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Sem i Project on Finance

Sem i Project on Finance

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VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE

CHAPTER I 1.1 INTRODUCTION Dividend policy of a firm decides the portion of earning utilized for payment and the portion of earning retained in the firm for re- investment. Dividend policy has a choice of financing. If a firms capital budgeting decision is intend on dividend decision, payment of dividend at a higher rate will create change of its capital budget and vice- versa. Dividend policy determines the decision of earnings between payment to stockholders and reinvestment in the firm. Retained earnings are one of the most significant sources of funds for financing corporate growth, but dividends constitute the cash flow that accrues to stockholders. The third major decision of the firm is its dividend policy, the percentage of earnings it pays in cash to its stockholders. Dividend payout, of course, reduces the amount of earnings retained in the firm and affects the total amount of internal financing. The dividend payout ratio obviously depends on the way earnings are measured for case of exposition, we use account net earnings but assume that these earning can form true economic earnings. In practice, net earning may not conform and may not be an appropriate major of the ability of firm to pay dividends. Dividend policy refers to the issue of how much of the total profit a firm should pay to its stockholders and how much to retain for investment so that the combined present and future benefits maximize the wealth of stockholders. The dividend policies, however, not only specifies the amount of dividend, but also form a dividend, payment procedures.

DIVIDEND POLICY

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1.2 HISTORY After the restoration of democracy in 1990 A.D., Nepal has implemented liberal economic policy. As a result, many more companies are established in different sectors such as industrial, tourism, transportation, trade and mostly in financial sector who contribute to build up economy of the country. Nepal is a country trying to develop its economy through global trend and cooperation with developed countries. The development of an economy requires expansion of productive activities, which in turn is the result of the capital formation, which is the capital stock of the country. The change in the capital stock of the country is known as investment. Investment is key factor for capital formation. Investment promotes economic growth and contributes to a nation‟s wealth. Investor desire to earn some return from the investment, without any return there is no any investment. Investment will block, if there is no return. The total expected return include two components one is capital gain and other is dividend. In the capital market, all firms operate in order to generate earnings. Shareholders make investment in equity capital with the expectation of making earning in the form of dividend or capital gains. Thus, shareholders wealth can increase through either dividend or capital gain. Once the company earns a profit, it should decide on what to do with the profit. It could be continued to retain the profit within the company, or it could pay out the profit to the owners of the company in the form of dividend. Dividends are payment made to stockholders from a firm‟s earning in return to their investment. Dividend policy is to determine the amount of earnings to be distributed to shareholders and the amount to be retained or reinvestment in the rim. The objective of a dividend policy should be to maximize shareholder‟s DIVIDEND POLICY
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VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE
wealth position. Retained earnings are used for making investment in favorable investment opportunities, which in turn help to increase the growth rate of the firm. What and how much it is desirable to pay dividend is always a controversial topic because shareholders expect higher dividend from corporation, but corporation ensure towards setting aside funds for maximizing the overall shareholders‟ wealth. Management is therefore concerned with the activities of corporation that affect the well being of shareholders. That well being can be partially measured by the dividend received, but a more accurate measure is the market value of stock. But stockholders think dividend yield is less risky than capital gain. Dividends are payments made by a corporation to its shareholders. It is the portion of corporate profits paid out to stockholders. When a corporation earns a profit or surplus, that money can be put to two uses: it can either be reinvested in the business i.e. retained earnings, or it can be paid to the shareholders as a dividend. Many corporations retain a portion of their earnings and pay the remainder as a dividend. The most widely accepted objective of a firm is to maximize the value of the firm and to maximize shareholder wealth. In general, there are three types of financial decisions which might influence the value of a firm: investment decisions, financial decisions and dividend decisions. These three decisions are interdependent in a number of ways. The investments made by a firm determine the future earnings and future potential dividends; and dividend policy influences the amount of equity capital in a firm‟s capital structure and further influences the cost of capital. In making these interrelated decisions, the goal is to maximize shareholder wealth. Dividends are decided upon and declared by board of directors. A firm‟s profits after-tax can either be used for dividends payment or retained in the firm to increase shareholders' fund. This may involve DIVIDEND POLICY
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industry norms. liquidity and cash flow consideration. irrelevant. There are plenty of potential determinants for the dividend decisions. Overtime. The development of an economy requires expansion of productive activities. future earnings. therefore. whichever component has a lower cost that is where the profit after-tax will flow. The more prominent determinants include protection against liquidity. growth prospects. the dividend decision does not affect firm‟s value and is. which in turn is the result of DIVIDEND POLICY Page 4 . Generally. most financial practitioners and many academicians believe otherwise. By dividend policy. However.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE comparing the cost of paying dividend with the cost of retaining earnings. after-tax earnings of the firm. However. Miller and Modigliani (1961) argue that given perfect capital markets. inflation and interest rate. there is a need to strike for a balance because it is a zero sum decision Although firms do not have obligations to declare dividends on common stock. return on investment. The theory of dividend and its effect on the value of the firm is perhaps one of the most important yet puzzling theories in the field of finance. Academics have developed many theoretical models describing the factors that managers should consider when making dividend policy decisions. we mean the payout policy that managers follow in deciding the size and pattern of cash distributions to shareholders over time. past dividend practices. they are normally reluctant to change their dividend rate policy every year as the firms strive to meet stockholders‟ expectation. legal constraints. stockholders' expectation/preference. build a good image among investors and to signal that the firm has stable earnings to the public. the number of factors identified in the literature as being important to consider in making dividend decisions increased substantially. They offered many theories about how dividends affect firm‟s value and how managers should make dividend policy decisions.

