzeb's visit of Kashmir. It is in the vicinity of VirniU^ It was on 30th June 1915. He had accompanied the Emperor in this visit. •baggage and also a few mules. If one wants to enter into Kashmir from Jamoo he has to cross this high Pass. KathmS^^^ describes at some length. It is referred to by Abul Fazl in his Ain-i-Akbari. that I had the pleasure of going t' the top of this Banihal Pa?s which serves as the route over tlif Pir Panjal mountains. 3^^^^^ ^^® ^^^^^ ^* ^^^S Aurangzeb in 1659. righteous act in the other world. *. exhausted after climbing one-third the height Ibid.had to return 1 \V( foot. mace-bearers.000 In all.. He had a number of the choicest elephants for his retinue. pardon its VIII. is which — read at the end of this "Oh God.000 porters. and Selected Publication:?. royal party there were 30. for the whole porters or coolies to carry the baggage. i. p. a French ' medical man. Besides these. crossed the Pir Panjal range of the mountains surrounding Kashmir. Vincent A. p. Bernier was enamoured The praise of Kashmir has been of the beauty of the country. The great Mogul was carried by people in his Takht-i-ravan. They were collected by The royal party was the Rajahs of the adjoining countries. Oh Pardoner. who> ^ after travelling in several parts of the East. I will here say a few words on the Banihal Pass. in some of their visits Pass near Virnag.' Smith.e.

w&y to Baramulla down the Gulmarg. Jamoo is said to be 8 stages from always windy. . high. The path is at places so narrow. and before the abovementioned event of his curse to punish his tormentor. . that to give way to some of the Maharaja's troops coming from Jamoo. and raised storms of wind.e. It wag about 8 feet long. Jehan-Guyre having upon one occasion derided his counsel. We see the Ziarat-gah ot this Baba Rishi on our 3 . . and. he overturned the stone so that people may not see his foot-mark. He missed his aim. Four small hollows on the surface are pointed out to us as the place where he rested his knees and placed his hands during the prayer-ritual. It is connected with the story of one Baba Rishi who had driven away a demon from Kashmir. from a stream of that name running at some distance from here. a saint. and 7 to 8 ft. . having company : . The demon. 1 There is in Kashmir another big stone which is traditionally connected with another Pir.. But. . . We started at about 6-45 a. with those who made a noise. The Pass is named ^anihal. to. . . broad. notwithstanding his earnest remonstrance. His foot made a mark over the stone. The wind has continued to blow here since that time.m. Tradition says. He informed me that noise made there stirred up the most furious tempests imagina'ble. 33 This time we went on horseback. 8 to 10 ft. Before his advent here. Of his religion everybody was ignorant but it was said that he wrought miracles. His white and uncombed beard was hail. we had to wait at one place for about half an hour. I found the stone to be about 18 to 20 ft. snow and rain. . caused strange thunders. This Pir was much harassed by a living here in former times. The Tulwan marg and the stone were visited by me on the 10th and 11th of July 1915. and reached the top at about 10-20. I was showed a very large slab of stone here. 4 feet broad. punish him. The Pir said his prayers on this stone. he cursed him and person living here prayed for cold wind. who travelled in Kashmir in the of Aurangzeb. long. i. Let us note what Bernier. The old man was also very angry extremely long and bushy. The Pir had miraculously changed the direction of this big stone to enable him to turn to the Kebleh towards the maghreb (west).THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. and so. and Baba Rishi. the Pass was free here. It is near the Tulwan marg on Gulmarg. On visit.. and 3 to 4 feet thick. The man was overtaken by the wind and was killed. my om ^ stormy winds. is This Pass is mountain named . that the Pir Panjal from the fact of a Pir. in thanksgiving got up over the stone and said his afternoon 7iimaz or prayer over it. lest people may make the stone a Ziarat-gah or a place of pilgrimage. says of the Pir and his miraculous " The third extraordinary appow3rs of producing the winds pearance was an aged hermit. in revenge threw against Baba Rishi a big stone from the side of a distant mountain. who had resided on the top of this mountain ever since the time of Jehan-Guyre.

Though I had not the severe experience of Bernier to be on the frozen snow. to be ordered the cymbals to be beaten and the trumpets "^ sounded. three things " recalled Bernier's old philosophical speculations. but when we reached the summit. Vol. &c. in his Ain-i-Akbari. it is quite possible.^ says as follows on the subject " If on these hills an ox or a wind on the Pir Panjal hills horse be killed. appears to be connected with that of the Yedeh {t<^i) or rain-stone frequently alluded to by Baber. It is said to be found in the head of a horse or a cow." One often experiences some changes of temperature when he goes on the top of a hill. that the Pir's apprehensions about any noise whatever being made there may be wrong. and if steeped in the blood of an animal with certain ceremonies. 1. 3 Col. the history of which is given by D'Herbelot. " in his translation The superstition regarding the tempest of wind and snow and rain. Jarret makes the following note on the subject. narrowly escaped destruction. the change is very great. 410. I : 1 Bernier's Travels (1656—1668) in Constable's Oriental Miscellany. n. It is of Tartar origin and the virtues of the stone are celebrated in Yarkand and attested by authorities who have never witnessed them. (1891) 2 Ibid V. that loud noises like those of drums. I." One was the above one of the aged hermit and the tempests. situated in the lofty mountains : of Kashmir refrain from chanting their hymns of praise when in the vicinity of the banks of snow. The following note on the subject in Bernier's translation shows. It seems.. p." of the : : While traversing the mountain Pass of Pir Panjal.34 ASIATIC PAPERS. as on several occasions the effect of such reverberations of sound has been to dislodge avalanches. 410. which swept aAvay to destruction many men and women. who visit the Holy Shrines. II. Jarrett's Translation. on this lofty Pass. a wind arises followed by snow and rain. The second was the experience of the opposite seasons ot summer and winter within the same hour "In ascending we were exposed to the intense heat of the sun. I experienced an unusual sudden change within two or three minutes." Col. and perspired most profusely . p. but here. . 348. may very likely produce a change in the equilibrium of the weather-conditions there. Vol. but. "2 Abul Fazl. that large noises are likely to produce such changes in mountain "At the present day the bands of pilgrims It says recesses. storm clouds and wind arise with a fall of snow and rain. we found ourselves in the midst of frozen snow.

The •Omrahs and miltary will also be as few as possible and those Lords who have permission to attend the Monarch will be accompanied by no more than twenty-five troopers out of every hundred not. (3H5 a^4>ini ^n^i Hi^l e{"^l Vt ^I^IH S. and assuring themselves of 1 Bernier's Travels p. . The King has a few of the choicest elephants for his baggage and the women of the Seraglio.X^\X H^i ^i^l ^\^\i\ y^c-i <\\'^\ y\ Ml^l . . 2nd edition. whose only object is to gain a livelihood. there blows cold wind. for visit . ^^\ cl ^\^^<\\ M^n ^"^ 5. climbing up. Transport Aurangzeb's to Kashmir. The (heat of the) sunshine not perceptible. •' transport for Aurangzeb's visit of Kashmir. The gardener doAvn below and a Mahomedan here say. He says :^ " That a scarcity of provisions may not be produced in the small kingdom of Kachemire.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. years ago. 391. . 35 cannot do better than quote. " by A. the King will be followed by a very limited number of individuals. these animals are yet very surefooted. I had to o'clock. feeling their way when the road is difficult and dangerous. Of females he takes only ladies of the first rank. at times men are thrown down and carried away into the valley and killed. .il "q^i^i '^iPi'^iin Mi^l." Bemier gives an interesting account of the preparations and relatives to the top of this Banihal Pass. ct>s^' -iQ c-tioi. what I put down there and then in my note-book. Thanks to God that He has brought me to-day with my two Where I had failed 20 Though it is eleven remove my coat while Very cold wind. MH-l. however. officers of their household. that in winter. Though heavy and unwieldy. He has brought me to-day. as well as of all those petty tradesmen and inmates of the bazars. Smith (1914) . Constable. and effectually prevents the ingress of that multitude of Mansebdars and other cavaliers who are eager to inhale the pure and refreshing air of Kachemire. owing to the force of the wind. and those women whose services cannot easily be dispensed with. revised by Vincent A. an Omrah being stationed at the pass of the moutains. the intimate friends of Rauchenara -Begum. who reckons every person one by one. I wrote : "^i ^l^^ 'Hio'^i. on arriving at the top of the Pass. I have to put it on again. to the exclusion of the immediate These regulations cannot be evaded.

1711. was succeeded by The Mogul Em. who died in 1118 H. the Jhahid (martj^r). pp. who came to throne on 20 : — Rajab 1131. 1707. 1719. when it is considered that the king and Omrahs have been sending forward baggage. May 27. satisfied his enmity towards the Hindus of Kashmir. This was followed hyi a heavy fight between two factions of the Mahomedans. not excepting the Omrahs and the king himself and yet it is calculated that there are at least fifteen thousand porters already collected in Bember some sent by the Governor of Kachemire and by the . : . Sultan Muhammad Farrukh Siyar who came to throne in 1123 Hijri A. a. He ruled for eight years and 4 months and was then dethroned and put in prison. a. Porters supply the place of camels and you may judge of the immense number that will be employed if what they tell me be true. 4." . It employed an enormous number. I must myself have three. 6. who died in 1123 Hijri.D. who was declared Emperor in 1131 Hijri (18th February 1719) and who ruled for a few days. are all left behind. that the king alone has no fewer than six thousand. and others who are come voluntarily in the expectation of earning a little money.. The king has also a few mules but his camels. and was then 3. one Mahbub Khan. 2 days. otherwise known as Abdu-n Nalur| Kashmiri. In his reign. in connection with Kashmir in the short reigns of these Mogul Kings after Aurangzeb. and the trades people articles of every sort. known as Bahadurperors after Aurangzeb. to throne on 11 Zi-1 kada 1131 H. ghah. where he soon died. IX. 5. These' disturbances caused a damage of lacs of rupees. 387-485. Aurangzeb. until we come to the reign of the last ruler in the above list. which would be more useful. killed by Muhammad Farrukh Siyar. Shah Alum Badshah. Abu-1 Barakat Rafi-'ud Darajat. A royal ordinance fixes their pay at ten crowns for every hundred pounds is computed that thirty thousand will be weight. the firm hold of one foot before they move another. Jahandar Shah. . neighbouring Rajas. by submitting them to many indignities. d. known as Roshan Akhtar.d. September 1719. one after another 1. Elliot -VII. . 1711. the mountains being too steep and craggy for their long stiff legs. although I left my large tent and a considerable quantity cf luggage at Labor every person did the same.the following kings. who ruled for 11 months only. . for the last month. Rafi-'ud Daula entitled Shah Jehan II. d. and reigned only for 3 months and Muhammad Shah Badshah. 2. a. who came nothing interesting. 1 We know Muntakhabu-l-Lubab.36 ASIATIC PAPERS.

which ^''^'^ '" ^^"^ influenced early Mahomedanism. Kashmir" (JoM/y<rt/ Bengal Asiatic Jiotuety (1865) Vcl.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. like Kingsley's Wild persecutions. that suggest to us some stray thoughts of this kind. Beveridge. some time after the death of Zain-ul Abadin. 1 Sinejrel . 3. " Some Persian 2 As piven hy Eov. Old Persia. ." i Mr. pp.lines. and in that mark. The inscription was put by Sultan Habib 'in 981 Hijri.e. The Moguls Tarsia through the Moguls upon have left a j^owerful mark on India in various Kashmir in parti. 37 of the Inscriptions generally. We find the word Sarush in another inscription of Kashmir. X. and especially the use of some reUgious terms of '* the Old Persian faith. 282). and the use of some of the The influence of ^^^^'^^ especially. hapta keshwar is Avesta karshvare (country). At the time of laying the foundation. Words like Haft-keshvar and Sarush used in the inscriptions point to the influence of Zoroastrianism upon ' ' ' ' The words have come down. we are almost inclined to think. When we think of what the Parsees have done for and the Puritans for India. suggest the question influence of Persia upon India. as it were. Memorial Volumo. In an interesting article." referred to by Mr." religious ' Now it is the language of Jehangir's Inscription. ' ' ' ' ' ' ' : i. situated at a short distance from the Masjid of Shah Hamdan. forefathers of the modern Parsis did same service to India as the Huguenots did to England. The 2 couplet which speaks of Sarush runs thus their original ' * ' Mahomedanism. J.oewpnnial in )iis article. They introduced new arts and sciences and enriched the blood of the Indian nations. The first part hafta in haftkeshAvar is Avesta The second part (seven). p. It is that on "a postern gate" of the tomb of Kashmir's celebrated kiilg Zain-ul Abadin. the Huguenots for England. America. No. Beveridge refers to some sources for this influence. The word Sarush (angel Gabriel) is Avesta Sraosha. has some The language generar^ indirect hand. entitled "India's debt to Persia. 21-22. that there is good in if " : But — — and that. H. the followers of the old Persian faith were also powerful agents in The Persian settlers in Gujrat the •civilizing the country. North-Easter' they drive hearts of oak seaward round the world. in form from the A vesta. entitled Inscriptions found in Srinacar. otiitod by nie. XXXIII. I heard from Sarush the year of its date " the second tomb of Sultan Habib" 981. Speaking generally he says Persian Muhammedans were influential in India..

whose name is borne by a large Masjid of Srinagar. He died in 786 Hijri (a. had preceded the Moguls and had been the medium of the spread The saint's original name is Mir Sayid Ali of Persian influence. known as the Masjid of Shah Hamdana. In the case of Kashmir. Hamadani. 1384).38 ASIATIC PAPERS.y . ^ (SJ '^'j ^. This appears from the following inscription in the mosque in Srinagar.d. Saiyad AH of Hamadan (the ancient Ecbatana).

" Kashmir " 2 by F.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. translated from the German This was also a title of Jeliangir and formed part of iiis name. j. the founder of the Persian religion.^ ^^j" cuij j^Ujtj 1 " "The Retreat of the Ten Thousand by Prof. and the gardens at Achibal and while speaking of the Shalimar Virnag. a building fields and forests. The Moguls brought their taste for gardening to 39 Kashmir Persia. Witt. " Younghusband. 81.^i\jyi3 yiJaJly] jX^^ ^\^c 3^1^^. opposite to the entrance. 3 N«ru-ud-din. says They were quite right in selecting trees of formal growth and planting them on geometrical lines. in his "Retreat of The Persians and ^^^^ The The Ten Thousand. Witt. II. they were engaged in a good action well-pleasing to God." says: "This charming gardening. by Francis Younghusband (1891) p. (a) Text of Jehangir's Inscription on the wall of the octagonal tank. (6) The other is on a side wall."i The principal Mogul gardens of Kashmir are the Nishat Bagh and the Shalimar on the Dal lake. . 17. who had taught his disciples that when occupied in the planting and tending of trees useful to man. There are two Inscriptions at Virnag. p. Younghusband. The Moguls certainly understood such matters. (a) One is on the wall opposite I will first give to the entrance. Mogul gardens of pursuit (of gardening) had been raised almost Kashmir. Sir F. —The Text and the Translation of Jehangir's Inscriptions AT Virnag. to the rank of religious duty by Zoroaster.xt][^^ ^jj. Both are on the walls surrounding the octagonal tank. "2 : — XI. and that necessarily artificial object made by the hand of man. Mr. the text of the Inscriptions. the essence of a good garden being that it should form a pleasing intermediate step between the free treatment which Nature lavishes on hills and plains. C. garden.

^y^ (a) o*»jf .e.D. the justicespreading Emperor. angel Gabriel) obtained {i. ).. 1036. father of victory. at the first sight. splendour of religion.d.. may be taken for and <^^'jj must be read as Virna^g iS^'^i^ij which is the ^-' ^^ ^^ 1 I.the numerical computation of the letters in the line ti j j ^^-^^ <^ ^^T must give us the number 1029 as given in figures in the Inscription. To give us that number. i. 2 the king of the time This running stream has reminded us of the stream of Paradise. but the date 1036 clearly shows. the king of the seven regions.e. ^J (•ri Translation of the first Inscription : — King Jehangir. The word ^4-^a.e.40 ASIATIC PAPERS. and not to Shah Jehan (1626 -1659).e. the son of the brave King Akbar.. i. The invisible Sarush (angel Gabriel) men" tioned the date of the canal to be Az chasTtma {i) behesht " birun dmadkh ast jui. 1619-20. This building raised its head toward heaven (by the hand of) Jehangir Shah. and that it refers to Jehangir (a. we have to take two alifs for the first letter in the word »iljT. tlio 15th year of Jeliangir's reign.1 (6) Translation of the second Inscription : — Thanks to God What a (beautiful) waterfall and running stream has Haidar prepared at the order of the King of the World.<t>M^T eJjj"^ c*-l^j /»'-*». decreed) its date as qasr dbdd chashme!h-i-Verndg. l will speak further on this subject later on. (May the palace of the fountain of Vernag flourish).. The source of Reason {i. In the case of the first Inscription. .. did the honour of coming to this fountain-head of abundant mirror (-like water) in the 15th year after his accession to the throne. This building was completed by His Majesty's order. (6) Text of the Inscription on the wall on the right-hand side of the octagonal tank. Hijri 1029. that the word here is a common noun and not a proi)er noun.e. (son of) Akbar Shah. 1605-1626). Kashmir has obtained fame from this stream. A. 2 The word is Sliah Jehan One may. the stream has come out of the ! ! : spring of Paradise. c^^f-^ tf^^ ( take the Inscription to refer to tl>e son and successor of Jehangir.

. This chronogram has given me a good deal of trouble for numerical calculation..Jahaiigir. the date of the event. we come to the following result : — 3 r ? — — 300 40 5 2 5 A 300 400 Total 1055 3 •6 LS 10 Total 19 We find. p. 1 two events. Here. can be arrived at by adding the numerical values of the letters of the words ci^-i^^j ^^A and subtracting from the result the value of the " " letters of the word The words J<«x«T ^^j^: coming out " " ^^a» i. viz. but a case both of addition and subtraction. 10th March 16201 and (2) the fact that the building round the tank was constructed at the orders of Jehangir and the inscription put up during the same year. it must tally with the chronogram contained in the last line. II. which commenced on Friday the.e. The Memoirs of . (1) the visit of Jehangir to the Spring of Virnag during the 15th year of his reign.. a8 given in figures. I'JO. 15th of the month of Rabi-us Sani. iuim of the name we find in the Memoirs of Jehangir. is 1036 and so. . Hijri 1029. With the* sentence. taking out suggest subtraction. At first.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. The date. by Kogprs-Beveridge. but it is not because it does not give the required number 1036. in order to give the numerical value of 1029. so that. 41 this modification. must read as ^^'^^j will be 100+90+200+1 14-2+14-4 ^ . the whole of the last line gives the chronogram. Thus 1055—19=1036. that the first of the two inscriptions commemorates viz. . Thus. + 3 + 300—40+6+10+ In the case of the second Inscritpion. 1036.i^*^ j^^ The values + 200+50+1 + 20=1029. it looks. it is not a case of the addition of the numerical values of the letters.

They are the following : now speak — 1. }^e l^a(j been there twice during the life-time of his father. 92. We of the spring. of several matters in connection with the inscriptions of Jehangir at Virnag. he had ordered some structures there.3. " I ordered them to build the sides of the spring round with stone. 2 Ibid II. I. References to (a) As said above. in the 19th year of his reign.» We thus 1 Tnzuk-i Jahangiri. and built walls and houses about it. Who is the king referred to in the Inscription as Shah 3. Vol. and they made a garden round it with a canal. These visits had impressed him with the beauty 1. visits we learn from his Memoirs (Tuzuk)^ that Jehangir's to Virnag. 1627 by one Haidar at the orders of the then King of the World. I had given an order says in his Tuzuk. was built in 1036 Hijri A. The second tablet on the right-hand side while entering.d. " halls with domes had been octagonal shape. 17. that Jehangir had paid several visits to Virnag. a.. p. 1620. 5 Bengal Asiatic Society's edition of 1918." round which "Round erected. that the artificial canal. References to Jehangir's visits of Virnag in the books of history relating to his reign. Elliot's quotations also do not refer to it. It was on the first of Shahrivar that he visited Virnag.."^ Then Jehangir had a fourth visit of Virnag.42 ASIATIC PAPERS. p. . p. that they should erect a building at this spring suitable to the place." the reservoir there was a stone walk. the I5th year of the "2 He then describes the " reservoir of an reign) completed. 92. He " When I was a prince. He says. 3 Ibid II. during his fourth visit of Kashmir. But we find a reference to it in his Iqbal-nameh. p. by Rogers-Be veridgo. A FEW I will Observations on the Inscriptions. Jahan ? find from the books of history.D. and so. We find no reference to this visit in his Tuzuk. It was now (1029 H. and there was a garden in front of them. Who is the Haidar referred to in the second Inscription ? 2. in which the stream ran after leaving the above tank. 229. "3 After his accession to the throne he paid a third visit to Virnag and gave orders for some extensive works. p. takes a note of the fact. 4 Ibid Vol. XII. which require to be looked into. 173. and made a place such that travellers over the world can point out few like it. I.

. 30. 3 It bears No. beginning '' with March 10-12. 43 lind. It seems that script ion ? jjjg name was Haidar Malik. The author speaks of Haidar Malik as singing the praises of his own of this forefathers and ancestors and of himself ^^^<>J ^x^^ j^^Y 1 Tjtzuk-i Jehangiri by Rogers and Beveridge II. His work is referred to in another history of Kashmir.j In the preface. 3. described under the heading IV of History^ Biography.>. {Vide p. E.9. son of Khayr Alzeman Khan^ ( ^jl^i. His village was Chardara (or Charvara or Chadura or It appears that he was the author of a history of Isadur). and that he was an officer who was entrusted to do some canal work. Jehangir sent this officer to Kashmir to bring a canal from the valley of Lar to the Nurafza garden (at Hari Parbat). 1) 8. p. Hehatsek. 1. that in the 17th year of his reign (Hijri 1031). to in ^^^ second inscription as the person. during his six visits of Kashmir. 82 of the Library's printed catalogue by Prof. history speaks ( j. that Jehangir h^-d. &c. 1. the author of this Ms. who at Haidar referred to the orders of the King of the World (Shah-i in the second InJehan). It is the 22nd Ms. 154 and n. p. Who is the We have in the Moola Feroze Library of Bombay a manuscript Kashmir { ^^^ fij^^ *• ^^ ^he History of The author is Muhammad Aatzim. we find an account of Nurrudin Jehangir Badshah'srule over Kashmir. 5 Ibid. In that account.^ij^"^ ji..^^3-'ir-i^ '^^ j (t-^^^ »>*^^ ). 4 Ibid. It is a town situated near Srinagar. &c." \^ ri JJ*^} /'i^^^ A^^^ Cj^Jj-b^** ^^^-^"^ (^'«^^j' 3' J'b*^^ O^aSIj) Therein. and of the canal. (>**. there is a reference to the history written by Haidar Malik c>y^ ^^^ j«>a^ ). The third " Events of Kashmir part of this manuscript history treats of the from the beginning of the conquest by the sovereigns of the named Tarikh-i ) Kashmir. &c. 205. We find two references to his orders for the construction of the walls. 294. 105. 1.^ . 2 Ibid. "i Haidar Malik was a native of Kashmir itself.000 for the materials and labour. We read in Jehangir 's Memoirs.. 1622. This Chadurah is the abovenamed village of Kashmir to which Haidar Malik belonged.2 Kashmir. 7. e. 6 Ibid. giving him Rs. p. built the canal. p.ijjA3 Haidar Malik Chadurah ( J^jj^i^^ ). 238. 7. p. 3 Chagatai dynasty of Taimur. The next question before us is.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. 7 Ibid. round the spring. of the M. who is the Haidar referred 2. referred to in our inscriptions. paid four visits to Virnag..

The great Juma Masjid built by Sikandar But-shekan. a reference is made to Kashmir's great calamities from storm and fire. Malik Mahmad Naji. repaired and laid over gardens and buildings. p. p 298. In one of the great fires. the Persian of tlie above Ms. 94. 3 Ibid. In the time of the governorship of Nawab Itaqad Khan (1032 Hijri). Jehangir visited Kashmir seven times. Nawab Safdar Khan. p. in the time anew its of Jehangir.3 :t ^i^'} tc^^. According to this book. 1."! Haidar : We The history names the following persons as the governors of Kashmir during the reign of Jehangir Nawab Kulich Khan. 6. History of Kashmir. was also burnt in this fire.J. Our author says. . : In the account of the governorship. the fort and in the direction of the ponds. Prosperity of the country ^^^ ^^^ reparation and the construction oi zim's History of forts and buildings and royal gardens within Kashmir. the king. got this Masjd repaired. The event is commemorated in the lines.^4 ASIATIC PAPERS.iJ\ ^xjj ujliiA). 291 . Nawab Ahmad Beg Khan. Jehangir. from 10 to 12 thousand houses were burnt. he had ordered Ali Malik. during his visit of Kashmir.. 2 Ibid. appointed Haidar Malik.^'^^-^^ 1^^ j<i «J^i*il fj^^^j J'^i^ uJ^i-* Translation. that the Sunnis accused his ancestors of bringing about the destruction of the Masjid by fire. Nawab Hashim Khan. laid foundation on the day of Id-i qurbani. During the last visit. —Malik Haidar. Jehangir came to Kashmir for the first time in the year 1029 by way of Punj At that time. at the request of Nur Jehan. II. a permanent officer to remain in the presence of the king and gave him the title of Rais-ul Mulk In the beginning.3 1 Transilated from 5 et seq. {j^i «^fir ) and during every visit Hijri . especially " Faizbakhsh. the burden of repairing the Masjid was thrown by the king upon Haidar 's father. a chief of the country. read the following in his History of Kashmir by Muham" Malik mad Aatzim Jehangir ordered the imMuh^^ad Aat" Pi-o/T^"* ^"^. 2 So. Nawab Delawar Khan (Hijri 1027). J^J (_^jUjj. to clear the roads beforehand. the brother of Haidar Malik. that Haidar Malik in his history says. Chagatai {^^Slii^ . Haidar Malik had a hand in the construction of the great Juma Masjid in Punch.

he studied the art of repairing the was on that Haidar ( ^j^ Ue A^ cu^^-< Ji^J history of Kashmir buildings to several buildings. ^J . it iS recommendation of Meher-ui-Nasa Begum.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. On coming to Kashmir (Srinagar). This thus refers to Jehangir's work of improving ) and apphed it Kashmir. Malik was appointed a Zamindar of his own country (of Chadrur near Srinagar).

in the 22nd year of his reign. " The the date of the Inscription is 1036 Hijri. and as the Padshah-i-Dahr. at the first ). and. H." and not as a proper noun for King Shah Jehan. was put up original of Kashmir place of the 2nd during Jehangir's 3rd visit tablet. p. p.. EUiot VI. the wife of Ali Kuli Beg. tha' the tablet at first stood on some part of the canal furthe: 1 Vide Elliot.4Q ASIATIC PAPEES. at first. 1627. 154. say that the king referred to was King Shah Jehan. SO] the date of the inscription takes a note both of his first auspiciou visit as king to his favourite place. 1620. which was the first after his accession t< " the throne. was.e. n. KogersThe month was Shahrivar (Ibid. which carried the water of the spring from th octagonal reservoir to the garden opposite. the King of the is Who the " king referred to In (^. which bears the Hijri date of 1029 (a. Nur Jehan. '" The second Inscription takes a note of the subsequent work o: the canal.^ jjU^b ^^l^s-^U ^-gj^^ 'Time. 402-4 for an account. that the word Shah Jehan on the tablet is used as a common noun.^ When Sher Afghan was killed in Bengal. pp. ^^^ thought. But an tion of the date shows. somecr^tion? body at the spring led me to understand that the Inscription referred to Shah Jehan. ^ The second 3. 2. the King of the World. the queen of Jehangir. It seems. Inscription says that Haidar did the work at the Padshah -i-Dahr of Shah Jehan order One may.Jehan. VI. 2 Vide Tu2uk-i-Jahangiri by Rogers-Beveridtje II. the source of the Bihat He had ordered some work to be done there during th time of his princehood. 4S5 This Hijri date corresponds to 28t October A. Elliot. i. viz.. he ha repeated the orders perhaps with those for some furthe: extension. Tuzuk. in the sense of "the King of the World. Jehangir died on 28th Safar. p. What I heard at the spring seems possible. 373. Vid^ also Beveridge II. 3 Ikbal-Nama-i Jahangiri. who afterwards married Jehangir) was saved by this Malik Haidar from the hands of those who killed her husband. Wakiat-i-Jehangiri.d. In fact. 70. his wife (Nur Jehan.e. and of the completion o: rivar) I all his orders. i. and from ther further on. 1037 A. p. that the first Inscription. who had received the title of Sher Afghan and who was sent to Bengal. who is referred to as the Shah-i.D. 168). or during.d. VI. 4 1029 Hijri corresponding to about the 6th of September a. All that was done before. that the tablet was at one time on some part of the canal and was examinalatterly brought and put up there on the spring. Jehangir says On Friday the 27th of (Shah The : went out to see Virnag.. "3 So it was he. On accession to the throne. 1620). the year.. .

I had heard the story. adjoining to that on which the tablet directly referring to the tank was put up. 348. As a supplement to this paper. Instead of carrying on trade properly. another inscription on a tomb on a hill on a bank of the Dal lake. Abul Eazl says in his Ain-i-Akbari. lost completely in the Under the pretext of delights and pleasures of the Dal lake. the tablet was brought down to the tank and put up there on a part of the wail. but that that jDart having fallen into ruins. " that Kashmir is deservedly appropriate to be either the delight : — young man turned out to be a worldling. .4^ ^Jsici^i^ ^'^T \^H[ ^[. It is in no way connected with the Mogul Emperors. my u ^ ) 1 Ain-i Akbari. The story is as follows There came to Kashmir. — An Inscription on a Tomb on a hill on the bank or the Dal Lake. XIII. 47 down. p. from India for the purpose of trade. a young man named Daud. I propose giving here. 2 Fide jX[r[y^i[[\ii R^^i " C-tlH \y Ml<ll \k^3—C. III. During my first visit. It is said. but it is associated with one of the stories related about the beauty of the Dal lake. Jarrett's Translation. that he was so enamoured of the beauty and pleasures of the Dal. II. which was further beautified by the Mogul Emperor Jehangir by means of his beautiful gardens. wanting more money for trade. I noted the story of this young man in my lecture on Kashmir before the Gujerati Dnyan Prasarak Mandali as follows : of the worldling or the retired abode of the recluse. he maybe buried somewhere on the lake itself.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR. but could not discover the tomb. that he had enjoined that. a son of a very rich father. on his death."! This <^\^[ MJfil ^mMi "^nj^^l '-u'^ "^li"^ ^"Mi { ^i ^^ B. he wasted his father's money in the enjoyment of pleasure in the beauties of the Dal lake. he sent for it from his father in India and squandered all.

and take a note of. that there are many was no regularly built tomb and no inscription thereon. and pointed out a place. such guides. the place on the top of the spur where I could find the tomb.. require to be examined and cross-examined. I could not see the tomb itself. I refused to pay my guide. I beg to submit. And that was so. Mr. to show a rough outline of the tomb as drawn hastily by me. Suppose. I succeeded: to discover the tomb during the 2nd visit of 1915. The tombis seems to be one of the ordinary kind of a Mahomedan tomb. pursuits may be chances of not only being misinformed. of Srinagar. to Gangribal. and as the weather was getting upleasant and threatening. The guide took me to the height of about 100 feet. Finding that the weather was getting a little rough and rainy. Nowroji Pestonji Unwala of Messrs. that they knew that there was a tomb somewhere on the adjoining hill. he tried to dupe me. At length. But my stubborn refusal compelled him to take me liltle further up. To ascertain facts. It on the edge of a spur very little frequented. though some persons said. I went up the hill. It was on the evening of 19th June 1915. The weather was cloudy and was becoming threatening. I could not wait longer to make a better inspection . a person was found who pointed out to us from below. this mound. During that visit. as the place where Daud was buried. I purposely speak of. near a place known as Gangribal. that I had seen the place of the tomb of Daud. for inspection. my note-book. and suppose some other student had followed me and had come across the proper tomb. It is situated on the top of a lonely unfrequented hill. Pestonji & Co. Leaving my friend below. and then said before this Society or elsewhere. like way places. a spur of the Takht-1 Suliman. I would have then been put to the humiliation of being accused of bragging and giving an incorrect report. At first. taking this person as my guide and promising him a payment of 4 annas for his trouble. This Daud is popularly spoken of here as Dalu Mian from the connection of his story with the Dal lake. So. we could get no definite information about the whereabouts of the tomb. but of being shown wrong places. and to show me the right tomb. and with a view to be saved from being wet and from the trouble of ascending still further. I had believed this man. As it had begun to drizzle. whose story was traditionally known on the Dal lake. sajdng that he did not show me the proper tomb. There seemed to be a little what we see on some unclaimed tombs in out-of-theBut it struck me. and that there fact. at times.48 ASIATIC PAPERS. that that cannot be the tomb of a man in a good state of life. in order that those engaged in such cautious. kindly guided me He did not know where the tomb was situated. His tomb must be at least one with some pretension of brickwork.

I produce it here. at last. I had no idea.THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR of the tomb. and which I produce here for reproduction in our Journal^ I give below what little I can. and was glad to have it from him. knew nothing of this tomb. we read of the construction ( cu^ the tomb in which the ) apparently of epigraph is incised and which enshrines the remains of the IVIirza U named I in the 1st line. 4&>* my note-book a few words that were tdrikh ( fij^^) and Mirza The decipherment of these words at least was some truth in the tradition heard by me on the Dal lake about one Daud Mian or Dalu IVIian. satisfaction that there turned out to be really a discovery. Daya Ram Sohani. Sohani for the impression he has Idndly sent me.. I requested him to kindly get an impression taken and sent to me. Sohani sent me a copy of the impression I I did not know. and others may have an opportunity to correctly decipher it. went to the tomb from the front and saw the Inscription oa that front. From the copy of the impression. that I had the good fortune to discover. whose last breathings (/iw5^a^^). I hastily copied in These words w^ere easily legible. the tomb of that man. because the State ArchaeoloDepartment.— On the 29th of the month of Zu-1-Hijjah year 1162 Mirza Daud Mogul. am make out. that half of it continued on the other side. I -wTote to Mr. but that his Department knew nothing of the tomb itself. due to the weather. to inquire if a copy of the Inscription was taken by his Department. Translation. In the second half of the same line.a. with which I inspected the tomb and the Inscription. As a matter of fact. THE FIRST PART OF THE INSCRIPTION IN THE EASTERN FRONT OP THE TOMB. I reminded him of it again on my return to Bombay. ^3 ^1^ r gical mr I ^Jj^^- In the second line we read jy^ vr-^A. it ( Daud i>j'o gave me the Ij^Jj-* ). founded a few years ago. that I had seen only half of the Inscription. about 20 years ago and had taken a note of. that not onlj^ was the Inscription not copied. and the name of Mirza Daud. with his letter dated Srinagar. we have the date ^i-«» ^:?. so that it may be given in our Journal. Until Mr." greatly indebted to Mr. He wTites : " I am sending you herewith a copy of the Persian Inscription noticed by you. I was surprised to learn. which has been sent to me.^^. which have to be construed \\ith Mirza Daud. the Superintendent of the Archaeological Department. It gave me further satisfaction. in one of my published lectures. and owing to haste. 4 . 16th August 1915. In the first line. whose story I had heard during my first visit.

the whole name may be Mirza Akbar Kabar Beg. The tomb is just on the very edge of a spur and may perhaps go down the hill in a few years with a heavy downfall of rain. 1489. The Hijri year 1163 commenced on 11th December 1749. House Boat.. . The tomb has been cleaned. Srinagar. Thus the tomb is about 177 years old. Moulvi Mahmad Shah thinks the words to be Akbar Kabar. « Ibid.w 4JMJ tij the 21st of the month j^9 of Zai Ilijri year 1162 MirzaDaiid Beg Mogul of Eternity. 1491. the day of the Inscription.) Mirza {i. ^ So. tj f -J^^^ r. M. perhaps according to the last testamentary will of the deceased. So.l^^ Uj JI ^U. ( 1 ) (2) Translation..-=w (. Appendix" After the above paper was written and put into type. and before it is printed oif. A^ ^^'^ /SO Uj (S'^Jt^ ^ I (j^^ ^y o. 1 WoliaBton's Persian Dictionary.. once alone on 14th June.A.60 asiatic papers The second part of the Inscription on the back of the tomb. p.1 The Hijri month is the last month of the Mahomedan year and the 29th day is the last day of that month. and then on 26th June in the <?ompany of Moulvi Mahamad Shah kindly recommended to me by Pandit Hiranand Shastri. may Jatiha. the visitors. 1918. The inscription so far as we have been now able to decipher on the spot runs thus : dxA) u^Aj ^^t ^ ^jj-^ 11*"' <u^AJ I.. They remember him with (the recital of) a The last word in the first line after the word Mogul and the first two letters of the second line seem to make up a word which seems to be a proper name signifying perhaps the country to which the deceased belonged. giving the name of the person who built the tomb. Translation ^^j —passed d^i away from l^ Jjjj^ l^ij\ this world of destiny. I inspected it twice. corresponds with 10th December 1749. 306. Pearl. It •can be protected in time at small expense. p. —On jJa/ ^ o..e. the present Superintendent of the Archaeological Department. p. ..29^^ June. the day is the last day of the Hijri year 1162. which is the last day of the preceding year. Kashmir. No. died(lit.. and so the inscription is much more legible than before. 2 So. The indistinct portion after the word Mirza is some proper noun. went to the house Beg erected (this) tomb. 1489. The Hijri year 1162 began on 22nd December 1748. 3 Ibid. I have had the pleasure of visiting Kashmir for the third time.

THE MOGUL EMPERORS AT KASHMIR oOa viJ^I .

.

He asked the gardener how much he derived each year from his garden. while in other It excited my astonishment fields there is generally only one. paid * There are numerous gardens and trees on my dominions and if I fix a revenue of a tenth on them. and covered it with a few leaves. I have now squeezed several. and asked the girl why she had put the leaves over it.' He then desired the girl to bring another cup of the . The King drank it. in the account of the thirteenth „. he a tenth part to the State.but whatever sum he derived from his agriculture.) In the Waki'at-i Jehangiri. His Majesty told him to bring a cupful of the juice of that fruit on which the gardener told his daughter to execute that commission. that she brought it quickly the first time and in great plenty. that she had done it to prevent His Majesty drinking too fast. and The daughter replied. She was a handsome and accomplished girl. I shall collect a great deal of money. {Read 2Uh January 1918. His Majesty said within himself. He then asked how much he paid to the diwdn. that now she had delayed long. Jehangir thus relates a story : — On the way I passed through a field of Juwdr. in which every plant had no less than twelve bunches of corn. as drinking of liquids just after a fatiguing journey was not good. She was late in bringing it this time. year of his reign. observing. and met a gardener there. and have it ' . The girl with much readiness replied. She brought the cupful of that beverage. The King fell in love with her. The first time one brought but little. He said 300 dinars. pomegranate sufficed. His Majesty asked her the reason of this deficiency. and wished to take her into his palace. He gave answer that he did not pay anjrthing on fruit-trees. " pomegranate juice. A King entered a garden during the heat of the day. after describing the crossing ^ ^* of the river Mahi near Ahmedabad. and was not much she brought.The Story of the King and the Gardener"' Emperor in the Waki'dt-i Jehanglri of Jehangir and its Parallels. and recalled to my mind the tale of the King and the Gardener. He inquired of him whether there were any pomegranates and received a reply that there were.

. rending its breast with a dagger. He felt exhausted and his pain increased. the King is the King country. found that the snake had devoured a young man. when the ground was covered with vegetation and had become like the garden of paradise. VI. He had a good hunt. according to the latter. he came across a large snake with two breasts like that of a woman.^ His Majesty desired the girl to bring a third cup of the same beverage. He arrived incognito before a poor house. 364-65. He then asked to be allowed to take his daughter in marriage. that no revenue on fruit-trees has been taken during my reign and I gave orders that if any one were to> plant a garden in cultivated land. and with a cup brimful. We : — A Elliot's History of India. Vol. . We . The king killed it with an arrow. Now the question is Who is the King of the Story A Parallel from Emperor Jehangir does neither name the : ?' the name of the king. which convinced the King that the surmise of the gardener .52 ASIATIC PAPERS not been able to obtain so much juice. and divulged to him his real rank. 50-5-2.) For example. by Rogers and JBeveridge. Thanks to the Almighty God. few drops from the poisonous blood of the snake pained his eyes. I pray that the Almighty may cause the mind of this humblecreature to entertain good pure intentions. She shouted to her husband and asked him to look after the stranger. his disposition was altogether changed and that therefore the cup did not come full of the juice The Sultan was impressed with his remark and resolved upon relinquishing the tax. On the third day. while the Wakiat said several. She showed herself to be more hospitablethe Shah-ntmeh of Firdousi. the abundance of produce depends on the entirely good will and justice of the Sovereign. was sound. been passing in his mind. King Behramgour went-a-hunting. The Sultan commended the gardener's penetration." ^ . find the following story about Behramgour of Persia.' The Sultan was astonished. him in the Shah-nameh of Firdousi ^On a day in the season of spring. upon which her father replied that good produce is entirely dependent on the good disposition of the Sovereign that he believed that his guest was the King and that from the time he inquired respecting the produce of the garden. he was not to pay any revenue. and the reflections which had In short. After a little time. and then. welcomed him in her house. This time the girl came sooner. pp. pp. the girl said that tiM second time she squeezed 5 or 6 pomegranates. on his inquiring for help. . nor does he give I think. find this story in the Tuzuki-Jahangiri with some difference here and there (The TQzuk-i-Jahangiri. the land-lady of which. in order that the memorial of this interview and its circumstances might remain for the instruction of the world.

1514 1. the land-lady complained of the officers •of the king who passed through the village one way or another •on business. She thereupon shouted to her husband and said The mind of the ruling king has become evil. He thought to himself Though I do my best to rule well. butter. It is of bruised wheat boiled to a consistency. the milk gets dried in the breasts of the cows. they were taken as coming from the King. taking with her the usual quantity of grain and hay for it. but could get no milk from the cow. From that we tlie Trustees proof lind. Behram rested there for the night. and repented of his evil intention of being He said to himself '* I would really oppressive for some time. We have not decreased her food and drink. from where auybody of 14th Samachar September 1832. We find a siun of Rupees one hundred years. They accused some poor people of theft and extorted money from the innocent. Among the dainties." He entertained this evil intention of being a bad ruler during the whole night which he The next moring. he asked the landlady to regale his sick and suffering mind with some refreshing stories. The traveller (king) was much pleased with her hospitality. " all this. who was travelling incognito. and the next day she produced before him all that she could afford in her rustic house. his good faith has left him. Before retiring to bed. and. Vol. the passed restlessly from his pain. : a kind of thick potta^ 1 Mecan's Calcutta edition. If she liked. vided that sweet dish on the above occasion at the communal expense to all those who one for it for several debited and asked for it. Harisah still among the Parsees. p. there was also a dish of ^arisah ( ^-^^ji )^. HI. 19. Thereupon. (of milching). the accounts of the Parsee Punchayat of Bombay 1832. So.) who wanted it took a portion. but. She replied When the king becomes : : — ! : evil-minded." (Steingasa). She remembered her God as usual: and went to her work. I would really try to rule badly for some time. land-lady went to milch her cow. ( Vide the Bombay " made . she may say something of the rule of the then king. how is it that her nulk has gone off ?" Behramgour heard this loud conversation between the wife and the husband. my people do not distinguish between a good ruler and a bad ruler. *'My husband He has become oppressive. anyhow. and a forms special dish of sweets aromatic herbs are added. to which meat." The husband thereupon asked for " the reason to say so.THE STORY OF THE KING AND THE GARDENER 5S than her husband. In order to give my people an opportunity to feel the troubles of a bad rule. specially at the end of the Favardegan or Muktad holidays. accuse me of bad rule. It was prepared at the Manockji Seth's Wadi in the Fort. was pained to learn Behramgour. on account of the misdeeds of my officers. The people then will be in a position to »€ompare good rule and bad rule. Since last time. They accused respectable women. cinnamon. These small extortions did not go to the treasury of the king.

pricking the thorn in a sugarcane." It is said. She at once " shouted . he again went to the same hut and asked for a drink. pp. seeing with his own eyes what had happened. went to the hut of a gardener and asked for a drink —A She went with a cup and a thorn to her sugarand. He went home and ordered the tax to be increased.'' Thereafter. "O God You have the unjust king just again. On the report of the Society's meeting with an outline of this paper. that the land-tax of that portion of the country was not. what it ought to be. A few days The after. The good faith of the King has changed. Literal Translation of the Arabian Night3. following Sir Richard Burton's translation :^ 2 Plain and. as the story of the King and the Gardener. pricking a sugar-cane with a thorn.daughter of Sir Dinsha Edalji Wacha. feeling exhausted in a hunt. when a boy. It is to the following effect king. appearing in the public papers. A made It seems that it is some version of this story of King Behramgour that Emperor Jehangir refers to. that the king. a grand. -iSOth and 390th Niglits. again.b^' Richard F. he thought. Vol. repented of his conduct and ordered the reduction of the tax from cane his wife. field. On his way homeward. wrote to me on 27th January 1918 and drew my attention to a version of the above story as given in the Arabian Nights. Behramgour revealed himself before the peasant couple. land lady went to her field and.54 ASIATIC PAPERS milk as usual. Burton. Bastawala.^ held a cup before it. but no juice came out of it. held the cup before the hole made in it. looking to its fertility. The cup was soon filled with juice.lady again tried to milk the cow. I thank Miss Bastawala for kindly drawing my attention to this version. another version of this story. the should turn away from justice. I remember having heard. which I give below. APPENDIX. The king got refreshed with the cup and was surprised at the amazing fertility of the soil of this part of his country. saying." ^ She began to get the land. a talented promising young lady. V« . She thanked God. Miss Dinoo S. : Another parallel. ! rather like to be without a royal throne than that my heart short time after. 87-S8.

Moreover. thou thus ? thirsty and feared that thou wouldest drain the whole at one draught and that this would do thee mischief and but for this dust that troubled the drink so hadst thou done. It was some time before she returned and Anushirwan wondered thereat and said to her. So a damsel came out and looked at him then. knowing him at a look.' Rejoined he. * ' . pressed the juice from a single sugar-cane into a bowl and mixed it with water after which she strewed on the top some scented stuff. Why hast thou * She answered." . and said to her. and she replied. ' ' . on his return to his palace. ' this didst thou express One. he passed alone by the same door and called again for drink whereupon the same damsel came out and. O damthis sel. I put in and he asked And why didst that powder for a purpose I saw thee exceeding so she replied. going back into the house. he took the damsel to wife then and there. as he came back at the end of the day. went in to fetch him water.' So Anushirwan laughed and dismissed from his mind that which he had purposed against the villagers.' Answered she.' draught ? sugar-canes whereat Anushirwan marvelled and. . till he came to the end when said he to her. A village where they get this much juice out of one sugar-cane. why is it so He then left the village and pursued his lightly taxed ?' chase and. calling answered she for the register of the village taxes. he caught sight of a hamlet near hand and being sore athirst. became separated from his suite. and how sweet it had been but for dust in it. knowing that they came of her From how many wit and good sense. and carried it to the King. . that troubleth it. . ' The cause What is the cause of that ? of it is that when the Sultan's mind is changed against a folk." The just King Kisra Anushirvvan one day rode forth to the chase and. saw that its assessment was but little and bethought him to increase it.THE STORY OF THE KING AND THE GARDENER • 55- KING KISRA ANUSHIRWAN AND THE VILLAGE DAMSEL.' The just King wondered at her words. drank * it. being pleased with her much wit and acuteness and the excellence of her speech. in pursuit of a deer. the drink is good. little by little. guest. he made for it and presenting himself at the door of a house that lay by the wayside. Because a single tarried?' need so I pressed three not for cane thy enough gave sugar but they yielded not so much as did one before. * . . as it were dust. . asked for a draught of water. ' . ' ' . ' ' ' . their prosperity ceaseth and their goods waxeth less. Presently. Thereupon he seeing in it what resembled dust. . saying in himself.

-56 ASIATIC FAPERS As to the name of the King Anushirwan. 5.'* This derivation is not correct. In the Pahlavi Pazend books. The original name of the King -is Khusro. Burton says. the son ^lavi Kavad 2 or Kobad.A)MoJ>A>|» the immortal-souled. Zand-i Vohuraan Yaaht (Dastur Kekobad's Text) chap.. 2 . I. modern Kaisar. His epithet in Pah- was Anushe-roban i. glorious. Ibid. Jii»/) 1 . which has given us the Greek form Chosroe.. II 21. that the beautiful name is Persian Anushin-ravan' sweet of soul. Khusru.. Anaosha-urvan. he is " ' — spoken of as Khusru-i-Kavatan of i K^^l^ Ir-^y*^ i-e. Arabic Kisra. ^vt>^r ^^^t** e.

son was born to him and named A 1 Vol. is not rare. as there are here and there a few points which will bear some comparison in the case I propose giving from the Shahnameh. though not common among modern Hindus.Ganga sought marriage with the pious King Pratipa. pp. did not respect her modesty.An Instance of Royal Svxiyamvara as Described in the SMh-Ncimeh of Firdousi. Pratipa refused. it seems to have been somewhat rare in royal families. is that of Ganga. mentioned in the article. The word Swayamvara specially came to be applied to choice-marriages by princesses Ancient Royal Hindu Marriage Customs. The word Swayamvara ( ^^^^ in Sanskrit literally ) rmeans from svayam self-choice ^«r9. {Read 2Uh January 1918). January to June 1917. Kings and princes used to be invited by the bride's father to his capital. who. entitled " The mode of subject of this short paper. An article. says on this subject 2 winning a wife at that time among Kshatriyas was that called a swayamvara or self -choice. Choice-marriage. on finding that her body was accidentally exposed by a gust of wind blowing away her clothes. But. it means the self-choice of a husband or ' ' ^ ( = m = choice-marriage. the two cases of Swayamvara given in the paper." by Pandit Vishwanath in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of 'Great Britian and Ireland. var "velle) to choose. winning a husband. suus) and var Lat. ^ which has suggested to me the : among " the ancient royal families 6i India. and they displayed their skill at games and their prowess in arms and performed great ifeats of The bride witnessed them all and chose him strength. who pleased her most. The story of the first case of Swayamvara. hva Lat. 31-36. one's self (from sva ^= Av. when in heaven. Then. XLVII. (Av. .in brief. but promised to see that his son who was to be born may marry her. by bending his head when others did so. 2 Bather. Se. the great goddess of rivers who was ordered to be born on earth to punish Mahabhisha. in ancient India. When born on earth." I give here.

the father. Being a minor at the time. and' the child was saved.58 ASIATIC PAPERS Shantanu (son of the peaceful). being the greatest offendAll er. to the fisherman and asked him to give his daughter in marriage to his father. Eight sons were born. remonstrated. inquired from his On learning it. promising on his part. Thereupon. who thence came to be known as Bhishma. made to be born on earth. was not pardoned and was destined to remain on earth. Two sons Chitrangad and his father's The fisherman said. undertook never to marry and remained celibate. his elder step-brother Bhishma acted as his protector. Under the circumstances. Chit- . that Vichitravirya —^were the — fruits of the marriage. he secretly went Minister. Ganga brought up and trained the saved child as a good son. that he would let the male progeny of second marriage succeed to the throne. and asked him to marry a celestiaF maiden (Ganga) to whom he had promised such a marriage. in spite of his promise not to protest against any of his wife's doings. one after another. i. and gave it to his son Shantanu. and that they were therefore. most One day. that the son that may be born be appointed heir. When the eighth was born. that was destined to happen did happen. he accepted the prince's word. what the cause was. When for divine punishment. Dyan. provided. The marriage came of itself without Sahntanu knowing that the lovely maiden. the father dutiful and affectionate to his father. thieves in heaven. the terrible.e. However. whom he saw on the bank of the Ganges and afterwards married. and so. The gods in heaven blessed this dutiful son. that all the eight children were the eight vasus. Pratipa relinquished his throne. were killed by the mother. Shantarm could not agree to let his dutiful son Dyan to be superceded. but all. who had stolen the nandini cow of a rishi. The marriage took place. the king undertook. The father agreed to give him his daughter Satyavati in marriage. in order to remove even that remote chance of a future objection. Dyan by name. but the eighth. were permitted to return toheaven. because of the terrible vow he took for the sake of his father. the marriage could not take place. the wife explained.. Chitrangad came to the throne. When Shantanu died. except the last one. was herself Ganga whom his father had asked him to marry. but what if the son or sons that may be bom to the prince would not accept the arrangement ? The dutiful son. finding that his father had become morose and dejected. they apologized. Shantanu while going about on the banks of Yamuna (Jamna) saw a lovely daughter of a fisherman and fell in love with her. punished. The principal condition of marriage provided that Shantanu was to let the girl do whatever she liked and not speak a word of protest.

When children were born of such an onion. vow under arrangement with Satyavati's fisherman-father. known as Chakravand. but he declined as he had. challenging alt the assembled princes to wrest the girls from him if they could. for whom else. during this emergency Satyavati thought of her son Vyasa and he appeared. . the had a regard or affection. her son by her former The form of marriage. but his mother being eager to see him married. stipulating belonging to the the first husband. in which. Satyavati remembered Krishna Dvapayana Vyasa. who marries again. He left no issue and this caused the further grief of seeing the royal house heirless. and chose him who pleased her most. E. referred to in this Indian story as Chakravand. some of which are referred to in the Pahlavi books. The mode of winning a wife at that time amongst Kshatriyas was that called a swayamvara or self -choice. 142. n. The children thus bom were not the children of the new or second husband but of the deceased first husband. 10. detail in the Persian Rivayets. she marries a lecond that half her children by the second husband should be taken as and which one is first husband S. taken a of celebacy. To avoid this calamity. who unfortunately died some time after..' Kings and princes used to be invited by the bride's father to his capital and they displayed their skill at games and their prowess in arms and performed great feats of strength. they were taken us of an old Iranian to be the children of the deceased husband. when a person dies heirless. The oldest of the three princess having told Bhishma that she had taken a vow to marry another prince. So. their mother Satyavati requested Bhishma to marry the widows of his step-brother. husband. Bhishma advised Satyavati to i perform niyoga. The mother asked him to beget children to the widows of her deceased son Vichitravirya. Tlie Indian form of marriage. which was a practice resorted to in emera person died heirless. She herself continues to belong Vide B. reminds fonn of marriage known as Chakrazsn." Vichitravirya was too young to take part in such a competition. p. he carried off by force three daughters of the Ejng of Kashi. that when gency. The wife is a widow If she has no children by her first husband.AN INSTANCE OF ROYAL SWAYAMVARA rangad being *' 5ft killed in battle Vichitravirya came to the throne. He 1 seeing the royal line extinct. Bhishma took upon himself the task of finding him a queen. The practice was. When they parted. she was let go and the other two were married to Vichitravirya. She had only to think of him and he would appear. Vol. to avoid the disappointment of husband Parasha who was a great sage. When so advised. is one. The bride witnessed them all. However. At a swayamvara. this son had promised his mother to go to her help whenever she wanted help. Of the five kinds of wife in ancient Persia. in the other world. somebody else for whom the family had regard or affection was asked to beget children to the widow of the deceased. V. somebody family was asked to beget children to the widow. are explained in some known as the Chakrazan.

. having one day embraced his Madri. Pandu died as the result of the abovementioned curse. by virtue of the mantra taught to her by Kunti. Vayu (god of wind). So. shut her eyes for the time being. Yudhishthra. . The younger widow. the ugly man with whom she had to associate against her will. the second son Pandu came to the throne.e. and placed on a lofty pole a revolving fish whose eye was : — 1 Journal Royal Anthropological Institute. once. Nakula and Sahadewa. the widows did not like that he should beget children but. having shot a stag when it was coupling with its mate. The son born to her was born pale and he was named Pandu. His wife also thereupon committed suttee.and the result was the birth of two sons. Bhishma looked after the education of these brothers who turned out learned as well as sportsmenlike. Vol. in order to avoid the sight of penance. Kunti had already a son Kama. who on being born was named Dhritarashtra. This maid reverently submitted and so a good saintly son was born to her and was named Vidura. The result was the birth of three sons. that she knew a mantra.60 consented. but. on looking at the ugly associate. in order to avoid being with the ugly man. and Indra. he began to wish that he may have children. as described in Mahabharata. the pale. received a curse that if he lived with his wives. Bhima and Arjun. January to June 1917. Kunti and Madari. the king of all gods to come and live with her. He made a great bow which he thought none but Arjuna could bend. he went into retirement in a jungle followed by his wives even there. He married two wives. lows The account of the second case of Swayamvara runs as fol" Bang Drupada had heard much of Arjuna's skill as an archer and wanted to give him his daughter Draupadi in marriage. ASIATIC PAPERS But as he was very ugly and was therefore called Krishna. i. XLVII. It was this son.he could summon gods Dharma (god of justice). perhaps because one was blind and the other was pale. penances. bom from the sun before her marriage with Pandu. as their toleration of Vyasa's ugliness was in itself a 1 The elder widow. they consented. sent one of her maids to Vyasa. The second wife Madri also. His wife Kunti said. But the elder "widowed daughter-in-law. summoned the twins Aswins . They were excused the whole year's purificatory . Dharitarashtra. turned pale. But he wished that she should be won in a swayamvara. by the recital of which ^. on the request of their royal mother-inlaw and for the sake of saving the royal line from extinction. When there for some time. The queen wished for a third son. Vyasa predicted for her son a blind son. being blind. fought against the sons of Pandu. who. he would soon die. black.

lest he may displace him and appoint somebody else from the family of Kaus as his heir. his son Gushtasp felt offended. but all failed to bend the bow. Proceedings. setting aside. his son Aspandyar wanted his throne in his life-time. and Draupadi put a garland of sweet flowers round Arjuna's neck as a sign of her choice. K. Gushtasp also was an undutiful son. His wishes not being complied with. 61 A He ^ho could hit was to marry his daughter. He was the son of Lohrasp. Shah Jahan was an undutiful son of Jehangir. the Spento-data of the Avesta. Kama put down the bow and went away. He again left the court. great crowd of kings assembled for the contest. When Kaikhusro. In turn. Tome X. by showing special favours to the other heirs who were displaced. Just as the Pandava brothers. Abstract of Journal Asiatique (1887) Huitiemme scrie. Thereupon. XVII. appointed. A. other descendants of his grandfather Kai Kaus. he left the royal court to come to India. drew it. Vol. persuaded and taken back. the Aurvat-aspa of the Avesta. were giving way to despair. on coming to the throne. Draupadi spoke in " clear accents I will not take a low-born man for my husband.time. and hit the mark. Fearing. he was ill-treated by his son Aurangzebe. but the Pandvas defeated them all and carried the bride home. pp. Shah Jahan and Aurangzebe. In one point. He did not like that his royal father should love his distant nephews more than himself. pp.AN INSTANCE OF ROYAL SWA YAM VARA to be the mark.IV . who wanted the throne of Persia in the life-time of his father. repaid Kaikhusru's kindness towards him. . but he was pursued by his uncle Zarir. Lohrasp was unknown to the courtiers. he began to quarrel with his father and asked for the throne in his life. He was the father of Aspandyar. who. he. as his heir. Soc. is compared to Yudhisthira. in the matter of his retirement from the world. we find a parallel between the story of these three kings and that of the Mogul Emperors Jehangir. 1 Vide Journal B. Flowers rained from heaven. B. 38-75.II. but Arjuna came forward looking like a Brahman. i abdicated the throne of Persia and retired childless into a wilderness. who had so far not come forward and were disguised as Brahmans. but Kaikhusru thought highly of him as a good successor. The crowd of kings protested that a Brahman must not carry off a Kshatriya girl and fought for her possession. Lohrasp who was descended from a brother of Kaus. : — Now I come to the story of the Shah-nameh : The Kjng Gustasp of the Shah-nameh is the King Vishtasp of the A vesta. Then Kama stepped forward and strung it and took aim with an arrow. In turn." At this. as heirs to the throne. lifted the bow. Lohrasp.

she came near Gushtasp. he called another assembly. She moved about among the young men. though poor and disHe was as straight and tall as a cypress tressed. was very wise. The then Kaisar had three beautiful daughters.62 ASIATIC PAPERS and. who. He called an assembly of young men from whom Kaitayun can choose her husband. Gushtasp accompanied him and sat in a corner. Now. the princess went with her 60 court-ladies to the assembly of the young men. till. that even the Pleiades would make way before it." She then placed her crown on the head of Gushtasp and chose him as her husband. The princess went in the assembly \vith her court-ladies and moved about among the people. the eldest of whom was named Kaitayun. dejected and disappointed for not having found a husband to her liking. went to the country of Roum. under an assumed name of Farrokhzad. befriended him and took him to his own place as his guest. the host of Gushtasp pressed him to go to that assembly with him. so large. She held a nosegay of roses in her hand. the ruler of that land. for the marriage of his daughters was as follows : — of The King called in his palace an assembly ( e^^^J I ) young men of position and wisdom. The notice convening this second assembly was given in the city and in the adjoining country. the headman of the village. and the princess chose from among them a young man for her husband." : The next morning. learning this. There assembled a gathering of young men. hastened towards his royal master and said "Kaitayun has chosen from among the assembly a young man who is as erect : . convened by her father. She returned to her x^alace. to which he invited young men of the second grade or the middle class. The night before the day of " the assembly she dreamt as follows Her country was illuminated by the sun. a little dejected. His demeanour and manner of She sitting were such as befitted a Idng sitting on his throne. and as beautiful as the moon. The prime minister of the Kaisar. to choose a husband for herself. In that assembly there was a foreigner.coloured fragrant flowers to him and received one from him. She saw him and said " The secret of that dream is solved. being struck with his manly and noble appearance. at length. Thereupon. (Kaitayun) presented a nosegay of myrtle. but found none whom she could like for marriage. When the Kaisar learnt that his daughter found no young man to her liking from among the young men of the first rank in wealth and nobility. the royal custom with the Kaisar. There. when he sat one day homeless and friendless bemoaning his fallen fortune.

Miran had not the required courage and strength to do so. The king said to the suitor. brought about the marriage. The Kaisar occasionally held athletic sports in an open place which were open to all sportsmen of his country. she tried to set up her new house and to live with her husband pretty comfortably. why do you ask me to choose. One may say. claiming the credit of kilUng the ferocious wolf. He also drew the admiration of the king himself. as husband. seeing what had happened. a member of a liigh family. When I am contented with thee. After this event. the Kaisar did away with the above custom. But we do not know who . The king then handed over Kaitayun to the young man without any dowry or gift and asked both to leave his court. At the desire of Kaitayun. for the marriage of his two other daughters he himself tried to find out proper husbands. strength and intelligence. The king acting according to his promise. young man was an unknown friends. the princess had very rich jewellery on her body when she left her royal father's palace. So.AN INSTANCE OF ROYAL SWAYAMVARA : 63 as a cypress. and. he is. saying he was a poor man. Gushtasp attended one of these. that he would accept his offer if he achieved a great deed. drew the admiration of 4l11. He asked him to prove his bravery and fitness by lolling a ferocious wolf in the adjoining village of Faskun. similarly seeking the help of brave Gushtasp for kilfing a ferocious snake which caused terror in the adjoining comitry. he got the wolf killed by the brave foreigner. The Kaisar. and by displaying his courage. that he could not now act against the usual royal •custom of selection. Kaitayun thereupon said " Do not be distressed with what our fate has destined. that the glory of God shines in his face. With that. who was . through the intercession of a mutual friend. Gushtasp. tried on his part to dissuade the princess. did not Hke the choice." His minister tried his best to persuade him. one with the prospects of a crown or throne ? " The couple then left the royal palace and Gushtasp's host kindly made proper lodging arrangements for the couple at his house. and as handsome as a rose and has a commanding stature whoever sees him admires him. asked for the hand of the Kaisar's second daughter. but to no purpose. and One Ahran also married the third daughter of the Kaisar. Gushtasp often went a-hunting and presented the game he killed to his : finding that the foreigner. Though the Idng had given nothing as dowry or gift. He then went before the king. One Miran. Gushtasp. asked the king's daughter in marriage.

divulged the whole secret. that there is the assembly where atheltic sports take place his extraordinary sportsmanlike feats wins the favour of his royal father-in-law. the question of the position of the family of the bridegroom is attended to.M ASIATIC PAPERS then soon reconciled with his son-in-law. In the story of Gushtasp. Gushtasp had still continued to be known under the name of Farrokhzad. viz. but an embassy from Persia from the court of Lohrasp. In the Indiaa case. and where Gushtasp by . In both the stories. just as Bhishma by his bravery won two daughters of the King of Kashi for the two princes. that of the dream of Kaitayun. the first assemblies. It is later on. so did Gushtasp win the twodaughters of the Kaisar for two princes. it is the bride herself who is solicitous about it.. Again. The Kaisar became glad when he knew all the facts. who was challenged to war by the Kaisar at the instigation of Farrokhzad (Gushtasp). Again. we observe a new trait. and was proud of his matrimonial alliance with the royal family of Persia. The garlanding of the? chosen husband by the princess is common to the Indian andJ Persian cases. There seem to be several points of similarity as well as difference in the Swayamvara cases referred to in the Indian and Persian stories. or Anjumans are without athletic sports.

that archery also feats in archery are specially mentioned. {Read 2^th January 1918. Archery. (b) piercing by one arrow four plantain plants kept on four sides. Archery among the ancient Persians as referred to in the x\ vesta and eslewhere.) The subject of this Introduction.^^^^ truth." by Mr. in his account of Xerxes' expedition against the Greeks. (a) that of bringing down a mango from the top of a tree." we learn. 1916. XII. various coloured sleeved breastand on their legs. especially of the feats of King Bahramgour. bucklers made of osiers liood. 2. IV.. Ibid. —Archery in Ancient Persia. The ancient Iranians learned Archery from Herodotus their very child- : . 136. . they wore loose coverings. ^vith iron scales like those of fish loose trousers and instead of shields. 11). Carey's translation (1889) p. . Some : to by Firdousi and others. Vri.g. entitled " was taught at Taxala. " Beginning says that Archery among the ancient Irani. they ans according to instruct their sons in three things only to Herodotus. Archery as referred to in the Avesta. plates. 61.Art. called tiaras on the body. Herodotus Bk. 1. thus speaks of the dress and arms of the " ancient Persians :2 On their heads. . ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^ gp^ak the ^." From a para. referred in the article. No."! Herodotus. —A Few Extraordinary Feats. A few feats of Archery. I will speak on my subject under two heads I. 433. p. . Taxala was the place which " pupils from different parts of India used to visit for learning various arts and sciences. I. e. Bimaha Charan Law in the Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic pn paper " Society of Bengal (New Series Vol. 61.from the age of five years to twenty. Bk. is suggested by an interesting article Taxila as a Seat of Learning in the Pali Literature. These feats remind one of such feats of archery among the ancient Persians. and II.

" in the Volume of the Classical Studies in honour of Henry Drisler. (1894 pp. lO. Xin. the number of darts . 100. 1001-3. 10. merely as suspended from the back . 9. 9. tendere. Herodotus says that the Persian arrows were made of reed in the Iranian writings ithere seems to be no mention of the material from which the shaft is made. On the monuments the bow is usually represented as strung and as suspended at the left shoulder. 105. Jackson's 8 above article. archers and in the case of the sculptures on the Behistan rock. {ishush hvdthakhto). p. .winged arrows " {ishavascha erezifyo-parena) are mentioned in one place* in connection with the bow. is alluded to in ^Eschylus Persse. . Vend. "^ in . 9). rf?r. but the weighing and tipping of the arrow is described. In both these instances the quiver is The quiver. leadplace poised arrows. Vide Prof." The Fravardin Yasht^ speaks of the Frava" " shis as affording protection against well-aimed arrows of twelve The Avesta 2 gives a list Iranians." Prof. XIV. They had short spears. In another ^ we read of " vulture -feathered. 1 Prof. arrow-holder. 61. . 2 * Vendidad Vend. 9. Jackson's article on " Herodotus VII. In the Avesta (Vd. . XIV. "3 " Falcon. The large quiver is arrows and quivers 'J ancient : : the figv"^s of the Dieulafoy prominent ments of Persia. 3 . Jackson thus speaks <is Archery presented ancient re- on the raonu- of the evidence presented by the monuments on the subject of bows. XIV 9. under them their quivers were hung. Lat.v€6 ASIATIC PAPERS and. gold-notched. X). 5 '6 "I Meher Yasht (Yt. or the Arms of the Ancient Persians illustrated from Iranian Sources. p. 95-125). The Avesta word for a bow is thanvare ^ or thanvara^ or thanvana^ or thanvareti^o Sanskrit '^: \tTH ) v??^. Vendidad XVII. 188. S. 9 Meher Yasht (Yt. 39). long bows and arrows made of cane and besides. . X. ^nd is naturally mentioned as an important weapon in Iranian as in other ancient writers. IV . . JWd 128. (1880) Vol. Archery as referred to in the Aves- weapons used by the ancient fourth Therein we find ''the a bow. The bow appears in most of the sculptures and monuments. p 169i XVII 10 Ibid. u^y'^ tanudan. Yt. the fifth a quiver with shoulder*^belt and thirty brass-headed arrows. B. daggers suspended from the girdle on the right thigh. E. 129. p. P. ( irom the root tan ( Sans. .carried in the quiver is thirty. The arrows are naturally mentioned again and again in connection with the bow. 72.

X . (6) agti 3 ) to from root ao to throw. that the weapons of war which an Iranian soldier and bow (rathaeshtar) carried. pp.' We learn from the Symbolic fication of a signi- Avesta and Pahlavi books. and the fragrant.. the arch-angels. X. " an arrow 1 lUd. (Yt. the wicked. i.B. ( 4 (c) ishu Sans. 67 is Tanvun to stretch. to sharpen j-aj) which root come the English words. ayanghaena sparegha). . to the material of the arrows. instigate). 4 Mehcr Yasht. XLIII. fq- ) from the root ish.ARCHERY IN ANCIENT PERSIA Ft. Wext S. and wear the spirit of contentment on the body. gold-pointed or yellow-pointed."^ 123 2 Yacna LVII. 129). like arms and armour and valour. sth {a) ainghimana^ throw. zaranyo-zafram. kherad the following question and answer of the We : and the demons confounded ? " In reply. in the case bow and arrow.{d) tigra^ Pers. fTFnf Sans. for striking it upon the heads of the Daevas or evil-doers. 7 Chap. horn-handled and iron-bladed (kahrkaoo-parenanam. XXIV. that that " when they make the spirit of wisdom a procan be done tection for the back. The bow-string The material of the bow-string ^j : was cow-gut {gavagnahe sndvyajya). . (from from foot tij Sans. (Yt. (Yt. the mace. it is said.^ For the arrow we find the following words in the Avesta from the root ah or a9 ( Sans. .e. 28. well-pleasing heaven more fully for oneself ? And how is it possible to make Aharman. 6 Meher Yasht. e-tendre. and the spirit of liberality The question is How is it possible to make Auharmazd. VIII) 6. and make the spirit of truth a shield. ^ravi As «tayam. tij. 24). "^m Pers. the spirit of complete mindfulness a bow. 1-12. 83-84. Sans. f^ to throw. In the Khorshed Yasht (Yt. they are taken to be symbolical for mental read in the Minoperfection and the spirit of liberality. 3 Meher Yasht.E.' * ^^ stimulate.VI 5) one praises the vazra or gurz. Guj. . the spirit of thankfulness a club. So. 113). we read of the arrows being Tulture-feathered. (Yt.. were metaphorically qj. jya. X 5 Tir Yasht. . symbolically taken to be the weapons of arrow^ a priest (Athra van) to fight against evil.

The Lion and the Lizard keep The Courts where Jamsheyd gloried and drank deep And Bahrara. Neeko kurden z pur Icurden est .. but he was called Bahram Gour. Another arrow fixed his hoof to his horn.Presidents of our Society. that great Hunter the Wild Ass Stamps o'er his head. thus describes an anecdote of one of Bahramgour 's hunting feats in archery as heard by him during one of his visits of Persia. the wild " — '. Baharam turned to the lady. Bartholomac has very some of his Iranian publications suggestively put this figure on " " Wie du kannst so woUe with the words under it i. of his excellence as an archer.e. at a known hunting seat of Bahram. the more distant will the arrow go. and put his hind hoof to the ear. one of the distinguished past." Enraged at this uncourtly observation. attributed to king Bahramgour by Firdousi and other Persian writers. " Wish as thou canst.68 ASIATIC PAPERS The cation fact. a king is represented drawing his bow with all his possible his level best in his signifies. asleep. line of life That and do good to others. to strike off the fly by which he conceived himseK annoyed. There. is illustrated by some semi-religious Achsemenian sculptures. found. because he was very fond of killing the gour. Sir John Malcolm. wished to a favourite lady." His name was Bahram. in the midst of some strength. but cannot break his sleep. The poet thus refers to him in the words of a translator. the king ordered her to be sent into the mountains to perish. Dr.. that one must do as II We will Some Extraordinary Feats in Archery. jj^ i. proud . The monarch shot an arrow with such precision as to graze its ear. : : religious associations. put forth all possible energy in your work and the result will be proportionately good.e. So. praises " Practice makes perfect. The animal awoke. now describe some feats of archery. : . ass in the hunt. Bahramgour was a typical Iranian. " The signification is The more you draw your bow with all your possible strength. in expectation of her she cooly observed. of that the Symbolic signifi- a *bow and arrow Iranian upon Monu- bow and arrow were held as symbols for some mental qualities or virtues. He display it before carried her to the plain an antelope was soon Malcolm's story. and a Governor of our city. " Baharam. possessing masterly sldll in archery.

He was astonished. n. " The Education 2 Vide my paper on among the Ancient Iranians. and at the same ' : Her life was saved by the mercy of a minister." p. on his repeating his admiration of what he had seen. to which she ascended by twenty steps. and to him only on his condescending to come alone to her house. when an antelope passes by your side. The lady said she would communicate her secret to none but Baharam . never fights with antelopes. Pleased with the lesson she had given him. Firdousi's story runs as follows :2 Baharam. He came across two antelopes. after a fatiguing chase stopped one evening at this she was a young woman carrying a large cow up a village. and a memorial of this event. . (1839). who allowed her to retire to a small village on the side of a hiU. p. you aim at him an arrow. her dead. Then. as a hunting-seat. he ordered a palace to be built on the spot." The story. as given Firdousi's version of this story. ' time Baharam recognised and embraced his veil. Baharam asked Azdeh *' A brave man of the two you wish me to aim at ?" She replied. which she carried up and down the stairs every day. This exercise was continued for four and the increase of her strength kept pace with the years . in such a way. She was a favourite flute-player." ^ lifted up her favourite. who was his favourite flute-player. '' Which one male and the other female. 2nd ed. On her arrival she bought a small calf. that it merely touches his ear mthout hurting it. who was a very clever hand in hunting. 94. you aim another arrow in such a way as to pierce the head.ARCHERY IN ANCIENT PERSIA 69 Baharam. 1. The king instantly went . and delighted with the love which had led her to pass four years in an endeavour to regain his esteem. said she. the shoulder and the foot all at the same time. by Pirdousi. as heard by ( (j^**^ ) Malcolm. Vol. The story. and that when he lays down his ear over the shoulder and raises Ms foot to scratch it. She lodged in an upper room. she bade Practice him not lavish praises where they were not due makes perfect. and sent to inquire flight of twenty steps. seems to be another version of it. He aimed it 1 Malcolm's History of Persia. says. Baharam had with him an arrow with two points. The place of the story was Arabia and the time his boyhood when he was under the tutelage of Naaman at the Court of Manzar ( j^'^^ ). 14. who had supposed increasing weight of the animal. how strength so extraordinary had been acquired by a person of so deUcate a form. in her natural voice. a woman of Roum. so you better turn with your arrows the female into a male and the male into a female. that the woman in the story was neither Bahram's favourite \\iie nor his queen. I. went one day to the chase with Azdeh.

that he hit the head. a an enormous distance. -when he was in Arabia in his boyhood with the Arab King Manzar. ordered me to do. Tabari Another ing feat ^ describes another archery-feat of huntBeh- of ramgour according to Tabari. carrying the calf on her back With over the steps. Vol. that they struck her head and struck themselves over it. Then he aimed his arrow at another antelope. The woman thereupon shed tears from her eyes. Manzar is said to have ordered this hunting scene to be painted on the walls of the palace where Behramgour lived. Her painting entitled " us a picture of favourite ancienne son Baharam et de gives the favourite woman in the story. fehe found it decorating a foy's painting. " Madame Dieulafoy. We read as follows : Tishtrim starem raeventem kharenanghantem yazamaide yo avavat khshvaewd vazaiti avi zrayo vouru-kashem yatha tigrish mainivaQao yim anghat Erekhsho khshaviwi-ishush khshviwi- ishvatemo Airyanam Airyo Khshaothat hacha garoit khanvan1 Tabari par Zotenberg. and killed them both at the same time. gives a painting illustrating MadameDieulathe above story. pp. my family would have been put to shame. 357). so as to give her the appearance of a male with two horns. Tishtrya. went a -hunting. whose enormous speed is compared to that of the arrow {tir) thrown by him on a historical occasion. door-frame in a house which she occupied " Rencontre dein the vaUey of Eclid. He is referred to in Iranian the Tir Yasht. saying. the star Sirius. He saw a wild ass running. . when Baharam aimed at him another arrow. Behram then threw an arrow with such dexterity that it passed through the lion and the ass. He said If I had failed in doing what you Is all a deceit on your part. so cleverly. who had done all this at her bidding. 111-12. it was inhuman on the part of Baharam to have so killed the poor animal. La Chaldee et La Su^iane'' (p. The lion jj^ ^g^g i^eing overtaken by a lion. : " was on the point of devouring the ass. The Avesta speaks of a famous archer whose arrow went along Ere k h s h a. II. so as to merely touch his ears. the ear and the foot all at the same time. Then he threw two arrows at the female antelope in such a clever way.70 ASIATIC PAPERS at the male in such a way that it carried away his two horns and gave him the appearance of a female. The animal raised his foot to scratch his ear.' ' : these words he immediately killed her. the Yasht in honour of Tir or famous ^^*^her. One Behramgour day Behramgour. in her La Perse. This enraged It Baharam.

