College Physics

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Table of Contents
Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics . . . . . . . . . . .
Physics: An Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physical Quantities and Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2 Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Displacement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Time, Velocity, and Speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension . . . . .
Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics . . . . . . .
Falling Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods . . . . . . . . . .
Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods . . . . . . . . . .
Projectile Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Addition of Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . .
Development of Force Concept . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System . . . . . . . . .
Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces . . . . . . . . . . .
Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces . . . . . . . . . . . .
Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion . . . . . . . . . . . .
Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction . . . . . . .
5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity
Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drag Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elasticity: Stress and Strain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centripetal Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Centripetal Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force . . . . .
Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity . . . . . . . .
7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work: The Scientific Definition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gravitational Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conservative Forces and Potential Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nonconservative Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conservation of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Work, Energy, and Power in Humans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
World Energy Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8 Linear Momentum and Collisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Linear Momentum and Force . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Impulse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conservation of Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Elastic Collisions in One Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to Rocket Propulsion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9 Statics and Torque . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The First Condition for Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Second Condition for Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies . . . . . .
Simple Machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Angular Acceleration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kinematics of Rotational Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia . . . . . . . . . . . .
Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited . . . . . . . . .

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. 7
. 11
12
18
25
29
35
36
38
39
43
51
60
62
68
85
86
88
95
101
107
123
124
125
126
132
134
142
144
150
163
164
169
173
187
188
191
194
198
201
207
221
222
224
228
233
236
240
243
247
249
261
262
264
266
269
271
274
277
289
290
291
295
298
301
304
317
318
322
326
329

4

Angular Momentum and Its Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11 Fluid Statics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
What Is a Fluid? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pascal’s Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Archimedes’ Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pressures in the Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bernoulli’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Most General Applications of Bernoulli’s Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Onset of Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Ideal Gas Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phase Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Temperature Change and Heat Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Phase Change and Latent Heat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Heat Transfer Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Convection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15 Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The First Law of Thermodynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency . . . . . . . . . .
Carnot’s Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy . . . . . . .
Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation
16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hooke’s Law: Stress and Strain Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Period and Frequency in Oscillations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Simple Pendulum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Damped Harmonic Motion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Forced Oscillations and Resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superposition and Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Energy in Waves: Intensity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17 Physics of Hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound Intensity and Sound Level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ultrasound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18 Electric Charge and Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conductors and Insulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Coulomb’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Forces in Biology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applications of Electrostatics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7

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336
341
344
357
358
359
361
363
366
368
371
377
384
397
398
400
404
407
413
414
416
429
430
436
442
447
453
458
469
470
471
476
481
482
486
490
505
506
510
517
522
526
530
536
549
550
554
555
559
561
563
566
569
571
573
577
589
590
592
595
598
603
609
614
627
629
633
637
638
640
643
644
648

5

19 Electric Potential and Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Equipotential Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capacitors and Dielectrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Capacitors in Series and Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Energy Stored in Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ohm’s Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resistance and Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Power and Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Alternating Current versus Direct Current . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Hazards and the Human Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nerve Conduction–Electrocardiograms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21 Circuits, Bioelectricity, and DC Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Resistors in Series and Parallel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kirchhoff’s Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC Voltmeters and Ammeters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Null Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
22 Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ferromagnets and Electromagnets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field . .
Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications
The Hall Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere’s Law . . . . . . . . . . .
Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors . . . . . . . . . . . . .
More Applications of Magnetism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies . .
Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Faraday’s Law of Induction: Lenz’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Motional Emf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electric Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Back Emf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Transformers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Inductance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RL Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
RLC Series AC Circuits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24 Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maxwell’s Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed . .
Production of Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Electromagnetic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Energy in Electromagnetic Waves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
25 Geometric Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Ray Aspect of Light . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Law of Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Law of Refraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Total Internal Reflection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Image Formation by Lenses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Image Formation by Mirrors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26 Vision and Optical Instruments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Physics of the Eye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vision Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Color and Color Vision . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Microscopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Telescopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Aberrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27 Wave Optics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Huygens's Principle: Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Young’s Double Slit Experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Multiple Slit Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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663
664
668
671
673
675
681
684
695
696
701
703
707
710
714
717
733
734
742
748
752
756
759
775
776
778
781
782
783
787
790
792
794
798
799
813
815
816
819
822
825
828
828
832
836
839
841
844
861
862
864
866
878
887
888
889
891
895
900
904
915
929
930
933
936
939
944
947
955
956
957
959
963

6

Single Slit Diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Thin Film Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
*Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light
28 Special Relativity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Einstein’s Postulates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Simultaneity And Time Dilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Length Contraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relativistic Addition of Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relativistic Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Relativistic Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29 Introduction to Quantum Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantization of Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Photoelectric Effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Photon Momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Particle-Wave Duality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Wave Nature of Matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30 Atomic Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discovery of the Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei . . . . . . . . . . .
Bohr’s Theory of the Hydrogen Atom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quantum Numbers and Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Pauli Exclusion Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nuclear Radioactivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radiation Detection and Detectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Substructure of the Nucleus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Half-Life and Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Binding Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tunneling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Medical Imaging and Diagnostics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Food Irradiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Nuclear Weapons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33 Particle Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited . .
The Four Basic Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerators Create Matter from Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Quarks: Is That All There Is? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GUTs: The Unification of Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34 Frontiers of Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cosmology and Particle Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
General Relativity and Quantum Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Superstrings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Dark Matter and Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Complexity and Chaos . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
High-temperature Superconductors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Some Questions We Know to Ask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A Atomic Masses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
B Selected Radioactive Isotopes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
C Useful Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
D Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7

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967
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PREFACE

PREFACE
About OpenStax College
OpenStax College is a non-profit organization committed to improving student access to quality learning materials. Our free textbooks are developed
and peer-reviewed by educators to ensure they are readable, accurate, and meet the scope and sequence requirements of modern college courses.
Unlike traditional textbooks, OpenStax College resources live online and are owned by the community of educators using them. Through our
partnerships with companies and foundations committed to reducing costs for students, OpenStax College is working to improve access to higher
education for all. OpenStax College is an initiative of Rice University and is made possible through the generous support of several philanthropic
foundations.

About This Book
Welcome to College Physics, an OpenStax College resource created with several goals in mind: accessibility, affordability, customization, and student
engagement—all while encouraging learners toward high levels of learning. Instructors and students alike will find that this textbook offers a strong
foundation in introductory physics, with algebra as a prerequisite. It is available for free online and in low-cost print and e-book editions.
To broaden access and encourage community curation, College Physics is “open source” licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY)
license. Everyone is invited to submit examples, emerging research, and other feedback to enhance and strengthen the material and keep it current
and relevant for today’s students. You can make suggestions by contacting us at info@openstaxcollege.org. You can find the status of the project, as
well as alternate versions, corrections, etc., on the StaxDash at http://openstaxcollege.org (http://openstaxcollege.org) .

To the Student
This book is written for you. It is based on the teaching and research experience of numerous physicists and influenced by a strong recollection of
their own struggles as students. After reading this book, we hope you see that physics is visible everywhere. Applications range from driving a car to
launching a rocket, from a skater whirling on ice to a neutron star spinning in space, and from taking your temperature to taking a chest X-ray.

To the Instructor
This text is intended for one-year introductory courses requiring algebra and some trigonometry, but no calculus. OpenStax College provides the
essential supplemental resources at http://openstaxcollege.org ; however, we have pared down the number of supplements to keep costs low.
College Physics can be easily customized for your course using Connexions (http://cnx.org/content/col11406). Simply select the content most
relevant to your curriculum and create a textbook that speaks directly to the needs of your class.

General Approach
College Physics is organized such that topics are introduced conceptually with a steady progression to precise definitions and analytical applications.
The analytical aspect (problem solving) is tied back to the conceptual before moving on to another topic. Each introductory chapter, for example,
opens with an engaging photograph relevant to the subject of the chapter and interesting applications that are easy for most students to visualize.

Organization, Level, and Content
There is considerable latitude on the part of the instructor regarding the use, organization, level, and content of this book. By choosing the types of
problems assigned, the instructor can determine the level of sophistication required of the student.

Concepts and Calculations
The ability to calculate does not guarantee conceptual understanding. In order to unify conceptual, analytical, and calculation skills within the learning
process, we have integrated Strategies and Discussions throughout the text.

Modern Perspective
The chapters on modern physics are more complete than many other texts on the market, with an entire chapter devoted to medical applications of
nuclear physics and another to particle physics. The final chapter of the text, “Frontiers of Physics,” is devoted to the most exciting endeavors in
physics. It ends with a module titled “Some Questions We Know to Ask.”

Supplements
Accompanying the main text are a Student Solutions Manual and an Instructor Solutions Manual (http://openstaxcollege.org/textbooks/
college-physics) . The Student Solutions Manual provides worked-out solutions to select end-of-module Problems and Exercises. The Instructor
Solutions Manual provides worked-out solutions to all Exercises.

Features of OpenStax College Physics
The following briefly describes the special features of this text.
Modularity
This textbook is organized on Connexions (http://cnx.org) as a collection of modules that can be rearranged and modified to suit the needs of a
particular professor or class. That being said, modules often contain references to content in other modules, as most topics in physics cannot be
discussed in isolation.

7

8

PREFACE

Learning Objectives
Every module begins with a set of learning objectives. These objectives are designed to guide the instructor in deciding what content to include or
assign, and to guide the student with respect to what he or she can expect to learn. After completing the module and end-of-module exercises,
students should be able to demonstrate mastery of the learning objectives.
Call-Outs
Key definitions, concepts, and equations are called out with a special design treatment. Call-outs are designed to catch readers’ attention, to make it
clear that a specific term, concept, or equation is particularly important, and to provide easy reference for a student reviewing content.
Key Terms
Key terms are in bold and are followed by a definition in context. Definitions of key terms are also listed in the Glossary, which appears at the end of
the module.
Worked Examples
Worked examples have four distinct parts to promote both analytical and conceptual skills. Worked examples are introduced in words, always using
some application that should be of interest. This is followed by a Strategy section that emphasizes the concepts involved and how solving the
problem relates to those concepts. This is followed by the mathematical Solution and Discussion.
Many worked examples contain multiple-part problems to help the students learn how to approach normal situations, in which problems tend to have
multiple parts. Finally, worked examples employ the techniques of the problem-solving strategies so that students can see how those strategies
succeed in practice as well as in theory.
Problem-Solving Strategies
Problem-solving strategies are first presented in a special section and subsequently appear at crucial points in the text where students can benefit
most from them. Problem-solving strategies have a logical structure that is reinforced in the worked examples and supported in certain places by line
drawings that illustrate various steps.
Misconception Alerts
Students come to physics with preconceptions from everyday experiences and from previous courses. Some of these preconceptions are
misconceptions, and many are very common among students and the general public. Some are inadvertently picked up through misunderstandings
of lectures and texts. The Misconception Alerts feature is designed to point these out and correct them explicitly.
Take-Home Investigations
Take Home Investigations provide the opportunity for students to apply or explore what they have learned with a hands-on activity.
Things Great and Small
In these special topic essays, macroscopic phenomena (such as air pressure) are explained with submicroscopic phenomena (such as atoms
bouncing off walls). These essays support the modern perspective by describing aspects of modern physics before they are formally treated in later
chapters. Connections are also made between apparently disparate phenomena.
Simulations
Where applicable, students are directed to the interactive PHeT physics simulations developed by the University of Colorado
(http://phet.colorado.edu (http://phet.colorado.edu) ). There they can further explore the physics concepts they have learned about in the module.
Summary
Module summaries are thorough and functional and present all important definitions and equations. Students are able to find the definitions of all
terms and symbols as well as their physical relationships. The structure of the summary makes plain the fundamental principles of the module or
collection and serves as a useful study guide.
Glossary
At the end of every module or chapter is a glossary containing definitions of all of the key terms in the module or chapter.
End-of-Module Problems
At the end of every chapter is a set of Conceptual Questions and/or skills-based Problems & Exercises. Conceptual Questions challenge students’
ability to explain what they have learned conceptually, independent of the mathematical details. Problems & Exercises challenge students to apply
both concepts and skills to solve mathematical physics problems. Online, every other problem includes an answer that students can reveal
immediately by clicking on a “Show Solution” button. Fully worked solutions to select problems are available in the Student Solutions Manual and the
Teacher Solutions Manual.
In addition to traditional skills-based problems, there are three special types of end-of-module problems: Integrated Concept Problems, Unreasonable
Results Problems, and Construct Your Own Problems. All of these problems are indicated with a subtitle preceding the problem.
Integrated Concept Problems
In Unreasonable Results Problems, students are challenged not only to apply concepts and skills to solve a problem, but also to analyze the answer
with respect to how likely or realistic it really is. These problems contain a premise that produces an unreasonable answer and are designed to further
emphasize that properly applied physics must describe nature accurately and is not simply the process of solving equations.

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7

PREFACE

Unreasonable Results
In Unreasonable Results Problems, students are challenged to not only apply concepts and skills to solve a problem, but also to analyze the answer
with respect to how likely or realistic it really is. These problems contain a premise that produces an unreasonable answer and are designed to further
emphasize that properly applied physics must describe nature accurately and is not simply the process of solving equations.
Construct Your Own Problem
These problems require students to construct the details of a problem, justify their starting assumptions, show specific steps in the problem’s solution,
and finally discuss the meaning of the result. These types of problems relate well to both conceptual and analytical aspects of physics, emphasizing
that physics must describe nature. Often they involve an integration of topics from more than one chapter. Unlike other problems, solutions are not
provided since there is no single correct answer. Instructors should feel free to direct students regarding the level and scope of their considerations.
Whether the problem is solved and described correctly will depend on initial assumptions.
Appendices
Appendix A: Atomic Masses
Appendix B: Selected Radioactive Isotopes
Appendix C: Useful Information
Appendix D: Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation

Acknowledgements
This text is based on the work completed by Dr. Paul Peter Urone in collaboration with Roger Hinrichs, Kim Dirks, and Manjula Sharma. We would
like to thank the authors as well as the numerous professors (a partial list follows) who have contributed their time and energy to review and provide
feedback on the manuscript. Their input has been critical in maintaining the pedagogical integrity and accuracy of the text.