Thus. but a more accurate measure is the market value of stock. it should decide on what to do with the profit. But stockholders think dividend DIVIDEND POLICY Page 5 . Dividends are payment made to stockholders from a firm‟s earning in return to their investment. Investor desire to earn some return from the investment. if there is no return. all firms operate in order to generate earnings. The change in the capital stock of the country is known as investment. What and how much it is desirable to pay dividend is always a controversial topic because shareholders expect higher dividend from corporation. The objective of a dividend policy should be to maximize shareholder‟s wealth position. or it could pay out the profit to the owners of the company in the form of dividend. Management is therefore concerned with the activities of corporation that affect the well being of shareholders. That well being can be partially measured by the dividend received. The total expected return include two components one is capital gain and other is dividend. which is the capital stock of the country. without any return there is no any investment. but corporation ensure towards setting aside funds for maximizing the overall shareholders‟ wealth. It could be continued to retain the profit within the company. Shareholders make investment in equity capital with the expectation of making earning in the form of dividend or capital gains. In the capital market. shareholders wealth can increase through either dividend or capital gain. Retained earnings are used for making investment in favorable investment opportunities. Investment will block. Investment promotes economic growth and contributes to a nation‟s wealth. Dividend policy is to determine the amount of earnings to be distributed to shareholders and the amount to be retained or reinvestment in the firm.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE the capital formation. Once the company earns a profit. Investment is key factor for capital formation. which in turn help to increase the growth rate of the firm.

VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE yield is less risky than capital gain. There are some companies who have never paid dividend to their investors throughout their historical background. In Nepal only few companies are paying dividend and the other companies are not stable in the payment of dividend. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 6 . It seems to suggest that dividend so matter. rather it is the information declaration of dividend that affect the stock price. is affecting the stock price of the company but several researchers argue the fact that dividend affect stock price. It has been noticed that company who has risen dividend generally experience on increase its stock price and that a company don‟t pay dividend or lowers it‟s has a falling stock price trend. It is fact that dividend work as a simple sufficient signal of management‟s interpretation of the firm‟s recent performance and its future prospects.

DIVIDEND POLICY Page 7 .3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY The major objective of the study is:  To determine the trend and practices of dividend payment by the Nepalese “A” class listed companies of Nepal from fiscal year 2003-04 to 2008-09 however the specific objective is are as follows.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE 1.  To identify the regularity and uniformity of dividend paying financial institutions.  To examine the impact of dividend policy on market price of stock of “A “class listed companies of Nepal.  To explore the prevailing practices and effort made in dividend policy among the companies.

Divined policy involves the decision to pay out earning versus retaining them for reinvestment in the firm. the shareholder benefitted directly. corporate liquidating and investors‟ attitudes. share and combination of both. It may be in cash. The profit made by the firm which is distributed to the shareholders termed as dividend. shareholders wealth can be increase through either dividend or capital gain. Dividend policy of different organization may same or different.1 MEANING OF DIVIDEND The term dividend is defined as a return from investment in equity shares.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2. The firm should decide whether to keep the money as retained earning or pay the dividend. If the company retains the funds for investment opportunities. the flow of funds. The main aspect of dividend policy is to determine the amount of earning to be distributed the shareholder and the amount to be retained in the firm. Dividend decision of the firm is a very crucial controversial area of financial management. but the policy followed by the firm should be suitable for both the shareholders as well as the firm itself. the shareholders can be benefitted indirectly through future increase in the price of their stock. Any change in dividend policy has both favorable and unfavorable effects on the firm‟s stock price. Thus. Higher the DIVIDEND POLICY Page 8 . Every firm after making profit either retain the money for further investment or distribute it among the shareholders. When a company pays dividend. The dividend policy is the policy followed by the firm regarding the dividend versus retention decision. Dividend policy decision is one of the three decisions of financial management because it affects the financial structure.