2 Minocheher and his army could get and grow in the fort. 170-72. Vol. . in Hindustan was. and throws much light upon this passage of the Avesta. Vide my Bundehesh.e.re Khshaotha mountain to the — Khanvant mountain. the arrow whose speed cannot be measured but only mentally conceived) which was of Erekhsha.' years.. Minocheher.ARCHERY IN ANCIENT PERSIA 71' We read the same tern avi gairim (Tir Yasht. swiftagu-khshavaewem " for as further and adjectives Tishtrya). the swift Iranian. carpets. met by the use of ginger and of a plant named term ( (*^ ) which grew there. Partie. was besieged in the fort of Amoul The siege lasted long. I cannot suffer any "3 At the end of ten injury. I. because in the province of Tabaristan. a Ouslcy's Trave hlll. Afrasiab raised the seige. the Iranian king who was fighting in a war with Afrasiab. 21-22. because there was a great loss of life in his troops. even sent a few " Minocheher remained things as presents to Afrasiab. and vegetables of every kind that he occasionally sent some as thus saying how longsoever you may presents to Afrasiab continue before the gates of this city. We learn the following The is — — details from this historian. the siege lasted for ten years. Chap. Both the 1 I follow Tabari. to identify the two mountains Khshaotha and Khanvant and the distance between them. the besieged sovereign. 2 The Pahlavi Bundehesh speaks of this fortress as situated oii the mountain of' Padaahkhvargar. According to Tabari. But the Arab historian Tabari helps us in this matter. Yt. that of throwing an arrow from one mountain to another distant mountain. as the mental arrow {i. pp.e. the swiftest (Iranian) archer among all the Iranians (who threw it) from i. which moves as fast towards the Vourukasha (the Caspian) Sea. p. on the authority of Avesta or Pahlavi books. 6. VIII." i. resulting from the great : ' . and was not once (during the ten years) obliged to procure either clothing or food from any other place .. 301. 68. all the The want of pepper which grew atricles of food except pepper. the Turanian king. 37) in the same yasht with the additionpassage again " '* of two words khshviwi-vazem. He says in the castle. for he possessed there such a superfluity of garments. Chap. defended by so strong a castle. XXXI. I pp. We are not in a position. 278-80. on the advice of the sages of Minocheher. ^ Minocheher. which otherwise would have remained much obscure. herbs. humidity of the air round the besieged mountain. feat of archery by a great Iranian archer referred to here. tradult par Zotenberg. So. swift-going running We invoke the brillant shining star Tishtrya Translation. later on (s. owing to sickness.

He did so. as he had to give up the sovereignty of that much country to Mino. 333. 300. It was a divine thing (i. . and that place. be fixed. and direct him to throw an arrow from a xhe place. ^ 1 One must understand. and fell on the banks of the river Jehoun ( (^j^^ ). Ill. 115. a line extending both peak of the Demavand. — cheher. Sarakhs.mIj {j^i^\j-i\ 1^^ <^^\ i^^^jy. They made a mark over the arrow and he (then) threw it and it fell on the ground on the bank of the Jehoun (Oxus). Minocheher found one Aresch to be the best archer in his country.. i. His version saves the story from any kind of improbability in the matter of an enormous distance. and the arrow crossed the province of Tabaristan. 1. Then they chose Aresh. Afrasiab had to stand true to the condition and to accept the boundary thus fixed.e. He went over a hiU.. that the names Elburz and Demavand were. Both the kings bound theraselves in this agreement and wrote a treaty.72 ASIATIC PAPERS that their frontiers may kings then made peace on the condition. used for a very long range of mountains in Persia. Ousley also refers to the story from Tabari. Ousley's Travels in Persia. than which there was no higher mountain in that region. He asked him to throw an arrow with all his force. may throw a strong arrow from this side of the Jehoun.U ^ b (J I Ai^ i^$ Translation. at tunes. It was arranged. Merv. A horseman. It was an extraordinary feat to throw an arrow hundreds of miles away. i^j'i u^U j^j. Nishapour. 24 et seq. who may be a good archer. may serve as the boundthe where the from place ways ary line for the country under dispute.J Ij ^^^ y'x^i j^.i arrow fell. that Minocheher may select the best of his Iranian archers. may form the boundary of the Iranians.e. p. a miracle) and Afrasiab became sorry. Aresh was a man than whom there was no better archer.j J ^. where the arrow falls. Vol. I give below the passage from a recent text of Tabari^ which gives a simple narration of the story.j-i"^ iiy *^ ^'^ ^^^\^ C^-. 2 pp. 3 Munshi Naval Kishore's Text of 1874.

pp. Mound Damavend."^ 1 by the manner Naval Kishore's Text of Mirkhond's Rauz-ut-ua-Safa. Ill. though so remote from probability. translated from the original Peraian of Mir khond. that the Persians invaded and by their skill in archery. the flight of which continued from the dawn of day until noon. 1. I. obtained possession of the enemy's country that Aresh was the successful general that he determined the boundaries and that by the magick characters inscribed on his wonderful arrow.ARCHERY IN ANCIENT PERSIA Mirkhond ^f ar U^. nothing more is understood than the ^vritten orders which he dispatched with the utmost expedition to the : . 2 . Vol. . farthest borders of Persia. ^jlj^JI We read there tyS as follow* «t5oT . Others. 175. which. that Arish should ascend thence discharge an arrow towards the east and that the place in which the arrow fell should form the boundary between the two kingdoms. and discharged towards the east an arrow. when heated sun. quicksilver and other substances. 166.i ^jx} 3 1 SiJ^^Ci j^ j\ ij*^ ji ^jj^ »^'^J^d fj\ lij-^^xj *^«-^ 5fO»J^t (Jj"^"^ c-Jl=aJ (^j^^ J ^^J 0^ Translation. which wafted Arbais through the air. History of the Early Kings of Persia. it is mentioned therefore . Arish thereupon ascended the mountain. so we find that some have attributed the exploit of Aresh to magick. As this incident. J also refers to this feat in his Rauz-at-us-Safa 73 on the authority of Tarikh Maogan. of such classical celeon the subject brity. 18. are willing to and on the authority of interpret the story more Hterally different chronicles."2 This extraordinary marvellous feat of archery has been at- tempted to be explained in various ways. 333-34. however. has been invariably recorded in the text of all historians. Vol. . or to the assistance of an angel whilst other ingenious commentators divest the story of its most marvellous circumstances and suppose the arrow to express figuratively. . bv David Shea (1832) p. p. —" It was stipulated. Dowlet Shah informs us that the arrow was so contrived as to contain a chymical (chemical) mixture of . 3 Oiisley's Travels in Persia. and from here. Ousley thus speaks "As that golden arrow. when it fell on the banks of the Jihun. has been the subject of much learned conjectural explanation. augmented the original force of projection in such a that it reached to Marv.

he carried with him an arrow as the He is said to have ridden on his symbol of Apollo. the particular placa whence this arrow was thrown. 2 Encyclopaedia Britannica. the (Aris) is said to have come to Greece from the country about Caucasus. the gift of Apollo. speaks of Abaris " friend of as the According to him. while his own country was visited by a plague. that this classical Abaris is the same as Iranian Arish ? (a) The (6) Again Abaris similarity of name suggests this thought." We learn as follows" of this Abaris Abaris.i" May I suggest. In his travels through Greece. thus creating a cause for improbability. that. happened to strike a vulture in the air. by some. Smith's Classical Dictionary.3" Another way in which the improbability is sought to be explained is. p. is. connected with Persia and Persian sages. The word Tir. PythaPythagoras. 280. pher " a goras was instructed by the Druids who are spoken of as class of priests corresponding to the Magi or the wise men of the ancient Persians. by virtue of the good fortune of Minocheher. this also suggests the connection of the classical Abaris with the Iranian Arish. was a Hyperbolean^ and came from the country about the Caucasus of Apollo priest to Greece. another in the west. VII. and that thisbird fell and died on the banks of the Jehoun that they afterwards found the arrow and carried it to Tabaristan. 478. was according to some writers. in the names of the day. The Parsis observe a festival called the Jashan-i-Tirangan or Tirangan. III> pp. The arrow was possibly thrown from the Transoxanian Amoul which was latterly mistaken to be the western Amoul. (c) Dr. Amel or Amoul. So. p. there are two Amouls. 4 Vide Ousley's Travels. by mistake. the Mount Damavend in the Iranian story is a peak of the Elburz. one in the Transoxania near the river Jehoun. Now. son of Southas. on Tir the thirteenth day of their month Tir. . that this arrow. . Vol. Naval Kishore^ Text does not give this portion.* : . James MacDonald. arrow. He says maintain. in the works of the above Arab oriental the Erekhsh of the Avesta. : . » I .. The improbability of the story seems to be fortunately well " Some persons explained to some extent by Tabari. means an arrow in writers is 1 The Arish mentioned Dr. Vol. As we will see later on. Now. which itself is a mountain in the range of the Caucasus. 333-34. the month and the festival. through the air." The learning of Pythagoras.74 ASIATIC PAPEBS " Ousley speaks of that golden arrow of such classical celebrity which wafted Abaris through the air. one place is mistaken for another bearing the same name. in his article on Druid-^ " 2 the mysterious Hyperbolean philosoism. translate from the French translation of Zotenberg I.

there a feast Tiragan. and ordered him to take the the bow and to shoot the arrow. and said ye others. Sachau 3 Vide my lecture on " Zoroastrlan Festivals. p. I am free from any wound or disease. took off his clothes. and while besieging Minocihr in Tabaristan. Minocihr complied with his wish.2 feasts. the festival was celebrated for two reasons. 2 "The Chronology (1879) p. and fell asunder into pieces. on the condition that he (Afrasiab) should restore to him a part of Eranshahr as long and as broad as an arrow-shot. By order of God the wind bore the arrow away from the mountain of Ruyan and brought it to the utmost frontier of Khurasan between Farghana and Tabaristan there it hit the trunk of a nut-tree that was so large that there had never been a tree like it in the world.i says. and wise man. Arish " O King. and bent the bow with all the power God had given him then he shot." in my Gujerati "Lectures and Sermons on Zoroastrian Subjects.ARCHERY IN ANCIENT PERSIA Pahlavi. of Ancient Nations " of Albiruni translated by Dr. 133. pious. but I have determined to sacrifice it for you. 205. . after having subdued Eranshahr. and stepped forward. the feat of the above archer is thus spoken of : 1 Vol.' Then he applied himself to the work.3 In a Persian book giving an account of the ancient Iranian wherein this feast of Triangan is referred to. 75 as Pazend and Persian. p. I know that when I shoot with this bow and arrow I shall fall to pieces. a noble. and my life will be gone. one is this. In . 333. Then he sent for Arish. consequence people made it a feast-day ". " Part III. that the festival was meant to commemorate the above feat of the arrow by the Persian archer. The Farhang-i-Jehangiri.000 Farsakh. pointed out by Ousley. that Afrasiab. Afrasiab and Minocihr made a treaty on the basis of this shot that was shot on this day. C. asked him some favour. so called on account of the identity of the name of the month and the day. The distance between the place where the arrow was shot and that where it fell was 1. E. . He says as follows is : On the 13th. According the Albiruni. look at my body. Ill. One of these was for the celebration of the above extraordinary " feat. On that occasion there w^as a genius present called Isfandarmadh he ordered to be brought a bow and an arrow of such a size as he himself had indicated to the arrowmaker. : . in conformity with that which is manifest in the Avesta. or Tir-Roz. Of the two causes to which it is traced back.

. i i.'*^ " ' ' According to this version of the story. e. AioT j^j^jjj (^^j' ^^J J *^^ Here.. that on this day {i. pp. pp. In the words of a poet Arish is called Kaman-Gir. i." II. we have the following in the accounts of the battle which Arjasp fought with Zarir. runs as follows: This Jashan is called Tirgan-e-Mehin. Memorial Volume. on this account. the great Tirgan Jashan. pp. 2 Etudes Iraniennes. Tome. me.e.' They say. on condition.e. This Jashan falls on the day Tir of the month Tir. a reputed archer. Erekhsha) and his arrow have become proverbial. the ingenuity consisted in the preparation of the arrow with such materials. 3 Mohl.^. the country covered by the flight of that arrow was given to Manucheher.jj. Among several uses of this kind. Behram Chobin We find from Firdousi 3 that traced his descent from this great archer. Paper an old Parsee manuscript. as given in this Persian book. small edition.. that Afrasiab should give up to Manucheher so much of his dominions as would cover the distance of a fast-flying arrow. as would be chemically acted upon by the heat of the rising sun. the Tirgan Jashan).76 ASIATIC PAPERS The above story. par Darmesteter. VII.2 In the Shah-nameh of Firdousi.. tdited by on " A few Parsee 206-7. that he threw an arrow from Amel to Marv. the arrow of Aresh. we often come across the words Tir-i Areshi ( t^-^jT^J^J ) ix. the heat of which carried the arrow to the boundary line of Takharestan. . Sam is referred to as the best mace-man t and Arish 1 Spiegel as the best archer. Then ingenious persons made an arrow with great contrivance and it was put into the bow by Arish standing on a mountain near Tabristan and thrown in the direction of the rising sun.. It was on this day that King Manucheher made peace with the Turanian King Afrasiab. festivals (Jashans) according to by Ervad Manekji Rustamji Unvala.^ (^i-^U A^ . This shows. which is the Pahlavi rendering of the word Khshviwi-ishu in the above passage of the Tir Yasht. 220-21. ^J^Jf o. A vesta The Mujmul-al Tawarikh speaks of a Arish Shivatir (^J!^-i-«» tA)l) Here Shivatir is the Persian form of Shepak-tir. and the day was passed in revelry and rejoicing. that the name of Arish (Av. 26 and 30.

the great monument in honour of General John Nicholson (died 23rd September 1857. p. I had paid a short visit on 16th July 1915 to the excavations On of Taxala situated at about 20 miles from Rawalpindi. but. 128. IT. N. after the Arab On my conquest of Persia. beautiful valley in 1915. While going to the monument from an old Mogul road on the right. I halted at the Margalla Pass which is situated at about 15 miles from Rawalpindi. so that I could examine and copy the inscription. F. I had reluctantly to leave the place mthout 1 ride Indian Monumental Inscriptions. W. of the monument to produce a ladder. Province. 842). —An unpublished Mogul Inscription at the Margalla Pass near Rawalpindi. Kashmir and Afghanistan. I had some special interest in examining the structure of the monument. Vol. A List of Inscriptions on Christian tombs or ^Monuments in the Punjab.Art V. the one o'clock train for Bombay. aged 34). I happened to see on my I asked the keeper in charge right. erected and Indian friends to commemorate his services by his British " *' in the four great w»rs for the defence of British India " " '* and to commemorate his civil rule in the Punjab and his share in its conquest. I waited for some time. (Serial No. as he could not turn up in time with the ladder and as I had to return to Rawalpindi in time to prepare for. a Persian tablet in a rock. to see there. Part I." ^ As I had then in mind the movement of the erection at Sanjan. of a Memorial Column by my community to commemorate the event of the landing in Gujarat of our forefathers. {Read on the llih October 1918. and catch.) return to Rawalpindi on my way back to Bombay from Kashmir. the Iranian Pilgrim fathers. . my way back from the excavations. during my second visit of the Introduction.

dated 10th November. Popham Young. p. Hari Singh. transliteration and translation at the hands of the Tahsildar and was received by the Commissioner through the Deputy Commissioner.. I wrote to the Commissioner of the Rawalpindi Division. This said thus in his report scription which has been is engraved in bold relief : " dimmed by fifth year of Aurangzeb 's reign. as it has turned out rather fortunately. The date given is 1080. the Commissioner. hoped now be satisfied. I did not find the inscription itself. The pavement was no doubt a remarkable achievement in those days. XXVIII-A. dated 13th November 1915. Rawalpindi District (1907). or about the time when the Emperor Aurangzeb marched to Hassan Abdal and sent his son Prince Sultan with an army against the Khattaks and other trans-Indus tribes. on 29th September 1915. Jamsetjee will Chief. Vol. Punjab Di^rict Gazetteer. The Deputy Commissioner. (now Sir) F.d. It is probably Hijri. requesting him to be good enough to refer me to any publication which gave the inscription. and." Unfortunately. . Lt. if it sent me. in his communication to his " Mr. was not published anywhere. who have also constructed at the latter place a fine column to the memory of the late General John Nicholson. corresponding with 1672 a. 35. The roadway is paved with flags of stone. Mr. On coming : to Bombay. and it would correspond with 1662 a. The inscription and the constant exposure to rain and hail has washed away several letters and parts of words. but I doubt very whether this inscription could be meant for an Emperor. but found a " At Margalla there is reference to it. because the Tahsildar I have tried to decipher this intime. from the Tahsildar. with his letter. if I could find the inscription therein. but it has been completely cast into the shade by the new cutting higher up to the east by our own engineers. The report was accompanied with the text. or.h. I looked into the Rawalpindi Gazetteer.d.-Col. I was not satisfied.. dated 11th November 1915. After some further correspondence. which shows that the work was completed in 1083 a. a report. while a stone slab inserted into the wall on the side contains an inscription. I have tried to make it out as far as possible but am doubtful about the words marked X. which runs as follows an old cutting through the hill crossing the Lahore and Peshawar Road.78 satisfying ASIATIC PAPERS my literary curiosity." ^ — Then. I beg to tender my best thanks to these officers for the trouble they so kindly took in this matter. This appears to be meant for some Khan and it may was the much 1 . to kindly send me a copy from was there. kindly if it his records.

supplied to him by the CommisI give these. P. and to do justice to myself.General of ArchaeoSeplogy. I acknowledge with thanks his help in settling the reading of several words. I visited and on my II I give below a plan of the place at the MarIt galla Pass where the tablet is situated. £. . including the days of arrival at.. translation.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION 79 be for Mahbat Khan. he would have perhaps been more cautious and careful. and so. . Assistant Engineer. as said by him in his letter. at Rawalpindi.reading and translation of the Tahsildar. On my way homewards. dated 14th October 1918. I beg to thank Mr. as an appendix.W. the teacher of Persian in the Dennis High School at Rawalpindi. Of course.r. here and there. Rawalpindi Division. Mr. Plan and Tablet. i. I 1 From 27 tb uay to 2lBt July 1018. which. which I give below. in some places . ^ c was kmdly drawn. I took advantage of my stay there for a day and saw the inscription again I had the pleasure of the company ileisurely on the 21st of July. Vesugar. J. his reading was a hasty decipherment in the midst of work in response to the desire of Had ihis superiors so. I repeat here my thanks for what he has kindly done. Spooner. Boga.awalpiudi. mnd departtuiefrom. and the assistance of Munshi Mahmad Din. dated 14th tember. as an appendix. with his letter. -oi rr ui ^ • my host. his reading must be free from criticism. in the reading of the inscription. I have again asked for an impression which I have not received my second visit to Margalla. Vesugar if or it. by Mr.is evidently faulty. :kindly send me an impression of the inscription. D. To do justice to the Tahsildar. the famous Mogul general who was for some time Governor of Peshawar. Nusserwanji J.D. he known that his decipherment was required for some literary purpose. B. at the request oi First of J all. the then Officiating Director. kindly sent me. as well as to place before the students another reading of a number of words here and there.i return to Rawalpindi from there. a copy of the inscription with its transUteration and These were. and on my after return to Bombay wrote to the Archaeological Department of the Government of India and requested it to Dr. ° i ji j j. the ." Kashmir again for the third time this year. 'end to help the student to make his own selection of the reading. at the sioner. I give.

: below. It will ASIATIC PAPERS be subsequently given. my reading and translation — I give Text of the Tablet. of the text if received.80 as yet. .

giri. giving the date. translates it as • 200 ^= 50 -h + Ji I ::= 1 4- (. in march in this district. in its short reference to the tablet. the date as A. 8i — re- (2) The identification of the place referred to in ? ? it a- Markaleh {^^j^^}. I think it is 1083. The Tahsildar gives it as 1080. 1084. the moon-like face Hindustan. as the total comes to 1188. Both. 1084 by tlxe strons-lianded Klian Maliabat Vol. The road has boon improved since this Emperor's time. The abjad calculation of this chronogram gives. The date as given by the Rawalpindi Gazeftezr is correct. z= 300 =40 -fX:=5+<^r=lO+J5 = 6-hj . above. in A.AX CNPITBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION III are several matters in the inscription which TlicTo quire to be looked into.. 1 '• stantial a roclc Shilioh to have been erected appears " 6 . as quoted gives the date as 1083. but the writer has not given us his reading of the chronogram.^ 4-^ = 5 4. But both or." : of the invasion of Hindustan. as follows.cj =50 -h ^ = ^^J 1 = + u-=60f = 400 -h 1= + e)=: 50 = 1188 Thus.e. either their reading of the figures of the date at the end of the tablet must be wrong. 310. They are (1) The date of the inscription. VI. My reading " of of the chronogram is t^F^*^-?*^-^? lT^^ ^^ ^ Nasiya mahwash-i-Hindustan. the hill of Margalla is referred to. The Archaeological Department also gives it as 1080. the Tahsildar and the Archseological Department give the chronogram in the 9th line of the the ^^^i^jji^i^ inscription as iJ'jH ^^^^ (Nama-i-yurish-i-Hindustiin). seem to be wrong. The Tahsildar translates it as " The Archaeological Department on the conquest 1188 as the date of India." — "a writing This chronogram gives. n. H.^ The Rawalpindi Gazetter. There t* a sub stone pavement tliruugh the pass." i. which from a Persian inscription oiv (Eiliot's Uistori/ of India. wherein. (3) (4) Who is What the Khan at referred to therein is it that the inscription takes a note of Of the figures the end of the tablet. in his extracts from the Wakiat-i-JehanDate of The (1) the account of Jehangir's tho Tablet. Elliot. 1). p. the last figure is not very clear. H. gives in a footnote. the reading of the qhronogram must be wrong.

t the date I read at the ^ = 50-h = 1-f o. the chronogram.+ =5+" (J =50+^=4+ J =6+ u. Mahabat Khan The date Gakkjiars. Thus. my chronogram supports my reading of Again. p. 98. I. . which.90+ t5 =10i.-^OZ ASIATIC PAPERS is end as follows. VI. 3. 3 Elliot.Khan referred? that the of Khan also is time 1 Aurangzeb. modern Margalla ' . Markaleh of j^lace. Mar.* On this march there occurs a hill called Margalla.Vol. Haripur and Rawalpindi Tahsil boundaries. As it approaches the Attock border the range begins to sink down. gives some sense. and runs in a southwesterly direction across the north of the Rawalpindi Tahsil. p.== ^0 + o = 400 + = 1 + = 50 = 1083 * * !< I t:. The Ghakkars are spoken of as Gakhars. *[ an important who played part in the early history of the Punjab. iVlargalla Pass. at *^^ one time."*^ V As (3) to the Khan the Who is referred to in the tablet. reading of the IV The (2) Markaleh is ( /^^j^^ )^ referred to in our It tablet. takes him to be ^^^ Khan Mahabat Shikoh. It appears . which of the inscription. •the date. Vol. is the country round which was. the . of of the thi "Kokars and Khokhars. which means in Hindu hlach "water. Gakkhurs. About 15 miles north-west of Rawalpindi. its somewhat impressive appearance. Margalla is thus referred to *' The camp moved to Kala-pani.=5-h c =40+ =5 H-j=6+ Ji =300. 2 Rawalpindi District Gazetteer. occupied by the Ghakkari tribe. ^^^^!'^^%'^ ^. . Part A. We -read as follows in the EaioalpiTidi " Gazetteer about Margalla The Margalla Range. p. • . •that is. 310. a caravan.. . in the footnote referred to above. in Hindi. it is crossed by the Margalla Pass which carries the Grand Trunk Road and is also marked hy a conspicuous monument to General John Nicholson. is a continuation of a spur running through Hazara District about the junction of the Murree. it is a place where caravans are plundered. Vide also CBeveridge. i i : : — • * ' ' •extends the country of the boundary of the Gakkhurs. as read by me.200 feet. signifies to rob on the highway' and galla. Ghakarfl "The Tuzak-i Jahanghi by Kogers anij .' Up to this the Pass. and derives from the steepness of its sides and the suddenness with which it starts up from the level fertile plain below." ^ In the Wdhi'dt-i-Jehangiri. Elliot. so far as it lies within the district. 1083 as the date. For most of its course through this tahsil it maintains a height of over 5.

the way of some Persian poets. he was known as Lohrasp Khan. In the 5th year of Aurangzeb 's reign (1663-64). As a youth. Soon after. in 1652. In the 13th year of the reign (a. He was then (Hijri 1068. as is.. Up to the 25th year of the reign (1653). he accompanied his father in the conquest of Daulatabad as a commander of 2. edited by Maulavi Mirza Ashraf AU (1891). he was appointed viceroy (Subah) of Kabul. was thereupon called from the Deccan. including therein the plundering of Surat. 590-94. I. a. at times. and indirectly.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGLL IKSCRimON tablet is. The writer has ingeniously used the word timhabat. he was made a Mir Bakhshi. the eldest prince. as given in the Madsir-ul-Umard of Nawab Samsamud-Daulah Shah Nawaz Khan. as his proper noun. i. He took part in the war with Bijapur and in the He had a great hand in the defeat of the Bijasiege of Bidar. it is indirectly mentioned. and in the 16th year of the reign (a. status or influence. that he was wanted by -Shah Jahan and so.d. he received a message from Dara Shakoh. inasmuch as he is spoken of as tnahdbat shikuh. it belongs to the time of Though his name is not mentioned directly as such in the tablet.. to the viceroy alty of Kabul. lie returned to the royal court. 1670). In tliis year. directly. was sent to Kabul for the 1 Bengal Asiatic Society's Text. after being honoured with the title of Mahabat Khan. 1657-58) appointed .^ His whole name was Mahabat Khan Mirza Lohrasp. 1671-72). then appointed on a post in Kandhar. wo saw above. Governor of Afghanistan. among which one was the Foujdari of Oudh. Mahabat Khan. . was defeated in the Khyber Pass. He punished the Mahratha chief. he was sent to the Deccan to punish him. 83 as Aurangzeb. who had a previous experience of the mountaineers. he was appointed governor of Deccan under Aurangzeb. the Afghans of the mountains round Kabul rose in rebellion and Mahamad Amin Khan. Vol. In the 11th year of Aurangzeb's reign (a.d. in jPiP. In the 24th year of the reign of Shah Jahan. he was again appointed viceroy of Kabul. he returned to the royal court at Akbarabad. So. He was the bravest of the sons of Mahabat Khan Khan Khanan. A short time after. of awe-inspiring dignity. pur army under Afzul Khan. After the death of his father. 1673). When Shivaji began his dexoredations. in the reign of Shah Jahan. . he was appointed to various He was places. In 1657. The following of is an of an account epitome Mahabat Khan's life. both.e. he went by quick marches to the Emperor's Oourt. He was then appointed viceroy of Gujarat. as a common noun signifying his position. 1083.d.000 troops.e.d.

that. _ " "and Prof. For example." in three volumes. but soon yielded. In the meantime.! The above in is as Emperor In 1636. Jadunath Sarkai's "History of Aurani-' 2 Vide Prof. he himself went to Hassan Abdal. Other kings were ta hold their courts within their citadels. VI. Mahabat Khan then attended the royal court and was placed under the orders of Birsangh. the king of Bijapur.84 ASIATIC PAPERS settlement [band-o-bast) of the affairs of Kabul. especially to properly understand his connection with the Afghan frontiers. details of I. the grandson of Raja Bahavpat Das Kur. 1674). for further Mahabat Khan's part in the war with Bijapur. and. The quarrel was thus averted. It began again in th reign of Adil Shah's successor. Adil Shah first defied Shah Jahan." Vol. in the 17th year of the reign (a. At the head of an army of 15. we will examine some further details. later on. (c) The Emperors only could confer the title of Khan-Khanan upon their previous ministers. Ali Adil Shah II. he evidently avoided a fight and went to Kabul safely by another route. in a locality of which we find his tablet. against Bijapur. So. had. The king of Bijapur latterly began to act in opposition to these customs and acted as if he were an Emperor. But. . It was in the war declared in 1657. won over some of the nobles of the Court of Bijapur. a treaty was made by Shah Jahan. (6) They alone held elephant-combats in the open ground outside the fort. instead of to fighting with and molesting the Afghan army on his way Kabul. To properly the given stand that life. that we first find Mahabat Khan taking an active part at the direction of prince Aurangzeb. the other kings holding them within the fort. with Adil Shah. the outline of the life of Mahabat Khan underMaasir-ul-Umara. {a) they alone could hold their courts in palaces or places outside the citadel. by his intrigues and bribes. soon after the above Bijapur armies. Shah Jahan's son Aurangzeb. whereby the latter was acknowledged as a friendly ally and his Several royal sovereignty was left unimpaired to him. Shah Jahan called upon him not to do so. Mahabat Khan retired from Aurangzeb 's army and went away to Agra without giving any notice to Aurangzeb1 Vide Elliot's History of India zeb.d. but that only for a few years. So. customs were special to the Court of the Emperors of Delhi.000 soldiers. chap. the Moghul at Delhi. victories. Jadunath Sarkar's "History of Aurangzeb. gained other victories over the ^ We then find. Aurangzeb did not like this. this Moghul general ravaged a part of thc^ Bijapur territory.

Though these emperors had their rule in Kabul itself. wrote secretly to Mahabat Khan Governor of Kabul Dara Shokoh is proceeding to Lahore. Aurangzeb now and then hearing of the question of "the Afghan Frontiers. and his famous courtier Raja Birbal was defeated and killed by these Afghan tribes in 1 •1 Elliot VII. the chiefs often change. The Khan ought. He had declared his wish that Dara. they had their difficulties with the Afghan tribes and India. .' "^ •are We a long war with the Afghans. It was in the account of this captivity that we read of Mahabat Khan again. and to release the Emperor. Dara.D. He was then the governor of Kabul. So. against the capital. Shuja. On the way to Afghanistan from India. therewith his army to Lahore and having there joined Dara Shukoh. the Sahib Kiran-iiore. Elliot. they might march against the two undutiful sons to inflict upon them the due reward of their misconduct. that the chiefs rule over their followers as allowed by them. That is the present difficulty of our British rulers and that was the difficulty of the Moghal Emperors. 228. We thus read in the Muntakhahu-l-Lubdb : " Shah Jahan. the one principal feature of which. ' Muntakhabii-l-Lubab of Muluunmiul Hoshiii Khafl Klian. and no one equal Mahabat •Sani from prison. These clans have their had own is. The other sons jointly and severally opposed that nomination. the eldest son.59. to hasten men and Khan in money in Lahore. as it were.i Shah Jahan fell ill on 6th September 1657. ' : There is no want of valour and generalship. Shah Jahan continued as prisoner for seven years till the time of his death on 22nd January 1666. which one may expect to rule long. peculiar constitutions. • 1). His formal installation was in May 1659. Aurangzeb marched. no treaty arrangement with them can be called a pucca arrangement on which one can depend long.). or Kabul living between Afghanistan proper Akbar had such difficulties. in June 1658. according as the clans belong to the north or to the south of the region. and. on death-bed for one week. 1657-58 A. took it. So. There is no hereditary line of chiefs. of the Afghans. Aurangzeb was declared Emperor in July 1658.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION This was 85 in the 32nd year of Shah Jahan's reign (1068 Hijn. Vll. should succeed him. Aurangzeb and Murad even in his life-time." and of the raid of this tribe and that tribe. there live a number of clans which are Turco-Iranian clans. and are known as Pathan or Baluchi. made his father A prisoner. i. Then began a war of •succession among his sons. and was. there is abundance to of horses in Kabul. while in confinement.

AH such things continued. the experiences of the Moghals. met his death at the hands of the Afghans iu tiiis rebellion which was hailed with delight by bigoted Mahomedan writers like Badaoni. The Rajput feudatories of Aurangzcb fought bravely against the Maharaja Jaswant Sinch with Afghans during this war. also joined under their chief Khush-hal. they rose. that Mahabat Khan Avho had thrice before ruled over Afghanistan as Governor from Aurangzeb and who was then in the Deccan was appointed Viceroy of Afghanistan for the fourth time. and crossing the Indus above Attock. Thereupon. invaded the Mcghal territory. A Moghal army of more than 25. Tiny expeditions to punish them. who was a poet as well as a brave chieftain and who. Even after the defeat. In 1672. prisoned iu Delhi and Raitambhor. who admired the Iranian reverencefor the Sun and Fire.") 2 Afghan tradition connects this Jamrnd with Shah . in Jehangir's and Shah Jahan's times.^ which stands on this side of the Khyber Pass. 20. he met with iu thi. the Afridis rose against Aurangzeb and defeated Amin Muhammad Khan.000 men went against them and defeated them.Tamshed of the PcshdSdiaiv " dynasty of Percia. greater than that of Birbal in the time of Akbar. It is that the Moghal Viceroy of Afghanistan said. In this national rising of the x^fghans. Besides these./-=^ ) and who said. stray depredations and fights continued. and women were captured and transported to Central Asia. we find the The Yusufzai tribe had the chief hand in. Instead of proceeding toKabul. a. When we come miscliief growing. till 1672.d. held Jamrud. are our present inheritances from old times. at one time. was imIt was at this crisis. Tome XIV. Akba was much affected by his death (vide my " Pnrsis at the Court of Akbar. Vide my paper on I/Etymologie popnlaircs «ies noms des gtapesentre Pichaver et Kabul " (Journal) Asiatiqe.000 men.s rebellion was a portion of his base deeds. that the death . Part Asiatic page my Papers. Mahabat Khan did not dare to fight with the Afghan who had struck terror all round by their above-mentioned great victory. and guarding the roads. to a great extent. treaties to secure peace. Aurangzeb of 1 Birbal.^ ASIATIC PAPERS Our present experiences were. (1889> Vide 527. in trying to bring about some settlement with the Afghans. to the time of Aurangzeb. Mho advocated the views of Akbar. he wasted time at Peshawar. where they were sold as slaves. the mischief.. Aurangzeb's army met with a catastrophe. even after Akbar. under one Bhagu. pensions for keeping peace. the Khataks who lived in the Southern part of the Peshawar District. -JGl ct seq.000 men of Aurangzeb's Army were killed and two crores rupees in cash were lost. Hutieme Serie. 10. I. p.86 1586. In 1667. and who were formerly coijquered and won over by Aurangzeb. etc. at one time. his Rathors had. who called liin> *' a hellish dog " ( ic-^^t-^^ <-^**» ) and bastard ( ?^ »i ' j« / |... off and en.

Mahabat Khan proceed to Kabul. Bilimoriii iff . and stayed there for nearly 18 months. Mahabat Khan takes an important part. Appointed to the Viceroyalty of Kabul for the first time. who bore the titles of Umadat-ul-Mulk (the best of the kingdom) and Madur-ulMahal (the support of State business). from giving help to Shujayet Khan. Treaty of Shah Jahan with the King of Bijapur. of Aurangzcbe by Jaimhia H. Mahabat Khan leaves Prince Aurangzeb 's army at Bijapur and goes to Agra. He removed Mahabat Khan from the Viceroyalty of Kabul. died in 1634.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION sent 87 a special did Mahabat Khan to thereupon from his court to Peshawar to urgo force his way to Kabul. also had the same title. 1657. 142. : — Avith Mahabat Khan's 1636. T-. His father. the Karopa Pass. out of jealousy. Some of the hostile Afghan tribes were won over by money and others were defeated and overpowered. making his passage thereby easy by bribing the the Afghans. but by another route. title 1653. Aurangzeb himself went to Hassan Abdal. his original name 1656. He thereupon incurred displeasure of Aurangzeb.D. Afghan enemies. for having intentionally abstained. fighting with at the hands of the the difficulties • in 1674. 1652. situated on the road from Rawalpindi to Peshawar. Shah Jahan fell ill. Mahabat Khan is once referred to by Aurangzeb inone of his letters^ to Asad Khan. I give below a list of the principal events referred to above in coimection career A. being Lohrasp Khan. Mahabat Khan appointed Mir Bakhshi. Thereupon. The emperor's presence and diplomacy mastered the situation. but not by the regular officer he may meet with.etters (1) The Ruka'at-i-AIamgiri or 8) p. declared against who War Bijapur in which 1657. a man who had risen from a lower status of life. 1652. w^ho then appointed one Shu j aye t Khan. But Shujayet Khan met with a great disaster in the Karopa Pass at the hands of the Afghans route. to the command. Got the of Mahabat Khan. against the Afghans. but nothing special is mentioned about him.

was fourth the time. They were defeated. Mahabat Khan sent Shivaji's power. 26th June. Aurangzeb declared himself Emperor. imploring him to go with his army to Lahore and help Dara installed as Shukoh. Shujayet Khan met with a great defeat. He went to the frontiers but hesitated to fight and reached Kabul by another wa}-. Shah to Jahan writing secretly from the prison Mahabat Khan. Mahabat Khan died in this 3'ear. 1658. till he settled the Afghan question. Aurangzeb returns to Delhi at the end of the the 3^ear. Jt STATIC PAPERS of Mahabat Khan appointed Governor Appointed Governor of Kabul time. 1674. both by diplomacy and force. The Yusufzai Afghans ro.se in rebellion under Bhagu. who was then the Governor of Kabul. . The Afridi Afghans rose in rebellion. 1670. Aurangzeb formally ^lahabat Emperor. by Shu j aye t Khan. 1672-73. 1659. and asked to proceed to Kabul. on his way from Kabul to the Royal Court. Death of Shah Jahan. Khan aiDpointed Viceroy of Gujarat. 1658. Aurangzeb himself went against Afghans and sta^-ed at the frontiers for 18 months. 1667. for the second 1658. Dara Shukoh gathers troops at Delhi and marches towards Lahore (end of June. 1666. Deccan. as a general against the Afghans. 1675. to the Deccan to suppress 1672. Mahabat Khan. Mahabat Khan appointed Viceroy of Kabul for the third time. 1663.S8 lf)57. ^^•as the 1673. Mahabat Khan was superseded. 1658. 1657. for at Deccan. 1671. who appointed. beginning of July). Governor of Afghanistan. Shah Jahan imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb.

1 began on 29th April ^^.^3 \(. who was at first a great favourite of his father. Aurangzeb by Prof. It seems to ihave been put up by Mahabat Khan in 1672.). that he was 1083 \ appointed. as quoted above. attributes rebels. 1480. I . (4) Muhammad Akbar. Vol.g^j>^ from the above account of ]>^q^^. for the fourth time. i. The statement exa- year •Qnzetteer piin. !on behalf of his royal master. and when he was on his way to Peshiwar to fight with the Afghans and to make liis way to Kabul. Aurangzeb had five sons (1) Muhammad Sultan. account.Ml.e. When Aurangzeb went personally to attend to the Afghan war. Ihkl 1). who had intrigued against his father in the war of succession and joined the side of Shuja. He was asked to march to Kabul via Kohat under the guardianship of |Aghar Khan^.i 273. of which he was appointed ^the Governor. and Mahabat Khan was removed from the viceWhen Aghar Khan won victories over tfie Afghans royalty. who rebelled openly against his father. Til. The Hijri. He was appointed. it was the fourth. year (1083 Hijri. Sarkar. rthis tablet has nothing to do with Aurangzeb. Emperor Bahadur•shah I). that It was in this. under the title of Shah Alain. (5) Muhammad Kam Bakhsh. if j — affairs of the 1 :i I WoUastoii's Persian Dictionary. it was prince Akbar who -was asked 2 He could jto co-operate and advance eastwards from Jalalabad.n he was in the good grace of Aurangzeb. and was asked to march against the Afghan The Rawalpindi Gazetteer. ell in disfavour again. p.d.^ Mahabat Khan. So. commander in Afghanistan in that year. 1072.Indus trif)es and at^gainst But we find from the above ttibutes the tablet to that event. (2) Muhammad Muazzan (afterwards. tthat Aurangzeb went to Hassan Abdal and not in 1672. It was in 1674. but was admitted to favour in 1672. and was arrested in 1687. the viceroy Afghanistan. .fghanistan. who accompanied him.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION (a) 89 The tablet bears the Hijri date of 1083.70.. that the Gazetteer seems to be wrong. wh(. •of {b) The Gazetteer also of the name of the prince seems to be incorrect in the mention who accompanied Aurangzeb when he went to the place to look personally after the I I Afghan war. " the time when the Emperor Aurangzeb marched \ the tablet to M}o Hassan Abdal and sent his son prince Sultan with an army " the Khattaks and other trans. (3) Mohammad Azam. \^ :'. but had subsequently fallen into his displeasure in 1673 and was afterwards restored to favour again in 1676. prince Akbar. the capital of xA. 1672-73 a. out of these five sons.

90 ASIATIC PAPERS not carry on well his part of the war work. the Tahsildar and the copyist of the Archaeological Department have taken the word ^^^-ssNKhan in the fifth line of the inscription. hill of MargaUa." If it is merely the construction of a roadway. to be the honorific word Khan. The work referred to. It is. " was no doubt a remarkable achievement which. had no hand in the Afghan war and had not accompanied his father to the frontiers. how. that a mere roadway or pavement would be spoken of so highly and compared ta the high heavens. a market. to which even the high heavens pay a homage. the fact of exaggeration in praise by Persian versifiers. So. Again. VI. meaning a chief. a station. however good an achievement it may be in those days. the roadway or pavement is not very long or extensive. the second son. an inn. wTitcr has 2 place of merchants. we cannot take it. Then. The word khan means " a house. masjids like the several 1 Ibid. Both. or any meeting inscription. Juma mausoleums like the masjids. . the next question is : What is it that the inscription 4. p. (6) Again. that was sent to Afghanistan after being invested with the title of Shah Alam.e. prince Akbar seems to have returned to Delhi with his father.note of the work of some adjoining buildtion takes a note jng^ which no longer stands there now. the Gazetteer is incorrect in mentioning the name of Prince Sultan in place of Prince Akbar. it was prince Muazzan. pavement (a) or cutting that the tablet commemorates. Having settled th& affairs of the province of Kabul. We thus see. So. is spoken of. So. What is it takes a note of ? I think. that it takes a that the Inscrip. even taking into consideration. In October 1676. its come to this conclusion. that it takes a note of the completion of the pavement of the roadway. he returned to Hassan Abdal. as being in or on the kotaly i. a tablet with an inscription of the above kind for a roadway of such a length would be something too much for a small thing. 271. it is spoken of as one. The Rawalpindi Gazetteer says. a caravanserai. in those days/' As the Gazetteer has not given the whole we are not in a position to know.* When Afghan affairs improved in the end of 1675. it says. it cannot be spoken of sohighly as it is in the tablet. about 200 yards or so. The Moghal Emperors had built Taj Mahal. the first son of Aurangzeb.. I think. but I think it is a common nojm signifying a house. and palatial 2 Steingass. that Prince Sultan.

" I think this tradition as heard by Mr. 98-99 . these words struck me and I wrote on 24th September to Mr.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION 91 bmldino. II. (c) Again. In the plan which IVIr. The road may have been built by Akbar's officers at the king's direction. Zabulistan. Vesugar.d. one was named Akbarabad. From a passage of the Wahidt-i-^ : Jahangiri given above. the roadway may have been Akbar's direction for his elephants to pass during his of Kashmir by this route. To save the feet of elephants from slipping while passing on the slopy road on both sides of the pass. inquiring. According to his Ain-i'Akbari. what was his authority for the" statement. 1606 A. when Jahangir went to in the second year of his reign (1015 Hijri. pp. as such. a small paved roadway would be nothing before these great works and would not be so highly praised and compared to the high heavens. as said above. and perhaps. Kandhar. 1586 and visited it three times. Kashmir. It seems. it seems to have been paved with big Kabul stones. it was the work of the Moghal Government. So. and if. that it was intended for elephants. that it is not merely the Moghal cutting of paved roadway that it takes a note of. it is possible. has kindly prepared for me. The hill of Hassan Abdal in the neighbourhood." While studying the subject on my return to Bombay. Vesugar may be true.W.). This circumstance also should lead us to think. in the suppression of which. that. who would see this road paved with big rough stones. as a necessary war. the tablet should have mentioned Aurangzeb's name and not simply Mahabat Khan's.work during the time of the rebellion of the Yusufzai Afghans. he passed across this Margalla hill. and which is given above. In the divisions made by Akbar of this part of the country. He writes on 30th September 1918 in reply The information given by me to you re the stone at Margalla is just from local traditions and I vouch for its accuracy in no way. he describes the road as "an old stone set road made by Akbar for his elephants to pass. would not take long to agree. that. we learn. and not of Mahabat Khan personally. P. Vesugar. Vol.s like the Diwan-i-Khas. it was built by Akbar. the great favourite courtier of the king. built at visits Or. Birbal. was killed. referred to in our above account of the Afghan war of Aurangzeb 1 Vide al^o "The Juzuk-i Jahangori" by Eogcrs and Boveridge. as said by the tradition heard there now. that there was already a road there. the Assistant Engineer.D. if the tablet was intended to commemorate the event of cutting the hill and making a roadway through it. Akbar took Kashmir in a... One. Swat and other adjoining places belonged to the Subeh or viceroj^alty of Kabul.D.

3 (1S64). The inscrii^tion sides of the stones face the ])ublic road of the adjoining bazar. and after examining the place. 40. to my great surprise. .' "92 ASIATIC PAPERS was a favourite place of Akbar. A place there is named '"Wah" from the fact. After some inquir^^. it will not be long before the street boys deface the inscription. p. but for a perma55 nent purpose. or some body carries aAvay the stones. this summer. that Akbar. We find some instances of this kind. to form the compound wall of the back part of the yard containing Zain-ulAbadin's tomb. that the stones bearing the inscription.'). 273-290. it seems. — — 1 VMe Journal. wherein. and that the building having fallen down. I. I found. referred to by Rev. i I have referred to a tablet of Shah Jahan removed from an adjoining canal and fixed in the side of an octagon tank. when I was studying and examining some of the inscriptions of Kashmir. on that place falling into ruins. speaking of the inscriptions in the ruins of buildings known as the tomb of Zain-ul-Abadin. which is a Persian expression of admiration. Loewenthal in his '^ Some Persian Inscriptions found in Srinagar. J. that the tablet belongs to fice in that locality built by Mahabat various considerations. passing over the Margalla pass. exclaimed tvah ( 'j )." When gives an inscription over what he calls I went to examine the inscription on 24th June 1918. It is more likeh^ that it is was built. Vol. [a) In my paper on the Moghal Emperors at Kashmir before this Society. Loewenthal. pp. as a part of the trunk-road. "2 Rev. some other building or ediKhan in 1672 A.. 2 Journal Bengal Asiatic Society. entitled Kashmir. Vol. Loewenthal saw in 1864 at their projoer place. " a postern gate. a tablet belonging to one place. the sidework of which was done at the orders of the king. On I think. removed and fixed in another place. So. not unmixed with sorrow. once admiring its beauty. I think. and. XXV. I could " neither find "the postern gate not the inscription given by him. 26-7. that possibly this paved roadway was specially intended for Akbar 's and his successors' elephants. which Rev. were used with some other loose stones. paper. (6) I found another instance of this land during my third visit of Kashmir. The place was a resting-place for Akbar and other Moghal Emperors when they went to Kashmir. has been. yil" above. not for the temporary purposes of the Afghan war. No. somebod}^ later on it may be one or two hundred years ago may have brought it here and fixed it on the rock. i)p. XXXII Xo. D.

THE TAHSILDAR'S READIx\G. TRANSLITERATION AN1 TRANSLATION.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION 9i APPENDIX. ^i:L . tj^^ ^A^^ ^X^ ^^.

7. Under the supervision of ^lirza Mohammad Miran.) He who 1.) Was made THE TEXT TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATIONS SUPPLIED BY THE ARCH^OLOGICAL DEPARTMENT. superintendent of passes 10.lj 9 . 5. 11. Made the help of the high heavens Powerful the khan through its greatness The heavens kiss the face of this the sun of the times By Left a permanent inscription of the date and the year Of the invasion of India 9. \'^yc j*Ui.94 ASIATIC PAPERS {Translation.l^"-Jlo a£-^A^ ^\ j^f^ »>^su. Ahmad Mason and chaukidar son of Sharaf And Dialdass sculptor in 1080 (Hijri. 0. 12. 3. tjijt vjujt^* ^^^ f^y^ ^[^ I ^ii\y ^j^j ^^^ jy u 4 ^j. is omnipotent. The khan with bold eyes and commanding appearance Against whom even the lion is quite Who was in the pass of Margalla powerless 2. 4. 8.

the Ahmed architect.ke bud Ba kurrah-i-charkh-i-barin riic tawanan * Sakht Khan ra ze sharf Bosa dihad charldi-i-bar wo mehre zaman Bar makmanat mail-i-dawami Tarikh sal Nama-i-yiirish-i-Hindostan Ba ehtmam dastan.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION 95 HO WAL QADIR. of which eternity * is enamoured. . Mirza Muhammad Miran. The awe-inspiring redoubtable Khan By whose helplessness. ALMIGHTY. his aid-de-camp. In perpetuation of the date of the erection of this edifice. invincible strength the lion is reduced to Who in the fortress of Margalla could cope with the untrained horse of the sky. dar san 1080 Wa Dayal Das. Murattab shud. at whose face the sky and the «un of the world imprint their kisses on account of his exaltedness. Khan-i-Qawi chashm mahabat shikoh Sher ze sar-i-panjae o natawan Dar katsal-i-Margalla an. chowkidarash wald Sharf tajuba saz. And Dayal Das sculptor. A writing on the conquest of India of JMirza Under the management supervisor of stories Muhammad son of Sharf Miran. God created this Khan. Darogha-i- Ahmad maimar. Prepared in the year 1080. the following words have ' been written.

96 ASIATIC PAPERS POSTSCRIPT.General of Archaeology in India. that it to the itself and that it takes a note of its consroad belongs truction. letter Mr. The word is (o^^l^) i. District Rawalpindi) from Sir John Marshal. Mather an. and I with Munshi Mahmad Din. I leave the matter as it is in the hands of other readers. as accompanied ' Khan '. the Assistant Director-General.. He reads the fifth line as oj-^ and There sakht translates it very freely as " " is no word for cut in " LS^y. as / Chun an rah (J^'j t:^^-^-^. C'j 41)^-=^). in continuation of that letter. that it belonged to some other work and was latterly placed here. Central India) from Dr. B. sending therewith a rubbing of the inscription. But the fact of the tablet being found on Byramjee House. as Mr. Spooner. I received another letter. and the Munshi wha me. After reading the paper on 17th October 1918. made. the reader of the Archaeological Department's first copy. 21th February 1919. is accepted. to thank all these gentlemen. read from the tablet itself as Khan ra Mr. What the Tahsildar. the Director. would turn out to be wrong. \r) ^'j u^-*-^ OA. he himself is doubtful. Yazdani's reading differs a good deal from the previous readings. as the Tahsildar. from the rubbing. and. Ghulam Yazdani reads.). have all read the word on the spot itself. D. aft^r these words. Ghulam Yazdani. I received a dated 18th November 1918 (Saraikala. Then.i. in reply to mine of the 28th September.e. if this reading gested cutting. dated 14th January 1919 (Canjp Sanchi Bhilsa. He puts(?) a mark of question in his reading So. my above view of the tablet. and we must take it. the reader of the copy supplied by the Archaeological Department. especially in the first important part." the text. . But.U^ Cut a pass rising so high. myself. and agrees much with my reading. Yazdani himself seems to be doubtful about his reading. sending therewith the reading and I beg translation of the inscription by Mr. supplied to me by the Commissioner of Rawalpindi and the Archaeological Department. " " a road which is a seems to have sugcutting to him the sense of However. But his reading of the fifth line differs from mine. I give here a copy of the rubbing as well as Mr. It is the second word that makes all the difference. Yazdani's reading and translation.

-•^'Sfci ^.jhM^!**^ C^*^ Icy'^''^.^ '^*^ ^ I l^#H^/W^f'-^^ .

I .

) 1 of Kabul.lj TRANSLATION. Vol. - and Dialdas. He The Khan of is Omnipotent ! powerful grip.D. In whose hand the tiger is feeble In the liill of Margala which was . Mahabat^ Shikoh (awe-in- spiring). - in the year 1083 A. Governor and 1672-73 A.B. the cash-keeper. 1658-62. 590-95. (in loftiness) to the sphere of Heaven. pp. Mughal Khan. : A rival \*' Mughal^ thus composed a chronogram (for the Pass) The parting in the hair of the moon-faced (mistress of India. 1651-56. Ill.AN UNPUBLISHED MOGUL INSCRIPTION- 97 3<^Ci c:*j(|yo ^3iij ^^5 ^(iw ^^U|^3 t^^j ^^^ l^rlj (5) ^jjj\^ <^*^s^ Ij^^ (*UX." — Completed under the Superintendence of Maulana Muham and Waf a mad Ahmad. «u officer 2 Here Moghal is the name of the poet. (1672 A. attached to the Court of Aurangzeb He may who held be identified with different posts. Cut a pass rising so high That Heaven kisses it every moment. Ill. 7 . the accountant. 623-25. pp. 1668-70 I*or a full account see Ma'athir-ul-Umara. Jogidas. the ma son.Umam. Ma'atkir-ul. Vol. Mahabat Khan. H.

478). all of the distinguished Civil Service of India. qui furent en rapport avec le grand Mogul (Verhandlungen des II Internationalen Kongresses fucAllgemaine Religionsgeschichte in Basal. Mulla Jamasp was an ancestor ninth in ascent Like the Mr. Irvine in 1909. when I read before it. as "previously unpublished documents in both text and translation" (p. Vincent Smith. 1905. Bonet Maury of France. de chants populaires et d' una note d'Anqnetif du Perron que ce furent des Parsees de Gujarat et nonpas ceux restges en Perse. 294). of the late two farmans of Akbar.^ -x i cxu Akbar. given by Akbar 's son Jehangir in 1618 to two Parsis. 273)a Mr. ^ ^."^ I beg to submit to-day for inspection another /arm«w. Vol. B. A. In his bibliography. &c. " Le * In his paper. 3 In his article on Akbar in the Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics (Vol. I p. He wrote to me. that drew the special attention of the late Mr. '* Akbar.. eridge. R. V. I -r had the pleasure . XXI. Bonet Maury thus refers to this paper : " Mon. on lotn December 1901. Dadabhai Nowroji. the Imperial Gazetteer of the times. Beveridge refers his readers to my above article in our Journal for consultation. My first paper seems to have drawn the attention of some scholars in Europe. as " the excellent and convincing treatise " and of the farmdns and other documents published therein. among whom I was t. Mon. described by Abul Fa^zl. Smith speaks of my paper. 1920. in his Ayin-i-Akbari. Introduction. Irvine. my paper on *' The Parsees at the Court of Akbar and Dastur Meherji Rana. land revenue. and M. asking for good photographs of such Journal B. he names the paper as one " deserving separate mention as being a fully documented discussion of the relations of Akbar with the Parsees" (p. the Great Mogul. S.A Farmdn of two of Emperor Jehangir in favour the Dordi family of Naosari." read before the International Congress of the History of ReUgions at Basal in 1904. ait. 30 August bis 2 Sept. 1 2 . the Sir William Hunter of Akbar's Court. 69-245. t ji. of placing for inspection before this Sofarmdns of ciety two Persian Emperor — — ^ 3klr.^ Mr.^ It w^ere the seals of Akbar given in the photo-litho facsimile in the appendix of the paper. Parsees of Read 22nd March I. entitled Religion d'Akbar dans ses rapports avec I'lslamism et le Parsism. this farman also illustrates some of the Ayins or institutes of the Mogul times on the subject of jdgirs. One of these two. Bevglad to find persons like the late Mr. with other cognate Documents of the Mogul times. 165 n). p. In his." Mr. Modi a demontrg » 1 aide defirmdns de la chancellerie d'Akbar. MuUa Jamasp and Mulla Hoshang of Naosari.

Irvine. in getting the farmdn patched up and stuck on the two sides Good many words of a glass plate as you see it before you.S. because. the Hon'ble Mr. (now Sir) Justice Beaman. . similar to that referred to in the previous paper. One of the presiding judges. and the photo as taken recently about a year ago. to protest against the language of that criticism. Not only did I send him largo photographs of the seals of Akbar's two farmdns. My above paper has been referred to in a judgment in a case of some importance to the Parsee community. of the the photo not been taken at the time. Irvine's request. . Had the cri ticism been made out of the Court. seals 9^ the of documents other on Mogul Emperors. as taken 10 years ago for Mr. wherein motives were sought to be attributed when none existed. much help in now deciphering the farmdn would have been lost. I knew how best to reply to it. I humbly beg to take this opportunity. Byramji Khurshedji Dordi of Naosari.. I had to be silent.A FARM AN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. about I present for inspection the photo-litho. has given me some pain. have been lost in the work of patching which has been done I am carelessly. that if the learned judge would read the whole of my paper carefully without any prejudice. I think. a photo of the seal of Jehangir's farmdn which forms the subject of my present paper. the late Mr. I beg to admit. As the paper in question was read from the platform of this learned Society.C. and especially what led me to write it. he would revise his criticism or at least its language. the result of his hasty and careless reading. the youngest son of the late owner of the farmdn.^ F. that a very sad mistake has been committed. has given me some pleasure. Jehangir Byramji Dordi.R. glad that I attended to Mr. When the appreciation of the above learned scholars. when I read a paper on another farmdn. got the whole farmdn photographed and then I am glad that I got that done. At my request. that the criticism of the Hon'ble Judge. But. the owner of the farmdn. but I also sent him with my letter of 18th February 1910. who had read my paper carefully and leisurely. had photo-lithoed. therein animadverted a good deal on the paper. A literary man has no right to complain against any fair criticism of his views. but he has every right to complain against the language in which that criticism is couched. and more especially when the position of the critic at the time of his criticism places the victim of his criticism in a position whence he cannot reply. wherein I had to give evidence. I am very sorry to find. at the instance of Dr. Even now. I do not want to enter intojany details of the criticism I think.

Antony Monserrat. there — : — were fathers like the Jains who influenced. Among the Hindus. •The point of dispute was not. as he put on the visible symbols of the religions of the Christians and Hindus. or only out of dissimulation. but whether the Naosari Parsees influenced him or the Parsees of Persia. he may have put on. inhere is not a single sentence in the whole of my paper. Akbar's of case has not at all been mentioned as a case conversion. wherein I have stated. whether it was Dastur Meherji Rana of Naosari or Dastur Ardeshir of Persia. nearly half. as I have hinted in the paper. as to the Parsees. it was Meherji Rana. have been devoted to the presentation of two farmans and other documents. and Among : . that." Now. to prove that the priests of Naosari are fairly entitled to the credit of having converted the emperor Akbar. that any particular communal question •crop up. paper. In spite of all these facts. as to who influenced Abkar in his new eclectic religion. it is supplied by the report of the experts' committee referred to in the case and which was framed b}^ me after the paper was read. or for the sake of curiosity. the judge said " Mr. may not have been even a dozen. Now. the Francis Herric. On the other hand. him were gurus like Hirvijaya Suri. Bombay had not then even passed into the hands of the British and its Parsee population Then. the next then. written long before the case. Again. Modi writes an elaborate treatise. i. that I believed that Akbar was converted to Zoroastrianism. Had I taken it to be a case of con- would have mentioned it in version. the point of dispute was. about 85. The point of dispute then was not at all of coversion. If any sure and certain proof of what I say is wanted. there was a large number who often attended his Court. if any. and out of about 177 pages of my paper. but was.— and this serves as an instance of his very hasty superficial rreading whether the Naosari Parsees influenced Akbar or the Bombay Parsees. Vijyasena Suri and Bhamuchandra Upadhaya.. even for a short time. that I do not like to protest so much against the criticism as against its I may be pardoned to say my — — to undignified improper language. There. I report.100 ASIATIC PAPER. and imputing^ motives my when of I had no idea. either out of temporary real affection for those religions. I said. I beg to repeat. question of dispute was this ^Among the Christians.e. who are said to have influenced Akbar in his Hahi or Divine Faith. visible signs of Parseeism. what I clearly stated was. Rodolph Aquaviva. I had undertaken the study of the paper at the instance of a friend in France. as the judge erroneously thought. the kind would . or one might say almost a book.

1 I words here and there of the text of the Farman from a copy of the farmftn by Munshi Nasir Alikhau of Naosari. coming to the subject of the paper. of A Receipt by Mehernoush acknowledging the receipt 5. 2 The numbers on the right give the number of the lines in the original/arw<Jn. ^ THE TEXT OF THE FARMAN. . a copy of the first copy with the seal of Kazi Fazal-ud-din. in the name of Mehernoush. and in the decipherment of the farman and other documents by the Gujarati translations which accompanied all the documents except the last. of the farmdn. in 3. with the following documents which relate to the land. supplied to me by Dr. which forms the my Jehangir. farmdn itself. when he sent to me the farmdn itself and a Gujrati translation of the farmdn by Prof. There is also a subsequent copy of the chak-ndmeh written on two leaves of thin 1. 2. seal copy parwaneh bearing There 4. A is parwdneh referring to the above 18 bighas of land There is also a certified falling to the share of Mehernoush. 101' I propose to principal part of subject. whole or in part. a sum of money for a three years' lease of his land. 3 The first two and the last two letters of thig word do not appear clearly in the photo-litho copy but can be read in the photo itself. in subsequent partition.A FAKMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. A chak-ndmeh. Jehangir Byramji Dordi. The same is the case with the last several letter of the beg to acknowledge with thanks the help received in the decipherment of next word. S. H. chak-ndmeh. dated 3rd November 1909. about 18 higahs of land. of this the of the above Fazal-ud-din. the third descent from Mulla Jamasp. and another. BehramjiKburshedji Dordi with his letter. to whose share there came. referring to the whole of the land. I will first give the text and translation II. original of this was sent to me by Mr. An Appeal of Mehernoush to the leading men of Naosari to certify that the above 18 bigahs of land had come to his hands after a proper Deed of Partition among the heirs of Mulla Jamasp. also another certified copy. Hodiwala of Junaghad. A The paper. There are two subsequent copies of this chak-ndmeh. given to the two Parsis by Emperor deal besides the Now. one with the seal of Jamalu-d-din Usmani.

>a3 ^ ^jJtJ laiiax>^iUt 6 1 These first two lines are. the difference being only in their consecutive order. Dr. 163-200). names of the various taxes and imports mentioned here are well-nigh the as those in the two farmdns of King Akbar. the nukteh .l O^ \yf JLoLa*. we are helped a good deal by those farmdrhs in the reading of this farmdn. as will be seen from the photo-litho and the photo. That was a characteristic of the Mogul farmdn. S. For an explanation of the names of seme of these taxes. be arable (^o—^ hasn in the sense may mean .102 ASIATIC PAPER. of this «>iJ I ji^^J » ^Jj-^ (^A««S3ij. Gulshan Rai.j JU (4) o^Iaj ^ <>Ayt>i (3) (JL) . 195. In that case. B. XXI pp. Not legible. mentioned in the farmdns of the Mogul Emperors. . wrong. shore. Vide my Translation of Akbar's farm&ns with footnotes (J.ol^a." for kharj is t In that case. R.ia^ ^ ^) The reading word is doubtful." meaning "he may bring the is income under power and expense. and are written in the left-hand half of the width of the paper of the farmdn. Dordi has given me a copy of the farmdn. * T)ie . in the Indian Review of September 1919. vide the instructive article. B. of which the Ain-i-Akbari says that the first two lines are shortened 2 (Blochmann's. or in the it may have been miswritten Meherji Rana farman 3 ^j^ ^^i^ The corresponding sentence Akbar- ^j^ jdS o^i. with the next word. It may it of pleasingness. Jehangir B. wherein the Munshi reads the words as «ame A. " he may spend as he pleased". " " entitled Taxation and Finance vinder the Mughul by Mr. or it may be arable <J-i-^ "power his or sagacity.. recently made by Munshi Nasir Alikhan of Naosari. So. Text p.

but does not seem « and *." and the word after dar may be hurra " a free woman. has in his translation (Vol. that it may be a tax upon loose women. I tax upon manufactures. I do not understand the words clearly. A part of the letter. I have translated as "burdens {i. taxes) for cultivation and gardening. 58) taken it as an p." The word occurs in the Ain-i-Akbari (Bk. A.«. 169). 15).jj Os»A. 103 ^ijJliaxj ^ «>jjL. preceding the word which I read as muhtarifa. If the reading may be so accepted. S. ain 7.e. Blochmann's Text Vol. the word looks like '6j>>*>*Jl)ut in the original the word read clearly asj^^. B. The conjunction^ looks faultily joined with the broken wJ but the original makes it clear. 251) also takes it as » As to the two words which name a tax or taxes." it Perhaps. Gladwin (Ayeen Akbery (1800) Vol. II p. » 2 I cannot make out clearly the words between the two words kftnilng(ii(jj'^^^^) and zakat al words are jahati (tf'H^ '?^0)' ^^ Akbar's two farmans. They seem to be •r*f ^ i^-^jtJ " *.. j is ^ seen in tlw fac-simile. Ill." I am inclined to take that the word just preceding ^Ai^( %y^\ inthis B. is "A tax on professions. p. one to be so. in my translation of tlie two farmans (J. but the previous part j_5"'^ is gone But this word and the next word the help of Akbar's two /armrftw.A FAEMAN OF EMPEROB JEHANGIR. I. The last letters {*)^^ can be seen. may say. according to Steingass. r^*^ . R. ^sy^j^ ^ "^^ farmanis ^Affl-« muhtarifa. 1. the first word may be mUhab extremely fair. ^^^^^ (renewed) can safely be replaced and read with .IJ^ ^^^hX^ o^AlJax ^ <_5Jtj-Jii i^jJ<<3 J/j 8 1 In is ttie photo-liUio fac-simile. the words between the two Ijj j Lr^-' which. which. though the letters are clear.. XXI p. as the name of a taxj J rrett impost on manufactures. 294.

We with the conjunction v&v. we have the words » ^JC*J ^fti illegible with the holder what I think to be. All of the year written next to. R. it seems. the first two to be 10. 1). As the next is line speaks of an officer very probably chowky ^^j^^ ^_j^ This writing onthe back of the farmdn j this word what is called. are not clear. S. holder. Jumada-s-Sftnl 20th A. I think also that the last word of the would be first line naay perhaps be O V Thus. 1014+13=1027). So. 1014 King Jehangir. in these sharks of Akbar's two farming. tJ iJj-m* . I have explained this in details.vi*J ^^*) some dignity. »^ij "^J ^^ j O^t^^. but the last figure is clear as v 7 (seven). 258-59). on the authority of the 10th and 11th ains of the 2nd book of the Ain-i-Akbari (Blochmann's Translation I pp. if we take these last two to be 27. .e.e. line So. The week day and the style. post-script explanation. The figure next to it on the left seems to be ^ (two). ^j^j^ with the name As to the third or the last illegible word in the first line. that we are dealing with afarmdn " Thursday. XXI pp. signifying some office. an abridgement of the ydd-d&sht etc.e. in my paper on Akbar's Farmans given to Dastur Meherji Rana (J. we have the words of. the ckoicki.) 2 ^^ line ^sUi^i n ^/3 above the word. signifying signification like that of the second word in the second line t. i. H.i2. thirteenth.e. Now.104 ASIATIC PAPER. that it may be a word having some niqabat. translated and edited by Rogers-Beveridge Now. the notes or the memoranda of the officers holding at the time the rasalah and the chowki. in connection with the resdiah So. as in the present farmftn we find the word rasalah (/'^^j) in the second with the name of its holder. (a memorandum) His Majesty's orders about the farm&ns or shark b'il h&shiya ^^ 'syJ b ••^•^ B. we find. we may unhesitatingly Then the number of the year take the next two on the left i. The next word must be a word holding the resalah ^•^^•w is. are not clearly legible. the year of the King's reign is given as IT 13 the p. in. should be 1027 ( of I • f VJbecause we know it for certain. in this very line. this tallies with the year 1027 (H. in the beginning. 'and. of sharh-i-ta'liqah /<ftJji*3 i. who came to throne on (October 24th 1605)" (ruzMk-i-Jehangiri.. but they do not seem to be very important. B. Thus. a little above the word sana /»*•*. extending over the figures 1 The cursive word in the form of a long nearly three-fouiths of the line gives the word madad. Christian date corresponding to this day are Tuesday 24th November 1618 old The next word seems to be dar j i^ i.' are led to think so. at the end of the line.e. i. 170-71). (The text of the Writing on the back of the farman. here the word must be chowki of its holder which occurs in the beginning of the second line.i U-w ^^ ^i^ j^ t r There seem to be one or two more words.. or to speak more properly. A. the indistinct or illegible words o . 2 Some words here. because the second line begins In the second line.

One may try to read the last two words as Shih Mogul. Tf I do not mistake. seems to have meant that they belonged to "the group of Parsee "priests" residing at " mandli " which comes from mandal. that.e. Thus.. . J cd^Ia*. So. by adding these words after the word Parsi (Farsi) next to the proper names. Twoof these were Nagshahi and Kfi?-Mandal y Hpl Stll6. in order to mention a particular locality of Naosari.jtfl3j (2) o^^t ^^AJ ir /a^^j^j^t"^ »U r 2 fij^^i (^-wjti ylxj J^^Cj /g'jl^'* /"^ 5^»>"<i J^^-** ttU^ ^(ijf alixO j^l^A. many of the In Kashmir. assume the title of shdh. " So " Shah Mandal " or " Padshah Mandal may mean a circle or group of priests." has been Naosari. ^S[jk J J5J^X)_^ 1 Iqbal asiri i. addressed by their laymen as pfidshfth." . as to the word shdh. Parsee priests were. Shah Makdum. at times. it seems to be used in Persian as a circle or group. • three words between the words 2 There seem to be fj^j*-^ and (• f- fij^. So. Many an old document speaks of the town as Nfig-Mandal. that the officer.g. the " Shahin • well or the royal or great well". that they may be Shehr-i-Sb4h Mandal ^^^ and they refer to the town of Naosari. that the two Parsees were from Naosari. We know that thp word used in one of the Silhfcra grants in connection with the Parsees. that perhaps from very ancient times some Zoroastrian high priests came to be spoken of as pddshihs from the fact of their being petty rulers as well as priests.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. but the last word does not clearly admit of that reading. It seems. which seem to be (JtXi/o t^M» illegible. the History of Navsari 'IPl ^«SC'l). it may be said.e. Naosari had several names of old (Vide Mr. which is still spoken of as Shfihfin Kuvo. the name of their town or place of residence. asked the donees. etc. Sorabji Mancherji Desai's Tavfirikh-i-Navsari Cl<:tR'l'^ 'l^t^l^l i. we know. I venture to suggest. one must remember. e. They possibly gave the name or names which they familiarly used among themselves. There is another conjecture which I venture to make. that the Court officers. They were meant to signify. especially of the fakir type. Their colony at Sanjan as been spoken of as "Khorasan Mandli. on the Railway Station Bide. J^Ui&lri Jjc^[ i. and that is to say . pp. Sh&h Hamdan.that perhaps " the words maybe "az Shah Mandal (jj^^-i"* V'**> j\) or padsh&h mandal ( J«X<i^ ?^'**'«j'j) Both the sets of words come to or mean the same thing. entering the gift entered the name of the town as given to him by the donee. 4-8).. have heard many a pir (saint) spoken of as s] dh. The word seems to have been transferred also to the priests who served in the temples.. -^ Coming to the word Mandal J^^. /J^^^^ i^j^^ j^aia^AA) 105 ^jO'T jlxs\ 1 jjUjo.e. up to very late. i priestly classes. Firstly. it Is possible.' Perhaps. in some old papers the word Nas-IMandal is used in addition to the name Naosari. that among the Mahomedans. the farman. that more than once. The several Fire-temples are even now spoken of as pdias/<AA ( ^Hl'Utl *^^ I'M "m'^LJ^U^). The word Mandal ( J*>a^) is occasionally used in Persian books for a limited circle or space of ground.. There is a particular place at Naosari. one having the impressions or signs of good fortune. when taking down the notes of the King's gift in their records. In this connection. where was there the necessity of giving here another name ? But. possible. the town is mentioned in the farmdn as it is Naosari.

in a consecutive order. that here in the indistinct and illegible portion is the reference to the first person and his record or y&dd4sht. in the first part of the shdrh. The /^T fin geh i.^Jt.S. ' at that time. through whose ina'rafat.) for helping me in deter" There are two methods of calculating Iiahi dates mining this date.^J oi>*^J f^j6^'i ^^\ «>-h*^ 5^(^.Tehangir named Jahangiri. Therefore.. we find the names of officers in whose records the fact of the gift of the land is noted. In the beginning of this writing.e.i .3 jf 5<0iJ e^^i^S* /'-'U^J (6) * O^-r-c ti'^t^'-'b''*^ ^^i/ojlcul*^ 3 Jas^j ^^. and in which. « 8. which I will call Dr. So. the document passed and 4 Mahmud E&qr. i. according to the ydd ddsht of the marginal officer of the time. it seems probable. These Iiahi and Hijri dates correspond according to the second of the above two methods. ^^xx a^^ ^^jji> ^jy^ j^.e. (Retd. the illegibls words seem to be .iA^ .j^ Ls}^^^ ^^'^ 3' ^!"^ (5) ^J. look v (7). that the corresponding dates for other Dahi dates in this farmdn must be reckoned according to the second method.e. is The second figure for 8 may. with 5 intercalary days (Gathas) at the end . on the back of the farwdn. So. the waqah-natvish." corresponds to Friday 21 Rabi-ul-awgal 1028.C. i. There we read : Iiahi date "the date of day Tir 13.. as given above. the holder of the resaleh. the inauspicious day. the names of the above-named second and third officers. m&h Asffindfirmaz (Asfandarmad). it is certain. in this part of Jehangir's farmdn. But we can determine it by means of the Iiahi date. the Uahi date "roz Rfi^hna 18. there may be the name of the particular like The figure is 18. 1 4 AJl the words after bar qardr shudah up to the end of the line are illegible.^ ci^f ^1^ cPlye (7) \•r^ Jj^'^o (JJ^-Ia. Wednesday. Now. kam Shambi." Here the Mahomedan date I am thankful : Now. of 30 days each.e..^ ir t^fJl j^j I <>. but it Is Rashn (^ J(. The figure of the illegible words are the day of the week and the date.e. Then. O*. and which I call the true solar method. repeated. They are 1 Mnstaffi Khfin (the holder of the chotcki). month ftzar (Adar). f | a*-«^ i. 3 Nuruddin Quli. I. Taylor's. Vide below.jlj ^ l^/o i. to Mr. (b) the second in which the months accord exactly with the times which the sun takes in passing through each sign of the Zodiac. Muncherji Pestonji Kharegat. 2 Sayid Ahmad K&dari. year 13 (Iiahi). in which the months are reckoned exactly as in the Parsee calendar. therefore. in the succeeding line we find.. to i * • 3 The last but one word of the line is not legible. the months vary in length from 29 to 32 days and there are no intercalary days at the end. Thus.6j>.«l) » the 18th day and not the 17th of the Parsee month. again. riahi year 13. the indistinct words may be something like /^ ^-^ Tj^ explanation. viz : the true Solar method. He writes to me (a) the first. If we follow somewhat the phraseologj' of the two farmfins of Zing Akbar.. a second time. .' The following facts lead us last word teems to be to think what these other illegible words may be.. The last word of the line is mukarrar. we see that both the and the corresponding Mahomedan date are given. is not clear.106 J>£^ ASIATIC PAPER." According to the Tnzuk .«o(. corresponding Wednesday corresponding to date 16of Zi *ul Hajja 1028. to some.

last column. each cycle having 12 years. to the general practice.) el to each of these words which j*^j'j d sS. According to the Ain-i-Akbari. Jarrett's Tranthe sheep 14 As to the word d. from fra »7ie-tiri.^^ according gir (TRANSLATION OF THE FARMAN. says.oJyl^t^J y^^\ JLt ^x^Jyf J. p.'^ Badshah At this time. raising. p. Light of Religion. 164 n. the lin-i-Akbari (Bk. a curtain. 21). As to ku y. it was more than half an acre (Vide my Paper in J. p.-^ ^j^ 1 (8) III. iJU^A. 11.16-17) According to Albiruni. ) Blochmann's Text. II. byDr.25. 1. ^S:^ v-Aa. English forth) and ma (-•« Grerm. that they counted years by cycles. XXI. R. speaking of the Turkish era. 294." (Jarrett's Translation. ToAvn. 10 Of the three kinds of gaz known in the Mogul times. Jarref s 8. to place in order) to order. 21). that known as the long gaz 6 Lit. 13. These are Turkish words.O. p.i^j (Blochmann's Text. II. p. 1 2 Ilijab. 7 Brave. we-surer) to measure. p. Vol. Abul Fazl says that " they add the word signifies year. (J ij^ Jirayan " Wliat issues forth (as an order)" (Steingass). in the Mogul times. 164 n 2). Jehana Royal Order marked with the favour 8 (of His Majesty). Gallant. Edward Sachau (1879). 11. about one hundred bigahs'^ (as measured) by the royal gaz.) God is Great. Imperial mandate." 13 The two words Rabi' and Kharif (spring and autumn) of the Mogul times have come down to our times and are still used by the British Revenue depart((^^3'"?3'* main " {ii>xa. Bk.^/0 Distinguished with or honoured by favour. elevating. p. Vol. s e) ^J^ was used for the measurement of cultivated lands (Ibid. that land. p. Ain-i-Akbari. Nass. messen. is 5 Order. Fr. B. "HI Lat. I. pro. has acquired the honour of publication and the glory of being issued.i\ . iaO. vor. 273. in the qasaba^'^ of Naosari in the sarkar^^ of Surat. from the commencement of the spring^^ ku eP^. 1.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. we find kH j^ as the 8th year (Blochmann's Text. 59).) .^jt ) slation. " 9 Modern Vingha cfl'^H " A measure of a third of an acre (Steingass). t*'0 l^l ^ Lat. Vol. a veil. may. HI din 1). B. t_^*Jj 107 AA^j 5<IaUI 3 c^l3 t^jli 2 ^Is. 273. Germ. 3. ku or kM seems to be also the name of the 8th month of a Turkish year (Alb ruui's Chronology of Ancient times. Tlie word originally Palilavi farmiln t-o T^ * It comes from Avesta /m-wrf («£-•»^^ Sans "M-Ml arrange. p. In the names of the 12 years of the cycle which Abu Fazl gives. Translation Vol. The farman^ of victorious Nur-ud-din* Muhammad Gazi. ment. A. 12 " A district comprising several perffunnahs. » FaUik-ishtibah resembling * Heaven. 83.