Senior Contributing Authors
Dr. Paul Peter Urone
Dr. Roger Hinrichs, State University of New York, College at Oswego

Contributing Authors
Dr. Kim Dirks, University of Auckland, New Zealand
Dr. Manjula Sharma, University of Sydney, Australia

Expert Reviewers
Erik Christensen, P.E, South Florida Community College
Dr. Eric Kincanon, Gonzaga University
Dr. Douglas Ingram, Texas Christian University
Lee H. LaRue, Paris Junior College
Dr. Marc Sher, College of William and Mary
Dr. Ulrich Zurcher, Cleveland State University
Dr. Matthew Adams, Crafton Hills College, San Bernardino Community College District
Dr. Chuck Pearson, Virginia Intermont College

Our Partners
WebAssign
Webassign is an independent online homework and assessment system that has been available commercially since 1998. WebAssign has recently
begun to support the Open Education Resource community by creating a high quality online homework solution for selected open-source textbooks,
available at an affordable price to students. These question collections include randomized values and variables, immediate feedback, links to the
open-source textbook, and a variety of text-specific resources and tools; as well as the same level of rigorous coding and accuracy-checking as any
commercially available online homework solution supporting traditionally available textbooks.
Sapling Learning
Sapling Learning provides the most effective interactive homework and instruction that improve student learning outcomes for the problem-solving
disciplines. They offer an enjoyable teaching and effective learning experience that is distinctive in three important ways:
• Ease of Use: Sapling Learning’s easy to use interface keeps students engaged in problem-solving, not struggling with the software.
• Targeted Instructional Content: Sapling Learning increases student engagement and comprehension by delivering immediate feedback and
targeted instructional content.
• Unsurpassed Service and Support: Sapling Learning makes teaching more enjoyable by providing a dedicated Masters or PhD level colleague
to service instructors’ unique needs throughout the course, including content customization.

9

10

PREFACE

This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7

CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS

1 INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND
PHYSICS

Figure 1.1 Galaxies are as immense as atoms are small. Yet the same laws of physics describe both, and all the rest of nature—an indication of the underlying unity in the
universe. The laws of physics are surprisingly few in number, implying an underlying simplicity to nature’s apparent complexity. (credit: NASA, JPL-Caltech, P. Barmby,
Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics)

Learning Objectives
1.1. Physics: An Introduction
• Explain the difference between a principle and a law.
• Explain the difference between a model and a theory.
1.2. Physical Quantities and Units
• Perform unit conversions both in the SI and English units.
• Explain the most common prefixes in the SI units and be able to write them in scientific notation.
1.3. Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures
• Determine the appropriate number of significant figures in both addition and subtraction, as well as multiplication and division
calculations.
• Calculate the percent uncertainty of a measurement.
1.4. Approximation
• Make reasonable approximations based on given data.

Introduction to Science and the Realm of Physics, Physical Quantities, and Units
What is your first reaction when you hear the word “physics”? Did you imagine working through difficult equations or memorizing formulas that seem
to have no real use in life outside the physics classroom? Many people come to the subject of physics with a bit of fear. But as you begin your
exploration of this broad-ranging subject, you may soon come to realize that physics plays a much larger role in your life than you first thought, no
matter your life goals or career choice.
For example, take a look at the image above. This image is of the Andromeda Galaxy, which contains billions of individual stars, huge clouds of gas,
and dust. Two smaller galaxies are also visible as bright blue spots in the background. At a staggering 2.5 million light years from the Earth, this
galaxy is the nearest one to our own galaxy (which is called the Milky Way). The stars and planets that make up Andromeda might seem to be the
furthest thing from most people’s regular, everyday lives. But Andromeda is a great starting point to think about the forces that hold together the
universe. The forces that cause Andromeda to act as it does are the same forces we contend with here on Earth, whether we are planning to send a
rocket into space or simply raise the walls for a new home. The same gravity that causes the stars of Andromeda to rotate and revolve also causes
water to flow over hydroelectric dams here on Earth. Tonight, take a moment to look up at the stars. The forces out there are the same as the ones
here on Earth. Through a study of physics, you may gain a greater understanding of the interconnectedness of everything we can see and know in
this universe.
Think now about all of the technological devices that you use on a regular basis. Computers, smart phones, GPS systems, MP3 players, and satellite
radio might come to mind. Next, think about the most exciting modern technologies that you have heard about in the news, such as trains that levitate
above tracks, “invisibility cloaks” that bend light around them, and microscopic robots that fight cancer cells in our bodies. All of these groundbreaking
advancements, commonplace or unbelievable, rely on the principles of physics. Aside from playing a significant role in technology, professionals such
as engineers, pilots, physicians, physical therapists, electricians, and computer programmers apply physics concepts in their daily work. For example,
a pilot must understand how wind forces affect a flight path and a physical therapist must understand how the muscles in the body experience forces
as they move and bend. As you will learn in this text, physics principles are propelling new, exciting technologies, and these principles are applied in
a wide range of careers.
In this text, you will begin to explore the history of the formal study of physics, beginning with natural philosophy and the ancient Greeks, and leading
up through a review of Sir Isaac Newton and the laws of physics that bear his name. You will also be introduced to the standards scientists use when
they study physical quantities and the interrelated system of measurements most of the scientific community uses to communicate in a single

11

12

CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS

mathematical language. Finally, you will study the limits of our ability to be accurate and precise, and the reasons scientists go to painstaking lengths
to be as clear as possible regarding their own limitations.

1.1 Physics: An Introduction

Figure 1.2 The flight formations of migratory birds such as Canada geese are governed by the laws of physics. (credit: David Merrett)

The physical universe is enormously complex in its detail. Every day, each of us observes a great variety of objects and phenomena. Over the
centuries, the curiosity of the human race has led us collectively to explore and catalog a tremendous wealth of information. From the flight of birds to
the colors of flowers, from lightning to gravity, from quarks to clusters of galaxies, from the flow of time to the mystery of the creation of the universe,
we have asked questions and assembled huge arrays of facts. In the face of all these details, we have discovered that a surprisingly small and
unified set of physical laws can explain what we observe. As humans, we make generalizations and seek order. We have found that nature is
remarkably cooperative—it exhibits the underlying order and simplicity we so value.
It is the underlying order of nature that makes science in general, and physics in particular, so enjoyable to study. For example, what do a bag of
chips and a car battery have in common? Both contain energy that can be converted to other forms. The law of conservation of energy (which says
that energy can change form but is never lost) ties together such topics as food calories, batteries, heat, light, and watch springs. Understanding this
law makes it easier to learn about the various forms energy takes and how they relate to one another. Apparently unrelated topics are connected
through broadly applicable physical laws, permitting an understanding beyond just the memorization of lists of facts.
The unifying aspect of physical laws and the basic simplicity of nature form the underlying themes of this text. In learning to apply these laws, you will,
of course, study the most important topics in physics. More importantly, you will gain analytical abilities that will enable you to apply these laws far
beyond the scope of what can be included in a single book. These analytical skills will help you to excel academically, and they will also help you to
think critically in any professional career you choose to pursue. This module discusses the realm of physics (to define what physics is), some
applications of physics (to illustrate its relevance to other disciplines), and more precisely what constitutes a physical law (to illuminate the importance
of experimentation to theory).

Science and the Realm of Physics
Science consists of the theories and laws that are the general truths of nature as well as the body of knowledge they encompass. Scientists are
continually trying to expand this body of knowledge and to perfect the expression of the laws that describe it. Physics is concerned with describing
the interactions of energy, matter, space, and time, and it is especially interested in what fundamental mechanisms underlie every phenomenon. The
concern for describing the basic phenomena in nature essentially defines the realm of physics.
Physics aims to describe the function of everything around us, from the movement of tiny charged particles to the motion of people, cars, and
spaceships. In fact, almost everything around you can be described quite accurately by the laws of physics. Consider a smart phone (Figure 1.3).
Physics describes how electricity interacts with the various circuits inside the device. This knowledge helps engineers select the appropriate materials
and circuit layout when building the smart phone. Next, consider a GPS system. Physics describes the relationship between the speed of an object,
the distance over which it travels, and the time it takes to travel that distance. When you use a GPS device in a vehicle, it utilizes these physics
equations to determine the travel time from one location to another.

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Figure 1.3 The Apple “iPhone” is a common smart phone with a GPS function. Physics describes the way that electricity flows through the circuits of this device. Engineers
use their knowledge of physics to construct an iPhone with features that consumers will enjoy. One specific feature of an iPhone is the GPS function. GPS uses physics
equations to determine the driving time between two locations on a map. (credit: @gletham GIS, Social, Mobile Tech Images)

Applications of Physics
You need not be a scientist to use physics. On the contrary, knowledge of physics is useful in everyday situations as well as in nonscientific
professions. It can help you understand how microwave ovens work, why metals should not be put into them, and why they might affect pacemakers.
(See Figure 1.4 and Figure 1.5.) Physics allows you to understand the hazards of radiation and rationally evaluate these hazards more easily.
Physics also explains the reason why a black car radiator helps remove heat in a car engine, and it explains why a white roof helps keep the inside of
a house cool. Similarly, the operation of a car’s ignition system as well as the transmission of electrical signals through our body’s nervous system are
much easier to understand when you think about them in terms of basic physics.
Physics is the foundation of many important disciplines and contributes directly to others. Chemistry, for example—since it deals with the interactions
of atoms and molecules—is rooted in atomic and molecular physics. Most branches of engineering are applied physics. In architecture, physics is at
the heart of structural stability, and is involved in the acoustics, heating, lighting, and cooling of buildings. Parts of geology rely heavily on physics,
such as radioactive dating of rocks, earthquake analysis, and heat transfer in the Earth. Some disciplines, such as biophysics and geophysics, are
hybrids of physics and other disciplines.
Physics has many applications in the biological sciences. On the microscopic level, it helps describe the properties of cell walls and cell membranes
(Figure 1.6 and Figure 1.7). On the macroscopic level, it can explain the heat, work, and power associated with the human body. Physics is involved
in medical diagnostics, such as x-rays, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonic blood flow measurements. Medical therapy sometimes
directly involves physics; for example, cancer radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation. Physics can also explain sensory phenomena, such as how
musical instruments make sound, how the eye detects color, and how lasers can transmit information.
It is not necessary to formally study all applications of physics. What is most useful is knowledge of the basic laws of physics and a skill in the
analytical methods for applying them. The study of physics also can improve your problem-solving skills. Furthermore, physics has retained the most
basic aspects of science, so it is used by all of the sciences, and the study of physics makes other sciences easier to understand.

Figure 1.4 The laws of physics help us understand how common appliances work. For example, the laws of physics can help explain how microwave ovens heat up food, and
they also help us understand why it is dangerous to place metal objects in a microwave oven. (credit: MoneyBlogNewz)

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Figure 1.5 These two applications of physics have more in common than meets the eye. Microwave ovens use electromagnetic waves to heat food. Magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) also uses electromagnetic waves to yield an image of the brain, from which the exact location of tumors can be determined. (credit: Rashmi Chawla, Daniel
Smith, and Paul E. Marik)

Figure 1.6 Physics, chemistry, and biology help describe the properties of cell walls in plant cells, such as the onion cells seen here. (credit: Umberto Salvagnin)

Figure 1.7 An artist’s rendition of the the structure of a cell membrane. Membranes form the boundaries of animal cells and are complex in structure and function. Many of the
most fundamental properties of life, such as the firing of nerve cells, are related to membranes. The disciplines of biology, chemistry, and physics all help us understand the
membranes of animal cells. (credit: Mariana Ruiz)

Models, Theories, and Laws; The Role of Experimentation
The laws of nature are concise descriptions of the universe around us; they are human statements of the underlying laws or rules that all natural
processes follow. Such laws are intrinsic to the universe; humans did not create them and so cannot change them. We can only discover and
understand them. Their discovery is a very human endeavor, with all the elements of mystery, imagination, struggle, triumph, and disappointment
inherent in any creative effort. (See Figure 1.8 and Figure 1.9.) The cornerstone of discovering natural laws is observation; science must describe
the universe as it is, not as we may imagine it to be.

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Figure 1.8 Isaac Newton (1642–1727) was very reluctant to publish his revolutionary work and had to be convinced to do so. In his later years, he stepped down from his
academic post and became exchequer of the Royal Mint. He took this post seriously, inventing reeding (or creating ridges) on the edge of coins to prevent unscrupulous
people from trimming the silver off of them before using them as currency. (credit: Arthur Shuster and Arthur E. Shipley: Britain’s Heritage of Science. London, 1917.)

Figure 1.9 Marie Curie (1867–1934) sacrificed monetary assets to help finance her early research and damaged her physical well-being with radiation exposure. She is the
only person to win Nobel prizes in both physics and chemistry. One of her daughters also won a Nobel Prize. (credit: Wikimedia Commons)

We all are curious to some extent. We look around, make generalizations, and try to understand what we see—for example, we look up and wonder
whether one type of cloud signals an oncoming storm. As we become serious about exploring nature, we become more organized and formal in
collecting and analyzing data. We attempt greater precision, perform controlled experiments (if we can), and write down ideas about how the data
may be organized and unified. We then formulate models, theories, and laws based on the data we have collected and analyzed to generalize and
communicate the results of these experiments.
A model is a representation of something that is often too difficult (or impossible) to display directly. While a model is justified with experimental proof,
it is only accurate under limited situations. An example is the planetary model of the atom in which electrons are pictured as orbiting the nucleus,
analogous to the way planets orbit the Sun. (See Figure 1.10.) We cannot observe electron orbits directly, but the mental image helps explain the
observations we can make, such as the emission of light from hot gases (atomic spectra). Physicists use models for a variety of purposes. For
example, models can help physicists analyze a scenario and perform a calculation, or they can be used to represent a situation in the form of a
computer simulation. A theory is an explanation for patterns in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and verified multiple times by various
groups of researchers. Some theories include models to help visualize phenomena, whereas others do not. Newton’s theory of gravity, for example,
does not require a model or mental image, because we can observe the objects directly with our own senses. The kinetic theory of gases, on the
other hand, is a model in which a gas is viewed as being composed of atoms and molecules. Atoms and molecules are too small to be observed
directly with our senses—thus, we picture them mentally to understand what our instruments tell us about the behavior of gases.
A law uses concise language to describe a generalized pattern in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and repeated experiments. Often, a
law can be expressed in the form of a single mathematical equation. Laws and theories are similar in that they are both scientific statements that
result from a tested hypothesis and are supported by scientific evidence. However, the designation law is reserved for a concise and very general
statement that describes phenomena in nature, such as the law that energy is conserved during any process, or Newton’s second law of motion,
which relates force, mass, and acceleration by the simple equation F = ma . A theory, in contrast, is a less concise statement of observed
phenomena. For example, the Theory of Evolution and the Theory of Relativity cannot be expressed concisely enough to be considered a law. The
biggest difference between a law and a theory is that a theory is much more complex and dynamic. A law describes a single action, whereas a theory
explains an entire group of related phenomena. And, whereas a law is a postulate that forms the foundation of the scientific method, a theory is the
end result of that process.
Less broadly applicable statements are usually called principles (such as Pascal’s principle, which is applicable only in fluids), but the distinction
between laws and principles often is not carefully made.

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Figure 1.10 What is a model? This planetary model of the atom shows electrons orbiting the nucleus. It is a drawing that we use to form a mental image of the atom that we
cannot see directly with our eyes because it is too small.