The financial manager must understand the various conflicting factors which influence the dividend policy before deciding the allocation of its company‟s earnings into dividends and retain earnings. In fact. which bad. which is good. but lower future growth. the Board of Directors (BOD) decides to declare dividend to the shareholders. the company declares less dividend and when the high dividend is paid than retain earning is reduced. flows of funds. After successfully completing the business activities of a company. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 9 . There is an adverse relation between retained earning and cash dividend. Since the motive of shareholder is to receive returns on their investment. Dividend decision has great influence on financial structure. if the financial statement shows the net profit.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE dividend means higher the immediate cash flows to investors. Therefore. the payment of corporate dividend is at the discretion of the BOD. corporate liquidity and so on. which is distributed to the shareholders by a company. This decision consist the decisive decision of choosing between distributions of profit to shareholders or investing them back into the business. The relationship between dividend and the value of the share is not clear cut. dividend is the portion of the net earnings. When the amount of retain earning is high. So dividend decision is one of the major decisions of managerial finance. The dividend policy should be optimal which balances the opposing forces and maximizes stock prices. which reduce the opportunity to reinvest and expansion of the organization.

Step 2 Using the optimal capital structure proportion. in which the first priority is given to the profitable investment opportunities. it would estimate the total amount of equity financing needed to support the expenditures generated in step 1. If retained earnings are inadequate to meet this need. new common stock would be sold.2 DIVIDEND THEORIES  Residual theory Residual theory is that. If there are profitable opportunities. If the available retain earning are in excess to this needs.‟ A theory that suggests that the dividend paid by the firm should be the amount left over after all acceptable investment opportunities have been Under taken.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE 2. retained earnings would be used to meet the equity requirement determined in step 2. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 10 . Step 3 Because of the cost of retained earnings is less than the cost of new common stocks. Residual theory of dividends means. the firm invest is those and residual income (if any) is distribute to shareholders.‟ Using this approach the Firm would treat the dividend decision in three steps as follows: Step 1 Determine the optimum level of capital expenditure which would be the level generated by the point of intersection of the investment opportunities schedule (IOS) and weight managerial cost of capital (WMCC) function. the surplus amount would be distributed as dividends.

DIVIDEND POLICY Page 11 . large dividends is announced and distributed to shareholders in order to (or in hope with) maximize the wealth of the shareholders. which are just established and to those companies it will be beneficial whose financial profits are is decreasing trends.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE  Wealth maximization theory Under wealth maximization theory. The main purpose of the wealth maximization theory of dividend is to make assurance to the stockholders that they are interesting in the firm. it is applicable for those companies. which has not better market value. Basically.

This has the effect of increasing the number of outstanding shares of the company as a result the decrease in EPS which effect the reduction in the market price of the share. The notes are called dividend certificates or scrip. Stock dividend increases the number of outstanding shares of the firm‟s stock. Since the shares are distributed proportionately. Sometime companies need cash generated by business earning to meet business requirements or with-hold the payment of cash dividend DIVIDEND POLICY Page 12 . share holders retain his proportionate ownership of the company.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE 2. Stock dividend requires an accounting entry transfer from the retained earnings account to the common stock and paid in capital accounts.3 TYPES OF DIVIDEND Keeping these theories into considerations. Among them some are discuss below:  Stock Dividend/Bonus Share A stock dividend occurs when the board of directors authorizes a distribution of common stock to existing shareholders. Under stock dividend. Although stock dividend does not have a real value. firms pay stock dividend as a replacement for a supplement to cash dividend. Rupees transferred from retained earnings = Number of shares outstanding *Percentage of stock dividend * Market price of the stock.  Scrip Dividend A scrip dividend is a distribution of surplus to the stockholders in the form of notes or promises to pay the amount of dividend at a certain time. shareholders receive additional shares of the company in lieu of cash dividends. dividend can be paid in different forms.

promising that it will mature in future date is known as bond dividend.e. The total net worth of the firm remains unchanged. value of shares. only the difference between these are maturity time i. In such circumstance the company may issue scrip dividend payable at future dates. only additional certificates representing new shares. The effect of a stock split is an increase in the number of shares outstanding and a reduction in the par.  Stock Split and Reserve Split A method that is commonly used to lower the market price of a firm‟s stock by increasing the number of shares belonging to each shareholder. Bond and scrip dividend are same. scrip has relatively less maturity time than bond dividend. The only difference between bond and scrip dividend is that bond carries relatively longer maturity date than scrip dividend. if dividends are paid in the form of bond (to shareholders).  Bond Dividend With the theory and concept of scrip dividend. Bond dividend posses the following characteristic:  Bond dividends are the means to dividend postponement for a while but more it is obligation. A method that is used to raises the market price of a firm‟s stock by exchanging certain number outstanding shares for one new share of stock.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE because of temporary shortage of cash. The effect of a reverse split is a decrease in the number of shares outstanding and a increase in DIVIDEND POLICY Page 13 .   It couldn‟t bring back the psychological value as the cash dividend. or stated. Bonds used to pay carry interest and it means that the company assumes the fixed obligation of interest payment annually and principal amount of bond at maturity date. The stock split does not involve any cash payment. Therefore the intention and purpose of bond dividend is also the postponement of dividend payment for some time.

VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE the par. a tender price and a period of time during which the offer is in effect. if the tender offer is under subscribed the firm may decide to cancel the offer of extend to expiration date. or stated. Share tendered during the extension may be purchased on either prorata or first-come. for acquisition and for retiring the stock.  Stock Repurchase It is the process of repurchasing back outstanding share of any company. In tender offer. Nepalese Company Act 1997. If the number of shares actually tendered by the shareholders exceeds the maximum number specified by the company. Stock is DIVIDEND POLICY Page 14 . only additional certificates representing new shares.e. section 47 has prohibited company for repurchasing its own shares. then the purchases are usually made on a pro-rata basis. the company usually specifies the number of shares it is offering to repurchase. for stock option. the company may adopt reserve split which may increase the market price of share and help to maintain efficient situation of the company. (Weston and Copeland. The reverse split does not involve any cash payment. first-served basis. 1991. it states that no company shall purchase its own shares or supply loans against the security of its own shares. Alternatively. Company can repurchase its shares in two ways:  Open market repurchases Tender (Offer) repurchase Open market repurchase usually (but not always) involve gradual programs to buyback shares over a period of time. When the market price of share of a company is falling gradually. 682)The repurchase of stock holds major three reasons i. A corporation‟s repurchase of its stock can serve as a tax advantages substitute for dividend payout. Repurchase have the effect of raising share prices so that shareholders can be taxes at the capital gain rate instead of ordinary dividend rate on cash dividend. value of shares. The total net worth of the firm remains unchanged. However.

It increases the proportional ownership of existing stockholders. The cash account and the reserve account of a company will be reduced when the cash dividend is paid. Beside the market price of the share affected in most cases by the amount of cash dividend distributed. The objectives of the cash dividend are:  To distribute the earnings to shareholders. Each and every one like to collect their return in cash rather than non-cash means. as they hold the proportion of the share. It increases EPS and also DPS if the payout ration is not changed.  To build an image in the capital market so as to create favorable condition to raise the fund at the needs. So cash dividend is not only a way to earnings distribution but also a way of perception improvement in the capital market. arrangement should be made to borrow funds. Payment of cash dividend shouldn‟t lead to liquidity problem for the company. Cash dividend has psychological value for stockholders.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE repurchased specially when the firm has abnormally high profits and is not in a position to effectively utilize surpluses. The volume of the cash dividend depends upon earnings of the firm and on the management attitude or policy. Both the total assets and the net worth of the company are reduced by the distribution of cash dividend. It increases the stock price as net worth per share increases. Cash dividend has the direct impact on the shareholders. If the company doesn‟t have enough cash at the time of paying cash dividend. A company should have enough cash in its bank account when cash dividends are declared. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 15 . The repurchase effects are as follows:     The stock repurchases reduce the number of outstanding stocks.  Cash Dividend The most common way to pay dividend is in the form of cash.

however. of course. but also form of dividend. but dividends constitute the cash flow that accrues to stockholders. 2. Dividend policy refers to the issue of how much of the total profit a firm should pay to its stockholders and how much to retain for investment so that the combined present and future benefits maximize the wealth of stockholders. payment procedure etc. net earning may not conform and may not be an appropriate major of the ability of firm to pay dividends. we use account net earnings but assume that these earning can form true economic earnings. The dividend payout ratio obviously depends on the way earnings are measured for case of exposition. Retained earnings are one of the most significant sources of funds for financing corporate growth. reduces the amount of earnings retained in the firm and affects the total amount of internal financing. it is called a stable dividend policy.4 TYPES OF DIVIDEND POLICIES Dividend policy determines the decision of earnings between payment to stockholders and reinvestment in the firm. Dividend payout. The third major decision of the firm is its dividend policy. Most of the shareholders also prefer stable dividends because all other DIVIDEND POLICY Page 16 . This policy is considered as a desirable policy by the management of companies. not only specifies the amount of dividend. Dividend policy according to the application could be categorized as follows:  STABLE DIVIDEND POLICY When the firm constantly pays a fix amount of dividend and maintains it for all times to come regardless of fluctuations in the level of its earnings.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE  To make distribution easy and to account easily. In practice. the percentage of earnings it pays in cash to its stockholders. The dividend policy.

without considering the fluctuation in the earnings of the company. following this policy necessarily means that the rupee amount of dividends will fluctuate. When the company reaches new level of earnings and expects to maintain it the annual dividend per share may be increased. Three of the common used dividend policies are: 1. Constant payout ratio The ratio of dividend to earning is known as payout ratio. stable dividends have a positive impact on the market price of the share. the policy is called constant payout ratio. we mean maintaining their positions in relation to a trend live preferably one that is upward sloping. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 17 . The policy does not imply that the dividend per share or dividend rate will never be increased. Constant dividend per share Constant dividend policy is based on the payment of a fixed rupee dividend in each period. Since earnings fluctuate. and avoided when it incurs losses. When fixed percentage of earnings is paid as dividend in every period. A number of companies follow the policy of paying fixed amount per share as dividend every period. Investors who have dividends as the only source of their income prefer the constant dividend policy. 2. By stability. It ensures that dividends are paid when profits are earned.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE things remaining same.

VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE 3. if there is not any hurry about dividend payment and if it could be paid only when the company earns more profit is known as no immediate dividend policy. It is often followed by firms with relatively volatile earnings from year to year.  REGULAR STOCK DIVIDEND POLICY If the company regularly pays dividends to its shareholders in stock instead of cash. •When stockholders have agreed to accept higher return in future. then it is called regular stock dividend policy. In fact. •When availability of funds is costlier.  NO IMMEDIATE DIVIDEND POLICY If the company does not declare dividend unless the company earn large income is called no immediate dividend policy. Low regular plus extra policy The policy of paying a low regular dividend plus extras in a compromise between as table dividend (or stable growth rate) and a constant payout rate. Regular stock dividend policy is ale DIVIDEND POLICY Page 18 . yet investors can count on receiving at least a minimum dividend. This policy is usually pursued the following circumstances: • When the firm is new and rapidly growing concern. In other words. which needs large amount of funds to finance its expansion program. Such a policy gives the firm flexibility. •When the firms‟ excess to capital market is difficult. this policy should follow by issue of bonus shares. The low regular dividend can usually be maintained even when earnings decline and extra dividends can be paid when excess funds are available.

higher earnings means higher dividend and vice-versa. •When the firm is lacking in cash despite high earning. This policy is based on the premise that investors prefer to have a firm retain and reinvest earnings rather than pay out them in dividends if the rate of return the firm can earn on reinvested earnings exceeds the rate of return investors can obtain for themselves on other investments of comparable risk. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 19 . Further. the company distributes the earning as dividend or there is not regularity of dividend payment therefore it is the most used type of dividend policy in the Nepalese context at present. it is less expensive for the firm to use retained earnings than is to issue new common stock.e. the firm does not pay any fixed amount of dividend every year or dividend varied in correspondence with change in level of earning. The firm with unstable earnings also adopts this policy. i.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE designated as bonus shares. when there are investable opportunities the company retains more and when there is not any investable opportunities. Such policy should follow under the following circumstances: •When the firm needs cash generated by earning to cover its modernization and expansion of projects.  IRREGULAR DIVIDEND POLICY It is the policy in which. this is particularly true when the firm‟s sales is affected through credit and entire sales proceeds are tied in receivables.

1 FACTORS AFFECTING DIVIDEND POLICY  Legal Requirements The legal rules provide that the dividends must be paid from earnings either form the current year‟s earnings or from past years‟ earnings as reflected in the balance sheet account „retained earnings‟. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 20 .  Insolvency Rule This rules state that cash dividend should be prohibited.  Liquidity position The cash or liquidity position of the firm influences its ability to pay dividends. but if they are invested in fixed assets. it is the firm‟s inability to pay its current debtors. if the company is insolvent. Similarly in the technical sense. If it does so there would be reduction in the capital that would affect the creditors of a corporation.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE CHAPTER III 3.  Net profit rule This rule provides that dividend can be paid form past and present earnings. State laws emphasize three rules:  Capital impairment Rules The firm cannot pay dividend out of its paid up capital. A firm may have sufficient retained earnings. Insolvency in the legal services defined as the situation when the recorded value of liabilities exceeds the recorded value of assets.

frequently restrict a firm‟s ability to pay cash dividends. Its ability to raise equity or debt funds from capital markets is restricted. Such restrictions. usually state that (I) future dividends can be paid only out of earnings generated after the signing of the loan agreement (i. is riskier for potential investors.  Access to the capital markets A large. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 21 . Thus. Similarly. particularly when long-term debt is involved. which are designed to protect the position of the lender.  Restrictions in debt contracts Debt contracts. well-established firm with a record of profitability and stability of earnings has easy access to capital markets and other forms of external financing. the company must have adequate cash available as well as retained earning to pay dividends. and it must retain more earnings to finance its operations. preferred stock agreements generally state that no cash dividends can be paid on the common stock until all accrued preferred dividends have been paid. new or venturesome firm.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE cash may not be available to make dividend payment.e. A well-established firm is thus likely to have a higher dividend payout ratio than a new or small firm. they can not paid out of past retained earnings) and (ii) that dividends cannot be paid when networking capital is below a specified amount.  Need to repay debt Firms may have the policy to retire its past debts by means of retained earning. If such alternative are being adopted then such firm will retain more and pays less dividend. A small. however.

At the same time. As a matter of policy. so it is likely to retain a high proportion of current earnings. Such a firm is therefore more likely to pay out a higher percentage of its earnings than a firm with fluctuating earnings. For e.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE  Growth rate of firm A rapidly growing concern will have constant needs of long-term funds to seize favorable opportunities for which it has to retain more and pays less dividend  Control Another important variable is the effect of alternative sources of financing on the control situation of the firm. Reliance on internal financing in order to maintain control reduces the dividend payout.  Stability of earnings A firm that has relatively stable earnings is often able to predict approximately what its earnings will be. a corporation owned by largely taxpayers in high income tax brackets tend DIVIDEND POLICY Page 22 .g. This policy is defended on the ground that raising funds by selling additional common stock dilutes the control of the dominant group in that company. some corporations expand only to the extent of their internal earnings. A lower dividend will be easier to maintain if earning fall off in the future.  Tax position of shareholders The tax position of a corporation‟s owners greatly influences the desire for dividends. The unstable firm is not certain that in subsequent years earning will be realized. selling debt increases the risks of fluctuating earnings to the present owners of the company.