1.**»\ my sistence allowances. The other Maii9abd4rs held jagirs. the (set apart) free and exempted from taxes. tax-gatherers. Cdhib Cubah or CUbahddrs and still later merely Cubahs. and. like its equivalent milk. \ tolah. (Bk. Such lands were hereditary and differ for this reason from Jduir or tUyHl lands. p. 11. II. pi." . t^-*-^ u^x^^Ai i^^y^j in Meherji Hana's &is.. for the purpose of the aid of the livelihood (madad-i-maash)2 of Mulla Jamasp and MuUa Hoshang.in-i-Akbari. Ain 9.7.e. which were conferred for a specified time. according to contents^ (of this f arman). 16. 2. it was the duty means a bond. Transla- (»-^'«) I.^^ and transferring 1 Hasb ul Zirnn. deed or note. the higher Mansabdars were mostly governors of CQbahs (provinces). 13). each over one krbr of dams" (Blochmann's Translation "The c?dm was a copper coin. pp. 93. p. " sub2 According to the Ain-i-Akbari (Bk. Vol. be engaged in saying prayers for the continuous' good fortune His Majesty). it denotes lav^s given for benevolent purposes.1. p. and settling ^^ the chak. and also Bdhloli . perpetuity. and afterwards. according to the contents of. 270). dQ. According to Blochuxann.igirdars and Karorians. 198.J. The governors were at first called Sipahs&ldrs . p. 4in 19 on sayflrghals ( jUjj. 241-42)." (Blochmann's Translation.108 be ASIATIC PAPER. Parsees. Lit. it is the fortieth part of a rupee. lands conferred are called Milk or madad-i-ma'ash Blochmann's Text. p 47. as specified tion. (^j»l*^ »5t>-«) under the head of "Note by the Translator on the Cadrs p. It is incumbent on aU the present and future noble gover^ nors^ and happy agents^ and j. by spending and using the income of that (land) from season to season and year to year for the expenses of their livelihood. Binding. ain. 10. — — by Abul Fazl. i. of Hakim. they may for all time. Vide paper on that subject." a settlement . n 1. I. 8 Istemrdr " 9 Istiqrr "requiring continuance. (Bk. joined (quarin) to eternity (abad). and on the other. Trans. In this Ain one thus speaks on the subject of the Madad-i-ma'ash : of the most interesting in the whole work the Chagatai Sayargh&l is translated by the * Arabic modod-ul-ma'ash. 7 Kaitori was an officer in charge of the^revenues over one kror (10 millions) of The Ain-i-Akbari says: ^i^j<y**» i^J_jS ti^ J^'^-^-^J '^^k^'i Jjj^ *^i *^^J " I. fixed rent not liable to alteration. on Mdncabddrs in lieu of salaries. 31). with sufficient happiness." (Blochmann's Translation of the A.ms. " * Hakam. . according to ElUot. *' of Akbar's reign. 3 Lit. Ill. 11 Chak ordinarily B. 6 Am&l. Cf. ^ mdshans. p. 268).4-5-) And zealous and uprieht men were put in charge of the revenues. II.) 12 puzdshtan" to make a present on the renewal of a lease. Chak. Vol. so that. Blochmann's Text I. and (their) children. 5 Kifayat-farjam. The latter term signifies assistance of livelihood. (and) measuring 12 it the said lands. Ain 6). confirmation ractification. I. Blochmann's Trans. According to the Ain-i-Akbari of the above said amals or amal-guz&m the (^'«^ 0"*^ revenue collectors) to ascertain the correctness of chak ndmah ((^=u>»^ I^Uxat AJ'j>^i) (Blochmann's Text I. -wex^hm^ b tanks. governors. paid in cash. or property. 3. J. is a patch of rent-free land detached from a village" (Jarrptt II. At first this coin was called Paisah.t farmdn. 1. Jarrett p 47). now it is known under this name (dam). On one side the place is given where it was struck. nobles. agents. towards the end of Akbar's reign we find them called Hdkims. " Blochmann.' that (of trying lo observe the continuance^ and confirmation'^ of this most holy and exhalted Order (of His Majesty). are called Wazifah (/AaJsj j . 287. to transmit ^used with a negative)" Steingass. According to Jarrett the chakndmah " is a grant of alienated lands specifying the boundary limits thereof. p. 10 Lit. p. the date. and 7 surka.

that in India.make any change or alteration^. 294. : H| We read : in the Ain-i-Akbari (Bk. The culturable land was divided into four classes and the share of the In a very interesting State in the produce of the crop varied according to the class. cattle* trees. or taxes on sales of houses. fees on fishery rights. 292. seems probable.) 1 Asian. ^ ^- (^y^. including the land revenue. Ain VII) ^W«ij \j^jj — 1^^ J ! " (Blochmann's Text I. After the expiry of " five years this assessment was made permanent As to the other som-ces of public " they were known by the name of kar in Hindu period.some of these imposts were Imperial spirituous liquor taxes. The land revenue system is said to have been " first defined and brought into shape" by Raja Todar Mall. in no shape.'' capitation taxes^ and extraordiby no means. market places. a capitation tax (a tax per . fees and royalties charged on marriages. King Kobad first thought of abolishing the tax taking it to be unfair but it was Noshirwan who finally did away with it (Ibid). and do not change the mean The rendering of the sentence with the addition of these words would be "They. discount on the exchange of coins. lime and In modem pliraseologj. In fact. or transit duties on merchandise. 57). and on account of land-tax. Under Todar Mall's Decennial settlement. pp. Ill. Ain 7) (Blochmann's Text I. " an aggregate of the actual collection for the past ten years was /formed. (they should). These imposts were either custom duties. and a tenth of the total was fixed as the annual settlement. in *' the Mogul times. 6 Ikhrdjdt pi." i Vide the above note for Jihat.e. II. Imports (? imposts) on manufacturers of respectable kinds are called jihdjt. entitled "Taxation and Financialadmiuistration under theMughals we get a good summary of the Mogal system of public revenues. they collect tlie land-tax (mal) from some . khiraj was the tribute paid by the Khirfiji lands. of ikhraj from khirfij. professions and manufactures." " Mutlaq-an absolutely entirely. and the remainder Sdir Jihdjt " (Jarrett's Translation. and Jihdt. Sair JihOA. Jarrett's head) was imposed called Khiraj Trans. Ill. 12-13. 5 ( some provincial rates and other local cesses. persons. in the September 1919 issue of the " ilndian Review. and manufacture of salt. Vol. revenue. this tax •was the same as Jaziyah (capitation tax in Persia in the time of the Khalifa. p.. lands which those " outside the (Mahomedan) faith retain on convention (Ibid II. 109 anew in their possession. by no means^ at all."^ /*»iT^^3l tjjl^lJj A " I^ ancient times. II. capitation tax. 24-25. which are not legible but Munshi Nasir Alikhan's reading given above. never." * We read in the Ain-i-Akbari (Bk. i. It appears. The insertion of that " " reading rfi badfin rah make the sentence more elegant.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEH ANGER.- 57-58)/ article of 3Ir. p. Gulshan Eai. shall not give way to any change or alteration in any way whatever. . from others the and from others again the Sdir Jifidt What is imposed on cultivated lands 'by way of quit-rent is termed Mdl. not at all. 11. p.ing.e.^ and duties on manufacture.- \J^J^ J'^. 55)." 8 There are two or three small words after tagJiir and tabdil. II.. p. " 2 : : -Jihdt " In Iran and Turan. i. and abwQjbs in the Mahomedan period.

^1x9 qanlaghd. So. It is referred to as such in the Ain-i-Akbari (Bk." find. B. A. Now. that it is one of the imposts (vajahat) of Eing Akbar's time referred to by Abu-1 Fazl.g. Text p. Ain XI. p. XXI). great men. 4). The first part of the word ^^f9 (quin) means a slave. he the word laghi <A*J It may be the Indian word. i. was applied by Abu Fazl " loosely for the revenue collection or assessment of a village (Vol. B.* (Steingass)." Vi-ie my paper in J. spoken of as one of the imposts of King Akbar's time in the Ain-i-Akbari (Bk. 1. Ill) where Jarrett translates it as " revenues in cash (Vol. comesjl think. The second farman gives the word with no points (nuktehs) over any o 1 the letters. J. II. or sometimes to equals (particularly on receiving a great appointment.) . may be a tax for each ' slave' a slave possessed by a man of means. A. the words as r**^9. " Akbar remitted it with several other taxes. 1). 1. in which sense. n. VI. Vide my Anthropological Papers.. It occurs in both the farmans Eing Akbar (Vide the photo-htho facsimiles.we " a tax on each head of oxen. when we speak of slave-trade. *' cannot trace it (Translation Vol. 67 note I). may be a tax on each head of slaves. I think. p. B. it is the same as ^-ii**. meant by the word. It is a magnificent present. according to Jarrett. p. kind of impost it was. B. In my above paper. 417. our present farman seems to solve all the previous doubts and difficulties. in Bk.e. I beg to submit the following explana" tion with some diffidence. (Ibid). One must not understand by the word * slave in the most ordinary sense of the word e. superiors. which word. in the 11th ain of the Ain-iAkbari headed "Land and its classification and the proportionate dues of sovereignty. a tax on each tree. Vol.' but in " the sense of a life-long family servant. * Perhaps. p. S.110 ASIATIC PAPER. p. One may read it />*•*•* qu ' la. among other taxes of the kind.8). entitled A Parsee Deed of Partition more thafi 150 years old : a form of slavery referred to therein" (Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay Vol. Ain XI from crops charged at special rates " 5 Zabtaneb. we are not in a position to say with cer" " cannot trace it. especially one bom in the fanoily. The above mentioned other reading of the word is not explained by Persian dictionaries. Ill. 167. a Pishkash or royal fee was one of the imposts (vajuliat) of the Mogul times. from zabh. whose father and mother are slaves. B. " Jarrett has not translated it. pp. 12-16. known in Gujarati as (rll^H meaning tax. 301. S. p. saying he. B." I think that this farmdn settles Blochmann's doubts about the reading of the word. Part I. p. ^ nary contributions. Jarrett says. Text. Jarrett II. The word occurs in the 15th ain (Bk. 16. tainty. such as is only presented to princes. the impost. pp. The first of this two farmans of gives the word as ^*^-^^. it is the same impost as (^j !»3 {S^*£iS>3 tahsildari. that jn the Ain-i-Akbari's list of the various taxes and imposts which includes this impost. XXI. Ain XI. II. Ill. 167-172). borrowed money. I am supported in this surmise by the fact. n. 301. it is possible that this impost of qanlaghe. Another manuscript (of the Ain-i-Akbari) gives in Blochmann's Text the word is marked as doubtful (?).)" Steingass. settle Awarizat from awariz. Vol. 153. Ill. Persian Dictionaries do not give us that word.. Here the word is clearly given as /Jtlii and I now feel sure. II. such as gardaghe^ and presents^ and fines and tax-gatherers' 1 2 fees'* and village assessments^ and marriageextraordinary contributions. We must what this word is. I then said: "'This word is not clear and legible. Blochmann's Text I. I was doubtful about the reading of this word. 153. It would mean ' anything paid into the exchequer unweighed ." The second part of As to what i>articular Col. it is used in my paper. from ^Pl^. given by me in my paper on the two farmans referred to above. 66). So.

Forced labour was prevalent in Mogul times. Perhaps. I. Jarrett II. work exacted without (payment). 8 Beg&r " Employing any one without a remuneration " (Steingass). Bk. where a man cannot see the woman to whom he is betrothed. Ill fees^ and the fees of the Darogha^ and forced labour^ and forced attendance at hunting {shikurY and supplying of soldiers^ and Mahr&nah was " a tax exacted by the Qazi from the Mahoinedans at weddings. nor the Tuzuk-i-Jehangari throws any light on this word. . p. Text p. 6. din 24. there are peculiar obstacles but His Majesty maintains that the consent of the bride and bride groom. Blochmann's Trans 1." (Blochmann's Trans. i. and His Majesty thinks them even hurtful . 1. procure recruits for the Army. Akbar's t'&ibegis or marriage censors remind us of such marriage censors of the ancient Romans whose principal business was to see that people did not spend much after marriage-festivities. He abhors marriages which take place between msm and woman before the age of puberty. pp. when such a couple ripens into manhood. so. AbuFazl thus speaks of marriage and refers to the marriage tax in Bk. These two ofllcers have the title of Tuibegi. p. 201. was one of the imposts of Akbar's time (Ain-i-Akbari. 277-78 Text Bk. In demanding this tax. inasmuch as he is benign watches over great and small and induces men with his notions of the spiritual union and the equality of essence which he sees in marriage. pp. ain 24. din XI. Here in India. Perhape. and their home is desolate. " The inspection of village records and the preparation of circle accounts was the work of a " Darogha or Inspector (Gulshan Rai). They bring forth no fruit. and leads to the establishment of homes. . 2 Daroghg&ng. they. to enable them to show marriages their gratitude. It seems that this impost was one like the two preceding ones. 1650-51). that Shah-Jehan did away with this custom of Begar from Kashnxir in the matter of the collection of saffron from Government fields. for afterwards. Our Bombay word begari (^^ll^l) i. 277-78). it was incumbent on the holders of land to supply a certain number of begdris and Shikaris.e. Hence His Majesty. It seems to be something like begar. that they must. the ofiicers have to pay regard to the circumstances of the father of the bride.e. II. seems to come from this word beg&r. perhaps they had to submit to go as beaters when the Mogul Kings and their officers went a-huntpg. it is a preventive against the outbreak of evil passions. one of whom inquires into the circumstances of the bridgroom. Perhaps Hijril 1061 A. when necessary. prefect of a town or village.. man's health. It seems that originally a begfiri was a forced labourer. Ill. we learn. overseer or superintendent of any department" (Steingass). They had the right of attending marriage gatherings and of driving away marriage guests over and above a fixed number permitted by the State. and the ful tie between men is . to serve as labourers and beaters to high Government officials. inscribed on the Jami Masjid at Srinagar in Kashmir. or masters o f His Majesty also takes a tax from both parties. as to what this impost was.it is the same as the marriage-tax referred to as being onjjJlA-^ «>>^ 1 (marriage) in the Ain-i-Akberi (Textp. 4 Neither the Ain-i-Akbari. Dar6siia was " the headman of an office. It was incumbent upon large holders of royal lands. 201).D. The word originally may be be or bf kar.' (Steingass). and the other into those of the bride.. a labom:er.A FARMAN OF EMtEROR JEHANGIR. Man?abd&r8 The middle classes pay commanding from five to one thousand pay 10 Muhurs one Rupee. Nor does His Majesty approve of every one marrying more than one wife for this ruins a . 66). and ensuring the progress of the world . 301. and common people one dam. on 7th of Isfandarmaz (February. dislike having connexion. The payment of this tax is looked upon as auspicious. From a farmSn of Shah-Jahan. permission of the parents are absolutely necessary in marriage contracts His Hajesty disapproves of high dowries for as they are rarely even paid they are mere sham but he admits that the fixing of high is a preventive against rash divorces. . and disturbs the peace of the home He has also appointed two sober and sensible men. under the head of " Regulations regarding marriages " ** Every care bestowed upon this wonder: a means of preserving the stability of the human race. Lit. 5 Mard-lashkar. Just as the villagers had to submit to forced labour for Royal or Government services. I. Men for the Army.

MukS. He was a Registrar of land records. This A muqadbe a new kind of impost. per cent tax^ and allowances paid to muqaddams^ and • and two per cent tax'^ and kantlngui^ on and imposts manufactures.. and the three classes of them are paid by the State according to rank (Jarrett II. during his time. n. which those call khiraji. is the 5th or 6th produce of the soil. sales. p. ^. l^j 2^ per cent." j 6 For the two words here. Some call the whole produce of the revenue khiraj and as the share of the producing body is in excess of their expenditure. 21-24). The Caliph Omar..e. p. two per-cent. . Jarrett II. * Vide the above note for this tax. "His Majesty favourable manner. He was to keep a record of all land assessments and the statements in his charge showed what was due from each land-holder. i. which entail a charge in the register of notations. 11. It is not mentioned in the Ain-i-Abkari Beems to revenue in a village a title of respect among villagers. Two in the hundred.samah (divided). provided that the property is of a certain amount and has been in possession eleven months" (Jarrett's Translation of the Ain II. is S \j^j Zak&t The word also written S (^^ : and it means " alms given accord- law. a chief. The former is a writer employed on the part of the cultivator. II. The latter is the refuge of the husbandman. the root of the word. a I cannot make out what this impost was. He keeps an account of receipts and disbursements. 3). 57). the zakdt is taken from the amount under certain stipulations and this they c^ll a tithe. leases. 1. 47. There is one in every district. p. dam is " a superior officer of the A leader. At the present time the share of the kdMngo (one per-cent) is remitted. see the foot-note at this portion of the text. 1. (Jarrett tl. ^S^^yJ^ ^ J ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^jS. half of ten to in the Ain-i-Akbari (Bk.) Abu-l Fazl. 21. by way of purifying or securing a blessing to the rest of one's ing to Mahomedan " " The possessions poor rate. Jarrett thus speaks of it from given as the due of God by the possessor that he may purify it thereby. 57. Vide . This word is familiar to us in our Indian form '*|il'c"Hl« . All sales and transer of property were also to be carefully verified by him. taxed those who were not of his faith at the rate of 45 dirhams for persons of condition. 2 Muqaddami. Jarrett says as follows of the " An officer in each district acquainted with its customs and land tenures and fcdnHngo : whose appointment is usually hereditary. 300. above.[.. but on each of these points there is much difference of opinion. five per cent. 2 Wazffah.e. the portion there(Steingass). and 12 for the lowest class. and no village is without one. His fee is one per cent. 5 Vide the above note. gifts of land etc. p. 7 ^jXsje^ 8 Muhtarifa. Lit. one for each pan/ana records of the pargana. XI Text I. commander " (Steingass). 66) We (Text p.i in his wisdom thus regulated the revenues in the above-mentioned He reduced the duty on manufacture from ten to five per-cent. (deh-nim). Lit.' and dues^ of duties on manuruhsui^ 1 Deb-nimi. and two per-cent (sod -diii) was divided between the pafitars and thek&nfingo. This was called the Jaziyat (capitation tax). Vide the footnote of this portion of the t«xt. wnile " and which they outside the faith retain in convention speaking of "land. This officer was appointed He was in charge of all land directly by the Crown. proportion varies. The but is generally a fourtieth or denoting purity. 4.112 five ASIATIC PAPER. It was one of tlie imposts referred read p. 24 for those of the middle class. 300. 67). p. says that the " tribute paid by khiraji land is of two kinds. n. He receives reports from the pattcdru of new cases of alluvion and diluvion. He is a revenue officer and subordinate to the tahsildar (Jarrett Vol. ain there : i. Ill. what is settled according to the capability and convenience of the tributaries.

demand from talab. of rasra) customs. 3 MutAlabat from talab. transfer. burden. care. corresponding with Wednesday. the protector of chiefs and leaders. taxes. The word Sharh is used even by the Parsees as Shareh(^l'^$) in the sense of the commentaries or explanations of their owcred writings. ^ 12 The writing on the back of the Farman is. ed i j j 1 j which we pass. dues. name ^^ Jamaspand another ^i^h -according to the Yad-dasht of ^ the Waqi'ah dated. of hawala. 5 Takdlif pi. 8 .the remainder Siir Jihdt " (Ain-i-Akbari Bk. charge. «S:c.e. meaning only. to that nobody could add to it. The following passage from the Ain-i-Akbari will explain some of the ^chnical words as choki.e. mah (i. references'-^ and transfers. the note on the word Zdbtanah.e. ^ (Translation of the Writing on the back of the Farman. 58). of Matlab. We do not find it in now a ^^.!^ (and) during the rasdlak of Sayid Ahmad Kadari. ^^ And. marginal explanation. 9 Itlfiqat from itiaq reference. 2) (This "the farman of Mull a is in the matter of) The aid of livelihood in (their) children. need in this writing.!* corresponding to the 16th of Zu'l-hijja year 1027. This is intenddays. waq'iah. risfilah. roz (i. write the word 'only* in cheques of money ' to show that the writing is floished and it was only up to the last preceding word. 8 RasOmat. of taklif. trouble. 11 The word la^^.. a'in VII. 113 ^cture^ and annual revenue coUections^.** and they may count them as pardoned and free and absolved^ from ^ all taxes. and no exactions^ made for the of the ascertainment of the grant (ckak) and the burden* cultivation-taxes and of aU civil dues^ and royal taxes. who is an humble member of the Court. '10 HawtUt pi. application. rasura (pi.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. the protector of chiefs i^* and leaders. Sharh-i-ta'liqah (^J-** ^*il*J) i. During that tirne^*^ there waited upon^^ His most I Imports (? Imposts) on manufactures of respectable kind are called . common. * TaAr<fr question dispute. during the (time of the) choki of fortunate Mustafa Khan. " jili&t and 2 Zabt. no molestation be given (to them). iand) during the Ma' rafat^^ of Nurud-din Quli who was worthy of favours^o (and) lord of exalted dignity. absolved. the giver of power ^^ to chieftainship^^ and to magisterial dignity. what is called. fees. in this matter. may Written on the 11th 1 1 of the month Shahrivar Ilahi year 13 •only. Ill. It is so named in the first of the two farmaus Siven to Dastur Meherji Uana. yid-dasht. day) Tir 13.. Vide above. 21 and during the period22 of the waqui'ahnavishy Mahmad Baqr. is peculiar to this farmdn. 1 MarfU u'l qalam. p. In the second. Jarrett II.«. Explanation of the ta'liqah. month) Azar ( Adar) year thirteen. it is spoken of as Sharh bal h&shiyeh ' e^/Awl^lj •j-^) t. 6 Matlaldt pi. shall not ask every year for a renewed royal farman and they they shall not turn back from what is (hereby) ordered and shall be true to (this) contract. remitted.

Text I. and how they were made. who made this yaddasht." (Blochmann's Translation I. there are several copyists who write a good hand and a lucid style. Text I. pp. We read the following in the 10th Ain on the waqi'ahnawis government Keeping records is an excellent thing for a appointed fourteen zealous. Ta'liqah or an abridgment of the yiddasht {i. by means 20 Anayat.e. The clerk then makes a copy of each report. Ba-ma'rafat through. 261-62. king's orders has been entered Ain explains why this Taliqah or abridgment of on the back of the Farmin. They passed in waiting. Sadurat from Sudar chiefs. Et cetera or another. is called Ta 'liqah and the WTiter is called Taliqahnawis." 16 Naqabat. when it is sealed by the Diwan. w-e only write the first name and add after it another or • others . rule. " Besides. After signing it. (writing or record) which occur in these Farmans. experienced and impartial clerks. and the Vakil of the State. as stated above. and waqi'ah. ministers. It is then inspected by the mustanji and is signed and sealed by him. and approved by him. assistance. with i. salaries. and sealed by the minislera of State " (Blochmann's Translation I pp. 17 Dastgah. 13-14). Its explanation in detail is eaid to be its sTiarh. 192-3). period.e. the writer of events. learning. . This word also. cheques over these accounts. etc. " dominion. a chief.) " His Majesty has • of troops. chieftainship. 258-259. II. by the Mir'Arz. The following p assages from the 10th and 11th Ains will explain. power." i. In the Court military language. memorandum) of His Majesty's orders about the farmans. Cahib-i-Tanjih (the master of military account) keeps the former Taliqah writes its details on the Farman and seals and signs it.. Chahar Shambah. thus completed. The Ta'liqah is then signed. I will speak below at some length why. lit. 13 Wa-ghairah referred to ' ' 14 /^^ *i Kam Shambah. it is laid before the emperor. and the Eif alahc'ar. Kam Shambah. his accountant. leader of the people . knowledge. like the word faqt (only) above. etc. The report in this case is called yad-dasht or memorandum. '2 Naobat. appointments to manQabs. keep it with themselves and make a proper abridgment of it. when the abridgment is signed and sealed by the Waqiahnawis. from Sadr. when it is also signed by the Parwanchi. favour. in the Aln-i-AkbartJ a technical term used is Sharh-i-ta'liqah. they return this instead of the yaddasht. so that the turn (nadtat) of each comes after a fortnight Their duty is to write down the orders and the doings of His Majesty and whatever the heads of the departments report. Lord (Khan) of exalted dignity (waia). jagirs. or memor- andum and ta' liqah or abridgment. signs ifr and hands it over to those who require it as a voucher. two of whom do daily duty in rotation. This passage of the 10th Ain then explains the terms ta'liqah (abridgment of randum).e. memo- The following passage the of the 11th memorandum of the " The himself. in writing noatters. 15 Siyadat. it also means a "guard- which 23 is relieved. pp.114 ASIATIC PAPER. the acts of His Majesty as the spiritual guide of the nation. contrary Jehangir calls it to the usual practice of calling Wednesday. and why this abridgmentr of the memorandum has been added here. government. means. account. strength. 18 cial. offi- 19 Ma'rafat. ?i Wala Khan. " After the diary has been corrected by one of His Majesty's servants. a high of. They receive the yaddasht when completed. reminds us of some similarity to our present writings in mcrey "Whea there are accounts in more than one name in Banks. Afterwards the Nizir and the Bakhshis do so likewise. pp. The abridgment. the Mir 'Arz and the Birogah. solicitude. and by that person who laid it before His Majesty. contingents ( i.. 194. Lit. During the time when the above named ofllcers held their lespective posts. magisterial dignity. 24 Ba nazr guzashtand.e..' The same is the case in legal documents.

The farman may be written from Rabi kiiel. . Lit." Ful cl» 2 is "a species of. abovementioned.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. in the MaWafat of Nurrud-din Quli. Sayid Ahmad Qadari.^jwye) 5 I . II I I ydd-ddsht or chowki of 11 It some oflacer. Vide the Text above for the conjectural readings of three illegible words. from the want of a clear distinct style.^* be) of . Another sharh in the handwriting of Jumlat-ul-Mulki Madar-ul-Muhammi.e. The Shark in the hand.^ His Majesty presented* in Court a sum^ of one Rupees. judicial usage. general practice. It seems to ^efer to. One hundred 1 bighas of land (measured) by Ilahi gaz. this (gift) may be entered in the waquah. a sum.g. 12 This also was a title. universal rule. B&nu. But. Ba Hazur. Light. 3 Fulel is " a fragrant oil prepared in India from Jassamine. was issued as an order. and presented four globlets^ of the oil of ^ hundred f'lilel. aforesaid. Mulla Jamasp and Mulla Hoshang ^ Parsi of (or from) on the 2nd day of month Shehrivar year 13. In the rasdlah of the humble servant of the Court. ' ^^y vi*. . Perhaps. Here. ready money. hi*^ Ititle. the foot-note of the text for the reading.8 • PO Vide the Note in the Text for this portion wliich is illegible. that about one-hundred bigdhs of land (measured) in Ilahi gaz according to the general practice^ from the qasba of Naosari in the Sarkdr of Surat be settled upon the above named'-' persons with their children for the purpose of aid of ^^ (their) livelihood.obeyed order.writing of the Jumlatul-Mulki Madar-ul-Mahammi has entered the request (in its Another Sharh in the elegant hand-wTiting of Saiyid record). Z&bita. and a world." * Marhamatfarmudeh. 6 Mablagh. on carefully exanuning the style (e. having ordered a present. Another Sharh is (or may entered at that time in the Waqi'ah in the handwriting Jumlat-ul-Mulkiii Madaru-l-mahammi. was issued. 13 Vide above. a minister. Centre of important affairs i. lustre. Lit. . but by The Chief (lit. ll'> noble and most holy Majesty.. . Only.12 The marginal ^Aar^ in the hand writing of the Waqi'ah-navish is according to the waqi'dh. a globlet of rose water. having the lustre*^ of the sun. one may say that the presentation of Es. it seems that the gift was from the King to the Mulias. the oflBcer is named not by his personal name. was a title.reached again (or was repeated in) the dignified curtain of the Heaven-resembling Court (of the King) and like the order of fate. 100 was from the Mullas to His Majesty in the form of nazar. 1* Vide the foot-note above for this word. the sum total) of the kingdom. 7 Shu'fi' t. Mir Muhammad on day Rashn 18 (of) month Asfandarmaz ilalji 13. 9 Mushsr ilaihi. water lily. corresponding to [Saturday the 16th^^] Rabi'u-1-awwal 1028.

of the writings accompanying the seals.116 ASIATIC PAPER. one courtier objected to its use. 1575-76) that Akbar introduced While discussing its question at Court." ' Alter the above formula of invocation. that " he merely looked to the sound of the words. 'the son of. . has. we come to the seal."' He added. Vol.' 2. Then. Now the seal on Jehangii's Farman under our examination is a square one. Alla'u Farman with the Akbar. and he had never thought that a thing could be carried to such an extreme. p. iarman. 1 if you will carefully see it wil" Lees and Ahmad Ali's Text. The Kin<''s -^^ ^^® ^^^® ^^ Akbar's two Farmans. 210. and of some other notes on the farmdn.^^^ Farman in our hands mencement of tho in the centre. has not come off well. as one would Avish. though a square. II. Even. Then. with the help of a powerful magnifyir Now.takhab-ut-Tawarikh. Badshah Babar and Badshah Hum«^yun. The circle of Akbar's name was in the centre of the circular seal. and Sultan Abdul Sayid. his ancestors' names upto that of Taimiir were given in eight small circles within a large circle. looking to the original farmj which is placed here on the table for inspection. it is with great difficulty that you can.i that it was in 983 ^^'Hijri (A. Then. we found the circles of the names of his ancesters. -this form of salutation. the circles bore the names of Mirza Omer Shekh. the names of Sultan Mahammad IMirza.line 1 The Com. We will now proceed to the decipherment of the seals on the farman.D. Miran Shah's in the circle next to that of Taimur coming down from iihe left. IV. That was s< also in Akbar's farman. 213. instead of a circular or round one. the King's seal in the present . read some names.^lass." but Akbar overruled the objection. giving the words. The very first thing that draws our attention on holding is the top. *' Akbar is God. that "no man who felt his weakness would claim Divinity. King Akbar's and the Farman.e. Then. as it had an ambiguous " Grod is Great" or because it would mean either meaning. We learn from Badaoni's Munwords " Allah Ak. The photo of the farman.. saying. Lowe's Translation II. seal at the head "of the seal was round. going up on the right from down below. P. Timur's name was in the top circle. Decipherment of the Seals and some other short WRITINGS ON THE FaRMIN. AH these names except that of Taimur began with ibn ^^jI i.

a large circle within it and the other circles are. We read the name in the f ollcjwing order : — till 4:H» gives the whole reading as le word iifj' (the son of ) occurs as the first line in every inner circle. (c) the next lower one on the left contains.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. as follow (a) As own name . a portion of the paper having been destroyed. we find Jehangir s in the central smaller circle in the middle of the read there his name arranged larger circle within the square. Jis in Akbar's farmans. that it contains Taimur's name. upto Taimfir. as in the Akbar's farman. the name of Taimur's son Miran Shah. within the circle. because. — We This arrangement gives the whole name as I am sure of the reading of the upper lines but not so of the last line containing the word e^J'^-'ljj-' The names of Jehangir's eight ancestors are contained in the eight small circles round his name. had to make room for names of eight ancestors upto TaimOr. Jehangir. (d) Which » l« c) LHi* irH ' word of the lowest as follows : Coming down further on the — left. we read the name Thia gives us [3^^ *»* t>^^-» tiH' . (b) The circle just over the above central one bearing his own name contains the name of his furthest eighth ancestor. in the case of Akbar's farman. 117 small Akbar had to make room for the names of his seven ancestors. The name is not legible. a magnifying glass. but there can be no doubt. being the son of Akbar.

t e. going further upward. we read: — This gives us Humayun's name as *l^. the whole of the King's seal will read as : — (ci'-y^ 1 V--^t^j^"*iOi'°')^ is t:>^' ^'^'^ uLri^ is filled C:H' '3j^ «>*sia3 ^^tisi-«» referred The name above. we read :— This gives us the (g) name circle Then. in the circle on the right of the above. wherein the missing word seems to ^ Ij be » The other words which can be read with some difficulty make up the reading as » ^b U : U This gives us the name as ^^^ ^^ij^^^ t>*»^ ^^jI Thus. we come A portion of it is destroyed. the gap from Akbar's farmins . not legible. in the ^^^^•^ c^^* going up on the right.Ill 8 ASIATIC PAPER. (i) Lastly. (e) Then. we read : — This gives us the (f ) name <^t'^j^.3^ (j^i^-^r e. we read 'j-^"** : — ihis gives us the (h) name of Babar as js^-^^^^j^j (^' Then.^* to the circle containing Akbar^s name. in the lowest middle circle. So. ^^^^ ti>- * Then.

two of which form the right hand and the left hand side limits of the square and the find this rule carried out in our We remaining lines occur in three equi-distant groups. 2 Text. Saheb-i-Qiran. but in a square on the left of the seal. containing jehan. IL . the two letters : ^ ight hand top corner square. a horizontal line under his seal 3. son of Humayun Badshah. I. Then. p. Aia-i-Akbari. 119 of Mahmmad Nurud-din Jehangir Badshah Gazi. gjr'g farman under examination. together with the letters e^j in above the d give us the word dhJ^^tj^. It said. Babar Badshah. Mahammad Mirza. Blochmann 25-26. Then. together with the two letters «vo at the end of »his Then the second horizontal line. the word i^j^y (the 2nd vertical line from the right giving us the alif of the word farman). give us the word.said." ^ («5oljT i^Uj ^^jj f^J^jl^J^^^ ^^^i Farman. The Square. Abu Fazl says lines : —" The 2 ) His Majesty put above the Tughra on the top Farman. p. not in a horizontal line under the seal.e. son Amir Taim^ is As seal of of the to the position of the King's seal. son Mahmmad Akbar Badshah. what the document was. 264. we find the statement. of son of Sultan Omar Sheikh Mirza. son of son of Sultan Abu Sayid. we read. 195. the third. each of three The whole writing reads as *'Farman-iAbu-1-Muzaffar Nuru-d-din Jehangir Badshah Gazi equi-distant lines. We see that the seal is on the top and above the Tughra lines. In Jehangir's Name. le small square 'hen the last letters in the lowest line with the 9th and 10th Jtters 1 ^^. son of son of Miran Shah. how we arrive at this reading Under the lowest horizontal line. i. jy in the small square formed above ^ and the letter j the small square above it and the letter 6 next to ^^^ ider the lower horizontal line.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. The square has three somewhat incomplete horizontal lines at well -nigh equal distances and eleven somewhat incomplete vertical lines. fourth and fifth vertical lines together with the letters on the left of the word \d^j* in the small give us the word ^^^^^^. •" -* ~ I will explain here. In King Akbar 's farmans.that it was a farman of Alvbar. at first. Then the first vertical line of the square and first two letters j-j above the lowest horizontal line make up the word jjf. formed by the first (from the ight hand side) two vertical lines and the middle or the second lorizontal line.

' and said.' My father said. above some of the letters themselves. Khwaja Mu'inu-d-din Chi^ti was the fountain head of most of the saints of India. I will make your friend ship and kindness his protector and preserver. that he took the name oi Nuru. had his abode on a hill near Sikri. a man of ecstatic condition who had traversed many of the stages of life. t5 formed by the lowest 3 above ^ and the left. go on foot from Agra to his blessed mausoleum. One day. * . d-din Jehangir. We read as follows about the origin of all " Till he (Akbar) was these names in his Tuzuk-i-Jehangiri 28 years old. a dervish of the name of Shaikh Salim. Lastly the letters ^^formed by the letter £ above the last letter of ^^'^ ^t^ and the tb last left hand vertical line and the letters csj formed by the horizontal (s)^"^- letter line. As my father was very submissive to dervishes. he also visited him. he (Akbar) sent her to the Shaikh's house that I might be bom there. in the body of the square. the original name of King Jehangir was Salim and it was latterly. the letters Ij im the square containing the above letters (i^i with the letter in? the small square above it and the letters ^-^ formed by the uppermost horizontal line ending shortwise with an alif with the necessary three nuktas /. but I never heard my father. Then.' "When my mother came near the time of her delivery. he asked him how many sons he should have. when waiting on him and in a state of distraction. whether in his cups or ijk idea.120 ASIATIC PAPER. and resolved within himself that if Almighty God should bestow a son on him he would. a distance of 140 Jcos At the time when my venerated father was on the outlook for a son. and the people of that neighbourhood had complete trust in him. no child of my father had lived. and some. by whom spiritual approach to the throne of Allah is obtained. give us the word from commencing All the diacritical points for the letters are mostly given at the top. As the great master. 1 have made a vow that. After my birth they gave me the name of Sultan Salim. above and with the » in the north-west comer give us the word *^^^. he considered that in order to obtain this object he should have recourse to his blessed threshold.' The Shaikh accepted this : As to the name itself. by way of complete humility. I congratulate you. and I will give him my own name. and he was continually praying for the survival of a son to dervishes and recluses. The Shaikh replied. *The Giver whogives without being asked will bestow three sons on you. casting my first son on the skirt of your favour. one of the villages of Agra. vertical lines give us the word ^^^^t^.

It is a little yellowish or goldthe red (6) and coloured . (b) secondly. The seal is there. p. his sober 121 moments. I. Vol. and adorned the farman* for these with the al tamghd seal. r ^.rks of the letters of the writing iTs kt'tere. Again. red ink). we find (a) firstly. which is an impressed seal made in vermilion (i.'*^ find here a kind of adaptation of the above order of Jehangir. it is the vowel marks that are put in red ink. there is an adaptation. Therefore I gave myself the name and appellation of Nuru-d-din Jahangir Padshah. But. Jahanfiit means. An inspiration from the hidden world brought it into my mind that. in as much as the business of kings is the controlling of the world. that th» the Farman. in asmuch as my sitting on the throne coincided with the rising and shining on the earth of the great light (the Sun). 23. which I produce herefor inspection. and attUn gold. Translated and edited by Rogers and Beveridge. We 1 Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri. I had also heard.. Both these peculiarities are explained by what " Our ancesJehangir himself says in his Tuzuk. . in the days when I was a prince. • 2 Rogera-Beveridge. He says :^ tors and forefathers were in the habit of granting jagirs to every one under proprietory title. a " Al is Termilion in Tarki.i r xt The golden ^P^-ce of the above square on the left of the (a) colour of the square above seal differs a little from the rest of on the seal the paper. instead of the whole being written in red ink.A FARM AN OF EMPEROR JEIIANGLR. I should give myself the name of Jahangir (World-seizer) and make my title of honour (laqab) Nuru-d-din. that some of the ^""^^ ^ow^^ "^3. from Indian sages.^ i."^ looking to the original farman. 1-9. On Peculiarities of i i'o. I ordered that they should cover the place for the seal with gold leaf {tildposh) and impress the seal thereon and I called this the altun tamghd.e. call me Muhammad Salim or Sultan Salim but always Shaikhii Bdhd When I became king it occurred to me to change my name because this resembled that of the Emperor of Rum. and it is then written over with the name of Jehangir in a peculiar flourish of style. The place for the seal is not covered with gold leaf nor is the seal itself impressed in red ink. pp. I. 4. are in red ink. and some space just on the left of it has golden or yellow colour applied to it. Vol. that after the expiration of the reign and life of King Jalalu-d-din Akbar one named Nuru-d-din would be administrator of the affairs of the State.tiufc be duuiged thau name from al iamghd to attum tamghd. j.

given in an inverted order on the lower half of the back side of o?he?s^X^''* i-ta'liqah We find.Alibari on this subject says officers. in order to read it from the words ^*«^j ^^1*^^a^ . I have explained this question of inversion in my paper on Akbar's farman. As to the Tughra characters. the first two lines are short. holding the document in our hands in the position in which it commences. when Mahmad As the writing of these JBaqr was the Waqi'ah-navish. So. we come to the decipherment and writings below the ^' ""^ of the different seals writing of the Sharh- on the back side of the farman. that the seals. 19. ). Parwanohas." This being a Jar man and not a parwanchah. the first fold will present the bottom of the othei side of the document where we find the seals of the principal The passage of the Ain-i. we find. will first determine the Text and the 1.. these lines occur at the foot. meaning of the three lines on the first fold of the farman after turning it over. 263). 1. in farmans proper. It short says. Dr. explanation. After this I.nd below them. this farman is not of the parwanchah type. are made into several iolds beginning from the bottom." We find that our farman is written in such a fine ornamental hand. but the two first lines are made short. that the Ain-iAkbari (Bk. the lines are characters. and Baratas. dipsian Dictionary lomas or other public deeds are generally written in a fine ornamental hand. are all written in an inverted position. two first 5. Translation Vol. p. I will come to the seals and the writings.e. Steingass says in his Per" The Royal titles.122 ASIATIC PAPER. Holding the farman in the usual way. of the page in an inverted position! These lines take a note of the document having been passed in the time ( ci^J^ ) .i-sabti. looking to the body of the farman. On . they are short. It says. The explained by what we read in the 11th and ^^^ ^f ^^^ Ain-i. Now. but of a proper : farman. that in line^^ "^ * what are calted parwdrichas. i.Akbari. 195. I. We ." (Blochmann's Text Vol. Ain 12) gives the reason. ^^^ the farman. not short. "Farmans. Such a farman is called parwdnchah. that the seals were put in the order of their folds ( So. prefixed to letters. and the other three lines of writing at the bottom of the other side of the farman. It says: "Farmans are sometimes written in Tughra characters but the first two lines are not made short. p. that the This again is first two lines are short. II. otherwise. but I may briefly say here. the writings within «.

The next word is not legible. the translation of the three lines is something like this the first line : ^ (The document) came to the hands recorded) in the rasalah of of . O*^^ 1 /'-'^*»^J : V • J . as words of honour to officers holding the c/iot^A.e. The second seems to be rasaleh. but I give much damaged. Mustafa Klian. In the illegible writing under it. name occurs in the text of the sharh taliq'ah. (4) The wording in seals j is of the fourth seal below the above three the following order . (to be . i.i and the resalah.>^»A) j_^jy ^*5lj y^iy'i ^ 3 Portions of these three lines are destroyed.hree lines is 123 lines. and (the choki ?) and leaders and in * The next two seals on the left of the above also are The date under the third on the extreme left seems illegible. . The word siyd dat pandh va niqdbat pandh. The next word may be j^ijt^ . '. So. are applied in the text of the Sharh given above.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. we camiot read well all the below the words that can be deciphered 43. i.. with 8ome qualifying adjectives of one or more of the other officers named in the body of the Sharh. The first word is indistinct. (3) to be i^i^jjy ir 12 Farwardin.Aa«. The last line gives the words *'naubat waqi'ah-nawis Mahamad " in the time of the writer of the waqidh Mahmmad Baqr. This Baqr.** So. The first line may -contain the name of the officer in charge of the rasalah and the second that of the officer in charge of the cliowki. So.' ** jlKi . >of .. viz.. the missing portions may be containing the names. (2) The writing on the first seal on the left of the above three lines is not legible.J . the figure twenty nine can be read. The words of are much destroyed. Then the next word seems to be 'dasV (hand). the naubat (time) of the waqiah-navis Mahammad Baqr.. the other missing and illegible words of these two lines seem to contain the -names of the officers named in the Sharh. though a few letters here and there can be read.. which are legible in the second line.. as far as they can be deciphered. who is the protector of chiefs . Then the last word is rasid (reached) or may be rasand. Sayid Ahmad ^adri and Nuruddin Quli.

Sayid Ahmed Qadri.^ Sayid. 80> . We read words like^t'*' Meher and the figure rt i." It appears from the date. 5. It also bears a date. In the lOth year *' of bis reign. It means " • : ^ Below these. his mansab was Mustafa Kh4n. His name is mtntioned with that of Nfiru-d-dm Quli. two years before *' murid-*ali. thereby calls himself a disciple or follower of Akbar. As we have to speak at some length for the first two personages. Mahmmad Saiyid Mir Baqr. instead of naming his *aZi. 3. Identification of the Peesonages mentioned in the Farman. 1. 6. simply refers to him as There is some further writing under the seal which is not quite clear. Saiyid 7. As to the word.' father. It seems to bear the name of some officers who put the seal. the heroes of the farman. We read also a word like <^. Mulla Hoshang. pp. that the royal seal which was affixed to the farman was prepared in 1025 i. "^ represented as submitting offerings to the King^. as an ofi'ering.Akbar Shah.000 perIn the 14th year of his reign he is sonal and 250 horse. 25.e. We named will in now proceed to identify the Farman and give some the various personages : I give below the names the Farman. there are two other seals." Jehangir. th^ royal deciple. 2. In one of Akbar's farmans. a Shahnam We 1 Memoirs. increased by 500 personal and 200 horse to 2. We decipher under one of them the words j-t* »^ V. who also is mentioned in our farman. They are mixed up. Issued in 1025. 280-81. It may be the name of the officer. This wording when properly arranged can be read as \*rd j^^^ ^J^£ Aiyo »U^lj ^i^J^t^ Jehangir King. he was the '* Governor of Thatta. p. Mustafa Khan. I will first identify the rest.124 ASIATIC PAPER.e. learn from Jehangir 's Memoirs that Musi afa Khan was a great Officer of his Court. Muhammad. Mulla Jamasp. referred to in the body of the Sharh. Ahmad Kadari. 4. 2 iDid II. and had sent. During the 17th year of his reign. the first farman. Bogen-Beyeridse I. Niiru-d-din Quli. particulars about them. in the order in which we find them in 5. Khan EJianan calls him** self Murid-i." Jehangir the date of the farman.

418. . 120.000 In the same year. 5 Ibid II. and a Khamsa (quintet) 125 of Shaikh Nizaini illustrated by mas^ painting) along with other presents."* In the !14th year of the reign. 12 ibid p. ^^ In the 16th year. we find hiin as the Pozdar of Oudh.000 horse.'' His name is mentioned with that of Mustafa Khan. which were reviewed by the King who then made him the Tozdar of Agra. 2'' They were in the "Van in his fight against his son Khusrau. Fozdar of Multan^ and in the 14th was raised to the mansab of 1. 'J5 Ibid p. Ibid I. had secured pardon /for one AUah-dad. 10 Ibid p." " *' " of Barha the brave as Jehangir speaks of the Sayyids " ones of the age and as those " who have held this place {i. Sayyid Ahmad Kadri seems to be one of the members of this known family. Muhummad Husain Mirza and Shah Mirza. he was given an elephant^ and was honoured with a standard.^o In the rl6th year. pp. defended . he was honoured mansab.^ He had ^ome influence with the King.Jehangiri. 210. In the "' t. he was the Jcotwdl.' In the same year (the 14th). who is spoken of there as Saiyad Ahmad Khan Barha. n a Elliot I. 80. personal and 600 horse. 13 Ibid p.e. 251-52. Ibid p. 82. 64. ongmal and mcrease.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGER.000 personal and 400 horse. 1* Ibid p. 2 Tuzuk. 6 Memoir's Rogers -Beveridge II. he took an active part in ^^ Jehangir 's war with his son Khusrau. 232. 7 Ibid. ^'-^ 1 * The Memoirs 100. made the Subah of Oudh. he was raised to the mansab '€>f 2. p. in the 13th year of the reign. When Akbar was engaged in beseiging Surat. 199. was one of the great officers of the Court.^^ In the 17th year. p. 252. he was personal and 1. and he is spoken of as submitting his offering before the King. 217.^veHth year of the reign. who was in the ill will of the King. His name is mentioned in the Tuzuk with that of Nur-u-d-din Quli. Saiyid Ahmad. Muhamad Baqr seems Miihamad Baqr. command) in every fight Kac^n^"""^ in which they have been.Pattan against Ibrahim Husain Mirza's two colleagues in revolt. Ibid p. was. 4.000 personal and 1. 8 Ibid p. according to the Tuzuli. viz. and so. p. I. whose name occurs in our farmannext to Saiyid Ahmad's. 86. who also is mentioned in our with the of 3.000 i^farman.200 horse. 254. who.^ 'ters (of • According to the Tuzuk-i. to be the Baqr Khan. Nuru-d-din Xuru-d-din Quli.. p. he was in charge of 2. p. He seems to have made his name even in Akbar's time. of Jehangir by Kogers and Beveridge « Ibid p.^* In the 18th year.

on the authority of a note on the back of a document written by Dastur Framji Sorabjee Meherji Rana of Naosari (1758-1806). that he would give it.had brought. The King presented to him a very of it.g. Kaioji's descendants have a high name in Bhavnagar and in Ka. 34. : . Delhi D.r generally for their skill as watchniakersand mechanics. 2.) The second was Meherji's son Kekobad who about A. we come to the most important personages of the Farmdn. third son of the high priest of Udv^da. The fifth was Sor^bji Kfivasji who was of great service to the English in 1760 when they obtained command of the Surat castle and the post of Moghal Adnural. But the Saiyid asked only for a Koran. The first was Meherji S^na (1580. " Of the Parsis who Moghal Courtthe names of eight remain. ^^^ of the several Parsees who visited the court of the Mogul Emperors of Delhi on different occasions. IX Part II Gujarat thus speaks of these different visitors of the Mogul Court of Delhi. He was given the title of Mirzan Khosru Beg and land near Surat which his family. He is said to have gone to Delhi to meet his father-in-law and received an estate in The eighth was Mancherji Kharshedji Seth. The emperor.) . D. Population pp. probably Muhammad Shah (A. N. It is said that Sorabji KS. that he was a favouritewith the King in his Once. 856. D.vasji. D. MuHa Jamasp and Jamasp and Mulla Hoshang. that the gift elegant copy " was made on a certain day and in a certain place. who is said to have gone to Delhi as Nek Satkhan 's assistant.giri near Navsari by the emperor Jahangir. Pateli. p. and well known Dutch broker who some time before A. th^ King asked M h airnna d j^. 1898) in order. n. 3). 1719-1748).nder in Surat.atna. 1784 visited Delhi.jirS. . (This article is printed in a separate book form by K.v Peshwa. now known as the Mirz&n family. We ]eam from theTuzuk-i. In Bhavnagar he made entirely from local materials a large clock for which a tower was built and which is still (A. ^'^^^ ^^ Gujarat."i Now. who had heard of the liberality for which he was famous. I have never seen a man of this country of such a pleas- ing disposition as the Mir. The seventh was Kalabhai Sorabji the son-in-law of Nek Sfitkhan. I. endowed with S • 'd ^ Mir ^^ Jehangir. 1818) Kaioji went to Bhavnagar with a clock of Bajirg.D. 1619 in return for a present of jasimin oil was given a piece of land named The fourth was Rustam Mdnek E.v'sfall(A. p. Nek Satkhan was an ancestor of the well known Ardeshir Bahadur Kotwal of Surat. 183-254) (Vol. who was one of the. 1594-95 went to The third was Mulla Jfimasp a priest of Navgfiri who about A. After BS. B..^ ^^ demand from him whatever he liked.* According to the tradition recorded by Khan Bahadur Bomanji Byramji Patel (Parsee Prakash. who had been taught watchmaking by a European. it was said at the emperor's request. who went with the head of the Surat factory to Delhi in 1660. He was . 15. They were Mulla Hoshang. and swore on Koran. Vol. writing on it with his own hand. 2 The Bombay Gazetteer visited the Vide p.126 ASIATIC PAPER. enjoyed for several years. Survai and B.v's which the Bhavnagar chief . with a very pleasing face and open fore-' head. the King thus speaks of this person ''The Mir is of an exceedingly good disposition. was so pleased with Sorabji's skill that he honoured him with the title of Nek S^tkhanthat is Lord of the Lucky Hour. of good manner/ and approved ways. gave him a lien on the customs revenue in Surat and the rank of a chief of 500 horse and 300 foot. if not the. He returned to Surat bringing dresses of honour and a horse to the heads of the English Company at Surat (Despatch from the Surat Chief in Council to the Bombay President and Council 3rd May 1760 in Briggs' Cities of Gujarastra).D.thia. The sixth was Kavasji Rustamji. n. first went to Delhi in 1744 to mend a favourite clock of the emperor.'* In the account of this affair.jirS. personal nobility and acquired excellencies. a wealthy merchant B. the donees of the Farman. most learned Dasturs of the Mulla 1 Ibid II.wg. Mirzfin Khosru Beg's skill as a watchmaker descended to his son Kaioji who was watch-repairer to BS.Jehangiri.

that some other Parsees also had gone to the court of Akbar in the company of Dastur Meherji Rana on the occasion of the religious discussions. it may be for his presence and some The same services in the religious discussions of his Court. It is not said in the above quotation. the manuscript of the above Dastur. i name was Chandji Kamdin) had received the Mulla from king Akbar b\'^. MuLla Jamasp (whose — I I j ! . may possibly be two others of the party. There is one statement in the Parsee Prakash. he already held a high position in his town. He was already more than a Mulla. Mr. must have been the case with Hoshang. who had gone to the Court We learn from Mahomedan histories like the "Muntakhab-utTavarikh of Badaoni. which says that the principal person of the Farman. they carried as nazar or some attar (perfume) which was well known then as one original title of ^ tisent .€i'U{ ^i*H^ {^A[%^ Ml^^li ^C'Hl wfHRH^l ^Cll«H ^r5ii ^^cli). Hoshang was the nephew (brother's son) of Chandji. Meherji Rana. Tabakat-i-Akbari and from the Dabistain. having heard of the arrival of Akbar's son Jehangir at Ahmedabad. While paying their homage. If that is so. there seema to be no reason to doubt that statement. his reference may be to the time when some Parsees headed by Dastur Meherji Rana had visited the court of Akbar. the original names of these two persons were Chandji Kamdin and Hoshang R9nji. So. went there to pay their homage to the sovereign.A FARMAN OF EMPEROB JEHANGIR. But. to Jamasp (Chandji Kamdin) having been given the title of Mulla Jamasp. but I think. Being th© son of a learned father and being a member of a learned family. The two Parsees were Dastur the contemporaries of the great Dastur. at the same time. a statement. and that when Dastur Framji refers in the above quotation. I have found no other writing to confirm this statement of Dastur Fi-amji about Mulla Jamasp. Upto now. we know of the name of only one Parsee. a few days' journey from Naosari. that draws our The author. one may ask then. whose father had given them material and literary hospitality at his court and had honoured them. Perhaps. we can understand the fact. 127 ^ Meherji Rana family of Naosari. he required no titular special recognition but was given land at Naosari. Jamasp and Hoshang. Bomanji Patel quotes from special attention. I think. that the two Parsees who had been at Akbar's Court and who were honoured by th© king. of Akbar. why was not Meherji Rana given the title of Mulla. the beneficiaries of our farman. and that Dastur Meherji Rana. why Chandji Kamdin (Jamasp) was given the title of Mulla Jamasp. The answer is easy. that these two Parsees.

to pay their homage to him and that with the nazar of an article like attar which was always very acceptable to him. there may arise some doubts about the authenticity of the topmost names in the geneology in the ascending line. I Wacha. Mulla Jamasp's Line of Ascent up to Jarthost Mobad. but since a learned Dastur of a later time is said to have mentioned the fact. Kamdin. for further consideration and inquiry. Kamdin. I give below the ascending and descending lines of ancestors and heirs of Mulla Jamasp (Chandji) and Moola Hoshang. JARTHOST—MOBAD. Their presence may have of the best products of their land. 15 et seq. I I Pahlun. I J Mobad. I beg to submit the above view of their possibly being members of Dastur Meherji Rana's party. pp."^ Out of these two lines. I Chandna. issued for private circulation only by the liberality of Austa Naoro* JSrvad M. the headquarters of the Parsi priesthood and on the ndmgrahan of the Dordi family which comes down from one of Mulla Jamasp's heirs. I Anna. but none in the case of the descending line (the Jarzanddn of the Farman) as it is based on recent more authentic firhasts or records of descent kept at Naosari. I am not in a position to speak with any confidence on the subject of their visit to the Court of Akbar. " " . They are prepared from "The Geneology of the Parsi Priests. with an introduction by Sir George Birdwood. drawn the attention of Jehangir to the fact of their presence at the court of his father. may have induced Jehangir to present them with land near their own town. I . Parveez.128 ASIATIC PAPER. 1 Kamdin. This fact and the additional fact of their having taken the trouble all the way from Naosari to Ahmedabad. 1 The Geneology of the Parsi Priests by Ervad Rustomji Jamaspji Dastoor Meherjirana. I Rana.

Edulji. Behramji. Nowroji. Khurshedji. Framji. as Hafiz). I I Nowroji. Burjorji. Maneck. NowToji. (Desai) Behram. March 1742). Mehernoshji. (Mulla) Jamasp of the farman. Manockji. Dadabhoy. Dorabji (Dordi). I Hormazji. Kausji. | Faridun | (Mulla) Hoshang. I Nowroji. Khorshed. Minochehrji. Pallanji. j Jehangir. 1622). of the farman. Behram. Hamajiar. I Khorshed. (D. . Mulla Jamasp's Line of descent. Dadabhoy. (Father-in-law of the well-known Desai Khurshedji Temulji of Navsari Bacha. Ardeshir. 129^ KaMDIN Chandji. Edalji. I Ranji. Rustomji. (Died 2lst Framroz. I (Known Sorabji.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR.

there was no reason to change it. 1. are Mulla As to the title." The Mogul Emperors had a liking for Iranian names of ancient Persia. His great great grandson Behramji Mehernoshji was the founder of the Naosari family known as the Dordi family. case of the uncle Chandji Kamdin ^his original name Chandji was changed to Jamasp. moon. at times. a Turkoman. derived irom Chdnd. changed his Hindu name Chandji to an old Parsee name Jamasp. beneficiaries of the farman. 4ind Hoshang. Mulla these two persons were priests and perhaps Jehangir was led to give it to them on account of their being priests or members of the priestly family. Hoshang. 14-4. For example. His grandson Sorabji was. it is quite possible. Eogers-B veridge I. Chandji is a Hindoo name. while giving the farman for a gift of lands changed the Hindu name to a true old Persian name.e. Behramji Dordi the owner of the documents while sending me this Chak-nameh. Jehangir Quli Beg. p.^ Shamsu-d-din Khan received the name and title of Jehangir Quli Khan. i. was dignified with the title of Jan-Si par Khan. was an old Iranian name. the first Descendants.130 ASIATIC PAPERS. in his Letter dated 3rd November 1909. it is changed to the above name. The names in the original Farman Jamasp But this ^Dersonage's original name is Chandji Kamdin. but in the Farman. 1 Tuzulc. Mr. it seems.. ^ Murtaza Khan of Deccan got the new name and title of Warzish Khan. We see that in the case of the nephew Hoshang Ranji Their names and the title or honorific name was applied title as given in the before his own name Hoshang. That being a Hindu name. Among Parsee — — — — names.R>iH>li ^l^'^l <MHl>H ^ hii ^C-^i n i. for his good knowledge of known at Naosari as Hafiz. as his name. 398. . that King Jehangir. gifted with a good memory. So. that Jehangir. We find from Jehangir 'sTuzuk.e. a Ibid I. ^i " dm ^rni^ c-aQ \<*d SIMM ^l^ =^1"*^. while conferring the farman upon the Parsee to express his appreciation. that. wrote an^ttei s?. he conferred altogether new titled names upon persons whom he wanted to honour. i. Mr. 2. In the case of the nephew. So. of the two Persian. We find a number of such examples. I may say here a few words on some of the descendants their of MuUa History of Jamasp.. P.e.

with other Naosari priests. 23. Cama Memorial Volume. Naosari. K. but the surname began to be applied to all the descending branches of his grandfather. My surname." . Prakahs I p.) {a) As a leading Mobed. Behramji had agreed to be one of them. the Zoroastrian Calendar of the late Mr. 2 p. do you yourself Why here and there like a rope {dordi).'" Hence. But he went a little late. 3 Mehernoshji the third in descent from Mulla Jama sp. rmh 3. saying.D. viz. The Naosari ^ '*\\*\\ - Firfe his article entitled " Parsee " Surnames aud Names Ml^^l ^^^l ^n. B. B. gave the opinion that mouth. My father's name is Nowroji given to him in the same way. For the discussion of this ques 4ion among the Parsees. he and his family began to be known by that suniame. I may sign Dadabhoy Now- Dordi. p. written by the Naosari laity to the clergy.or family name is Dordi. 853. Dadabhoy Nowroji. Muncherji Jagosh.'* The Surat clergy •of officiating in the houses of these thereupon new-comers. vide Mr. savanf. Not only that. one of which was that of the late I\Ir. of a memorial. Dadabhov thus referred to this surname in his lecture on 13th March 1861 before the Liverpool Phil-Harmonic '' Society.. 1090 Yazd. ** ^l^iWl ^I'ft Thereupon. My name is Dadabhai. in . the Bhagarias or the Minocherhomjis may ^r)erform the religious services at the houses of the laity . which of the two divisions of priests. one of the party. that they agreed to act according to the decision of the ten Hindu arbitrators residing at Sm-at. and. tried to conceal himself.cover should be put on-(6) He was one of the addressees in a letter of agreement. 4 Jbld p. md. noticing him said " *' ^^C-ilMl ^ll-ll i^l^i ? twist i. etc. dated roz 26. mah 6. The frequent inroads of some Phidaris in Naosari had driven «ome of the clergy and laity of the town to Surat.e. mah 11.^ •(c) He was a signatorj^.. he was one of the signatories to the letter from the Naosari priests. Patel's Paper in the £. in reply to a letter of inquiry from the Surat Parsees. sent by the Naosari priests in 1736. which is the name given to me on my birth. dated roz 22. 1791 (18th January 1735). 1111 Yazd. whether a paddn (mouth-cover) should or should not be put over a dead body before disposal. 3. and roji in any important documents . Mr.A FARM AN OF EMPEROH JEHANGIR. was a kno\\'n Mobed and a leading Parsee of Naosari. approaching : the place where the party was sitting. He. (3rd September 1721). He died on 2lst March 1742 {roz 11. where they had had claimed the right 43ettled. of the year 1260 Yazdazardi (1890 A. to Nawab Tegbeg Khan of Surat. 31. 131 -li "Once iSorabji Muncherji Desai thus explains the surname:^ number of friends went on a i)icnic. to whom Rao Shii Gangaji Gaikwad had referred the matter of dispute among them. as a leading Mobed. Gandevi.).

e. the Naosari priests prayed. Behramji Cursetji Dordi. the signatures of about 41 Hindus in addition to those of about 22 Parsees. Dadabhoy Nowroji. the Grand Old Man of India. Nowroji. Our genealogical tree shows him as coming down from Bacha. I am thankful to the three sons of this Mr. referred to above. The Surat priests occasionalh^ disregarded this decision.132 ASIATIC PAPEES. descent.e. Monday is called Do. in the Farman. is simply called Shamba.. who had kindly placed at my disposal the original f arman for a photo for Mr. the sacred day of the week. the day. the third son of this Mehernoshji. In one place. is called Yak-shamba. and for giving me some particulars about the family. the next day. the eldest son of Mehernoshji. the means a day. Such a proper writing was sent to the Naosari priests.. i. and Dadabhoy Cursetii Dordi had a helping hand in the founding of the Meherjirana Library at Naosari.. was the sixth in descent from this Mehernoshji. for kindly placing again at my disposal for my present study. the original farmdn.R. several in the facts referred Farman to in itself. there ^^^^ Wednesday. priests opposed this claim. Explanation about a few paeticulabs of the Farman. Sunday. I will now the the body of the mention of a week Persian usual The Jehangir's name name for Wednesday is Chahar Shamba. Byramji. VI.shamba. Shamba A^^ i. Saturday. fourth Shamba. The late Mr. It had as witnesses or confirmatories. So. in the above memorial. The late Mr.C. medan Judges Coming to the last but one generation of this line of we find. i. for Wednesday.. the first day after the Shamba. that a proper writing or parvanah may be sent to them. Maneckji.e. 5. that the brothers Behramji. They presented a number of books to form a nucleus of the library and one of them Behramji was one of the members of the first managing committee and its local Honorary Secretary from 1874 to 1878. which is the day after Juma (Friday). Irvine. came down from 4. Jehangir B. Dordi.S. F. . is 1. embodying the above decision property attested. and especially to Dr. The claim was examined by Maho- in consultation with some leading Hindus and Parsees of Surat and decided in favour of the Naosari priests. Having spoken to at some length on several points relating the order observed speak of farmdn.

6). . 133 and so on. Mubarak (i. Jehangir named Thursday. Thursday the 26th corresponding with the 14th of Shaban... One was that it was the day of my accession to the throne secondly. auspicious) shamba.shamba Wednesday. is Kam-Shamba i. Hence. During the 12th year of his reign. Jehangir continues to name Wednesdays and Thursdays as Kam-shamba and Mubarak-sham ba. her name was Chimni Begum. So the word day. it was the Shab-i-barat. the less (fortunate) or unfortunate have another instance of how Jehangir. what that day is. The translator of the Tuzuk. he directed. ^. that Wednesday. of the 11th year of his reign. the day of the week on which the death took place.. p. Sunday. On account of these three peices of good fortune I called the day the Mubarak. when Jehangir was at 2 Ajmere.e. verdant or garden-like Begum (Memoirs I. Jehangir thus gives " the reasons On this day of Thursday. Mr. The Tuzuk-i-Jehangiri by Rogers and Beveridge I . he uses this name in his account of his hunting expedition in Gujarat in his fancy. e. On this account I gave this evil day the name of Kam-shamba.e. one would be at a loss to say.e. Jehangir she was the first child of the prince. 3."* In his Tuzuk. which is the fifth shamha. The reason as given in the Tuzuk is this on the 11th day of Khurdad month. According to Beveridge. the 29th of Jumadiu-1-awval 1025 Hijri (15th June was much grieved at her death.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. which name juani Begum. : We .e. according to changed the proper name of a week day.. because 1616). Now. Rogers.g. 327. the day on which the grand-daughter was lost 3 In our Farman. seems to think that the word may be Gunishamba. Wednesday is the Chahar (fourth) Shamba. Yak-sliamba 2 may he Cha" 3 * Memoirs I. 3S6. and with the Hindus is a sjDecial day. in the same way that Mubarak. which has already been described. daughter of Shah Khur: ram (afterwards Shah Jehan) of small-pox.p. p. i. had fallen out exactly the opposite. The day was Wednesday.daughter.e. n. several special things had happened. there died his grand.^ /•^^'*/^ Kam-shamba was the name given by Jehangir to Wednesday. in order that this day might always fail from the world (lessen).shamba had been a fortunate one for me.:6. Similarly. the word is ^^and not (gum). 1 Munshi Nasir Alikhan's copv of the farm=>n and a Oujarati translation of the farman given to me by the family have misread the vord and taken it to Le i. may be called Kam-shamba... which is the Shabi-barat was first named Mubarak shamba. thirdly. i. our Farman speaks of a week day as Kam-shamba y^^^ Were it not for the Tuzuk (Memoirs) of Jehangir. it was the day of the rdkht.

Wheris mentioned it will ever in this record of fortune. 404." * 1 Ibid. I. : — ^Hqioirii oiixi^ii tHMlHl =^l..e. says p^lhi and presented the atar there. he was known by the name of MuHa Jamasp at Naosari. A.. Andhiaru Hoshang Ranji. His Majesty thereupon being pleased gave them a hereditary grant of 100 bigahs of i. The late DasturFramji Sohrabji Meherjirana of Naosari has thus written about this (matter) on the back of a document. Chandji Kamdin wa» given the title of Mulla Jamasp by king Akbar. 167." Kamdin and one . . the fourth in descent from current among the descendants of went to that they the MuHas. {i.* while speaking of the death of Mehernosh Darab. pp. the 12th year of his reign. we find that he ceases ^ using these auspicious and inauspicious names. We have an instance of Jehangir never naming even his^ son whom he disliked. Andhiaruor priest) Chandji' of his nephews. and gave an order that henceforth they should call him Bi-daulat (wretch). The family tradition. pp. ^."^" We find that thereafter he always speaks of 2. 406.e.134 ASIATIC PAPERS.<^^i a 4rHai^ -^^a ^^f ^^m atK'^x^X h\^m \oo His great grandfather. 163. X'^Xi^ i^au ^h ^^dl^^ ^W^ iayi. And it is (further) said that after returning from the Court of Delhi. (after"I prowards Shah Jehan) who had tiu-ned disloyal to him ceeded to punish that one of dark fortune. Bi-daulat : ' ' refer to him. land in the qasbd (town) of Naosari. ^\%^ ilM^n -^Ici ct?ll ci^l ^h ^I^IH W'X^ Mi oiHl h^ <X^ =*HPi ^U^^ ffvi^Q^^ ^^^W^t >il<HH W. 856. 2 Ibid II. The ^^te Khan Bahadur Bomanji Byramji Patel MuUa Jamasp " Qi^dfl^ =^l. p. p. Khurram as Bi-daulat. 3. 153. 248. 413. * Vol. 3 Tiizuk II. ^ Further on. n. He says about his son Khurram. of presentation of the The place oiatarr thus recorded the tradition in his Parsi Prakash. had and it gone in 1619 to Delhi in the court of Shah Jehangir appears from a document that they submitted to the king as an offering (w«sar) a jar of the atar of daisies.

seems to be our farraan under examination. It was not Delhi but was Ahmedabad.e.. p. roz Khorshed) of the same month Shehrivar. 1. the 12th month of the Parsee year. The 13th year of Jehangir 's reign (which also was the new year's day. acceptable to His Majesty^ the Mull as were presented with a sum of Es. What we learn from the different dates mentioned in the body of the Farman and in its postscript. and the issue these dates we see. 100 and land about 100 bigahs in area. II. Mulla Jamasp had not gone to Delhi. The 2.^ 9 days after the presentation of the itar {atar).. presentation was not at Delhi. the 9th month of the Parsee Calendar. 1027 (March 10. This then was the 27th of February 1619. (3) A note of the Emperor's gift was taken in the Yddddsht and a written farman was issued on the 13th day roz Tir of the mont^h Adar. Patel in the following matters which he heard as mentioned in the family tradition. Roz 1 Farwar" din) began on Wednesday. 31: of Jehangir by Eogers-Beveridge. though the latter is the year in which a note of th& farmein was taken in one of the court records. l6l8). (2) In appreciation of the present. in August 1618. EMPEROR JEHANOIR. Firstly.e. etc. i.A PARMAN OF. p. ."^ So. is this : (1) of atar The two Parsees saw King Jehangir with some bottles on the 2nd roz Bahman of Shehrivar (the 6th Parsee Month) in the 13th year of his reign.. the 23rd Rabi 'u-1-awwal. Thisdate then comes to the 24th of November 1618. and it corrects Mr. Patel. the event of the interview happened on 15th August 1618 (New style). i.^ 24th of August 1618.. 135 The dastdvej {i. Now 1 From 2 Date calculated from the Memoirs From lUd. the document). The farman of this gift was issued on the 11th (i. 3. The presentation from the Mulla was that lets of of 4 gob- the atar of Jessamine and not of one jar of the atar of daisy. The most important correction is that in the matter of the place of presentation. that the presentation of the atar of the /armdn took place in the month of Shehrivar of the 13th year of Jehangirs reign. referred to by Mr. f e. 3 months and 2 days after the issue of the Royal Farman orally. 1.e. The proper date of the event is 1618 and not 1619.. This corresponds with the 12th of Ilamzan. (4) Then a note of the issue of the Royal in the records of Sayid Mir Mahmad on roz Farman was made Rashne (18th day) of month Aspandarmaz.e.

he was still at Ahmedabad. the emperor was at Ahmedabad. In his account of the events of the month of Khurdad.^ corresponding to 19th August 1618." This comes to less than 3 miles per day. We find from the itinerary as given in the Tuzuk that the royal march was very slow. 1619). At this time.. and Jahannamabad. He left Mahi on the 1st of Ar- we ieam from the Tuzuk wardin. that on the 21st of Farmonth. soil and water. 6.e. After he arrived at Ujain on 1st of Adar he stopped there long. the seat of hell. Bimaristan. p. so that daily about 100 people. 25. i.. that is in two months and nine days. and disappeared in the commencement of the hot season. when the Mullas presented themselves before the Emperor with their nazar of the four goblets of the atar of jessamine. As Jehangir himself says "' From Ahmedabad to Ujain is a distance of 98 kos (196 It was traversed in 28 marches and forty-one halts miles). His advance camp left Ahmedabad for Agra on the 7th of Shehrivar. or in the This groin. Calculated from Ibid. the first dibehesht and on the 7 th of the same month entered Ahmedabad. is the third year that it has raged in the cold weather. Under the armpits. Jehangir turned with his army towards On 23rd Farwardin.e. p. again. he was at Jalod and on the Ahmedabad. on the 2nd day of Shehrivar (the 14th of August l6l8). start on the 21st of Shehrivar (22 Ramzan 1027= 2nd September 1618). On the 2nd of the next month Deh he arrived at the fort of Ranthambur. i.136 ASIATIC PAPEES. He then says: " The astrologers and astronomers chose the day of Mubarak shamba (Thursday). at the Kankaria tank there. the place of sickness. in my thirteenth year. it appeared from the reports of the loyal. p. We further read. that the disease of the plague was prevalent in Agra.* An auspicious hour was named by astrologers and astronomers He was to for the march of the King's and his men's camp. as the proper time at which to enter the capital of Agra.e. he " condemns Ahmedabad as a spot devoid of the favour of God. He had grand illuminations. the 28th of the Divine month of Dai.. It is a strange thing that in these three years the infection has spread : — — — 1 Tuzu^k II. 27 note. * 2 Ibid p. such as Samiimistan. that on the 1st of Shehrivar. corresponding with the last day of the Muharram in the Hijri year 1028 (January 7. 13. 25 note. were dying of it. buboes formed. of Jehangir. i. 3 Ibid. or below the throat. . He continued to remain at Ahmedabad in the months of Tir and Amardad. more or less. p. He gives bad names to Ahmedabad. 5 Ibid. the place of the simoom. and they died.^ 29th on the bank of the Mahi.^ Thus.. on the occasion of the holiday of the Shab-i-Barat."^ He condemns its air.

further on : . though it is •correct to say that they went to the Delhi Darbar or the King's Darbar. mah 2nd. 1G18. Then "On Sunday the 1st Urdibihisht. was given by Jehangir. ' ! interview with Jehan3. The M u 1 1 a s 2 Koz Bahman. and after the sickness and scarcity had subsided and another auspicious liour had been chosen. j i r's Roz 7 th Amerdad. which the Farman for the grant of 100 bigahs I mah 24th Aug.p. Ahmedabad. and in aU prosperity and happiness entered the City. 11 loth Aug. j Christian date. it was decided that -at this propitious hour. and the people of that place (Amanabad) have forsaken their homes and There being no choice. On the date of the issue of the Farman. while there has been no trace of it in Fathpur. I Ilahi date of the 13th year of Jehangir's reiyn. i. and consider•gone to other villages. I ^. 137 to all the towns and villages in the neighbourhood of Agra. we find that for all the dates found in the Farman.. 1618. I . pp. "2 Then. D. just as we now speak of the Bombay Government to be at Bombay. we went to Delhi to The following table gives the dates of the different events referred to in the Farman. Thus.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. the last of whiclr was in Asfandarmaz. irom Agra he went to Kashmir. wherever the Governor in Council may be for the time being. at we read :the auspicious hour chosen by astrologers and astronomers. Ardibehesht. He see that the family tradition. mah 6 Shehrivar. Poona or Mahableshwar. It has come as far AS Amanabad. I should enter the capital. 6 Shehrivar. II. Vol. the victorious army should enter the inhabited part of Fathpur in all joy and auspiciousness. The Emperor's Darbar is said to be at the place wher'Cver he be for the time being. Hijri date. From all the above. the 11th of Sherivar •^23rd of August 1618) he was at Ahmedabad. Events. I The date on Roz Khorshed . 2/i»jrf. 1027 Hijri 1618 A. the king was not at all at Delhi. which is 21 kos from Fathpur. 1 Tuzuk. e. that the Mullas see the Emperor is not correct. please the ^ Almighty and most holy Allah. Je h a n g [^arrival at 2. I mounted a special elephant of the name of Dihr." stayed at Fathpur for more than three months. G5-66. ing the observance of caution necessary.