Models, Theories, and Laws
Models, theories, and laws are used to help scientists analyze the data they have already collected. However, often after a model, theory, or law
has been developed, it points scientists toward new discoveries they would not otherwise have made.
The models, theories, and laws we devise sometimes imply the existence of objects or phenomena as yet unobserved. These predictions are
remarkable triumphs and tributes to the power of science. It is the underlying order in the universe that enables scientists to make such spectacular
predictions. However, if experiment does not verify our predictions, then the theory or law is wrong, no matter how elegant or convenient it is. Laws
can never be known with absolute certainty because it is impossible to perform every imaginable experiment in order to confirm a law in every
possible scenario. Physicists operate under the assumption that all scientific laws and theories are valid until a counterexample is observed. If a
good-quality, verifiable experiment contradicts a well-established law, then the law must be modified or overthrown completely.
The study of science in general and physics in particular is an adventure much like the exploration of uncharted ocean. Discoveries are made;
models, theories, and laws are formulated; and the beauty of the physical universe is made more sublime for the insights gained.
The Scientific Method
As scientists inquire and gather information about the world, they follow a process called the scientific method. This process typically begins
with an observation and question that the scientist will research. Next, the scientist typically performs some research about the topic and then
devises a hypothesis. Then, the scientist will test the hypothesis by performing an experiment. Finally, the scientist analyzes the results of the
experiment and draws a conclusion. Note that the scientific method can be applied to many situations that are not limited to science, and this
method can be modified to suit the situation.
Consider an example. Let us say that you try to turn on your car, but it will not start. You undoubtedly wonder: Why will the car not start? You can
follow a scientific method to answer this question. First off, you may perform some research to determine a variety of reasons why the car will not
start. Next, you will state a hypothesis. For example, you may believe that the car is not starting because it has no engine oil. To test this, you
open the hood of the car and examine the oil level. You observe that the oil is at an acceptable level, and you thus conclude that the oil level is
not contributing to your car issue. To troubleshoot the issue further, you may devise a new hypothesis to test and then repeat the process again.

The Evolution of Natural Philosophy into Modern Physics
Physics was not always a separate and distinct discipline. It remains connected to other sciences to this day. The word physics comes from Greek,
meaning nature. The study of nature came to be called “natural philosophy.” From ancient times through the Renaissance, natural philosophy
encompassed many fields, including astronomy, biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, and medicine. Over the last few centuries, the growth of
knowledge has resulted in ever-increasing specialization and branching of natural philosophy into separate fields, with physics retaining the most
basic facets. (See Figure 1.11, Figure 1.12, and Figure 1.13.) Physics as it developed from the Renaissance to the end of the 19th century is called
classical physics. It was transformed into modern physics by revolutionary discoveries made starting at the beginning of the 20th century.

Figure 1.11 Over the centuries, natural philosophy has evolved into more specialized disciplines, as illustrated by the contributions of some of the greatest minds in history.
The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384–322 B.C.) wrote on a broad range of topics including physics, animals, the soul, politics, and poetry. (credit: Jastrow (2006)/Ludovisi
Collection)

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Figure 1.12 Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) laid the foundation of modern experimentation and made contributions in mathematics, physics, and astronomy. (credit: Domenico
Tintoretto)

Figure 1.13 Niels Bohr (1885–1962) made fundamental contributions to the development of quantum mechanics, one part of modern physics. (credit: United States Library of
Congress Prints and Photographs Division)

Classical physics is not an exact description of the universe, but it is an excellent approximation under the following conditions: Matter must be
moving at speeds less than about 1% of the speed of light, the objects dealt with must be large enough to be seen with a microscope, and only weak
gravitational fields, such as the field generated by the Earth, can be involved. Because humans live under such circumstances, classical physics
seems intuitively reasonable, while many aspects of modern physics seem bizarre. This is why models are so useful in modern physics—they let us
conceptualize phenomena we do not ordinarily experience. We can relate to models in human terms and visualize what happens when objects move
at high speeds or imagine what objects too small to observe with our senses might be like. For example, we can understand an atom’s properties
because we can picture it in our minds, although we have never seen an atom with our eyes. New tools, of course, allow us to better picture
phenomena we cannot see. In fact, new instrumentation has allowed us in recent years to actually “picture” the atom.
Limits on the Laws of Classical Physics
For the laws of classical physics to apply, the following criteria must be met: Matter must be moving at speeds less than about 1% of the speed
of light, the objects dealt with must be large enough to be seen with a microscope, and only weak gravitational fields (such as the field generated
by the Earth) can be involved.

Figure 1.14 Using a scanning tunneling microscope (STM), scientists can see the individual atoms that compose this sheet of gold. (credit: Erwinrossen)

Some of the most spectacular advances in science have been made in modern physics. Many of the laws of classical physics have been modified or
rejected, and revolutionary changes in technology, society, and our view of the universe have resulted. Like science fiction, modern physics is filled
with fascinating objects beyond our normal experiences, but it has the advantage over science fiction of being very real. Why, then, is the majority of
this text devoted to topics of classical physics? There are two main reasons: Classical physics gives an extremely accurate description of the
universe under a wide range of everyday circumstances, and knowledge of classical physics is necessary to understand modern physics.

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Modern physics itself consists of the two revolutionary theories, relativity and quantum mechanics. These theories deal with the very fast and the
very small, respectively. Relativity must be used whenever an object is traveling at greater than about 1% of the speed of light or experiences a
strong gravitational field such as that near the Sun. Quantum mechanics must be used for objects smaller than can be seen with a microscope. The
combination of these two theories is relativistic quantum mechanics, and it describes the behavior of small objects traveling at high speeds or
experiencing a strong gravitational field. Relativistic quantum mechanics is the best universally applicable theory we have. Because of its
mathematical complexity, it is used only when necessary, and the other theories are used whenever they will produce sufficiently accurate results. We
will find, however, that we can do a great deal of modern physics with the algebra and trigonometry used in this text.

Check Your Understanding
A friend tells you he has learned about a new law of nature. What can you know about the information even before your friend describes the law?
How would the information be different if your friend told you he had learned about a scientific theory rather than a law?
Solution
Without knowing the details of the law, you can still infer that the information your friend has learned conforms to the requirements of all laws of
nature: it will be a concise description of the universe around us; a statement of the underlying rules that all natural processes follow. If the
information had been a theory, you would be able to infer that the information will be a large-scale, broadly applicable generalization.
PhET Explorations: Equation Grapher
Learn about graphing polynomials. The shape of the curve changes as the constants are adjusted. View the curves for the individual terms (e.g.
y = bx ) to see how they add to generate the polynomial curve.

Figure 1.15 Equation Grapher (http://cnx.org/content/m42092/1.4/equation-grapher_en.jar)

1.2 Physical Quantities and Units

Figure 1.16 The distance from Earth to the Moon may seem immense, but it is just a tiny fraction of the distances from Earth to other celestial bodies. (credit: NASA)

The range of objects and phenomena studied in physics is immense. From the incredibly short lifetime of a nucleus to the age of the Earth, from the
tiny sizes of sub-nuclear particles to the vast distance to the edges of the known universe, from the force exerted by a jumping flea to the force
between Earth and the Sun, there are enough factors of 10 to challenge the imagination of even the most experienced scientist. Giving numerical
values for physical quantities and equations for physical principles allows us to understand nature much more deeply than does qualitative
description alone. To comprehend these vast ranges, we must also have accepted units in which to express them. And we shall find that (even in the
potentially mundane discussion of meters, kilograms, and seconds) a profound simplicity of nature appears—all physical quantities can be expressed
as combinations of only four fundamental physical quantities: length, mass, time, and electric current.
We define a physical quantity either by specifying how it is measured or by stating how it is calculated from other measurements. For example, we
define distance and time by specifying methods for measuring them, whereas we define average speed by stating that it is calculated as distance
traveled divided by time of travel.
Measurements of physical quantities are expressed in terms of units, which are standardized values. For example, the length of a race, which is a
physical quantity, can be expressed in units of meters (for sprinters) or kilometers (for distance runners). Without standardized units, it would be
extremely difficult for scientists to express and compare measured values in a meaningful way. (See Figure 1.17.)

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Figure 1.17 Distances given in unknown units are maddeningly useless.

There are two major systems of units used in the world: SI units (also known as the metric system) and English units (also known as the customary
or imperial system). English units were historically used in nations once ruled by the British Empire and are still widely used in the United States.
Virtually every other country in the world now uses SI units as the standard; the metric system is also the standard system agreed upon by scientists
and mathematicians. The acronym “SI” is derived from the French Système International.

SI Units: Fundamental and Derived Units
Table 1.1 gives the fundamental SI units that are used throughout this textbook. This text uses non-SI units in a few applications where they are in
very common use, such as the measurement of blood pressure in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). Whenever non-SI units are discussed, they will be
tied to SI units through conversions.
Table 1.1 Fundamental SI Units
Length
meter (m)

Mass

Time

Electric Current

kilogram (kg) second (s) ampere (A)

It is an intriguing fact that some physical quantities are more fundamental than others and that the most fundamental physical quantities can be
defined only in terms of the procedure used to measure them. The units in which they are measured are thus called fundamental units. In this
textbook, the fundamental physical quantities are taken to be length, mass, time, and electric current. (Note that electric current will not be introduced
until much later in this text.) All other physical quantities, such as force and electric charge, can be expressed as algebraic combinations of length,
mass, time, and current (for example, speed is length divided by time); these units are called derived units.

Units of Time, Length, and Mass: The Second, Meter, and Kilogram
The Second
The SI unit for time, the second(abbreviated s), has a long history. For many years it was defined as 1/86,400 of a mean solar day. More recently, a
new standard was adopted to gain greater accuracy and to define the second in terms of a non-varying, or constant, physical phenomenon (because
the solar day is getting longer due to very gradual slowing of the Earth’s rotation). Cesium atoms can be made to vibrate in a very steady way, and
these vibrations can be readily observed and counted. In 1967 the second was redefined as the time required for 9,192,631,770 of these vibrations.
(See Figure 1.18.) Accuracy in the fundamental units is essential, because all measurements are ultimately expressed in terms of fundamental units
and can be no more accurate than are the fundamental units themselves.

Figure 1.18 An atomic clock such as this one uses the vibrations of cesium atoms to keep time to a precision of better than a microsecond per year. The fundamental unit of
time, the second, is based on such clocks. This image is looking down from the top of an atomic fountain nearly 30 feet tall! (credit: Steve Jurvetson/Flickr)

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The Meter
The SI unit for length is the meter (abbreviated m); its definition has also changed over time to become more accurate and precise. The meter was
first defined in 1791 as 1/10,000,000 of the distance from the equator to the North Pole. This measurement was improved in 1889 by redefining the
meter to be the distance between two engraved lines on a platinum-iridium bar now kept near Paris. By 1960, it had become possible to define the
meter even more accurately in terms of the wavelength of light, so it was again redefined as 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of orange light emitted by
krypton atoms. In 1983, the meter was given its present definition (partly for greater accuracy) as the distance light travels in a vacuum in
1/299,792,458 of a second. (See Figure 1.19.) This change defines the speed of light to be exactly 299,792,458 meters per second. The length of
the meter will change if the speed of light is someday measured with greater accuracy.
The Kilogram
The SI unit for mass is the kilogram (abbreviated kg); it is defined to be the mass of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept with the old meter standard at
the International Bureau of Weights and Measures near Paris. Exact replicas of the standard kilogram are also kept at the United States’ National
Institute of Standards and Technology, or NIST, located in Gaithersburg, Maryland outside of Washington D.C., and at other locations around the
world. The determination of all other masses can be ultimately traced to a comparison with the standard mass.

Figure 1.19 The meter is defined to be the distance light travels in 1/299,792,458 of a second in a vacuum. Distance traveled is speed multiplied by time.

Electric current and its accompanying unit, the ampere, will be introduced in Introduction to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law when
electricity and magnetism are covered. The initial modules in this textbook are concerned with mechanics, fluids, heat, and waves. In these subjects
all pertinent physical quantities can be expressed in terms of the fundamental units of length, mass, and time.

Metric Prefixes
SI units are part of the metric system. The metric system is convenient for scientific and engineering calculations because the units are categorized
by factors of 10. Table 1.2 gives metric prefixes and symbols used to denote various factors of 10.
Metric systems have the advantage that conversions of units involve only powers of 10. There are 100 centimeters in a meter, 1000 meters in a
kilometer, and so on. In nonmetric systems, such as the system of U.S. customary units, the relationships are not as simple—there are 12 inches in a
foot, 5280 feet in a mile, and so on. Another advantage of the metric system is that the same unit can be used over extremely large ranges of values
simply by using an appropriate metric prefix. For example, distances in meters are suitable in construction, while distances in kilometers are
appropriate for air travel, and the tiny measure of nanometers are convenient in optical design. With the metric system there is no need to invent new
units for particular applications.
The term order of magnitude refers to the scale of a value expressed in the metric system. Each power of 10 in the metric system represents a
3
different order of magnitude. For example, 10 1 , 10 2 , 10 , and so forth are all different orders of magnitude. All quantities that can be expressed as
a product of a specific power of
the number

10 are said to be of the same order of magnitude. For example, the number 800 can be written as 8×10 2 , and

450 can be written as 4.5×10 2. Thus, the numbers 800 and 450 are of the same order of magnitude: 10 2. Order of magnitude

can be thought of as a ballpark estimate for the scale of a value. The diameter of an atom is on the order of
is on the order of

10 9 m.

10 −9 m, while the diameter of the Sun

The Quest for Microscopic Standards for Basic Units
The fundamental units described in this chapter are those that produce the greatest accuracy and precision in measurement. There is a sense
among physicists that, because there is an underlying microscopic substructure to matter, it would be most satisfying to base our standards of
measurement on microscopic objects and fundamental physical phenomena such as the speed of light. A microscopic standard has been
accomplished for the standard of time, which is based on the oscillations of the cesium atom.
The standard for length was once based on the wavelength of light (a small-scale length) emitted by a certain type of atom, but it has been
supplanted by the more precise measurement of the speed of light. If it becomes possible to measure the mass of atoms or a particular
arrangement of atoms such as a silicon sphere to greater precision than the kilogram standard, it may become possible to base mass
measurements on the small scale. There are also possibilities that electrical phenomena on the small scale may someday allow us to base a unit
of charge on the charge of electrons and protons, but at present current and charge are related to large-scale currents and forces between wires.

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Table 1.2 Metric Prefixes for Powers of 10 and their Symbols
Prefix

Symbol

Value[1]
18

Example (some are approximate)

10 18 m

distance light travels in a century

petasecond Ps

10 15 s

30 million years

10 12

terawatt

TW

10 12 W

powerful laser output

G

10 9

gigahertz

GHz

10 9 Hz

a microwave frequency

mega

M

10 6

megacurie

MCi

10 6 Ci

high radioactivity

kilo

k

10 3

kilometer

km

10 3 m

about 6/10 mile

hecto

h

10 2

hectoliter

hL

10 2 L

26 gallons

deka

da

10 1

dekagram

dag

10 1 g

teaspoon of butter

10 0 (=1)

deci

d

10 −1

deciliter

dL

10 −1 L

less than half a soda

centi

c

10 −2

centimeter

cm

10 −2 m

fingertip thickness

milli

m

10 −3

millimeter

mm

10 −3 m

flea at its shoulders

micro

µ

10 −6

micrometer µm

10 −6 m

detail in microscope

nano

n

10 −9

nanogram

ng

10 −9 g

small speck of dust

pico

p

10 −12

picofarad

pF

10 −12 F small capacitor in radio

femto

f

10 −15

femtometer fm

10 −15 m size of a proton

atto

a

10 −18

attosecond as

10 −18 s

exa

E

10

peta

P

10 15

tera

T

giga

exameter

Em

time light crosses an atom

Known Ranges of Length, Mass, and Time
The vastness of the universe and the breadth over which physics applies are illustrated by the wide range of examples of known lengths, masses,
and times in Table 1.3. Examination of this table will give you some feeling for the range of possible topics and numerical values. (See Figure 1.20
and Figure 1.21.)