Therefore if someone wants to receive the dividend. Holder-of-record date: This is the date the company opens the ownership books to determine who will receive the dividend. 2. Declaration date: This is the day on which board of directors declares the dividend. Payment date: This is the day when dividend checks are actually mailed to the holders of record. In this case. Ex-dividend date: The date when the right to the dividend leaves the stock is called the ex-dividend date. the company closes its stock transfer books and make up a list of the shareholders as of that day. 4. the stockholders of record on this date receive the dividend. the holder-of-record date and payment date. 1. 3.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE toward lower dividend payout where as corporations owned by small investors tend toward higher dividend payout. At this time they set the amount of the dividend to be paid. and the following is an outline of the payment sequence.  Payment Procedure followed by Companies The actual payment procedure is of some importance. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 23 . In that date. the ex-dividend date is four day before holder of record date. he/she must buy the stock four days before the holder of record day.

From the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. although studies on countries other than the United States h a v e o b s e r v e d a s i m i l a r d e c l i n e i n t h e p r o p e n s i t DIVIDEND POLICY Page 24 . which appeared in the United States during the end of the twentieth century. researchers developed various hypotheses to explain dividend policies. In the twentieth century. there is no universally accepted explanation. AND DETERMINANTS The Historical Evolution of Dividends The first corporations were short-term ventures that ended in full liquidation. another strand argues that the phenomenon has been only temporary. as first observed by Fama and French (2001). managers faced the issue of how to make distributions to shareholders. As corporations became longer lived. managers used dividends to influence share prices and to attract new capital.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE 3. To date. Finally. Researchers have advanced several possible explanations for the decrease in the propensity to pay dividends. While one strand of the literature questions the existence of this phenomenon. as the propensity to pay dividends has been on the increase since the new millennium. An overview of recent sur veys and observed firm reactions to changes in tax laws provide additional insights into current dividend policies. TRENDS.2 DIVIDENDS AND DIVIDEND POLICY: HISTORY. and numerous firm-specific policies as well as laws developed to address how much corporations could pay shareholders. Trends in Dividends: Payers and Payouts Trends in dividends reviews recent trends in dividends and dividend payers and focuses on the phenomenon of disappearing dividends.

drawing largely from Bancel. The DIVIDEND POLICY Page 25 . Cross-Country Determinants of Payout Policy: European Firms Most research in dividend policy focuses on the North American financial markets and their associated regulatory environment. It begins by examining the evolution of dividend policy to determine whether the key trends identified in the United States. such as size. product market com-p e t i t i o n . growth opportunities. These findings have several implications for existing theories of dividend policy and suggest avenues for future research. also occur in Europe. The chapter then examines the major determinants of European payout policy. and incentive compensation. equity ownership. t h e m m a g n i t u d e o f the phenomenon is much less pronounced and much more recent. Factors Influencing Dividends I t s yn t h e s i z e s t h e a c a d e m i c e v i d e n c e o n t h e c r o s s s e c t i o n a l a n d t i e-series determinants of dividends. and public or private status. leverage. investor protection. and Mittoo (2006). profitability. investor‟s sentiment. Chapter 5 focuses on dividend policies of European firms and other legal and regulatory regimes. The chapter also examines the relationship between dividends and characteristics of the market in which the firm operates. T h i s e v i d e n c e s h o w s t h a t d i v i d e n d s a r e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h several firm characteristics. Bhattacharyya. such as tax law.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE y t o p a y d i v i d e n d s . as well as t h e a v a i l a b i l i t y of substitute forms of corporate payout primarily repurc hase. such as the declining fraction of dividend payers and the concentration of dividend payers among large firms. maturity.

But the question is whether the company will be in position to maintain the rate of dividend after issuing bonus shares or mere capitalizing the accumulated profits it depends solely on the earnings capacity of the company. However. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 26 .VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE chapter provides some reassuring evidence that the major factors influencing dividend policy are similar across countries. On the country. The future rate of dividend will naturally be lower as because the number of equity shares will be increased without any increase in its earning capacity of thus the total profits would be divisible among the larger number of shares thus lowering down the dividend per share. But if the total cash-dividend to be received by a shareholder after bonus issue. if the company maintains the rte of dividend. share price would not be affected much. Dividend at the lower rate would adversely affect the share price in the market. On the other hand. the shares including bonus shares would be quoted at a much higher price which in turn would affect favorably the psychology of the investors and goodwill of the company in the eyes of investing public. indicating that dividend policy is a complex interaction of a country‟s legal and institutional structure with firm characteristics such as ownership structure. if the issue of bonus shares is used as a speculative tool by the administrator or persons having vested interest in the company in order to earn higher profits for themselves. the share price in the market would invariably limits and should be detrimental to the interest of shareholders. some country-specific differences exist. is protected or it marginally increases. DECLARATION OF DIVIDENDS: The main advantage of bonus issue to the shareholders is that they get more cash dividend in future years if company maintains the pre-bonus rate dividend on equity shares.