The date.138 ASIATIC PAPERS. 4. on .

I presented a string of pearls to the inventress. by Rogers Beveridge I. While passing through its Bazar (chowtS) one sees. was made during my reign through the efforts of the mother of Nur-Jehan Begam. a scum formed on the surface of the dishes into which the hot rosewater was poured from the jugs. it scents a whole assembly. For example. » Tuzuk-Rogers-Beveridge I. we read Abul Fazl saying that "they manufacture fragrant perfumes there. Translation. 257. that they *^^ perfume.he presented Maulana Muhammad Amin. in the Ain-i-Akbari. .271. _ir seems to be. He then thus describes the discovery and the reward that he gave for it "I have the same regret for the Jahangiri Htr (so called otto of roses). 1. p. that compared to the population )f the town there is a very large number of flower-shops. which reveal their presence tu he passers-by by the fragrance of the flowers. pp.r ^t-A^xu . the perfume must have been the product of that town which was well-known for its excellent perfumery. perhaps presented MuHa Jamasp and ^^^^^ Hoshang with cash in addition to land because they belonged to the priestly class of priestly class."^ : ' Another reason. "2 . Col. 139 had not also the advantage of enjoying the most fragrant oil discovered in his time. fume that if one drop be rubbed on the palm of the hand. Ear^ of Naosari has won many wizes for perfumery in several Indian Exhibitions. When she was making rose-water. the like of which is produced nowhere else. when much rose-water was obtained a sensible porIt is of such strength in pertion of the scum was collected. column 1. There is no other scent of equal excellence to it. In a reference to Naosari.000 rupees in cash.000 bighas of land and 1. 13. jsuch . that his nostrils were not This itr is a discovery which gratified with such essences. even RThe of the town produces fraprant flowers. for its perfumes. were from Naosari and so. Salima Sultan Begam (may the lights of God be on her tomb) was present.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANOIR. We find some double presentation in Jehangir 's Tuzuk. It restores hearts that have gone and brings back withered souls.^ Jehangir Regard may have (c) for the Tuzuk-i-Jehangiri of Naosari. and it appears as if many red rose buds had bloomed at once. p. Mr. 135. 270. Vol. Vol. a community for whose ancient ancestry and cases of religion his father had a great regard. 498. why Jehangir should have so generously rewarded the two Parsees for presenting r (o) Naosari famous . Jarrett's I. From my casual think that the people of Naosari.us y. She collected the scum little by little . are very fond of flowers and that the visits I soil Blochmann's Text. low.i. In reward for that invention. a faqir with 1. and she gave this oil the name of iiJr-i-Jehangiri.

as it gives one an idea of the old way of describing the boundaries which was not much diffei^ent from our present method. he put in some additional words. I am supplied with the original chak-nameh. I am surprised to find that the copy differs from the original in an important part of it. All the land granted by the Emperor cannot always be available in one place." Thi Indian words chflka. they described in the chak-nameh where the different pieces of land which made up the area granted were situated.^ that the Revenue Officers of the Moguls had. bonds. It is dated 1031 Hijri. the copyist had before him also the original farman.140 ASIATIC PAPERS. described it in. is well nigh the same with the difference of a word here and there. We saw. which he found in the farman itself. granted to the two Parsis. VII. perhaps because they were thought not very One 11 have explained the word " of its . a subsequent copy.^ i.meanings is cAaA. the technical word which goes with it as a verb is "bastau. Mogul Emperors was. The Place and Situation of the Land given to the Mullas. in spite of the comparative richness of the Persian language.' The document that does tliis. above. is spoken of as chak-iidmih* ' ' . The officers. that the rule of the of the land given by the Emperor.. viz. that the donee went with the farmdn given by the Emperor to the particular district named in the farmdn and presented it to the governor or other officers of the district.. They. The word has several cognate meaninffs the written and signed sentence of a judge or magistrate. then gave the proposed area district. whea copying the chak-nameh. the details of tha boundaries. to pay off " are connected with this word.oi settling the boundaries It seems. of available land in their the land. So. In the case of the Jarmun in favour of the two Parsees. and an old Gujarati translation of it. So. which I think will be found very interesting. to bind. notes^ etc' In the matter of land. what is called a chak-nameh." So. let us examine. situated.. chak baatan means t > draw out the boundaries of the land and give giv its description in detail. It is also interesting from another point of view. in what part of the Naosari district was the land. The text of the preliminary portion. that the farmdn speaks of chak hastan. So. Now. selecting I beg to give the text and translation of the chak-nameh. to use many Gujarati words in describing the boundaries.e. but which were not put in the chak-nameh. viz. and what the boundaries of the pieces were.do(^-J^ ll» I ) for "decision" andchQlvavvu ( 5^ Jjq^) for" to settle. it took about four years after the date of the farman for the authorities of the Surat Sarkar to find out the land for the Parsis and settle its details. we have a chaknameh of this kind in the hands of the Dordi family. which relates what the document is. I think. It also means title-deeds. a branch of one of the original donees. " i e.

" the corresponding Gujarati It land wordfor which. I known as Bawabhai Desai. there was upto a few years ago. This word also can be read variously. Again [the I name Bawaji some persons.. which is technically spoken of in the document '' as uftadeh t^^] i. But I read it as Bauji. fallen. 141 important. as used even now. Firstly. But there is no doubt about its reading. Before giving the text and the translation. I will describe the process of the description of the boimdaries. perhaps of its owner.e. \\l. it is so read.i\ i. was generally the practice of the Mogul times that when was granted as a favour. is padat ( ^ 6<1 ). As to the difference in the description of the details. are divided into two parts. It bears on the left hand corner of the top some words which look like "-ftj^ ^J^^ Quran Sharif. one -fourth of it formed good ground which was already cultivated. a is even now heard at Naosari as the name of For example. Desai. that the old translation perhaps gave the name as it had come down to the times of the translator from one lip to another. translation has followed not the original chak-nameh. they are not very important. B. Dordi.e. because in the old Gujarati translation. According to the above division. The copy bears a name. but the copy. The cultivated land was not in one contiguous plot.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. It omits the word t5t-'l The Gujarati given at the top of the original chak-nameh.e. the details of the land as given in the chak-nameh..e. which. and three-fourths uncultivated land. j I j . several other ways. It is situated on our way to Kachiawady on the bank of the Puma river at Naosari. i. as the chak-nameh is not written all along with proper dots (nukteh) on the letters. the details of the one-fourth cultivated land (zamin-mazrua) are given and then those of the uncultivated or fallen land. land that had fallen or remained uncultivated. I had the pleasure of going to this part of Naosari several times in some of n^y morning walks during my occasional visits to Naosari. so that the reader may easily follow the contents of the chak-nameh. known learned Parsee . the holy Quran. So. rest of the cultivated land. P. may be read The name may be read as Makuji or Naluji or in variously. because the name still continues as Ratan wadi or Ratnagar wadi.. it is possible. The was in the garden of Ratnagar. Some of it was in a place known as the garden (bagh) of Bauji. in Gujarati as HI M\. i.. but the copyist perhaps was asked to give what was subsequently thought to be a more exact description of the boimdaries of the different pieces.

These two made up the one-fourth good cultivated measuring 25 bigahs. A A piece of land known as Loki. used when one is just about tO. perhaps the land just on the road." We have the phrase *^^j j^ y. It was near Tigreh] piece of land at Italweh/^ The above nine pieces two of good cultivated land aji< seven of uncultivated ( ufladeh "u s <i ) land ^made up the 100 bigahs as follows : — — — The garden of Bawji had 22| bigahs. " the foot in. 1 lane The word is used ni even now i. South and North. in connection with towns or villages. ' side..e.142 ASIATIC PAPERS. by pa dar i reh» is meant. leads to it {vide my paper on the poet Bhajo Bhagat in my Dny Prasarak Essays Part IV). It is larger than Tigreh. 3. the main GaBdevi from Naosari passes through this village. piece of land named as Goleh ^^j^ the details of the boundary of this piece. at Naosari and in other villages of Gujarat ^II'HHI M\'C^ gam i»ot find this padare* on the outskirt of the but it village or town. A it seems that 11 was near Tigreh. The boundaries of these two pieces in the above two bdghi or gardens are described in two rows in the document.e. At present. Here. reh i. t« a Italwun is a village about 3 to 4 miles from Naosari. The Ratnagar garden had 2 J bigahs.. A large tract of land over and above the present village ge i then bore the name of Tigreh. the words ' pa dar may mean.e. groun^ ' just on the border of the town. the pddar of the road. may be pd dar jd y. {uftddeh) : of th« The different 1. thi Bawji's garden land on the right hand and the Ratnagar lane on the left. 4- Another piece of land at Tigreh. 5. 7. whence you step into the town. i. We d word in Persian dictionaries. From 6. 1 ..^ The piece of land in Tigreh^ on the bank of the rivei (nddi). A road fro: the south of the jail. 2. foot in the stirrup). uncultivated pieces as follows — land consisted of sever In the land known as that of the garden In Pddar i of Ratnagar. is boundaries The order followed in the description East. (Wt. 2 There is even now a village of the name of Tigrah about two miles from Naosarj and about a mile on the south-east of the Mehta Parsee Lying-in Hospital. West. So.

5.. we find these additional words after this word: i. God a slave. A A i . *2. a freedman (Ilnd). (Steingass). 3. as the usual dots or nuktehs are not generally given. ! ^^ : : . There is also a copy of this chak-nameh on very thin paper in two leaves. it is WTltten as above. I think that the form as given in the original farmfin and correctly written in the copy of the chak-nameh is the proper form.^^ ^^^j j\^^ Icentre of affairs. Plot kno\vn as Goleh. 2 The word as written here. magistrate of a city the . (The Text of the Chak-nameh) ! I 1 This form of invocation to God. over which there was a good among his courtiers (vide above) is WTitten in different styles or In this chal^-nfimeh. So. 6. plot at Tigreh on the bank of the nadi (river). this copy helps us to determine a word here and there. viz. 12|. 8 In the copy. we liave an additional word before this. 21. plot on the pddar of the road. in reading these and the figures about the bigahs. the wordis i^^y^ 1 -deal of discussion shapes. 143 Then the above seven pieces contained 76 big dhs as ioUowa: — 1 16i. 7. 211. a lord.contains the boundaries of the last few pieces. Plot known as Lok Plot at Italweh. servant. Mir Saiyid . I am helped by the Gujarati translation. 7 Wazarati the dignity of the Minister. introduced by Akbar. The copy omits this word before the name of Hoshang. as in the farman itself.. varies from what is written in the farm&n itsell M^^la. a priest When \\Titten MaiUa. a learned man. Another plot of Tigreh. In the copy of this chak-nameh. I have followed it in my translation. gracious. the protector of the ministry. which means "a sclioolmaster. In the farman itself it is WTitten in another shape. A plot of ground in the land known as Ratnagar .A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR.nipreme Lord. the wealth of dominion.Ahmad Qu&dari. a doctor.. Now. 5 In the copy. it is written Mulla. master a judge.e. 1 give the text of the chak-nameh. * Mustatab. It is difficult to decipher correctly all the words. 7 J. So. In rare cases. the i. " la judge. where it is written ^>c mullcl. as written in this chak-namih. 'otal ^r bag. The second leaf of this copy . 6 In the copy. it means. 2|-.e. 4. . especially the proper names of the places. of the chak-n&meh. 75. 7.

.' We use in .e. * The copy has the word as 5 rlha a king.^ J ^i^j f jjJ"*^ /'^"=»' «-^ ^ ^i ^^ (J^^y^ j^^Hj .. are which seem to be more appropriate. now spo cen as '^l(jV«i "^ ["^ khajan khSri. a Gujarati proverb says i. It seems to be the proper name of a neighbour's land.. the rice-fleld(l/|^l^|). ». But the word seems to be Tanguz. instead of the word muttasil (contiguous. excavated land and salt water bed. 83).. that the original has the seals of the proper authorities. We find the word bagh case of the other piece in the garden Ratnfigir. Tliese in the cass ot words. customary. whichcan be only ploughed by hand where bullocks cannot work. The copy gives for the whole line only the words Aij^-^ P^J b&g kharieh ( '^l^'^^l ^iPl ) 11 Sar a'am. public side. cjl. I are not given their proper nuktahs.. P a copy.. public road. p. a The copy of this document omits this word. (in the garden of then hath-kiari of Behramji... adjacent). When one exaggerates a : fjltT *i^ '^'^ '^i<rV«i "^l^l *1>SC(l not restricted by any excavated ground or outlet of water. I doubtful 6 The copy has after the word bdshand /^Ij^'^ am jO^^f^ about the reading of this word. the 12th or the last month of the Turks (vide the Chronology of Albiruni by Dr. o* \j\ (ji^ jf^liif /»^:a.. is ..^ pj-l^ is high road. (The piece is) "in the g&rden" of Bauji.e. Shar'aa j*u.^ ^l^X "^IM ( '^{S/ ) whichare explained above. Sachan.e. 8 I do not understand the word which is written without the nuktahs. "with the seal of the As it Is 7 viz. matter. The copy of the chak-namah gives between the two words.e. sadr. (^l^j)' T This and the following word are local Gujarati words. he is colloquial Gujarati 5^1 "^l-Q i. i:^i<^'^^ 7^*]i5 "^^h) J ^ (J-«fiix (1) — ^^^ 1 The word as given in the chak-nSmah. i.144 ASIATIC PAPERS.. it means to say. two additional words in the ^^ J <^' i e. /^'^ ^j c^lj. /.e. used another boundary. meaning. emperor. habitual..x^ wherein all the letters. whole will then read ^^ f^Lrt^ (^J^i^ /"^^^j p^ i. The copy gives for this line j^ jl«5' j j^s^l. 2 Shi'ari. prince. i. The words mean 'public road . The 9 The copy gives. Hath-kiari is Gujarati...e. i.

instead of this line.•-^^ f}^ <ijt^^^ »•«. the road of carriage and ox. The copy gives as boundary simply the word fJ^i ie adjoining. the dabaharieh of the garden of Malik Yusuf.e. the priest. The copy ^. The copy has. public road.A FARMAN OK EMPEROR JEHANGIR. the The )py gives as such. The copy adds the name of the person to whom the d&baharieh belonged. name as: jjly«^Jt (^[/fi >ehram Andh&ru 3 ( ^^^l^l this "^oi'^l^ ) Behr&m. The copy all long omits the 7 first word imMaail.. The Malik Yusuf boundary as /l^ document as will be seen below FJ^ : 4 The it copy gives this boundary Minocbghar. it may be a word for the Kara berries. perhaps. ^Jj^^ (^j^ *•*•» *^® ( rt^l<H«Q )• 10 .pond.ilJ^i kjy^j (1) I'xij 5j^ d<xxj jxs^^'i^a^ ^ tc)^^ Jl^Ai* 15*/^ ^Jj^h (^^" (2) 1 The name. 2 Bahmanji. s The copy has ox is '^^fi j /> \j^ ). it is (^^ <wIai gives Chandji and not Chandjiv. ^ \j i. but only rank grass of the lowest kind. The word lAiad for 9 1 Gujarati ( *^(^^ A Gujaraticised form ( (1^1^1X1 ) from Pers. the large garden The illegible word before Minochehar may be Desii or Adhfirfl. and says V. a steam. 145 <of (Now follow the description of the seven pieces the uncultivated ground. son of Behrfim.e. &s^^J^ The copy gives j^^^^j hH J^ i. . ^^ .... w^ij tilftb. 5 6 i»)^ p^^i-«. It runs as follows ) : — (qataa's »^^Ij3 i}i^ J5.e. The copy gives imed here.. >&baharieh is the local Gujarati word for the ground where nothing useful grows. asordinarily spoken. is one of the signatories of the i.e.. Or. This seems to be the xnada ( ^^>l>Si ) amouth of the small pond name of the pond..

but th& text of the copy and the Gujarati rendering help us to read the proper name as Somji Manka. am guided in reading this name by the Gujarati version. instead of this jb pftr. near the water of the river. cultivation. who.. the field of Behram Adharu. 5 The copy 6 has j^-s^a) t^j jj^^^j ^tj boundary Ca^^ |j ^ ^^ ^jjg garden of lemon Cahamun field rfl<^) of Behramjee. which can the original. 2 Gujarati ^M^ ^^ ^V\\/^ the word 3 * The copy has.. I ' *~*^ boundary as /^AJ wT tJ*J tij^ jj^j »i f*]j1c^. was the son The copy has of Behramjee.e. the hut (Gujara-J ^IM^) °^ Behr&m. which gives the name as . thepriest* andthatof the north. 11 1 The copy gives the name as J J 1. be read simply as Hirji.5 4. e. y. This is evidently a mistake. The Gujarati rendering gives the name as ^1>1 55) Ml^Jjl.. as seen above.^^ KahmQhi. ASIATIC PAPERS- f^tij Jf ^j yS 3 lijtx} ^9 (3) "f ^i^j^^ ^A^j) *^^'jj d-^^ii^-^J^-^ -.j^ I— *A. what is the southern in the one is the northern in the other and vice versa.x)y^ il^ J ^ij^ ^^xxj J^a: — (^J^^ 1 The copy gives the boundary of the south asjjl^^l /•[/fJ JJ^J 'f-^i. the [.«. as Bahmanjiv (Bahmanji).j Sf^XJjj xJa. form.^1 and the boundaries are inter(* |^f i. The boundaries differ. i. The original gives the name of the owner. •) changed. (v) is 9 The name Bamanji gives a So. Gujarati rendering has given the boundary ag "a^lioil n?ll JjMl^l 10 ^l>. 7 s It may torn off at this portion. the trees.^4.e...146 .e. in its bad be read both as Bahmanji or ^jA. jj i. but the copy. ^^g^j-g quite clear in shikasta style.. the edge. the tree of the date palm ( "^^nn ^ ) of Somji Mfinkeh. as/gj^y^^^j ^^P J^^ •^ U ^six^A* i. The copy The copy gives this is and j ^ Ca<^ O^ j ^ u.

this signature is not * The copy gives only seven fH^^ ^<SV. whidi is not legible. . This shows that the ^11 in the original an abbrevi- that there is a well-known family at Noasari possibly this signatory was an ancestor of this family. known as form of 0{[\^[ the Garda We know So. 2 Doubtful : this means clear. witness to the contents (of this document). names of the witnesses.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANQIR. ^j«i»^ ^^"^ ^J 'j ijj^^ /j^^j-^ j<jjj*xa^ ol*iai» \ ^ ^^^^j-y^^ jjc-tiiai ^11-^ c-i-^i ^t^iiai \ ^liai^f -il^<r/ :ill->>\ c-t-^cl "HMH^ 1 ^5*^ lit." a The copy gives this name as With the preceding word. c/^^ 147 ^ 6. that which (ma) is in (fi). It may be •'-H for Ervad. family. but this name is not in the original. One of these is is 3ll^>Sl :<1"M 5d ^^^£:? ^IPH. The copy gives among the seven. ^J^^^ ^yo ^jl^ — ^J^^ ^^^j^ J *^^^ c^j^t^ ^"^^ /--»^t^ eri^j J^AJu) — (j"?y^ — U^ j^J ^Ab jj^a. (Garda). Tli^r^^^ a letter before the word n^0cl«1 in tbe copy. one name as ^U"^ *•*•» M!^ll^«i^H^l Peshitan Bana.

). Support of State. tenant of the soil. fallen xj^CjC!^ or vj^d. Whereas. Parsee. . Bigah 25. . Perhaps from Gujarati ( A^Arfi. Gujarati llJjll>l * 1? "^Hl^ " A rice field surrounded withand confined bed of garden watered and planted with flowers. (TRANSLATION OF THE CHAK-NAMEH.. kidri^ 1 This and the next words are titles. —^Adjoining th^ khdjan^^ and khdriM The East. and (according to) the 3 register with the seal of Mirza Mahmad Qasim. may. . and the West. according to the respected and worthy to be obeyed Jehangiri Farman. 23f piece — of Kamdin Adjoining . —^Adjoining the of Behramji. South. with their children.148 ASIATIC PAPERS.! the sup2 and of the Nawab. (the land) has been entrusted to the above said persons so that no body else may enter into the land and be troublesome so that the above said persons having the land in their own charge and possession. I Cultivated land tilled by ryots. * Raiyat. the leader of the country. It is an honorific title. the protector of the porter of the state. . ryot. about 100 bigahs of land have been measured with the ilahi gaz. a Ta'liqa a schedule. one part of the cultivated land of ryots^ and three parts of the ^uncultivated (land) fit for cultivation. 8 Muqaddam a superior oflacer of the revenue in a viilage (cf. Lit. Wazarat. the footnote in the Text. the Bum total of the country. 6 ' Vide above. ''The Chak-nameh for the land (given) for the help of the livelihood of MuUa Jamasp and MuUa Hoshang. in the fasal of Kharif the « Tunguz El (month) year 1031 (and Whereas) .. the garden of) Bauji. remain engaged in saying prayers for the perpetual good fortune of His Majesty for the perpetuity of his long rule. from the rural district of the town of Naosari. measured in details as given below and settled the limits (chak). viz. and (according to) the Parwancheh of the gracious Nawab. (in field .) God is great. with peace of mind. customary servants of the rule of Mirza Muzafiar Hasin and Khwaja^ Lalchand Diwan and the Desahis and the revenue-officers^ and the ryots and the cultivators have. Two 1 100 bighas of land (measured) by Ilahi gaz. on date 8th Jamadu-1-sani 1033. . Sifkhan." »0 Khan jar a small ditch>MR'^I "^IW^ 11 by ridges or embankments .. a register. spending the income of the said land.. separated the four boundaries and prepared assignments. pieces. 5 Lit. according to the usual practice. in the Sarkar of Surat. 2 Lit. Chak-nameh.

—^Adjoining the mangoe-t^ees Bahmanji. Gujarati word for a river. Bahmanji. uncultivated land fit for cultivation. West.— Adjoining the date* trees Somji Manka. a Gujarat! * word for a small pond. . Adjoining the field of Bahmanji the son of Behram. p. of land at Tigrah on the edge of of the water of the river.—The II 1. West. 2. 6 Nadi. It is the dabhSriyeh. of of field 4. 2 Padar. —^Adjoining the small pond of karamdd. "the foot in . For example.* —Adjoining the cultivation Bahmanji. grows dabhdo IKH^I a kind of rough grass. field of of 1 a place. Khajuri. a Gujarati word for a hut. MK^ 3 Talavri. Bigahs East. ( *i\<H}{ )• It is about 23 bigahs in area and is the property of Mr. 75 2^. —Adjoining the Narsang Meherji. TJ.e. 8 *' €l(^.^ North. Fardunji Desai.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. North. South. —Adjoining the of Narsang Meherji. wherein. justaaa place where grass ( Ml^ ) grows is caUed Mr. ^Adjoining the well of Chandji Patel. ^^^^^ '* still exists a vazifah at ZSchiawadi ( fsl^Mlc^l^l) there that inquiry. —^Adjoining the well and the lemon-garden^ Bahmanji. son South. a Gujarati word for date-tree. — — — — The piece on the outskirts of the road. West. It is spoken of as "^KH^^" dabhadiyto. field of piece of the Ratnagar Garden. (Another) piece at Tigrah according to the sharh East. 5 Chapreh. referred to in this document. North. Adjoining the Dabhao'iyeh.. ^Adjoining the Kiari of Chandji Patel. Sorabji Muncherji Desai of Naosari informs me. Adjoining the kidri of Chandji Patel. whence the next step leads you to a place. 142). ». known as dabhariyun. West. of of . of of 3. ^i^i^lKl >4'li:iHi c{l«i Prasarak Essays. ( ^WHi ). the place. Part IV. —^Adjoining the Dabhriyeh Malik Yusuf East. — —^Adjoining the Behram. we speak of the padar of a village the place whence the next step takes you to the viUage itself. East." i. 149 North The —Adjoining public road and a salt ditch (Khdrio West. ^ Lehmun. Lemon. —^Adjoining the public road.* North. South. Bigahs 2^. For the viUage of Tigrah. piece of the Ratnagar (Garden). The piece 2^. IGJ East. in reply to m? ^l^^ (ghasyfln). ^ The The well of Chandji (v) Patel. —^Adjoining the well and the hut^ Bahmanji. The word seems to mean Lit. South. —Adjoining the Khari Tigrah. vide an account of my visit of it in my paper on 'ii>i>ii bi€[^\di\^^\ b^a ^i<w\ (H^ici.e..

South. —Adjoining the land Indian dates.1150 . the well West. 5 i. the cart road in the water-course for water ( ( •il^^i'fl ^leii^ ). 6. Prof. South. certifying. a covered outlet ^i^^r^i^ ). —^Adjoining the land the Guleh. . Italweh -which within the East. If we take it. 1623-24.' tracts. Adjoining the Khari 5. * (Then follow as mentioned below the signatures of some well-known men of the town. i. e. The piece at Italweh. has pub" lished an excellent book. Principal and Professor of History at Behauddin College.. parganah of Tilari. the village of Basoli from North. We know that the name Kamdin is a form of Qiamu- d-din. of ^ 7. is the Qiam Tabib of the above document. —Adjoining the khdri Tigrah and Kahr North. Jumadu'l sani year 1033. North. are given after being all entered into chah-bandi. H. the of ' amal. 9th of the month proof. H. of Jchdriyeh. 1 The Kolis form a caste in Gujarat. leh^ South. —Adjoining the Wiari South. the physician. The word may be gadher-ba-naleh. A. whose ancestors and descendants practised medicine at Naosari.^ . or it may be gahr-naleh. —Adjoining the limit of the Kulieh. C. The piece of Guleh. — Adjoining the land West. rulej country) of the piece Loki. So.. North. These few words of the *Chaknameh are written and given by way of proof so that in case of necessity in court. — Tigrah. One of the descendants was Qiam Tabib. They seem to form the name of a place. they may serve as a Written on . it may be gShsiyeh ( Hi^M )» *'^-> * place where only grass grows. —^Adjoining Tigrah. i. . the three trees limit the Koli^ and the well West. They put down their signatures under the following statem^it) The above mentioned described pieces according to their : boundaries. that a stroke over first letter the^ has been omitted by mistake by the writer. — Adjoining the land of Kamdin. entitled Studies in Parsi History. 27J —^Adjoining the Kolis.f(l626 A. 7 of of of of is of of of of rule (amal pi. of —Adjoining the lemon-garden Bahmanji. . A document belonging to his property has a date of about 1035 A. D.. The first two signatures are in Persian characters and the rest in Gujarati. of . 2 After this paper was read and by the time it passes through the Press. that. S. 3 The letters of the word have no nukteh. Hodivala. C). * I do not understand the word.e." wherein (pp. the East. C. it is diflBcult to read them. ASIATIC PAPERS. 1491-88) he speaks of a Parsi physician Meher Vaid (born about 1520 A. as said above. —^Adjoining the hhdri of the village of Basoli. — Adjoining the IMri Tigrah.. the boundaries have been settled..e.) I think that the Kamdin Tabib of our document of about 1623-24 A. —^Adjoining the land The East.

14. Here the word pat may b« XSujarati "Ud meaning a schedule. Witness. Bahman Behram. Sohrab Behram. Witness to the contents Shaik Mahamud son of Shaik Mansur. The last part maybe read Md^^l. The Hindu and Parsee signatures are all preceded by the Gujarati numeral figure for one. Shaikhji son of Shaikh Ahmad. Witness.2 He had acquired great influence at and held large jagirs. Witness. 1. 1. have authority to say so.^ Sohrab Kaka was one of Doubtful. Witness according to the chah in Persian. 1. Of the 19 signatories. that hey may engage any priests they like for the religious services in their families. Rustom Mehiiji. Witness* Ga. 1. Some of the signatories seem to be respectable known citizens of Naosari at that time. .^ 1. Mehernosh Kekbad Deshai. 1. Chandji Sheheryar. 1. This seems to be the general custom in Gujarati. 1. Witness 1031 ? Mehernosh Ferdunji. Witness according to what 1. This chaknameh is correct according to the writing.) wherein the laymen of Naosari agree among themselves. 2 Paisee Prakash I. 161 Witness to the contents. Writer.D. is written (above). Daji Manka.D. The first Parsee signatory Bahman We Behram was A. S Il»d p. mah 1. Desai Bahmanji Behramji Desai who died in 1655 the Mogul Court of a well known the signatories of a document dated roz 5. four are Mahomedans. 1. Mathuran Rai. Witness according to what is written.A FARMAN OF BMPEROE JEHANGIR. Manock Nagoj. 4 Ibid p. Bhoodhar Suj Kal(y)an. list. Witness. 844. and not necessarily those who come to office in turn according to their sacerdotal arrangement. Sohrab Kaka. 1. Witness Malik Yusnf. Witness according to what is written. IL . son of Malik Habib. Hari. p.* 1 Behram Faredun. Witness according to the schedule. Witness. Hi. 1. 1 (the signatories on the right hand margin are) 1. Chandji Ashdin. Narayan Kinda La. Gopal Syamdas. He was the son Desai. Witness. there are 19 signatures of which four are in Persian characters and 15 in Gujarati." In all. Witness to the contents Khan Mahamud son of Abd-ul-Karim Ansayari. Witness. year 1053 Yazdazardi (1683 A. 6 are Hindus and 9 Parsees. that what they state is truth and truth alone. to affirm perhaps. 1. at least for the Parsees. as enjoined by God who is one.

^JC^i i^aStyf lines.. that the word Ga ( ^(l ) seems to be an abbreviation for Garda. ' ' the name is doubtful. The next word gives the name \*r\ ^i^ ^x^s^o>xm» i. the least of) ibad (a servant). The vin. e. The i. . there came to his share about 18 Bighas of land. above. not clear.e. Some words seem to read We read the The name Nasir in the ^UxJ\ left. I give below the chak nameh of this share of the land. the seals on theChak-nameh to be deciphered. passing receipts. I give the text and translation of some old documents. ser: vant Lalchand. e. etc. ^^y.i^ J.. On the next seal the first topmost word is not clear. divided the land. latterly in their lifetime. the servant of the orders ^ of the Prophet.152 ASIATIC PAPERS. Now there remain. not to the whole land. As we saw to the last signatory.. the third in descent from Mulla Jamasp. So. It appears from a Chak-nameh in the name of Mehernosh.^ Nasir Mahmad. So these are the seals of Government officers.e. possibly they themselves. topmost seal reads (^-. that 100 Bighas of land were presented jointly to Mulla Jamasp and his nephew Mulla Hoshang. The fourth writing on its i. e. The documents are of some antiquarian interest. This and the next seals above them bear the words ^^ AJ>j^ J^J i. or their heirs after their death. and each. who signs as Ga..sJUa^ AiJtJ^-*»j^^ ^d^^Abdulhusan Fazulalla. the son of^ Aurchand.9\^k^U informed according to the purport of these humblest of servants. 1 The reading of the last part of seal also is not legible. after some divisions. The Gard^ family is a well-known family of Naosari at present. which.Rustam Mehrji.U)(Xci first i.. seal is ^jj^AlJt Alia Nasir. as they show some old methods of describing boundaries.. As an appendix to the paper. The third seal reads ^'^^ jj^ e^J' ^^ d^ «H^J' i. It is «>*sxx^. referring. We learnt from the Farman. Sayid Husin Muzaffar 1031.e. but to 18 bighas. the copy is taken. Appendix. that. and as giving some idea of other cognate matters. came to the share of Mehernosh. The last word of the 2 The first part of the nanie is not clean 3 Aqall' {i. latterly.. proving one's rights over any land. got 50 Bighas. or the descendants of each. the third in descent from Mulla Jamasp.

^^ ^ t^ one hundred.il ^-^'j u^^J^^ ii)^'^y V^j-*^ e^'«>jj^ o^U^x 9 k^lJaJL.. or it may be for " 14 The words " Kharej jama outside ound in the first chak-nameh. For example^ the name Tehmurasp (Avesta Takhma urupa) has becom» Tehmuras. (i. order) ranked in. ' In the first chak-nameh. 11 MarhQm.4» v'->^*^.^j idjyj (sJ^J^ C-^j^^^ »Uj ojljj vl^j u*y^ ^^^^ ^^jt5^*j ^jj3^ ^^Affl^ ^JajU (33ijH» j>ii-*« J^ ^^^. the first four letters ^5^ of the word form the first lin« run. 148. Instead of that.e. the Chancellor. after the 17th year of Jehangir's reign. ayinuna "Land given as a reward or favour by the king at a very low rent. 6 Here. and not as 31^ aa in the original of the first chak-nameh. ^ Z4 khoftU. Charity A fief (when no rent is paid the land is caUed ' I ' lands. Chak-nameh of 18 Bighas of land to the share of Mehemoush. in which form we see it in the modern Parsi name Temulji. Taimur). ofJIollA Jamasp. is here omitted and taken as understood. 5 The last letter *^ P is omitted. Vide above p. we find only the name of MuUa Jamasp and not of Mulla Hoshang because it refers only to 18 bigahs of land which came in division and sub-divisions to on* of the descendants of the third generation of Mulla Jamasp. First Document. of the word in the next line. Perhaps is meant to signify." (Steingass). The prop or support (i'tamSd) of the State. The words' 'ranked in the Suba (province) of Ahmedabad" are not found in the first chak-nameh and the original farmlik. 153 that came J 'ij^'i^' ^U*^l 10 j^xl4. just the Prime Minister. the name Emperor Jehangir. We find such eliminations in some ancient Parsi names. V-^'j The word irHt^j which occurs in the first chak-nftmeh. when the flrii chak-nameh was made. seems. 1 This word stands for on the top of their letter. a small space as could contain the word is kept this cant. that the word is too revered to be often repeated. Here the personage is " ^ 12 The word ^^^ which generally follows in such documents of the Mogul times BOt found here. IB Alma. in its tiu-n. ning over well-nigh the whole breadth of the paper and the last two letters /<* appear •s if they were joined with the letters v-*a. Mahomedans write this form 2 In the original. given above." we say^ j^^ ghafr. In this chak-nameh. the late. • This word is written here as in the original farmfin and the copy of the first chaknameh. which is mentioned in the first Chak-nameh is omitted and taken as understood and a little space is kept blank. As Sifkhan was dead by the time of this second chak-nameh he is spoken of as " the late. the word is ' J^** • /^ spoken of by his title and not by his name. Allodial) . latterly became Tehmur (Temur. which. free of) the assessment (jam') are noi 1 15 Ash jar trees. that Surat was properly placed in the Subft-ship of Ahmedabad.Jl." eta 10 Lit. which again has been changed into Tehmul. that even now. 16 Masaff (from "-fl^ rank.A FABMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. pardoning. . /J.^ e^^fliiA- Ij ^*^J^ ul^AiS 7^1^ cJjjJl . I am told. it So. after this word. that it was latterly. • A title.

164 * SASIATIC PAPEBS. rif*at. substituted. In reading the figures. exalted. 3 ma'ale. appointed. eminences. sublime matters. According to the farwdn. * iiO. "a record-keeper .i^J TRANSLATION." 5 6tswa. noble.6^ jy^-^ L^i'*^^ t5'«>A.. mansUb. helped by a Gujarati translation of the chak-n^meh. upto.l_>^ J iJa. Chak-nameh for of Mehemoush and 1 2 (one) the the his (Mehemoush's) assistance of the livelihood of children of Mulla Jamas Parsi children. lam .I /i' ?. towards. 2 ^ lju« 3 J C«*ji5j vj^^i/c 1 ^Jj^J j^a^ liw j^i^ I I r 6 A*» ^J\ ^K^^ J ^j^3 /a. one who checks or audits the account of revenue «oUectorsin each district. 4 Tnajmu'addr high places. constituted. God (Allah). the twentieth part Qtf an acre of land 0(^1.

bigahs 9. Breadth^ ^ from the South to the North 62 sticks.the following details) and settling the Chak. from the total free land of the said MuUa Jamas. after measuring (the land) according to the details in the postscript.e. worthy to be obeyed. have been entrusted by Haji Bashir. for perpetuity be engaged in praying for the constant good fortune (of the King).e. no one may be an intruder and be troublesome in the said land. The The pieces of 18 bigahs. Length 1^ from the East to the West. 14 An Indian word for Vjct. (Boundaries. (viz) one share. protector of eminent persons. If we read the first word as ^^ 6 Albiruni's list of (3^> cleaving to. (and) according to the usual practice. above-mentioned and ilaii above-named. the Mansub. 61 sticks. name Jujrati "Hl'^'fl ).e. onefourth) in the cultivated land of the ryots and three shares in the uncultivated land free of assessment and fit for cultivation. 12 Jj^Ja wS*Jj^ Length. We find the name of this officer in the first Chak-nameh of Mullft Jftmftsp and [ulia Hoshang. 13 field ^^^^ Breadth. Mumi iy^'i The 20th part of an acre.'* 18 higdhs of land (measured) by gaz (-i ilahi). in the season of kharif tahd ^ koel in the year 1125 fasali.15 I 8 * 1 Wajibu-l-Iz'aan. so that. 15 "oll^j^cQ^l. according^ to the Deed of Partition of the said Mehernoush. i.. bringing the land under his hold and possession (and) spending the produce of the said land with peace of mind. together with all trees. ^ le Turkish months. ilai. learned theologian II Mumi. First piece. and the above3aid^o person may. to the above-named (Mehernoush). *"*^ m'aan 7 Lit..A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. titles. does not give this name. it may mean 8 Desayan.^ and according to the 2 parwdneh of the protector (or giver) of pardons. (i. (*. biswa^i 12. 9 Majmu'adftr.. This and the next three words form 2 Mustatfib.) The East adjoining a public thoroughfare and the tf field ^* Gokal Birah. joined to. above aaid. 1 protector of spiritual matters. eminent 7 Mirza Mahmad Zaman and by the Desais^ and Nawab — — MajmudarsQ and Re venue -officers and ryots and cultivators. Perhaps the nam© 83) jaha Koel of our Chak-nameh is the Taghuk of Albhruni (Chronology p.e. the appointed officer) of the exhalted and the most (i. . the gracious Jumlatu-l-Mulki^ I'atimadu-l-Daulat and Nawab Wazarat-panah the late Sifkhan. from the suburbs of the district of Naosari in the sarkdr of Surat (which is) ranked in the suhah of Ahmedabad. He gave Kuy as of the 8th month and Taghuk as that of the 10th month. of 155 His Majesty.

said the The West adjoining the second piece. The Second piece. Signed. as the people of Naosari were tired of the misrule of the officers of the Mogul Emperor. The Gujarati phrase 1(1^ ^l"H "^Icj iJi comes from these Persian words. pp. Mehta Raghnathdass Vandavandass is Majmudar. « . that. 6 Ckodhri was a kind of high police officer. meaning it is very false. North. the property of theMehemoush. A Gujarati word. The South. It is said." The Parsee signatories of the document were known of the time. The boundary of this piece is towards the-^ South. I. he tried to bring 1 2 Subedar Pilaji Gaikwad. The Dabhariyeh Hindu who calls himself Majmudar. bigahs 8. Adjoining the landholder.155 ASIATIC PAPERS.liQ^lM ( ^^"ctj ) is I^. adjoining (the property of) Gokal Birah and dabharyeh^ of Malek Sharif.) Desai Manock Homjee. (It is) South. Length from the East to the West 56 sticks. Public thoroughfare. Field of course grass. Tehmul Rustam Witness. Modern Gujarati ?sl^. he had purchased from the above Desai Darab Rustamji his share of Desai-ship. What persons in 1701 died in written here is correct. Desai Manock Homji. He came to his Desai-ship on the death of his father Homejibhai Temulji. the intensity of the falsehood being as great as the width of a public thorughfare. biswa 8. He held from the Delhi Emperor the chodhrai^ of Naosari and Parchol. Signed. The modern Gujarati J(. 23 and 28. 3 Written on date* 14th of the great month Sha'aban of the year 7 of the exhalted Accession. three of Parsees and one of a West. (Boundaries.^ Breadth from the South to the North 60 sticks. (Here follow four signatures. East.IR'^ '^I'H. His son Jivanji^ Manock ji also had become at Naosari. leaving 22 sticks from the old well of Chandji Patel. He 1730. who ruled at Songad. The North.^ Desai Tehmulji Rustamji (died 1728). famous Desai Darab Rustamji also was a known personage of his times . Vide above. of Malik Sharif.) first piece of Mehemoush. the said' Adjoining the public thoroughfare. Desai Darab Rustamji. In 1714. * Parsee Prakash 5 Ibid pp. 28-50.

e. reads ^^i ^aIaJI i. p. The The fourth seal on the extreme right seenas to give the " Teading as Mian Miran.. it appears that this personage was "the Qazi of Naosari at that time. The Nawab of Surat. bears the name u^j «>*f« Mahmad Zaman. we find the following writing. The word not legible.. what we may now caU. He was a subordinate of Mahamad Zaman. i. It is an authenticated. first original as (^Hi^J '^i^-i ^ ^'^^ district of The Chak-ntoeh in the matter of the land in the Chovisi in the matter of the land of Ratnagar of Mehernosh. the servant of the religion of confirms. is « It The word is not quite legible... that it is a copy of the original Chak-nameh.e.e. below the second and on the He also right of it. may be ^*)^^^J\^ . a certified copy. confirming.. in the (a) I name ' produce another Persian document for inspection. it is a copy. M^ern^usV^ It bears the seal of the person who gave the copy. :». we read the words The the copy according to the original.. The : inscrip- on the first big seal on the left runs as follows Usmani. servant Bashir. i. and on the He right of the is first.^ (*«i^ ^ Jamalu-d-din servant of Religion Usmani. Under the seal of this person. Rafiu-d-din Mahomad The Second small square seal.i The Chak nameh bears four tion seals at the top. third small round seal. added at the commencement to jehow. 2 1127? From a copy of this chaknameh referred to below. Pilaji Rao Gaikwad releas-ed them from their prison and gave them high powers under him. or. 27. the officer named above in the chak-nameh.e. It is only a copy of the above-given original ChakTwo copies of the nameh of Meher-noush. thereupon took him and his family prisoners. It bears a date which seems to be 1123.. somewhat similar to that of the original.A PARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. 157 to power at Naosari in 1720. As 1 Parsee 2 *- Prakash I. a little above. seal reads (^Jl-^ t:^J«5>-'' Jl-*^ .e. (Xm Shad. g.. is mentioned above in the chak-nameh."^ This chak-nameh of 18 bigahs is spoken of on the last fold from below in th? i.

there is the seal of the 2^ certifying officer on the top. a. copy and of exalted and most eminent Mirza Mahmad Zaman and Haji Bashir and with the name of Desai from the agreement of thel4th of the great month Sha'aban. read on the back of the last fold from the bottom the following title: ^Jj«ii^.e. would mean Protector of Theolc on its last fold from the bottom.. xUj 4^Jlx^ J *^x9j J i:fi<^\^J i«* t5"^^^ ^t*- '^^ -? '-^'^ '-^^^ (^'^j^t^ j'y 3' <j5T^-«> r^-"- J ^' ^"^^"^ •^^'*' ti^^'*^ 'J-^^'" i. that a copy from a copy. Kazi Fazlu-d-din Oosmani the it 1286. we ha ve the following writing.e. the text of this copy of In the very beginning of chak-nameh. 2 It bears the following title it viz.e. A<^J ^^ -5 ^^""^ -'^ ^^ ^^ '^*'^ 'j^""' ^"^ of the Chak-nameh with the seal of Kazi Rafiu-d-din i.^1*^ J CUXJj J ^ii^\ ^J -? i»*>r^jW jLr' Jl L5r^-«> r^- is^^^ ^^^. i.e. copy according to a copy. read i. gives the wording of the seal of the above copy with additional words. as cA^^ (3^^^^ ^^'^ i... The servant of the noble religion. when properly arranged.158 ASIATIC PAPERS.. »lij is j^. 1 If read Ma'ani-panah. «r|5jC-i l^. which is a copy taken from the second copy. viz. Then.e. copy of the Chak-nameh with the seal of Kazi Rafiu-d-din and of exalted and most eminent ^ Mirza Mahmad Zaman and Haji Bashir and with the name of Desai from the Agreement of the 14th of the great month Sh'aban. on the left of the above writing. We Its lines run as follows : — These words. written in a vertical line on the left. year 7 of the exalted accession of the King. gian. It is a It certified copy of the preceding copy of the Chak-nameh.. showing. 't^ a ^ ^<^1 <^^ ^It^ <r/Ml^l^' . spiritual matters.. *^^fln^2^ Ml'iR^(b) I produce for inspection another copy of the same Chaknameh. =HSf«1l^ ^rl<tW ^^il <1. year 7 of the exalted accession of the King..

of The Well H€ of Chandji Patel. The Ratnagar bag land of the nine pieces that is first referred to in the boundaries bigahs of the land granted the cultivated a of land (25 bigahs) by Jehangir. part and a part of the uncultivated or fallen (uftadeh) land (75 bigahs). As it is Purna river on which Naosaii fertilized stands. adjoins Chovisi district. that all the 18 bigahs chak-nameh were in the land known as Ratnagar Bag or Ratnagar vazifeh (now known as Ratnagar wadi). Both. which find. the land occasionally renewed and new soil brought by the inundations of the river. The following diagrams give us a bird's eye-view of the boundaries of the made up 100 two pieces (vide the chak-nameh above) i The piece of 2} bigahs in the cultivated good ground Ratnagar Bag. by the The Chovisi village which gives its name to the whole district is about' 2 miles from this place. 159 from this Chak-nameh. It is near the land now known as Kachia-wadi ( Jji^Ml^lil ). N. were included in this Ratnagar hdg land. We of this is considered to be one of the fertile parts of the district of situated near the is Naosari. referred to in the first Chak-nameh of Mulla Jamasp. . The land of Tigreh.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR.

The ( piece M>Sci ) of uftadeh 16i bigahs in the fallen ground of the Ratnagar Bag.160 ASIATIC PAPERS. or uncultivated .

It seems.-^rsi. 2 a royal title or epithet. I j -V Dahabarieh of Malik S. A Parwanah with the seal of Mahomad Zaman. 161 of Chandji Patel.-W j<o.<0>ij>''l />^. ci. (^*«^1. tj!f«3*^J ^^^^-CiS-J «^jlj^ (3^i 5^vi^-*j (3'^'^^^ ^^lo.^3 ^x^ ^AJI J-ii^ />^ oj"^^ j^f ^^J^jt 'r^i^-^ r^^- ^"^ ^j^ ^d ji ^^-^ ' ^j-' o^*tfl^ «>jj! (^ . that it was made after ^»J^^ c^ifik .*ii^li rr * ^_f ^>^5 '^'^3j->^ o|/^' ot 1 Zill subhani is is •Ood.3. Well N. Sharif. which refers to the 18 bigahs of land that came to the share of Mehemosh on partition.5k V /J.A FARMAN OF EMrEROR JEHANGIR. named on its fold as a panv^anah. Second document.=w /»«• J \^^^^J ^ i>^^ /. meaning the shadow or representative 11 This the abbreviated sign of Alia referred to above . JJi 1 "2 J ^^ <L^M3 t TTJ^-^ .} l:S\.jk-*» the land was settled by the Chak-nameh. There is an old document.J /-Jijl^i© (3^'^ J-y IjI«c Jj J 0^^5 ^^ Oj-^^ji.

" The document the first line. On its fold. together with trees. wliat is wanted. beintr assiduous. i. . the late Sifkhan. in the direction of Chovisi (known as) Ratnagar in the above* kasbeh .162 ASIATIC PAPEKS. gives cf. free of assessment (and) fit for cultivation.^ according to the Deed of Partition of the said Mehernosh. gaz. date 22 of Zi^al qaddeh. Mastur. it bears the word ^j^HH (farman) instead of M<*=tM (parwanah. .e.. described. charity. that the land The Gujarati ''^l^l'^c^ some The signification may kingdom and its be given free. a copy according to the originaL : The seal itself bears the 1 wording name God and 2 Lit. §M<tfl is. the Gujarati saying "HlMl similar idea. Farqia head. (3**** sacrificing. We bears a square seal on the right. that the said lands may be entrusted in the usual way in the charge and possession of the above-named person (Mehernosh) and his children as a sacrifice"^ over the auspicious heads of the slaves of His Majesty. a little above read therein the name of the officer as ^^UJ »>^sx^ Mahamad Zaman. town of Naosari Let the present and the future officers of Government of the of the Sarkar of Surat know. •H^ i^b. God. so that tlie donee may remain devoted. that (Wheras) about eighteen bigahs of land. of Instead of the usual word 4^^' a space great raeu is kept vacant. The Shadow of God. In this matter they (the Government Written on the officers) should exercise no delay or defection. for a continuous period. so that spending the (land's) income upon his wants ^ he may pray continually^ for the increase of the life and good fortune . (measured) by the (Ilahii). coEstant. and pray for theofficers. It seems tJiafc to was considered irreverent. '*' Resting in Paradise. year 7 of accession.«. it is theref pre put down in writing. TRANSLATION. (one) of the children of Parsi MuUa Jamas and his (Mehemosh's) children. according to the farman of His Majesty who is mercif ul^ and according to the parwanah of Nawab Jumlatu-1-Mulki Ja'timadu-1-daulat and Nawab Wazarat panah. have been fixed as described for the purpose of the help of the livelihood of Mehernosh.) There is a certified copy of this Parwanah with the seal of Kazi Fazlud-din Usmani.e one share of cultivated ryot land and three shares of uncultivated land. (and) according to the usual practice. Perhaps in the Gujarati word ^>il t *^ ^^^ \\dL\e the word m U in the phrase va guzashtan which we find 6 Ma-yahtai ^. here. 3 * 5 manners or mode ('anvfin) of compassion or meroj The name Sifkhan seems to be a contraction of Asdfkhan. The seal bears words below it saying ^^-^^j (J^^-Is-*^ ^"^'^ i. 7 Muwfizibat.

e. It seems that the above Mehemoush had a dispute with nephew in the matter of the above 18 bigahs of land. his support Mehernoush. taking Az'ai. 2 most wealc. This copy bears over a fold the title of the document as N^/HiRi "^^r^ ^M^ <r/>iH<K\ >ii(ii^^i ^a-ii^R *i«:?ii4f. We paw above two forms ^^ ^"d . way in which the word miilla is ^^Titten in this document. copy. helpless. *^<^^i servant of the is a subsequent certified copy of a copy of the original with the following additional -words to show that it panvanah is a copy: There — i. 7 Mutawattin. bringing testimonj* or proof. ^^^ . It is a kind of our modem affidavit. . A Document in the matter of a Dispute i. inhabitant. 1 2 ed*^ ^ CX£ J..^^^3 jjl^JU ^^ j*^^^ The servant of the noble religion Jamal-ud-din Usmani The document is wrongly named on its fold bj^ the owner in pencil as •^i'H ^i 4l^lHl.. We have a document which refers to this dispute and in which some of the known men of Naosari. The seal bears- <^JU^^ ^jaJI jU^w .lumhur. resident.e.. worship. 3 'Ib&d. of sAfcewj inhabitants. both Parsees and non-Parsees. 6 * . evidence.^ IjSXA. . noble religion Kazi Fazalu-d-din Usmani. the from the writing It bears the with the seal of Mahmad Zamanof date 22 Ziu-1-qu'adeh yearTof accession. . 163^ i.e. ibfidat.C ^l^i^ J ^^. I give below the text and the translation of the document.^ J ^ t t '_?--• ^ Istishh&d. viz. summoning witnesses.e. ^ seal of Jamalu-d-din Usmani with the words Parwanah Jij the jf-jlJa. AJJ I Text of the Document appealing for evidence. name thus about the land of Mehernousb. gathering of people populace Sakanatj pi."^ Ja3 i. Third document.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANG7R. service. a copy according to the.. all. servant * This is another devotee.

pi. share. master of honour.•f ^^^-^ ^ '^^^ \ ^=illbf iil2i) 'H^^oi) 3:1^. 1 ^^ly^ ^<?l^ cl^C'^^ ^«Sl. 5 Sddiit. of Saiyid. from generous Saiyids^ and most honoured^ Shaikhs. pi. agreeably to.3 U /. bond. according to. writing. a son of Adhard {i. TRANSLATION. agreement. in conformity with. of the Parsee Community (one) of the heirs of Adharu Mulla Jamas of the said commmiity. t:^ '-/• jAj '*' »J^-*3 ^_5^^^ *-^" '•** o^=^J ' J^^^ u^Or ^- "^^ '^-T^ ^" ^•=^^•!. 6 Zawi'l-ihtirdm. a poor servant of God.e. partner. . *JJ->^ J5. asks and implores evidence.164 ASIATIC PAPERS. 4 Wasiqat. ^'xyx^ dy^ (jfj«i^ ol3j! ^i^U Jlsvjl pjlAA^ o**«o. of Shaikh.j^^^ tb^A.j'^ "^'-^^ ^^ y^ ^-^JJ j^J^^ JJ^^J (3 «>^ ^j ^_5. 1 of sharik. of hissah.j^j. priest) Darab.>^*3 v-j I ^*'t^J t:>Jj^Jj *=*^'J»^ tjtjt tJ^*^'^ e^'j'j r-)'*^-^ '^"'^• j^k^^ J f ^ Ai J cJ. all the inhabitants and the resident 1 public of the above-said Shuraka'. Mashaikh.j l^ ^j ^i^^j Jj I j*Iaj tjy.^ and from . Mehemosh. 2 hissas.I^a. 3 hash. an inhabitant of the qasaba (town) of Naosari.i (jT 5<^it. pi. pi.

this applicant's (i. that (there is) a piece ot land. properly! land (and) cultivating it. who has any information about the truth of this affair. properly.e. adorn. own. in this matter. the land) of the abovenamed MuUa Jamas in the above-said qasaba in the direction of Chovisi. In this case then. given possession of their shares in this said piece of 18 Bigahs to this applicant (and) having got done and given {i. ^y^ ^ )l la da wa. Accordingly. about the whole of the said piece (of « ^^ the improving land). which (piece) is known as Ratnagar. a word " recompensed by God and thankful to men. true. rking on the land. 12 or. . about 18 Bigahs from the Wazifa (i.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. agreeably to God. completely. beins wholly engaged to improve. legal. he (the applicant) coming into the possession of the produce of the said piece of land. agreement. the son of the above-mentioned m . without cause. 2 * is^j^ 5 7 Shara. the translation would be. in the name of this applicant. 13 6 Tashiha-naraeh. Pardfikhtan.e. 8 Mustasarraf. bond. 9 Lit. made him possessor and occupant. transferred) legal^ bonds* of fication** purchase and release^ and Chak-nameh and letter of veriwith the seal of ministers' for the said piece of 18 Bi- gahs. Ghair inaqsQm. in ^'5 ma'fini. last word gardad^ there 17 is a letter which . turned (themselves) towards putting the applicant to trouble and molestation. all partners have. release. „ 11 or it may mean. setting up a claim. and since that long time. he may be recompensed by God^' and he may be thanked by men. 1» Haqiqi. ^^ may.^ so that.i2 Manock. 1* Tamassuk.. clean.. gives questions and answers. Now. which (bond) also I have in my possession. real. affirm his own testimony under this writing. sense import. 1 ^^ Mushtarak. . make it the means of my livelihood. from all those (partners). and which abovementioned piece was formerly shared^ by this applicant with other partners and was undivided. It may be is not clear. Darab. Tamassukat. 'inda'1-Iah. the last word may like 'faqt' to signify that the writing is finished. I have in my hands in my own name the said bonds and Chak-nameh and verifications of the minister. 2 Till now. signification. or with it " he would make me be read gardanad. Sadur pi. the heirs of the above-mentioned Manock have. 165- town (of Naosari). viz. contrary to the legal bond of their own father. &c. of their own free will and pleasure.!^ so that. of Sadr. may hold himself the matter of all civil revenues.e. .. About all this. ^0 Waq'i. which may responsible® be due on the land. Therefore any body. 16 18 Over the Wasiquah. . writing. my) own^'^ brother. also had given in writing the bond^* of the sale of his own share in the said piece of 18 Bigahs in the name of this applicant.

DesaiManockji Homji. Ten persons have signed the document in Gujara-ti. I. the brother is shown as a son. It is said. 28. who had great influence with the rulers of Naosari and who had given a helping hand in some of the old Naosari charities. was a leading Parsee of his time. mistakes and misunderstandings may arise from the fact of the custom of adoption. that we must be very careful in the matter of these genealogies. AH these Parsees formed a galaxy of some of the well known personages of the time at Naosari. as that of a son. that here. Rutton Manockji was a known priest. there may be a similar case. Xow. Desai Khurshedji Temulji (1688-1779) was a leader of the Naosari Parsees. who have put 1 Parsee Prakash 2 Ibid. they raised disputes. even a brother is adopted. who had also signed the Chak-nameh. Mecomplains of the conduct of his brother's children. may have been hemoush given to him in adoption. We find one Manock put down as the son of Mehemoush.2 Manock Nowroji also was a known priest of Naosari. Darab Pahlan was a Imown Dastur or Naosari. whom down pp. Jamasp Asaji (16971753) was the great Dastur Jamasp Asa.*^ Jamshed Rustumji (1701-1760) was the Dastur Jamshedji Rustomji Meherji Rana who came to the Dasturship of Naosari in 1722. He was a known Persian scholar. that though their father Manock (Mehemosh's brother) had settled his share with him. that the latter often consulted him in Government affairs. So. of the well-known Farziat-nameh and Kholaseh-i-Din. This makes us say. based on the family ndmgrahn and the records of priesthood kept at Naosari. who had great influence with both the Mogul and the Gaikwadi officers. are Besides the above Parsee signatories. 3 ibid. loiown as Ruttonji IVIanockji Antia. The second Desai Kukaji Meherji (16521742) was a great man. the founder of the Jamasp Asa family. 29. Nowroji Ker^ saspji was a leading priest of Naosari. we do not find in the family genealogy. signatures in Gujarati. his name is recited in the family-recitals of prayers. and the author of several Persian writings. and among them. one thing in this document which puzzles me. pp. 25. his name may appear in the genealogical tree as that of a son. 25-28. It seems. saying. When a person is adopted. Desai Darabji Rustomji is also referred to above. in that case. p. So. At times. though a real brother of Mehernoush. I have pointed out above that the first signatory. At times. Manock as a brother of Mehernoush. 29\ . 31. almost all of well-known persons of the time. Manock. supportI have given above their ing the statement of Mehernoush.166 There is ASIATIC PAPERS.

the text of a bqok. . . undoubted. -^_ ^ : . * la rib. line under this seal. that he was a Deputy in him in the Qazi-ship. fact all /Ja^U^ ^^< ill vjj '^o^ ^^^S^j the line^ in this text are inscribed true I ^ ^ ^ The second A /i*« I larger seal )!*<} on the right reads "^J^-iJ : i. What is meant by this vord or perhaps it may mean that matn. the servant of the religion of the prophet of God. there is a line written crosswise.+sv^ The The (^^^^^t^ p^l^ by Deputy-ship or (succession). .e. the purport of these lines the Qadavat Alia.e.e.-o aax*« left is is Sayad^Mahomad IJ The i. which reads i. third seal reads I iri (^3U^^ ^^AJ|^(^* A'madu-1-din Usmani 1139.~ The i. . <^ai\ Mohamad 1139. .. I rt a*s. 3 j tfcie .. be.. vice-gereacy. beginning from the top on the right hand margin who have put down their signatures everywhere under different statements of confirmation are j^Ja^'^ ijy-*-^^ fact. Mursalahuddin. P' seems to . . i. fifth seal down below on the right reads 1135. first line of document. The seal of Qazi Utbaq Alia. Shaikh Rasiuddin.e. The fourth seal in the extreme right is not legible.. year. is. the i.. fact. The it line under * 6..m seal of Kazi Ahmad servant of the religion of j... Witness of in the left is /Jj^Uj a^U what (md) in written within [fi).e. in Deputy-ship^ Under the seal on the left. I si»aj The and that without doubt. informed of the science of the Divine order of God. : ^c*^. ^j. sncoession. on its left. line under it on the •^-*"*5'j tj same as the The other Mahomedan signatories. I The i. the one on the reads. succession.e.A FARMAN OF EMPEROR JEHANGIR. uaasi-ship had come to 2 amr. Sabf inscribed. of them have put down Of the two seals above the the document. their signatures of 167 under the document. reads something like: The purport of this text is described as what happened. Deputy-ship. .e. I Nayabat. there are signed a number Mahomedan gentlemen who have Some left various positions on the right the document in hand side broad margin of the their seals.

Sayad Hamad. Nuruddin. Faizalla. Shaikh Abdul-latif. son of Shaikh Abdul Wahed. Sayid Aa'zin. i. i. It seems to be another and that a shorter form of aUi . Shaikh AbduUa. son of Shaikh Abdul Malik. Malik Mahomad. The following is the text and translation of a document which says that Mehernoush had leased a part of the land of MuUa Jamasp which fell to his share for cultivation for a period of three years. This document. AbduUa Salam. Mohamad Amin. son of Shaikk Abdul-latif. which is a copy.. it appears certain that the arose after the above Chak-nameh in favour of Mehernoush was made and before the Hijri year 1135. Mahmad Hanah. English Receipt. Shaikh Jinatallah (or perhaps Hasoballa). son of Abdul-latif. Say id Surajuddin. like many of the preceding documents. The document bears on its fold the Gujarat i word ^^. son of Sayid Nuralla. son of Shaikh Rasid. at the top in the centre of the leaf.168 ASIATIC PAPERS. son of Qazi Refi-u-ddin. bears..e. From dispute FOURTH DOCUMENT. the last of the five. Saiyad Ahmad. ^^j Rasid. son of Shaikh Mansen. The receipt bears the seal of a Government officer. Two bear the date 1 1 39 A third seal. son of Sayid Mohamad. Abdullah. Khwajeh Ahmad. son of Khwajeh Mahamad. Almost all of these 23 sigD atones have begun with the word Shahid. son of Malik Ashaq. he acknowledges receipt of the money and declares that the use of the property has come back to him. witness. not the original. the word ^ la-hu. son of Saleh Mahmad.e. son of Shaikh Abdul Razah. The document itself bears no date. bears the date as^ 1135. son of Sayid Mahomad. to Him. In this document. These seals bear the dates of the time when they were made. A RECEIPT REFERRING TO THE LEASE OF THE LAND OF MEHERNOUSH.iRl Pers. Sayid Arif. son of Sayid Jaafar. Shaikh Amuruddin. son of Shaikh Razvanalla. the dates of the document. Three of the seals of the Mahomedan signatories have dates. Mohamad-Zaz.

for the account of three years. the 38th year of his reign is 1156 Hijri corresponding to 1743-44. in : The am the matter of the property of the share from Mulla Jamasp. referred to in the document was BehratuAspu-Peshitan-Chanda whose family held the Talati-ship of the Parchol parganah. that the Talati-ship was first given to his grandfather Peshotan Chanda. of the farmdn. The document bears the date 38 Jalusi. who Mehemoush.D. make declaration to this effect. in the second place. The name may be Menaru-d-din. Ziar-u-ddin2 Usmani. 1 'ji 2 3 Parsee Prakash 1861.^ It was in 1610 A. Parsee. that I have received a sum of Rupees nineteen and annas two. may come again (lit.e. who came to throne in 1118 Hijri (1707-8 A. The Jalusi year is of the accession of Shah Alum. of Jamadu-1-sani.D. secondly. Mohom- Confirmed. These few words are written by way of agreement (sanad).. secondly )i Written on date 14 of the month 38 of accession to the throne. the property) in my charge and possession.J«>-"j^'^ i. So. inhabitant of the town of Naosari.A FARM AN OF EMPEROR JEHANOIR l&^ TRANSLATION. Behram Aspur. Saniyan. and I have brought it {i.e. Arab.). (a) The photo-lithos (b) Mehemoush chak-nameh and (c) his appeal {savdl) to the leading men are appended herewith. year The original of this document had a seal which the present copy gives as A^ a^s^/o ^j^ j*^t:k j^^jU^* c.. the servant of the religion of ed. the son of Darab Adharoo. object of writing this is this I. . it (the property) in (my) use. so that. through Behram Aspu.

as given by the Gazetteer. " and study in Babylonian and Assjrrian Archaeology written by Dr. as the Private Secretary of the late first IVIr. . At present. and of the Babylonians Their Parallels among the ancient Iranians and 7nodern Parsees. This much is certain. that the monolith was brought at the Bungalow from a site at the Reversing Station. Bead on 3rd December 1920. From what I observed there. I got excavated from the rubbish round the temple hut. and that it is likely. Langdon's paper. whether of hands or otherwise. the ruin of another monolith. A paper by some Hindu scholar on all the prayer-gestures. Adam. Byramjee Jejeebhoy. 1 The Bombay Gazetteer of Poona thus "Near the speaks of the monolith west wall of the garden of Mr. The name through ** Adam ". that the monolith belonged to a temple on the fort on the hill Of llaj-Mfichi. entitled. Vol. which. was. that the Bombay Gazetteer's statement.) : My information gathered from Mr. in the compound of which there is a monolith. page 237. a Contractor who built the Bore Ghaut Railway. Some ciu-iosity to know whether the monolith belonged to that temple led me to visit the fort and the temple on 30th May of this year. I beg to draw the attention of our Archaeological Department to the monolith for study. Professor of Assyreolog}^ at Oxford. I am in<5lined to think. who was employed in making the Railway (Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency. similar to those on the monolith at Khandala. will be very welcome to students of Prayer-attitudes. Bairamji's houae is a rillar about a foot square and four feet high covered with rich much worn carving. The fort has a fatiguing ascent and the temple—the temple of Bhairav— is a ruin. ^ Among these some hand postures suggest that some gestures. who. He had built the bungalow for his resi<lence for several years during which the Ghaut was built. that it belonged to the temple at Raj-machi. n. is not correct. Langdon. Pestonji Nusservanji Wadia. Of^tober 1919 issue of the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of London (Art. 1. But we do not find near the Reversing Station any ruins of a temple to which the monolith may have belonged. Part III. to When I was reading Dr. XVIII. " Gesture in Sumerian and Babylonian Prayer XVJ). I found his name in small letters on three pieces of the furniture of the bungalow which passed from his hands one or two purchasers to the hands of the late Mr. it is more a dilapidated hut than a pucca structure. in the beautiful bungalow on the Elphinstone point belonging to Mr. had been off and on visiting the bungalow since about 1870. Poona. Rustamjee BjTamjee Jejeebhoy. I : A happened stay at Khandala. which one sees from the Railway train during a great part of the Bore trhaut ascent from Karjat to Khandala. and which is situated at the distance of about 10 miles from Khandala. The pillar is said to have been brought from near the '* reversing station by a Mr. which has on its four sides a number of partly defaced and destroyed figures with different gestures and postures of hands. is evidently a mistake for Adamson. Byramjee. that the monolith must have belonged to a temple or a place of worship of some structural importance. I'he subject oi this paper has been suggested to me by an interesting and instructive paper in the Introduction. Adamson. Among the figures are more than one small seated images.Some Prayer 'gestures Assyrians. S. however had some figures on only one side. S. The monolith is said to have been brought to the bungalow by Mr.

p. or in Assyria more frequently before a divine symbol. Babyloniany and Assyrian among Ohronologically. S. :on Sumerian. what can be called authentic history shows that the ancient Iranians at the I /! Dictionary of the Bible by Rev. perhaps. .** and compai'es " these attitudes with those which characterise the worship of adjacent peoples. we may regard the praying figure as an approximate portrait. is not a portrait of the owner of the seal."^ Among the adjacent peoples. not all gestures but only those which present some parellelism with those referred to by Dr. the figures figures present a are of pose oi While speaking of gestures referred to in the Bible. R. To his impulsive and immotionai temperament. that and priate expressive gesture. Hastings. 3 Ibid p. Two the hands placed on the lap. because. Langdon as prevailing in Sumeria. Mr. Wi '* The Oriental is a natural expert inapproEvvingi says. Langdon says Religious worship is abundantly illustrated "in many of its most important aspects by scenes engraved seal cylinders. I am sorry. In those cases in which the engraver produced a seal cylinder at the command of a Sumerian or Babylonian. A. The human who is figured standing before a god. which we see in many figures of Budha and Indian deities. Assyria or Babylonia. attitude and action form a more apt vehicle for thought and accompanied The Conversation is. but I produce for inspection a very rough sketch of them taken by an unskilled hand. This is. of 171 persons mIio are praying.gestures of the ancient Iranians and modern Parsees. The owner regards himself rather as represented and symbolized by the •conventional figure. the seals of this region illustrate nearly every period of the long history of these peoples and the very large 4jhanging rituals and beliefs of their religion. object of this paper is to treat the question of gestures bj' the amnent Iranians. Dr. " Dr. Langdon does not reler to the ancient Iranians who were A ' I^oroastrians by faith. feeling than even speech " a sort of running commentary of gestures.?BAYER-GESTURES. Langdon then refers to "the various attitudes of the worshipper's hands in the different periods. The gestures of the figures on this monolith led me to think further on the subject of Dr. Langdon's paper and to study the question of prayer. proportion of the seals represent the owner of the seal The -approaching a deity in the attitude of prayer engravers of cjdinders in all periods probably kept in stock seals engraved with the scene of the private prayer as the custom imposed in their periods. 581. 1 have not been able to produce a cast of these figures. October 1919. 533. perhaps. "^ Dr. J.

Avesta Bawri.000 oxen and 10. and Assyrians. can easily become at first Babyl and then Babylon." both letters being of the same Sihdna. time of their highest glory were the successors of the BabylonSir W. the Bawrii ^Jq/*)) of the Avesta (Yt. the extent Avesta connects with Bawri in the matter of this a sacrifice Azi Dahaka or Zohal and says notl . and we find thf^ name simply as Takhma. Here. We have several such cases of parts of an old name being dropped for example. without any philological difficulty. founder Bagvar(asp). has been contracted into Yima (Jam i] theAfrini Hept Ameshaspand). ' I think that the city has taken founder. Jones. as we find in the case of Macedon. which soon became. Who was the founder ? its name from its original Avesta connects Bawri with one Azi-Dahaka. This name Azi Dahaka was latterly contracted into Dahaka.' So Bawn of the AvesIts Baby Ion. So. 1. which has given us the later name Jamshed.. Philologically. it is the first part. Peshdad or Assyrian race may be considered dark and fabulous . Azi. we find that the Avesta name Yima Khshaeta. those of the Kaiani family as heroic and poetical and those of * the Sassanian kings as historical. thought. * ' ' part Babri would become Babli. the ancient Iranian name Bawri. that is dropped and the name was contracted into Dahak. Babyrus ( Behistin Inscription I.' However. the latter part * urupa is dropped in the Farvardin Yasht. The last " on is a later Greek addition.000 lambs or goats. The letter w of Bawri can easily change place with " b. Then r ' can easily be read 1. 6) and Babil J^U of the Persian writers. ^ i _ Cuneiform of the inscriptions 29). Chalcedon. a name with which Sir Waltel . Zohak. the first part Azi being dropped. in the early career of their history. that the ancient Iranians had. which then became Babil. of the Peshdadian though he identified the earlier Iranians " that the annals of the djmascy with the Assyrians. Babylon. In the same way.172 ASIATIC PAPERS. come into contact with the Babylonians . the is '^ ta. etc. in the Avesta name Takhma-urupa. who is said to have offered at Bawri a great sacrifice of 100 horses. ians and Assyrians and not their contemporaries. ' The Scott has familiarized his readers of the novel of Talisman. * would become Babri. The very name Ba bylon can be traced to the Avesta. in the case of the nai Azi-Dahaka. we know from some authentic sources. V. a form whioh has latterly given us the later Iranian name Tahma-tan (another name of Rustam) and Tehemina (the name of the wife of Rustam). Now.

this fact that statement of this Pahlavi treatise also indirectly supports the Zohak was the founder of Babylon. 9 S. Le Zend Avesta II p. 210-213. 119. E Vol. Ebn Haukal* and Edrisi^ also attribute the foundation of Babylon to Zohak. B. I have gone rather deep into this subject in order to show. By the situation of the city or its building.PRAYER-GESTURES. These references show that Bawri or Babylon. 82. that Bawri was founded "He (the founder of the city) fixed there (the direction of) the planet mercury. the 12 constellations and signs of the Zodiac and the eight parts Now (of the heavens) towards the sun and other planets. 160-61. on the authority of old Parsee books and of the works of Arab authors. he pointed out magically the 7 planets. Masoudi. V. Vide the Photo-zinco Text published by the Parsee Punchayatand edited by Mr.^ But. Kulen Dis of Hamza Isphahani. Airan says. p." Zohak lived in the time of Jamshid.000 (baevar) horses (asp). XXIX. because he was the possessor of 10. is supported by Ma9oudi. or to speak generally. derived its name from its founder Baevar-asp. Ma9oudi attributes the foundation of Babylon to Nimrod. • . p. Zohak was called Baevar-asp. I think then. the Bundehesh^ ^nd the Shah-nameh^ say. as pointed out by Malcolm. ^ Now. which was another name of Azi Dahaka or Zohak. In fact. 78. more. that this Azi-Dahaka or Zohak was known as Baevar-asp. 1 Darmesteter. par Barbier de Meynard. 8 Mohl I p 57. which is the Kvirinta Duzhita of the Avesta ( Yt XV 19 ). that the ancient Iranians had come into contact with the Babylonians under Zohak. the Iranian was overthrown by Zohak the Babylonian. Avas not only the seat of Zohak's great sacrifice but was also founded by him. The second part of the name often happens and as seen above " " asp was dropped. * Ousley's Oriental Geography p. I Pahlavi Bundehesh^ that this Azi j j bahaka or Zohak built a palace in Babylon which was known as Kulang Dushit. 63. oriental writers identify this J^imrod with Zohak. that the city Bawri. city The above statement of this book that Zohak founded the on some astronomical principles. So. The Pazend Afrin-i Haft Amsh•aspand (s.8) also points to this identification. but the 173 says. Behramgore Tehemuras Anklesaria. Magoudi par B-de Meynard I. the original form of the later name Babil (Babylon). I I j I i I I The Pahlavi Shatroiha in the reign of i Jamshed. Chap. as it in the case of other proper names. hukht of Firdousi^ -Gang-i Diz (Mohl I p. Jamshid. ijtudes Iranieunes II pp. I must admit. who connects Avith Nimrod (who is identified by some with Zohak) the cult of fire and stars. 584. I p. 2 3 5 1 Vide my Dictionary of Avestaic Proper names p. attending to some principles of orientation. 70 6 Edrisi par Jaubert II pp. 96).