Figure 1.20 Tiny phytoplankton swims among crystals of ice in the Antarctic Sea. They range from a few micrometers to as much as 2 millimeters in length. (credit: Prof.
Gordon T. Taylor, Stony Brook University; NOAA Corps Collections)

1. See Appendix A for a discussion of powers of 10.

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Figure 1.21 Galaxies collide 2.4 billion light years away from Earth. The tremendous range of observable phenomena in nature challenges the imagination. (credit: NASA/
CXC/UVic./A. Mahdavi et al. Optical/lensing: CFHT/UVic./H. Hoekstra et al.)

Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis
It is often necessary to convert from one type of unit to another. For example, if you are reading a European cookbook, some quantities may be
expressed in units of liters and you need to convert them to cups. Or, perhaps you are reading walking directions from one location to another and
you are interested in how many miles you will be walking. In this case, you will need to convert units of feet to miles.
Let us consider a simple example of how to convert units. Let us say that we want to convert 80 meters (m) to kilometers (km).
The first thing to do is to list the units that you have and the units that you want to convert to. In this case, we have units in meters and we want to
convert to kilometers.
Next, we need to determine a conversion factor relating meters to kilometers. A conversion factor is a ratio expressing how many of one unit are
equal to another unit. For example, there are 12 inches in 1 foot, 100 centimeters in 1 meter, 60 seconds in 1 minute, and so on. In this case, we
know that there are 1,000 meters in 1 kilometer.
Now we can set up our unit conversion. We will write the units that we have and then multiply them by the conversion factor so that the units cancel
out, as shown:

80m× 1 km = 0.080 km.
1000m
Note that the unwanted m unit cancels, leaving only the desired km unit. You can use this method to convert between any types of unit.
Click Section C.1 for a more complete list of conversion factors.

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CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS

Table 1.3 Approximate Values of Length, Mass, and Time
Masses in kilograms (more precise
values in parentheses)

Lengths in meters

Times in seconds (more precise
values in parentheses)

10 −18 observable detail

10 −30

Mass of an electron


−31

10 −23 Time for light to cross a proton

10 −15 Diameter of a proton

10 −27

Mass of a hydrogen atom


−27

10 −22 nucleus

10 −14 Diameter of a uranium nucleus

10 −15 Mass of a bacterium

10 −15 light

10 −10 Diameter of a hydrogen atom

10 −5

Mass of a mosquito

10 −13 in a solid

Present experimental limit to smallest

⎝9.11×10

⎝1.67×10

kg⎠

Mean life of an extremely unstable

kg⎠

Time for one oscillation of visible
Time for one vibration of an atom

10 −8

Thickness of membranes in cells of living
organisms

10 −2

Mass of a hummingbird

10 −8

Time for one oscillation of an FM
radio wave

10 −6

Wavelength of visible light

1

Mass of a liter of water (about a
quart)

10 −3

Duration of a nerve impulse

10 −3

Size of a grain of sand

10 2

Mass of a person

1

Time for one heartbeat

1

Height of a 4-year-old child

10 3

Mass of a car

10 5

One day ⎝8.64×10 4 s⎠

10 2

Length of a football field

10 8

Mass of a large ship

10 7

One year (y) ⎝3.16×10

10 4

Greatest ocean depth

10 12

Mass of a large iceberg

10 9

About half the life expectancy of a
human

10 7

Diameter of the Earth

10 15

Mass of the nucleus of a comet

10 11

Recorded history

10 11

Distance from the Earth to the Sun

10 23

Mass of the Moon ⎝7.35×10 22

10 16

Distance traveled by light in 1 year (a light
year)

10 25

Mass of the Earth ⎝5.97×10 24

10 21

Diameter of the Milky Way galaxy

10 30

Mass of the Sun ⎝1.99×10

10 22

Distance from the Earth to the nearest large
galaxy (Andromeda)

10 42

Mass of the Milky Way galaxy
(current upper limit)

10 26

Distance from the Earth to the edges of the
known universe

10 53

Mass of the known universe (current
upper limit)

kg⎞⎠

10 17

Age of the Earth

kg⎞⎠

10 18

Age of the universe

30

7 ⎞

s⎠

kg⎞⎠

Example 1.1 Unit Conversions: A Short Drive Home
Suppose that you drive the 10.0 km from your university to home in 20.0 min. Calculate your average speed (a) in kilometers per hour (km/h) and
(b) in meters per second (m/s). (Note: Average speed is distance traveled divided by time of travel.)
Strategy
First we calculate the average speed using the given units. Then we can get the average speed into the desired units by picking the correct
conversion factor and multiplying by it. The correct conversion factor is the one that cancels the unwanted unit and leaves the desired unit in its
place.
Solution for (a)
(1) Calculate average speed. Average speed is distance traveled divided by time of travel. (Take this definition as a given for now—average
speed and other motion concepts will be covered in a later module.) In equation form,

average speed = distance .
time

(1.2)

average speed = 10.0 km = 0.500 km .
min
20.0 min

(1.3)

(2) Substitute the given values for distance and time.

(3) Convert km/min to km/h: multiply by the conversion factor that will cancel minutes and leave hours. That conversion factor is
Thus,

average speed =0.500 km × 60 min = 30.0 km .
min
1h
h

60 min/hr .
(1.4)

23

Solution for (b) There are several ways to convert the average speed into meters per second. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Precision. The measure of a milliliter is dependent on the measure of a centimeter.000 m .” Take note of any unusual units.5) which are obviously not the desired units of km/h.7) Discussion for (b) If we had started with 0. they will give you the wrong units as follows: km × 1 hr = 1 km ⋅ hr . The problem asked us to solve for average speed in units of km/h and we have indeed obtained these units. and Significant Figures will help you answer these questions. so the precision of the conversion factor is perfect.600 s 1 km Average speed = 8. Check Your Understanding Some hummingbirds beat their wings more than 50 times per second.6) (1. The answer 30. You may have noted that the answers in the worked example just covered were given to three digits.7 . Let us consider some information from the problem—if you travel 10 km in a third of an hour (20 min). If you accidentally get the ratio upside down. Which fundamental unit should the scientist use to describe the measurement? Which factor of 10 is the scientist likely to use to describe the motion precisely? Identify the metric prefix that corresponds to this factor of 10. What does this tell you about the different units in the SI metric system? Solution The fundamental unit of length (meter) is probably used to create the derived unit of volume (liter). and another to convert kilometers to meters.org/content/col11406/1. a firkin is a unit of volume that was once used to measure beer. then the units will not cancel. To learn more about nonstandard units. (2) Check that the units of the final answer are the desired units. Why? When do you need to be concerned about the number of digits in something you calculate? Why not write down all the digits your calculator produces? The module Accuracy. Because the wings beat so fast. but the answer would have been the same: 8. (3) Check the significant figures. (2) Multiplying by these yields Average speed = 30. the answer should also have three significant figures. Note that the significant figures in the conversion factor are not relevant because an hour is defined to be 60 minutes. check whether the answer is reasonable. Nonstandard Units While there are numerous types of units that we are all familiar with. that are not listed in the text.500 km/min.24 CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS Discussion for (a) To check your answer. A scientist is measuring the time it takes for a hummingbird to beat its wings once. (1.0 km × 1 h × 1. so this is appropriate. there are others that are much more obscure. Two conversion factors are needed—one to convert hours to seconds. h 3. such as a barleycorn.33 m s. (4) Next. we would have needed different conversion factors. rather. (50 beats per second corresponds to 20 milliseconds per beat. For example. (1) Start with the answer to (a) and convert km/h to m/s. Because each of the values given in the problem has three significant figures. The answer does seem reasonable. Think about how the unit is defined and state its relationship to SI units.0 km/hr does indeed have three significant figures. the scientist −3 will probably need to measure in milliseconds. min 60 min 60 min 2 (1. or 10 seconds.) Check Your Understanding One cubic centimeter is equal to one milliliter. use a dictionary or encyclopedia to research different “weights and measures. Solution The scientist will measure the time between each movement using the fundamental unit of seconds.33 m/s. If you have written the unit conversion factor upside down. the units will not cancel properly in the equation. consider the following: (1) Be sure that you have properly cancelled the units in the unit conversion. you would travel three times that far in an hour. One firkin equals about 34 liters.

and 11. if you had obtained a measurement of 12 inches. One way to analyze the precision of the measurements would be to determine the range. Whereas a mechanical balance may only read the mass of an object to the nearest tenth of a gram.9 in. 11. Accuracy is how close a measurement is to the correct value for that measurement. 10 grams. The packaging in which you purchased the paper states that it is 11. Let us consider an example of a GPS system that is attempting to locate the position of a restaurant in a city.1. the GPS measurements are concentrated quite closely to one another. if the measured values had been 10. In contrast. This indicates a low precision. The “known masses” are typically metal cylinders of standard mass such as 1 gram.CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS 1. measurements are accurate but not precise. (credit: Serge Melki) Figure 1. (credit: Karel Jakubec) Accuracy and Precision of a Measurement Science is based on observation and experiment—that is. the measured values deviated from each other by at most 0. Usually an object with unknown mass is placed in one pan and objects of known mass are placed in the other pan.9. Consider the example of the paper measurements. low accuracy measuring system.3 in. and Significant Figures Figure 1.9 in. In Figure 1.24. the lowest value was 10. and 10. between the lowest and the highest measured values. or difference. and 100 grams.0 inches long.0 inches.25. You measure the length of the paper three times and obtain the following measurements: 11. The measurements in the paper example are both accurate and precise. The precision of the measurements refers to the spread of the measured values. 25 . The precision of a measurement system is refers to how close the agreement is between repeated measurements (which are repeated under the same conditions). your measurement would not be very accurate.23 Many mechanical balances. However. This indicates a high precision.3 Accuracy. in Figure 1. then the measurements would not be very precise because there would be significant variation from one measurement to another. let us say that you are measuring the length of standard computer paper.2 in. on measurements. high accuracy measuring system. These measurements are quite accurate because they are very close to the correct value of 11. and think of each GPS attempt to locate the restaurant as a black dot. Thus. When the bar that connects the two pans is horizontal. many digital scales can measure the mass of an object up to the nearest thousandth of a gram. but in some cases.. For example. However. then the masses in both pans are equal.1 in. Precision. such as double-pan balances. and the highest value was 11. These measurements were relatively precise because they did not vary too much in value. have been replaced by digital scales.2 in. you can see that the GPS measurements are spread out far apart from each other. In that case. 11.. but they are all relatively close to the actual location of the restaurant at the center of the target. but they are far away from the target location. which can typically measure the mass of an object more precisely. Think of the restaurant location as existing at the center of a bull’s-eye target.9. or they are precise but not accurate.22 A double-pan mechanical balance is used to compare different masses.

If a measurement uncertainty (%unc) is defined to be % unc = δA ×100%.. but they are rather far away from the actual location of the restaurant. In our paper example. Percent Uncertainty One method of expressing uncertainty is as a percent of the measured value. (credit: Dark Evil) Figure 1. indicating high accuracy. you might say that it is 45. A This content is available for free at http://cnx. or anywhere in between. Imagine you are caring for a sick child.0ºC (which is normal body temperature). the uncertainty in a measurement must be based on a careful consideration of all the factors that might contribute and their possible effects.25 In this figure. so the measurement result would be recorded as A ± δA .24 A GPS system attempts to locate a restaurant at the center of the bull’s-eye. What if the uncertainty of the thermometer were 3. both in physics and in many other real-world applications. 4. Making Connections: Real-World Connections – Fevers or Chills? Uncertainty is a critical piece of information.500 miles or as high as 45. In more general terms. indicating low accuracy. A thermometer with an uncertainty of 3. The uncertainty in a measurement. Limitations of the measuring device. indicating low precision. Any other factors that affect the outcome (highly dependent on the situation). You suspect the child has a fever.2 in.7 A is expressed with uncertainty.0ºC to a dangerously high 40. we might say that the length of the paper is 11 in. That is. For example. the person using the ruler has bad eyesight. so you check his or her temperature with a thermometer. or one side of the paper is slightly longer than the other. In our example of measuring the length of the paper.000 miles. In our example. indicating high precision. A .1 in. Irregularities in the object being measured.8) . Uncertainty is a quantitative measure of how much your measured values deviate from a standard or expected value. (credit: Dark Evil) Accuracy. the length of the paper could be expressed as 11 in.26 CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS Figure 1. At any rate. 3. the percent (1.0ºC ? If the child’s temperature reading was 37. The factors contributing to uncertainty in a measurement include: 1. Precision.0ºC . The plus or minus amount is the uncertainty in your value. the “true” temperature could be anywhere from a hypothermic 34. the dots are concentrated rather closely to one another. is often denoted as δA (“delta A ”). uncertainty can be thought of as a disclaimer for your measured values. ± 0. if someone asked you to provide the mileage on your car. The skill of the person making the measurement. you are indicating that the actual mileage of your car might be as low as 44. δA . plus or minus 500 miles.2.0ºC would be useless. such factors contributing to the uncertainty could be the following: the smallest division on the ruler is 0. The black dots represent each attempt to pinpoint the location of the restaurant.500 miles. The dots are spread out quite far apart from one another. 2. All measurements contain some amount of uncertainty. then the uncertainty of your values will be very high. but they are each rather close to the actual location of the restaurant. and Uncertainty The degree of accuracy and precision of a measuring system are related to the uncertainty in the measurements.org/content/col11406/1. If your measurements are not very accurate or precise.. plus or minus 0.