 Dividends can only be declared or paid out of (i) the current profits of the company. No dividend can be paid out of capital. A or the provisions of Articles provisions of the Companies Act 1950 in the regard. if so authorized by its Articles. they are governed by the provisions of Act. Dividend on Paid up Capital.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE The power regarding appropriation of profits is given to the Board of directors. (Sec. pay dividend on the paid up value of shares under section 93 of the companies Act. A company may. However.  When a dividend has been declared. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 27 . as appears to it to be justified by the profits of the company.   Notice of any dividend should be given to those who are entitled to receive it.  The board of directors may from the time pay to t members such interim dividends. 3. (ii) the past accumulated profits and (iii) moneys provided by the government for the payment of dividends in pursuance of a guarantee given by that government. The directors my transfer an amount they think p[roper to the reserve fund which may be utilised for any contingencies. Rules 85 to 94 of Table A provide that A company may declare dividend its general meeting provided it does not exceed the a mount recommenced by the board of directors. 205 (i)). it becomes a liability of the company to the shareholders from the date of its declaration but no interest can be claimed on it. 2.. Dividends only of Profits. Provisions of Articles of Association. The directors are to follow table. The following are the rules regarding declaration and payment of dividend:- 1.

Dividends are to be paid in cash only except in the following circumstances By capitalizing the profits by issue of fully paid bonus shares. provided all legal formalities have been satisfied in respect of issue of bonus shares.  Companies are not entitled to pay any dividend unless present or arrears of depreciation have been provided for out of the profits and an amount of 10 % or reports has been transferred to reserve.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE  Director who is responsible for payment of dividend out of capital shall be personally liable to take good such amount to the company. However. (ii) they have been relied in cash: and (iii) they have been realized in cash and (iii) they remain as profits after revaluation of all assets and liabilities. if Articles so permit. central government may allow any company to declare or pay dividends out of profits before providing for any depreciation. Payment of dividend only in Cash [Sec.  Dividend cannot be paid out of accumulated profits unless current losses are made good.  By paying up any unpaid amount on partly paid up shares.  Capital Profits may also be utilized for the declarations of dividend provided (i) there is nothing in the Article prohibiting the distribution of dividend out of capital profits. 4. 205 (iii)]. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 28 .

Where it is not due to the default of the company.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE 5. 6. such unpaid dividends shall be transferred to a special account to be opened by the company in that behalf in any DIVIDEND POLICY Page 29 . where a company has declared a dividend but has not posted the dividend warrant in respect there for within 42 days to the shareholders entitled to it. Interim dividend can be paid at any time between the two annual general meetings taking into full year depreciation on fixed assets. Where right to receive dividend is pending decision. if issued by the company. Payment of Interim dividend. Payment of Dividend to Specified Persons (Sec. in compliance of the directions of the shareholders. 206). 8. Dividend shall be paid only to those whose names appear on the Register of member son the date of declaration of dividend or to the holders of dividend warrant. 7. 207) Dividend must be paid within 42 days of its declarations except in the following circumstance:     by operation of law of insolvency. 205 A) According to section 205 A. Transfer of Unpaid dividend to a Special Bank Account (Sec. Payment of Dividend within 42 days (Sec. The directors of a company can pay interim dividend subject to the provisions of Articles. If company lawfully adjusts the amount against any debt due form the shareholder. newly inserted by the Companies (Amendment) Act 1974.

Transfer Unclaimed Dividend to Central Government. the company shall pay an interest at 12 % p. (Pvt) Ltd.. Ltd/Co.a.' If the unpaid dividend are not so transferred. 9. Any unpaid amount of dividend declared before the commencement of this Amendment Act shall also be transferred to such special account within 6 months from the date of commencement of the Act. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 30 .. The company is entitled so a receipt for such transfer from the Reserve Bank of India..VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE Scheduled Bank to be called Unpaid Dividend Account of ... Any amount transferred to the unpaid dividend account remains unpaid or unclaimed for 3 years from the date of such transfer shall be transfered to the 'General Revenue Account' by the company along with a statement giving full particulars in respect of the sums so transferred and the last known addresses of the persons entitled to receive it and such other particulars as may be prescribed.Co.