( bad one for Thus. persons. we to. holding some cow-productions (Sans. Let us So e first of all h d *'^^ is examine some poses of hand referred to in Avesta. the hands or is ustana-zasta -w^aJijC stretched fourth uplifted^ (from ns or uz ^> 3^ Pahl. if we go anyhow. gao-zasta. ^yAj Pers. ex. (f^rT) -J^^ssajC (Pahl-7«aste. I would have preferred to read this Paper before my Anthropological Society of Bombay. one may expect ta between the prayer gestures and attitudes of the Iranians and those of the Babylonians and Assyrians. holding the fire-wood in the hand^- (Yacna. before the Bombay Branch find.e such connection. holding offerings in prayers. peds pes. } sans. . i. what are known as. i. Ger. aesmozasta.e. Langdon 's Paper is published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. find that there w^as some sonf. connection. hasta Pers. pied.e. The Avesta word for hand Zasta ( poses of the A vesta. Fr. Lat.. We For example. * -ujJU»^33> The prayer-pose i. foot) for the foot of good men and zbaretha ( for that of ji^jJmjJ \ and dvarethra for the head of -_ ( i'^^'J^-)^ ) bad men. Zasta Ger. dast ^^^ generally for two words. ^^. ) Sans. but.1'74 ASIATIC PAPERS. guion) for that bad persons. LXII^).aus. hand). For siiuiJar instances. 1 find frequent references to hands. 11).. Langdon refers. pre-historie times. So. « The three Magis or the Wisemen of the East are said to have "^tl^Allrj) in their good men and kamgrgdha for that of bad men. Per. The Avesta has good persons and another hand of good peris the of sons andgava -m»»^ of Gr. that herein but. my paper may be taken as one continuing the study of the prayer gestures and attitudes of the Babylonians and Assyrians to times subsequent to the periods to which Dr. In fact. pAe cfJ^J Lat. Eng. at least you once expect some parallels of the Society.. I propose dealing in this Paper with some of these prayer gestures and attitudes. out). Ger.e. I beg to submit mine. we have padha qXf . In the ordinary course. fuss. " : Whea * carried incensft (labanum hands as an offering to the infant Jesus. as Dr. Vagdhana ( J»)-ayt!i!? ) y ^(S^'H^^ ) 2 The holding up of the hands was a prayer gesture of the Hebrews also Moses held up his hand Israel prevailed " (Exodus XVII.

e. I think.PRAYER-GESTURES. Ahura Mazda himself is represented as proceeding to the vara. Dr.e. like . in return.gestures. a contract made by a pressing of hands ( -"^^X^^^^C ^ -w^^ -a>3c^o€ | was held to be very sacred.. a valuable contract was spoken of as zasta maso.. 22. holding in the hand the hdvantm or the mortar for pounding the Haoma . holding the twigs of the sacred barsam in the hand . Yima proceeded to welcome Ahura Mazda and his host of Yazatas. etc. Mr. hands in the early period — Coming to Iranian sculptures. i.e.havano-zasta.. i.. XIV. as if it were. the cradle of theAryas newly founded by Yima (Jamshed). 1 Cf. 21). For example. i. Some writers think the second to be that of Shapur I. but we have those of processions going to seated kings. we find the germ of such processional scenes in the Avesta. we have no parallels of processions going to seated deities. Kiash thinks. we find that the idea of a religious procession still survives. II. Processions and Processionai scenes. Hand. As the hand played an important part in iDiayer. to say on the subject of processions. in the company of the best men (vahishtaeibyo mashyakaeibyo) of Iran. we have twQ such processional scenes in the ruins of the City of Sapur (Kiash's Ancient Persian Sculptures. Anjuman) used in this connection is the same as Sanskrit sangama used for the groups. 175 milk in the hand baresmo zasta. Yima also.e. in India. to inaugurate a house-warming or rather a city-warming ceremony.. the Iran Vej. what have the Iranian materials. being an useful organ of the body and being used in prayer-gestures. in which. Genesis the Lord. pilgrims march in processional order when visiting known places of pilgrimage. sculptures. Ahura Mazda proceeded with them. which period had the so-called processional scenes on the seals. of the value of the hand. or colony-the Airyana Vaeja. In the Vendidad (Chap. that the first is that of Behram II and the second that of Khusro Parvez (Chosroes II). Plates 4 and 6). Coming to modem times. The Avestaic word Hanjaman (Pers. In the processional entry of Ahura Mazda in Iran a number of invisible Yazatas or angels who can only be conceived in mind (mainyaoibyo yazataeibyo) accompanied him. with his Yazatas or angels in some thing like a procession. So. proceeds to meet Ahura Mazda in the same way. wherein a holy vow was taken by holding the hand unto . let us see at first.i. gaomata-zasta. holding a bovine production in the hand. the writings. Langdon first refers to the attitude of the worshipper's of Sumerian glypti^^®' Commonly known as pre-Sargomc.

Sumerians. The 'praying do the praying figures represent ? in the Iranian sculptures represent ? As " to Babylonia. There.176 (a) ASIATIC PAPERS. The presence of priests in all these processions still preserves the religious character of the processions. The praying figures Langdon says on seals actually represent the owners. headed by priests. wherein the mourners. there arises the question. Dr. do not still seem to have lost their preliminary signification. The principle marriage procession in early days was that in which the bridegroom went to the house of the bride to be married and to fetch the bride to her new home. at least by two priests. Nowadays. consequently there are common gathering places like the AUbless Bang. at Naosari. reciting a piayer. follow the bier in pairs of two. wherein conducted to a temple by the head priest accompanied by other priests and laymen and even ladies. there generally still remains the travesty or the show of the bridegroom going out in the company of the officiating priests and the ladies of his family. the head priest and the elders with their own hands threw in a cooking pot a few spices ( '^HW ) -etc. Of that we can no longer doubt. to be cooked for the meal for the next day. out generally in a (c) Marriage processions. that of the funeral procession. (6) Again upto a few years ago. from one gate of the gathering -place and returning by the other. etc.. As in the Babylonian Archaeology. the Cama Baug. on the occasions •of the Gahambars (season festivals). in the Iranian Archaeology. a procession headed by the head priest (Dastur) and other elders (Desais) went on a previous day to the place where the communal feast was to take place the next day. They placed sandle wood and frank incense on the fire preparing the food said the prayer of Tan-darusti (Benediction) invoking Ood's blessings on the whole community. do the P^^^^^g ^^^^^^ ^n the Babylonian seals Whom Whom il . is (d) The next instance of a religious procession still extant. where the parents of the bridegrooms and brides have not sufficient accommodation at their and own and places for the marriage ritual and its preliminaries.^ : b^-kSln'' and^ ]^a- so.. We the initiate see it in the initiation or candidate for ceremony priesthood of is Navar. though dying great crowded city like Bombay. and where. Babylonians. social religious. as to who the praying figures are. and Assyrians carried about on their seals representatives of themselves as they said their iuan'"Aj'ch«olog/. though both the parents of the bride and the bridegroom meet in a common communal place.

A . the symbol of righteous authority. bears in his hand the royal mace (the vazra of the Avesta). bears in his left hand a circle (Avesta chakhra). 59) refers to the stretching Prayers. 27). Plate 55). V. " of hands in prayers (zasto frene nizbarat). (6) The Ahunavaiti Gatha (Yasna XXVIII. In one portrait (PI. These were supported from the neck by a stout cord which passed through an apertureat the axis of the cylinder^" We have a parallel of this in some Iranian sculptures. the king while saying his prayer before the fire in two vases. pp. From the fact. thus showing that the praying figure is that of King Darius himself (vide ioT the sculpture. The worshipper says Ahya yasa nemangha ustanazasto rafedhrahya manyeush Mazdao paourvim spentahya asha vispeng shkyaothna vangheush khratum manangho ya khshn: (1) J. are not considered to be in a proper condition necessary for worship. person who has a cut or a wound in his body from which there is a discharge of blood or filthy matter. find that the use of We their hands in prayers ". The most notable instance of this. Perhaps. 532-33. S. the worship referred to is not private or individual reverting.. take the sculpture figures represent the owners. that similar portraits of the kings or noble winged flying figures in other parts of Persia are the portraits of men who engraved them. The figure bears at the top an inscription which gives the name of Cyrus (Plate 53 of Kiash). 12 . at Pasargadae or Pasargard. the winged figure of the King. We have a similar figure at Persipolis or Takht-i Jamshed (Kiash's Plates 26 & 27). or to speak more properly the winged figure of the Fravashi or Farohar. In another (PI. of 1919. to express some emotions in. 26). p. 185. Kavasji Dinsha Kiash's Ancient Persian Sculpture. we can safely infer. Thatusa The use of Hands presented different attitudes. to a proper clean state is spoken of as stretching. and. woman in the state of menses (dakhshtavanti). prayers is referred to in the Avesta. 17T prayers before one of the great gods. 1) refers to the prayer gesture of stretching out hands. the guiding spirit of the King. For example.PRAYER-GESTURES. There. of the Naksh-i Darius in the sculptures on the mountain of Besitoun or Behistoun. that the praying. that the sculpture bears the owner's name (the name of Darius). hands. Their " after recovery. holding forth the hand for prayer. (a) The Vendi" dad (Chap. which determine. worship or prayer but common or joint worship. is that of a human winged figure with a peculiar homed crown. R. The sculpture bears the well-known inscription which bears the name of Darius. we see on the top a winged flying figure in the air.

XIII 50. to the various attitudes worshipper's hands. XIII 69-70 ). We read there refers to the The Avesta Yasht ( : Aat yat bavaiti avi-spashto sasta dangheush hamo-khshathro aurvathaeibyo paro tbishyanbyo. 4). (3) Both hands folded at the waist. hut here the reference seems to be to storms half human and half bird-like. In the Farvardin Yasht (Yt. is surprised) by a harmful enemy. i. I pray rapturously ^ all for with hands righteous acts primarily humility uplifted from the invisible bountiful Mazda and for wisdom resulting from good mind. in the form of) well. fly to the help of those who invoke them in the form of winged birds or Avinged bird-like men. (Zasta - ashish). tendere.e. When the well-ruling King of a country is taken unawares {i..e. ^ ^Y^^S* in the Farvardin winged form of the genii. (d) In Gatha Ushtavaiti (Yasna XLIII. that the Fravashis. own who leads his protege by the hand. they are spoken of as with " vastravata food and clothes for the poor (gaomata Zasta usha-nasa nemangha).e. (the spiritual proto-types) of the righteous. . 57). thereby. In the Babylonian are seals. so that. from us-tan (Sans.winged man-like^ birds. ^aiiudan) to stretch out. Pers. we come the (1) The owner of the of a gr^at seated deity by seal his "conducted into the presence personal god. ^^-rT'T I-at.178 visha ASIATIC PAPERS. The various Attitudes of the Wor. where the various prayer attitudes represented.e. tao haschit upa-zbayeiti tao dim avinifravayenti. Fr. 2 Dr.. shipper's Hands. hand extended and the forearm (2) The right parallel with the face. It is said Yt. we see the winged form the Iranians.. the as are represented ^ of the genii. Langdon refers to the following :— of Now. then he invokes to his aid the powerful Fravashis of the righteous They (The Fravashis) fly towards him (for help) like (i. with all geushcha urvanem. I may please the (very) soul of the universe. i. manayen ahe yatha avanghe na merego hupereno. Dr. palm intoard. (c) where prayers for the Fravashis or Farohars of the dear departed " hands holding ones are referred to. Ahura Mazda is represented as bestowing blessings both upon hafshi the sinful and the righteous with hands. Among fravashis or Farohars . 6tendre. raised 1 or out stretGhed. The Winged genii of the Babylonians -and the winged Faroliars of the Iranians.. Geldner thinks this word unnecessary.

PRAYER-GESTURES. But the mace and the sword do not preclude the possibility of his being a priest. citizens who came to pay their homage to the sovereign. (a) Iranian writings. 1). 2. XVIIIl). see this in the sculptures at Persepolis \vide travels of Sir Robert Ker Porter in Georgia. Vol. !^Ir. was led in a vision to the other world to see Heaven and Hell. (Ch.i V. perhaps. CI I. We learn '*' . various articles of presents or offerings. The palm not turned inward but facing the " The thus brought into such position that the narrow surface •on the side of the little finger is turned towards the deity. 1. 1(5..that. that " the design of the ai-tist is not to display 1 The Text of Dr. (6) sculp- In the tures and (c) ritual refer to this attitude. Plates (6) We see the same attitude ^hich refer to times much We XI. vide )p. 13 XVI. the Supreme Deity and his imeshaspands or archangels. 604. and in the Yazashiiagah when he performs the liturgical services for four days. The second man is followed by several others. We read Viraf saying the two angels caught hold of my hands " (zak-i li vadman faraz vakhdunt. armed with a mace and a dagger. because the Iranian priests -ialso carried weapons. Plates 37. Ker Porter argues. XIII. or to a place of worship with The first person may be a courtier. i. 'He was similarly led before Ahuramazda. the Babylonian and Assyrian seals. the initiate or the candidate for priesthood -carries with him a gurz (A vesta vareza. IV. holds by his left hand the right hand of another simple unarmed man and leads him. 612 (five groups. p. a mace). from the Pahlavi Ardai Viraf-nameh. 6 . which he keeps underneath his bed for three nights.e. and he may be offerings. The second person is led either before a King to make presents as humble homage. gods are represented as leading their proteges by their hands before "a great seated deity ". leading. by the hand. Atar and Sraosha." Now let us see what the Iranian materials have to say about these attitudes. when (a) Ardai Viraf the ancient Iranian Dante. XVII. 2. Chap. Here a well-dressed person. (4) liand is 179 left. in the ceremonial i)roces-sion of the Navar.) . 6 XI. of The attitude being led by the hand. intended to be symbolic of spiritual weapons ivith which they were to strike and destroy the Daevas or evil powers and influences. in some of the Iranian sculptures anterior to that when the above Pahlan work was written. Even now. he was led by the hand by the Yazatas or angels. etc. Kavasji Dinshawji Kiash's Ancient Persian Sculptures. Hoshangji. . I. who carry in both their hands big bowls or cups containing. Persia. . 43). XV. 608 (six groups).

from whom a formal permission is asked to initiate the candidate into priesthood.. in the modern Parsee ritual. one Again. at times. on two occasions. we peculiar!see two other peculiarities have escaped attention. we see a person holding the skirt of another person who precedes him. during of the prayer. the initiate or the candidate is held by thehand by the priest who initiates him and is presented before the senior priest and the priestly assembly. or a window or the wall of the fire-chamber. ties of the In the Persepolis sculptures."^ it is But one cannot not a religious procession. points to a probability that the procession may perhaps be religious. in the celebration of the Yacna. the worshipper holds a ladle over the fire. their dress. I. in some cases. 617. In the another. as he cannot go into the fire-chamber. . In some fire-temples. 2/6id. The worshippers catch hold of these strings and thus create. we see one person placing his hand on the shoulder of another person preceding him {Ibid). the object being to establish some contact with the fire before him.. etc. where we see the attitude of one person leading the other by the hand. If he is saying the nydish before the sacred fire of a Fire-temple. definitely say that His own long quotation^ front Zenophon about Cyrus's procession with sacred bulls and horses.180 ASIATIC PAPERS. of oneAgain. ceremony very person conducting above referred to. (6) placing their hands on the shoulders of another and (c) holding others by the fringes of Iranian Sculptures in this matter. p. wherein priests only can enter.vase. What do these attitudes signify ? What are they intended for ? In the recital by an assembly. we. we see something of Navar. a religious procession. during theabove recital. Again. i. a kind of contact with the sacred fire from a distance. We see this in both the groups of the above plate. above referred to. the prayer in honour of the angel presiding over fire. of the celebrants leads the other by the hand.e. the a Parsee recites his Atash nydish. of holding the hand. We see persons (a) holding others by the hand. of the Atash Nyaish. (a) When recitals of some parts I Vol. during the above recitals he places his hand upon the door. I will describe the process here at some length. etc. (c) Two which seem toIn one of the sculpvide Plate 37. ^^^^^ ^^-^^ j^^^ Porter's also Plate on page 708). p. find the combination of all the varieties. 625. so as to touch it. some ornamental strings hanging from the ceiling are provided.

The — — oreation of the contact was ultimately meant to express co-operation and sympathy in the particular work. for example. one sees. say of hundreds and all thus hold each other by the hand. as it were. that of leading him. the Zoti and the Rathvn. From all these considerations. {b) During the recital of a prayer. that in some cases. the priests and other mourners going in the procession in pairs holding a handkerchief between them.PRAYEK-GESTURES. so called because all the celebrants were expected to sit in a kind of circuit enclosed by a pdvi or a marked enclosure. Then this second person gives his other unoccupied hand to a third person. In the recital of the Rapithavin Ya9na. and in others where the holding of skirts of each others clothes and the placing of one's hand upon the shoulder of another are variants that of establishing a contact. by one hand. even at present. the two celebrants. recited on the occasions of •Gahambars or season festivals. {d) In a Parsee funeral procession. or A may be large. . priest holds. As all cannot form a direct contact by holding a on the fire-vase they form this indirect contact or ladle contact through another's contact. they produce fire in a vase in the midst of the gathering and all say the Atash nyaish standing round the fire. 181 In small or large gatherings or prayer meetings. of part •establish a contact among themselves by holding the skirt of (c) the Sudreh (sacred shirt) of the other who precedes him. Some establish the contact by holding the fringe or skirt of another's upper garment. a ladle over the vase during the above referred to recital of the portions of the nyaish and thus establishes. and known as Gahambar nipdvi. they pray. those held on occasions of public prayers (jashans) during the on occasions of joyous celebrations. a contact is established by all the celebrants either spreading the skirts of their upper ceremonial garment (jameh) so as to touch one another or by placing their handkerchiefs between two persons when they do not sit close enough to touch one another. Some establish the contact by placing their hands on the shoulders of others who have formed a contact in one way or another. The principal aim or object is to establish a kind of contact with the Fire before whom. a contact between himself and the fire before which they pray. the idea of the attitude of holding another by the hand may be. The gathering last war. I think. during a particular the ritual. who in turn gives one of his hands to a fourth person. and so on. He gives his other hand to the person next to him.

not conducted by a deity. the Penitence prayer of the Avesta. also that the palm inward. (a) Extended or outstretched hand and (6) the forearm or the disengaged arm raised parallel with the face palm inward. 539. the two celebrants join their two hands in an outstretched position and recite the prayer of " Frastuye humatoibyascha ".. 1 J." In the celebration of the a little before the liturgical ceremony of the Yagna. The attitude of brings the animal sacrifice the reader will obthe right hand ex.500 B. conducting deities approach with disengaged arm. Herein. the phrase lifting of the hand for prayers was purely technical and borrowed. i. These are all archaic types extending back to a period as early as 3. the raised hand palm inward and the disengaged arm folded at the waist. position. To join the *' this posture. " " Among the Assyrians. p. we cannot say posi^that according totively. Not only do they join their two hands into an outstretched position but also their feet. the subject of this attitude.. the stretching and opening seemed to mean the same thing.C.serve that this attendant approaches with the extended and the forearm raised ^^^ ^^^^^ foretm rSed paObserverallel to the face parallel with the face f aim-inward. n. which prayer is spoken of hy some as the Patet. along with the prayers. Langdon thus refers to another attitude of the hand in tha" On Fig. because the instances are not many " " the Avesta was the technical phrase stretching the hands of the Iranians. commencing with the first chapter (nivaedhae^'emi hankarayemi). raised in a similar manner palms inward: On seal Fig. . 1920. p. just commencement of the recital of the Yacna proper. ^ " But. Dr. From them we conclude that man. 2.Babylonian and Persian " **^^^^the open hand periods. there prevailed the term that period.e. it seems." us see. stood in the position of prayer described above. This is apparently the original prayer attitude of : . from the Babylonians. The central figure (a goddess) of these three has the most ancient attitude of prayer for humans.182 ASIATIC PAPERS. prehistoric let man in Sumer. 7 three deities approach the seated grain goddess. Si Oct." During " " " for to pray to was " to open the hands " and not raise the hands. 2 Ibid. when. an attendant Babylonian worship 2. In practice. A.^ or outstretched In the later Neo. The Iranian sculptures seem to support (a) The extended / — — " " as well as There are cases of hands opened stretched or raised or uplifted. we have two attitudes combined into one. 541. what have the Iranian materials to say on^ Now..

e. even now. 157). {Vide Plates XXVII and of Kiash's Ancient Persian Sculptures. we find a parallel of this attitude in what observed. "to pray God mth for saying a prayer with all of another. Those who raise their hands in favour of a proposition raise them. Yt. because in that craft. In practice."— I is think." is the phrase devotion. and then pray. the left hand This carries. Now. the attitude is not observed to the exactly by all alike.. as it were. So. the next best way is to place the toe of one foot over the toe i. see a parallel of the Balylonian attitude in the Iranian sculptures of Persipolis and elsewhere.e. by the Zoroastrian clergy during the recital of the Patet (the prayer for penitence). The ^^l&l ^Ml. to bless the proposition. Both the Zaoti and the Rathvi shall join their hands and put the toe of tlie right foot over the toe of the left. the show of hancfs in favour of propositions is not like that right at ordinary meetings but in the attitude of blessing. in one case. Farvardin Yasht. place the toe of the right foot over the toe of the ritual is thus described in Gujarati in modern books " of the ritual **«wicll ctMl ^m4l ^'^ -r/li <^\M <^^>ilcil'li «/»iii they left. (h) as to the second forearm The raised parallel with the face palm inward. Langdon is the most ancient attitude ^f ^^. {i. One cannot join his two feet in a standing position as he would join his two hands. f^^. the arm is not kept parallel . the hand extended palm downward. ^^4iql ^'i^6 \i. we find the winged flying figure of a king holding a disc (Avesta chakhra) in his left hand and his right hand extended but palm outward. The object of joining the two hands and joining the two feet is to indicate sincere devotion. attitude of the hand signifies blessing. component of the above attitude.. Iranian winged figures are associated with fravashis or farohars. what seems to be. viz.e. which are the guiding spirits of persons.) There. i. the raising of the forearm parallel with the face palm inward..PRAYER-GESTURES. In another case. rules The show of hands in favour of propositions in the modem and regulations for the proceedings of public meetings seems to be a form of this attitude of hands for blessings. which according to *' Dr. " i... humans.e. feet 18^. These fravashis are represented as blessing the people of the house where they are invoked (khshniitao afrinentu ahmya nmane. We XXXVI XIII.^y^j. a bundle of harsam twigs. The Masonic ritual seems to have preserved this attitude well. ^«s "M^l "^^^Kl ^^^0 H\^'{ >45Hl ^'^fel 6l«>llM5l'li standing on) one foot.

This practice of holding some kind of cloth on the inward part of the palm. In practice. the arm is not kept parallel to the face by all. tion and explanation led and has me Dr. when the worshipper holds. I think... that I understood the proper signification of this attitude of the Parsee worshippers' hands. a prayer whereby the re. it is to protect the palm from this pollution. during the recital of the prayer. Among Zoroastrian religious prayers. one peculiarity in the modem Parsee custom. or the shawl in the case if the worshipper is a head priest or Dastur.Lat. According to Dr. i-re to go worshipper goes back to the proper path).e. i. In some cases. Langdon's paper. in the midst of deep devotion observe it strictly. what is the object of this coverhig among the Parsees ? According to the Zoroastrian health -laws. his left forearm palm inwards parallel to his face. held parallel to the face and before the mouth. Parsees hold up before. There is which position places it just opposite to the mouth. iace by all but some elders of the priestly assembly. so that the palm-inward portion of the arm may be just before the mouth. The prayer takes about 15 minutes to recite and the left hand is. but the elders in the priestly assembly observe the face their attitude strictly and correctly. still observed. or parallel to. Now.184 . I think that. their left hand. That peculiarity consists in covering the palm-end portion of the hand with a piece of cloth. prati "Mfci. that it is covered with some kind of cloth. prayer of penitence. prayer of penitence (Av. A handkerchief. i. or a sleeve of the upper garment. and of it. I confess. back. it is associated with penitential prayers. Langdon's descriphave much interested me specially to the study of the subject of this paper it is that from an Iranian point of view. ASIATIC PAPERS. there is a chance of some particles of the saliva falling on the palm and thus polluting it. held up before the face.'* So. which is called the Patet. i \S Lat. i Sans.e. Then. in some Babylonian seals. It is this Babylonian attitude. the posture of the attitude of hands " varies. In the Babylonian and Assyrian. Sans. as said above. Langdon. we do not see it. that the attitude observed in the Zoroastrian or Parsee Patet or penitential prayer is a relic of the old attitude. paiti . serves the purpose. it must be washed. the attitude is not observed exactly by all alike. is spoken . that it is after the perusal of Dr. wherein the worshipper raised his disengaged arm parallel to his face. paitita from Av. if the hand has touched the saliva of the mouth. during all this time. which shows that the forearm must be strictly parallel to the face. While reciting that — . there is one. the saliva of the mouth being unclean.jjrayer gestures of this kind. and Av.

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form

of the

Avastai paitidana

(

-A»)-*»'Ai^i»^

from

j)aiti front and dd to keep) i.e., that which is kept in front of the^face. The jpaddn was, and is even now, put on by the Parsi Athomans (Athravans or Fire-priests) when they go before the sacred fire, so that their breath or particles of the saliva of their mouth may not pollute the fire before them. They put it on even when they say their Afringan and Baj prayers before the myazd, i.e,the offerings of fruits and flowers, or their liturgical prayers of the Yagna, etc. Some kind of cloth-cover for the face was also put on by the Flamines, the

fire-priests of

the ancient Komans.

When asked, why the hand, covered as said above^ was held before the face in the Patet or penitence prayers, the explanation now offered was, that it was another form of the ritual of paddn observed before the Fire or before sacred offerings or sacred utensils or liturgical apparatus. But, in the recital of the Patet, when recited jointly in an assembly or singly, there is no fire, or any sacred offering or utensil before the worshipI So, why was the paddn required in that recital ? pers. think, we now learn, as said above, the proper signification, from the Babylonian attitude. There must be among the ancient Iranians, as among the Babylonians, the custom of holding the hand before the face, during the recital of Patets or penitential That custom has come down from their Iranian prayers. ancestors to the present Parsees with the additional requisite of a cloth-cover over the inward portion of the palm to protect it from pollution by the particles of the saliva of the mouth. The main point is the raising of the hand, palm inwards, parallel to the face. Then the covering of the hand is a second subsidiary point that has arisen from the first main point.
I j

I

This form or ritual of paddn karvun is observed by Parsee assemblies for the celebration of Jashans, wherein Afringan prayers are recited. The two principle celebrants the l^aoti and the Atravakhshi put on the actual paddn on their faces. But the rest hold their covered hands, palm inwards, Here there is no parallel to their faces and before their mouth. So, in this 'special recital of the Patet or penitential prayer. case, the attitude may be taken as an attitude of prayer, whether connected or not with penitence. In ceremonial customs and -attitudes, social or religious, we have, at times, a number of
priests, in

i

I

1^

ASIATIC PAPERS.

permutations and combinations of the various forms of one an^ the same custom or attitude or of different customs and attitudes.
It is the left

hand which observes the above attitude among
the Parsees. In many Zoroastrian rituals, at first, it is the left hand that plays a prominent part, when an attitude is to be continued

The
for

left

hand.

some time. The right hand is kept disengaged for variousother small observances or performances, e.g., to feed the fire. The holding of the twigs of a particular kind of tree in the ritual of the Yacna was held necessary. These twigs were called harsam. The Vendidad (Ch. XIX, 19) enjoins that these sacred twigs must be held in the left hand (havoya zasta). In one of the sculptures at Persipolis or Takht-i Jamshed, the king who prays before a fire vase, holds the royal mace (Av. vazra Pers. Gurz.) in his right hand and a bunch in his left hand. This bunch seems to be a bunch of the barsam " Plates 25 and 26 in Mr. K. D. Kiash's Ancient [vide twigs Persian Sculptures"). In other sculptures at the same place,, where the king holds out his right hand in a prayer gesture, there also the sacred barsam twigs are held in the left hand (Ibid,
:

pi. 36).

In the Iranian sculptures it is also the left hand which does the principal work that has to last long. For example, in the case of the winged figures of the praying kings (Plates 36 and 47 of Kiash), it is the left hand that does the continuous work of holding the symbolic disc, or the barsam or the bow, and the disengaged right hand that is outstretched, palm sidewise, expresses the attitude of prayer.
''the attitude with hands folded " was assumed by the Babythe waist 3. Both hands Ionian worshipper in some formal prayers, " fol<i®^and it denoted submission, humility, This attitude is referred to contrition." in the Pahlavi Viraf-nameh, where it seems to be an attitude of consent and obedience. When Ardai Viraf was selected from among many for a journey to the other world, he stood up and folded his hands on his breast (madam val regalman. ikvimunat va yadman pavan kash kard. Chap. I, 36-37). When he was finally selected for the heavenly journey from among the three best, by drawing lots, he, as an expression of consent and acceptance, folded his hands upon the waist

Dr. Langdon thinks that
at

(yadman pavan kash vadund: Chap. II, 21). We see no figures with folded hands in Iranian sculptures. At present, you may see priests in prayer assemblies occasionally sitting with folded hands, but with "no formal purpose. They fold or unfold the^

PRAYER-GESTURES.

187

like when the hands are otherwise not engaged in particular attitudes of ritual. In modern Parsee phraseology, '' his particular attitude of hands is spoken of as adab vdlvi,'' " to fold the adab ", where the word *' adab'' is Arabic i.e.,

hands as they

w^ ) meaning "courtesy, politeness." The word has ( nothing to do with hands, though the words intend an attitude of folding hands. In assemblies of solemnity, gay or sorrowful, like those of funerals or marriage or even in prayer assemblies we see persons here and there sitting with folded hands, but that attitude is in no way necessarily connected with any prayer gesture though it signifies a kind of resignation or submission to the will of God.
adab
I

According to Dr."Langdon, the above attitude of folded hands, gave way in favour of the kissing-hand (or kiss-throwing hand) position with one arm folded The "Kiss hand" at the waist. This widely adopted attitude of Babylonian religion seems to have been pose or attitude. introduced by the Semites ofthe first dynasty as a simple means of containing the two principle religious poses of the Sumerians. They thus continued the ideas of salutation and humility."! The kiss -hand pose at one time "prevalent in Greece and Rome" prevailed in Sumeria from the very earliest period. It seems to have come to the Babylonians " from the Sumerians, as the second great hand movement
latterly

in religious psychology and fundamentally conveying idea of salutation, greeting, adoration. "^

"

"the

According to Herodotus, kissing was a form of salutation the Iranians of the Achaemenian times. He says: When they meet one another in the streets, one may discover by the followig custom, whether those who meet are equals. For instead of accosting one another, they kiss on the mouth ; if one be little inferior to the other they kiss the cheek but if he be of a much lower rank, he j)rostrates himself before the

among

;

other. "3
-

But in prayer attitudes, the kissing hand posture does not seem to be possible among the Iranians from the standpoint Whatever comes out of their view of pollution and sanitation. from the mouth was polluted and unhealthy. The Parsees generally, even now, would not drink from the same cup. The not officiatirg priest, holding the Bareshnum ritual, would drink even from the same pot, though the pot may not have
touched the
1

lip of

the previous drinker.

.

If the

hand accidently

J. R. A. S., Oct. 1920. p. 546.

2 Ibid, p. 544.

a Herodotus Bk. 1, 134.

Gary's Translation (1889) p. 61.

188

ASIATIC PAPERS,

touched washed.
prayers
is

any moist part
So, the

of

the

lips,

it

was required to be
ritual

kissing pose of

not observed

among

in reUgious the Iranians.

hand

or

In a sculpture at Persipolis (Kiash, PI. 90) there appears a pose of the hand, which one may very plausibly take to be a kissthrowing pose, but I think it is another form of the pose of the arm raised parallel to the face palm inward. Had it been a kiss-throwing pose, it would have been with the right hand, but it is not so. The pose is that of the left hand though the

hand is disengaged. But a certain pose or attitude of both the hands is prevalent among the Parsees from olden times, which comes somewhat nearer to this attitude, which seems to be akin to what is known as the " Kiss of Peace " among the ancient Hebrews and the early Christians, and which is still prevalent among some Israels. This Hebrew or early Christian Kiss of Peace may have come down from the ancient Babylonian attitude of the
right

This attitude or pose of both the hands is the Parsees even now as Hamazor, wherein one person lets his two hands pass alternately between the two hands of another, and after two passes of that kind, both carry the two hands to the head in the form of a salutation. The Israels and the early Christians did the same thing, but in the end kissed their hands. For details of the Parsee custom *' I will refer my readers to my Paper entitled The Kiss of Peace, " the Israels and the Hamazor among among the Zoroastrians read before the Anthropological Society of Bombay.^
kissing hand.

known among

Next to the attitude
4.

of the

extended hand arm raised parallel
'

to the face, palm inward^ it is the pointed finger attitude of finger attitude of the hand among the Babythe Hand. lonians referred to by Dr. Langdon th: has interested me greatly from the Iranian or Parsee point o: view. Dr, Langdon refers to the " extraordinary pointed finger attitude of the Assyrians as they worshipped before statues and sacred symbols " and says that " it is really the kiss-throwing hand arrested in the last stage of the act and thrown with the index-finger only."^ I will not enter here into the psycho, logy of this attitude and say what it meant among the Babylol| nians and Assyrians, but proceed to refer to a similar pose among the Iranians, (a) in their sculptures and (6) in their rituals

The Pointed-

a

find this attitude in several Iranian sculptures. In on {a) of the sculptures at a place named Naksh-i-Shapur, which

We

my

IJouTQal of th3 Anthropolofitical Society of Bombay. Anthropological Papers, Part I, pp. 283-94. 2 J. R. A. S., Oct. 1919, p. 546.

Vol. VIII, pp. 84-95.

Vi

PRAYER-GESTURES.

ISO

supposed by Mr. Kiash to depict the surrender of the Roman Emperor Valerian to the Iranian King Shapur I, there are two rows of Persian horsemen who all point the index-finger of their right hand to their King, while before the King there stand three figures, supposed to be Roman courtiers with both hands extended and opened palm upwards asking forgiveness for a person in fetters before them, supposed to be Valerian (Kiash 's Ancient Persian Sculptures, PI. 12). In another sculpture of the same king {Ibid, PI. 13), supposed to be a triumphal scene, we &ee similarly, two rows of horsemen, each of 14 troopers pointing their right hand index-finger to the Iranian King. In another sculpture (Ibid, PI. 39) which seems to be a coronation scene, the King, while receiving from the Mobadan Mobad, the archimagus, the Iranian archbishop, the royal disc or circlet (charkh) with his right hand, holds his left hand closed as in a fist with the pointed thumb before his face. This seems to be another
i

I

I

j

pose of the pointed finger attitude. It also, like the pointed It seems that finger, signifies, obedience, consent, acceptance. persons of lower grade, when they wanted to express a posture of obedience, respect, agreement, or consent, in the presence of their superiors, did so with the index-finger. But persons of higher rank generally did so with all the five-fingers folded, as if forming a fist with the thumb pointing a little upwards.
or

Vide the following plates for one or another of these finger thumb postures expressive of obedience, respect, agreement,
(1)

etc.
PI. 41. Shapur I at Naksh-i-Rustam., Indexfinger by a subordinate standing behind the King. Closed fist with the thumb upwards. (2) Ibid.y PI. 42.

Kiash,

A

(3) Ibid.y PI. 43.
j

Coronation Scene at Naksh-i-Rustam. Index-finger at Naksh-i-Rustam. Behram Gore or Behram V.
44.

(4) Ibid.,
I

PL

Index-finger

I

(6) Coming to the modern rituals we find that the Parsees, in the recital of their Afringan prayers, recite a section, which is

I

common

i

the Afringans and which is in honour of the the land. The Zoroastrian priests of Persia, ruling King during this recital, hold up their fingers. The Indian Parsee priests, instead of holding up their fingers, hold up a flower in their hands. Here, the flower seems to serve the purpose of a The flower is held up in the right hand, the arm of which finger. 18 raised up well-nigh parallel to the face.
to
all

of

Now, what does the holding up of the finger in Iranian Archaeology and in the Zoroastrian ritual in Persia, or the holding up of the flower as a substitute in the Zoroastrian ritual

190

ASIATIC PAPERS.

in India signify ? It signifies assent, approval, agreement. The particular section of the Afringan (lit. the prayer of blessing), invokes God's blessing upon the ruler (khshathriya) of the land. At this recital, all the priests of the prayer-assembly raise up their fingers in Persia and flowers in India, to express their heartfelt assent and good -will in the benediction.

The Tibetans observe the Buddhist religion at present. But their old religion is said to be the Bon religion, some elements of which they have embodied in their religion. Their old Bon religion seems to have come to them from some part of Central Asia where their ancestors may have had a home common with that of the early Iranians. Their custom of the
disposal of the dead, which resembles t ha b of the modern Parsees of India and much more resembles that enjoined in the Vendidad from which the modem Parsees of India seem to have diverted a little, points to this very early relation. When at Darjeeling in the summer of 1913, I had the pleasure of visiting often three Oumpas or monasteries of the Tibetan Lamas there. My long talks with the Lamas and my study of the works of great writers and travellers of Tibet, like Col. Weddel, Rai Sarat Chandra Bahadur, Mons. L. De Milloue, Mi'. Rockhill, Dr. Sven Hedin and Mons. Bonvalot, showed me some points of similarity between some Tibetan and Zoroastrian beliefs and customs. As I said then, I understood some parts of my Vendidad better there and then, than at home before.

Now these Tibetans have a form of salutation and of expression of assent or approval which" resembles the above referred to Zoroastrian form of expressing consent by the raising of a finger. This torm is that of raising up their thumbs. " Pulling the thumb up means approval and satisfaction."^ One way of expressing their thanks is that of lifting up the thumbs. According to Rockhill, " throughout Tibet, to say a thing is very good, they hold up the thumb with the fingers closed and say Angetumbo re' i.e., it is the thumb ; it is the first. Second class is expressed by holding up the index with the remark re,' it is the second." JNIr. Rockhill ange nyiba " The mode of salutation among the says of one part of Tibet : people in this section of the country is novel. They hold out both hands, palms upper-most." This mode of salutation is prevalent among the Mongols also. Rockhill says further on ; " The lower classes here, when saluting superiors, are in the habit of bending the knee very low, putting the right hand beside the right cheek and the left hand under the elbow of the In one right arm, at the same time sticking out the tongue."
'

'

^

'•

Across Tibet, etc.," by Bonvalot, p. 98.

It is the first step in the shortening process. Sarat Chandra. There seems to have the Iranians. implores forgiveness from the king by raising both his hands and feet upwards. a shortenVarious attitudes jng process. In many a ritual of the Church. was the primitive pose. The use of one hand in place of two is the next step. 139-56. 137. Plate 36 of Kiash. expressive of imploration of God's help and forgiveness. side by side.pp. pointing heavenwards. 92-109. From a study of the attitudes of the hand. somewhat parallel to the face. a fallen person lying prostrate on the ground face upward. 55. palm upwards. the right hand only was similarly extended. — menian 1 poses. attitudes from the first ^^^^^ ^" primitive longest to the latest shortest. 1. who have continued to hve in an isolated condition surrounded by lofty mountains. and like the chakhra (a wheel. . II. in almost all communities.call. and whoever omits a kiss when meeting or parting with an acquaintance is considered rude and unmannerly. That was also the posture or pose for asking forgiveness from another person. whether a prince or peer. PI. all the various process. of Behistun. I have reterred to it in my Tibetan rosaries read before the their^^tianmc'Ltions 2 Bs observed among Anthropological Society of Bombay. My Anthropological Papers ".*'^ In many of the old age beliefs and customs of the Tibetans. When the left hand was occupied in holding a religious symbol like the barsam at 'first. So. there prevails. what we mi. : we may draw the following conclusions The outstretched hands raised a little above. Part pp.) These may be said to be very early Avestan or Achae. {Vide the sculptures of Persipolis. Ibid. •part of Tibet. From religious gatherings and religious surroundings to social gatherings and social surroundings is one step. From all these considerations we see that the finger and thumb attitude as seen in more than one bas-relief of Iranian sculpture was an attitude expressing satisfaction and assent. we see a good deal which explains some of the early Babylonian and Iranian forms of belief and salutation. we see many customs prevalent both in Church and Society. disc or circlet) and bow later on.PRAYER-GESTURES. customary to greet one another with a kiss. "towards the face of the king 2. In spite of the shortening we see prevailing. though the step may occasionally be long. " X. p. In an Iranian bas-relief of Darius (Kias)»'s Plate 55). Journey to Lhassa and Central Tibet. sculptures and ritual. prevailed the same shorten* ing-process in the matter of the attitude or pose of hands in prayers. 2 Vol. 191 " it is accoiding to Mr. as referred to in Iranian books.

we find one folded and the other working. So. you shut off your hands. when the left hands held some symbols^ of authority. or thumb pose seems to be a much later Instead of both the hands or of one hand being used inOf course. When you fold your hands. occasionally.finger form. or to form a contact with the fire. where the person instead of pointing his hand* The pointed. the nine rebel princes are made to stand in that position. In a sculpture at Kermanshah. But. obedience. the older form of later ''Hold 4. in case of compulsory submission. and. to feed the sacred fire before the worshipper with sandalwood and frank incense ^aesam bfii). or obedience. with a common rope passing through the necks of all. supposed to be a coronation scene. holding a bow in his left hand. as it were. or to guide others by gestures. and hence consent. For example. pointing his index. those of large religious congregations or court assemblies. at times..g. the left hand gradually came to be very close to the mouth. to later times. we find the pose of folded hands expressing submission. Fold up hands" was. in the shortening. Darius. for example the bow in the case of Achsemenian kings. The left hand extended and arm raised parallel to the face was the next pose derived from the first pose as the result of the shortening process. by this shortening process. tells them some words of caution or advice.process. When. the left hand came to be so extended but not so much as to fatigue the worshipper. Ardai Viraf folds his hands on his breast to express such an emotion. etc. In ceremonial gatherings like. wher& ( Vide Kiash's Plate 50. as it were. For example. extends his right hand towards the state prisoners before him. both the handS arevoluntarily held backwards on the waist at the back or are chained in a similar position. there came in also some additional signification. you express helpless" ness and surrender. from any work.finger towards them. One cannot keep both his hands extended as above very long during the recital of a long prayer. on.192 ASIATIC PAPERS. . there came in the use of one finger." 5. Coming (adah) up hands. or to extend it to the other worshippers to create a sympathetic contact. 6. e. in order to avoid pollution.) Then. supposed to be that of A Zoroastrian. supplication. consent.vase during particular recitals. instead of both the hands being folded the waist. 3. there is a picture. The right hand was kept disengaged for other religious or ordinary purposes. it had tobe covered with paddn or a piece of cloth. This is the case in the matter of voluntary submission. the right hand was free for expression of emotions.

stands before the altar of the Sacred Fire in that posture. . the above words of the ritual may mean The modern ritual of mdchi over the circle (round the fire)." I think. the priest ^ The goes round the fire-vase in*'a particular enjoined way. I think it is actually a chakhra or circlet of sandal-wood or some other fragrant wood. They may be metallic ladles. in the coin of Varahran II (Nos.PBAYER-OESTUBES. in the attitude of placing it on the fire. Vol. But one cannot understand why is it generally so in the case of the worshippers with the ladles or sticks in their hands . We find some prayer attitudes ^^. south. chak farvo. modern ritual of feeding the sacred — fire. the word chak may be a corrupted form of chakhra. Mazda-yagni. 1. that posritual is now spoken of as sibly. the worshipping king and the serving firepriest. DMar Vide my Paper on Consecration Ceremonies beforo the Anthropological' Society 13 Jourual. 193 or hand seems to point his wand towards God. holding some long stick-like forms (Ibid Nos. arranged by placing six or seven pieces — of sandal. One cannot understand why their faces are not turned towards the fire but away from the It is true that even now. 1 in one part of the recital " the recital of the of the Atash-nyaish gehan din-ithe worshipper has to turn to the etc. i(6) coins is . In some later varieties of that picture.wood. we see the person pointing towards Heaven with his finger. For example. an emblem of royalty or royal authority. The worshipper. Another hand posture which we observe on the Sassanian that of both. who is the king himself. in the fire. the Fire-temple of the first grade the ritual known as bui dddan i^)^^^ ^jj-i i." sacred fire is another form of offering fragrant fuel in the form The modem machi (lit. 517." formula. that the fire-priest (Athravan. 2 and 4). He receives it from the royal worshipper who brings it as an offering before the Sacred Fire and hands it to the priest whose function is to feed the fire.. when they hold the ladle. p. the form of a throne. and ** to go round in a so.^^' ^^^ of hands in the Sassanian raised parallel some of the cc>ins. while on the other side of the altar stands the fire-priest holding up a chakhra (disc or circlet). the Iranian Flamine) is placing en the fire. a throne. to give fragrant fuel. Hand postures in Sassanian Coins.e. 3 and 5 oi Plates IV cf Longperier's Essai surles M6dailles des Rois Perses de la Dynastie Sassanide). ^® ^^^ *^^ attitude of arm to the face palm inward in In the modern ritual of feeding the Sacred fire of the Atasb Behram. a seat) is in of a royal disc.. XI.

In other similar incantations and in various parts of the A vesta. The ladles or metallic sticks seem to replace the hand posture. the Ahriman or the Evil Power is mentionerl. Yasht. and in others. the original vesta. The s ime emotion is expressed by an outward motion of tha right hand palm inwards^ expressing an idea of repulsion. there are incantations of that kind. In the case of short laddies in some coins." In all the abvjve attitudes. They are not in. The latter is the posture in which one can now see. Hormsidas II others. etc. snakes. — . twice and at three other parts. wherein ^[od or the Higher Intelligences or Higher Detestation for the Evil. the worshipp^^r puts the thumb of his right hand over the central finger and gives it a slip.194 (c) 'ASIATIC PAPER. or where evil influences or powers are referred to. thrice. must strike the palm of one hand (the left hand) with the other hand. I will conclude Paper with a few words on these attitudes. X 4). Ibid Plate V Ncs. Thej^ are more of what we call incantations for the removal of evils of all sorts including the pest of noxious animals emotions my A In the Vanant cats. they are rested on the ground. Parsee priests standing before the fire. Powers are appealed to or implored. But. the worshipper. once at another part. In the case of a coin of Chosroes I. This is very clearly marked in the case of the coins of Artaexrxes II and Shapur III (Ibid and PI. there are certain attitudes which express of disgust or bad or is detestation of what evil. rats. In some later coins (Varaharan III. VII). they are held up from the waist upwards. but are in later Pazend. In some coins. and the later ritual enjoins that during their recital. where the name of Angra Mainyu. Here the picture of the ladles is like that of the hand raised parallel to the face. The above different postures can also be studied from Thomas's " Numismtic and other Antiquarian Illustrations of the Rule of the Sa^sasnians in Persia (1873). Seme of these prayers for these expressions of detes taticn are later. like serpents. we find the picture of folded hands (Ibid PI. I have referred to the Iranian attitudes or prayer gestures of hand. at times. at one part of the recital. 1 to 5 and Plot VI) the ladles are short. so as to produce a sound. wolves. . spoken of in modern phraseology as tachakdi or snapping. . the royal worshippsr has a short laddie while the priest has a long one. Narses.

I The University of Bombay. which had influenced the history of it life many on was 'in ancient countries. I speak of Noushirwan's wall as a wall similar to that of the Great Wall of China. i. built about 800 years later. the Strait Settlements of Singapore and Penang. by Anoushirawan or Noushirwan (Chosroes I) of Persia. The object of this paper is. his another contemporary. From Institutions at the second Oriental Conference. of the construction of which to see this Great Wall.A A Visit to the Great Wall of China. not only in the history of China but also my then known world. I had the pleasure of visiting It was one of the dreams 1st April 1922. like the great wall. 1923. who were the descendants of an offshoot of the great people against whom the Chinesewall was built. I take life as a landmark in the it in the evening of history of life. In my itinerary. that he •considered himself very fortunate that he was born under the sovereignty of a just prince like Noushirwan.. is reported to have said. and of whose justice. wall. in the my my my my my my West. though smaller. a landmark. was known as Noushirwan adal. (I) to give a brief description of visit of the wall and of impressions. French Indo -China. K. I had the pleasure and honour of representthis Society and fouri other Societies and Calcutta. Canaa Oriental Institute and the Jarthoshti Din ni iihol KarnariMandli. the Just. ing Introduction. like Justinian. ttie Anthropological Society of Bo:nbay. and (II) to speak of a similar. the great Prophet of Arabia. it was built to keep away the inroads of a people. the K.e. . Similar Wall of King Noshirwdn (Chosroes I) of Persia. Mahomed. Being the the history of the realization of one of the dreams of visit of life. who. because. I had included the worldknown Great Wall of China. his contemporary of Rome. held in the end of January at Calcutta I had gone to Burma. near the Caspian Sea. Read on 20th April Last year (1922). China and Japan.

one. It is not from any architectural point of view. C. Ancient World. Edgar J. But think of the great practical purpose. " Seven Wonders of the Ancient Dr. C. I have the pleasure of visiting all these three great wonders and I am in a position to form a clear idea of the purposes they have served. and they did not include the Great Wall of the furthest East among their seven wonders. 2. Of these three. 0. The Wall and Hanging Gardens of Babylon from about 605 to 562 B. of the width of about 12 feet at the top.196 ASIATIC PAPEE. : — . that the great wall was built by a great king of the remote past for securing the safety of his people from the frequent inroads of hordes of marauders. the Great Wall of China and the Pyramids as the three greatest Wonders of the World. the Middle Westerners f'^Chi^^^^* ^^^f the wonders of the ^^ ^^^ ancient times. C. you can form an idea of the great purpose which the Wall of China has served in keeping oS the inroads of marauding tribes into China. are not of any practical utility. C. and you will then. built in a kind of wilderness of wildernesses. The Mausoleum or tomb of King Mauzolus of Carta. which. about 280 B.500 miles. the long wall of Nature. but from the point of view of the great enterprise and its great length. C. especially that of Cheops. have often heard of the Seven Wonders of the ancient World. wonderfully solicitous for the good of his country. that one can include the Great Wall in the list of wonders. following are generally held to be the seven Wonders The Pyramids of Egypt. one may say.i The Westerners. only to the countries round the Mediterranean. or. which was more intimately known to them. The Pharos or Watch-tower of Alexandria about 247 B. that it must be a wonderful piece of work by a wonderful man. 3. 7. 6. Fortunately. looked for their Wonders. with 200 towers here and there across its whole length. The Temple of Diana at Ephesus about 356 B. C. admit. to speak more correctly at present. buUt about 2900 B. I think." But imagine a continuous wall of the length of 1. has served in defending the extensive frontiers of India on the North and from that. as they had hardly any opportunity to see it. in his " World very properly says that "it is a common weakness of modern man to imagine that his own age and his own country have progressed beyond all others. the Pyramids are colossal mausoleums. 4. We Some speak of the Himalayas. Banks. the Wall of China is very . the Himalayas. about 353 B. The Colossus of Rhodes. and think. and also from the point of view of the great and noble thought of the safety of his people which led to its structure by the King of China. The statue of Olympian Zeno by Phideus about 470 to 462 B. 5. i The 1. erected by hi3= widow Artemesia. From the point of view with which it was built and from the fact of its being built in a wilderness. rising and falling over mountains and into valleys.

p. that city at 7-25 a. We Pekin on the morning of 31st March . we went to see the great tombs of the Ming Kings (1368-1662 A. that China The Great jg^ as it were. Vol.in Egypt. « Ancient China simplifled. 116. the Bubu pass in the Himalayas leading to the Kulu Valley..m. a Country of Walls. 119. Resting of about 3 hours. Some parts of the country :/are said to have walls b^ilt to keep off prevailing injurious — winds. from the front gallery its engine at the back of our carriage in froiit. I had the pleasure of crossing. pyramids From what you China. three mountain passes the Khyber Pass on the way from Peshawar to Cabul. It was well nigh the same time of the left . I was reminded . we took the next day. who lived about 1(X) years before this time.A VISIT TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.. riding for 10 miles and btwjk junder a torching sun. at Nankou for the night on returning from the tombs. From there. a good look of the Nankou pass along which the train ascends. you can say.m. a Country of Walls. I remember leaving Peshawar on an early morning in the end of March in 1887 shivering with cold. p.m. 2 The city of Pekin. — (of 1 Calcutta Review of January 1903. C. all exhausted. a powerful prince of the Tsin family had in Pekin built a wall to keep off his neighbours. Forbidden city which included the quarters of the Emperors and his nobility. Our train had so we had. not even "^ of the . while travelling by train in China. . I by a train. see. even before that wall was built in about 217 B. at about 10 a. C). in my previous travels. has City the wall round the several walls. a train for the Ching-lung-chiao station which is the station to go up to the Wall. the inner wall. a Chinese King named Ts'in. had built a wall against the Tartars who were now and then attacking his people. 197 '* •properly taken to have no paralled in the whole world. It is said. Ngwei. Edward.900 feet high.of the Khyber Pass on seeing the wildly picturesque scenery the Nankou Pass. that even about 50 years before that time. and returning at midday to Jamrud irom Ali Musjid. . and the outer wall. Out of these three passes. " " a mysterious picturesque interesting itself. and the Banihal pass leading from Vernag in Kashmir to Jamoo. itself. it is a ride on mules The distance is about 11 miles. and from what you read in the books on China. Harper Parker (1908). and arrived leaving : y visi ^^ Nankou at about 10-45 a. . by Prof. and . From the station to the tombs. The Nankou ridge is about 1. In the case of the Khyber. 40. Chinese Wall has made it emphatically so But.

had a second look at the Great Wall from a distance. We began seeing the great Wall with its watch-towers here and there from the train.P. can never be effaced from the memory. which.Black in the Calcutta Review of January 1903. "^ As said by another \\Titer. though it was midday and I had an overcoat on my body.tao station. which has a great harbour. when we were on our way to Japan via Fengtien or Mukden. Looking on your right and on your left. D. O God that you brought me at this age on this Historic Wall. and. We saw snow here and there on some parts of the hills and also in some crevices down below. From the Chin-Wang. and the first words I wrote then with a glad heart in my note-book were "^ ^ "^[^ ^IM^ %^l«ll ^l^. and. Leaving my friends. year (1st April) when we crossed the Nankou pass by train and the weather here was cool. But there was not much time to indulge in that luxury. We saw from the train the old caravan route running in a zig-zag line here and there. .198 ASIATIC PAPER. full of joy for having seen thi& great piece of the work of Man inspired by God. my We I Charles E. in your front and on your back. **y" H^ "^^l <icii:([»(l Clc(l<HM^ H[^[. you can cast your physical eyes to long -distances of space. and downs of Empires. we saw the Wall on our left. it seemed to pierce through. I say. The wind was blowing terribly strong on the top of the Wall. We got down from the train at the Ching-lung-chiao station. once more thanking God. 34. I proceeded a few hundred yards further and it was a grand and glorious sight from there.. " I am grateful to Thee. p. that I saw only a very small part of the great wall which extended through a large tract of the country. there were rooms beneath the floor which may be go downs or store-rooms for military requisites. *-e." ! ! The wall had watch-towers at some distances. and your mental eyes to long vistas of time —past ages which had now and then kings in China. who thought more of their subjects than of themselves.. about half an hour's walk of gradual ascent takes us to the top of a part of the wall. as said by a traveller. and here and there. That at the Nankou pass was one. that I saw the great Wall of China and realized a dream of life.m. But the distant view from here was not sufficiently impressive. and from there. I left the wall. The wall commenced from Shanhaikuan at the Gulf of Pechili close by. as noble as in any other parts of the world. from the train on the 3rd of April 1922 at about 5-15 p. "once seen. to see the noble wall rising and falling over precipices in a wilderness. I would have liked to stay or sit longer on this awe-inspiring wall in the wilderness and to meditate there on the ups. It was 12-10 when I placed my foot upon this historical wall. When I say.

General Grant of America is said to have estimated. North south." separates two epochs in Miss Eliza Schidmore. It was 12 feet at the summit. at the distance of every 200 yards. these builders who all were spread along a long line of the wall. "^ Another writer estimates the use of materials in its construction as follows "To give another idea of the mass of matter in : — the stupendous fabric. It is to be understood that in the calculation is included the earthy part of the midst of the Wall. each six feet high and two feet thick. as said by Mr. it was built of solid masonry. 41. Ibid. It grows upon me hour by hour and from the incredible it becomes credible. that the wall " took as much work as would have built all our (American) railroads. by Prof. The most accessible ^^ ^^ *^^ Nankou Pass. The Great Wall A sketch of the China* an/ the the separates. and actually harassed. parts of it. Calcutta Review of January 1903. served also as places for hurling stones towards the enemies. It also separates two great races " ^^^ outward flowing white race of the — BuUde/of Great Wall. As the marauders. Some of these towers. Its }^ *?^^ ^F^ ^* varies from 20 to 50 feet. 11 Os) " 5 '• The Great Wall of China by William Edgar Geil. the Cold North and the Summer South. as quoted by the above writer. such as chopping ofif of feet or slicing of knees. The Great Wall of China by William Edgar Geil.haired race on the now known it In the same way. In somc^ height ^ali.00. against whom the wall was being built. p.000 feet high from the sea level. in addition to being watch-towers for the sentries. it may be observed that it is more than sufficient to surround the circumference of the earth at two of its greatest circles with two walls.A VISIT TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.^ two lands of the East. an army of three lacs of men was required to protect the builders from harm. were likely to harass.500 miles long. The base of the towers varied from 15 to 25 feet in thickness. all our canals and nearly all our cities.000 eunuchs on the work of building his palaces. The eimuchs were castrated criminals whose 3 crimes were lesser than those that deserved the punishment of death or of maiming. * It is said of the Emperor who built it that he had employed 7. p. It is said on some authority that forced labour of 7. that about 30 lacs of men were engaged by the king in building this Great Wall.00. 199 - is one of the few great sights of the world that is not disappointing. the wall is about 4.000 men* was employed over it. Geil. . p. 36. and the black. In some parts. there are watch-towers about 40 feet high. Wherever it was more is The wall The Extent of the exposed to the marauding tribes. "^ • "It said to be 1. (Ancient China simplified."^ It is said. Parker. 1 2 as the Yellow race.

the history of China the Mythical age and the Historical 1. Out C. country. cities were founded. were known for the great engineering works in connection with the regulation of floods. is said to have passed into a stage of civilization. One canal-builder (2205 of these rulers. developed into the modern system of Chinese ideographs. The next set of rulers of China. which was followed by the Chou (or Chow) djmasty. The Middle period and 4. C).C.). founded by Wu Wang. founded in 221 B. The most Ancient period. the engineering feat of some of which is said to be as great as that of the Panama canal. when China. as it were. spoken of as the Napoleon of China. communication between cities was carried by boats on rivers and by carts on land. The Modern period. The three great Chinese philosophers. The History of China is divided into four periods age." : — — The pre-historic or semi-mythical history of China begins at about 2. a new regime of the Tsin or Chin dynasty. The Ancient period (255-207 B. under its three successive rulers.200 ASIATIC PAPER. a noble history. Before this time. The flood period lasted for about 9 years and was ended by the construction of canals. but during this period picture-writing began. as it were. the Great Wall divides the first two periods.Mancius and Taotze were born during the rule of this dynasty. after the first batch of the above three kings and their successors. The rule of this dynasty was the longest in China (1122 to 249 B. who established a kind of feudal system in China by granting portions of the kingdom to his supporters. C.) of these four. Yu is known as the great Then reigned the Shang (Tang) or Yin dynasty (1766-1122 B. consisted of expression of thoughts by means of knots tied on strings. one of which is said to have been as large as the great Deluge of the Bible in Mesopotamia. the foundation of China as a great united Empire. C). B. marriage was instituted. which.500 B. and silk industry commenced. This was. a powerful nobleman of the So. though under different dynasties . later on. agriculture taught. The proper historical history of China begins with the rule of this dynasty. which continued as an empire. time began to be regularly counted and calendars formed. 3. 2. animals were domesticated. C. it has and. " as the greatest monument of human industry. named Shih Hivang (or Hwang)-ti. The feudal system of this dynasty weakened China after a number of years when the feudal princes grew strong and weakened the central power.Conf ucius. medical art founded with the use of herbs. language. During this period.

whose founder was to China -what Ardeshir (Artaxerxes) Babegan was to Iran the restorer of its ancient lita-ature and encourager of learning. He also buried alive a number of literary scholars who quoted old books in favour of the ancient rulers and against the then rulers. till it was overthrown in the beginning of this century and a Republic and though now and then divided Hwang-ti. who began building the Great China Wall in 214 B. It was he with whom commenced the well-known Chinese -system of literary examinations for the civil service of China.ared less for the fe\y learned and more foi enfightened commonalty. Alfred the Great and even Bismark. was a powerful he found. with Rome flourished in the reign of this king. and that scholars pointed for their authority for the advantages of that system to previous literature. He destroyed extensive libraries of old books formed by successive previous rulers of China. as that of Alexander by the Persians. to defend his country against the northern Tartars who formed a tribe of the great Hun nation. an anti-humanist. who. further on. saving only scientific books on medicine. His name was cursed by the Chinese. From this point of view. When One may perhaps say from the above act of the Emperor that he was altogether opposed to education. This was a great black spot on the briUiant life of this great man. W. that Alexander was a foreigner but Hwang-ti was a son of the soil. But no . in the matter of destroying the country's old libraries. He entrusted his General Ming-tien with this great work. His name has therefore been condemned by later Chinese writers. 1 His dynasty was overthrown by the Hun dynasty.000 years. where he was born and lived. with this -difference. in its turn. as it were. astrology. gave his dynasty the name of Tsin or Chin. he attempted to liberaUze general education. from his point of view of the good of the country. He was. to speak in our modern style of speech.who are believed to be attaching too much importance to the Classics. he ordered the destruction by fire of all old literature which referred to old tradition. He <.C.A VISIT TO THE GBEAT WALL OP CHINA. a quarrel with the Humanists. from the name Tsin. man. Mr. for a long period of about 2. Chinese i)rade with Persia and. — . It was this great ruler Hwang-ti. that a number of people preferred the former Feudal system. an extreme 'anti-classic of the worst type. But while he tried to destroy the -old Chinese Classics. which dynasty. He was to China what Alexander the Great was to ancient Iran. his quarrel was. Geil places him in the rank of Peter the Great. E.^ formed. It was this king. gave the •country its later name of Chin or China. the founder of the Empire. 201 for short periods between rival rulers. He wanted to introduce a style of writing by which books can be easily composed by the writers and understood by the readers. and husbandry and books on divination.

202

ASIATIC PAPEB,

is said of this Great Emperor who built the Great of China, reminds us of what we are told of Chandragupta^ the father of Asoka. It is said, that Chandragupta was so much, afraid of his enemies who looked at his rise with jealousy, that, to keep them off their watch, he did not sleep in one and the same palace every night, and that, in the same palace also,, he slept in different rooms during the different parts of night. Similarly, it is said of the Chinese king, that powerful as he had become after uniting the different kingdoms, he was not afraid of human beings, but was afraid of evil spirits, who, he imagined, pursued him. So, in order to throw them off their scent, he slept each night in the different rooms of his great palace consisting ot about 1 ,000 bed rooms. He built the wall to keep off the ancient " an Tartars of the Hun nation. But, by what is spoken of as

What

Wall

irony of fate," the dynasty of the same Monchu Tartars recently ruled over China, till overthrown by the formation of theRepublic. To emphasize this change, all the Chinese got their long hair cut off.

The building of this great wall of China, spoken of by the Chinese as Chang,-Ching, i.e., the Great Wall, was preceded, as said above,, by some walls on a smaller scale, here and there. M. Deguignes^ in his History of the Huns, thus refers " to the previous walls China was desolated since a long made by the Tartars living on the the incursions time, by North. Several small kings had erected a long wall on their frontiers to stop them. Tehing-van having become the master of the Empire joined them together and constructed one in his ancient country of Tsin, that which formed what we now call the Great Wall, of which he was not entirely the author as several writers of Europe have written."^ M. Deguignes says, that one may regard this wall built to check the Huns as one of the Wonders of the World (une des marveilles
:

du monde).2
It affected the history of the whole world. generally, and, to a certain extent, properly ^* °^ the downfall of the Roman/- JJf Tir^^f beUeved, that Great waii upon *v® the _, ,i ^,^ rn t 1 It the 5th Century was due to the history oi: the world. Empire eruption of the Teutonic tribes into Roman territories. But the cause which led the Germanic hordes tois
.

The Great Wall

m
.

.

drive towards the Roman territories was the movement of the Hun tribes of Central Asia. The ancestors of these tribes1

I

<I756)
2

Tome

give ray translation from I Partie I p. 19. Ibid, Tome I partie II p. 19.

"

Histoire Ggngrale des

Huns " par M. Deguignes-

A VISIT TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.

iOS"

were, for a long number of years, invading the different countries of the East, and among these, the country of China. The Chinese Emperor having built in the 3rd Century B.C., the Great Wall for the defence of the Chinese Empire against the Huns, the latter turned towards the West. Though, there was the interval of nearly eight centuries between the time (the 3rd Century B.C.) when the Great Wall was built and the time (5th Century a.c.) when the Roman Empire fell, one can well trace the influence of the Great Wall upon the Roman Empire. great event in history exerts its influence for a number of years, both in the country itself and outside of it. The particular tribes of the Huns who were repulsed from China by the construction of the Great Wall turned back and fell upon the Yuechi tribes who were in front of them and drove them further back. The latter in their turn fell upon the Ut-Suivi tribes and drove them back. The latter again fell, upon the Scythic tribes which had extended up to the Caspian sea, and so on.

A

The Early History of the Huns and their paper on " inroads in India and Persia before this Society, I have dwelt at some length on the influence of this great wall, upon the History of China, Rome, India and Persia. In my paper on" The Hunas in Avesta and Pahlavi " in the R. G. Bhandarkar Commemoration Volume (pp. 65-80), I have touched in passing, the question as to who the king was, who defeated and put an end to the Huna supremacy in India ^Was he Yashodharma. (Vikramaditya) or Baladitya ? In this controversy, the history " that of Persia is appealed to, and I have ventured to believe
In

my

"

the credit of the defeat of the Huns belongs to Yashodharma." I will not enter here into the great question of the influence of the Great Wall on the History of the then known world, but pass on, referring my readers to the above papers for details.

The ancient Huns who harassed China were divided intovarious tribes, known under different names in different countriesand at different times. These tribes had, as it were, a continuous war with the Iranians, down from, what may be termed, the prehistoric times of the Kayanian dynasty to well-nigh the end of the Sassanian dynasty. Just as it was Yashodharma who broke the power of the Huns in India, it was Noshirwan
(Chosroes I) who broke their power against Persia. They had some fight with the successors of Noshirwan, but their power was greatly broken by Noshirwan. This brings us to the second: part of my paper, the Wall built by Noshirwan against th©^Khazars who were a tribe or an offshoot of the Huns.

r204

ASIATIC PAPER.
11.

THE WALL OF NOSHIRWAN OF PERSIA.
About 750 years after the above Chinese Wall, Noshirwan of Persia (Chosroes I, 531-579 A.c), built a similar wall to protect his people living on the Caspian shores from the inroads of the ijribes whose ancestors had knocked often at the gates of China

and who were prevented by the Great Wall from entering China, As said above, I speak of NoshirwS,n's wall as a similar wall, not on account of its extent, because it was very small in comparison, but on account of the association of events. It also was, like the Great Wall of China, built against the Huns. Just as the

great wall of China begins from the sea at the Gulf of Pechili Noshirwan's wall began from the Caspian Sea at Darband. Like the Chinese wall, it ran across mountains mountains of the Caucasus range and valleys and is said to have extended upto the Black Sea. Just as our Himalayas form a kind of natural bulwark against invaders from the North, the Caucasus "formed a bulwark running across the regions between the Caspian Sea on the East and the Black Sea on the West The mountains were crossed by two passes, one inland, known as the Darial Pass, and the other, close to the Caspian at Derbend, known -as the Derbend Pass. In fact, the latter cannot strictly be called a Pass because it was a gap between the mountain and the Caspian. The latter was very important, and, as the old name of the place, Bab-al-abwab (door of doors), and the modem ;name Darband (the closed door) signify, it was the Door of Doors or Gate of Gates for the people coming to Persia from the *' North. Prof. Jackson' speaks of it as the Key to Persia," and says, that when Peter the Great of Persia relumed to his country after his conquest of a part of Persia, he carried with him as a souvenir "the keys of the city of Derbend." The ancient Romans spoke of the Pass or Gate as Caspise Portae, Several Arab and Mahomedan writers i.e., the Caspian Gates. .have referred to this work of Noshirwan. Ma90udi2, who lived in the early part of the 10th Century, was one of these.

.

Magoudi, in his Chapter on Mount Caucasus (Chap. XVII) spo-

ken
Noshirwaa accordangtoMagoudi.
^j^^

while speaking of of as El-Kabkh ( ^^1 )^ the city of Bab-el- Abwab (Darband), describes
1

^^^

^^j^^

^^ Kosroe
keep
off
p. 60-

Anoushu-awan
the Khazars,

(U 'j^>'
n

c5'-y-'<^ )

from sea to
Home
of

sea, to

« MaCoudi- was born at the end of the 9th Century at Baghdad. He travelled in India in 912-18 A. c. upto Multan. He was agam in India at Cambay in 915-16. Thenoe *oe went to Ceylon and then to Madagascar. He had travelled on the shores of the Caspian. He died in Egypt in 956-57.

From

Constantinople to the

Omar Khayam,

A VISIT TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.

205-

the Allans, the Turcs, the Serirs and other tribes, who were the offshoots of the great people known under the general nam© He says, that "the Caucasus contained a number of Huns. of tribes, about seventy -two in the least, each ruled by a< separate chief and speaking a separate language. Noushirwan built, at the head of one of the defiles of this mountain, the city of Bab-el- Abwab (Lit. Gate of Gates), the city latterly known as Darband, which is situated at the foot of the Caucasus, on the Caspian Sea known as the Sea of the Khazars ( jj^-'l^aj ). He also built a large extensive wall which began from about a mil© in the sea, and then, ascending lofty mountains and descending deep valleys, ran for 40 pharsangs,^ ending at a place called Tabarestan. This length of 40 farsangs means the distance of about 120 or 160 miles. At the distance of every three miles or nearly three miles according to the importance of the road over which it opened, he placed an iron door near which he installed from the inside of the place a tribe of people to watch it (the gate) and the wall. This rampart was to present an insurmountable barrier to the attacks of the neighbouring such as the Khazars, the Allans, tribes of Kabkh {
f^^),

-

the Turcs, the Serirs and other infidel people (jt^xJt ^|^3| ). In order to visit the cragged summits of the mountains of Kabkh and to run over their length and breadth, it required two months or more. The tribes inhabiting the mountain were so numerous that God alone can count them. One of th e defiles of the mountain ended at the shore of the Caspian near Bab-el- Abwab and another at the sea of Mayatis ( jj^aJojU ^^j j^

where

Constantinople ( y^j^kxk^s ). Over stands Trebizend, a centre of trade. Noushirwan settled the territories of all the above tribes with chiefs ruling over them just as Ardeshir, the son of Babak had done before him in the case of the princes of Khorasan. One of such territories was Shirwan (e^'j^-^), the chief
lies

the

canal

of

this sea (Caspian),

also

of

which

was

called

territory, according to by Mahomed, son of

Shirwan-shah ( ^^-^ ^^Ij^) 2." This Ma9oudi, was ruled over, in his time, Yazed, who traced his descent from
the chief of the Serirs (^i^-^ ) also chief of Khorassan, at the time of
,

Behramgour, from
traced his descent.
1

whom
The

Farsang corresponds to a league, i.e., three miles (Steingass). According to WoUaston, it is a league and three quarters i.e., it comes to about 4 miles. According to Herodotus (Bk. V. 53), an Iranian farsang was equal to 30 stades (" stadiums, or furlongs)," i.e., 3i miles. (According to Webster, stadium was a Greek as well as a Roman measure. It was equal to 600 Greek or 625 Roman feet or 125 Roman paces, or to English 606 feet 9 inches). According to Strabo, some took a farsang to measure 40 stades and others 6o stades. According to the Pahlavi Zadsparam. (Chapt. VI. 8 S. B. E. Vol. V. p, 170) also, a farsang comes to about 20,000 feet, i.e., 30 furlongs. 2 In this account, I have followed the Translation of Masoudi by Barbier De-Meynard et Pavet de Courteille, Vol. II, pp. 1 et $eq.

A

.206

ASIATIC PAPER.

r

Ma90udi, was named Ismail, son of Ahmed. He also traced his descent from Behramgour.^ Later on, Magoudi says of this wall that, ''had not God

*by his rare sagacity, his all-power, and his love for his people, helped with his grace the sovereigns of Persia in the foundation -of the city of Bab-el- Abwab, in the construction of this wall, which extends over the continent {i.e., over land), in the sea and over mountains, in the erection of different fortresses, and in the establishment of several colonies subject to the

regularly constituted powers, there is of Khazars, the Allans, the Serirs,

no doubt, that the kings the Turks would have
i,y. ),

invaded the

territories of

Berdeh,

»^*

Er-Ran

(

u '^Jt

)

Bailaqan, Azarbaijan, Zenjan, Abhar, Kazwin, Hamdan, Dinawar, Nehavend and other countries which, via Koufah and Basra, gave entrance into Irak. Fortunately, God has opposed to their barbarities these barriers, which are necessary to-day .more than ever when the power of Islam gets feeble and declines, when the Greeks rail at the Musulmans, when the custom of pilgrimage falls into disuse, when one does no more hear of sacred war {jehad), when the communications are interrupted and the roads are hardly safe to-day (332 Hijri) when the different chiefs of the Mahomedan countries have isolated themselves and have made themselves independent in their governments, imitating in that (matter) the conduct of the satraps ( «-aj t^laJ ^jIa> ) after the death of Alexander upto the time of Ardeshir, son of Babak, son of Sassan, who re-established the unity of the kingdom, caused the internal divisions to cease, and gave security to the people and culture to the 2 The wall according to Ma90udi, was called Sour etcountry." ,Tien ( 1^^^^ j_y^) ^ i.e., wall of mortar.

t

After Ma9Qudi, Firdousi is the next known author who refers on to the Wall of Noshirwan. He speaks of Noshirwdn's Wall, it under the head of
Firdousi
:

.

i Among one of the pagan tribes of this district, there was prevalent in the time of the custom of what we call Sutee in India. Magoudi thus speaks of the custom : Magoudi, " They bum their dead by placing over the same funeral pile their beasts of burden, their arms and their dress. When a man dies, his wife is burnt alive with him but if a woman dies first, the husband does not submit himself to the same fate. When one dies immarried •they give him a wife after his death. Women desire arduously to be burnt with their husbands to enter with them into paradise (al Jinnat). This custom, as we have already remarked, has prevailed in India where the wife is burnt with her husband only when -she consents." Vol II. p. 9. 2 Mogoudi par Barbier de Mejmard, Vol. II, pp. 72-73.
;
.

'

" A row of stones in a wall a " Arab, mrat '^jjy** and tin C^--'^ strucMire ^lay or mortar. According to Prof. Jackson, the Armenians speak of the Pass across which the wall runs as Pahak Sorai, "i.e., the wall (saur) of protection" (From Constantinople to the Home of Omar Khayam, p. 61, n. 3.)
3
;

I

A

VISIT TO

THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.