but the uncertainty in the weight remained the same. is 0. you will have a decimal quantity. You could not express this value as 36. the uncertainty in the stopwatch is too great to effectively differentiate between the sprint times.) Check Your Understanding A high school track coach has just purchased a new stopwatch. If you do not do this. A . the area of a floor calculated from measurements of its length and width has an uncertainty because the length and width have uncertainties.9) % unc = 0.00 m . For example. At the school’s last track meet. the measured value 36. 27 . which we round to 0. then the area of the floor is 12. What is the percent uncertainty of the bag’s weight? Strategy First.07 s . Significant figures indicate the precision of a measuring tool that was used to measure a value.3 lb • Week 3 weight: 4. the first-place sprinter s and the second-place sprinter came in at 12. while a caliper can measure length to the nearest 0.8 lb • Week 2 weight: 5.CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS Example 1. then the method of adding percents can be used for multiplication or division. the more precise and accurate the measurements can be. respectively. you may measure it to be 36. 5 lb (1.4 lb. It should be noted that the last digit in a measured value has been estimated in some way by the person performing the measurement. Uncertainties in Calculations There is an uncertainty in anything calculated from measured quantities.01 s . (Expressed as an area this is 0.4 m 2 since the area of the floor is given to a tenth of a square meter. a standard ruler can measure length to the nearest millimeter.0 m 2 and has an uncertainty of 3% . Consider how this percent uncertainty would change if the bag of apples were half as heavy.10) Solution Plug the known values into the equation: Discussion We can conclude that the weight of the apple bag is 5 lb ± 8% . For example. You purchase four bags over the course of a month and weigh the apples each time. For example. For example. or significant figures.6 cm and 36. Will the coach’s new stopwatch be helpful in timing the sprint team? .04 Why or why not? Solution No.49 s to 15. always remember that you must multiply the fraction by 100%. For example.7 cm . start with the first measured value at the left and count the number of digits through the last digit written on the right.2 Calculating Percent Uncertainty: A Bag of Apples A grocery store sells 5-lb bags of apples. The caliper is a more precise measuring tool because it can measure extremely small differences in length. In order to determine the number of significant digits in a value. We can use the following % unc = δA ×100%. You obtain the following measurements: 4. observe that the expected value of the bag’s weight.7 cm has three digits. This method says that the percent uncertainty in a quantity calculated by multiplication or division is the sum of the percent uncertainties in the items used to make the calculation. with uncertainties of 2% and 1% .36 m 2 .4 lb ×100% = 8%. the rule is that the last digit written down in a measurement is the first digit with some uncertainty.05 s 11.00 m and a width of 3.71 cm because your measuring tool was not precise enough to measure a hundredth of a centimeter. Using the method of significant figures. Runners on the track coach’s team regularly clock 100-m sprints of came in at 12. not a percent value. The uncertainty in this value. In general. we can only list as many digits as we initially measured with our measuring tool. is 5 lb. For example.4 lb . The stopwatch manual states that the stopwatch has an uncertainty of ±0. the person measuring the length of a stick with a ruler notices that the stick length seems to be somewhere in between 36.01 millimeter. A (1. if you use a standard ruler to measure the length of a stick.4 lb • Week 1 weight: You determine that the weight of the 5-lb bag has an uncertainty of ±0. When we express measured values.9 lb • Week 4 weight: 5.7 cm . The more precise the measuring tool. How big is the uncertainty in something you calculate by multiplication or division? If the measurements going into the calculation have small uncertainties (a few percent or less). equation to determine the percent uncertainty of the weight: δA . and he or she must estimate the value of the last digit. if a floor has a length of 4. Hint for future calculations: when calculating percent uncertainty. Precision of Measuring Tools and Significant Figures An important factor in the accuracy and precision of measurements involves the precision of the measuring tool. a precise measuring tool is one that can measure values in very small increments.

28 CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS Zeros Special consideration is given to zeros when counting significant figures.. such as the two in the formula for the circumference of a circle. So 1300 could have two.11) is what you would get using a calculator that has an eight-digit output. the answer is rounded to the tenths place. we identify the least precise measurement: 13. the value 10 3 signifies the decimal place.42 Solution (a) 1. 2.2 kg.2 m) 2 = 4.0 3 c.org/content/col11406/1. the zeros indicate that a measurement was made to the 0. Thus. 15. 6×10 d. r = 1.13) Next. Suppose that you buy 7. it does not affect the number of significant figures in a calculation. Finally. Then you drop off 6. three. giving us 15. any zeros located in between significant figures in a number are also significant Significant Figures in Calculations When combining measurements with different degrees of accuracy and precision. Furthermore.7 kg of potatoes as measured by a bathroom scale with precision 0. Then. the answer will also have fewer significant figures. 30. 1.2 m .1 kg.0009 b. or they could be placekeepers. so the zeros are significant (c) 1. In some topics. This content is available for free at http://cnx. not the number of measured values (d) 5. The zeros in 0.053 are not placekeepers but are significant—this number has five significant figures. But because the radius has only two significant figures.5 m 2.6. For example.12) π is good to at least eight digits. as discussed below. For addition and subtraction: The answer can contain no more decimal places than the least precise measurement.01 kg. the area of a circle can be calculated from its radius using A = πr 2 .990 e.001 decimal point. the number of significant digits in the final answer can be no greater than the number of significant digits in the least precise measured value. even though (1. A = πr 2 = (3.7 kg.450.7 . Check Your Understanding Determine the number of significant figures in the following measurements: a.)×(1. 0. If the input has fewer significant figures. There are two different rules. c = 2πr .) Zeros are significant except when they serve only as placekeepers.2 kg. 87. the final zero indicates that a measurement was made to the 0.052-kg of potatoes at your laboratory as measured by a scale with precision 0..053. There are two significant figures in 0. for example. You will note that an answer given to three digits is based on input good to at least three digits. Care is also taken that the number of significant figures is reasonable for the situation posed. most numbers are assumed to have three significant figures. Finally. here.208 kg (1. one for multiplication and division and the other for addition and subtraction.1415927. Significant Figures in this Text In this text. so our final answer must also be expressed to the 0.053 are not significant. This measurement is expressed to the 0. the zeros in this number are placekeepers that indicate the decimal point (b) 6.1 decimal point. because they are only placekeepers that locate the decimal point.052 kg +13. and how many significant figures are appropriate in the answer? The mass is found by simple addition and subtraction: 7.56-kg of potatoes in a grocery store as measured with a scale with precision 0.7 kg = 15. The zeros in 10. particularly in optics. 15. or four significant figures. write 1300 in scientific notation.1 decimal place. For multiplication and division: The result should have the same number of significant figures as the quantity having the least significant figures entering into the calculation.001 kg. more accurate numbers are needed and more than three significant figures will be used. They could mean the number is known to the last digit. Let us see how many significant figures the area has if the radius has only two—say.56 kg . (To avoid this ambiguity. Check Your Understanding Perform the following calculations and express your answer using the correct number of significant digits.1 decimal place. if a number is exact.5238934 m 2 (1. The zeros in 1300 may or may not be significant depending on the style of writing numbers. you go home and add 13. consistent numbers of significant figures are used in all worked examples. so it is significant (e) 4. it limits the calculated quantity to two significant figures or A=4. How many kilograms of potatoes do you now have.

We can approximate the height of the building by scaling up from the height of a person. you will also develop skills at approximating.14) Discussion You can use known quantities to determine an approximate measurement of unknown quantities.7/estimation_en. physicists. Let us do two examples to illustrate this concept. as well as familiarity with units. If your hand measures 10 cm across. What is the total weight of the bags? (b) The force 2 F on an object is equal to its mass m multiplied by its acceleration a . If we use the fact that the height of one story is approximately equal to about the length of two adult humans (each human is about 2-m tall). how many hand lengths equal the width of your desk? What other measurements can you approximate besides length? 29 .0255 m/s . and by being willing to take risks. then we can estimate the total height of the building to be 2 m × 2 person ×39 stories = 156 m. what is the force on the wagon? (The unit of force is called the newton. These approximations allow us to rule out certain scenarios or unrealistic numbers. Approximations also allow us to challenge others and guide us in our approaches to our scientific world. Strategy Think about the average height of an adult male. and engineers need to make approximations or “guesstimates” for a particular quantity.2 pounds. Because the number of bags is an exact value. Solution Based on information in the example.CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS (a) A woman has two bags weighing 13. we know there are 39 stories in the building. and three dimensions! Multiple levels of difficulty allow for progressive skill improvement. experience helps. As with any endeavor. Example 1.2 pounds.5 pounds and one bag with a weight of 10. 1 person 1 story (1. or in your neighborhood? Let us make an approximation based upon the height of a person. Figure 1. we will calculate the height of a 39-story building. If a wagon with mass 55 kg accelerates at a rate of 0. PhET Explorations: Estimation Explore size estimation in one. it is not considered in the significant figures.3 Approximate the Height of a Building Can you approximate the height of one of the buildings on your campus. and it is expressed with the symbol N.4 Approximation On many occasions. two. What is the distance to a certain destination? What is the approximate density of a given item? About how large a current will there be in a circuit? Many approximate numbers are based on formulae in which the input quantities are known only to a limited accuracy.org/content/m42120/1. As you develop problem-solving skills (that can be applied to a variety of fields through a study of physics). In this example. Because the value 55 kg has only two significant figures.4 N. the final value must also contain two significant figures. other scientists. (b) 1.jar) 1. You will develop these skills through thinking more quantitatively.26 Estimation (http://cnx.) Solution (a) 37.

S. Height of money ≈ 1×10 2 in.×3 in. let us start there.19) . 2 .480. × 12 in. = 100 in. which gives 5.5 in.000 in. How many bank stacks make up a trillion dollars? (credit: Andrew Magill) The U. high. make an approximation of how high the money pile would become. (5) Calculate the height. 1 ft 1 yd 1 yd 1 ft (1. and a stack of one-hundred $100 bills is equal to $1×10 12(a trillion dollars)/ $1×10 4 per stack = 1×10 8 stacks. = 6. So the total volume of a stack of 100 bills is: volume of stack = length×width×height.30 CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS Example 1. Solution (1) Calculate the volume of a stack of 100 bills. The volume of all the $100 -bill stacks is 9 in.) (4) Calculate the total volume of the bills.4 Approximating Vast Numbers: a Trillion Dollars Figure 1. (We will use feet/inches rather than meters here because football fields are measured in yards. Most of us do not have any concept of how much even one trillion actually is. (1. The dimensions of a single bill are approximately 3 in. Discussion This content is available for free at http://cnx. and is worth $10. 3 . (Note that we are using only one significant figure in these calculations. If you made 100-bill stacks and used them to evenly cover a football field (between the end zones). The area of a football field is (1.33×10 2 in. while another says 10 ft. Since this is an easy-to-approximate quantity. (1. Suppose that you were given a trillion dollars in $100 bills. and then set this volume equal to the area of the football field multiplied by the unknown height. 2 ..27 A bank stack contains one-hundred $100 bills. use the equation: volume of bills = area of field×height of money: Height of money = volume of bills .18) The height of the money will be about 100 in. The number of stacks you will have is: $1×10 12. thick. 3 / stack×10 8 stacks = 9×10 8 in.000. To determine the height of the bills. A stack of 100 of these is about 0.000 yd 2. Because we are working in inches.×0. Converting this value to feet gives 100 in.17) Area ≈ 6×10 6 in. federal deficit in the 2008 fiscal year was a little greater than $10 trillion. We can find the volume of a stack of 100 bills.org/content/col11406/1. such as you might see in movies or at a bank.15) volume of stack = 9 in. 12 in. What do you think? Strategy When you imagine the situation. Height of money = 6 2 6×10 in. we need to convert square yards to square inches: Area = 5. (2) Calculate the number of stacks..000. or $1×10 4 . volume of stack = 6 in. This conversion gives us 6×10 6 in. = 1. (3) Calculate the area of a football field in square inches. 2 for the area of the field. find out how many stacks make up one trillion dollars.000 yd 2× 3 ft × 3 ft × 12 in.× 1 ft = 8. 3. Note that a trillion dollars is equal to $10.) One of your friends says 3 in.33 ft ≈ 8 ft. area of field 8 3 9×10 in.7 (1.5 in. you probably envision thousands of small stacks of 100 wrapped $100 bills.16) 100 yd×50 yd. by 6 in..

Solution An average male is about two meters tall. the scientist will test the hypothesis by performing an experiment. and pounds fundamental units: units that can only be expressed relative to the procedure used to measure them kilogram: the SI unit for mass.CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS The final approximate value is much higher than the early estimate of 3 in. and about 7 to cover the width. or both order of magnitude: refers to the size of a quantity as it relates to a power of 10 percent uncertainty: the ratio of the uncertainty of a measurement to the measured value.. or of objects being affected by a strong gravitational field SI units : the international system of units that scientists in most countries have agreed to use.) was roughly correct. the scientist typically performs some research about the topic and then devises a hypothesis. gallons. using concise language or a mathematical formula. finally. includes units of measurement such as feet. Glossary accuracy: the degree to which a measured value agrees with correct value for that measurement approximation: an estimated value based on prior experience and reasoning classical physics: physics that was developed from the Renaissance to the end of the 19th century conversion factor: a ratio expressing how many of one unit are equal to another unit derived units: units that can be calculated using algebraic combinations of the fundamental units English units: system of measurement used in the United States. matter. includes units such as meters. abbreviated (kg) law: a description. liters. expressed as a percentage physical quantity : a characteristic or property of an object that can be measured or calculated from other measurements physics: the science concerned with describing the interactions of energy. it is especially interested in what fundamental mechanisms underlie every phenomenon precision: the degree to which repeated measurements agree with each other quantum mechanics: the study of objects smaller than can be seen with a microscope relativity: the study of objects moving at speeds greater than about 1% of the speed of light. space. quantum mechanics. Describe the process you used to arrive at your final approximation. then. and grams scientific method: a method that typically begins with an observation and question that the scientist will research. How did the approximation measure up to your first guess? What can this exercise tell you in terms of rough “guesstimates” versus carefully calculated approximations? Check Your Understanding Using mental math and your understanding of fundamental units. It would take approximately 15 men laid out end to end to cover the length. the scientist analyzes the results of the experiment and draws a conclusion second: the SI unit for time. a generalized pattern in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and repeated experiments meter: the SI unit for length. approximate the area of a regulation basketball court. but the other early estimate of 10 ft (120 in. next. abbreviated (s) significant figures: express the precision of a measuring tool used to measure a value theory: an explanation for patterns in nature that is supported by scientific evidence and verified multiple times by various groups of researchers uncertainty: a quantitative measure of how much your measured values deviate from a standard or expected value 31 . That gives an approximate area of 420 m 2 . and time. abbreviated (m) method of adding percents: the percent uncertainty in a quantity calculated by multiplication or division is the sum of the percent uncertainties in the items used to make the calculation metric system: a system in which values can be calculated in factors of 10 model: representation of something that is often too difficult (or impossible) to display directly modern physics: the study of relativity.