a wise policy should be maintained between shareholders‟ interest and corporate.1 FINDINGS After the restoration of democracy in 1990 A. firm should make a proper balance between dividends and retained earning. Dividend distribution is the very important factor to any organization for effective goal achievement to satisfy the shareholders..D. Shareholders make investment in equity capital with the expectation of making earning in the form of dividend or capital gains. tourism. In such a situation distribution of dividend to shareholders is taken as the best because shareholders may have investment opportunities to invest else where. many more companies are established in different sectors such as industrial. Due to decision of earnings of a company between dividends payout and retention of earnings of a company between dividends pay out and retention of earnings. paying dividend to shareholders is an effective way to attract new investors to invest in shares. its effect on market value of shares is a crucial question. As a result. Actually. High payout satisfies the dividend need whereas increase in market price of stock increases capital gain. The funds sometimes could not be used in case of lack of investment opportunities. Therefore. trade and mostly in financial sector who contribute to build up economy of the country. So. A firm‟s profits after-tax can either be used for dividends payment or retained in the firm to increase shareholders' fund. Nepal has implemented liberal economic policy. Nepal is a country trying to develop its economy through global trend and cooperation with developed countries. This may involve comparing the cost of paying dividend with the cost of retaining earnings. transportation. Dividends are decided upon and declared by board of directors. The payment of cash dividend by the DIVIDEND POLICY Page 31 .VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE CHAPTER IV 4.

Thus. dividend declaration should be proposed to the AGM of shareholders for approval. so that investors can analyze the situation and invest their money in the best company.  The legal rules and regulation must be in favor of investors to exercise the dividend practice and to protect the shareholders right. it is suggested that investor who want to purchase the equity share and immediate return should invest on the share of high profit earning companies. 4.  The investors should be careful in investing in the stock of development banks.  The NEPSE and SEBON should properly handle. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 32 .  Having seen the history of dividend paying companies. insurance companies. Thus.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE financial institutions especially by banks is seen well than other sectors. For72 this.  Each and every company should provide the information regarding the activities and performance. it is seen that the net profit after tax is the main base for distributing the dividend. the study attempts to determine the impact of cash dividend on stock price.2 RECOMMENDATIONS On the basis of findings the following recommendation is made for the further applications of dividend policy regarding its impact on the stock prices:  Shareholders should be given an option to choose between stock dividend and cash dividend instead of declaring stock or cash dividend arbitrary. hotel and other sector on the basis of cash dividend. guide and inform the shareholders and the related companies about the market price increase or decrease from the impact of dividend declaration.

therefore it suggested to investors not to invest in the AGM period only because of dividend DIVIDEND POLICY Page 33 .  As per the study it has been seen that there is no significant difference between the average market price before and after the cash dividend payment.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE  The investor should also think of investing in the hydropower sector for the investment portfolio diversification. As Nepal has a huge potentiality ingeneration of the hydropower. there is a good future for the better performance.

we found there is a significant difference among mean cash dividend DIVIDEND POLICY Page 34 . Another study examining the ex-dividend day behavior of American Telephone and Telegraph stock for a time series of 43consecutive dividends has found that the average price change from the cumdividend day to the ex-dividend day was $2. from the CV calculation also we saw that the companies paying the cash dividend are not paying consistently. there is a very low degree of positive correlation between total listed companies and cash dividend paying companies. Being an “A” class financial institution. They interpret this result as consistent with a clientele effect where investors in high tax brackets show a preference for capital gains over dividends and vice versa. Under the empirical testing it has been proved that ex-day stock price tend to fall by significantly less than the dividend. We have also found that the most of the companies are paying cash dividend and bonus share. or about 4 percent less than the$2. the majority companies under the development banks. there is a practice of providing either stock dividend or cash dividend by the companies to their shareholders.16. They may be in different forms and basis. The main reason of the dividend payment is to provide the benefit to the shareholders of the company and to make them they are the part of the company.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE CHAPTER V CONCLUSION Different types of dividend are paid by the companies operating all over the world. In Nepal. From Karl Pearson‟ correlation analysis we found. financial institutions and insurance companies have not been able to pay dividend to its shareholders.25 dividend. From the hypothesis calculation. From the study we find out that mainly the commercial banks are regular paying dividend. Similarly. But in Nepalese perspective the MPS of certain financial institutions is seen increased heavily on and after ex-dividend date.

cash dividend payment of development banks are homogenous. cash dividend payment commercial banks and of manufacturing and processing companies are not homogenous and there is no significant difference among mean cash dividend payment of development banks i. development banks and finance company.e. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 35 .e. This study also concludes that there is no significant difference between the average MPS before and after the cash dividend payment of commercial banks.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE payment of commercial bank and manufacturing and processing companies i.

http://www.VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE CHAPTER VI BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS:   Advanced Accounting. WEBSITE:     http://en. By S.org/wiki/dividend_policy.wikipedia. Advanced financial Management.P.Com Part II.net/1954bvr/dividend_policy_bvraghunandan. DIVIDEND POLICY Page 36 . By Michael Vaz.paisacontrol.dividendpolicy&types http://www. M. Jain & K.III.com/bullionnews. Narang.com/doc/81551656/factorsaffectingdividendpolicy. http://www.investopedia.slideshare.L.

VIVEK COLLEGE OF COMMERCE DIVIDEND POLICY Page 37 .

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