207

•o!;^^ J u^^i^ i-^-y "Noshirwan's travels within his kingdom and his constructing a wall on the route of passage between Iran and Turan." According to Firdousi, Noshirwan, after ascending his throne, went on a tour in his dominions. His heralds

shouted to tiie people wherever he went and inquired if th.e subhad anything to say to their sovereign. During this tour, he passed from Gurgan through the country (of Mazendaran) where are situated the towns of Sari and Amoul. The country was very beautiful and he praised God for the creation of such a beautiful
jects

One of his subjects there said to the king, that the vicinity of the Turcs, who passed that way, was a bar to their happiness of living in such a beautiful place. They often came there and plundered the country. The people there, therefore, prayed to the king to relieve them from these frequent inroads. The king sympathised with them. He ordered skilful architects irom other countries and got a wall built there^ under the
Jand.

supervision of an old Mobad.
{i.e., the Porte or gate) or Bab-el- Abwab (the Ga.teof Gates), Noshirwan's behind which Noshirwan had built the above wall according to ^^u^ was latterly known as DarbL.nd (i.e., the aqou -g^^ ^^ ^ Door) or Darband-Sehirwan. Across the two necks of land which form the entrance of the port of the city, they had put up barriers to make the entrance very narrow,

According to

Yaqout,^ the city of el-Bab

.

i/*^-j

li^jlj

A^i-:'

i-^j"
plj

;.

Mjj J

AA,

y^ ^y^j^ jy^^*^

.0>j>*i'

t^^\ ^^^J J

(i^t^

(J^^.

.'.

«*^^^

U*"^

J—J

v'^ j'

'^J^.

\J^

il

^i-i:ooji>A, i^a. /.^^y

?j.j

;.

^j^j

^ij

j^-i"

.^.iij

^

j.jUj

" Mecau's Calcutta Edition Vol, III, p. 1630, M. Mohl's small eJitiou of Le Livre Rois" Vol. VI, pp. 144-45. 1 Dictionnaire Geegraphique, Historique et Litt^raire de la Perse, par C. Barbiex 4e Meyoard (1861). p. 68- Yaquot was born in 1178 a. c.
<les

208

ASIATIC PAPER.

.

and two strong and long chains closed the entrance of ships into the port without authority. Yaqout thus refers to the " Above the citj^ is a wall running from behind this city stone wall which extends over the mountain in the direction ol it is difficult to enter by that way the Mussulman its length countries on account of the difficulty of the routes and the narrow paths which lead to it. Besides this, a part of the wall advances into the city in the form of a promontory and pre: ;

and

vents the ships from approaching. It is built very solidly It is Noushirwan who is the rests upon strong strata. The ancient Kousroes (kings) never lost builder of it.^

sight of this frontier and omitted nothing to make it impregnable on account of the dangerous vicinity (of hostile tribes). They confided its guard to Persian troops of tried fidelity, to whonL they left the possession of all the territories which they could, cultivate with a view to develop the resources of the country and to defend against the Turkish tribes and other infidels." The reason why Noushirwan built this wall is thus described " The Khazar tribe had made themselves masters of the Persian
:

Empire upto Hamdan and Mosul. Noushirwan, on ascending the throne, sent some deputies to ask in marriage, the daughter^ of their king and offering his to him, with a view to cement by that alliance their union against their common enemies. This proposition having been accepted, Noushirwan selected one of He sent her, under the name his most beautiful slave women. of his daughter, to the King of the Khazars, to whom, according;. to custom, he made magnificent presents. The Khakan (the^ King of the Khazars) then offered his own daughter to Khosro. Noushirwan demanded an interview to strengthen the bonds of
friendship between them. They selected a propitious place and the two sovereigns lived there for some time." One day Noushirwan ordered one of his officers to select 300 of his best soldiers and to plunder the camp of the Khakan when they were all asleep. The next morning, the Khakan complained of what happened in his camp at night and asked for an explanaNoushirwan pretended ignorance and said that he would tion. make inquiries which ended in nothing. This was repeated twice. Then the Khakan, being irritated at the culprits not being traced, asked one of his generals to do a similar thing,. When i.e. J to plunder one night the camp of Noushirwan. Noushirwan complained the next morning, the Khakan said : * Your camp has been put to this trouble only once but my
1 Gibbon alludes to the building of the wall and its gate by Noushirwan when he says " The Persian assumed the guard of the gates of Caucasus." (Vol. Ill, p. 120, Edition of 1844). 2 Here, by the expression of exchange of daughters is meant the exchange of the royal brides of each's family.
:

A VISIT TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.
-<jamp has
*'

209

been thrice plundered." Then Noshirwan said : This seems to be the work of evil-minded persons on both sides who wish to create a rupture in our friendship. I propose a project, which will benefit us both, if you accept it." On the Khakan asking, what it was, he suggested that a wall may be built between their territories to prevent the subjects of one entering into the territories of another without permission. The Khakan agreed and the wall was the result. It is said that when it was finished Noshirwan got his throne placed on the dam over the sea upto which the wall was extended and prostrating himself before God, thanked Him for having helped him to finish the great work. He then laid himself down on " I can now rest myself." the throne and exclaimed:
refers to Noshirwan's Wall. I give ^^^^ ^ substance of the portion, which precedes referred to in the the reference to Noshirwan's wall, showing Turkish Derbendthat there existed then, even before the time namah. ^f Noshirwan, a wall known as the Wall of Alexander There reigned in Iran, a king named Kobad who
:

The Derbend-namah^

Noshirwan's wall

ruled over the whole of Turkistan and Ajamastan ( i^^x^-^ap.^ ). Anoushirawan Adil was the son of this King. In the North, there ruled over the Khazar tribe a king called Khakan Shah
55

U

jjlilA.)
)^

j^^^

who Kazan (

also

ruled over Russia

{

/^'^jj),

Moscow

ij;'-)^ ),

Crimea

The

seat of the throne of this

and other countries. ( (*Jj.5 ) Khakan-shah was on the sea-

shore on the banks of the river Adil

Volga). There ( J«i>^ was a constant war between Persia and the Khakan-shah, which was put to an end by a peace, the principal term of which was, that King Kobad of Persia was to marry a daughter of the King of the Khazars. To prevent disturbances in future, Kobad proposed that a boundary wall may be constructed between the frontiers of the Persian territories and the territories of the Khazars. The Khakan proposed
that the wall built

by Iskander Zoulqarnin

(

i^^j i j «^-^^

'

)

may form the boundary and that the Persian king may build The city was built and named Babul- abwab 1> city there.
version
1 Vide Derbend-nameh or the History of Derbend, translated from a select Turkish and published with the Texts and with Notes, by Mirza A. Kazem-Bee. (St. Petersburg 1851). According to Mirza Kazem-Beg, it was WTitten at the end of the l6th
t

i

I

[

century by Mahomed Awabi Aktfichi(jj-«ili2.5| ^^ Ij A^swe) under the patronage of Ohazi Gerai, a brother of Semiz Muharaed Gherai Khan, the Khan of Crimea. This was some time after the Ottomans subdued Aderbaizan and Daghistan in the reign of Sultan Murad III. A Persian translation of this Turkish Derbend-nameh in said to have been made in 1806 (Ibid, p. XI) by one Ali-Yar. Then there hag been another Turkish version laade from the Persian version.

I

14

210

ASIATIC PAPER.

Darbend and many Persians went and settled there. Thi^ being done, Kobad-shah sent the daughter of the Khakan-shab back inviolated to her father's court, apprehensive that, were children to be born of this marriage, such an event might in future ages be a cause of discord between two kingdoms, and might give occasion to the tribes of Khazar to possess themselves of the frontiers of Iran. The Khakan-shah was enraged at thi& conduct of Kobad and wars were again renewed. The new city of Darbend was invaded and Noshirwan, the son of Kobad, defended it. " Then we further read that Noshirwan himself also erected a wall, at the distance of three farsakhs from Derbend which extended to the distance of ninety-two farsakhs." i Thereafter, *' Prince Anoshirwan on the death of his father ascended the throne of the Kingdom and reigned. He filled with warriors all the cities and fortresses lying around Derbend and on the

and himself retired to his metropolis Medayan, frontiers where he remained with a firm resolution to defend the boundaries His object in building these towns of his Empire and fortresses was to prevent Khakan-shah and the Khazarian& Thus from having it in their power to conquer Derbend the ancient kings endeavoured to defend Derbend in order that the Khazars might not gain possession of it for if the Khazars could have taken Derbend, all the kingdoms of Aderbaijan and Ears would inevitably have fallen under their do minion. "2
; ;

*^ ^ reservou: of water built by Noshu-wan at the city. While speaking of the war of Maslama, son of Abdou'l Malik governor of Armenia, with the Khazars, Tabari refers to Noshirwan's reservoir and describes a stratagem whereby the Khazars were made to run away from the city of Bab-al-Abwab. According, to this writer, there lived in the city 1,000 Kazar families. Maslama beseiged the city but to no purpose. One of the Khazars of the city proved treacherous to his tribe, and on the promise of a reward, he undertook to help Maslama. He asked from Maslama 100 sheep and oxen and took them to the reservoir of water built by Noshirwan from which the Khazars in the citadel of the fort drew their supply of water by a subterranean channel. He slew all the 100 animals there and rendered the water bloody. So, the Khazars in the citadet could not drink the water. Being thus deprived of their water^
irwan's spring of water at Derbend.
1 Ibid, p. 7. 2 Ibid. pp. 7-9. a Tabari was born at Amol in Tabaristan in '838-91

Tabari, though referrring to Noshirwan's war with theKhazars, does not refer to his wall. But he refers o 1 on -NT NoshTabariS -i: ^u-ii.i,ATi-rT^
.
,

A

VTi='iT

TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA.

211

by thirst, they left the city. Thus, this stratagem brought the citadel into the hands of the Musulmans. Prof. Jackson, in his second book of travels in Persia, gives us a very interesting account of his visit ^° Noshirwan's Wall and of his researches ac^^i^'t '^^of his vkit^ the^wali.^^ there. We learn from it, that even now, after the lapse of nearly 14 centuries, one sees the relics of Sassanian times there on the banks of the Great

to avoid dying

^

1 The surest evidence of identifying the wall as the " of the Sassanians was the fact that in the stones there were carved the oft-repeated figure of a ring with two lines hanging from it resembling the familiar Sassanian chaplet with streamers. These devisees were generally carved high up at the sides." 2 According to Prof. Jackson, the construction of the wall is of large blocks, four feet in length and two feet in height but only eight inches broad between them. Many of the larger blocks, however, are of still greater proportions.

Caspian.

work

Ibn Takil (903 a. d.) said that it would take fifty men to lift them. All the blocks are carefully set ; and some of the oldest accounts of them speak of their being bound together by cramps of iron, so that they must have formed a perfect breastwork in the days when artillery was not known. "3

That the Khazars, against whom No shir wan built the wall at Derbend, were a tribe of the Huns, is evident from the fact that the Armenians speak of the pass along which the wall is built as Honor Pahak, i.e., the Watch or the protector against the Huns.* It is said that Noshirwan spent a good deal of money on this wall. Finding "his treasury empty for further Azad work, he is said to have paid a surprise visit to " " accumulated enormous wealth at Mohan," who had

Kerman.

Azad Mohan provided a sum of money, sufficient not only to complete the great work, but also to found the city of Astrabad.^
to Deguignes, the Turcs, a tribe of the Huns, frequent inroads in the territories of the Persians near Media or Aderbadgan, were looked at peacefully by the Romans of Justin II, who was now and then at war with the Persians. They were taken to be, as it were, a check upon the Persians of Noushirwan. So, the Persian king, to put an end to their frequent inroads, built a great wall of 40 farsanga a also built Noshirwan city (quarante parsangues).^ there called Darband.

According

who made

j

I

I

1

From

Constantinople to the
a

Home of Omar Khayam
*

(1911), Chap. V.

2

5

Ibid, p. 73. "

Ibid. p. 61.
in Persia

Ten thousand Miles

"

Ibid, p. 61.

by Major

P.

I

6

Histoire General des Huns, par Deguignea

Tome

M. Sykes
I,

(1902), p. 49, Partie II. p. 390.

212

ASIATIC PAPER.

Caterino Zeno, who was in Persia as ambassador from the Republic of Venice in"the 15th Century, thus speaks of Derbend, Derbento is a city which was built in the the city of the w^all passes of the Caspian mountains by Alexander, to resist the incursions of the Scythians, where the pass is so narrow that one hundred resolute soldiers could bar with their pikes the passage of a million of men."i
:

The Derbend-nameh,
Wall of Alexan-

in its

vious wall built

above description, refers to a preby one Sikandar Zu-1-qarnain.

^

word Zul-qarnain means bi-cornous or two horned (lit. master (zu) of two horns (qarn).
rpj^^

There were two Sikandars or Alexanders, who were known by this name. The word qarrdn or horns meant two direcWhat was meant was that the tions, the East and the West. person had conquered the whole world from the East to the West. The first of the two kings known by this name lived in the hoary past, and not much is known about him. The second of the two is Alexander the Great, spoken of by Eastern writers as Ben Phillicus, i.e., the son of Philip.
Tabari refers to the wall near Derbend and speaks of it as the wall of Yajouj and Majouj Gog and Magog). ( ^y^^^ ^ z^^^i From the way he describes the place of the wall, it seems, as if the place was somewhat mysterious and produced jewels of great value. He attributes it to one Zu'1-qarnain without joining the name of Askander to the word. It seems that he means the Sikander Zu-1-qarnain of some hoary antiquity and not Alexander the Great. Though Tacitus and others attribute the wall to Alexander the Great, perhaps the tradition about one Zu'1-qarnain has been transferred to another Zu-1-qarnain.
part of Noshirwan's Wall extended into the sea and there, at the end, formed a kind of protection for *^^ harbour also. We read the following ^ ConstructTnr'the about the process of the extension of the wall "Wall. in the sea in Magoudi's account^ of the 3 reign of Noshirwan. Ma9oudi says
:

A

Travels of Venitians in Persia, p. 44 (Hakluyt Society), quoted by Sykes. Macoudi for Barber de Meynard, Vol. II, p. 196. 3 Macoudi says that the king received the title of Anousharavftn ) ( e; after his victory over Mazdak and his 80,000 followers who were killed in the country " between Jazir and Nahrwan {{j a new ^^® word means ^JJ't^^^JJ *^^)' ^^ ^^^ *^^^ " " king (c^UJ IJ.J iX^)^ Here, Masoudi is wrong, the meaning being immortal souled."
2

1

^J^^

'

The word
soul

is

originally anaosha urvan

(

j*»)>'>*»

m?*")-"

i.e.,

of

undymg
ic)

or immortal

)

in the Avesta,

and Anoshakroban

(^rjy^-»OT

Ardai Vbaf, I,

in the Pahlavi.

in describing this mountain and the Anoushirawan had. . attained then the height of the bank. he very possibly sent for some architects from China also. by E. who from their knowledge of the great Chinese Wall against the Huns might assist him in his work against the then Huns. He built over the (Caspian) sea with the aid of leather bottles of inflated leather. city of El-Bab. China by E.e. Parker. p. "3 The distances of the stages in the route were all measured by Persian farsangs. He must have heard of the cSnr*'°'' Great Wall of China built against the Huns about 800 years before his time.. Mr. Parker. They continued the same work along J-*^ the mountain of ( ^ft-' sea. that Noshir- I . There is no doubt that in those early times there was a trade communication between Persia and China. The leather bottles sank down in water according as the construction (of the wall) was raised over it. It was the cupidity of the later Parthian traders that let slip the land trade from 1 I give 2 3 my translation from the French translation of Barbier de Mej-nard. When they settled at the bottom and the wall came over the level of the water. a wall of rocks {i. as said above. It exists even to-day in 332 (Hijri). long strifes with the kings of the Khazars and they pretend that he built the wall only to intimidate and subdue the peoples which inhabited this country. China. countries. H. and all that part of the wall of which .e. According to Chinese records Parthians carried on a land trade in waggons and sea trade in boats. the the and They opened Kabkh) gates over the territories of the infidels and prolonged the wall across Mount Caucasus in the way. 61. before its construction. the chain.^1*^1 ) from skilful artisans ( China may be one of these countries. when he found his own country open to the inroads of the descendants of these Huns. 21$ * The king was called at the city of El Bab and at the Caucasus by the incursions of the neighbouring kings. stone-slabs) tied together by iron and lead.A VISIT TO THE GREAT WALL OF CHINA. H. The Romans later on began " the the trade by the sea route. Parker.. in his book on wan ordered ^u Persia's Oom- I j I I China2 refers to the early trade of the West with China by the land route of Parthia. the layers have plunged into water is called el keid ( '^t^J I) i. "i I the shore between the Caucasus We learn from Fridousi's account of the wall. the divers armed with daggers and cutlasses broke the leather bottles the wall entering deeply under the sub-marine ground. because it stops the ships of the enemy who attempted to land on this side. So.

in his recently published interesting " " Iranians and Greeks in South Russia book. Most of the Zoroastrians. who Dr.214 ASIATIC PAPER.000 Jews. I Mahomedans and killed in this massacre. In the great massacre of Canton in 879 A. Zoroastrians are said to have been killed. . and their conquest and long stay in that direction that had led to the influence. the hands of the Persians to traded by the sea route. about 120. but some of them may be traders. Christiang. (1922)^ at the of some of on the influence Iranians speaks length South Russia. may be the Zoroastrians driven away from Persia by the Arab conquest. Rostovtzeff. ^ those of the Romans. 0. It was the presence of the Sassanians and their predecessors on the shores of the Caspian.

" the history of Afghanistan interests India and Persia at one and the same time. Paroponise. Tome XVT.tthe afghanistan of the amir and the ancient mazdayacnAns. the Buddhistic and the Hellenic have met there.he Brahmanic. the important centre of the Indo-Scythian Empire. Paraponasus and Drangiana. 69-70 of the separate Extract. quatre religions." (Professor James Darmes" triannual Report of the work done by the Asiatic teter. Yide pp. et Drangiane. il a ^t6 la siege d'un mouvement de civilisation tres intense et tres ^varie c'est de 1^ que la civilisation grecque a rayonne sur i'lnde . at the time of the visit of India by the lat« Amir of -Afghanistan in 1907. in his of Journal Asiatique. i. because it oscillates in turn in the orbit of one or the other. Paris. Arachosie. " of the late This pap3r was contributed to the ** East and West M. later on.i *' L'histoire de I'Afghanistan interesse k la fois I'lnde et la a tour k tour oscille dans I'orbite de I'une ©t de I'autre. it was from there that the civilisation of Greece had radiated over India. s'y sont juxtaposes et semblent y avoir vecu en paix sous la tutelle des rois barbares. le Mazdeisme. four religions the Mazdayagnjin. As Professor Darmesteter says. Sous les successeurs d'Alexandre en particulier. as the Amir is one of the three great potentates of Islamic faith. our benign Government and our beloved -country. Malabari. The Mahomedans look upon this visit with particular interest. The Parsees look upon it with great interest It is the ruler of a •Mr. it has been the seat of a movement of a very great and varied civilisation . Arachosia. Four civilisations. under the names of Arie. car il ." for the years 1888-1890. s'y sont rencontres. Under the successors of Alexander in particular. il a ete plus tard le premier centre de I'empire indo^"Perse." • country with such glorious past associations T^ho visits our country now. quatre civilisations. sous les noms d'Arie. pp. and of the Mahomedans and Parsees in particular. 1 . It has been. His visit. have been in juxtaposition there and appear to have lived there — in peace under the guardianship of uncivilised kings. has drawn towards itself the attention of all the various communities in general. et rHelldnisme. B. scythe . Society Huitieme serie. le le Buddhisme. 83-84. as the friend of our august Emperor. Brahamanisme.

"the Afghans. entitled "^ '^aHi'll'l'l^dM *H^ a>i^C-a >ll6/t?^^HMl" in my "^I'l MVWi f^^l^ll" Part III. From these positions they. ruled many of the kings of the ancient dynasties of Iran." ^^U =»Hi3lH ^^^^ a>i^ HSil^ Ml^^l . It is a country over which. on his visit to this city. at one time. if the monarch of a land. ' ' 1 Vol. It is a country a part of which was. "the traditions of this people refer them to Syria as the country of their residence at the time they were carried away into captivity by Bukhtunasar (Nebuchadnezzar). II (1799) pp. vide also. entitled. " History of the Afghans "^ . emigrated eastward into the mountainous country of Ghor. 15. We find in the Asiatic Researches^. Bellew. Bellew (1880) p. It is a country which cherished. It is a country which was. . according to Firdousi. as pointed out by Professor Darmesteter in the passage quoted at the top of this paper. For the Advance of Eiissia in Afghanistan" vide my Letters. a letter from Henry Vansittarb to Sir William Jones. in the opinion of some.8. at some subsequent period. where ' they were called by the neighbouring peoples Bani Afghan "^ and Bani Israil. and if. giving an abridged outline of their early history. translated by Bernhard Dorn. the brother of Joseph. as given by the Afghans themselves in a work called Asrdr-ul Afdghinah or the ''Secrets of the Afghans. with which such of their old associa* tions are connected. the seat of their Mazdaya^nan religion and of their ancient Iranian civilisation. vide my Lecture in Gujarati. 67-7. It is a country whose ancient history and geography are referred to in their old scriptures and in their later Pahlavi and Persian literature. up to a late period. the ancient traditions of Iran which supplied to Firdousi a great part of the materials for his ShahnStmeh. at one time. PP. there has been a difference of opinion among scholars. was a descendant of Judah. Part I (1829). and planted as colonists in diffe'tent parts of Persia and Media.5. of Benjamin.216 ASIATIC PAPER. His Majesty's country of Afghanistan is a country which has many of the old associations of their history connected with it. the son of Jacob and according to others. 1-23. as feudal chiefs by the celebrated Kustam and Zal. for the reason that. then.^^rt?l^i axi^sA onoirt" in the jam-i Jamshed of Bombay of 7. they give expression to their feelings of respectful welcome. For a brief outline of the History of the Afghans upto now. 9. are the posterity of Melic Talut (King Saul) who. The Afghans themselves trace their descent from the Jews. by Niamet UUah." According to Dr. 10 and 12 November 1887. his country was.' or children of Afghan and children of Israel. the cradle of their religion and the home of some of their early forefathers. It is no wonder." We read there that. In this connection. ruled over. according to their own traditions. 2 The Uaces of Afghanistan' by H W. On the subject of the origin of the Afghans and of their language. at one time. is looked upon by the Parsees with esteem and respect.

the Afghans. and on the west by the desert of Persia. * The above Report p. He says: phonetisme afghan ne presente ancmi des traits essentiels de I'lnde et presente tous ceux qui sont essentiels a la famille iranienne. we see that the Afghans are believed to be a remnant of the lost tribes of Israel. 12. non au rameau car dans les traits characperse." and that thejT. . and from the numerous proofs we possess of their gradually the west of Asia that the having advanced from Afghans are a remnant of the lost tribes of Israel. . ( I 1 I much reduced in area. as it were. who had come to India in 1886-87. by the term Afghanistan we must imderstand "all that region which is bounded on the north by the Oxus.Bemarks pp. b-r Hi W. — ' . in his recent book of the Semitic Race. "3 Up to the beginning of the . but in America that it was from America that the ancient Israelifces migrated to Asia and that it was in this migration from America to Western Asia via the Behring straits. and had stayed for several months at Peshawar and Abbot abad. . after the lapse of twenty-five centuries from the Jewish captivity from their great and decided difference in feature from any other people. XVII-XVIII. il se rattache. Afghans were Israelites.^ suit : The Afghanistan of the present time is ^» It is not what it once was. and on the south by Balochistan on the east by the middle course of the Indus." left in their modem country as an offshoot of the I As to Pushtu. It " Le was the Zend of Arachosia. As Dr.are believed to have ** the west of Asia. c'est le Zend qu'il le Zend de Arachosie". J " Dictionary of tlie Pushto " by Capt. 70. le zend differe ^utrement I'Afghan est du Perse. came to the conclusion that the Pushtu belonged to the Iranian stock. Bellew (1880). 217 I am inclined to conclude from the have shown to exist between the Pushto and the Semitic and Ir^niftn dialects. from the numerous traditions on the subject from the Levitical customs still prevalent Captain Raverty says *' : — great afiinity I . that the among .THE AFGHANISTAN AND THE ANCIENT MAZDAYACNANS. the language of the Afghans. . mais au rameau zend — A . Bellewsays. . p." Mr. Fitzgerald gradually advanced from " The Greater Exodus and the Cradle Lee. an offspring of the ancient Zend. teristiques ou dit. a The Races of Afghanistan. Kaverty (1860). the late Professor James Darmesteter. and that it was." "tries to show that the cradle of the Semitic race is not in Western Asia as it is generally believed. Tinterieur de cette famille. on a special errand to study Pushtu. "^ Thus. Introductorj.

who is also known in Parsee books by ^ the name of Jam. of the cup of Nestor in Greece.. who was be their ancestor. 2. The tradition of the Jehan-numai Jam {i. whose body had overgrown the usual size of a child in the womb of his mother. were Jaboul and Kaboul in Afghanistan. said of Afghana. the later equivalent of its Avesta form Yima. at the very frontiers of Afghanistan. A Now coming to the question of the ancient history of the coimtry of Afghanistan and its connection with the ancient Iranians or Zoroastrians. eighteenth century. and Afghans by H. 'the place of Light or. 75-92." i. This cup of Jamshed reminds one of the cup of Joseph in Egypt (Genesis. the world-showing cup) of Jamshed and Kaikhosru is connected with a tdMb. 5). . The first word that his mother is said to have " uttered on her being relieved of her pains was Afghana.e.:518 ASIATIC PAPER. For example. in other words. Videnxy 1 " 2 3 Vide my paper in Gujarati " Shah Jamshed and Jam-i -Jamshed " pp. itself is said to be a mere euphonism of Khoristan or the country of the sun'.^rea known by the name of Khorassan. L. Afghanistan was included in the general name of IChorasan. and of the Holy Grail of Christ. as mentioned It is l)y Firdousi. Huitigme serie. 527. xliv. Stance du 8 " Part i Asiatic papers Asiatique. on the advice of the Simurg. a pond.. had its name associated with thenameofKingJamshed. "I am relieved (of pains). many traditions about the ancient Iranians. the first word she is said to have uttered " was Rastam. of the cup of King Kaid in India. Tome XIV (1889) p. Bellew says "that both (Afghanistan and Baluchistan) were divisions of an extensive geographical The word Khorassan ." This word is similar story is said to have given the name to the child. read before La Soci6t6 Asiatiqe de Paris. expressing a feeling of" relief from pains.^ " Afghanistan. when going to the fort of Ali Masjid in the Khyber Pass in 1877.e. said of Rustam that. W. 'the East/ ''the Orient as being the easternmost or Indian "^ province of the ancient Persian Empire of Cyrus and Darius ' ' The believed to name Afghanistan comes from one Afghana.e.. figMn. Tradition attributes to him the same sorb of semi -miraculous birth as that attributed to the Iranian hero Rustam. Dr. i. 181-82.' Etymologic populaire desncmsdes gtapes entre Novembre 1889 (Journal Kabul ". When relieved of her pains after the birth of the child." a word of complaint or lamentation from Pers. " PIchaver et Vide my paper. said to be in the neighbourhood of this fort. whose home and country." This word gave the name to the child. his mother Roudabeh had to go through a surgical operation to give birth to Rustam. we find that we have. situated on this side of the Khyber. I heard that the fort of Jamrud. Bellew (1870) pp.

Though scholars differ in the identification of some places. Urva. some of the places of worship mentioned in the Aban Yasht as those where some of the grandees of ancient Iran prayed for strength of body and mind to attain their objects of desire.THE AFGHANISTAN AND THE ANCIENT MAZDAYACNANS. Ereziphya. -^nd the Etymander of the Greeks. the Haetumat of the Avesta. Vaiti-gaesa. are the places of Afghanistan. the mount Hosh-dastar. there is no doubt that many of the cities.2 one has to look to Afghanistan. They have been identified with several towns of this country." .^ one has to look to the East and to the country of Afghanistan. Stein. Many of the places. are to be found in this part of the country. The region of Frazdan was the first place in Seistan where Gushtasp is said to have promulgated the religion of Zoroaster. referred to as the residences of the apostles. mentioned in the Vendidad. vide my Dictionary of Avestic Proper names". and especially to Seistan for the identification of most of the places mentioned in it. we have to look to the The Paroponessus. Hoshedar and Soshyos. which is the Haetumand of this Pahlavi Treatise. be- longed to Afghanistan. associated therein with the name of Zoroaster.The mountain Khanvant of the Tir Yasht is identified with the Bamian mountains of Afghanistan. such as the Ushidarena. we find that many of the towns and localities of Afghanistan are mentioned in the Avesta. the wellknown traveller of Central Asia. which is connected with Afghanistan. Haroyu. mentioned in the first chapter of the Vendidad. and Pouruta. all belong to this part of Afghanistan. Coming to the Pahlavi treatise known as Afdiya va Sahigiya i-Sistan. Bftkhdhi. Vaekereta. Lakes Frazdftn and Kansu. According to Dr. Shatroiha-i Airau Afdih na Sahighih-i Seistan. referred to as the holy mountain of the inspiration of the prophet. It was the very oradle of Zoroasfcrianism. and Ishkata. Coming to the Yashts. even now there lives a tribe •called Ki^nian on the banks of the Helmund. Haravaiti and Haetumant. places connected with the name of Keresaspa and King Oushtasp. ^ome of these. For places like Sughdha. For most of the places mentioned in the Meher Yasht. notably the Paesanangha (the modem Peshin) valley and the FrazdAna lake. Zamyad Yasht gives a long list of the mountains of Ancient Iran. have been identified with the mountains of Afghanistan. 219 Again. such as Ishkata. Vide my Transliteration and Translation of "Aiyadgar-i-zaririin. The Pahlavi of 1 light For the treatise of Shatroih^-i-Ir^n throws a good deal on the question of the connection of the ancient kings " 2 identiflcation of these names.

Some scholars identify the Vaekereta of the Vendidad. which may be termed Outer " Nimruz (which was another Sistan. 3 Ihid. Vol. may suppose two territories. I think it is the latter."^ ' ' According to the above mentioned Pahlavi treatise. According to Magoudi. name of Seistan) included the modem Sistan. referred to in the (modem ' — Atash Niayash. 8 Vide the " Invasion of India by Alexander the Great *' by M'Crindle p. 207. and heroes of Iran with Seistan.220 ASL\TIC PAPER.^ another Arab geographer. 183. F. Goldsmid. tradujt en Francais Prem-partie p. i. by foundation we must.. which may be termed Sistan Proper/ the other detached and irregular. 262. one com- We pact and concentrated. and some the Urva of the Vendidad with Cabul^. IV. lately discovered 1 by an English It is the locality of this fire-temple that was civil officer doing duty in Seistan. The above Pahlavi treatise attributes its foundation— and in the case of many of the towns referred to by it. pp. It is the fire-temple of Kerkoe. "it is somewhat embarrassing at the present day to define the limits of the province of Sistan. It is the Ortospana of the ^vriters who describe the travels of Alexander the Great. which again latterly became Cabul. 88. Kavul Cabul) was at one time considered to be a part of Seistan. ^ Tabari indirectly supports the statement which connects Bahman Asfandyar with Cabul. Bellew. it hence received the name of Nimroze. in the short space of half day by the G^nii." of Khorassan. e. *' " Journey from Bunder Abbas to Meshed by Sistan by Pre — ceedingsof the Royal Geographical Society."2 As to the name Nimroz " was once entirely applied to Seistan. which represents but a trivial portion of the area included in the Sakistan of the Greeks and the Sajestan or Sijistan of the Arabs. this Carura later became Caboura.traduit par Barbler de Meynard. 331 9 Macoudi. Bellew. " " 6 Vide Gujarati Geography of the Age of the Avesta my Strabon. * Ousley's Oriental Geography p. According to Edrisi. e. Vol."! According to Dr. 73. p. Bahaman. XXII. also understand re-building or embellishment to Artashir-i-Spendadat. which forms an important part of Afghanistan. Sir J.^ According to Ptolemy. half a day. but having been drained. " 2 " From the Indus to the Tigris by Dr. the whole of Sijistan country is included in the more extensive region " " " ^. no king could assume the title of Shah until he was enthroned at Kabul. Another name of this Ortospana was Carura. 267. J.^ this Bahman had founded in Seistan the fire -temple of Kerakeran.. According to Dr. at times. tradition says that it under water. Gold^inid. par Jaubert I p. 5 Geographie d'Edrisi. the son of Gushtasp. J » . Further. p. the son of Asfandyar. The Arab geographer Ebn Haukal^ supports this statement.

in the well-known fight between the eleven heroes of Iran and the eleven heroes of Turdn. 221 Next to Cabul.* Ma^oudi^ and Edrisi^ consider this city to be one of the principal cities ot Seistan. Mohl IV p. 1 Ibid. Mohl IV. 2 -8 * 5 <5 ^ S 9 ^0 11 1« M4 *5 l» Vide mv Translation of this treatise p. 372. It was. Edrisi.^ ' ' Bost is another principal city of Afghanistan referred to in connection with the ancient Zoroastrians. 124. who had flourished 100 years after Zoroaster and who was the preceptor of a hundred disciples whom he had brought to the fold of Zoroastrian religion." it was founded. the last part har being a later addition.^ it was also kno^\'n as Rahput. p. I p. belonged. 442. Belle w. According to Magoudi. "1^ Vishtasp (Gushtasp) and his other family-chiefs are said to have belonged to this city. 126. Ousley's Oriental Geography p. p.THE AFGHANISTAN AND THE ANCIENT MAZDAYACNANS. ^^ according to another Pahlavi treatise. V 302. 89. two or three fire -altars and some Sassanian coins were found. 79-80. According to the Pahlavi *' treatise of the Cities of Iran. p. Perhaps. p. Vide my Translation. XIII. D'Anville's Ancient Geography II p. Ebn Haukal. Mohl III . Yt. This to^vn of Bost had derived its name from Bastvairi of the Farvardin Yasht. 417. Klnneir's Persian Empire p. Some scholars have identified it with the Khanent of the Vendidad. which. According to Dr. According to D'Anville. to this city. 64.^ Kinneir. 589. 91. or rather rebuilt and embellished. is also known as the river of Bost. 418. *' at the time when king Vishtasp was in the adjoining district of lake Frazdan to promulgate the religion of Zoroaster. de Meynard II pp. Saena Ahum Satudan of the Farvardin Yasht. 252.^^ the Bastur or Nastur of the Shahnameh. From the Indus to the Tigris. Fttfe my translation. as fomided by Reham of Godrez.io it is the Abeste of Pliny. Reham and Godrez killed Bftrman. Malcolm's History of Persia. It is the town which. according to the Shahnameh. Afdiya va Sahigiha-i Sistan. 207. Kandhar. 175. Vide also p. So. 190. p. according to Ma^oudi. after his having killed a Turanian officer.i^ on some excavations being made there at the time of his travels. B. or Khandhar is another important oity of Afghanistan.^ Kaikhosru gave to Rustam as a gift on his retirement from the throne. 103. situated on the Helmand. p. It was the centre of the promulgation of the Zoroastrian religion in its «arly years.^^ who founded it. it seems to be the city of Ravad spoken of in the Pahlavi Shatroiha-i-Iran2. par Jaubert. it is the Raibad of Firdousi's Shah-nameh according to which.^ and Malcolm.

Vide my Translation p. important city " Cities of Iran. capital of th& the Parthian province of Anaban and at that time a place of great As to Zavulastan or Zaboul. whose praises are sung in the Aban Yasht. Zarinje of Ebn HaukalS who calls it the largest city of Seistan. 10 Dictionnaire Geographique par B. According to Arab writers. 73.. 517. " 3 " Dictionnaire Geographiqne &c. Zarang or Dooshaka on the Helmund was made the capital.^^ The river Ardvi^ura. Ardeshir Babegan is dynasty. and Zarend of Edrisi^ who calls it the principal city of Sedjestan or Seistan. It speaks of Rustam as the Shah of Javulastan. 38. de Mejoiard. Empire p. that the district Ardvicu(ra).^ and Zavulastan. 12 Ibid.222 ASIATIC PAPER.. that the name Aksu has some connection with Gordon. de Meynard. My Translation p. the splendour and extent. 1 S. the name of Afrasiab is conin this city. par B. 2 Mom III p.^i nected with it. 92. p. It is the Zaranga of Ptolemy. one of its principal tributaries. 91 . p.^ this Fariab was founded by Kaikobad. We leam from Col.de Meynard IV. 5 Kinneir's Pers. the founder of the Sassanian said to have rebuilt and embellished this city.temple of K^rkoe referred to above as being founded in Seistan was situated In its early history. *? 11 MaQoudi. C S. de la Perse. district roimd Gizni and Cabul name. 37. is identified by different scholars with different rivers of Central Asia. . parB. the Zaboulastan of Pirdousi. the Fariab of Firdousi. The fire. 92. which is the^ having changed its coiu-se from there. p. 414. 208. The name Oxus is derived from Aksu. They are Fariav. At first Ram Scheristan^o on the banks of the Helmund was the capital of Seistan. 193. 9 Edrisi par Jaubert I p. that it is the Oxus. * Ousley's Oriental Geography p. My Translation P. but the river The next of Seistan is Dooshak. 506. D' Anville's Ancient Geography II. Geiger in taking. and I think. 203 and 207. This city seems to be the Fer h of Ebn Haukal. later on. I agree with Dr. Tabari par Zotenberg III. (Artaxerxes). a large part of which runs from the dominions of the Amir.^ was then known by that. Shatroiha-i Iran S. 65. King Kaikhosru added splendour to it. 442. " The Pahlavi treatise the Cities of Iran "^ attributes to Rus^ tarn the formation of two cities of Afghanistan. p."* It is the Zerenj of the Pahlavi treatise of the of calls the who it Tabari^ Zerandj capital of Seistan.^ It is " Parrah mentioned in ancient geography. 38. 8 Ousley's Oriental Geography pp.

and in ten years more all had been converted to the Shiah form of the Muhammadan faith. supports Since crossing the Pass of Ish Kashm. whence the Oxus flows. . and many of them flocked into Shighnan as followers of the Shahi-Kiiamosh. we says had seen the ruins of three Kaffer forts. another named Maichun close Kila of the Khandut and third. 141-42. still exist in| Wakhan one called " " in the the Ishtrak district. the seat of whose government was then at Balkh. which ended in this leader wresting the kingdom from Kahakuh. He Wood. the ruler of Shighnan and Roshan under the Zardushtis. Gordon. said by the natives " " to have been erected by the (fire-worAtashparastan " Kahkaha " in shippers). close to the hamlet of Issar. Kila Zanguebar. 223^ of the Pamirs. The ruins of three forts. ruler of the Zardushtis. Sangibar. which the natives beiieve to have been erected by the Guebers or fire -worshippers » one called Sumri. Gordon (1876) pp. vicinity to the hamlet of Hissar. The first was the residence of the hill countries. I have elsewhere mentioned the repugnance with which a Badakhshi blows out a light. . had a Zoroastrian population as late as about 700 years ago. After this the teaching of the people continued. who was a Syud and a Fakir. *• The Eoof of the World " by Col. the family of the Shah of Shighnan originally came from Persia."^ I j i ! i i travelled in the Pamirs in 1837. and a religious war commenced. and the first arrival from that country (said to have been between 500 and 700^ years ago) was the Shah-i-Khamosh. it is probable that proselytising expeditions were sent into Wakhan and the neighbouring ** and extended their operations even to Sirikol and Kunjut. who " : . . II . There were already at this time Musulmans in the neighbouring coimtry of Darwaz. gaining all over to the Shiah faith which they now profess. The coimtry was at that time in the hands of the Zardushtis (ancient Guebers. Similar lingering remnants of Zoroaster's creed are to be detected Lieut. a powerful and learned race. He says : According to Shighni accounts. The Shah-i-Khamosh commenced to teach these people the Koran. In about ten years he had converted large numbers of the people.THB AFGHANISTAN AND THE ANCIENT MAZDA YACNANS. fire -worshippers). If this be true. named Kakah and the last. in the neighbourhood of Kundut another in the vicinity of Ishtrakh.

Wakhani considers it bad luck to blow out a light by the breadth. and will rather wave his hand for several minutes under the flame of his pine-slip. 333. Part I (1898) pp. A Si^ii «i>HctHi ^^MS. For a Brief account and history of Baluchistan on the South of Russia. than resort to the sure but to him disagreeable alternative."^ 1 Wood ' S " Personal Narratives of a Journey to the source of the River Oxus For the Pamirs Vide my * Gujarati ' Lectures entitled "Ml^O^l'll ^^-<i <841) p. ^Jiitl in my Dnyan Prasarak Essays. vide my Gujerati Lecture. ASIATIC PAPER. 96-134. part II pp.224 here. 150-168. (>^m ^m d^ii^Ll^ an^vii^-i-Hi' ^(^im ^[^ (al^iii ni^i" . en titled* '<*ie|=Hl^ctH'Hi Wil^^l "HM'iRl ^5(i" in my Dnyan Prasarak Essays.

London Institution. and in the and moreover. who lived probably in the second century A. Therefore it is better to be a male and since I am one. PARALLEL TO THOSE OF TWO GREEK AND CHINESE ANECDOTES. in the first place. the former being rated more highly than the latter. a Greek and not a barbarian birth had happened to fall within the life -time of Socrates. That is my third ground for happiness. that his >ocond. a passage. because he had been bom a man and not a beast secondly.. In the Bulletin (Vol. anecdotes from Chinese and Greek ^School of \\ been ritings. 33). ''Two Parallel Anecdotes in " (J reek and Chinese. under the heading. Lionel <4iles gives.C. Abiding in the normal state. God created all things. bom having Chinaman: "What is it that He replies "I have a great deal to make me happy. and of all His crea* It has fallen to my lot to be a man tions man is the noblest. Giles gives another passage from Diogenes Laertius VII. Giles quotes from Plutarch's Life of Marius wherein Plato (§ 46). Then there is a •distinction between male and female. . and reaching at last the appointed end. some are born who never behold the sun or the moon and who never emerge from their swaddling-clothes. : : . Furthermore. 009-11) of the Oriental Studies. "gave thanks to his familiar spirit and to Fortune for that. he had been bom a man and not a brute devoid of reason. Avherein persons express their satisfaction for in a certain condition. II Part IV (1923) pp. ground for happiness. Mr. parallel Greek passage. I have a second ground of happiness. PRE8ENiJNG PASSAGES. •on the approach of his death. 15 . According to this authority. death the appointed end for all human beings. because lie was a male and not a female and thirdly. Poverty is the normal lot of the scholars.A PARSI PRAYER. in his Lives. what is there that should make me " that is my first . unhappy ? (6) As a (c) Mr. he used to say that he gave thanks to Fortune for three things in particular firstly. Mr. (a) makes you happy Confucius asks an old " ? : . But I have already walked the earth for the space of ninety years." . a Greek iiid not a barbarian." (I. attributes to our philosopher (Thales) a saying which is sometimes told of Socrates. " Avhich says Hermippus.

" Troisi^me Volume pp. the Heavens have moved in their full splendour. It is also translated by him in his " Une Priere Judeo-Porsane " (1891) p]x 7-11. not a beast. not a female. I. to Now. jitilii t^i-^-s u«-jI*^ <:}i)^ r^ Lr-3 This praj^er of Praise is to be recited every day in the Havan gah aftei the recital of the Nyaishes of Khursbid and Meher. From day the very beginning of creation (bun-dahishneh) till this (im-ruz). because. the Earth in its extensive width. the rivers in their full length. It is given in Avesta characters in the Pei*sian Rivayet of Darab Hormazdyar. 411-41o. Pheroze Shapurjee Masani It is translated into (1920). French by Prof. the sun in the high heavens. not a barbarian a Male. («) a Man. Darmesteter in his " Le Zend Avesta. we have a Parsi thanks -giving prayer which refers some similar parallel causes of happiness. not a female. pp. with Gujarati translation. the waters in their running course..The in Pazend and is given in full in Avesta characters prayer is " in the Pazend Texts " (pp. 206-7) by Ervad Edalji Kersaspji Antia (1909). ' . thanks God for the following favours. the worshipper For the ages that have passed with prosperity (nek (1) zaman) and not with adversity (anakih or halakih-i-zaman). Da-rab Hormazdyar's Rivayat by Ervad Maneckji Rustomje with an Introduction by me (1922). —Having been born (c) (6) a Male.e. The prayer is known as Nemaz-i-Dadar Hormazd ( ^j^j^i j'»i'«i j^*^). dying early.226 ASIATIC PAPER. published by the Trustees of the Funds and Properties ot the Parsee Panchayat. 1-9. This prayer is given in Gujarati" characters in Parsee Prayer-books Icnown as Tamam Khordeh Avesta. in this prayer. we find the following to be the causes for which the parties felt happy :-t(1) Chinese.giving prayer. in his Pazend Setayish ba raaeni" pp. 187-190. Vol. In this Pazend thanks. —Having been bom (c) [a) a Man and not a beast (6) a Greek. * Unwala. we read the following : — j^^xi iy^jj\ i. by Mr. not (2) Greek. It is recently published in* Gujarati characters. This is not a daily recited prayer. but it is recited by few and on rare occasions. Growing up to ripe old age. From these Chinese and Greek passages.* As the heading of the prayer. there is much of thanks to Dadar Hormazd .

Aryan or Iranian un -Iranian). that the following present parallels to the blessings mentioned in the above Chinese and Greek writings. such as the high heaven. pp. PRESENTING PASSAGES. that (6) meals be taken silently after the recital of grace (baj. good dress. good eye -sight. Some cognate Beliefs among other Nations" (Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay of 1917. (5) a Male (mard) and not a Female For (God or the Prophet) having conmianded. good sense.A PARSI TRAVK^. moon and stars in their All this will continue from now to the Day of Resurrection (Rastakhiz). or slave (bandeh). such as. brethren. For having been bom (a) an . 227 full brilliance.4/r i. They are (a) of having been bom in the * According to the Mah Nyaish. vazkhur). There are two other blessings in the Parsee prayer which require a mention.) religion (hu-din). fertile land. Vide n>y paper on "Tlie Ancient Iranian Belief and Folklore aVjout the Moon. in the passage of thanks for the full enjoyment of all God's creations. the Moon has some influence on the good growth of the cattle. (6) a man (not a beast). {d) The Chinese blessing of living a good old age has a parallel. use of hands and feet. (4) (Chihr-i- For having been For having been bom bom Free (azad). the brilliant fire. the cattle- seeded moon*. and the sun.) . (2) (and not an For having been bom of the race of Man (3) inarduman) with powers to hear. and (c) with the enjoyment of all physical and mental powers. the Halo or The Glorj' of a reigning monarch fKhoreh-i Padshah). running waters. modest handsome eloquence in an assembl^^ (anjuman). (c) a male and not a female. Having been bom (a) An Iranian not a non -Iranian. the warming sun. useful trees and herbs. corresponding to the Greek blessing of being bom a Greek and not a Barbarian. wisdom. (b) and a follower of the good (Mazdayasnan. deserving thanks to God. good food. of For being in a position to see and enjoy all the gifts (7) God. sweet joyments (Ram khastra). we find. repose.e. 302-26. F?V?e mv '• Anthropological Papers" Part II. and not talking loud (darayan). cheerful friends. though not direct.. companions. and not a bonds- man (zan). iir>od clothings and all such blessings (ham a neki). the trees in their growth. From among this long list of blessings. and near ones and all good en- women. speak and see.

and (c) when we find. I am ! 1 Avakhshaishnigar. . Prof. When we look to the fact. I am under obligation by (my) words. (b) when we remember the fact that according to the older Avesta. who is worthy of praise and holy. the Parsis and the Jews. Masani adds before Darab Hormazdyar's Rivayat gives avakhshaishgar. the Chinese. 1. maitre du monde. Wlio the question as to borrowed ? the Parsees from the Jews. I am under obligation by (my) deeds. We are led to agree with him." (p. women are represented as holding a high position in society. perpetually well -preserver. one who makes (others) powerful. omniscient. Adoration to Ahura Mazda.bove four people. notre Dieu. Creator. it awaklisliidar. Une Priere Judeo-Persane. Ph. femme. glorious. Prof. as Darmesteter has said. wise. successful worker. the brilliant. the first two are common with the Parsi prayer and the third is common to the prayers of all the a. or the Jews from the Parsees ?" He concludes that it were the Parsees who borrowed. especially from the point of view of the parallel of the prayer offering thanks to God for being born a male and not a female. we are easily inclined to think.prayer : — " paper with my Translation of the Parsee TRANSLATION OF THE NEMAZ-I DAdAR HORMAZD. the borrowing may have been by the Persians from the Jews.228 ASIATIC PAPER. ivho perpetually keeps away harm.. (a) that the Parsee prayer is comparatively later. ! tion. .. Ahura Mazd I am under your {toi) obligaunder obligation by (my) thoughts. that good times 2. He gives the following three *' forms " : — Beni soit I'Eteniel. not a bondsman. good (Mazdayasnan) Faith and (6) free. Darmesteter has. that. Darmesteter discusses " I conclude this . that in the Avesta. victorious king. O Dadar I am thankful to Thee.. (a) qui ne m'a pas fait n ait re idol at re." shown the parallels of these in the Jewish Litany of the morning prayer. 11. in his above referred to paper. victorious monarch. (6) qui ne m'a pas fait naitre esclave (c) qui ne m'a pas fait naitre . Mr.) Of these three. . the Greeks. pardoner perpetually good doer. the holy spirits of pious women were invoked and honoured like those of pious men. powerful i.

and peace. like fertile land. the river (in its) full beautiful. the moon brilliant.e. the sky has " the earth in (its full) width. every day. miswritten for va in. and sense.A PARSI PRAVER. that you have made me an Air (Airyan. length. trees growing. evidently a mistake. Antia has Aliuia Mazda for im roz. 2 Ervad Antia gives Ziya properly gives ziba. like the sun. and light to my eyes. a thousand times. that you {Jcet) created me Man by nature ! ! and that you (o-t) gave (me the powers of hearing and speaking and seeing and you created me free (azad). Ph. a a member of Veh-din and the Zoroastrian Iranian) {i. thousands of thousand ! ! times . like the glory of a king. like the high heavens.related brethren.^ and from to-day till the Resurrection of the future body been (and will continue to be) (tan pasin). the sun shining. and the stars in the heavens lam . and not one (eating while) talking. waters nmning. prosperous Avith treasure and wealth. not female. thankful with deeds. like a modest. Darab Hormazdya's Pvivaynt Air is for Airya. 5 Darab Horniazdyar's Rivayat gives arzhomand. 3. like running (ravashnimand) water. handsome brilliant woman. and that you (chihar) ) created me a (silent) eater with the recital of grace crea- (vaz-khfir) 5. to Thee My Adoration God ! because I see Thy tions. for Air.^ and nearly. Masaui has va in. 22i> I am thankful. and not slave and that you created me Male. 4. brilliant fire. thankful. O Dadar Ahura Mazda I am under obligation to Theo with my thoughts. and all these ^ good things according to my desire. burning. like the cattle-seeded moon. like the red. that bad times have not arrived. like vegetable and \^ood and trees and valuable (arzhomand) ^ clothes. the Sun high (in the Heavens). luive arrivtd. like a sweet tongue (hizvan) that may be liked and adored in an assembly. like pleasant friends and neighbour. PRESKNTING PASSAGES. O Dadar thankful to thee. good religion) and that j^u gave me intelligence. and -(like) all thy thmgs which are prosperous. 3 Ervad Antia has Hajr wrongly k . and hands and feet.> day. I am thankful with thoughts. like desirable which must be i:>leasure (and) like one's own (good) thoughts honest. under obligation with my words. pleasant food and good apparel. 4 Antia has nin. Dadar I thank thee from (my) thoughts. O Dadar I am under your 3 obligation for this. words and deeds. that from the beginning of the creation till thi. for Ziba. Dadar Aliura Mazd I am thankful with words. full of 1 Ervad. under obligation with deeds.

Translation. Greek and Jewish writings. Mr. not dispersed as in the first " read Sepas daram prayer but all united in one passage. as said above. . so that they may be liked by God.e.230 ASIATIC PAPER. we find the three forms of prayer. Antia. he seems to have missed the very spirit of the prayer. by virtue of their. May my fathers. niard ham na zan. veh-din ham na ' We : akdin. mothers. for advantage and splendour and happiness (khareh) and good. perhaps thinking. {i. we find them another similar Pazend prayer. be on the path of truth and virtue. ancestors)."* to Good Bountiful Dadar Airya) not a non -Iranian. which is seen. May they (worshippers) have their share of paradise. az Dadar-i veh avziini. p.e. which you in this world of righteousness (ashahe-homand) and your assistance are worthy of welcome. IMasani. in the name of God). on the path of good.air. brothers." In cjoing so. K. near ones and own-ones. which present parallels to the Chinese. (good) thoughts. known as repeated in Ba Nam-i Yazad " {i. May they rest in the brilliant Heaven. 12. May all. S. in this as well as the preceding prayers. but ham Masani. May their works and righteousness have their share (of reward) in this world. 208. ke air ham na an. that there must be some similar words for a female worshipper. in the parallel jDassages from the Chinese. '-'mard na zan". Pazend Setayesh ba maeni. Greek or Jewish desires. yix. words and deeds. — I am thankful that I am an Iranian (or Pazend Texts by by Mr. immortality reach their souls." all those — who may come hereafter or are now In the matter of the particular passages. p. which could have better had an expression in a foot-note. has added alternative words "zan ham na mard. Therein. Pheroze E. The text has very properly only one form viz. Masani has taken some liberty with the original texts. a in an not a woman. sisters. of the Good (Zoroastrian) religion not of (any other) bad religion. He seems to have been influenced by his own personal views. (and) co-religionists (6) May — existent or are dead have a share in the Paradise and a share in (the blessings of) this world.

WINE AMONG THE ANCIENT PERSIANS J the Abkari system of the Government of India is a topic of much discussion here and in iniioduction. to run down the use of For example. performed the celebrated marches of the Haftakhans. whose splendour reminds us of our Cyrus the Great. The subject of temperance and total abstiiience has drawn the attention of many well-wishers of our British Army. whose kind shelter reminds us of the auspicious shadow of the fabulous Persian bird. I hope. }t Self Improvement Association. placed us under the fostering care of the benign British rule. Weib und Gesang bleibt ein Narr sein Lebenlang. a fcAV of the gazaU of Hafiz : — nicht liebt Wein. '' who had. and at all times. Homae. Compare with this the following lines of Hafiz '' Wer Der : — 1 I This Paper was at first. our distinguished Commanderin-Chief. song. we find eminent men. and among them of no less a personage that <)!eneral Sir Frederick Roberts. as described by the great epic poet. joraising its virtue. Sir Walter Raleigh. from remote an historic times up to the time of our emigration to India (Muigration that has. the excellent Koran preaching against wine." {i. follow ing two short lines of Martin Luther sum up. with gome shght md I . on account of his very celebrated march in the land of our fore-fathers. the Jehan Pehelvan Rustam. after several great and important political changes. Now. Hafiz. be interesting to many. ^vhell — — I came. and I conquered. He who does not like wine. It ' "tsrations and with appondix. we have the Divan If we have a of one of its disciples. or a great divine. England. was then delivered is pi\ en read before the Zarthoplitj Din ui kliOl Karnari Jlandli on June 188S bcrore the as a Lecture. especially to my Parsee readers. and wife. or magnifying its evil. on a similar occasion. I saw. and whose justice reminds lis of our Noshirvan the Just. who. we have a Martin Luther to extol it. on here. or Seven The object of this paper is to trace a short history Stages. Firdousi. :)th February 1888.e. as it were. from the Kaboulistan and Zaboulistan of old to the town of Kandahar and. — In all nations. &• written at the time. Remains a fool for the whole of his life. the wine. of the use of wine among the ancient Persians. either If we have singing the praise of wine. which reminded us of the ancient Roman hero. on accomit of his equally celebrated victory at the latter place. saying." Avas very aptly compared with the national hero of Iran. the subject of this paper will.

a congenial companion and constant drinking who is desirous of this number of pleasures is deserving of cheerfulness . deformeth the face.232 " ASIATIC PAPER. decayeth health.) (a) Jamshed lived for 1. It was very sweet and The teaciiing of Iranian Liter^*"r^- Docs it run down its use or sing its praise ? We would say that it does neither the one nor the other. rarely. if we are asked —What does the ? ancient Iranian literature preaches . soon old. nourishing. Ishkbazi." Now." friendly meeting." in which it is generally understood by the Temperance societies.000 years Noah for 050. youth. " infectious vice. ''Take especial care that thou delight not in Avine for there never was anj^ man that came to honour or j)referment that loved it for it transformeth a man into a beast. (6) Both cultivated land. .temperance in the strictest sense of the word. may curse be on his life. and then an enemy finds itself ampliturn-coat. maketh a man contemptible. The Iranian literature teach The fermented juice of grapes was used very and that as a medicine. wa harif-i-hamdam. He who does not like these pleasures. and Yama of the Vedas). vva jawani. wa sharb-i-modam Har ke Wa an A (i. then. . to conclude. It does not totally i^rohibit the use of wine. and despised of all wise and worthy men hated in thy servants. The wine used by the Persians of verj^ early times was generally the innocent juice of grapes. rotteth the teeth. On the other hand. and ruby-coloured wine. which says that. poisoneth the breath.) in majlis bejnyad khush deli bar wai halai ke in ashrat ne khahad zindagi bar v>Ri haram. for it is a bewitching and first .e. . the fourth monarch of the PeshdMyan Dynasty of Persia. King Jamshed (the Yima Khshaeta of the Avesta. brings a man's stomach to an artificial heat. destroyeth natural heat. . this short definition of wine.—VIII. and. in thyself and companions. Ava sharb-i-l'al lain Majlis-i-uns. (c) As Noah was asked to build an Arc to save himself from the Deluge. . but not in the sense of "total abstinence. that Wine is a '' a friend. Many incidents of the life of King Jamshed are similar to those of Noah as described in Genesis (VI. fied in the following denunciation of Sir Walter Raleigh. was the first monarch in whose reign wine was discovered and used as a medicine. so was Jamshed asked to buikl a Vara (enclosure). He Love.

13-J." i. from the fact of its being discovered by the shah. so as to be be\^ond the leach of anybody. so was Jamshed first to discover wine. which is now commonly used in Gujarati. to make a remedy. Thinking that it was turning into a poisonous liquid he got the fiask marked poison. I^atin 7nel. which corresponds to the Sanscrit madhd. who was greatly pleased with the discovery. The king and his courtiers began to use it on occasions of joy and merriment.. She then communicated the matter to Kmg Jamshed. That it was a sweet. from which comes our English word medicine. p.' She stealthily went into the royal store-room. (/) Lastly.e. he found the juice of grapes fermenting. This Avestaic word is madho.' and ordered it to be placed in an out-oftlie-wa}' corner of the royal store-room. A cupof wine Tsipoi" brns " (Annual Keport of the Arcliiwlogical Survey of India of 1914-1 :>. and health-giving drink appears from several facts a drink (1) The very Avestaic word for wine shows that it was as sweet as honey. she thought of committing suicide in order to get rid of the pain. happened to know this.. altar unto the Lord as a mark of thanksso Jamshed establislied a sacred fire. As she was suffering from a ver}' bad headache. from the fact of its first being considered a poison by King Jamshed. of the : — ' ' Commg to the time of the Avesta. we find that the wine then used was the innocent juice of the grapes. the founder of modern Bedar.. meaning. He once ordered a large quantity to be deposited in a jar for his On sending for the use in winter when they were very rare. Prince Jalal-ud-din Mirza Kajar thus describes the incident discovery of wine in his History of Persia King Jamshed was very fond of grapes which grew only in summer. pleasant poison. of plants 233 and (d) Both took therein the choicest specimens animals. lulled her to sleep and restored her to health. "Dafu. of the royal household.' i. as Noah was the first man to plant vineyards and to drink wine. to her surprise. nourishing. The wine was kno\^n as the 'shah daroo. A maid-servant. It is said that in Persia even now wine is somei. pivos '• Should «ny liearr ache my rruudy is tJiis tX3 have been broucht a\x»ut by win •. named Atar Faroba. jar after some time." the later Persian word for wine.e. and took a dose out of that flask of wine. (2) The root of the word sho^vs its medicinal from an old Aryan root.Wiyi: AMONG THE ANCIENT PERSIANS.'"' " times called the zeher-i-khoosh. also has the etymological meanuig 1 This is a story of the cure of head-ache. found that the drink. and French micL It comes virtue. the royal wine. (e) As Noah built an <iiving for his safety. An inscription on tlie tomb of Ahmad Sliah : — * said the followins words about the heart-cure Bahamani.) : . instead of killing her. mad or madh.e. and. the king. Latin mederi.

then. who speak of the xA. that the \^ine spoken of in the old Parsee books was not the wine that intoxicated. and have all their other garments of leather who feed not on what they like. in honour of the Creation of Man. the Persians did not make ^ of use the nourishing wine. dissuades his Lydian King Croesus from going to war with a nation that did not drink wine. thou conquerest them. that the merit of celebrating the last season -festival of the year. AccordHistory. the Hamaspathmaedem Gahambar. ! . corresponding to the six days of the Creation in the Christian Scriptures. which are the season festivals and thanksgiving occasions. but simply lived on water. '" Thou art about. XLV). dm/' Sanskrit dhru. which refer to the later time of the Kyanian dynasty. seeing that they have nothing at all ? But if they conquer thee. treatment. as the Annointed " of the Lord (Isaiah. This accounts for why wine is used together with niilk and water some of the Parsee religious ceremonies. we come to the Classical Greek and Roman historians. to be healthy. He says. . the Afrin-i-Gahambar. its use was permitted even among the priesthood (Vend. oh Idng to make war against men who wear leathern trousers. XIV. in After the evidences of the Avesta. At one time. The officiating priests in the recital of a long list of blessings that are invoked upon the marrying couple wish the bride and the bridegroom to be as sparkling and cheerful as wine. if they consider how much that is precious thou ^vilt lose once get a taste of our pleasant things. where they speak about the six Gahambars. wine is spoken of as a part of the diet. 17. Icnown as the Ashirvad ceremony. (6) iVn allusion to wine in the recital of blessings at the marriage ceremony. . 52." meaning to be strong. (Vend. I.) (5) In one of the later scriptures. the father of '" time of Cyrus. Sandanis.' Dava-daru is a colloquial phrase lor medical " comes from an old Aryan root. food referred to here. shows. a wise man of general Lydia. ASIATIC PAPEE. . it was thought very meritorious to taste a little of the wine used in the religious ceremonies of the Gahambar festival. but drink water who possess no figs nor anything else that is good to eat. what canst thou get from them. (3) It was presIt cribed as nourishment to ladies in their accouchement.234 of medicine." (Herod. is In the just the same as that of feeding the poor and the pious. on what they can get from a soil that is sterile and unldndly who do not indulge in wine. 71. thej^ will keep such hold of them that we shall never be able to make them . loose their grasp.) (4) Being a nourishing and innocent drink. it is said.chaemenian and Sassanian dynasties. who is spoken of in the Bible. in the ing to Herodotus. V. but Writers. If.) .

you swore he sung said " . you may enjoy these and ten thousand similar delights. . I plainly found that he (the tight — • : < 11 ' ! . 'did you know this. and made ready to give an ejitertainment 10 the entire Persian army. 2)^5 Again. indeed >i]ong. both sheep and goats. for iyou could not so much as keep yourselves upright then you all you. for unnumbered toils prepare yourselves as hard as yesterday's. but they made a very moderate use of it. Avhat you do not allow us boys to do. where all were . therein." "Truly. I. and never condescend to any slavish toil but if you will not hearken. admirabh^ then every one told stories of his own strength [you rose up and fell to dancing. . When the morrow came and the Persians appeared. |that ." because I saw you all disordered in body and mind for. Astyages. that you did first.' Cyrus instantly seized on their reply and laid bare his purpose in these words: '*Ye men <>t Persia thus do matters stand with you. This appears from the following conversation which young C^tus had with his Median grandfather. After the feast Avas over. who also speaks of the time of CjTus. to-day ever3^thing that was good. and they. Icntirely forgot yourselves you were their governor and then for the first time I dist . the Persian kings of that time were somewhat familiar with wine. : I ' I 'And how child." <I. and all his oxen. i3s. and bread of the hoicest kinds were prepared for the occasion. but without all rule or measure. Astyages (CjTopifidia. If you choose to iH-arken to my words. C^TUs says to Astj^ages "When you feasted your friends on j^our birthday. he bade them recline l)on the grass and enjoy themselves. gives them a Median feast and. yesterday brought them nothing but what was bad.WIX^: A3IONG THK ANCIENT PERSUNS. It was after the conquests of Lydia and Media that the Persians began to possess the luxury of wine.' " These evidences from Herodotus show that wine was not so generally used by the Persians of the time of C. : . that you \Aere king. Hero" dotus says on this point that before the conquest of L^'dia the Persians possessed none of the luxuries or delights of life. yourselves for you all bawled together and could learn nothing of each other then you fell to singing very ridiculously iand without attending to the singer. he requested them to tell him which they liked best. 21). in order to persuade liis Persians to go to against the Medians under his maternal grand-father A^tyages.yTus.) According to Xenophon. Wine. Cyrus. 126) He (Cyrus) collected together all his father's flocks." cupbearer) had poured you all poison. and slaughtered them. to-day's work ')! yesterday's ?' They answered that 'the contrast was. covered that you were celebrating a festival. ." said he. . Ch. too. 75. According to Herodotus (I. wine also ^a luxury with which they were not familiar.

the latter was greatly dehghted with its taste and its excellent nourishing quality. the successors of Cambyses. and to wjhat age the longest lived of the Persians had been knoAvn to attain. he ag Amyntas did not submissio: them to 1 . " all he came to jthe wine. In the reign of Darius. the great grandfather of Alexander the Great. more especially so. : . Thej told him that the king al( bread. The cbunken frolic in the massacre of the whole of the Persian embassy. After dinner. The soi of Amyntas. we find few Persians of high rank playing an indecent mischief. : When we come to the reign of Oambyses. se dotus. III. behaved themselves disgra and insulted the Macedonian ladies.' quenches /'Why. and having Last of Herodotus quote learnt their way of making it. except for the refreshment they got from that drink (meaning the Avine). which greatly delighted him whereupon he asked Avhat the Persian king was* wont to eat. " Does your father. Avho were s fully ende ally sent for at their request. but called dinner in his palace. The wine which they used was very nou rishing and health-giving. he remarked It did not surprise him if they fed on dirt that they died so soon indeed. its only give these. allowed to talk with equal liberty. . in the royal court of the Macedoni Amyntas. determined to ave this insult to the fair sex of his country.) This luxury which the Persians began to possess after the conquest of Lydia seemed to be on an increase in the reigns o. the successor Cyrus.ome of the Persia: under the influence of drink. I will as the Avheat they used was of a very inferior quality. This appears very clearly from the ^When Cambyses sent to the King of Ethiofollowing episode pia a flask of wine as a present. und the influence of wine. (Herod. truly. for you never ceased talking. he drank a draught. child.". never drink til Astyages then said " " What does he then V he gets drunk ?" No. we find from Herodotus that the Persians made a mor^ general use of wine. The next day. Avherein he confessed the Persians surpassed the Ethiopians.236 ASIATIC PAPER. and saif! that the longest life of eighty years which the Persians lived must be solely due to that nourishing wine. 22. who was a youth of fiery spirit. he was sure they never would have lived so long as eighty years. (t^ cursed Alexander of the Pahlavi works). and described the nature of wheat. : — . and thirst his he gets no further harm. According to He: the Persian General of Darius. adding that eight > years was the longest term of man's life among the Persians Hereat." said he. . Megabazus an embassy to Macedonia to demand from " " water and earth as s} mbols of Amyntas.

WINJ: AM0>'G
•iuilled

the ancient

PERSlANfi.

-37

to dimur the nu'iubors of the embassy. Tliey uere made each by the side of a handsome Macedonian \'Outh, dressed IS a young lady. The Persians, on tlieir again attempting to reixjat their drunken froHc of the previous day were pierced -with daggers which the Macedonian youths carried beneath theii- dress. (Herodotus V. 17-23.) After Darius, when we come to later times, we find Herodotus speaking of the Persians of his own time that ''they are fond of Mine and drink it in large quantities." (Herodotus T. 133). This increasing propensity to drink they further imitated from the Greeks. •"There is no nation," says Herodotus, "which so As readily adopts foreign customs as the Persians. soon as they hear of any luxur\^ they^ instantly make it their

to

sit

...

own." (Herodotus!.

135).

Xenophon, praising the moderation of the Persians at the time of their first institution under Cyrus, says of the Persians of his own time that beginning their meal very early they continue eating and drinking till the latest sitters-up go to It Avas likewise an institution among them not to bring bed. large bottles to ttieir banquets evidently thinking that, by not
"'
;

drinking to excess, the}^ should neither weaken their bodies nor And that custom, too, continues imi)air their understanding. of not bringing such bottles but they drink to such excess, that instead of bringing in they are carried out themselves, not being able to walk without help." (Cyrop. VIII. chap. 8-9-10).
;

Plato, on the other hand, writing of the same time as Xenophon, rej)resents the Persians as taking moderate potations. In his discourse on Temperance (Laws I. 636), the Athenian stranLaceger, speaking on the subject of drink, says to Megillus, the " the Persians, again, are much given to other demonian, that practices of luxury which you reject, but they have ration in them than the Thracians and Scythians."
torian of importance

more mode-

After Herodotus, Xenophon, and Plato, the next Greek hisis Strabo, who flourished in the beginning are of the Christian Era. Saying that the Persians as a nation moderate, he attributes whatever there be of immoderation to He says, '' Their habits are in general temperate, the kings. but their kings, from the great wealth which they possessed, III. 22.) degenerated into a luxurious way of life." (XV. C the Persian of some of and licentiousness The unlicensed

have brought an unjust odium ' kings of the Acha^menian dynasty The hard drinking of the kings pon the whole Persian nation. Instances tand their grandees is one instance of this kind. to the confined were licentiousness f unlicensed luxury and

luxury

238

.-

ASIATIC PAPEE.

whole nation. As Herodotus himself says, the ancient Persiaiv Jaws did in no way sanction such acts but the kings of the Achsemenian dynasty thought themselves to be ''above the law," and indulging in them brought an odium upon the whole
;

nation.
historian of importance, who speaks on this Duris, of Samos, who flourished in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus. His statement that once a year at the feast of Mithras, the King of Persia was bound to be drunk has driven two learned scholars of Europe to two opposite conclusions. Professor George Rawlinson of England infers from this that the Persians at the time were addicted to drinking. Professor Rapp of Germany, on the gther hand, says that drunkenness, as a rule, was avoided. The fact, that the king intoxicated himself only once during a year, showed that, as a rule, there was no drunkenness. are inclined to side with Professor Rapp when, we refer to Firdousi for an account of this Mithraic festival. His account refers to the practice of drinking on this gala day, but does not speak of any immoderate use of wine, either by the king or by the populace. This feast of ]\ftthras is known among the Parsees of India and their co-religionists of Persia by the name of Jashan-i-Mehergan. It occurs on the 16th day

The next Greek
is

subject,

We

(Meher) of the 7th month (Meher) of a Parsee year. Firdousi that it occurred on the first of the seventh month. Irrespective of the historic event with which it was associated, this day was a great festival day like the other twelve festival days of a Parsee jear which occur on the day which bears the name of a Parsee month. Again it occurred, about the time of the autumnal equinox, which was observed a great as a season festival. Lastly, that which gave
saj^s
;

importance to this day was an historical event. It celebrated the anniversary of the accession of King Faridun on the throne of Persia. The great novelist, Sir Walter Scott, has familiarized to us, in his "Talisman,*' the well-known episode of Faridun and Zohak. King Jamshed was overthrown and killed by one Zohak (the Azidahaka of the Avesta), who was an usurper and a tyrant. The whole of Persia groaned under the foreign sway of this great tyrant, who came from Syria. King Faridun. having freed his country from the yoke of this tyrant, ascendec the throne of Persia on the auspicious day of the abovenamec Mithraic feast, when his accession Avas hailed with delight am joy by the whole of Persia. King Faridun celebrated the dar as a great holiday, and feasted the grandees. Ever since that-^ time the anniversary of that day was celebrated as a great festival in Persia under the name of Jashan-i-Mehergan. Firdousi,

WINE AMONG THE ANCIENT PERSIANS.

Z'A'J

who lived about 1,000 years ago, said that it was celebrated even at his time. Some of the Parsees of liombay. though the>' have forgotten its historic origin, celebrate it on a small scale, and it is said that their few co-religionists in Iran still celebrate it with its historic associations. Firdousi thus describes this festival in his Shah-nameh, and refers to the practice of drinking '' wine on that gala day Faridiin, w hen he found himself to be the fortunate master of the world, and when he knew no other ruler but himself, prepared the throne and the crown in the On an imperial palace according to the usage of the kings. auspicious day, which was the beginning of the month of Meher. he placed over his head the royal diadem. The workl was relieved of the fear of evil everybody followed the ^\ ay of God. They put off quarrels from their hearts and solemnly celebrated a festival. The grandees sat with a joyous heart, each holding a ruby-coloured cup of wine in his hand. The wine and the face of the new monarch shone brilliantly. The world was full of justice, and it was a new month's day. He ordered a fire to be kindled and to burn amber and saffron over it. It is he who has instituted the feast of Mehergan. The custom of taking The month of rest on, and enjoying, that day comes from him. Meher still bears Jiis memory. Try and be jolly." Thus it is
: ;

that Firdousi describes this great festival which, as he says, was observed even at his time, and which he in his last line advises all to observe. Now it is natural that the Persian monarchs celebrated with great eclat and joy this celebrated festival which was not onh^ a religious and season festival, but withal a historicbut festival, and drank to their hearts' content or even more ithis does not betray a propensity of very hard drinking among the nation. This custom of the Persian kings drinking too much is said jOn the Mithraic festival reminds us of the practice which to prevail among the illiterate class of Je\AS, who think it a
;
I

on the day of their feast of Purim, which on the 14th and loth of their 12th month Adar, and which celebrates the massacre of the Persians by the Jews (Old Testament Book of Esther IX, 17). It also reminds us of a said to prevail among the lower classes jsimilar practice which is Irish the it a pious think who duty to be drunk on people, jof t. Patrick's Day. Among the Roman writers who have spoken about this subJulian ject, we find Ammian who had accompanied Emperor under Shapur in A.D. 363. jin his campaign against the Persians, He says of the Persians of his time from his own experience that they avoided drinking as one would avoid the pest. Wealth md conquests had made the Persians of the Achsemenian times luxurious and slothful. Thev had lost the moderation of the
pious duty to be drunk
falls

240
early times

ASIATIC PAPER.

and of the time of Cyrus. But after the fall of the Achsemenian }>ower reaction set in again, and they began to learn moderation once more. As Professor George Rawlinson " Their fall from power, their loss of wealth and of domif?ays, nion did indeed advantage them in one way it jnit an end to that continually advancing sloth and luxury which had sapped the virtue of the nation, depriving if of energy, endurance and almost every manly excellence. It dashed the Persians back upon the ground whence they had sprung, and whence, AntseusIn like, they proceeded to derive fresh vigour and vital force. their 'scant and rugged fatheiland, the people of Cyrus once more recovered to a great extent their ancient prowess and hardihood their habits became simplified, their old i)atriotism (VTI. Orien. Mon. revived, their self-respect grew greater."
;

'

that we see them avoiding drunkenness, as the pest." says, of the Pahlavi literature of the Parsees, to the time Coming which flourished during the period of the Pahlavi Writers. Sassanian dynasty, we find Pahlavi writers permitting the use of wine and preaching moderation. Adarbad Marespand, in his Pandnameh, or Book " of Advice, thus admonishes his son Make a moderate use of wine, because he who makes an immoderate use, committeth various sinful acts." Dadistan-i-dini (ch. L., LI.) allows the use of wine and admonishes every man to exert conTo the robust and intelhgent who can do trol over himself. without wine it recommends abstinence. To others it recom mends moderation. A person who gives another a drink i deemed as guilty as the drinker, if the latter does any mischie either to himself or to others through the influence of tha drink. Only that man is justified to take wine, who can thereb do some good to himself, or, at least, can do no harm to himself.] If his humata, hukhta and livarslita, i.e., his good thoughts, gooi words, and good deeds are in the least perverted by drink, he must abstain from it. The book advises a man to determine for himself once for all what moderate quantit}^ he can digest without doing any harm. Having once determined that quanThe most that a man should take tity, he is never to exceed it. is three glasses of diluted wine. If he exceeds that quantity there is likelihood of his good thoughts, words, and deeds being perverted. This reminds us of a Parsee Gujarati saymg:
p. 25).