Precision. or must it be universally valid? How does this compare to the required validity of a theory or a law? 7. What is a model? 2. which are ratios relating equal quantities of different units. and Significant Figures • Accuracy of a measured value refers to how close a measurement is to the correct value. m. s. concerning itself with energy. How does a model differ from a theory? 3. kilogram. • Significant figures express the precision of a measuring tool. Identify some advantages of metric units. and ampere.org/content/col11406/1. All units can be expressed as combinations of four fundamental units.7 . The uncertainty in a measurement is an estimate of the amount by which the measurement result may differ from this value. If two different theories describe experimental observations equally well.1 Physics: An Introduction • Science seeks to discover and describe the underlying order and simplicity in nature. the second (for time). Prescriptions for vision correction are given in units called diopters (D). Determine the meaning of that unit. • The four fundamental units we will use in this text are the meter (for length).3 Accuracy. • Unit conversions involve changing a value expressed in one type of unit to another type of unit.1 Physics: An Introduction 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units 10. 1. and Significant Figures 11. and the ampere (for electric current). What is the relationship between the accuracy and uncertainty of a measurement? 12.2 Physical Quantities and Units • Physical quantities are a characteristic or property of an object that can be measured or calculated from other measurements. A. Can the validity of a model be limited. the final answer cannot contain more decimal places than the least precise value. This content is available for free at http://cnx. which uses powers of 10 to relate quantities over the vast ranges encountered in nature. kg. 1. space and time. This is done by using conversion factors. The smaller the measurement increment. What determines the validity of a theory? 5. and their interactions. Conceptual Questions 1. Classical physics is a good approximation to modern physics under certain circumstances. Discuss the sources of uncertainties in both the prescription and accuracy in the manufacture of lenses. the final answer can contain only as many significant figures as the least precise value. matter. • Scientific laws and theories express the general truths of nature and the body of knowledge they encompass. 1. Precision. • When multiplying or dividing measured values. • The four fundamental units are abbreviated as follows: meter. These laws of nature are rules that all natural processes appear to follow. • When adding or subtracting measured values. Certain criteria must be satisfied if a measurement or observation is to be believed. When is it necessary to use relativistic quantum mechanics? 9. Models are particularly useful in relativity and quantum mechanics. • The precision of a measuring tool is related to the size of its measurement increments. second.4 Approximation Scientists often approximate the values of quantities to perform calculations and analyze systems. These units are part of the metric system. The metric system also uses a standard set of prefixes to denote each order of magnitude greater than or lesser than the fundamental unit itself. • Physics is the most basic of the sciences.3 Accuracy.32 CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS units : a standard used for expressing and comparing measurements Section Summary 1. the more precise the tool. where conditions are outside those normally encountered by humans. • Precision of measured values refers to how close the agreement is between repeated measurements. Can classical physics be used to accurately describe a satellite moving at a speed of 7500 m/s? Explain why or why not. • Units are standards for expressing and comparing the measurement of physical quantities. Obtain information (perhaps by calling an optometrist or performing an internet search) on the minimum uncertainty with which corrections in diopters are determined and the accuracy with which corrective lenses can be produced. the kilogram (for mass). What are they? 8. 1. 1. can one be said to be more valid than the other (assuming both use accepted rules of logic)? 4. Will the criteria necessarily be as strict for an expected result as for an unexpected result? 6.

9. (a) Suppose that a person has an average heart rate of 72. What is its height in kilometers? (Assume that 1 kilometer equals 3. (a) What is this in meters per second? (b) How many miles per hour is this? 2.22-mi marathon? 24.80 ± 0. 28. A generation is about one-third of a lifetime. 18.0 km/h at a speed 90 km/h .7) 2 (c) ⎛⎝1.02 cm.4 Approximation 29. Calculate the approximate number of atoms in a bacterium. 30 min.2) / (46. What is the range of possible speeds when it reads 90 km/h ? (b) Convert this range to miles per hour. where 1 lbm = 0. An infant’s pulse rate is measured to be 130 ± 5 beats/min. How much is left after 308 mL is removed? 17. If 40 ± 1 beats are counted in 30.0 in. what is the heart rate and its uncertainty in beats per minute? 22. The length and width of a rectangular room are measured to be 3. How long is the field in meters? (Assume that 1 meter equals 3.) 6. State how many significant figures are proper in the results of the following calculations: (a) (106. excluding the end zones.0 m/s = 3. What is the area of a circle 3.01) (b) (18. 1. A person measures his or her heart rate by counting the number of beats in 30 s .05 ± 0.4539 kg . and 12 s .0 cm/ year. A car engine moves a piston with a circular cross section of 7. what is the percent uncertainty in each? (c) Which is a more meaningful way to express the accuracy of these two numbers.0 ± 0.0 beats/ min. A marathon runner completes a 42. The speed limit on some interstate highways is roughly 100 km/h. Approximately how many generations have passed since the year 0 AD? 31. Suppose that one such plate has an average speed of 4.028 feet.5 mi/h. Calculate its volume and uncertainty in cubic centimeters. 26. (b) Calculate the uncertainty in the elapsed time.0001 kg in the pound-mass unit. what is its percent uncertainty? (b) Based on that percent uncertainty. (a) If there is an uncertainty of 0.281 feet.) 8. significant figures or percent uncertainties? 2. What is the percent uncertainty in this measurement? 15. 11.6 km/h. (a) A person’s blood pressure is measured to be 120 ± 2 mm Hg . Show that 1.000 y? 16. Suppose that your bathroom scale reads your mass as 65 kg with a 3% uncertainty.6214 mi) 13. what is the range of percent uncertainty when it reads speeds you could be going? 20. Tectonic plates are large segments of the Earth’s crust that move slowly. If a marathon runner averages 9. There is an uncertainty of 25 m in the distance traveled and an uncertainty of 1 s in the elapsed time. involved in converting 4. The speed of sound is measured to be What is this in km/h? 342 m/s on a certain day.050 ± 0.281 feet.) 7. (a) Refer to Table 1. and 3.0% uncertainty. (a) A car speedometer has a 14. When non-metric units were used in the United Kingdom.955 ± 0. Calculate the area of the room and its uncertainty in square meters.50 cm over a distance of 20 m.60×10 −19⎞⎠(3712) . How many beats does he or she have in 2. What is the uncertainty in your mass (in kilograms)? 12. Precision. What is its percent uncertainty? (b) Assuming the same percent uncertainty.500 ± 0.3 to determine the average distance between the Earth and the Sun. 2.250 ± 0.37 in. A can contains 375 mL of soda.281 feet.) 5. (b) What is this in meters per second? 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units 1.1 cm long. Then calculate the average speed of the Earth in its orbit in kilometers per second.0 m/s = 3.005 m . (Hint: The mass of a hydrogen atom is on −27 the order of 10 kg and the mass of a bacterium is on the order of 10 −15 kg. American football is played on a 100-yd-long field. (a) Calculate the percent uncertainty in the distance. what is the uncertainty in a blood pressure measurement of 80 mm Hg ? 21.01 cm . (a) How many significant figures are in the numbers 99 and 100? (b) If the uncertainty in each number is 1.102 cm in diameter? 23. What is its percent uncertainty? 5.188-km course in 2 h . (c) What is the average speed in meters per second? (d) What is the uncertainty in the average speed? 25.3 Accuracy. Hint: Show the explicit steps 1. what is the percent uncertainty? (b) If it has the same 60 km/h .5 s . The sides of a small rectangular box are measured to be 1.00 y? (c) In 2.1 ± 0.210)(1. A large soccer field is 115 m long and 85 m wide. How many heartbeats are there in a lifetime? 30. and Significant Figures Express your answers to problems in this section to the correct number of significant figures and proper units.) 32.7)(98. Assume that the average mass of an atom in the bacterium is ten times the mass of a hydrogen atom. What are its dimensions in feet and inches? (Assume that 1 meter equals 3. How many times longer than the mean life of an extremely unstable atomic nucleus is the lifetime of a human? (Hint: The lifetime of an unstable atomic nucleus is on the order of 10 −22 s .CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS Problems & Exercises 19. (a) What is its speed in 90 km/h speed limit? kilometers per hour? (b) Is it exceeding the 3. at 29. tall? (Assume that 1 meter equals 39.005 m and 3. is the tallest mountain on the Earth. A car is traveling at a speed of 33 m/s . (a) If your speedometer has an uncertainty of of 1. what mass in pound-mass has an uncertainty of 1 kg when converted to kilograms? 27.6 km/h .002 cm diameter a distance of 3. (1 km = 0. (a) What distance does it move in 1 s at this speed? (b) What is its speed in kilometers per million years? 10. What is the height in meters of a person who is 6 ft 1. ) 33 .0 y? (b) In 2.001 cm to compress the gas in the cylinder. (a) By what amount is the gas decreased in volume in cubic centimeters? (b) Find the uncertainty in this volume. how long does it take him or her to run a 26. Soccer fields vary in size. A good-quality measuring tape can be off by 0. Mount Everest. a unit of mass called the pound-mass (lbm) was employed.

(b) Making the same assumption. Can you estimate the number of atoms in each bacterium? (credit: Rocky Mountain Laboratories.28 This color-enhanced photo shows Salmonella typhimurium (red) attacking human cells. Approximately how many atoms thick is a cell membrane. (a) Calculate the number of cells in a hummingbird assuming the mass of an average cell is ten times the mass of a bacterium. NIH) 33. NIAID.34 CHAPTER 1 | INTRODUCTION: THE NATURE OF SCIENCE AND PHYSICS Figure 1. how many cells are there in a human? 36.org/content/col11406/1. (a) What fraction of Earth’s diameter is the greatest ocean depth? (b) The greatest mountain height? 35. These bacteria are commonly known for causing foodborne illness.7 . what is the maximum firing rate of a nerve in impulses per second? This content is available for free at http://cnx. Assuming one nerve impulse must end before another can begin. assuming all atoms there average about twice the size of a hydrogen atom? 34.

(credit: Vince Maidens. time given a graph of position vs. and Speed • Explain the relationships between instantaneous velocity. and final velocity. given initial velocity. time.4.3. initial velocity. time. • Determine average or instantaneous acceleration from a graph of velocity vs. Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension • Calculate displacement of an object that is not accelerating. final position.7. • Describe the motion of objects that are in free fall. and deceleration. and acceleration. • Derive a graph of acceleration vs. and if not. and acceleration. Time. and the path between the two. Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics • Apply problem-solving steps and strategies to solve problems of one-dimensional kinematics. given initial position. 2. initial velocity. • Apply strategies to determine whether or not the result of a problem is reasonable. When it flies in a straight line without any change in direction. • Calculate displacement and distance given initial position. Displacement • Define position.1. velocity.8. • Calculate final velocity of an accelerating object.1 The motion of an American kestrel through the air can be described by the bird’s displacement. final position. time. average acceleration. • Explain the relationship between position and displacement. time.6. final time. time. and time. • Derive a graph of velocity vs. and distance traveled. 2. Scalars. and Coordinate Systems • Define and distinguish between scalar and vector quantities. displacement. initial time. Wikimedia Commons) Learning Objectives 2. time from a graph of position vs. determine the cause. 2. time. 2. speed. and time. time from a graph of velocity vs. its motion is said to be one dimensional. • Distinguish between displacement and distance traveled. Vectors.2. • Assign a coordinate system for a scenario involving one-dimensional motion. time. displacement. • Interpret a graph of velocity vs.5. • Calculate acceleration given initial time. average speed. • Calculate velocity and speed given initial position. 2. • Calculate displacement and final position of an accelerating object. Velocity. • Calculate the position and velocity of objects in free fall. acceleration. 2. Acceleration • Define and distinguish between instantaneous acceleration. average velocity. and final time. • Derive a graph of velocity vs. instantaneous speed. given initial position and velocity. 2. Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion • Describe a straight-line graph in terms of its slope and y-intercept. distance. 35 . Falling Objects • Describe the effects of gravity on objects in motion. • Determine average velocity or instantaneous velocity from a graph of position vs.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 2 KINEMATICS Figure 2.

for example. we apply concepts developed here to study motion along curved paths (two. or one-dimensional motion.and three-dimensional motion).2 These cyclists in Vietnam can be described by their position relative to buildings and a canal. Earth is often used as a reference frame. we use the airplane. and we often describe the position of an object as it relates to stationary objects in that reference frame. not the Earth. a rocket launch would be described in terms of the position of the rocket with respect to the Earth as a whole. is crucial to the study of force. Our formal study of physics begins with kinematics which is defined as the study of motion without considering its causes. your heart moves blood through your veins. as the reference frame. but sometimes kilometers. in the frame of reference. Displacement Displacement is the change in position of an object: Δx = x f − x 0. Such considerations come in other chapters. Questions about motion are interesting in and of themselves: How long will it take for a space probe to get to Mars? Where will a football land if it is thrown at a certain angle? But an understanding of motion is also key to understanding other concepts in physics.36 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics Objects are in motion everywhere we look. Their motion can be described by their change in position. we examine the simplest type of motion—namely. Note that the SI unit for displacement is the meter (m) (see Physical Quantities and Units). (credit: Suzan Black. Always solve for displacement by subtracting initial position x 0 from final position x f . x f is the final position. and x 0 is the initial position. that of a car rounding a curve. where (2. while a professor’s position could be described in terms of where she is in relation to the nearby white board. In Two-Dimensional Kinematics.) Displacement If an object moves relative to a reference frame (for example. or has been displaced. Fotopedia) Position In order to describe the motion of an object. you need to specify its position relative to a convenient reference frame. 2. if a professor moves to the right relative to a white board or a passenger moves toward the rear of an airplane). you must first be able to describe its position—where it is at any particular time. (See Figure 2. (See Figure 2. Δx means change in position. Everything from a tennis game to a space-probe flyby of the planet Neptune involves motion. we use reference frames that are not stationary but are in motion relative to the Earth. for example. This change in position is known as displacement. And even in inanimate objects.) In other cases. In this text the upper case Greek letter Δ (delta) always means “change in” whatever quantity follows it. without worrying about what forces cause or change its motion. then the object’s position changes. for example. motion along a straight line. For example.4. More precisely. for example. An understanding of acceleration. In this chapter. The word “displacement” implies that an object has moved.7 .3. there is continuous motion in the vibrations of atoms and molecules. In one-dimensional kinematics and Two-Dimensional Kinematics we will study only the motion of a football.org/content/col11406/1. Keep in mind that when units other than the meter are used in a problem. miles.1) Δx is displacement. and other units of length are used. you may need to convert them into meters to complete the calculation. This content is available for free at http://cnx. thus. The word “kinematics” comes from a Greek term meaning motion and is related to other English words such as “cinema” (movies) and “kinesiology” (the study of human motion). When you are resting.1 Displacement Figure 2. feet. To describe the position of a person in an airplane. or displacement.