Thus

it is

Ammian

"

like

:

'.

^1^4

-•flan

cii

^i5R,

WINE AMONG THE ANCIENT PEESIANS.
(i. c.,)

241

The first cup is a medicinal drink, The second an allowable thing The third is a luxury, The fourth brings on misery.
;

'tiini

the subject of the trade of wine-sellers, the Uadistau-isays that not only is a man who makes an im])rojx*r and immoderate use of wine guilty, but also a wine-seller who knowIt ingly sells wine to those who make an improper use of it. was deemed iniproi^er and unlawful for a wine-seller to continue to sell wine, for the sake of his pocket, to a customer who was the worse for liquor. He is to make it a point to sell wine to those only who can do some good to themselves by that drink, or at least no harm either to themselves or to others.

On

The Pahlavi Minokherad (Chap. XVI, 25-63) speaks of the advantages of moderate drinking and disadvantages of immoderate drinking.

We find from Mahomedan writers that after the downfall of the Persian monarchy, the Zoroastrian Persians were the only " Pirpersons who carried on the business of wine-sellers. The i-MoghSn," often alluded to by the celebrated Persian poet, Hafiz, in this well known Divan, is the Parsee wine-seller. Wine being altogether prohibited in the Mahomedan scriptures, no Mahomedan could carry on this business. So, it fell to a Parsee's lot to do so. In India also, and especially in Guzerat, a Parsee liquor-seller was for the same reason, up t(j i*ecently, a well- known figure in the villages. We

will

now speak

of some of the usages and customs observed by the Persians when drinking wine. It was

'

generally their custom to drink wine after dinner. The cup bearer' went round in the assembly when it met in the hall after diimer. This appears from Herodotus and from Firdousi. The latter in his episode (dastan) of Bejan and Manijeh thus speaks of the party that had assembled in the royal palace of Kaikhusro to participate in the rejoicings for the release of Bejan from the captivity " of Afrasiab. Khusro ordered a table to be spread and invited noblemen to dinner. When they got up from the liigh-minded

Usages of Wine-

drinking.

Toyal table, they prepared a sitting-place for drinking wine." It was at one of such assemblies that Afrasiab, the Turanian
-

-enemy of Persia, thought of making, through the instrumentality of one Susan Ramashgar, an excellent songstress, the different brigadiers-general of the Persian army of Kaikhosru prisoners:

.

An intoxicating powder was stealthily put in in the wineglasses of these generals which immediately fulled them to sleep.
16

242

.

.

ASIATIC PAPER.'

In these after-dinner assemblies the old Persians deliberated " affairs of iiilportance under the influence of drink. It is also their general practice," says Herodotus, "to deliberate upon affairs of weight when they are drunk and then on the morrow, when they are sober, the decision to which they came the night before is put before thern by the master of the house in which it was made and if it* is then approved of they act on it if not they set it aside. Spmetimes, however, they are sober at thei^* first deliberation, but in this case they always reconsider the matter under the influence of wine.'' (I. 134.) Strabo, who wrote about ftvq centuries after Herodotus, says orjL, the same subject; "Their consultations on the most important affairs are carried on while they, are drinking, and they consider the resolutions made at that time more to be depended upon than those made when sober (XV, ch. 3). According to Prof. George Rawlinson, Tacitus refers to a similar custom among the ancient Germans, who deUberated upon

on

;

;

;

;

questions of peace and war in their banquets and reconsidered the next day. "They deliberated," says Tacitus, "on peace and war generally du.ring the banquets, as if at no other
therii

time was their mind able to conceive higher ideas. People who are not cimning and too sharp always open the secrets of their heart in free jokes. Thus the opened and revealed thoughts of all are again considered the ne;Kt day. They take into consideration the affair of both times. The}^ deliberate when they are not able to deceive. They resolve when they are not able ^o err," The reason for this practice, as given jby Tacitus, is this, that in banquet^, under a partial influence of wine, all the members of the assembly feel themselves to be on an equal footing, and so, without any fear or favour, give out their own independent opinions, which enable the mover of the question to come to a proper conclusion. We learn the saime thing fron\
the Shah-nameh of Firdousi, who represents Persian kings and heroes deliberating carefully on question of war and peace in their after-dinner gatherings, when the cup-bearer (Saki) was This custom of the old Persians reminds circulating the wine. us of the after-dinner speeches of modern times, wherein Cabinet
Ministers and Councillors, while proposing tosists of one kind or another, discuss political questions of great importance to the State. These after-dinner Persian assemblies are the "ban" quets of wine spoken about in the Old Testament (Esther, v. It was at such a banquet that the Persian King Ahasue6).
ras,

whose

identitj'

with any particular Persian monarch

is

not

i. it was only made from grapes. Xenophon. Adarbad. old wine straightwa^. Firdousi says. he aaith. it was two sorts of m also made from dates. they kiss each other on the lips .^ the host). old. old fi'iend to old wine." Just as nioderit nations show^ their respect to their ruling sovereigns by drinkiiig to their health while standing.." thus speaks from his own At last coming to the villages where the experience '* : — '' 1 He is identified the father r of Darius. 134). instead of speaking. other in the streets.who/ hated the Jews (Ef^ther.e. in the case where one is a little inferior to the other. b? - 11. " No man for It also new. the Jewish queen of the same Persian King. then drank wine.WINE AMONQ JHE ANCIEJ^T PERSIANS. 5). 24$ yet determined. ^'you maj' know if the persons meeting are of equal rank by the following token if they are. It " was at such a banquet of wine'* that later on Esther. it is fit He says.aiaii3 " . Ahasuerus is said tol»^ "of the seed ol tlie Medes. and then prostrating themselves on the ground kissed it. the fruit of palm-trees. Prostrating oneself upon the ground was.^ 3ent for his queen Vashtj (which seeing to be tlie " to shew the Ayestaic word. at which Rustam presided. speaking of friendship. In Daniel IX. '. Old \Yme was held in very high esteem in Ancient Persia. the kiss is rank is great/ the given on the cheek w^here the difference of " inferior prostrates himself upon the ground." says Herodotus (I. : ^ ' . IJ.desireth drunk having " is We for kings. "An it old the more- improved by time. wherein The he i^layed a very prominent part as the leader of Retreat of the Ten Thousand. sO. the ancients paid their homage by prostrating themselves and kissing the ground. Persia.. Darius Darius bV some with Xerxes. in his account of the expedition of Cyrus. v." grows It was believed that wine The more better (Luke. : : . wine were coinmuu In the remote Avestic times.. compares' an Old Wine. the usual '"When they met each w^ay of paying respect to the great. for she wasj iair ^o lopk on/' and divorced her for not having obeyed the royal mandate. . Firdousi speaks of another custom* When toasts were prov posed and drunk in honour of great persons like the King." If we take this Darius . according to Herodotus.. tlieu this Ahasuerus the father of Darius Js . read the same thing in the Bible..Speaking ot such an assembly. the assembly prostrated themselves on the ground after drinking wine and kissed the earth.Artoxerx's^ the father ot . 39) seems that •Date Wine. won the royal favour and secm^ed permission to put to de^ith all those Pe|. 'They first remembered the name of their king (Kaus). But latterly. ix.' vahi^kti. 1. in order people and the princes htj^ beauty.t<. The old latterly. friend is like old wine.

permitted it. The story says that at first wine was permitted in Persia and Behramgore himself drank it.. 1499. We learn from Firdousi. ran after the lion and holding him by his ears got over it and bravely rode on it. VIII. Wine y§t> pisheh is altogether (the drinker) is a hero or a tradesman. of . 1 Mecau's Calcutta Edition. they give to their •domestics but those which are reserved for the masters are chosen fruit and worthy of admiration. V. p. later King Behramgore.e. and so . According to Thalibi. After a year. them they might supply themselves with provisions. 1501. p. 54. p. The Royal proclamation said A : — " Haram ast mae Agar pehlwan ast bar Jehan sar ba sar. var"i i. Vol. who was at first impotent but had regained his potency by the use of wine given to him by his mother. seeing this the abuse of wine. they found plenty of corn. but one day. both for their beauty and size. ceased drinking wine and prohibited its use in his country. 465-6G. Bar andazeh bar har kasi mae kliurid. . Mohl's small edition. These dates such as we have in Greece. he was the guest of a great Meher Bidad by name. 2 VideioT the text Macau's Calcutta Edition. At one time. Vol. King Kaikobad had prohibited the use wine in Persia in his reign.. Mohl's small edition. learning this piece of bravery as the result of a drink of wine. Vol. III. he saw that an ordinary man becoming somewhat brave after the drink of a little wine. (11. Vol. and he got so much unconscious that crows attacked him and bUnded him. The king. •unlawful in the world. that he could not take care of himself. He then permitted a moderate use of it. V. ae pehlwanan-i-zarin kamar. villager (dehkan) Kirui by name. Vol. p. withdrew his order of prohibition.^44 -guides told ASIATIC PAPER. at one time got so much drunk. and wine made of the fruit of the palm-tree. The king. 'The son of a cobbler. and also vinegar drawn by boiling from the same fruit. Kutar Brother's Ed. 463. The wine that was made of it was sweet to the taste but apt to give -the headache. that similarly. had the courage of riding a lion under its influence. APPENDIX. 52. guest in the camp. Kutar Brothers' text. Vol. having in all respects the appearance of amber. Ill. delicious that they are frequent ty dried for sweetmeats. had once prohibited its use. p. whether The Royal proclamation " said : — Ke Kharushi baramadhaman gah ze dar. who on. VIII. 3). Ze aghaz farjam khud be negarid. pp. a lion got loose from the royal stable.

The king picked up the borries and on the advice of a learned man in his court entrusted them to some cultivators to sow them and take care of them..m*^v^ )* up or Seistan. with a view to march from there to Syria. one day. One must from the beginning determine the result {i. again. that a serpent was climbing up the nest to devour the young ones of the bird. Tastar (yS-u^j ) the son of the previous king who was killed by the Indian king. p. Thereupon the Syrians placed upon the throne. A voice proclaimed from the (royal) court at the time " O Ye warriors with golden belts any one of you may that drink wine as it suits you. a bird which had built a nest there. who saw. sucto . after a reign of eight years. who. 89-91 Chap. " 245* i.. had invaded Sijastan ( j^ Ii.e. ^i-*S a According to B. was. ded by Maroub ( c-jj^ \^Y who. de Meynard II. XVIII. re-established the empire of the Syrians. A J^ ceeded by Ahrimun (vi>>^i^^ )^. Some of the grapes ' JIacoudi tradult psvs B. who. j^ M. who patronized'Houria was. succeeagriculture. raisins from the 2 The king ordered juice to be squeezed and to be collected in vases.^ According to Babier de Meynard^ other texts give the name a^ i^J or (Ibid. saw.. 445). came in the front of the prince and dropped the berries before him. thereup on killed the serpent withhis bow and arrow and saved the young ones. A short time after. he was defeated by a ruling monarch.. . Tastar was.One of these two princes. returning with one berry in its beak and two more in its claws. He' conquered Syria after a war lasting for one year and killed its But soon after.e. seizing Ir^lq. after a reign of 12 years. No body dared to eat them lest the fruit *» may 1 be poisonous. The prince. everybody is to determine for himself what quantity is good for him and not be immoderate). the parent bird. king of the Arabs. after a reign of twelve or fifteen years was succeeded by two brother princes Azour and Khalenjas ( ijM \:^Ap>.^ ! king of a part of India. The flapping of the wings and the cry of the bird drew the attention of the prince. on the top of his palace. after a reign of 22 years. The prince thought to himself that there was some purpose in this and that the bird had in view some recompense for the act of saving its little ones. The cultivators did so and there grew from these seeds plants which produced raisins. succeeded by his son Houria ( ^ij^^^. one text gives the name ^^ ^^jj ' and nnother * One text gives the name as Manit ( Oj^-* ). pp. holding the title of Zanbil ( j Y the Hijri year 332.WINE AMONG THE ANCIENT PERSIANS. de Meynard.

adds that some i^bute to Noah the first cultivation of vine. He had hardly finished one-third of the quantity given him. Ma90udi. he looked well. sleep and good spirits. more vines to be planted.^^46 ASIATIC PAPER. On awakening. was not a poison and that it rejuvenated the old man. he prohibited the general use of wine saying that it was only a royal homage. all his illness having left him. good He therefore asked digestion. two The king thus saw that the juice began to drink wine. were ordered to be kept in their natural The King. gaiety. At first. calmness. at the end of the above story. Then he gave some more juice to him* The old man thereupon went to sleep. to loosen his dress. his head. The King saw that the drink had given to the old man joy of heart. in order to test the quality of the juice. when he began to jump. to jolt to look gay and to sing. Later on. sent for an old man who was wrecked in health and gave him some juice to drink. all attri- . then. to leap over his feet. state. to clap his hands.

interest some scientific men. 1. I think that a part of account will i)e of some interest even to scientific men because. List of the Mahomedan authors . the celebrated Prime Minister of king Akbar He describes in his Akbar-7idmeh a comet that he had seen in the 22nd year of the reign of Akbar (985 Before describing this comet. to m tno The Mahomedan authors whose versions or whom I am going to propose /•. he refers to Greek. I hope. Egyptian and Hindu writers on the subject also. This account of the comets will. as it were. .D).. 2. the account of the comets by Abul Fazl." ** . which will form the principal part of my paper will be presented for the first time before the students of cometograph3^ I propose dealing with the following matter in this paper 1 Theversion of some Mahomedan historians about comets ries : . I hope that an account of the comets given by some Mahomedan historians will be found interesting. The . As far as I know that portion of the Akbar-nameh which gives this his introduction. Roman. While doing so. An inquiry into the views of Mahomedan writers €omets. 1) The Editor spoke of the paper as containing Techerches sur un point nial counu de I'liistoirc et de la science inusuluianes. before his time.>car or Some observers have early next year. THE VIEW OF THE ANCIENT IRANIANS (PLSHINIGANS. Abul of India. refer this paper are the foUowmg j m ii^n. at first. if I do not mistake. giving. : Ma90udi. appeared in an issue of the Revue du " cnrieiises^t erudites <40 Annee No. a long introduction giving not only his view of the phenomenon of the appearance of a comet. he writes -Hijri. who lived at the end of the third century and in the first half of the fourth century. but the view of tha learned of his time.^ppj.'©leirGci ^.. 2. The Director of the latter Observatory has announced that its appearance is like that of a star of the 14th or 15th magnitude. There is only one referi^nce to a comet in his Murudj adh-Dhalmb (Prairies of gold). identification of the comets seen or described by on them 3.)' I We I are on the eve n tr d cti of seeing alley's comet this .•i. Fazl. this must be on the authority of some previous writers whom he does not name. H rhe Directors of the Heidelberg and the Cambridge Observatohave already seen it. already seen it with their powerful telescopes. 1 This Monde Musulman " paper had. At this juncture.A ^lAHOMEDAN VIEW OF C0MP:TIS. Having given he describes three comets that had appeared Of course. 1577-78 A.

streamlets and streams come into appearance. I will now give the version of the Mahomedan historians I have named above. Badaoni. 3. 1401. Ill. Prof. Mutamad khan's Ikbdl-ndmeh-i-Jahdngiri. etc. and springs. after the time of the sitting of the great luminary which bestows favours upon the world on the chair of the crust of the Earth). particles of earth being heated This mixture is called "vapour" "When the parched earth becomes become lighter and after mixing themselves with air fly above and that inter-mixture is called steam (dakhan). rise upwards. the seat of the heat of the illuminator of the world {i. the essence of moisture from its embuscade is attached to dryness. it is heated by the lustre of that exhalted luminary. Modem science also attributes to the formation of steam tlie rise of springs. I give my own tranversion in the Akbar-nameh: fullest. Ahmad-bin Mahmad's Nigdristan written in 1552 A. the author of the Muntakhab-al-Tawarikh. 22r 224. Jahangir's Waka'dt-i-Jahdngiri. — ''A Preface cription of the is symbol written for a complete comprehension of the desof the Heavens. This refers to the action Of what AbOl Fazl calls '7flW(xn or steam Here he explains. when it is heated by the sun). Nizam-ud-din the author of the Tabakat-i-Akbart. and. ''When the rays of the world-illuminating sun fall on the moist earth. 6. pp. 7. 1433.248 ASIATIC PAPER. Abul Fazl's version of the comets of 1264. I give my own translation in which I havefollowed the text edited for the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Maulawi Abd-ur-Rahim. One is confined to the Earth.. 1400. (bokhar). long account of the comets is not hitherto translated into am" other language. * 11.^ 1 Maulawi Abd-ur-Rahim's Text for The Asiatic Society of Bengal vol. Anstcad's following: description elucidates what AbQl Fazl says . AND 1577 in his AbkarNameh. I will give the versions of four in the words of their translators. Then by the influence of the heat. how streams and springs are formed.e. Each of these is of two kinds. 2 . 5. 4. some of the particles of water. and mixing with particles of air take an upward direction. The rest I have translated fronv the original. not in a clear or distinct wav. " In the matter of the appearance of a tailed comet which appeared after sunset (lit. I will give at first is the largest and slation of his Abul Fazl's version about the comets as it As said above.D. becoming lighter.

or. Anyhow. Aquarius and Libra) and of atashi {i. longer or shorter according to circumstances. Making its way through {KTmeable rocks. and comes at length once more to the surface. 1871 . Leo and Sagittarius) and when the Moon or Mercury is in the badi {i. meteor).e. when the tenacious thick vapour (rising) from its seat.e. it may issue in springs at some lower part of the same country . attaches itself to the first layers of atmosphere which are . appearing on the surface. profiting by the different kinds of weather. or passing into natural reservoirs or alone some underground channel. fields are then devastated and the beginning of a famine is in sight sickness is calamities gain strength. Anstead. The remaining part disappears. it acquires a pleasant look {i. or. by the pressure it exerts when the rocks are full. it is not illuminated. lightning and such other phenomena. p. we have seen that a certain part runs by rivers into the sea. assumes different forms. in the commencement of the year or the season. and the thread of the purprevalent suit of knowledge is broken. of Aries. If it falls near the sea. which may either rise through fissures at a high temperature in thermal springs. let a little of the manifestation of that wonderful image the comet) be written for the pleasure of the gardenground of information {i.) "Now. being absorbed into the soil and surface -rocks. thunder. may exercise a pressure sufficient to overcome the force of gravity and help to force up large columns of water from great depths.e. that of Gemini.e. If that does not happen on account of its connection. is illuminated). Books of natural science give explana« tory accounts of these very clearly. and all sources of water within the earth are called upriiiju. . off the surface I . It may and does re-appear in this way naturally and at ordinary temperatures. or is evaporated back a^ain into the atmosphere within a very sliort time. oozing upwards. I will now write something about the phenomenon of a comet for the information of my readers. 249 "The second.e. when Mars is in the 10th and when the unhappy constellation may be that of bddt {i. heated. 213). like those of a man with locks of hair. it may still be brought back into circulation. but burns and. When it begins coming down to the earth.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS. From this are formed clouds. it circulates through the earth for a time. rain. It passes into the earth'k crust. penetrating the depths at which it would be converted into steam. that it is a star that is coming down. rises up pompously. hail. a person holding a lance in his hand. All water obtained or obtainable from the interior of thiearth is called spring water ." iPhysical Geography. Aquarius and Libra) so that it looks towards them with an eye of amity. by Prof. n»ay again become cooled before reaching the surface. such as sand. it is known to) the writers of wisdom. may force out other water that has already perfonued a long journey. especially. that every time Mars attains ascendancy over the tract of a countr}^ it makes the land of the country dry. an animal with horns "Of the water that falls on the earth as rain. for we know that the temperature of the interior of the earth is higher than at the surface : and it is quite possible that a little water. "It is not concealed from {i. or entering the innumerable crevicits and Assures that exist in all rocks near the surface.e. If it falls in a district greatly alcove the sea level. and foul vapour and steam arise in large quantities. a person having a tail.e. common people think. just as the lamp-black of a lamp becomes illumined from its contact with a lighted candle. It is then called shahdb {i. {viz. *' In short. in Gemini.

Those with locks of hair and those with tails are known to be more unlucky. 5 A. dreadful red ^ or blaclc forms appear in it. Greek books. The fingers* down the stranger thing was that {i. p. the possessor of a tail). front. or the like. 7 kinds are recognized and all are considered to be of the nature of Saturn or Mars. "a keeper of the ward -robe of the stars. Ma'wara'u'n-nahr 1 Cf the descripton of the appearance of Halley's comet in 1835 by Mr. incantations) for (counteracting) these influences are mentioned more than can be described. p. "mistress of locks. K. Turkestan. In the ancient language. Kashghar. 523). China. 6 A kind of measure. in The Nineteenth Century ' 2 Lit. The wise men of India divide them into two kinds and take them to be auspicious and inauspicious (respectively). (The Story of Halley's comet.1}5.0 ASIATIC PAPER. The red forms Avhen thick add to the terror When thicker. The increaser of the splendour of the world (Farugh afza-i'alam) wasin the sign of Leo and had gone about II earth {i. Vincent Heward in his "Story of Halley's Comet". had set) in the night. it is the black forms that cause terror. 512. of the evening. *' 3 J. that its {i." 4 Compare with these the words.) the longer it appears. nirangs (L-i^J^3. It moves according to the position of the constellation in which it appears and in accordance with the strength of the motion of the region of fire '*. Certainly from the repeated sight Zuzanab "In Indian (of such phenomena) such a supposition can be made. Batlimus (Ptolemy) says that between the hairy comets and the sun.*' of September 1909.e. the possessor of locks of hair) anti the one with a i tail is called (i. C. it fades soon^ or lasts long. AU are reflected " unanimous in saying this. Some Greeks are of opinion that the hairy comets appear towards the West in the early part. the comet's) influence is upon the country over whose zenith it passes or whose bfest inhabitants see it.e." It appeared like "a blazing rocket. e.e. Out of all (these comets) one hairy comet appeared in the year 662 Hijri^.e. the comet) appeared to be of the proportion of the head of a big man and emitted steam from its It passed {i.e. "The Chariot of Fire" applied to a comet by Mr. appeared) in the countries of Tibet. 1264. more than 100 (names) ^te recoimted. In books. Every one (of these forms) has a different name according to its feature.e. Farghana. the greater its influences as to good or bad lyck to the country. Heward : "It glowed like a red-hot coal of oblong form. such a form is named saivdbi-i-najum ^ or ZawaVul azwdh ^. The Nineteenth Century of September 1909. there is the difference of 11 constellations.' . Depending on the differences of its position. . Thus the one with locks is called Zuzavdbe {i. In the writings of the ancients. (i.e. Its influence! appear in proportion to (the time of) its stay. At times.

(a form like that of) a lance-holder separated {lit. took the path of the Camel. 1401. that. From that 17th lunar mansion in the North. * Of. a tailed comet appeared {lit. years and months had passed over this event and then a tailed comet appeared in the zenith at Runl (ConMaulana Abdallalasan and Mahiad-din Maghrabi . 3 A. attended to that (prediction) and convinced the great and the small (of his court) of the truth {lit. It also means a Takiug the word to be ra'ad i>J (^ ) as Icayad ( governor. in The 2fin€t(eHth Century of September. In the foot-note. Timur {lit. flashing. 251 'tTransoxania) and Khorasan. the of Louis le Debonnaire on seeing Halley's comet in 837 A. gave brilliancy to the day) near the 17th lunar mansion in the North.e. He said words *' A change of reign and the death of a prince are announced by this sign" (The story of Halley's comet. Mirza Ibrahim. its special motion appeared. The Bengal Asiatic Society's text gives the word «X^j . But these seem to have no proper meaning here. which took place between Mirza Shah-rokh and Sikandar Kara-Yusef. and plague and diseases add afflictions Sudden deaths occur among common people. D. that an army (coming) from the direction of the East will be victorious in that country and a general from that country will assist (him). the property {i. its king or his vicegerent dies. In all these countries. If it is inclined towards the boundary.A MAHOMEiDAN VIEW OF COMETS. assumed the face of sepaA ration). that if it appears within the boundaries of a country. 1433. A fierce quarrel. on the occasion of a new moon in the first part of Libra. After the lapse of several days. who was always expecting an invasion of the country. wliich is the last star in the tail of the Lesser Bear. the king of Badakhshan. but whose companions of poor int^glligence did not acquiesce. and Shaikh Zainuddin Khafi died in this calamity. it appears from what the wise and the experienced have said. It appeared for 85 days. I think it is mistaken for ra'ad with the next word ( (3 LH ) barak. p. the country of the governor) passes ' away from the 1 his hands ^ to the sickness of the country. 1909. ( A5j ) wluch suits well 2 A. It rose and set with it. that illuminator of the face of fortune). with other astrologers of that time informed Timur.D. D. Every day more than a thousand persons died. the Governor of Ears and Alirza Bysangar Arghun. and in eight months. ' also in consequence of this (comet). there arose rebellions. 518)« rAyad ' ( .stantinople). great pestilence spreading misery (round about) appeared in Herat and its dependencies. " Many 2 ill S03 In the year 837 ^. it gives "^ J ) as found in another manuscript. In Transoxania and Khorassan calamities of thunder ^ and lightning and such others appeared. ' " was The learned in the mysteries of the Heavens are convinced of this. gem) of his resolution and of the insight of the star-seers.

that intelligent person of the assembly of information {i. influences and misfortuneshave disappeared from his dominions. A thousand thanks to God.e the tailed comet) kindled its brilliant face in the sign of Sagittarius." : III. That among some and Khorasan there came A The purport of all this detailed account is this The king of heavenly abode {i. Some of its wellinformed men of truthful mind informed His Majesty of the death of Shah Tahmasp and of the murder of Sultan Haidar and of the accession to the throne of Shah Ismail. and in Irak will arise disturbances. tombe sur Koufah en meme temps qu'une bourrasque de sirocco.C. to pass without anything being less or diminished.e. a caravan came from Iran. a comet) appears. faced towards the West (and) inclinedl towards the J^orth. Ma^oudi. Version from other Mahomed an Works. the result of On the day Arad (Arshisang). and Sultao Haidar was- . that in many towns they saw it for five months. that was said. The most beautiful thing of this great liberalitj^ {i. short time after. It had a long tail." All. as to how king Tahu a^p murderedJand Shah Ismail came to the throne. and they specified some particular places. and those skilled in the mysteries belonging to the higher {i. thisheavenly sign {i.. there will be a scarcity of grain. Here follows »n awount.25^ *' ASIATIC PAPER. of the appearance of a comet in that year *'Une grele enorme. a great calamity does not overtake this country.e. the this alms-giving) was this 25th of the Ilahi month Aban. au mois de ramadan plusieurs maisons et ediMacoucli's Mi^fidj udh: .). In spite of such divine protection. It had reached such a The limit. If. made well-informed astrologers. explained it thus : of the inhabited parts Hindustan. the intelli-^ gent well-informed king Akbar) ordered alms to be distributed on a large scale according to the customs of the Mahomedans and Brahmans and people of all places became cheerful. such a terrible sign (i.e.e. that owing to the benedictions o£ the holy soul of the King (Akbar). composee de grelons pesant un ritl. in case. poids de Bagdad. The time of the ruler of Iran will come to an end. I will now give the version of the other Mahomedan writers in the order in which I have named them above.e. celestial) assembly. thus speaks Dhahab. speaking of the events of the Hijri year 299 (911-12 A. at the time when the sun : his conspicuous appearance in the sign Scorpio. 1 died. king Tahmasp) died in Kazvin in the beginning of the Ilahi month Khordad) i.

son of Shah Tahmasp Safavi departed this life. *'At this period. 7 The beginning of the 23rd year of Jahangir's reign corresponded with Tuesday. The first but have corrected it in one part of the passage. great troubles arose in Persia" — have given Elliot's translation.p. It also means Pleiades. .. and continued very awful for two hours. 3-4. It simply means Arabia '. lis. So. 8 Elliot's History of vol.remained for eighteen days. so (virulent) that people had not the strength 'oi burying the dead. It from -ru e appeared ^^ . iplace. Munshi Naval Kishore's lithographed edition of 1875 A. at the of evening prayer. The opinion of the Astrologers was that the effects would not ^® ^^^^ ^^ Hindustan. the words should be Elliot " ' ' '. D^*'578-79f"^ ^hah and I Khorasan and Irak.941-042 A. ^^ ^^j. ' Ti MACOUDi. * Jarib is " a cron measure equal to " four qaflz ". Vide Elliot's History of India. the 2nd Muharram 986 H.^ ^^^j^j^ ^^ l^^ast of burden* the price of wheat rose so high. 407.) A. . 281-82. Shortly aftenvards. In this translation. In the time of famine a plague appeared. one jarib ^ garistan about the of ^vheat cost 320 goldeii-miskdls^. a comet the Arabia. as given by Nizam-ud-din. -Men ate one another out of hunger. 6. VTIT. but probably in time in Nizam-ud -din's •version of -(jomet of ^PP^^red the 1578. Ces <iesastres eurent lieu a Koulah en 299. D. V. vol. ]\ 585. Oe sinistre est suivi d'un treniblement de coute la vie k un grand nombre d'habitants. ''lices 2o3 'terre qui sont renverses. vol. India. appendix.^^ ^^.'7-La meme annee est signaled par un treniblement de terre en Egypte et par I'appari- 'tion d' une comete ^ cornet of 941-942 In the year 330 (Hijri)^ there appeared a Comet whose tail the East to the West. p.l).. p. Ahmad bin Mah. . Ismail.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS.(1292 Hijri). a measure containing about 64 5 (Steingass) " A lbs. 16 et seq. When . rroin the mad2 in his Na. twenty-third year '<A. 1 have followed the text published in 1245 Hijri = 182'. .influence of this inauspicious sign. D. . instance of Captain George Jervis (V-=»'^ urijj^ Qafiz is ^-^^^ ^^^ 70. sky towards inclining to the North. 9 Tabakat-i Akbari. . ) at the rp. 339. The \7 Version of . ^^^^^ ^^j. 2 tradiiit par Uarbier de Meynard. 3 i. ^.runs thus: .^ . in weight weight of a dram and three-sevenths " (Steingass). 6 Parvin.^9) lh-^j jJ ^b! ^^ijii ^^J^J i-r^j^ jj^ 'c)^-^ j^^^^ J-^- iJjj ^tj j^j Jl^ J^U ' ^j^ * ' jt^ /'-- j^ ^ Arab seems to be wrong in translating the word "dar tarf-i " The word Arab does not mean by towards the East East '. 1. (11th March 1578). II.

The Tabakdt-i Akbari alone uses it for "a comet. De Noer traduit de I'allemand par G. places the event in the 22nd year of king Akbar's reign. 248." Badaoni. 5. in the form of a column irom All's Text. 1618..n the twentysecond 2.l). identifying the will see that it comet of king Akbar"s reign later on. hke Abul Fazl. "The twenty-second and and the events here recorded as having occurred in the twentythird year of the reign are placed by Abul Fazl . « towards Arabia ". 1 Lees and Ahmad . vol. the West. Elliot thus explains the discrepancy : j^ear began on the 20th ZitI hij}a. . 240. little before this. as given Muntax in his his joke) (in turban." I think this word is an attempt to render into Persian 'Gurcheher " the Pahlavi word for domet. Now. 16 p. 262. 241. A. A. 1 3 The year was Hijri 1027. 3. II.Persian dictionary of Woolaston. 1. 2 Elliot's flisiory o//M(/irt. places it in the 23rd year.t. p. tt^ : (Elliots ''^ Saturday. Vol. ' ' ' . the 22nd year of Akbar's The k a 4t-i version of the author of the Wakiat-i-Jahangiri about the two comets that appeared in 1618 in Jahangir's Wa'^ j^ Jahangm. which can ^. The date corresponds to 10th March 161^ Vide Elliot's History ofliulia. Bonct-Maury.|554 ' ' ASIATIC PAPER. thewords may be translated "towards. appeared in 1577. a luminous vapour. it extended over the whole of Hijja 985. Jahangir's reign runs thus £ t ji ttt opqx History of l7idia." This translation.. V. comet appeared in the West \u-^i^ y maghreb). th^ unexpected events (one) was this that in the same j^ear a comet appeared frpm the direction of the west. as seen above. p. while Nizam-ud-din. When Shah Mansur ^\on oTihe cornet left a long tail from behind in the corner of of 1578. ha<s given rise to some confusion in the dates about this period. Vide also UEmperexir Akh< par le Comte F. The oversight of this fact ajid ended on the 1st day of 986. . 403. they named him ^' ' "Among .5(5. p. ^^6). 1 give my trahslatioi Vide Lowe's translation. who sayithat There is the. this text. vol. no. II. 1. vol. one thing to be noticed in Nizam-iid-din's writing." When we reign.Iso be read dur cheher.^ ^^^^ed comet': The effects of this comet appeared in that country. p.Yo\. .statements of Badaoni and Abul Fazl.( /3 ^J jj j ) for a comet. I do not find the word in the well-known Persian.\l. . as Arabia is in the Wes.' We will speak of the Pahlavi word at some length later on.English dictiomtries of IlichaMson and Steingass nor in the English. p. khab-ut-Tawarikh <. I. tran^^ated . ^iil then tal]}^ with the . 984 beii>g a solar year. a 1 7th Zi-1 ka'da^ Several nights before dawn. lie uses the word "dur-daneh'. VI. vol.'^.

and entered that of Libra. it resembled the shape of a javelin. and when it disappears. in their books. On the date above-mentioned. there appeared in the atmosphere a vaporous lier matter in the shape of a column. (Elliot's HistoTi) of Jahangiri. and the establishment of an enemj^'s power over them. and it was seen half an hour earevery succeeding night. it was found to extend over 24 degrees. a comet appeared in the same quarter. perhaps one may be led to suppose that the comet continued to appear for eight years. vol'. and upon a comparison of different observations. Its declination was southerly. II also had a southerh^ declination. but thick about the middle. it was found to extend 24 degrees. Astrologers call such a phenomenon a spear. We will explain this matter later on while identifying this comet. then in that of the Scales. as well as the effects which have it. but it had a proper motion of its own. empyrean heaven. as it was retrograde first appearing in the sign of the Scorpio. The astronomers measured its size with their astrolabes. It moved with the highest of the heavens. runs thus. but in the tail there was no light or splendour. with its back towards the South. it looked like a spear with the tw('> ends thin. Sixteen nights after its appearance. God only knows if this be true "Sixteen nights after its first appearance. had made half 255 its appearance*. a star wa^ seen in the : . but had a proper motion of its own so that it first appeared in the sign of Scorpio. W^. and its face towards the north. and. Astrologers.A MAHOMSDAN VIEW OF COMETS. and its edge towards the North. independent of that firmament. When it had attained its full development. w ith a tail in appearance about two or three yards long. From the above extract. and thick and crooked in the middle Hke a sickle. on an average of different observaIts course was in the tions. I it. about the VI^ pp. " On the 16th of December. and have written that it portends evil to the chiefs of Arabia. having a shining nucleus. Its back wrs towards the south. The I version of Mutamadkhau's k b ^ 1-n a m e hi Mutamadkhan. and in a short time left it. mention such a phenomenon under the name of a javelin. It was a little curved like a reaping-sickle. When it appeared in its full form. 406-7) : in his Ikhdl first of the Ndmeh-i Jahdncomets of 1618 India. an hour and a quarter bt fore the dawn of the day. nearly eight yeargi — ! have elapsed since resulted from its first shall take care to record " appearance. The astronomers measured its size by means of an astxolable. it rose three hours before sunrise. and every succeeding night it arose an hour earUer than on the preceding night. It was thin at both ends. Up to the present time.

Russel Hind's book on comets has been of great use to me in identifying them. J. by J.C. and the cultivators. governor of Kandahar. Russel Hind. The (911-912 A. the head of which was luminous but its tail. 1852. 1 The comet of Hijri 299 M 'd' Ma90udi. which was two or three yards long. p. produce of orchards and vineyards were totally destroyed . the mice had increased to such an extent that they left no trace of either crops or fruits." in the IV. Russel Hind. and continued to rage for eight years. The comet referred to by Niz4m-ud-din's Tabakat-i Akbari and by Badaoni's Muntakhab-ut-Tawdrikh is the same as that which is the fourth in the list of Abul Fazl so they do not require a separate identification. The pestilence arose in the country one year before the appearance of the phenomenon. Mr.IX book on Comets ^ gives a table of the most the perihefion passages of Halleys probable epochs of comet. Mr. emitted no light. same direction. which exceeded everything known and recorded in former ages. This date corresponds to Macoudi 's Hijri date 299.256 ASIATIC PAPEE. nor is there any mention made of such in the authentic works of the Hindus. It was in . referred to by Halley's comet in one of its previous revolutions. and *' when no fields. With the greatest difficulty. We wiU proceed in our work of identifi. Identification of the Comets. fruit and no corn remained in the gardens and by degrees the mice all died off. in his comet of 912 A.D.D). . What blood was shed in the country and what families were ruined ! ! At this time it was learnt from the petition of Bahadur Khan. We will now proceed to identify the comets described by the above-named Mahomedan authors. Therein we find its 13th appearance in 912 A. commencing from 11 B. perhaps. oldest comet referred to is the one mentioned by Macoudi. only one-fourth of the produce was saved to the In the same manner. is 1 The Comets. It was also through the effects of this phenomenon that a misunderstanding arose between His Majesty and the fortunate Prince Shah Jahan. the fields of melons. The disturbances which thus originated lasted seven or eight years. that in the environs and dependencies of the city. consequence of its appearance that a pestilential disorder {imbd o td'un) spread throughout this extensive country of Hindustan. 57. cation in the chronological order of their appearance.

p. 17 . a t\ xt He x). when the head was just clear of the tail stretched past the mid-heaven westward. Abfti Fazl's comets. p. It is recorded in terms of wonder and astonishment by nearly all the historians of the age : no one then living had seen any to be compared to it. the tail stretched out past the mid-heaven towards the west.D. been reckoned to be 930 Nigaristan.51 5 Ibid p. Hind says of it that it was a great comet and " that it was accompanied by a train fully 100° long. vol. 1852. ElUot > 257 surmised that the comet of Hijri 330 (941-942 AD. II. according Oreenwich^. 3. : 1 2 3 Elliot's History of India.. 1811. IVIr. from the date of its last appearance 1835 A. IIT.C. explained upon Sir Isaac Newton's principles. of which event it seems to have been considered the precursor. p. this difference of nearly 11 years may be accounted. was Halley's comet . 360. the us.A MAHOMBDAN VIBW OF COMETS. through Cancer and Gemini. 12. Hind speaks thus of this great comet "One of the grandest comets mentioned in history is that which made its appearance in the middle of the year 1264. 506.). m • Further on.?'. It was at the height of its splendour in the month of August. 1852. 127. Its movement was from Leo. Russel Hind. This comet is comet III of Fergusson's list ^. * The Comets. 1 The Comets. by Dav Brewster. by J. and during the early part of September. Per am son's Astronomy. but appeared curved in the form of a sabre. only 100° long.. due to the action of planets and to other causes. given a list of the epochs of its perihehon passages on former occasion. p. Both Chinese and European writers In China. 80 for the present. in his book^ on Comets. we must take it as an unidentified comet. j ^ u anA A.J^? comet. We do not find in that list its appearance in 941-942 or thereabouts. n. It passed. to 11 B. historians generaUy agreeing in dating its last appearance on the 2nd of October. into Orion. as there is always a difference of a few months between each period of its appearance. surmised that. by J. its perihelion on 6th July 1264 at 6 h. The first comet referred to bv Abiil Fazl is that of the year4263-1264 (Hijri 662). 57. which seems to indicate an extent of more than 90° ^ ' .ristan. agreeably to the Chinese description. vol. the tail was not testify to its enormous magnitude. It continued visible until the beginning of October. 50' meantime of to the 39". one of whose probable appearance has referred to in the . while European contemporaries tell eastern horizon. But Russel Hind has. When the head was Just visible above the estern horizon in the early morning sky. or was fully 100° in length. referred to in the NigA. or on the night of the death of Pope Urban IV. Hind gives the hour as 1. Russel Hind.

p. China. Fraghana. that it was seen in Tibet. Turkestan. 10 Elliot's History of India. by . referring to the sign of Leo. According to Russel Hind. 355. 1400-1401) with any of the comets in the lists given in modern astronomj^ are not able to identify the second (Hijri We think his third comet (Hijri 837. and that it continued to appear for 80 days. 141.D.D. Some rough approximations to the elements have been attempted in the first instance by Mr. It passed its perihelion on the 4th or 5th of November 1433. This comet has been identified bv Elliot ^o. p. Tw^o comets^ have appeared within the period in 1859 and 1860. brilliant star^". 407. vol. 7 8 Fetgusson's Astronomy. 2 The Comets. 274. Abul Fazl. Pit. by Brewster. 360. by Brewster. 6 Ibiil. 127. p.. p. IP. Coming to it is referred to by Abul Fazl (Hijri 985. p.258 ^* ASIATIC PAPER. comet of Abul Fazl 803 A. p. the wellknown French writer upon the history of comets^". in the middle of the last century. . Pingre. II.D. the comet IX. The Comets by Russel Hind. Mawara'unnahr (Transoxania) and Khorassan. 117 i p. Dunthorne. * 122. and subsequently by M. Kashghar. Then. V. All these facts and the year identify Abul Fazl's comet of 662 Hijri as the great comet of 1264. also says. but none has been clearly identified with it. A. II. From this. Russel Hind. the comet of 1556 which according Fetgusson's list passed its perihelion on 21st April was the same comet appearmg after a period of 292 years. 1 Ibid. 116-117. The fourth comet is 1576-1577. 9 Fenjiisson* s Astronomy. A. Vol. Russel Hind also gives this comet in his list^. 128. of Fergusson's list. p.1.. 3 Ibid. we see that it was a great comet and was seen even in China in the farthest east. It seems to have gradually lost its brilHind3 predicted its return between 1856-1860. 1903. It was also observed by the Chinese •. "It was of this comet that Tycho Brahe found " that it had no diurnal parallax and that it was therefore situated at a much greater distance than the moon'' ". 5 Newoomb's Astronomy for Everybody. The Comets. vol.^ which passed its perihelion on 26th of October 1577. it was not nearly so conspicuous as in 1264 but still was " a great to and liancy. 1433-1434)1 the same as that of 1433 referred to by Russel Hind* in his list of comets.

. dates of the Hijri years of the Mahomedan authors. the dates of their appearances and an idea of In giving the Christian their identification. at the end of his English. ^^^'^^ two comets that appeared Both appeared in the 1027 A. 128. 144. he says. I have followed this rule " From the given number of Mahomedan years. p. voJ. to a certain extent. The Hind speaks of the second as " a splendid comet " and as *' one of the finest ever observed ^ ". * Ibid. 2 The Comets. second. From . We will here give a list of the comets referred which to in this paper. will present to the reader. points out. it is worth noting. . first Jahangi^^ two comets had appeared in 1618. samo year (Hijri after a short interval. of years. 144. These were believed to have lasted long for nearly eight years.that had passed its perihelion on the 17t!i' of August 1618 and the second on the 8th of November 1618. and to the remainder add 621-54". at one sight. which. II. deduct 3 per cent. by BreAvstcr.PersmnDictionary. p.A MAHOMEDAX VIEW OF COMETS. by Uussel Hind. the reference is to the supposed disastrous and imlucky influences of the comet.'^" the description of the Wakidf-i Jahdngiri. follows that of the Wakiat-i Jahangiri. p. 3G0." Wollaston gives. p. that it appeared sixteen nights after the first and that there was no light or splendour in its tail. that the observations of Kepler on the first of the according to Hmd. 1 Fergusson's Astronomy. 3 Ibid. the same. A List of comets. The corresponding rule for vice versa is "From the given number of Christian deduct 621*54 and to the remainder add 3 per cent. But according to the Wakiat-i Of the Jahangiri. In connection with this matter of diiference between the Mahomedan writer and the later Christian writer. it was the first that was more splendid. 1617-1618) and Wo also Wl-i^"^^ 'k Fergusson^ and Russel find both Hind. " two comets were somewhat imperfect.. a list of the Mahomedan years and their corres: : ponding Christian years. The Wakiai'i Jahdngiri Tho comets referred to ia the Wak'a'at-i Jahan*^'" 259* refers to "^ Jahangir's reign. one may be led to think that the comet continued to appear for eight years But as the Ikbal-'ndmeh's description of the same comet.D.

and Ikbal-nameh Ja102' 8. The WakiM-i hangiri. (a) 1433. 3.ut-Tawarikh. My identification of the Comet. year. 7. 299 911-12 Halley's Comet in 912 A. 662 1263-64 The comet which pass- ed its perihelion on 6th July 1264. {b) Nizam-uddin's Tabakat-i Akbari. Hijri Christian vear. 4. 1618 The comet that passed its November perihelion on 8tb 1618. 985 1577-78 The its comet that passed on perihelion 26th October 1577. . Murudj udh-Dhahab. passed its perihelion on 4th or 5th November 6. mad's Nigaristan.D. Ditto Ditto 803 1400-01 Unidentified. bar-nameh. The book referring to the comet. (b) Ja- 102: 1618 JThe comet that passed its j I perihelion on 1 7th August 1618.260 ASIATIC PAPER. The Wakiat-i hangiri. 3. Ahmad-bin 330 941-42 Unidentified. JVlah- 2. 837 1433-34 The 5. according to Russel Hind. comet which. Abul Fazl's Akbarnameh. (c) Badaoni's Muntakhab. Abul FazFs Ak.

.e. pp. where necessary. in its inner portions at least. and we must now add incandescent vapour nor does there appear to be any reasonable doubt that in most comets this vapour . Abul Fazl's The contents of Abul FazFs long article ^^ comets in the Akbar-ndmeh can be divided and examined under the following heads : 1°. The view of the pishinigdii. we find that modern scientists also refer to them and say that the luminosity is due to them. The The . So he says that its appearance in the heavens is due to a particular position of the planets Mars and Mercury in the heavens. who. and their nirangs or incantation-prayers to avert the influences of the comets. All of them. the appearance of the comet is rare. and.e. not only describes the appearances of the comets. He says that its appearance is due to the Vapour floating in the air. though the vapour is thus alwa3^s in the air. Bumttt Lectures on Light. so. he connects it with the phenomenon of evaporation.. 210-213. by the j)eople 3°. As to the theory about the presence of yapours in the comet. Sir George : Gabriel Stokes^ says on this point " There can no longer be any doubt that the nucleus consists. have mostly described the appearances of the comets which fell under their own observations or whose observation^ were noticed by some previous writers whose descriptions they followed. A comparison of modern view.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS. with the (Exception of Abul Fazl. It is Abul Fazl. but enters into a kind of description about the theory of their formation. . 181>-J. the ancients). as the result of the process of evaporation.e.. see how far he is supported by other Mahomedan authors and by other ancient writers. ^"^^'thefr^^^'^ ^^^^' Abul Fazl comiects this phenomenon with the formation of what he calls bokhdr (i. But. We will now examine the statements of these Mahomedan authors at some length. we will examine his statement. (i. general theory explaining the phenomenon influences attributed to their appearance .. To speak scientific phraseology. alone. of vapour of some kind. vapour) and dakhdn. etc. of it in the modern (i. 2°. » Nature Series. referred to by him. 261 V AN INQUIRY INTO THE VIEWS OF THE MAHOMEDAN WJEtlTERS ON COMETS. by Sir George Gabriel Stokes. steam).

255.^ one of the three features which a comet c^mbodies is that of the nucleus which is siu*rounded by **a cloudy nebulous mass like a little bunch of fog."^ The view that comets are atmospheric phenomena was held upto as late as Tycho Brahe's time. or contains. Astronomy for Bveryf'ody . 406. Brewst«r. Astronomer Heath thus "The ancient philosophers beheved that speaks on this point comets existed in the earth's atmosphere. p. it is the evaporation of a volaThe tile liquid of an object in the ultra-terrestrial regions. unless -expected a i^non'.262 <3onsists of. 1903.** »So. by J>ri>f. 384-55. II. having in a high degree the combination of the transparent and athermanous characters of glass. VI.2" one of the features. •regions. by Prof. ^ P««-gi*s#o«'«il«fro«of»ty." through a patch of mist or fog. Newcomb. by Dr. Abul Fazl refers to terrestrial according to the modern view. Abfil Fazl and some other Mahomedan Oruthors partially reflect the views of the early ages of science. vol. it is this misty or foggy apijjearance that seems to have led Abul Fazl and others to conceive the appearance of a comet to be a terrestrial jihenomenon occurring within the limits of the strata of the earth's atmosphere. 1811. or perhaps even coated with a liquid. Fergusson says ^' In the earlj'^ ages of science. vol. and afterwards they were bf lieved to be simple meteors or exhalations generated by inflammable vapours in the earth's atmosphere. Thus. some volatile Now it is vaporized by the heat of the sun. p. his inference that the vapour is the vapour rising from our earth is wrong. p. with an introduction by Sir Robert S. Btll. This idea was first It is that seems : : \ Elliot's Hlftory 2 Elliot's Bistoru of India. He takes it to be an ordinary meteorological phenomenon which is not correct as the comet appears in the ultra -teiTestrial evaporation. 3 . of India. while. which a comet generally takes. Ikbdl-nameh-i Jahdngiri^ also connects the phenomenon with a vaporous matter in the atmosphere. conceivable that if the nucleus of a comet be endowed with an atmosphere. vol. a popular exposition of the wonders of the Heavens. Simon Newcomb. its temperature when exposed to radiation from the eun might rise much above what we might have be carbon itself compound of carbon. The Wakiat-i-Jahangiri also speaks of "a luminous vapour ." rect even Though Abul Fazl's reference to vapours in the comet is corfrom the modern scientific point of view. the comets were regarded as an assemblage of small stars that had accidentally coalesced into •one body. it ASIATIC PAPER. shading off very graThe comet " looks like a star shining dually towards the edge. p. to have led Abul Fazl and others to assume that As pointed out (it is a terrestrial meteorological phenomenon. 363. VI.

speaks of the head and tail (royashman va dumb) of a comet. i. ^ ^® ^^Y^ ^^^^ ^^^ comets assume the following the comets. that the comet of 1577 moved in a space at a distance from the earth farther away than the moon. Neweomb says 93 The Twentieth "ymtury Atlat of Popular Astronomy. They say that the nucleus or the central nebulous mass is smrounded by a hairy mass. vol.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS. the comet all its perfection. and at other times. which iS hairy. 44. 1880. On looking at it. 203 exploded by Tycho Brahc. by actual measurements." the latin word for hair because it looks hairy. Abfil Fazl speaks of view about the ^j^^g various forms which the comets assume. appears strange at first thought. is ancient. first form mentioned by Abul Fazl. 226. (a) The person with locks. by Thomas Heatli. Modern Astronomy. viz. While explaining tlie origin of the apAbul F a z r s pearance of the comet. But we not seen in must remember that. who showed.the possessor of a tail. One of the several Persian words for a comet is "zuzuab. S. . Generally. a XXVIII. "^ That remark can be more tme from the point of view of its hairy portion than from that of its tail. as those with locks of hair or hairy comets : and tailed comets. referred to by Abul Fazl. . 1i903. . . B. at times. ivS it 1 is the tail that is not seen at all. A story is told of Prof. : ! (b) The second form of the comet. the possessor of locks of hair. and therefore far beyond the " confines of the earth's atmosphere^. Ab(il Fazl's distinction between the comets. 2 ClJap. {d) An animal. that of a is that which is also referred to by modern scientific writers on comets. and that. 1901 p. it always carries a tail. So. . The very " " word "comet is derived from coma..e. Our general notion of a comet is this that it is a tailed star. This hairy portion is called "coma. The Bundehesh. Barnard showing a photograph of a comet to a lady. p.. One of the several Persian words " for a comet is zuzanab ". she is reported to have said "Why that comet looks as if it had been out all night. as such. forms (a) (6) (c) : A man with loclis of hair A person having a tail A person holding a lance in his hand .. 113."i. the nucleus or the part which forms the hairy portion is not seen at all.'* We find that the use of the word " head " for a part of the body of the comet.^ a Pahlavi book of the Parsees. p." The nucleus and the coma together form what is called " head. is that of a person with a tail. E.e. by Turner. Prcrf.

. Lowe's translation. while speaking of a comet that appeared in the 13th year of the reign of Jahangiri (Hijri 1027. is one which is not referred to by modern scientific \^Titers on comets. vol.D. The Wakidt-i Jahdngiri. Sigebert says of the comet that appeared in 1066. vol. " vol. also says that in its tail on : According to Badaoni. p. . vol. The Wakiat-i Jahangiri. 363. a Turkish scimitar. "^ The Jahdngiri also speaks of the form as that of a javelin^. edited by Dr. who occupied the post of Divan." Again. p. A.) were made with the naked eye and not with telescopes. For example. 1856. ( /)L) j ^j\:x^ ) i.t p. 520. vol. 364. a tailed (c) The third form attributed by Abul Fazl to a comet.. 1..^ Other Mahomedan authors besides Abul Fazl have attributed to comets forms of instruments. The recent appearance of the comet suggested the idea that the end of the turban hung over the back of his head Hl^e the tail of the comet. p. p. that of a person with a lance (nezeh) in his hand. ASIATIC PAPER. XXII.). 1 Elliot's Hisitory of India. p. 1884. chap. he was caUed Sitarah-i dunbalah star or comet. 18 . Elliot's History of India. used to keep the end of his turban hanging behind him over his head. which had appeared in 985 Hijri (1577-78 A. Shah Mancur. like a spear with the two end» says that it appeared IkbUl-namehthin but thick about the middle. we mustremember that the observations in India in the times of Abul T^azl (1551-16012 A. The Nineteenth Century of September 1909.D. 240. n"* 3.. S19. II. 3 Pliny's Natural History. . 407. 248. 1618). the year of the Norman conquest.e. i Ibid. 56 4 Elliot's Hidory of India. vol. " ^ '' there was no Ught or splendour. VT. the nucleus is almost wholly wanting. this however Sometimes^ is the case Only when the object is extremely faint. ' ' Some European writers also refer to the comets as assuming the forms of instruments. the successor of Akbar (in 1618). p. Bostock and Kiley'a transIatiOD.D. The Pahlavi Bundehesh also seems to refer to this form. 1865.. while speaking of a comet in the time of Jehangir. p.* this point Sometinies a telescopic comet has no visible tail. II. viz. 406. 2 The Muntakhab at-tawarikh. 7 comets {d) The fourth form supposed to be assumed by the according to Abul Fazl is that of an animal. So. also. p. 6 The story of Halley's Comet. Ibid.264 1. Lees and Mimshi Ahmad AH. V.. VI. I.) in the reign of king Akbar (1542-1505 A. that to its train ''hung a fiery sword not unlike a dragon's "In another place we read of a comet appearing like tail. II. the author of the Muntakhab-ut Towarikb. but it is referred to by Pliny. in joke. vol. the tail of a comet. "Comets differ enormously in brightiless.D. had suggested a joke in the case of a courtier. .

he refers to the dethronement of kings. II. says that.11'' 39\. says which have contributed largely towards moulding the destiny of Europe. VI. ^ The Nineteenth Century of SeiptemheT 1909. horn. Pliny refers to the followmg forms assumed by the comets sword. p. p. vol. Whiston) regarded them */ as the . THE INFLUENCE ATTRIBUTED BY THE PEOPLE TO A COMET'S APPEARANCE. Wars. on the authority *' Fazl's of the comets. XXII and. spire. Fergusson '* ^"^'^^'' says: During the ages of barbarism and viws''^^^'" as the superstition. . Abul Abftl rnfl?e°nce Fazl. the dethronement of kings. 55-58. the fall of nations and the more alarming convulsions of the globe. If by the " We . " of ancient writers whom he calls writers of wisdom". as a result of the evil influences of a comet "a famine ^ ^" ^^S^t. dart. The abode of the damned "3. following statement of Fergusson is a reflection of what. to a great or less extent. was the general Its comparison belief of those in earlier times. pp. and calamities gain strength. vol. sickness is prevalent. later on. Even at the beginning of the 18th centm-y. pestilence and famine. spear. etc. Mr. that it must be due to a comet and Eilej 's 1 Vl\ny'» Natural History. 352. the}' were regarded harbingers of awful convulsioiis. we will see. knot of fire. *^ 265 . both in the poHtical and in the physical world. that the Pahlavi Bundehesh refers to aU these calamities find from other Mahomedan mentioned by Abul Fazl. a Fergusson'g Astronomy by Dr. 1. 1811. the deluge. he means the pishinigdn or "the ancients" writers of wisdom referred to by him in another passage." One can say that that statement is true. authors also that the fear about the evil influences of the comets was well nigh general. 509.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS. were the dreadful evils which they presented to the diseased and terrified imaginations of men . XXIIL Bostocjt translation. Abul Fazl's statement about the beliefs in a comet's influence is a reflection of the general belief on this subject. according to Abul Fazl. Vincent Heward in his Story of Halley's Comet ^ of Halley's comet that '*it is closely associated with events '* " . There are a number of theories about the origin and cause of One of these is. the friend and companion of Newton (Mr. vol. — and flute." Further on. chap. Brewster. II. deity in a human form. of many great comets.

Though they beUeved that the general disaster was averted. The transient effect of a comet and — — : passing near the Earth. Fergusson a contemporary and also Dr. 1 reported"to have said that ^ '* comets Tergmson's Astronomy. and the globe would revolve round a new axis. p. has led many men. . Ammianus Marcellinus and Plin}^. among the Romans. of a catastrophe. which may have come into collision with the earth. Halley is reported to have said of the comet that bears his that "if so large a body with so rapid a motion were to a thing by no means impossible the shock strike the Earth ^ might reduce this beautiful Avorld to its original chaos. A new direction would be given to its rotatory motion. we can explain it only by the shock of some celestial body. the abodes of men and animals. to be afraid of the phenomenon. they attributed partial disasters. . a famine or a pestilence to that phenomenon. general. was not only in India and Persia that such a fear was find that it was common in many nations both ancient and modem. Abul Fazl. Ptolemy refer to this fact. Again^ it We Ammianus MarcelUnus is foretold the ruin of great conditions. The Nineteenth Century oi September 1909. 1825. even of the intelligent class.268 ASIATIC PAPER. in his account of the comets. It has led them to prayers and ceremonies to avert such misfortunes. held this view. 353. "^ . so very numerous. Fosbroke. could scarcely amount to any great convulsion but if the earth were actually to receive a shock from one of these bodies. 2 vol. II. Among the Greeks. forsaking their ancient beds. that if a natural cause is to be sought for that great event. All these countries had superstitious fears of these comets." of the chances. like that of an invasion or of a dethronement. and every prestige of human industry and genius at once destroyed." name — — "' It seems that the very mention by those whom Abul Fazl calls writers of ^visdom. a Encydopcedia of Antiquities. however remote. refers to ancient Greece. however. Whiston. by Eev. Egypt and Rome. The chances against such an event are. Fergusson says as follows *' on this point We must confess. 675. an astronomer friend of NcAvton. p. and among Eg3rptians. that there is no dread of its occurrence. The seas. the consequences would be awful. would be covered by the universal rush of waters to the new equator. would be hurried by their centrifugal force to the new equatorial regions islands and continents. They attributed their Escape to their devout prayers. 513. Aristotle. p.

p. translated by Bostock and Riley. 5 Paradise Lost. referred to by Pliny. ' ' According to Ptolemy.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS. pp. 57. p. and like a comet burn'd. we find the following forms referred to by Abul Fazl: like hair. gives an account of the different appearances of the comet of 44 A. 267 Pliny devotes two chapters (Bk.. Howard in The JNitieieenth Century. " The Story of Halley's Comet. And with fear of change per plexes monarchs Milton thus speaks of the belief referred to by Abul Fazl that pestilence and war result from the appearance of a comet On the other side.).. and from his horrid hair. ance he foretold. Bk. p.^ ' ' ' * . on the authority of Halley and others. Pliny refers to a comet that appeared in the time of Gaesar Halley has identified this comet with that of 1680 A. held the moon in its orbit. comets prejVIilton is sented an omen especially unfavourable to kings.D. who gazed with astonishment.D." ^ beUeved to refer to this opinion when he sa^^s of a comet in his Paradise Lost. 1855. 1 2 The Natural History of Pliny. no. 4. 55-58.. ^ According to Pliny" it portends something unfavourable.p. " spear. Satan stood Unterrified. ^ He divides them into several classes according to their form and appearance. " " 2.. whose appearance is said to have led both Newton and Halley to beUeve that "the comets were perhaps controlled in their movements by the same influence as that which .. Gibbon says that "the nations. 57. In his long description of form and appearance. with bloody loclcs and surromided with bristles Shaggy " 8ome " have a mane hanging down from their lower " parts Like a long beard. p. II. 391. Shakes pestilence and war. Gibbon*. . While speaking of its appearance in the time of Justinian. and which is known by his name. « The Decline and Fall of Roman Empire. 509. September 1909.D. HI.no." by E." These unfavourable prognostications depend upon the different forms and appearances that it assumes. Incensed with indignation. V. 2 Ibid. expected wars . That fires the length of Ophiuchus huge In the arctic sky. 1844. It has the period of 575 years. referred to by Abul Fazl. chaps. II. vol. vol. iMd. : . I. 11. XXII and XXIII) to comets. "^ It was the study of the observations of this comet in 1680 that led HaUey to observe and study more -carefully the comet which appeared in 1682.. 1. 70 etsge.. whose next appear(44 A. One had the appearance of a They shine like a sword. 160.

(i. as wiU be seen later on. she abandoned the dances of her sister orbs.268 ASUTIC PAPER. Abul Fazl^ in his long account of the comets. the name of the comet. C. THE p1SH1N!gAN THE ANCIENT IRANIANS ANI> THEIR NIRANGS. when it appeared as a long-haired star in Rome It was beUe ved to have conveyed to heaven the divine soul of the dictator (Caesar). 4 . and both Crusaders and Saracens took omens from its appearance. REFERRED TO BY ABtJL FAZL. a date that exactly agrees with the tremendous comet of the Sybil. and perhaps of Pliny.. appearances:— • : .C. loclis. is connected with the tradi1. .'fulfiUed. 6. ' ' 5- The fifth appearance was. figure aixd course. diiriug the reign of Justinian. say about the comets 5 Ibid ? 3 Ibid. size. I Who were the /ptsMnigdn ? What were their nirangs ? What had the pishinigan to 2 Ibid. and obtained. the wife of Dardenus. nymph. B.D. Ibid. pp. the planet Venus changed her colour. in 531 A." 1 .D. VII. Its second appearance in 1193 B. and calamities from their baneful influence and these expectaHe enumerates its following^ tions were abundahtly.of' Grecian antiquity. . "is darkly imphed in the fable of Electra. The last appearance was in 1680 A. The third' appearance was in 618 B. 161. 160-161.D." ' ' 2. This was the time of the Crusades. e. tion which Varro has preserved that under the reign of Oxyges^ the father. in 44 B. who have been reduced to six since the time of the Trojan war. The sixth appearance was in 1106 A.C. Even the Chinese have a record of this appearance. from her dishevel^ From this description we led." 4. A. Its appearance ill 1767 B. as said above. just as it is styled as a pari (i^ixj) in the Ave^ta and Pahlavi. fled from the Zodiac to the North pole. . That nymph.C. the seventh of the Pleiads. " 3. Let us examine here in a separate section the following points on this subject. p." ^ The fourth appearance was . 7. was unable to support the ruin of her country .'' that the is as a comet classed find. refers to the PisMnigan or the ancients and says that they had many niraiigs to counteract eyil influences like those resulting from the appearance of comets. * The Decline and Fall oi Roman Empire.C.

p. especially mental power or strength as the result of faith. t. or reciter. the Parsees have a ritual or ceremon. WIjo werotbo <1 269 ancients. by Dastnr Hoshanpji and Dr.J). The plsUiiigdn or the A. 451.. XIII. J). 1. In the Pahlavi Dinkard^ are identified With the porii/otfcesMn. p. . to Jasnasfshah. ihe word signifies more than this. Vide The Zand. a prayer formula. /Wrf. 211. Juatrocluotion.Mai-juin If? 1 894. * 514-15. 1 I think that the Pahlavi The Dinkard. the founder of the Sassanian dynasty. Z nd Avesta. IX. poriyo' tkaeshdn. gives to its performer. It has the i • • — averting an . '2. wherein king Jamshed is spoken of as one of the pishinigan. 12. possessor. 2. or an incantation. secration of the gao-mez or the urine of a sacred bull. The same Pahlavi word that can be nirang. chap. Vide also the t€xt of the Sad•dar-i Beher-i tavil. 1. J'alilavi text. HauQ. Erom the name of the ceremony. 20. A prayer formula used as a charm or amulet for is originally a Pahlavi word. 1. evil. p. of the letter of Tosar or Tansar. Introduction. 212. read nirui is read niran<j. A nirang^ whether it is a ritual. xxxv. p. 1874. 2 Journal Asiatiqrte. there is a Pahlavi book which is called Nirangistan. 89. ])y Dastiir Dr. Veshotan lielnuiuji Sanjana. b.. were professed the Maz- ay agnan faith. Ill. a charm or amulet. Pahlavi Glonsary. from the Pahlavi. 9° s^rie. » strength » X^jlr h meaning mg of tho word power.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS.^ jxt^ rnr suite pour les mdications liturgiques^. A prayer following different significations: formula used on particular occasions and in particular ceremonies. as well as ^itsAiTi^graTi pishinigAn ? the avalycirfi (^^\^\). Darmesteter says: "Nirang est le les actes htui^iques et par terme pehlvi ^ pour r >• . \o\. refeTT6d td the ancient PersiianS who by A'bul Fazl.y called Xirang-din or nirang-i din It is a long ceremony for the con(lit. This word is used in the Persian translation.. the ritual of rehgion). the Chief Priest and the Prime Minister of the court of Ardashir Babagan. Tansar has used this word^. Again. pp. as Barmesteter'^ has of said. I. the word The word nirang used by Abul Fazl :^ -nir-^^^^'^T^ J?® of the nirangs pishinigan ? 1. Mars-avril 3 Ibid. word nirang is another reading of the Pahlavi word niriii or niru which is Origin and meanor Persian niru (. who were the ancient Mazdayar^ndns of Persia in the time of Zoroaster. Ritual. As an example of the use of the word in the first sense. because it refers to rituals. 3. the king of Tabaristan. power or strength. 3. in the sense. urine itself is at times called nirang. Poryotkeshan i pishinigan.

force. the Afrin-i Rapithavin occurs as nir^ii. used with amavandi. charm.. piroacognate words. This ^ord niru-i as written here. folios 155-165. 21. seems to have " I think this word is the same as nirui ". 1883. is Avritten in Pahlavi "shadih". May the strength^ ' ' farvash. p. i. in the above pas- Dr. Afrin-i Galianibar. p. and evil I have given some of the nirangs 1 The Text of the Fravashi. success. shditi. 3 Darab Hormazdyar. because gives power or in them. iagi. the word is written and read "Shadish ". 191. la fermete. 1441. In the Pazend Afrin-i Gahambar^ and in the Afrin-i Arcja-^ we find the word niru in the sense of strength. * Persian-English Dictionary. certain maladies. 2 Ibid.. The sentence runs thus : " Pa aoj. Ervad Telimuras's Text. 15. 5 Afrin-i Haft Ameshaspand. etc. vigour. va zor va niru-i varz pirozgar-i Dadar Ahura Mazda ". la force p. is associated Avith divine splendour. we see that the word "nirang has acquired the it sense of incantation. this short examination of the etymology and meaning " the word. power. We read there Aoj. may be clearly read niranq. niru. evils. 223..270 ASIATIC PAPER. la puissance. which. I. p. Afring&ns a^jrf ^frins. when it occurs similarly in. So. 6 Vide Revavet of Vol. Afrin-i Piaphithavan. Steingass"^ " meaning sage. : ! Mr.e. Tehmuras's Text. Dannesteter translates tliis sentence thus Que la viguer. Bombay University Library Manuscrip- . ^^ gives a Persian word niruyish (j^ijjt^ divine decree. which is Avesta For the Persian yay example But in the Pazend. fate ". avert influences. lascendant victorieux viennent aux Fravashis des Saints" » Lg Zend Avesta. 181. Dr. III. p. 4. " gari Jmmd fravash-i ashodn be-rasdd. ant splendour of Dadarl Ahuramazd^". Steingass's Persian word niniAsh is nothing but nirui. those have faith to who strength From of We A have a number of nirangs still existing among some of the Pazend and Persian books of the Parsees* intended to be recited on certain occasions few Paisee to Nirangs.. which has originated the word and Pazend with a *' nirang. published by Ervad Tehmuras Dinshaw Anklesaria. victory all reach the holy spirits of the pious^ ". 106. We have a number of such readings of abstract nouns in the Pazend Afrin-i Haft Ameshashpandan ^. and by putting a mark of intersome doubt about the word. zur. p. This word. The final i (c-5) which forms abstract nouns in Persian are written in Pahlavi letter ^ which can be read both sk and "shadi" for joy. 178. " With the strength and vigour and power of the triumphi. niru.e. rogation before it.

Ill. 2 Journal of the Anthropological Society of Bombay. prayer putting is that known as the Nirang-i dur kardan-i Zulam-i divan va darujan** ^. p. and still recited by many though not on occasions of the appearance of comets only in which 'paris (fairies) are mentioned. Ibid. 1894. to belong to the class of paris.i kusti ". We — — Now. as it were. briefly Let us exa- have what the Pahlavi books of ^j^g pishinigdn or ancient Persians have to say generally on the subject of comets* Before considering this subject. p. 193. 3 Voyage en Perse^fait en 1813. edited by E. II. translated by Bleeck. 190.y p. gical Society of Bombay. iMd. Among the nirangs that now exist. . As I have said in my paper on *'A few ancient beliefs about eclipse and a few superstitions based on these beliefs 2'\ it was usual among the Parsees. p. ils se prosternent alors la face contre terre et ne se reinvent qu'au retour des rayons de cet astre ".. n". ISl-Si'. p. 5 Spiegel. i. 1900. * Vide Spiegel's Avesta. pp. we do not find any special nirang enjoined to be recited on the appearance of a comet. . 6 Vide the Pazend Texts. 174. Khordeh Areata. until a few years ago. 360. that latterly. 6. So we have several Parsee Nirangs still existing. vol. XV. we must first mine here of all note. in 271 Society of my papers^ read before the Anthropological Bombay. : will see further on. vol. 1 The Journal of the Anthropolo(a) Charms or amulets for some diseases of the Eye. wherever comets are referred to.K. Ill. edited by l-irvad Edalji Kershaspji Antia and published by the Trustees of the Parsee Punchayet of Bombay. 398 . that in the Pahlavi Bundehesh. in ancient some of the natural phenomena were believed to bring with them some calamities. Ill. Persia. ibid. L. 4. to say prayers on such occasions and to recite especially the Mah bokhtar Nyaish in the praise of the moon during lunar eclipses. p. that the comets were believed. Vntia. The other is that known as the "Nirang of the Haoma Yasht"*". t.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS. (c) Incantations for cutting tlic hair and the nails. et les jours d 'eclipse sont pour eux jours de desolation et de deuil . the recited on on The fourth the sacred thread. V VIII. vol. and it is prayed that their influence may be One of these nirangs is that averted. the Incantation for averting the oppressive influence of the Demons and Drujs.e. Gaspard Drouville^ said of the Zoroastrians in Persia in the early "lis adressent leurs prieres au part of this century that soleii..^ vol. Mr. they are generally referred to together with meteors. laiown as the "Nirang of the Vannant Yasht ". vol. or fairies. 338 et seq. (6) NiranR-i Jashan-i Burzigaran. The " ^ third nirang of this kind is the Nirang.e. Vide The Pazend Texts. But it seems certain.^\ Sboutc^omets?^^^ third part of this section. we come to the ^{^at .. p.

92.i j ^ xi. The Leom'des are connected with the comet known as the Temple. after speaking of the planets. For example. 2" The Pahlavi Bundehesh. When a comet is disintegrated . 21-22. but they still follow each other in line in nearly the same orbit. it is added radiance by mutual agreement. Almost . 2 Prof. .uff^^'^T^. 4 Ibid. so that he may be less able to m the *^ i • : do harm''^*."Gocheher royashman va dumb va mush parik-i dumb-homand " i.e. .272 ASIATIC PAPER. all scientific writers of the present day treat of Comets and Meteors in the same chapter or division * and Thev think of these as being two phenomena Meteors well nigh the same kind. West translates these words as " Gocheher and the thievish Mushpar. of them together. 180. provided with tails^".those portions of its mass which are not completely dissipated continue to revolve around the sun as minute particles. meteors. while speaking of them under the " heading Connection of Comets and Meteors". disintegrated parts of a comet. says : These objects had originally formed part of the comet and had gradually separated from it. It refers to the comets in chapters xxxv.. The Andromedes are beheved to be . For this heavenly body of Mushpar "The sun has attached Mushpar to its own (comet). The hy Thomas Heath. West. Prof. chap- XIII. we find that both the " words "Gocheher and "Mushparik" refer to comets. pp. refers to meteors. V. speaks ^ i t ." as suggested by Dr. Ttoentieth Century Atlas of Populur Astronomy. The word " " "Mushpar from its epithet dumb-homand. "with tails is evidently for the comet. The Lyrids are connected with the comet I of . Here the word "Gocheher. vol. p. i.e. E. speaks of two heavenly bodies as '' Gurcheher va duzdo mushpar dumb-homaTid. the Perseides are believed to be connected with Swift's Comet or the Comet III.*' Dr. . . though it does not specifically refer to any connection between the comets and . " . 281-283. 3 S. of 1862. ^^^^h these bodies are mixed up together. 1903. the comets Bundehesh. pp. p.. Some of the tTgethfrfn of meteoric showers are beheved to be the Pahlavi books. In the 28th chapter we have the words. 31 The fifth chapter.i . 22. B. At times. the disintegrated portion of Biela's Comet. which is a chapter on a part of Astronomy. 18. The words " head and tail attached to Gocheher show that the word " Gocheher 1 " also refers to comets. Here. and the tailed mush parik. Newcomb's Astronomy for Everybody. Grocheher head and tail. which get gradually separated from each other in consequence of there being no sufficient bond of attraction. Newcomb connects these together and.1861.