The professor’s displacement is 2. the distance the professor walks is 2. His location relative to the airplane is given by displacement of the professor relative to Earth is x . His displacement is negative because his motion is toward the rear of the plane. (2.0 m. or in the negative (2. so his displacement is Δx = x f −x 0 = 2.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2.4 A passenger moves from his seat to the back of the plane. For example. When you begin a problem. Notice that the arrow representing his displacement is twice as long as the arrow representing the displacement of the professor (he moves twice as far) in Figure 2.0-m displacement of the passenger relative to the plane is represented by an arrow toward the rear of the plane. no sign. Distance traveled is the total length of the path traveled between two positions.5 m = + 2.0 m − 6. but you are free to select positive as being any direction).5 m and her final position is x f = 3.0 m toward the rear. The +2.3.2) In this coordinate system. Her position relative to Earth is given by represented by an arrow pointing to the right. 37 .0 m. you should select which direction is positive (usually that will be to the right or up.3 A professor paces left and right while lecturing. Note that displacement has a direction as well as a magnitude. Distance is defined to be the magnitude or size of displacement between two positions. The −4. The distance the airplane passenger walks is 4. the airplane passenger’s initial position is x 0 = 6.0 m Figure 2.0 m . x . motion to the right is positive.5 m . distance is not.0 m. Thus her displacement is Δx = x f −x 0 = 3. The professor’s initial position is x 0 = 1. Distance has no direction and. Similarly. whereas motion to the left is negative.0 m.0 m to the right. direction can be specified with a plus or minus sign. Distance Although displacement is described in terms of direction.5 m − 1.3) x direction in our coordinate system. and the airline passenger’s displacement is 4.0 m = −4. In one-dimensional motion. Note that the distance between two positions is not the same as the distance traveled between them.0 m and his final position is x f = 2. thus.

such as a −20ºC temperature.0 m are all scalars—quantities with no specified direction. Scalars are never represented by arrows. the professor could pace back and forth many times. and a distance of 2.0 m. a person’s 1. Note.5 (a) The rider’s displacement is Δx = x f − x 0 = −1 km . the larger the magnitude.org/content/col11406/1. Check Your Understanding A cyclist rides 3 km west and then turns around and rides 2 km east.7 . the minus sign indicates a point on a scale rather than a direction. however. is the total length of the path taken between the two marks. the magnitude of her displacement would be 2. either have no direction or none is specified. distance is defined only by magnitude.) (b) The distance traveled is 3 km + 2 km = 5 km . In this case.0 m. (a) What is her displacement? (b) What distance does she ride? (c) What is the magnitude of her displacement? Solution Figure 2. The distance traveled. This content is available for free at http://cnx. however. For example. a 20ºC temperature. Flickr) What is the difference between distance and displacement? Whereas displacement is defined by both direction and magnitude. In this case.0 m to the right of her starting point. 2. Some physical quantities. Displacement is an example of a vector quantity. One way to think about this is to assume you marked the start of the motion and the end of the motion. (c) The magnitude of the displacement is 1 km . In kinematics we nearly always deal with displacement and magnitude of displacement. For example. Distance is an example of a scalar quantity. The displacement is simply the difference in the position of the two marks and is independent of the path taken in traveling between the two marks. and Coordinate Systems Figure 2. the 250 kilocalories (250 Calories) of energy in a candy bar. The direction of a vector in one-dimensional motion is given simply by a plus ( + ) or minus ( − ) sign.8 m height. that is. In this case her displacement would be +2. Other examples of vectors include a velocity of 90 km/h east and a force of 500 newtons straight down. A vector is any quantity with both magnitude and direction.2 Vectors. Vectors are represented graphically by arrows. however. that a scalar can be negative. Scalars. can be greater than the magnitude of the displacement (by magnitude. just a number with a unit). An arrow used to represent a vector has a length proportional to the vector’s magnitude (e. perhaps walking a distance of 150 m during a lecture.. like distance. with motion to the right as positive and motion to the left as negative. the x -coordinate runs from left to right. In order to specify the direction of motion. yet still end up only 2.38 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Misconception Alert: Distance Traveled vs. a 90 km/h speed limit. A scalar is any quantity that has a magnitude. it may be convenient to choose motion toward the left as positive motion (it is the forward direction for the plane).6 The motion of this Eclipse Concept jet can be described in terms of the distance it has traveled (a scalar quantity) or its displacement in a specific direction (a vector quantity). its displacement must be described based on a coordinate system. Magnitude of Displacement It is important to note that the distance traveled. although in many cases. but the distance she traveled would be 150 m. we mean just the size of the displacement without regard to its direction. and almost never with distance traveled. but no direction. the longer the length of the vector) and points in the same direction as the vector. (The displacement is negative because we take east to be positive and west to be negative.g. (credit: Armchair Aviator.

Questions such as. We might. In physics. This is the case with time. It is impossible to know that time has passed unless something changes. and Speed Figure 2. For 39 . such as how long it takes an airplane passenger to get from his seat to the back of the plane. Every measurement of time involves measuring a change in some physical quantity. Solution Speed is a scalar quantity. Velocity. If people in a race are running to the left. this is a simple coordinate system consisting of a one-dimensional coordinate line.6. Check Your Understanding A person’s speed can stay the same as he or she rounds a corner and changes direction. This allows us to not only measure the amount of time. It may be a number on a digital clock. we note the time at the beginning and end of the motion and subtract the two. and motion to the left is considered negative. but also to determine a sequence of events. It does not matter as long as the system is clear and consistent.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Coordinate Systems for One-Dimensional Motion In order to describe the direction of a vector quantity. In general. For one-dimensional motion. Flickr) There is more to motion than distance and displacement. by connecting the pendulum to a clock mechanism that registers time on a dial. you must designate a coordinate system within the reference frame. 2. How does time relate to motion? We are usually interested in elapsed time for a particular motion. Once you assign a positive direction and start solving a problem. it has magnitude only. motion up is usually positive and motion down is negative. however. We could then use the pendulum to measure time by counting its swings or. is speed a scalar or a vector quantity? Explain. For example. Time As discussed in Physical Quantities and Units. “How long does a foot race take?” and “What was the runner’s speed?” cannot be answered without an understanding of other concepts. for example. or the interval over which change occurs. (credit: tobitasflickr. the definition of time is simple— time is change. Figure 2. it can be more convenient to switch the positive and negative directions. With vertical motion. it is useful to define left as the positive direction. The amount of time or change is calibrated by comparison with a standard.7 It is usually convenient to consider motion upward or to the right as positive (+) and motion downward or to the left as negative (−). abbreviated s. In some cases. when describing horizontal motion.75 s. velocity. It does not change at all with direction changes. In this section we add definitions of time. If it were a vector quantity. or the position of the Sun in the sky. To find elapsed time. as with the jet in Figure 2.3 Time. if you are analyzing the motion of falling objects. observe that a certain pendulum makes one full swing every 0. the most fundamental physical quantities are defined by how they are measured.8 The motion of these racing snails can be described by their speeds and their velocities. The SI unit for time is the second. therefore. of course. and speed to expand our description of motion. Given this information. you cannot change it. motion to the right is usually considered positive. it would change as direction changes (even if its magnitude remained constant). a heartbeat. it can be useful to define downwards as the positive direction.

we are left with an infinitesimally small interval.7) The minus sign indicates the average velocity is also toward the rear of the plane. (As usual. we cannot tell from average velocity whether the airplane passenger stops momentarily or backs up before he goes to the back of the plane. the more detailed the information.) Instantaneous velocity v is the average velocity at a specific instant in time (or over an infinitesimally small time interval). Over such an interval. However. If t 0 = 0 . and cm/s. and x f and x 0 are the final and beginning positions at times t f and t 0 . the delta symbol. as when we use a stopwatch. In this text.9 A more detailed record of an airplane passenger heading toward the back of the plane.org/content/col11406/1. for simplicity’s sake. and t 0 is the time at the beginning of the motion. Mathematically. under many circumstances. we can find precise values for instantaneous velocity without calculus. You know that if you have a large displacement in a small amount of time you have a large velocity. (2. The average velocity of an object does not tell us anything about what happens to it between the starting point and ending point. for example. Suppose. This content is available for free at http://cnx. A car’s speedometer. however. (2.= Δx t = 5 s = − 0.4) Δt is the change in time or elapsed time. Figure 2. an airplane passenger took 5 seconds to move −4 m (the negative sign indicates that displacement is toward the back of the plane). Δ . finding instantaneous velocity. showing smaller segments of his trip. where (2.5) v. mi/h (also written as mph).is the average (indicated by the bar over the v ) velocity. • motion starts at time equal to zero • the symbol (t 0 = 0) t is used for elapsed time unless otherwise specified (Δt = t f ≡ t) Velocity Your notion of velocity is probably the same as its scientific definition. The SI unit for velocity is meters per second or m/s. respectively. means the change in the quantity that follows it. are in common use. shows the magnitude (but not the direction) of the instantaneous velocity of the car. Δt 0 f (2. it would simply read zero at the start of the lecture and 50 min at the end. Elapsed time between the ending time and beginning time. we must consider smaller segments of the trip over smaller time intervals. then Δt = t f ≡ t . t f is the time at the end of the motion. and that velocity has units of distance divided by time. For example. It has both magnitude and direction. and end at 11:50 A.. v . such as km/h. Average Velocity Average velocity is displacement (change in position) divided by the time of travel. Δt is the difference Δt = t f − t 0. Δx is the change in position (or displacement). His average velocity would be −4 m v.= Δx = t f − t 0 .7 . a lecture may start at 11:00 A. To get more details.6) Notice that this definition indicates that velocity is a vector because displacement is a vector. a calculus operation beyond the scope of this text. but many other units. the average velocity becomes the instantaneous velocity or the velocity at a specific instant.8 m/s. x −x v. (Police give tickets based on instantaneous velocity. The smaller the time intervals considered in a motion.M.= Δx t . so that the elapsed time would be 50 min. When we carry this process to its logical conclusion. such as miles per hour or kilometers per hour.M. If the starting time t 0 is taken to be zero. for example.40 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS example. but when calculating how long it will take to get from one place to another on a road trip. then the average velocity is simply where v. If we were using a stopwatch.) Life is simpler if the beginning time t 0 is taken to be zero. you need to use average velocity. at a precise instant t can involve taking a limit.

Figure 2. which is unrealistic given that we’ll probably stop at the store. At that same time his instantaneous speed was 3. Another way of visualizing the motion of an object is to use a graph.0 m/s (the minus meaning toward the rear of the plane). For example.11. Average speed is the distance traveled divided by elapsed time. We are assuming that speed is constant during the trip. The average speed is 12 km/h. was zero. then your average speed was 12 km/h. velocity. is zero for a round trip. however. we will model it with no stops or changes in speed. which is displacement divided by time. But for simplicity’s sake.) 41 . and your car’s odometer shows the total distance traveled was 6 km. most people use the terms “speed” and “velocity” interchangeably. is very different from average velocity.10 During a 30-minute round trip to the store. Thus speed is a scalar. if you drive to a store and return home in half an hour.0 m/s. (Note that these graphs depict a very simplified model of the trip. We have noted that distance traveled can be greater than displacement. (Displacement is change in position and.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Speed In everyday language. they do not have the same meaning and they are distinct concepts. the total distance traveled is 6 km. Thus the average velocity is zero. We are also assuming that the route between the store and the house is a perfectly straight line. Your average velocity. suppose the airplane passenger at one instant had an instantaneous velocity of −3. and speed-vs. Your instantaneous speed at that instant would be 40 km/h—the same magnitude but without a direction. One major difference is that speed has no direction. however. however. Just as we need to distinguish between instantaneous velocity and average velocity. A plot of position or of velocity as a function of time can be very useful. For example. Average speed. for this trip to the store. The displacement for the round trip is zero. we also need to distinguish between instantaneous speed and average speed.-time graphs are displayed in Figure 2. thus.) Thus average speed is not simply the magnitude of average velocity. Instantaneous speed is the magnitude of instantaneous velocity. since there was no net change in position. So average speed can be greater than average velocity. For example. Or suppose that at one time during a shopping trip your instantaneous velocity is 40 km/h due north. because your displacement for the round trip is zero. the position. In physics.

and (b) the average speed of the train in m/s? Solution This content is available for free at http://cnx. The distance between the two stations is approximately 40 miles. Note that the velocity for the return trip is negative. and speed vs. convert the measurements into both m/s and mi/h • determine the speed of an ant. What is (a) the average velocity of the train.org/content/col11406/1.11 Position vs. Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation—Getting a Sense of Speed If you have spent much time driving. DC. you probably have a good sense of speeds between about 10 and 70 miles per hour. and back in 1 hour and 45 minutes. or falling leaf Check Your Understanding A commuter train travels from Baltimore to Washington. time. do some observations and calculations on your own: • calculate typical car speeds in meters per second • estimate jogging and walking speed by timing yourself. time.42 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. time on a trip. But what are these in meters per second? What do we mean when we say that something is moving at 10 m/s? To get a better sense of what these values really mean.7 . velocity vs. snail.

This is known as deceleration. but it can also be a change in direction. Average Acceleration Average Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes. So there is an acceleration when velocity changes either in magnitude (an increase or decrease in speed) or in direction.12 A plane decelerates. For example. 43 . When an object slows down. the train ends up at the same place it starts. but more inclusive.28 feet 60 seconds (2. its acceleration is opposite to the direction of its motion.8) (2. Acceleration as a Vector Acceleration is a vector in the same direction as the change in velocity.= Δv = tf − t 0 .9) 2. for a total distance of 80 miles. Recall that velocity is a vector—it has both magnitude and direction. meters per second squared or meters per second per second. to accelerate means to speed up. Flickr) In everyday conversation. or both.4 Acceleration Figure 2. v is velocity. as it comes in for landing in St.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS (a) The average velocity of the train is zero because x f = x 0 . Δv . if a car turns a corner at constant speed. The formal definition of acceleration is consistent with these notions. or both.) Because acceleration is velocity in m/s divided by time in s. it can change either in magnitude or in direction. v −v a. it is not always in the direction of motion. The greater the acceleration. (b) The average speed of the train is calculated below. the greater the acceleration.is average acceleration. or slows down. Acceleration is therefore a change in either speed or direction. Maarten. Δt 0 f where (2.10) a. Keep in mind that although acceleration is in the direction of the change in velocity. The quicker you turn. the SI units for acceleration are m/s 2 . distance = 80 miles time 105 minutes 80 miles × 5280 feet × 1 meter × 1 minute = 20 m/s 105 minutes 1 mile 3. Note that the train travels 40 miles one way and 40 miles back. it is accelerating because its direction is changing. which literally means by how many meters per second the velocity changes every second. (credit: Steve Conry. This means that a change in velocity can be a change in magnitude (or speed). Its acceleration is opposite in direction to its velocity. The accelerator in a car can in fact cause it to speed up. and t is time. Since velocity is a vector. the greater the change in velocity over a given time. (The bar over the a means average acceleration.

13 A subway train in Sao Paulo.7 . and deceleration may or may not be considered negative acceleration. because its acceleration is in the same direction as its motion. For example.14. Therefore. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Figure 2.44 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. Negative Acceleration Deceleration always refers to acceleration in the direction opposite to the direction of the velocity. It has negative acceleration because it is accelerating toward the left. decelerates as it comes into a station. However. but slowing down over time. however.org/content/col11406/1. It therefore has positive acceleration in our coordinate system. (d) This car is speeding up as it moves toward the left. it is speeding up (not decelerating). Deceleration always reduces speed. Brazil. (c) This car is moving toward the left. Negative acceleration. Therefore. However. because its acceleration is toward the left. it has negative acceleration in our coordinate system. It is accelerating in a direction opposite to its direction of motion. Negative acceleration may or may not be deceleration. Flickr) Misconception Alert: Deceleration vs. The car is also decelerating: the direction of its acceleration is opposite to its direction of motion.14 (a) This car is speeding up as it moves toward the right. consider Figure 2. (credit: Yusuke Kawasaki. is acceleration in the negative direction in the chosen coordinate system. its acceleration is positive in our coordinate system because it is toward the right. (b) This car is slowing down as it moves toward the right. the car is decelerating because its acceleration is opposite to its motion.