The words may respectively mean "cowmace or club-faced. E. B. because some of the letters of the Pahlavi alphabet admit of various readings.e. Gurgdar. Steingass. Gocheher burns the serpent in the melted meta. we read in the same chapter " Gocheher mar pavan zak ayokshest vatakhtah (Chap." we find that the word itself (a) As to the word Gocheher.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS. 378. faced. chapter of the Bundehesh.^)>.. dur-daneh that the 1 " Now. we find name. read variously in Persian.Persian .) for a comet(p. Again. 18. its of the Pahlavi word. In the first place. wolf-keeper". Durchihar." XXX. Niz§-m-ud-din ** in his Tahakdt-i Akbari gives the word Jj j ) for a comet. and Gurchihar. Taking both these facts into consideration.e. it is read by scholars in various ways. p. p. "a club-headed comet". coming to the meaning '* " comet has derived 158.jb: .beam on the earth^. it says *'Gucheher " chcgun da van sepeher min tahi bin4 bara val zamik nafrunet ^ " Dr. : faced. even when written in the same way in some manuscripts. Gurchihar. club-keeper. that the Pahlavi word Gurchihr and its equivalent readings in the Bundehesh more generally refer to*' •* '* comets than to meteors ". j^s^ guzchahar (jf^ j»^) •. Gurzchihar. Justi. 125. varies in various manuscripts. . Dictionary are juzahr (.^i) . The Persian words for a " " comet settle this. XXX. Jb . 18 . the name of a comet.^). 1102. farwolf-faced. reading " " it Gurcheher. West thus translates the sentence As Gochihar falls in the celestial sphere from a moon. But Windisthmann reads the word as ** Gurzcheher " and translates it as " Komet Keulenkopf " i. 275 Then we find two more references to Gocheher in the 30th. V.^j. read as Guchihar. 31) ** Suzet i. which is. either form its apparent Vide my Bundehesh. his in English. " {a) From we all Gocheher these references in the Bundefind that the comets are known as" " and (6) Mush or Mush- parik. All these words then are de ( ys'A " ** rived from the Pahlavi word which can be. we find that the word can be." Here he " akes the word " Gochihar as referring to a meteor. 2 S. guzchaharah [iji^ j. Some of the several words for a comet in modern Persian as given by Richardson Gurzdar.e. chap. boar-faced. Gurgchihar. viz. Dr." : : : ^°^ for conTet^s ^ hesh. says of it that it is name eines Kometen i. and. and is. in his Persian-English Dictionanj^ gives the words gawaz-chihr and jauzahr (p.

when he said that the comet assumed the forms of animals or of instruments like the spear or javelin. and the Planets. . i. 44). i. those with locks of hair and the Zuzanab i. boar. and as the word *' dumb" homandi. and which appeared. of an animal like the cow.. the Moon and the Fixed Stars on the one hand. attached to it in both the places. and their tails 2. xxviii. i. the writings of the ancient Persians whom he called the pishinigdn. B.e.. I conclude. is attached to "Mushpar. As " '* " the words i. both in the Avesta and in the Pahlavi. v. The Avesta word pairika is the same as Pahlavi parik. Similarly. we do not find that it has given an equivalent word to Persian for a comet. I think viz. has the word pairika or parik ot par. E. that Pahlavi writers divided comets into the following two " classes Those which were quite distinct.e. 1. This Mush-par or Mush-pairik is the Mush-pairiJca of the Avesta (Yasna xvi. Thus we find. 1. those whose . the aticients. we find that " " the Meteors which belong to the same class of bodies as the " comets ".. The former belonged - k : • 1 S. i. Those which appeared rather indistinct. or of an instrument like the mace or club. it is difficult to settle Bundehesh. 4). 1880. 8 Lxviii. vol. that "Mush". in one place (chapter XXVIII. viz. meaning fairy. the ancient Persians distinguished between the Sun. V. both with their heads (or to speak in the modern scientific language) with their nucleus and coma. These Pahlavi words then show that Abul Fazl. had the form support of the Pahlavi writings. "with tail" : the 1. those with tails. Persian pari.e. 22. because it has the appellation dumb '* homand. That the word is used for a comet is evident. head and tail" are royaskman va dumb attached to the word Gochihar. attached to it. (1) Abul FazFs division of the comets into two classes. of the word Mus-par.e. or wolf. of the In an old text It appears from some of the Pahlavi books. where the words Mush and pairika seem to have been used as two separate words. the word is given as Mush-parih^. As to the meaning it. 2 and Chap. the Guchihar and the Mushpar. the Avesta and Pahlavi word for a comet. corresponds to the above division of the Pahlavi Bundehesh. are referred to in the Avesta (Tir j^asht 8) as belonging to a class of fairies.e.274 ASIATIC PAPER. n. the Zawat'ul-zawab. p. the -Goinets and Meteors on the other hand. tails only appeared. Pahlavi for a comet. viz. The word occurs twice in the Bundehesh (Chap.e. (6) Coming to the second word in Mushpar. English fairy. with a tail ". that at one time.e. 8).

Lxvn 8). Righteousness or Order. comes from a " " *' root to tempt. The Bundehesh. Paris. They all bear the names of some of the Yazatas or good beings named in the A vesta. V. they are represented to belong to the class of the Evil Spirit.e. seems to be a later one. which we see in later Pahlavi books and in the Persian books of Mahomedan authors. Fragments relatifsdla Religion de Zoroastre^ Extraits des "Manuscrits Persansde la Bibilothgque du Hoi. as belonging to the class of the creatures of the Evil Spirit. are wandering stars ". why the Sun. as their very English word (from its Greek root ** signifying to wander) implies.A MAHOMEDAN VIEW OF COMETS. What is disorderly and unsj^stematic is opposed to Asha and is said to move in the path of the Dravant i. The Pahlavi translators of the Avesta render Mush-parika by Mush-parik 3. to enchant). Now " planets ". the Good Spirit and the latter to that of the creation of the Evil Spirit ^. 5. Venus is Nahid (Anahita). 3)." The ancient par meaning word fairy also comes from a similar root (fier. (Ahura Mazda). Pairik. Parik. 1880. the wandering bodies of comets and meteors were termed fairies. to enchant. B. the idea of attributing evil influences to the meteors and comets. as com'* with fixed stars ". the wandering. This idea of considering the Planets and the Comets and meteors as belonging to the class of the Evil Spirit. 1 . seems to be this What is orderly and systematic is said to move in the path of Asha i. p. 1.e. p. the planet Jupiter is called Ormazd is called Beharam (Verethragna). : The fairies. 43-45 S. chap. seems to be a later Iranian one.e. that Ahura Mazda had given these planets good names. p. The Ulama-i Islam 2 says. The Persian rendering of this is "mush y&ni find We Avesta also. E. i. according to the ideas of the ancient Persians. the Planets are represented as being opposed to the Sun and the Moon. belonged to the class of the creations of Evil Spirit. Thus. This appears from the very names of the planets. Thus. 1898. The reason. Par or Pari. the Moon and the Fixed Stars are represented as belonging to the creations of the Good Spirit and the Planet and the Comets and Meteors to those of the Evil Spirit.^ 276 to the class of the creation of Spenta Mainjru. vol. For example. pared So. 96. . 2 3 Spiegel's Pahlavi Vendidad. It does not seem to be early Avestaic.. the Iranian word for a fairy. XXVIII. Mars called a reference to the comets (Mush-pairika) in the They are referred to in the Yasna (xvi 8. In the Pahlavi Zadsparam (chap. 1. 113-114. rv. 1829. Vide Blochet's article Le Livre intitul6 L'OuJama-i-Islara " in the Revue de I'Histoire des Religions.

Mush-parik.e. was that of the cording " " ** ** mush mouse. one |>t»^. by degrees the mice all died off 2". the mice had increased to such an extent that they left no trace of either crops or fruits. a parabola or an hyperbola. vol. who say that. vegetation. p.e." So. 257. earth. Dr. we find faint allusions to the belief.. it is said " In the environs and dependencies of the city. The word seems to be the same as Persian Mush "mouse. the fields of melons and the produce of orchards and vine-yards were totally destroyed.e. are corrupted with all this vileness ." This statement refers to the movement of the comet round the Sun alluded to by Abul Fazl and referred by modern scientific writ-ers. : ' ' : The Bundehesh (Chap. 1880. 8. p. the thief. E. mush being here undechnable ? This reminds us of what is said in the Mahomedan work. which we find in the Sanskrit word mushndmi i. There. vol. vol. 2 My manuscript of the S.. metals. vol. 2. which forms the first part of the word Mush-parika. v) says of the comet that "the sun has attached Mush-par {i. supports that assumption. I. moving under the infiuence of the Sun. . E. In the same manner. *' Mush " i. XXXI. water. p. Mills^ asks "Is it possible that a " plague of mice is meant. a If we take that to be the proper root of the word. wind. acanimal may to Abul Fazl. Prof. : 1 Avesta-Pahlavi-Persian Yapna. The evil influences believed to be resulting from the appearance of a comet as mentioned by Abiil Fazl are thus referred to in the Bundehesh " By them. " " '* " Pahlavi word duzina a thief (Persian duzd jjj ) i.. 407. Yacna XVI. VI. p. in the account of the phenomenon of a comet that appeared in the 13th year of king Jahangir. With the greatest difficulty. and when no fruit and no corn remained in the gardens and in the fields. that the appearances of the comets were opposed to the prosperity of a country. n°. perhaps. it always describes a conic section. B. the sky. so that he may be less able to do harm ^. or Mush-par. was believed to assume. it comes from the " " Aryan root mush to injure. which we find in the Bundehesh applied to Mush-par.e. animals. perhaps. . V. '* the ill-born "" fairy. the comet) to its own radiance by mutual agreement. EngHsh take it of that one the forms which the comet. as to the word Musha.e.276 pari ASIATIC PAPER. and mankind. above mentioned. 22. B. the Ikbdl-nameh-i Jahdngiri. Harlez derives the word from the root " " to steal. 3 Elliot's History of India. only one-fourth of the produce was saved to the cultivators. these ten worldly creatures. that is. * S. fire. Now. haramzad ^ " i. 183. light. In the above Yasna. the curve of which is in the form of an eclipse.

XXX. avalent eur de Pelephant comrae un e brebis quand oUe voitla face du loup." . 18 S. V. S. .A mahomedan view of comets. p. vol. when they went to speak of a great alarm or terror. XIX. Pazend^ and Persian books. vol. that of the sheep being frightened by the coming of a wolf in their midst. The Bundehesh thus refers to the terror struck among the " The distress of the people by the appearance of a comet earth becomes such like as that of a sheep when a wolf falls ^ upon it 2. captivity. B. viz.. 277 •evils and from them calamity. * Afrin-i Ardafarosh. 114. vol." The Avesta^' Pahlavi. " use this simile. 125. p. I. 33. p. disease. death. vegetation and the other creatures which exist in the world^"." : 1 2 Bundehesh. V.. chap. and other and corruptions ever come to water. Ibid. 365. Vendidad. E. a " II 6 Le Livre des roisar apercut ses hommes de goerre qui par Mohl. XXVIII. E. B. chap..

.

ancestor . . . 237-40 Achval. . . the Evil Spirit . 239 : Jehangir's . . 216-17 origin Afrasiab 71. . 86. 139 describes KashmirlO-1 Ains or Institutes of the Mo- 1 ghuls Airyana Vaeja . . . zeb Agra. Achaemenians. the 187. 192. Ahrimun.. Jehangir's time Ahmad bin Mahmad: on comets 44 248. 252 219.. Ahmedabad 155 : officer Kadri. . . the (See Volga) . Abbotabad Abeste (See Bost) loger . . . Aban (month) ^Yasht fied . Emperor Abul Fazl 32.. Ahriman. Adar. 135-37. Azar (month) 136. 98 175 209^ Afghans . . Aharman. 98. 253. 128. . 254. 245 242 167 : . Ahura Mazda Ahura Mazda : Adarbad Marespand on wine 240. : Bkrha. 39 31. Afghanistan 83. Ahunavaiti Gatha . 275 275 (planet) . . in . . 260 Ahmad Abu Sayid. Adil. Maulana . . . the 83. 234. . . Ain-i Akbari 32. . 178. 194 . . 135. . Abul Barakat Rafi-'ud Darajat. . 91. . 76 Afridis. On comets : 34. 74 217 221 261 Abdallalasan. 115. 47. 119 Ahmad Khan Ahmad Kadir)... 72. Achibal spring of water in Kashmir 20-22. 85-89 their . . 179. 120. 84. . . : . the city Ahmednagar Ahran. 67. 190 holding up of the fingers in the prayer 189 After-dinner assemblies of the old Persians 242 Afzul Khan 83 : : : : .. . 139 . courtier . Sistan' of the 243 209 84 66 219 175. 173. 136 10 63 177 officer of the Kaisar's . . . 247-252.) Kashmiri— an. 127. priest of Apollo : with Iranian Arish . 270 Afrin-i Rapithawan 270 Afringan prayer 185. . . dislike of . : Abaris. 122. . 119. Sultan father of Babar : grand. . 222 identi73. .. 270 Afrin-i Haft Amshaspend 172. 256-60 Ahmad Beg Khan...INDEX. . . His . 47.. 189. . . 34. . . astro- Abdul Hamid Lahori. . . the 86. 88 Afrin-i Ardafravash 270 Afrin-i Gahambar 237. Adil Shah of Bijapur : ^schylus " Af diya va Sahigiya-i Afghana.. . 226 270. . . Abdun Nalur other name of Mahbub Khan (q-v. (See Achajmenian Sculptures (See 51. INIaulavi Editor of Akbar Nameh 248 Abhar 206 Abkari System of the Government of India 231 . . . Kazi of Naosari . . . 88-90 its connection with the ancient Mazdayasnians 21524 its present area 217-18 its ancient history 218-24 Afghans. 125. description of Kashmir 10-11 36 98. 136. Author of Badshah Nameh Abdul Malik. . Nawab governor of His views on comets examined 261-64 His version of the influence of the comets 265-67 His division of the comets into two classes 274 Animal form assumed by comets 276. 113. father of Maslama (q. . 85. Syrian king Ahasuerus. court . 87. Persian king Ahmad. Iranian Sculptures). 191. . officer of Aurang89 137 . 26 Abdur Rahim. . : : Kashmir . of Jehangir . 15. Aghar Khan. .218 Ajamastan . Sayid of Jehangir 123-25 113. 116. V.) 210 Abdul Rahim Kh§ja. 75.. .

. 217 Arachosi^ 22 ) Arad. Asrar ul-Afaghinah . . Arjuna son of Kunti his skill as an archer 60.) : .218 . . 261 . . . Father Rudolph Arab Conquest. Artaxerxess (See Ardeshir Babagan). . 116-122. . . Erwad E. . . 201. . viceroy of Afghanistan Amir of Afghanistan. . . 176. .192 179 Ardai Viraf Nameh 100 Ardeshir.. Ajmere .v. " .. J74. — . 30. . 212. . . . of Bombay 137 Amanabad 136 Amardatd (month) America 37. 220. . Ali Adil Shah II . . 195.90 Akbar. . . Prince son of Aurangzeb -89. 70. . 217 179 Ameshaspends : Allans. .) . 138. . . 83. 248. ArdaiViraf 179. 254. . . Akbar. the (See Oxus) on the festival of Albiruni Tirangan and on Arish's 75 feat of archery Alexander the Great 5. 12. 3. . Anahita (planet) 275 Andha N^g a place in Kashmir 2 272 Andromedes. 46 Ali Malik. 127. 247. . 134. brother of Haidar . the . Asfandyar Isfandarmaz 26. 182. .201 Alfred the Great . 216 . . 222 Ardvigura Aresch. 236 . . . . . 44 197. .209 Alexander's Wall . : Damsel Apollo Aquarius " . .Antoeus Antia.211 . . Artaxerxes II 194 175 Aryas. . .269 Ardibehesht (month) 136. . . .. . . . . . Arish (See . . 124. . . .56 74 . . . . 220 . . 98-100. . . . . 9. . . . 247.137 . . 119.186. 76. . . 86.61 his feat in arErekhsha) chery 70-76 identified with Abaris. 125 116 176 AUbless Baug. . Greek . : . . 92.. f ort at the instance of . 171 Assyria Assyrians. . . Armenians. 245 Arabs. -Ammianus Marcellinus Amoul. 74. Persians . its signification.. 206 ." the 10. Alikhan. . . . the 172. Jehan Malik (q. : 5 influence on . . . the — . 31. . . . 210 . AH Masjid. . . . . v. . . . 215. the priest of Apollo : : — . 252. . the Asad khan: officer of Aurengzeb 87 . . 249 100 77 . 74 Arie 215 249 Aries 266 Aristotle 76 Arjasp Arjun. Arshisang (day in ancient Persia Archery 65-76 refered to in Avesta 66-67 represented on Behistun 66 among the Iranians 66-67 according to Herodotus Architecture. . Ammian on wine among . . 188 : " dhist temples at 5 his Buddhism . . . . . . 61. . . (month) 16. . Amyntus Darius' embassy to 236-37 him 222 -Ariaban. 199._ Arabia .. 206. the Alla'u Akbar . the Artashir-i Spendadat . . the 215. . . . the .. .. . . 69. 24 Ruttonji Maneckji of 166 Naosari " Anushirwan and the Village . husband of Nur 9 Ardeshir Babagan 205. . . 124. . . Antia. Ashirwad ceremony on the virtue of wine 234 Asoka 202 relics of his Bud: . 205. province of Parthia. 45. : : : : . . .220 Asha Asia : .. Akbarabad : Aksu. ' 116-17. 137 . 275 217 .. . . . Amel city 71. Kashmir . 125. . 91. . 253-55 " 54 Arabian Nights. . .. 264. Indian . 10. : Armenia .91 222 . 128. . 260. . .84 . . . Akbar's farmdns 98-100. 7. . 115. 86 215-16 the 239-40 . . Amin Muhammad Khan. Aresh. 122. 55. . . 135. . mad Baqr (q. . 15. . . . . . . Akbar and Kashmir 8-9 : 85. K 194 240 226 6 . . ruler of Kashmir Ali Kuli Beg. Ques100 tion of Akbar's conversion. 266 207 Asfandarmaz. . 206.. 40. . Akbar-nama " 18. . 220. Dastur of Persia . Alaah-dad pardoned by Akbar Muham. Angra Mainya . . . . Aqua viva. 222. . .280 ASIATIC PAPER A — contd.

60 8 . 173 171.. 157 158 hangir . . Miss Dinoo S. . 138 Attock 82. 138.. 172 132 251 223 . . . 6 172-75. . governor Kandhar Bahavpat Das Kur. . Babylonia . 86 rishi 22 Augashta 22 Augrd rishi 12 Augustus. Raja Bahdur Shah. 178 . . 219 203 223 85 217. the 233 193 . 223 pers 185 Atravakhshi. Ahura 82-91 32-36. —fire-temple . 115.. . . 134. 71. . . . fire . 232-34. . flute-player of Roum. . . . 29 (see Jhelam) Bailaqan . . his visits to : Kashmir Aiarvat-aspa (See Lohrasp). . 186. . . . Baghdad Bahadur Khan. . Barha Barman 245 . 178. 218 219 216 216 Virnag . . Badaoni 116. .46 .119 its . . : Bakhdhi Baladitya Aurangzeb 28. (See Darband) 204-207. . . 66. their 178. Balkh . : — . 182. . . the — concld. . . Behut. Dr. . . 35. Baluchi clan. 21.INDEX 281 A Astrabad Astyages Aswins. . . . its source 13. 17« Basra . 173. .. v. 205 Basoli sari : village adjoining . 209. . 150 Babylon : founder. . Dr. the Atak. . . El-Bab Babak Babar Babil . . . established . . Mount Bani Afghan Bani Israel Banihal . 185. . . 220 135 Bahman (day) . . 24. ancestor of Dadabhai Nowroji Badakhshan 4. Bastvairi. 211 69 Bardwan rishi Bareshnum ritual . . . Azour. 182. . Nao. 194. . . assistant priest. 22 187 125 221 263 . 89 . . King of Kashmir Avesta 37. .) Avantivarman. . 260. . King of India . 210. . .. Atash -para St an fire-worship. .155.. Azidahaka 172. Badakhshanis. Bahr^mgalla Bahut. . . . 274. the Baluchistan 6 Avantipura founded by Avantivarman (q. Auharmazd Mazda). . Haji . . . 75. Azdeh. . . . . 6. . . Aderbaijan Ill 206.116.34. 179 . (See 61. Athravans priest 185 Attar (perfumes) Jehangir's appreciation of 138-39 presented to Jehangir by two Parsis of Naosari. on the signi fication of the drawing of the bow . Pass near : described 3 33. . 29. . . 206 26 185 10 . . 188 : Atar (angel) Atar Froba by Jamshed Atash Behram : 211 235-36 . . . 256. . . 61. Bairam fort Bdj ceremony Bajaur . . 252 of . 256 84 . B Bab al-Abwab. 67 7. . 173 172. 275. 268. . . winged genii Babyrus Bacha Mehernoshji. 25 : explained 14 etymologically . 238 (See Zohak). . . Babylonians. . . 9. 68 officer of JeBashir. 206 54 221 . 127-28. 172. . of . . . Azad Mohan Azarbaijan. 196 Banks. . 264 " . Athornans. Emperor : : : . 12. 213 Barnard. . 219. 127 " Badshah Baevarasp : on comets . 197 . son of Asfandyar . 176. Bihut. . the first grade : Atash Nyaish 220 attitude observed while reciting it 180-81 : 254. 173 (See Zohak. the . .) B&ramiila 2. . 78. . Prof Barsam twigs 183. . the 172-74. . . 8. . 191 Bartholomse. Bastavala. . 30 172. . Bastur . . . 136. 177. . . . . . . Nameh . 210. .. Edgar J. Bamian. Baqr Khan 125 (See Mahmad Baqr.118. . 238. 65. . . . 36. Emperor Bahman.

sode of the epi.'. . . Bombay. 58-60 171^ . Bysangar . . its ^ sym^ . . . .239 190 19Q Bost. Bubu Pass Buddha Buddhism Brahmins-Gandharva.* 173 on Kashmir 4 on comets 263-65.. 98 on the task of Jehangir 12 : on India's debt to Persia 37 Bhagarias. . . ..217 . . 190. civilization . . . (See Bible. 177 175 . . . . 267. the . . 43. . ^ arrow. . . Behistun . . . : . raja . . . King . the 74. Cambridge observatory Cambyses .) 43. Bodleian. Brahmanism gg 22 215 g. . H. . . 205 . 148 . 195. . . . . 52-54. Franfois his account of Kashmir. . . Charvara. . Mr. . the Caspian the 71. Biela's nielaiame : of Shah . . . Behramji Mehernoshji founder of the Dordi family of : . thrown by Brahmanism Buddhistic civilization . . 24. J.220. . 272 18 Bijapiir : . .. . 36 . *84.'86. .' ] ' ] * . .193 Bukhtunasar 216 " " Bundehesh the 38. . . . . . De. . iiamed by Jehangir 135 Caterino Zeno 212 Caucasus. 234 83 . .. 11. . 222 Chadura. the 8^ 201 204 12^ . . 221 Bengal 46 Benjamin.Vhe Brahmins.268 195 176 247 . 202'. . . 87 . . 7^. . Bijbiara (See Panj Brara) Biiharistan Ahmedabad so . Behram (planet) Behram Aspu of Naosari Behram Chobin Behramgour : : 172 173 . concld. Jehan 24 why so named comet . 22 Bhagwan Das. 7. . ] of the Himalayas. . god . . . : .. Bember Bhishma Bidar . . . village of Kashmir native place af Haidar Malik (q. . 219. . Binbar . . Badakshan Arghun. . . 33-35 Beveridge. . . . . . . * * Bawri Beaman. 32. son of Kunti 60 . the 131 leader of the Bhagu. . .176.. .. . . the . . 28. .171 6 : . 204. : . the Boga. courtier . Caboura (See Kabul) Cabul (See Kabul). . Dy^n) . ..v. . . city of Afghanistan . Mr. . . . of . 241 roastrian 216-18. brother of Joseph. Chadur. Sir R. . * . Akbar _ g Bhamuchandra Upadhaya 100 " Bhandarkar. 216 Berar 10 Berdeh 206 Bernier. Bonvalot. . 205. Yusufzai . 65. . . Bhimbar. . Chagtai dynasty . 213 Central Asia 86. 236 257 220 204 21114 Bidaulat. ] : Bui-dddan vituaA . Behram II Behram V (See Behramgour). Birbal. . . . infused with Zoideas 6 over: . . . Memorial Volume" 203 Bhawan.. Bow and . 220 . . 83. a lake in Kashmir 23 Bhima. . . how 22I 275 169 76 . . the . . Bellew. . ... 189. 10> 85. . Brahma god Brahmanic . .56 'of . Bon religion named holism M of the Tibetans : 100. Caesar Calcutta . Cama Bang of Bombay ...' 99 66. 251 Bhagwan. . .282 B ASIATIC PAPER — .' . * " . * . N. * . 91 . 24. 204. Birsangh. . . . . Batlimus (See Ptolemy): on comets 250 Bauji garden referred to in the chak-ndmeh of the Dordi family of Naosari 141. Sir F. 142. \ 252 197 . 205.45 . 206 his feats in archery 68-70 on the use of wine 244 . . oflScer of Shah Jehan : Bismarck Black Sea. .. . 130-31 . . Naosari Behring Straits Bejan and Manijeh . ^ ' ' ^ ^ ^ ^95 Burton. 134 . 215 : : 271-77 : Burma . Cancer Carura (See Kabul) Caspian gates. .'54. . . .

165 Chow (Chou) dynasty of China 200 218 Christ 100.198 Ching-lung-chiao Chitrangad. Comets as ancients ChaTc-ndmeh referring to the land given as yd^ir by Jehangir to two Par sees of the or di family of Naosari 101. — — Cyrus 177. .88 ^his Riva- .179 Daevas. — .. . 127.15. 236. 240. . 18 268 Chinese. . .. Noshirwan). Chin (See Tsin). one of the wonders of the world 196-97 the extent builder of of the wall 199 effect of the wall 199-202 the wall on the history of the a visit to world 202-203 this wall 197-99 : Persias communication with China. Chang Ching the great wall of China 202 (See China).251 . . 132 " on wine Dadistan-i Dini 240-41 67. . plane trees af Kashmir . V. 188 Christians. . . 221 83. . the Dahaka 172 (See Zohak). Mirza). the Chinese anecdote. . Confucius Constantinople .129. 39 Bernier 11-12 Inscription on a tomb on its bank 3. 49 .212 : Dardenus. .17. Deh (month) Dal lake of Kashmir 3.. the CAindrs. 159. . 226 : . 204 (See Danishmand the Mogul in whose company Bernier Kashmir. . 175 16& barab Pahlon Darband 204—206. its 140-52 Chalcedon Chandji Kamdin original name of Mulla Jamasp (q. Dordi family 98. Cunningham . 250. 218. 258 its name 201 a country of walls 197 hisits great wall 195-203 tory of China 200-202 the wall. — Sehirwan (See Dar": . 268 204 . . 209 234 268 5 149. v. Darband-Nameh hirwan's wall (q. 161 Chandji Patel 190. . Dante D'Anville 179 . 136 Dai. . . . 275 200. . . 231. 244 mentioned in the Bible 234: 235 on the use of wine . husband of Electra Darial Pass . 17described by 19. . 198 Dabistan " China. Chosroes II Chovisi. . . son of king Shan58-59 tanu 66 Chosroe (See Khusro) Chosroes I 195. 257. 127 the : : : : 213-U Chinab. . 8 (See Daud. ...) : 172 . . : : : Dadabhai Nowroji — of .225 205. the term explained 108.. 180. village . 162. . Chin-Wang-Tao : : . Dara Shakoh Dorab Hormazdyar yat . . the . Rai Sarat .. emperor '• Climate ": the term explained 10 .4750 Dalu Mian. .202 Chhandragiipta . S 7 — . .. Darband band). 130. . 197.) on Nos. note 11 : the land described comets 247-48 fication : their identi: D chak-ndmeh in the text and translation — their in256-60 the pishinfiuence 265-68 of vjdn on comets 271-11 the category of the Evil Spirit : . . . . adjoining *' Naosari 157.. . . . Crimea .. 30. — . . 134 Croesus Crusades. 156. . 191 Chandra. Damdana visited 13.131. .85. a offering parallels to a Parsi prayer 225-28 . Daud Mian 48. . 128. 210-12 Tabari on Noshirwan's spring of water at Darband 210-11. 209-10. : . the 234-40 Classical writers on wine 12 Claudius. . .INDEX C : 28a the described by and moderns 247-77 on writers Mahomedan : — concld. . 203.

• . 132 . .70 of name . 215 Farohar (See fravashi). . 215-17. . 250. Ebn Haukal pher —Arab . Deocan. 265 Europe Evil Spirit. 156 Desai Jivanji Maneckji . Mirza his tomb on the 47-50 bank of the Dal lake 83 Daulatabad 130 83. . son Ganga of Shantanu and . 220-22 38 70 Eclid valley Edrisi. . L .231 . Amyntus . . 37. . Darius the Great 5. . .266. . . 9 Akbar's visit to his tomb Faridun his accession to the throne on the Mehergan Zohak's (q. . England Eranshahr Erekhsha . 75 ^his feat in archery 70-76 . Druidism Druids. 90.. . : of archery . . 88. . . . explained 140 : the name Kashmir Farghana " 132 Dordi Dadabhai Khurshedji Dordi Dr. Drouville. — 219 206 243 . . . . : . .. ... of . • • 137 206 . 228. 134. the 72-74 Demavand. . 131 Desai Sorabji Mancherji . Mr. Fariav Shaikh Farid Shakerganj. 156 Desai Homjibhai Temulji . v. the 74 Mount Elburz. .45 75. . the . 166 Desai Kukaji Mehrji Desai Maneck Homji 156. 99. . . . the seventh of the 268 Pleiades its fable historian 24. . 130. . . 141 Desai Babwabhai . . 126. 271 74 74 271 60 258 on the drinking habits of the Per: . . . . 166 Desai Khurshedji Temulji . concld. . . 239. 151 Desai Behram Faredun Desai Darab Rustomji 156. the drujas. : : . . 166 . Dunthrone. 191-92 his embassy to King 218 236-37 190 Darjeeling Darmesteter. 197. Farrokhzad pseudonym Gushtasp (q. . . Nawab : . . . . . Mount 190 De Milloue. Dyan. Gasper . . . . . . . .269 .. . . . . . Dhritarashtra— blind son of 60 34 Vyasa Dieulafoy Dilir: 60 66. Dooshak Dordi city of Seistan family of Naosari : . Elliot. . M. . — Desai Bahmanji Behramji . . . . . the (see Ahriman) 275 171 Ewing Mr. 137 200. Mount . . . 156 Desai Tehmulji Rustamji . Duris. . . . 7. . . 42. Egypt . . v. . . P Dordi Byramji Khurshedji 99.. . . .. . . . Prof. goyernnor of Kashmir in Jehangir's 44 time Delhi 84.. . 86. . Ecbatana . Spring of water 44.. Geogra173. .132 132 Dordi Maneckji Khurshedji Dowlat Shah on Arish's feat . 29. Mr.166 . 176. Delawar Khan. Electra. 266 Egyptians. 259 (medicine) Ddru. 238 58 : . . 258 82. . . 253-56..:284 ASIATIC PAPER D : — .. .. " Dinkard. • • sians . . . . . . . . . . an elephant . Draupadi her sicayamvara : 60. : . . . M.. 258 " 75 Farhang-i-Jehangiri 222 Fariab. Esther Queen of Ahasuerus " Esther "—Book of . 64 .. . Ereziphya. 232 Deluge. Greek historian . 202. . 238-239 238 defeat at his hands . .) — of 62. . davd-ddru 233-34 223 Darwaz Baud. 176 Desais.61 . 28. the of Naosari .. Jehangir Byramji. Drupada. 151 . Er-Ran Dharma. ." the Diogenes Laertius . the 238. . . 101. .. Arab geographer 173. .. . King. 135. . .220-22 .242 239 Ethiopia 239 Ethiopians. . the .. . W : Jehanger Dinavar. . . — . .218. . . . . 225 222 Faiz-bakhsh in : its 131 141 Dordi B. 88. . . . the 275 Etymander. Mr.211 Deguines. . . ..). . . . . . .. . founder 130.) Wrangiana . .. . god D'Herbelot of justice .

267 . . 266 Greeks. .. 239. . . . 183 211. 223 Gordon. Gemini . . . . and . 181. . village adjoining Naosari 142-43. gahdmbdr-ni pdvi : how brated Gandevi. . 10. . 221 " Geil. . 48 269 GaomeZy bull's urine Garda family of Naosari 152 . 218. . the 4. . 22 173 Dushit) Ganga. . 162. Kerakeran . . Sir George 37. 216. 241 Gul-marg a meadow of Kash19 mir 207 Gurgdn used in the gurz (mace) In Navar ceremony 179 186 Iranian sculptures . 57. Mr. France Fravashi the winged farohars of the Iranians 177-78.) . . . 213. 100 . 285 22 Geiger. 201 249. . . . : : . : her swayam. the Gangribal. 231. 77. Froba fire established by Jam233 shed : fulel —goblets of atar .INDEX Gautama F4rs 210. 206. 272-74 reading of the 273 word in various ways : . 58 . — : . Gahambars —six . Kazi Naosari . (q.212 . . . . Fire-temples Fire-worshippers Flamines.. 266 Greek anecdote. . rishi . 221-22. Mr work on Astronomy. . . Gen art its inGreco-Buddhist fluence on the old temples : Behrfilm . the Ganga ji Gaekwad .. .222 E. 232 W. .242 . Dr. 83. . lake . . V. 241-44 his description of the wall of Noshirwan 206-207 Fires : (See Atar Froba Atash : . . . Ganga -Jamna. 257 218. 136 Farvardin Yasht. 58 Ganges. . 218. 261 season-festi- 5 of Kashmir Greece 4. 173.) Gabriel Gabriel-Stokes. : .. 88. 135.219 Frazdana. a place in Kashmir. cele- 234 181 131 6 Qurcheher. Gandharva Brahmins Ganesh.. goddess vara . 76..225 . H Hadrian. . 65..150 222. . 265-66 Firdousi 17. the . 178. Giles.. Germany Ghakkar bribe (q. .238 of Margalla . 65. gocheher (see Comets) 254. Ghor country Gibbon . 52. 238. 69. . . . 262.. the Farziat —Nameh " —of Darab . Mr. Col 199 Grant. 37. . v. . 158.221 . . 180 223 . Emperor . 74... Mr. . . 199. . Lionel s Gizni . . 133.216 . Germans.251 Farvardin (month) 14. . : Godrej (hero) Gog and Magog Goldsmid. 183. . 57. . . 101. 185. . .. village of Roum . 244. Genesis. 171. . the 166 Pahlon 63 Faskun. . .220 Goleh. . . . . vals 176. 257-59..137 Fatahpur of Fazl-ud-din Usmani. 22 131 . 16. the fire-worshippers 223 Gujrat.193 98. a offering parallels to a Parsi prayer 225-28Greek influence on Indian 5 Architecture 257 Greenwich Guebres. . 219. . — .. 250. . . 123.40 . Gushtasp 218-21 his departure to Roum from the Persian Court 61 chosen as husband 62-63by KaitSyun. 163 198 Fengtien 222 Ferah (See Fariab) author of a Fergusson. ..222 . . 68. . 187. . Kerkoe). : : : . 237. . a place near Naosari. god Gang-i Diz hukht (See Kulang . . 126.. — 82 . 220. 215.

. . Houria Huguenots.v. and completed by 9. . various attitudes of the worship. . .) 127. — . 211. Kashmir . : hand-postures on Sassanian coins 193-94 signification of the attitudes of the hand in 191-93 prayer Haoma Yasht 271 Haravaiti 219 Hari Parbat fort built by : . per's hands and their : signifi: cation 178-94 outstretched fore- hands in prayer 182-83 raised parallel with face 183-86: the left-hand in prayer 186 both hands folded in 186-87 " kiss hand' prayer pose or attitude the pointed finger 187-88 attitude of the hand 188-91: : : ' arm Hirviiaya Suri Hissar Hodivala. Mr. 256. . . 25 211 Honor Pahak ... .. Horamzd (See Ahura Mazda). . 241-43 his mention of Archery among . .) . 204 6. the 251 Herat 225 . Hebrews. . . . . . 44 IbnTakil Ibrahim Hussain Mirza revolted in Akbar's time Ibrahim Mirza. . the Homae a fabulous bird 231 its habits . . . 11. : . Dr. 208 173 . Nawcib time Hassan Abdal Havan gah Hazara district . . . 116.65-66 the ancient Persians 100 Herric. . '23 . . . Emperor Huns. . 119 : : Jehangir. . Inch. . 7. .. . 205. . . . 260. Haroyu Harwan. . . . Prof. . . . of Hamdan Hamza Isphahni . 234-38. . sixth . Jehanauthor of a history of Kashmir 43 : officer of 43-46 : : 265-67 Hamaspathmaedem season-festival : . .286 ASIATIC PAPER H—concld. Holy Grail. Prof Tahsildar of . . . referred to by Muhammad Aatzam in his history of Kash46 mir 44 saved Nur Jehan. . 118. . 87. Sayid Hwang-ti : officer of . 218 : : . . JHands referred to in Avesta 174-75 their use in prayers 177-78 . . the . Hiranand Shastri. . 30. . . . . . Mr. . . 221. . . . : 16. 134 219 Hoshedar future apostle — . . . Hamazor and the Peace" " 234 Kiss . Hasan Malik bin Malik Muham- Nagarjuna Malik . 219 245 37 19. 196. governor of Fars Ilahi faith of 211 . the 3. . Father Francis 265 Heward. . . Halley's comet 247. . in . : seat of . Harsa. 15. I mad Naji : father of Haider . .100 Kash- 226 . 222 Helmund. *_Haidar Malik gir's court 3. . 257. 82 mir . Hermippus HerodotiTS 187. Hosh-dashtar. . . . . . 125 251 78. H. 213 their their history 202-203 Hari Singh. 84. Rawalpindi Haripur Harlez. the . . . 18. 197. : : hand poses 188 190 247 215 Hellenic civilization 219. . . V. . a spring of water in . 45. . . King of Kashmir 152 Jehangir's Court his destruction of : 200-20 1 the Chinese library . . . the Akbar 43. 78 82 276 219 6 6 Husin Mirza. governor of Kashmir in Jehangir's . . 89-91 Akbar . Hindustan (See India). . . . mount . . 204. 50 23 100 223 101 . 57.. . . the Hedin. . . excursion headed by Mihrcula 6 . 130. . 100 Hindus. Vincent 6 Heiun Tsiang-Chinese traveller Himalayas. . (q. . . . . Sven Heidelburg observatory .. . : Humayun. 45 Hashim Khan. . S. 14. 188 38. 10.. . 206. 194 Hormisdas II Hoshang Ranji Original name of MullaH6shang(q. . . Pandit Hirapur . .

. 245. 178. . . . 91. wine 231-33 compared with Noah 232-33 over thrown by Zohak 238 Jamal Khan. . 190. . . . .. 238. . : karnain).) . 217 Israels.. King of Tabaristen 269 Jaswant Singh. his . . . 171-73.11 his completion of the fort of Hari Par bat 9 : his adminishis tration of Kashmir 16 faith in Astrology 17 : his : : . 71. 260. His ac255. . . 10. 201. 118. 52. 4 Jamoo Jamrud Jand Jan Sipar . officer . . 210. 254. . a courtier of . . Kashmir 12. . 58 and Northern India Iran-Vej Irish.. 29.. . . 252. 276 count of the spring of Virnag in Islamabad 18 Ismail Ahmad. 190. . 31. . 206 . 25 Jamaludin Usmani. Islam . . 173. . . 66. 86. . . . 42: describes comets 248. . 250. . adjoining 141. . 1416. . to references Jehangir' s his visit to Virnag 42-43 visits to Kashmir 3. . . 185. 150 of Shah . 13. . Isfandarmaz (See Asfandarmaz. 12. . . Irvine. 203. 175 his name associated with the . .163 I- 70-72. 218 their relations with Kashmir : Jamasp Asa. Jalaludin Mirza Kajar on Jamshed's discovery of wine 233 Jalod . of . . 120. Jehangir . 187.angel Ish Kashni Pass Ishkata . . 188. . 13. . . . 215. 214. 231. Isfandarmadh.. 216.Scythian coins 6 215 indo-Scythian Empire 5 Indo-Scythians 60 Indra. Dastur James I . 54. 181. . officer . . 264. 252. . 238. 248.. 241. . of 101. 182. . 253 . . . : : fort of Jamrud 218: his Jehan : numai Jam 218 of discoverer : : Iran (See Persia) 209. 86. 198 . . . . 185. . Prof i on the archery of the Persians 66 his visit to the wall of Noshirwan 211 Jacob 216 98 Jdgirs : . . . 255. . . . . 262.39-47 . Jaboul 218 Jackson. — Jehangir . . . Issar (See Hissar).12. 259. . 276 Ira 206. . . Jalalabad 89 Jalaludin Mahmad (See Akbar). . 195. 197 86.166 . 217. . . 207.-39 Jasnasfshah. 252 175. 175 139 98. the . . . the. . .' 136 Jam. 287 India 3-7. Jehan . at Virnag-its inscription text and translation 3. 218 . 65. 223 219 Ishtrak district 223 Iskandar (See Sikandar-i Zoul. . . 12 JamnS. 143. 32. 259. . . . 9. . Jamshed 172. 47. . . 74-76.217 Iranian sculptures 91 68. . . . 61. 132 . 57. 65. 245. I I' Iranian civilization 216 Iranian dialects . 38» 47. a Naosari village . . 264. . Indus. 8 Khan. bol Jashans. 61. .217 Inscriptions at Virnag (See on a tomb on^he Virnag) bank of the Dal lake 47-50 of ''Iqbal-Nameh" Jehangir 24. . . Emperor 33. . . named by Jehangir Jahandar Shah . 239. . .. 44 beautifying Kashmir 7. Jehanam&bad —Ahmedabad so . the 4. Jehangir 130 Japan 75 . officer . 33. 219— 21. . . 231..INDEX l-^concld. 175 Iranians. . 34 Jarret. 51. . . 23. 23-26 : his efforts at : Italweh. . 256. . 218. 31. King of the gods the . . 253. the . 136 36 the 100 Jains. . Isadur (See Chadura). . : 27. . 266 Indian Art influenced by Per5 sepolotan art Indo-China 195 Indo. . 196. 203. . 217 . . . : . chief of Khorassan 206 Ismail Shah 252-53 Israel 216. . . . Israelites. 85. . . . . 37. . . 26. Mr. 99. . . . Maharaja 86 Jehangir. Itiqad Khan. 256. . . 21-22 .

216. .64 Kashmir 1-50. . 216. 5. . .ff ICankaria tank of Ahmedabad .. . Younghusband's : : book on : ' Rajatarangini Judah.159 223 . . 197 Moghul Emperors . 243 Jews. . . 13. .205. 241 his Jehan-numai J&m 218 61 his abdication Kaikobad. 19. author of Rajataran: . 222. 5 Emperor .2a8 J ASIATIC PAPER — concld. son of Kunti Karopa Pass . 77. .216 Jones. . Jehoun. . the plained 132-39 : dates of events referred to in the 137-138 farmdn . officer • • of . King 222 on the 244 use of wine Kailan marg. 83. • • Kashmir 4 the shawls of Kashmir 4 ancient temples Prese5 Kashmir of on the politan influeijce Kashmir 5 temples of : : Kashmir. . . . .. 213 . . . . . . .. .. a meadow of 1^ ICashmir 11 Kailasa her choice of a Kaitayun 62-64 husband Kalhana.Dr Justin II Justinian . . : . 150 : . . 61 . 43. . .the . Jilam. 11. . . 13. . . son of Jacob Julian. Kamdin Tabib Kanauj Kandh^r ' (physician) . 267. . . 85-91. . King 221. 5.. 138 Kama • • Jehangir Quli Beg. 24. 138. Sir W. Kakah—a fort Kahkuh. . 21* . 228. . . . . King 223 223 Kashmir and its saffron 25 : visited by Shah Jehan 29:32: visited by Aurangzeb 32-36 : Kashmir alluded to in Bunde hesh 38 : the gardens o£ 218 Kashmir 39. . . . the Kashmir as . . . . . Kahkaha. Justi. 13ft Kansulake Kariz . 137. : gini . 46 his farmdn in favour of two Parsees of Navsari. 268 . 220-2 . : : the paradise of India 7 Taimur and Kashmir 7-8 Akbar and Kashmir Kashmir described in 8-9 : K Kabkh Kabul tribe . 216 12. ruler of Shignan Kaid. . . 231. 239 275 273 211 12. 91. the chindrs of : account of 17-18: Shalamar 18 garden laid out by him his fondness for gardens 19 his account of the flower- Kashmir : margs of Kashmir 19-20 : " translated by oris his title of Price 27-28 Shah-i Jehan 40. 172. .25a Kashghar Kashi 59.. . : at 1-50 — its central position geographically and historithe relations of cally 3-4 ancient Iranians with the its Kashmir 4 History 4-7 before the Moghuls : : : : . . . 98-169 the text of this farmdn 101- his fondness for flowers 24 : his fondness for engraving his 28-29 : inscriptions " Mem Kaikhusro. 195. the . . 256 . 9.218 Joseph Jotik Rely astrologer of the 17 Court of Jehangir his additions to the Jotraj . the 2. 197. . 91. 130 72-74 217 Jewish captivity. . 87 .. 79. 83. Jehangir . 10-11 r described by Abul Fazl 10-11 : Jehangir's visit to Kashmir 11-12 : flowers of Kashmir 15. 22. . 231 9.. 3^ 221 farman 124-32 some points in the farmdn further ex: its translation. . . . Avestan with identified Khanent Kanishka. 218. . . .24 : Ain-i Akbari Kachiawady Kaffir forts of Naosari 141. . Indo-Scythian ruler of : Kashmir . . 10. . Jupiter .. . 92. 27 . the Jhelum. 60. 239. . . 45 133^ : : Kam-shamha Wednesday named by Jehangir : so . 42. Kaboulistan . 107-115 decipherment of the seals 116-24 farman on the the personages mentioned in 107 : 10. . 250.

. . Kashmiris the . . . . . . .INDEX 289 K—concld. — . 18. . .243 209 Kazan Kazvin 206. Kermanshah Keshvar . . . . . King of Khazars 208-10 Khalen. 252 . 31 11 Kashyapa Kasim Khan. . . . . . . . . 192 10 Khakan Shah. . . Kerman. . Kaikaus King . . . • 11. . . 61. — . Mirbahr Con9 queror of Kashmir Kaus. . . Kepler. Kerakeran bUshed by Bahaman Asfan220 dyar 211 . astronomer 259 219 Keresaspa fire estaKerkoe. . King of India . . . . .

25& 205 215 269 210 Mayatis sea Mahmad Amin Khan. .290 ASIATIC PAFEK " Maasir-ul Umara " 83. Masonic ritual 9& . governor of Peshawar 79. . . Macedonia. 70 . 96 officer . : Manock — brother of Mehernosh 200 . . . : : Darabji (q. . 44 12 202 . . : Kashmir described 8- 256 60 Madari. . 122-25 . . Bouet . Sh4h Manzar. — . th© 237 Megillus. 246 : story of Behramgour's hunt68-69* ing feats of archery. . . 22 225 82 . 6 the . . Mansur. Mahabat Shikoh (See Mahabat Khan). officer . Law" . . .). Sir John . 231 Martin Luther on wine Masalmans. . 238. " Malfuzat-i Taimuri " (See Tuzuk-i Taimur) in 7. 1 83. Khan 83 . .221 . punished by the goddess Ganga mahals subdivisioai of a sar- Mahabhi^a Maroub Mars 245 . the 206. Malik Mahmad Naji. . 252-53. 90-92 a Moghul Inscrip77-97 tion at : . . the 83 . . 23'6 machi ritual for the sacred fire 193 Machhi Bhavan.. 9 . . . . . .) Manasbal a beautiful lake in — . 172. . . . 212-13 . :his his description of the wall of Nosherwan 204-206. . .216. . . .249.. . 173.. .. . Marich rishi Marius his life by Plutareh. . Maury. . Mahabat Khan. 23 220-21 : Ma?oudi 38. . . . . 19-20 . . 57 10 Marshall. . built by Liladitya : . 37 . 223 Maslama^ Governor of Arme210 nia . . . . Dr. dhists. James Macedon. officer of the Mah court of the last Moghul peror . Arab prince . . god . . . . . . . Medayan Media . . . . Kashmir . 216. . 250. . . . . . . 163 Mahomed. . 211. . . . . . . . th© 196 Mediterranean. 79. father of Haider Malik (q. . . •• of Jehangir 155. . spring of water in Kashmir 20. 161. Mazdayasnians. . 96 : : Martand temple kkv (q. Madri: wife of Pandu Magabazus. . 158. 51. . . Mazdyasnian civilization Mazdayasnian faith . 157.v. 22 Maheshwar. . Mahomed Yazed. 261. on the preparation of wine on comets 247. Mahmad of Afghanistan . prophet 195 211. . . . Mancius. . Mawaraun — Nahr . . hangir's Court of Je113. . 6 Mahbub Khan.210 . Mirza Mahmad Zaman. . . v. . Baqr> officer Mahmad Din. Mahabat Khan Khan Khantin. the Mahiad-din Maghrabi. M. 84 74 MacDonald. general of Dariua 236 74 Magi. . Bud. . the Lacedemonian Meher (month) 23. 3^6 270 bukhtar Nyaish . . . . . . . . . Munshi. Marcus Aurelius margs meadows — of 12 Kashmir. 166 254. .235 235 Medians. . -. 136 Mahi. of Kai^mir Pers^olitan influence on 5 . v. . . . Margalla Pass of Kashmir 7782. .) Mahayana cle of — "^the Greater vehi. . father (q. . & 223 212 John 173... 275 — . . 250. . . Mahomed Gazni Maichun Majouj Malcom. . . of the . ful invasion of fort Sir : his unsucces- . 89-92 the Khan referred to in the tablet at Margalla 82-88 an account of his life 83-88 the contents of the inscription on the tablet criticised 90-92 Mahabat Khan Mirza Lohrasp (See Mahabat Khan). Markaleh (See Margalla) — • . 148 Mirza. . 264 69. of Jehangir . Em. . . wan Mahomedanism ruler of Shir- 205 . . . 239 238 Meher (day) 22ft Meher Nyaish . . . the Magog (See Gog and Magog). . Mazendaran -. Kashmir Manchu Tartars . . . 269 . governor ger 251 . ..) of Mahabat . astrolo. . Mahmad Quasim. . V.

— of . Sultan 89 80 : Dr . . 241 63 officer of . Moghul Emperors at Kashmir 1 -50 at Moghul Inscription.. Meher-ul-Nasa Jehangir — Begum • . Mirza Muhammad Mirza. 276 267 great -gi-and-father of Babar — . . . . . . . 72. J. 89 36 125 revolted in Akbar's time. . . 261 Mercury . 127. . . . . 126 his genea128-29 logy why called his probable Mulla 130 visit to the covirt of Akbar 127-28. . 131 the 67: . 6 Muhammad Mirani. . .133. . . Jamshedji Rus166 tomji Rana Library of Meherji 132 Naosari Mehernoshji Darabji descendant of Mulla Jamasp (q. 73.v. 139 . . Mihrcula Mihrcula head of the White . on . . . founded by . ... Moscow 209 Mosul 208 mubarak-shamba Thursday so named by Jehangir . . court . . 152-69 . .) the chak101. Miran Shah. Maulana a fakir of Jehangir 's time. . J. 41-43. 76 200 6 6 6 Muhammad Azam— son Aurangzeb . Mithras feast — described by . wine " . 71. . King . 6 : described MobadanMobad 238-9 — —Dastxir of Nao. 20. 99 : 100 Monserrat. Father Antony Moola Firuz Library of Bombay 43 which came to its his share . . Sayad. . . a text and Margalla 77-97 — : . Merv . . . . — . . Framji Sorabji 126. . 124. . . . . by Muhammad Farrukh Siyar Muhammad Husain Mirza Muhammad Kam son of Aurangzeb . . . . . 7 Mirza Rustam Khan. Milton 197 Ming Kings of China 201 Ming-tien. 44 Muhammad Akbar. . . 117. . . : . 74-76 MinochehrhomjiSjthe of Nao. Klhwaja a saint of India 120 " " 76 Mujmal-ul Tawarikh Mukden 198 Mulla Hoshang of Naosari 98. 107.90 Aurangzeb . Badshah 36 Muinud-din Chisti. of . 98. . . .119 son of . 115. . . the Kaisar's .43. 89 Aurangzeb Muhammad Shah. 24. . . . . Moguls . Minochehr. 89. Mesopotamia Mihr Mihrapur city founded . — — Huns Mihreshwar —city Mihrcula Mills. . : : : : Kashmir . 100. .INDEX 291 M— contd. : .. . 124. . 137 why Jehangir Muhammad Muazzam : . . Jehangir" 23. courtier of Jehangir 27 Situa< tion of the land given to him by Jehangir text and translation of the chak-nameh 140-52 : rewarded him 138-39 — . 127. Miran — . 189 100 .. 238-239 238 archimagus. . . 131-32. Taimur's son 116. translation. . 73 Mir Muhammad. . . Dr. . 134 Meherji Rana. . . . . . . 116. . 124 Price 27-28 translated by " Tuzuk-i Jehangiri ") (See . " sari . 45 "Memoirs 16. . — — . 134 nameh oi the jdgir land . — translation of the tablet 80 its date 81-82 the Khan referred to in the tablet 8288 Different readings and translations of 93-97 : : : . Modi.. 126. .. .. — . 249. . 136 Muhammad Aatzam author " " of Tarikh-i Kashmir . officer of Jehangir 115. . . . 135 Mirza Haidar conqueror of — . Minokherad. . Mithra 214 249 Mithraic festival Firdousi . Chinese general. . 1-50. 12-14. text and of 21. Muhammad Sultan son of . . Bakhsh : . 72. Meher Yasht Meher Bidad Mehergan feast Meherji Rana sari . son of 89 Aurangzeb Muhammad Amin. 119 Mirkhond archery : on Arish's feat of . 128 Meherji Rana.

Mushparik. 127. 98. .256. on comets 254. . — . coiirtier of Akbar Jamasp of Naosari ancestor of Dadabhai Now107. 260. . . hangir : . . — . 124. 113. myazd offering . Mirza. . 159. 260 Mushpar. Mulla Shah . . 162. 126. 101. 137 why called Mulla 130 : — . Mushpairika— comet 272. . 31 " 85 Muntakhab-ul Lubab " Muntakhab-ut Tawarikh 116. . . roji. *' mir 30. . 9 : : why Jehangir rewarded him Situation of the 138-39 land given to him by Jehantext and translation of gir 140-152 the chak-nameh : — . . 252-53.. . 168. . 125 85 Murad. 130: his probable visit to the court of Akbar 127-28. . oflficer . MuUa Mulla Ishki. . 276 of 113. builder of *' Badakhshani a mosque in Kash. 276 : Signification of Mustafa Thatta Khan—governor . . . . 148 58 Naaman —tutor of Behram- . 165. 154. 264 Multan 8. . 169 his genealogy 12829 : his original name 127.292 ASIATIC PAPER M — condd. 134-35.255-56 "IqbalNameh" Muzaffar Hasim. • 130 "Murudj-adh-Dhahab"( Prairies of Gold) on comets 247. 123-125 of Mutamid Khan^author . . . . 164. . . 155. of Jehangir . "mush" . .248. 115. 131. son of Shah Jehan 82 Murree Murtaza Khan officer of Je.. .

by Jehangir 200 Canal. Muhammad Jehangir . .. Parsee mented on by Justice Beaman reWation of the 99-100 views held by the Judge 99-100 " : prayer of Nem§-z-i : Ormazd (planet) Ortospana 220 (See . . 22 17 Rai (q. the Moghul Emperors of Delhi. 61 Panama . 64. 269. 177. . . . 85 125 of . . . . . . . (q. 115. 73. 264 Norman Conquest. . 156. 134 Parthia 213 213 Parthians. . Padshah Banu Begum . Babar . . the Oxyges. . the Nowroji Kersaspji of Naosari. 65. 203. . 135 182-85 patet penitence prayer . . . . . . 186. 134. "Paradise Lost" . Mr village adjoining . .. . ..241-44. 240 with communication China 213-14 its influence 37-39 on Kashmir and India. gulf of . the 9 197 195 272 Perseides. 215. . 228. .B. . 127. paitiddna (see paddn). Oxus. Jeso. archery . .) 69 . the 177 Pasargadoe. 271. 274. . Parrah (See Fariab) . 23 . .139 Nur Mahal 1 1 (see Nur Jehan). Parsees. . .. garden Parbat 16. a spring of 23 . . . . her Jotik . . 126 : why Nuruddin called himself Quli hangir's court — 121 officer of Je- 14. 217. 216. 5 Pampur cribed : its saffron fields des. . 201. 211.. .. 116. 73-75 . 209 the wall referred to in the Darband Nameh 209-10 Jackson's account of the its extension into wall 211 212-13 the sea . Pekin Penang . 2 Omar Shekh Mirza. . . . . . : Nurruddin hangir . son of Vyasa Panj'Brara the chindrs of 18 . 213 222 (See ' Jehangir). : . . . 234-37. . the 185 . father of . : (See Bijbiara). the 177.. 130. 274. 77.219 of . v.. 225-30 Dadar .. : on Arish's . Parsees of Surat 'Parsees at the Court of Akbai " adversely com. . : . 198. Hormazd" compared with some Greek and and Chinese anecdotes. 223. . the 268 North Pole. . . 209. Pattan Pa van Sandhya a spring water in Kashmir — . 268. water in Kashmir Panda vas. . the 31. V. . Pasargard Patel B. Khan Bahadur 126. Pandits of Kashmir. . . Persepolitan influence . 206.. . . . .INDEX N : 293 — concld. 169 . Parsees by Persia . . Satyavati Parchol. . 275 Urva and 83. 215. 119 257 Orion . 113. 275 . 10 223 . 166 Hari of Nur-afza. feat of Sir W . . . Pakhali Pakli Pamirs. 238-40. the 2. 100 100 100 131 : Old Testament. . . 74. 215-17. 100. Oudh Ouseley. . . 184-190. . . 222. Persia 61. 232. on . . 228 263 padan. 271. 266. 125 Kabul). " " Parsee Prakash the 126. . . the 239. 46. 192 why put on the face : its signification — . . 179. — Pathans. 191 Persepolis . .the Pandar Sandhya.. . a Naosari pari (fairy) Parker. husband . . "Pand Nameh" on wine of Adarbad . . . Paraponasus Parasha first — . the 37. . death predicted by . 267 . 189. king 72.) . 127. . . . 38 60 Pandu. . .238.43 Nur Jehan 44. . 195. Nurviddin Jehangir Badshah : . . 204. 269-71 who visited the Parsees. . 263. 123- 25 Parsees of Bombay Parsees of Naosari . . . 219 Paesangha modern Peshin Pahlavi literature on wine 240-41 : Peechili. 275: its . 204 . 188. . . Indian art .

the . 5 prayer -gestures of Prayers the Babylonians and Assyrians —their parallels among and : the Iranians modern 135 86 181. . 14. 221. .. . .268 Pleiades. on the drinking 238 habits of the Persians .. — . on comets 250 266. 160. . .217 Peshdad Peshdadian dynasty Peshin valley . village . . 9. . 24. Herodotus massacre by . their 78. pishinigans the ancient Iranians so referred to by Abul Fazl .. . . 196. . : King ^his marriage with Ganga. 29. . . writer on the Pingre.ted — mentioned 65-66 the Jews : by . Major of "Memoirs transla. . 34 : how : so named . .73 •• Ravad city Raverty. . Peshotan Chanda of Naosari. . . . . .. 268-77 his discourse on Plato 225 127 . the 37 . —queen . . . seller 241 Pir Panjal route leading to 10.294 ASIATIC PAPER — Sculptures). . . Jehangir" . . . 211.. . the . 172. Pouruta.. assistant priest Ratnagar wadi of Naosari referred to in the chak-nameh of the Dordi family 141-43. Kazi 157. . Rafi-ud Daula. Peter the Great Phak a district of Kashmere — 219 169 201. 25. 178-94 signification David Price. 157.. . 158 Naosari . .. 219 a . 217 74 . Puritans. 6. .. 33 Rahput Raibad Rais-ul : name to . 183 Rathwi. 44 45 26 Raleigh. . poriotkeshdn .157 . . . 162. 44 82 3. Capt . 159. 28. . : the Iranian stock Pyramids. . 17: the Persians and gardening 39 feats of archery of 65their dress and arms 76 : : : Babylonian and Archeology 176-77 Iranian the use of hands in prayers 177-78 of the various attitudes : : hands in prayers . 18 Macedon Piedmont Pilaji Gaikwad Philip of . . . . . . . 11. . Persian Sculptures (See Iranian Persians. and their . 3-6. 222 . of . ...132 Pindaris. . . . • 156. v.204 .. . the . . Prof. . Punjab. 131. . 179. 172 . 87. . Prandrathan. Processions : : . . 180 Porter. 149. the goddess 57. Emperor of Rafiuddin Usmani. .159 Pushto dialect belonging to — . the : Parsees 170-94 : hand poses in prayers. 265. 212 3 239 Purim feast . .. Persian inscriptions at Virnag (See Virnag). 4.. 26 . 214 the Persians and Kashmir 4. Kashmir 32. 165 Rashne (day) Rathors. 197 . . . . . temperance . — . R 36 . . 62. .. 197.) the . . referred to in the Avesta 174-75 Processional scenes in the Avesta 175-76 praying figures in : Rauchenara Begum Aurangzeb " Rauzat-us Safa " . Kashmir Pratipur. . . . . Sir Walter Ram Seheristan : on wine 231-32 222 . . . . . according city ]\Ia?oudi . 58 — . . Rajour .. . 261. 15.. 175-76 : Navar procession 176. . . 89. Mulk Chagtai " — . concld. Mr 258 history of comets Parsee winePir-i Moghan . Ker : . 232 ..243 86. .. . 221 221 title of . . 24. of Kandhar .. the 74. 267 Punch (Panj) route leading to Virnag . . Peshawar 79. '. 239. . of • • 136 Ranthambiir fort 181 Rapithvin Yasna Rapp. 264-68 Pliny 225 Plutarch ^ 269 . 35 221 217 . the Pythagoras .. 179 funeral 181 marriage procession 176 procession 238 Ptolemy Philadelphus Ptolemy 220. . .. . Haidar Malik Rajatarangini (q. 29. . Sir R.. Purnathe 141. . . .

170 75 "Saddar. 44 60 38 Sagittarius . 266. of a .. . 76. . 222.. 216. . — . Sajestan. . 242 of . 214. . 234. hangir Salim. 37. 222. — . . . Sarush.) Reham of Godrej Richardson: author of a Persian 254. . . 77-79. . . .. 245 (See Seistan). . 203. 252 . 273 Dictionary 231 Roberts. . : : 206 Sassan . . . 238 212. . 240. Semites. 173. 221 23 19 mir Shah Alum 36. . Sakistan.v. . .. 58-59 Sayyids of Barha by Jehangir . Gen. . Rustamji Byramji Jeejeebhai. . 190 Rochhill. . . : Shah-i Khamush : Saf dar Khan. 120 derwish of . 211. J his book 256 60 . . . . . Sahadeva. Maasir ul Ulmara" 83 . " " Tuzuk-i Jehangiri 24. . . . Akbar's time . . Sandanis wise man of Lydia Sanjan Memorial Column Sarakhs . Mr translator of Mr. 221. Rome 186. .. ." the on Kashmir Sadruddin. 121. . Sarkdr 20 221 — division . 220. 186. Salim Original name of Je- — Shah Kuli Mahran officer of 8 Akbar raised a revolt Shah Mirza in Akbar's time 125 Shah Mir founder of the Mahomedan dynasty of Kashmir 6 ' Shah Nameh" 52.218 . Akbar . . 169 36 Shah Alum II Shah Hamdan his masjid in Kashmir 37. 82.217 217 205-206 133. Sam village of . Salima Sultan Begum — Rawalpur a mir . 19 : : . Rostovtzeff. Shah Nawaz 120 *' Khan—avithor 216.194 Sassanians. . Sari city Ray Bihari Chand. Rogers. (q. 266 214. 216 125 . .. . . G. 203. 83-88 his visit to Cashmir 29. . 139 76 138 136 234 77 72 207 so . . : — . . Mr. . . downfall Romans. . : : Samoa Samumistan . . 231 . . . . 239. 220.. the 172. concld. . 249. 81. Prof. . . . . 251 Russel Hind.. .. the Achoemenians . Dr. : . 255 .214 Rustam 172. 57. 243 his birth of the Rustam Meherji 152 Garda family of Naosari . Kash. 211. 61. 40. 201. . . Scythians. 223 — . 40. Walter .. 195. . mir . . 245 . . Sir F. Shaikh —a . . . the 185. on comets Russia 209.42. . . the Shab-i barat . . 18 Rawalpindi. 38 9 of Akbar Saena Ahum Studan Saf apur ..179 . son of Madri Saiyad Ali of Hamdan .. . . 153 Roman Empire cause of its 202-203 . Sraosha subdh 10 .INDEX R 295 . Badshah 214 . . ... . . 90. . . gover. . 172.46 "Shah Jehan Nameh" (See "Badshah Nameh").. .. the Semitic dialects Serirs. the Seistan .43. . 204. 89. 268 223 Roshan district Roshan Akhtar : another name 36 of Mahmad Shah. 269 18 SathaBhuli 250 Saturn Satyavati married to King . Nawab nor of Kashmir . 32 Shah Jehan Jehangir's title on his inscription in Kash. . 38 Shah Jehan 46. . 237 219-22. . . 242 the use of wine among the Persians 238 on the fall of 240 .. . 61. . . — Ahmedabad . 96 on Rawlinson.. . . 221. . . . Sir 252. Shantanu Saul (King) . Kazi of the court — . . 218 Roudabeh Rum (Roum) 62. Scorpio Scott. . 136 . 245 (See Seistan). —a fakir — . —honoured . 45. . : .. Shah Abbas Shdh-dlu —the cherries of Kash. . . Mr Ruyan mount : . . named by Jehangir — . .. . . .. . Sassanian coins 193. 213.. 87. officer of .

131. . .238. . 15. . . 42. . . Sybil. . . Dayaram . . . . . the Sylvestre de Sacy Syi-ia . 270^ 273 Strabo on the temperate habits of the Persians 237 on the after-dinner assemblies of the Persians 242 : : .) Shiah faith Shighnan Shirwan. a place in Kashmir. 130 SoshyOs. 162 hangir's time 264 Sigebert Sikandar-i Zoulkarnain 209. Shirwan Shah Shiva Shivaji Shivatir 76 (See Erekhsha). V. . Sohani. .. 121 Shalimar gardens 7. Straits Settlements subdhs divisions of the . . : 2. . Sumeria 171. . 162 241 Susan Rameshgar . . 155. . . . the— of Kashmir Sher Afghan—title of Ali Quli . . 6. Mirza 251 Shaikhu-baba Jehangir thus addressed by Akbar .181 5 Shuja. Aurel Steingass. . 38. . the Surat 83. . a Kaffir fort 44 Sunnis. 45. . . "Shatroiha-i Iran" (Cities of 173. . . Sumer. . 220 Shang dynasty of China Shanhaikuan 198 Shantanu his marriage with . Sikandar Kara-Yusef 251 Sikri 210 218 Simourg Sind 3. . 130 219 206 74 of . . Spooner.) .27-28 drowning 78-90 Sultan. . . 182 223 Sumri. . • .. 88 . . 89 . . . the . . father of Abaris (q. . pire of Akbar — . Vincent Socrates 225 ».98 Smith. 113. son of Aurangzeb 37 Sultan Habib 17 Sumbal.. . . . 87. Syrians.. . ..115 Shahrivar (month) 24. 5. . 88 JeSifkhan a Nawab of 148. . . 10. . . . son of Jehangir his fall from a window predicted by Jotik Ray : . 49 Sohrab Kaka 151 Sona-marg a meadow of Kashmir 19 . . Shahrivar (day) . 38 . .239 Shapur I 194 Shapur III Sharaf-ud-Din author of "Zafar Nam eh ": his description of . son of Shah Jehan Shujayat Khan officer of the court of Aurangzeb. . 48. 219. Mr. . 27. 156 of . . . Persian dictionary 122. Ganga .. Songad Sorabji : Hafiz —grandson (q. 175. Dr. 187 : . a courtier of his death Jehangir by . 272 268 27 . . . 140. 43. . 195 . 157. . . . future apostle Sour et-Tien the wall . 148. 195 10 Em. 155. . the Shamsuddin Khan Jehangir's court .79. . 23. .96 Sraosha (See Sarush). .. Swat swayamvara— choice marriages .189. 115. 46 223 223 223 205 205 22 83. . — . — . Patrick's Kashmir . . . . . . . — 17 85. . Dr. officer of . . . .. 216. 254. Shrivar Pandit . . . 125. .245 245 . Srinagar 2. . . 58 22 275 Spenta Mainyu Spento-data (See Aspandyar). Shapta rishi .. 6. the 176. . Sumerians. . . . . 2. . Mulla Jamasp . . . . 18. : Southas. 107. . . . Stein. D. 13537 Shah Rokh. . 91 57-64 Swift's comet . Singapore Sirikol 223 . . . . . Noshirwan . 221. 212 Sikandar But-Shekan builder of the Juma Masjid of Kashmir 44 . . 222 Iran) 4 shawls. . . . . . . . 8 day : .. Shuja..296 S ASIATIC PAPER — concld. . . v. St. 39 laid out by Jehangir 18 . . 92 239 219 author of a . . . — . . Beg Shigni (q. B. Archaeological of Kashmir : Department . Dr. . — of . . .v. 219 Sughdha Suhrab Khan..) : . Sudr eh (sacred shirt) .

220 . 177. 186. Thatta Thomas. . . 6. Emperor 219. 202 225 244 124 194 237 Vaekereta . . N..220 219 . the 268 Ts'in. 138. 150. . . .. .. 190. . 258 Turks. . . P. . 116. . . . . . 139 Tuzuk-i Taimur " 7. 125-26. 42. Tacitus 212 on the delibera242 tions of the Germans 252-53 Tahmasp Safavi. . E. . . the "Vendidad". . 74-76. Mr. mount Valerian. . 205-207. . . 269 on NosherTabari 220. . Tirangan jashan 74-76 . 76. . the Thales Thalibi . 150 — . . 191 Tigreh village adjoining Naosari 142.. . 222 wan's spring of water at on the Darband 210-12 hunting-feat of Behramgour. Turan . Tehing-van 202 172 . Tishtrya 70. 143..71 Tosar. Vanant Yasht Vansitart. 202 Tartars. . 189 194. . ." the 172. . . . . 238 .219 Ushtavaiti Gatha . 7. god of wind 232 Vedas. . . .. . 23 . . 207. 211 Tusi-marg. the. U Ujain " UlmH-i Islam " Unvala. 113. . 27. on comets 248. . . 115 Tir (month) . 200. .. . 76 Takharestan 172 Takhma-urupa Takht-i Jameshed 177. 133 Jehangir Tibet 4. . . 258 Trebizond . a meadow of .. 260 Tabaristan 71. . 205. . . . 72.. 251 90 Taj Mahal. . . . . Pope . Shah Tahma-tan 172 (See Rustam). 254.. . . . .178 Utbag Alla-Kazi of Navsari 167 Ut-Suivi tribe 203 . 136 Tir Yasht . . . . 149. 13o' 133. the . .. 216 Talut. . . .. . . 119. 274 Tir-i-Areshi 76 (See Erekhsha). 76. 136 275 48 257 219. .122 . 26 Thana Taimur 7. 205 Trojan War. . 202 .271 216 Vara of Jam shed 232-33 Varahran II 193 Varahran III 1 94 Varro 268 243 Vashti. . the 175.. 8 Tycho Brahe . . . . 258 Tibetans. 191. . Kashmir . . . . .221 Turco-Iranian clans 85 Turkistan 209. 120-21. .. . . . . 159 8 Tigris. "Tuzuk-i Jehangiri " '* . .86 . : .INDEX Timur Tabakat-i-Akbari " 9. 27-28 197. 251. (See Taimur). 250. . Chinese Is ing built a wall against the Tartars. queen of Ahasuerus Vasishtha rishi 22 60 Vayu. Tehmina 272 Temple. Mount . . .. . Melic Tan-darusti (Benediction 176 prayer) 200 Tang dynasty of China 200 Taotze " ' 43 Tarikh-i Kashmir " " Tarikh-i Maoghan 73 " Tarikh-i SaUm Shahi ". .. 74-76. . Henry .77 Tegbeg Khan. 48 Takht-i Sulaiman *• Talisman. Vaitigaesa. — : Teutonic tribes. 136. . . . Urban Urva IV. . . 297 127: 256. by . . . Mr. 74. 43.74. 250. the 190. Tansar 269 Trajan. . 219. . . Tir (angel) 70 Tir (day) .. . — . . 70. 117. . . Nawab of Surat 131 . . the (comet) Temples of Kashmir influenced by Greco Buddhist art 5 Ushidarena. 30. . . 197 Tsin dynasty of China 197. 24. the Tilari village adjoining Naosari '. . . . named . . . Emperor 12 Transoxiasa . . the . .. Tughra characters 119. 201. 190. 19 12. . the 245 Tastar-king of India Taxala 65. .. on the hunting feat of 70 : : : Erekhsha : . . . . 258. 18. 219-21 . . Thursday—how . . Thracians. 71-74 . . 262-63 .

32. the . the 58 (See Jamna). 243 preparation of wine 39 Witt.. Yaqout his description of the wall of Noshirvan 207-209 : .2/5 Wakiat-i Jehangiri"-26. 60 Yarkand Yashodharma Yashts. 16. P Younghusband. the . son of Vyasa 100 Vijayasena Suri . Yima Khshaeta 172. Wakhanis.) 59. of Je- hangir's court . the Chow dynasty West. Lieut WoUaston. Mr 223 Wood. . Virnag a spring of water in . . . Vichitravirya. .276 . . 51. 185-86. .. the ' . 262...273 . .39.. 259-60. god Vishtap (See Gushtasp). Wine among the Persians 231-46 Jamshed. . 212 Vourukasha sea Vyasa. . .298 V—^0)icld.88. . . 12. Dr. 15. . Ghulam reading of the inscription at 96 Margalla 199 Yellow race. Viraf-Nameh .91 Vesugar. .23. .. 254-55. E. . Yima. . 2 officer . 268. . . . . 45. . the •• : .. 8. . . . 175 (See Jamshed). . comets 248. . 197 : described by Jehangir 13. describes the 81. 21-22 : text and translation of Jehangir's inscription at Virnag 39-47 described by Taimur 8 des: : . .. .24. 237.130 190 123 Weddel. . 11. . 200 Yin dynasty of China 78 Young. Venice . 59 (q. Wakha^. son of Satyavati (q. .. D. : — : : Kashmir 2.. 65 . . . Vir (See Virn^g). . 82. .. founder .20. Vishnu. . 46.86. Sir F.. .. X Xenophon : cribed by Abul Fazl 11 the word explained etymovisited by logically 13. Col Wednesday—^how Wee Wang Jehangir in his : named by " Tuzuk " of . . Sir F. 138 Yezd . : : : . the . 61 Yusuf Khan Rizani ruler of 8-9 Kashmir Yusuf zai tribe .212 : Venus . Mr. 54 223 224 Yazashna-gah ia/Aias. . son of Shantanu 58. . 91 . W vVacn 34 203 219 182. . Dr 273 Windischmann. Dr 200 272.. 12. Mr.. . author of a Persian 254. ^59 Dictionary .. . — .179 : 175. 79. 275. YamunS. Vernag (See Virnag). Vitashta (See Jhelam) . V. . — . . 22 Shah Jehan 30 references of Jehangir's visit to Virnag : : : 1 80 : on wine am on'^j the Persians 235. .. . . Vithavatru (See Jhelam) Volga. .186 . : . .. 3. .29. Krishna Dvapayana .. v. .. 244 Xerxes his expedition against the Greeks . ASIATIC PAPER 265-66 Whiston. 264 Walter del Mar Warzish Khan — . . 22 22 209 71 Yama Yajouj (See Yima).275 Verethraghna (Behram planet) 275 : : Ver. 91 story of the king and the describes Gardener 51-52 : his Yazdani. 7.: his book . 42-43 22 Y Yadg^r : his revolt in Kashmir 9 . . .) 60 Vidura. .. 39 on Kashmir 203 Yucchi tribe Yudhishthra— son of Kunti 60.179. J. 206 Vikramaditya 245-46 Vine its first cultivator . 4-6. the discoverer of wine 232-33 wine as described in the Avesta 233-34 used in Parsee ceremonies 234 wine according to classical writers 234-40 wine in Pahlavi literature 240-41 winesellers according to the Dadistan241: wine-drinking usages among the Persians 241-43 old wine 243 the 233. . the Yasna. .

Zaoti— . 185 . . King of India Zampa. . Zarinje. . . . 269 " Zoroastrian Deities on Indo" 6 Scythian Coins the Zoroastrians. . Zavulas- tan . . 245 14.. 37. . Zardushtis (See Zoroastrians). . the 173. 219. .INDEX . 223. . . . . Zaboulastan. 15 . . Kashmir 30 " . . .. 9 251 Abadin Kashmir 7. Kashmir Zain-ul . a . . . 268 Zohak 172-73 overthrown by Faridun 238 Zoroaster 39. 38.. 223. . : .76 Zend 217 Zenzan 200 . . 171. 100. Zerenj. . . 92 : of In. . 218. . 219 I . : King 38. scription on his tomb 37 Zal Zambil.183. . . 10. Zodiac.222. 222 (See . . a rope-bridge . . in . . .231 Zadsparam ": on the planets 275 Zafar subahdar of Khan. . 299 . 271 Zulqarnain (See Sikandar). 222 Zaranga. .216 . Zamyad Yasht Zarend. 8 Zain-Lanka. . Zarir 61.- Zaboul. 181. 9.. " of SharafudZafar Nam eh din Yazdi describes Kash: " mir . . . Zaranga Dooshak). . reservoir . Zoti. Shaikh . 221. Zainuddin Khafi. . Zerandj. . .91. . . 219. . . 221.

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