An acceleration of 8. in this case.33 m/s 2. Δt 0 f Solution 1. Velocity.17(a). This is truly an average acceleration. Figure 2.15 (credit: Jon Sullivan. How do we find instantaneous acceleration using only algebra? The answer is that we choose an average acceleration that is representative of the motion. but it always helps to visualize it. by considering an infinitesimally small interval of time. In Figure 2. Identify the knowns. We shall see later that an acceleration of this magnitude would require the rider to hang on with a force nearly equal to his weight.80 s . PD Photo. What is its average acceleration? Figure 2.0 m/s = −8.33 meters per second per second. Figure 2.80 s (2.17 shows graphs of instantaneous acceleration versus time for two very different motions.33 m/s 2 . because the ride is not smooth.org) Strategy First we draw a sketch and assign a coordinate system to the problem. In such situations it 45 . v f = −15. and Speed—that is.33 m/s 2 due west means that the horse increases its velocity by 8. v 0 = 0 . In this case. 2. which we write as 8. a. Δt 1. or the acceleration at a specific instant in time.= Δv = tf − t 0 . This is a simple problem.11) Discussion The negative sign for acceleration indicates that acceleration is toward the west. In Figure 2. its change in velocity equals its final velocity: Δt ) and solve for the unknown a. Thus.80 s.. 3.8 m/s 2 ). the acceleration varies slightly and the average over the entire interval is nearly the same as the instantaneous acceleration at any time. Δt = 1.0 m/s . we have negative velocity. Find the change in velocity. 8. we should treat this motion as if it had a constant acceleration equal to the average (in this case about 1.0 m/s due west in 1.0 m/s . is obtained by the same process as discussed for instantaneous velocity in Time. the acceleration varies drastically over time.0 m/s (the negative sign indicates direction toward the west).CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Example 2. Notice that we assign east as positive and west as negative. Instantaneous Acceleration Instantaneous acceleration a .1 Calculating Acceleration: A Racehorse Leaves the Gate A racehorse coming out of the gate accelerates from rest to a velocity of 15.16 We can solve this problem by identifying equation Δv and Δt from the given information and then calculating the average acceleration directly from the v −v a. Plug in the known values ( Δv and − 15. Since the horse is going from zero to Δv = v f = −15.= Δv = −15.17(b).33 m/s due west each second. that is.

respectively. Example 2.0 to 3. For example. This is straightforward since the initial and final positions are given. since it is positive. Solution This content is available for free at http://cnx.2 Calculating Displacement: A Subway Train What are the magnitude and sign of displacements for the motions of the subway train shown in parts (a) and (b) of Figure 2. Its displacement Δx′ is −1.0 s as separate motions with accelerations of +3. and in (b) it moves to the left. but we should analyze it to make sure we understand what it is showing.0 m/s 2 . (a) Here acceleration varies only slightly and is always in the same direction. we could consider motion over the time intervals from 0 to 1. Example 2. The examples are designed to further illustrate aspects of motion and to illustrate some of the reasoning that goes into solving problems.3. Pay particular attention to the coordinate system.0 s) with constant or nearly constant acceleration in such a situation.2.6. Figure 2. Its displacement Δx is +2.0 m/s 2 and –2. and Example 2. and accelerations.0 s and from 1. (b) The train moves to the left from x′ 0 to x′ f .) Example 2.7.5 km .org/content/col11406/1. (Note that the prime symbol (′) is used simply to distinguish between displacement in the two different situations. (a) The subway train moves to the right from x 0 to x f . Here we have chosen the x -axis so that + means to the right and − means to the left for displacements. perhaps representing a package on a post office conveyor belt that is accelerated forward and backward as it bumps along.18? Strategy A drawing with a coordinate system is already provided. Figure 2.0 km.17 Graphs of instantaneous acceleration versus time for two different one-dimensional motions.5. velocities. we use the equation Δx = x f − x 0 . The next several examples consider the motion of the subway train shown in Figure 2.18 One-dimensional motion of a subway train considered in Example 2. To find displacement.4.46 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS is best to consider smaller time intervals and choose an average acceleration for each.7 . The average over the interval is nearly the same as the acceleration at any given time. The distances of travel and the size of the cars are on different scales to fit everything into the diagram. It is necessary to consider small time intervals (such as from 0 to 1.18. so we don’t need to make a sketch. Example 2. Example 2. In (a) the shuttle moves to the right. (b) Here the acceleration varies greatly.

Discussion The direction of the motion in (a) is to the right and therefore its displacement has a positive sign.0 s . which was found in Example 2. its change in velocity is Δv= +30. and x′ f = 3.25 km = − 1. 3. and Δt = 20.0 km/h . v 0 = 0 (the trains starts at rest). Solution 1.70 km − 4.0 s of its motion.2. Calculate a. Solve for displacement in part (a).0 km/h .18? Strategy To answer this question.70 km for part (a). 2.00 km (2. (See Physical Quantities and Units for more guidance.0 km/h Δt 20.12) Δx′ = x′ f − x′ 0 = 3.19 This problem involves three steps.00 km. Identify the knowns. Solve for displacement in part (b). The displacement for part (a) was +2. Δv .70 km= +2. the distance traveled is the same as the distance between the initial and final positions of the train.18(a) accelerates from rest to 30. It has magnitude but no sign to indicate direction. −1.) 47 . then we must determine the change in time. Since the units are mixed (we have both hours and seconds for time).00 km. think about the definitions of distance and distance traveled.75 km − 5.50 km.00 km. a . Δx = x f − x 0 = 6. 2. and how they are related to displacement. Identify the knowns.4 Calculating Acceleration: A Subway Train Speeding Up Suppose the train in Figure 2. Since the train starts from rest.50 km. and finally we use these values to calculate the acceleration. Plug in known values and solve for the unknown.= Δv = +30. where the plus sign means velocity to the right.18. Example 2.0 km/h in the first 20.0 s (2. and the distance Discussion Distance is a scalar. we need to convert everything into SI units of meters and seconds. First we must determine the change in velocity.5 km. In the figure we see that x f = 6.13) 3.3 Comparing Distance Traveled with Displacement: A Subway Train What are the distances traveled for the motions shown in parts (a) and (b) of the subway train in Figure 2. the distance between the initial and final positions was 2.75 km and x′ 0 = 5. Therefore.50 km (2.70 km and x 0 = 4. the distance between the initial and final positions was 1.) In the case of the subway train shown in Figure 2.14) 4. Solution 1. Distance traveled is the total length of the path traveled between the two positions. (See Displacement. Therefore. Example 2.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 1. What is its average acceleration during that time interval? Strategy It is worth it at this point to make a simple sketch: Figure 2. whereas motion in (b) is to the left and thus has a negative sign. 2. The displacement for part (b) was traveled was 1.25 km for part (b). Distance between two positions is defined to be the magnitude of displacement. v f = 30. and the distance traveled was 2.

.00 s (2. after which the train decelerates.5 are displayed in Figure 2.48 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS ⎞ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ ⎛ a. and a negative acceleration would oppose the motion.5 Calculate Acceleration: A Subway Train Slowing Down Now suppose that at the end of its trip.20 In this case. and Δt = 8. Plug in the knowns. as is always the case.04 m/s 2.0 km/h . 3. v 0 = 30. Again. 4.15) Discussion The plus sign means that acceleration is to the right. This sign is reasonable because the train initially has a positive velocity in this problem. Δt 8.18(a) slows to a stop from a speed of 30. As in the previous example.0 km/h Δt 8. velocity.= Δv = ⎝−30. So acceleration is in the same direction as the change in velocity. What is its average acceleration while stopping? Strategy Figure 2. The graphs of position. so its velocity is 0). the train is decelerating and its acceleration is negative because it is toward the left. and solve for a. This acceleration can be called a deceleration because it has a direction opposite to the velocity.0 km/h ⎠⎝10 m ⎠⎝ 1 h ⎠ = −1. Solve for the change in velocity. Δv = v f − v 0 = 0 − 30.) This content is available for free at http://cnx. we must find the change in velocity and the change in time and then solve for acceleration.21.16) a.0 km/h = −30. ⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ a. Δv . time for the trains in Example 2. Convert the units to meters and seconds. and acceleration vs. v f = 0 km/h (the train is stopped.417 m/s 2 20.00 s.0 s 1 km 3600 s (2. 2.18) Discussion The minus sign indicates that acceleration is to the left.0 km/h in 8. Example 2.00 s .= Δv = −30.= ⎝+30 km/h ⎠⎝10 m ⎠⎝ 1 h ⎠ = 0. which is negative here. (We have taken the velocity to remain constant from 20 to 40 s. the train in Figure 2.7 . acceleration is in the same direction as the change in velocity.00 s 1 km 3600 s (2. Identify the knowns.17) Δv and Δt . This is reasonable because the train starts from rest and ends up with a velocity to the right (also positive).org/content/col11406/1. Solution 1.0 km/h (2.4 and Example 2.

the position changes at a constant rate. It remains the same in the middle of the journey (where there is no acceleration). The train has positive acceleration as it speeds up at the beginning of the journey. The train’s velocity increases as it accelerates at the beginning of the journey. if it takes 5.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. then more and more quickly as it picks up speed. Example 2. and shown again below. (b) Velocity of the train over time.00 min to make its trip? 49 . while the velocity remains constant. Notice that the train’s position changes slowly at the beginning of the journey. Its acceleration is negative as it slows down at the end of the journey. It decreases as the train decelerates at the end of the journey.6 Calculating Average Velocity: The Subway Train What is the average velocity of the train in part b of Example 2. Its position then changes more slowly as it slows down at the end of the journey.2. It has no acceleration as it travels at constant velocity in the middle of the journey. In the middle of the journey.21 (a) Position of the train over time. (c) The acceleration of the train over time.

20) Discussion The negative velocity indicates motion to the left.5 km in Example 2. Δv .0 s 1 km 3600 s (2.22 slows to a stop from a velocity of 20. Again. x′ 0 = 5. Example 2.556 m/s 2 10.22) ⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎛ 3 ⎞⎛ a..00 min (2.= Δx′ = −1.50 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2.7 Calculating Deceleration: The Subway Train Finally. v. 2. Calculate 3. let’s draw a sketch: Figure 2.75 km . Δx′ . we must find the change in velocity and the change in time to calculate average acceleration.0 s . since a. 3.= Δx′ = ⎝−1.= ⎝+20. Solution 1. Δt = 10.0 km/h ⎠⎝10 m ⎠⎝ 1 h ⎠= +0.0 s (2. acceleration is in the same direction as the change in This content is available for free at http://cnx. Convert units. Solution 1.0 km/h Δt 1h 5.00 min .7 . suppose the train in Figure 2. (2. What is its average acceleration? Strategy Once again. Solve for average velocity.23 As before. Determine displacement.21) a.19) (2. Solve for v 0 = −20 km/h .25 km .= Δv = +20.0 s. Identify the knowns. Δv = v f − v 0 = 0 − (−20 km/h)=+20 km/h. Identify the knowns. ⎞⎛ ⎛ ⎞ v. Convert units.50 km ⎠⎝60 min ⎠ = −18. v f = 0 km/h .org/content/col11406/1.50 km Δt 5. x′ f = 3. This is reasonable because the train initially has a negative velocity (to the left) in this problem and a positive acceleration opposes the motion (and so it is to the right).22 Strategy Average velocity is displacement divided by time. It will be negative here.0 km/h in 10. We found Δx′ to be − 1.00 min 4.0 km/h Δt 10. Δt = 5. The change in velocity here is actually positive. 2. since the train moves to the left and has a negative displacement.23) Discussion The plus sign means that acceleration is to the right.2. 4.

51 . let us make some simplifications in notation. velocity. But we have not developed a specific equation that relates acceleration and displacement. then the airplane has negative acceleration.7. Solution If we take east to be positive. the greater the displacement in a given time.5. we x 0 is the initial position and v 0 is the initial velocity. starting from the definitions of displacement. When initial time is taken to be zero. That is. and v is the final velocity. as if time is measured with a stopwatch. the object is slowing down. v. That is.24 Moving Man (http://cnx. The crucial distinction was that the acceleration was in the opposite direction from the velocity. where a positive acceleration slowed a negative velocity. a negative acceleration will increase a negative velocity. and acceleration graphs.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS velocity. If acceleration has the opposite sign of the change in velocity. It also simplifies the expression for displacement. (credit: Barry Skeates. But it is a little less obvious for acceleration.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension Figure 2. velocity. which is now Δx = x − x 0 . This was not the case in Example 2. x is the final position. this acceleration can be called a deceleration since it is in the direction opposite to the velocity. To summarize. England. If acceleration has the same sign as the change in velocity. Also. Notation: t. subscripts on the final values. Figure 2. Check Your Understanding An airplane lands on a runway traveling east. which is now Δv = v − v 0 . x. The plus and minus signs give the directions of the accelerations. Taking the initial time to be zero. This gives a simpler expression for elapsed time—now. We put no t is the final time.25 Kinematic equations can help us describe and predict the motion of moving objects such as these kayaks racing in Newbury. both v and a are negative. In our chosen coordinate system. with the initial time taken to be zero.22 is sped up by an acceleration to the left. the train moving to the left in Figure 2. This is easy to imagine for displacement and velocity. For example. as it is accelerating toward the west. It is also decelerating: its acceleration is opposite in direction to its velocity. using the simplified notation. change in velocity. a First. Most people interpret negative acceleration as the slowing of an object. Describe its acceleration. is a great simplification. we develop some convenient equations for kinematic relationships. or acceleration and let the simulation move the man for you. Move the little man back and forth with the mouse and plot his motion. velocity. the final time on the stopwatch. PhET Explorations: Moving Man Simulation Learn about position. say. it simplifies the expression for use the subscript 0 to denote initial values of position and velocity.org/content/m42100/1. As in Example 2. Since elapsed time is Δt = t f − t 0 . Δt = t . Set the position. and acceleration already covered. which is positive here. plus means the quantity is to the right and minus means it is to the left. In this section. In that case. taking t 0 = 0 means that Δt = t f . Flickr) We might know that the greater the acceleration of. In fact. the object is speeding up. a car moving away from a stop sign.jar) 2. Sign and Direction Perhaps the most important thing to note about these examples is the signs of the answers.3/moving-man_en.

the average and instantaneous accelerations are equal. Furthermore.26) x−x v. Assuming acceleration to be constant does not seriously limit the situations we can study nor degrade the accuracy of our treatment.= t 0 .00 m/s for 2. if you steadily increase your velocity (that is.t (constant a). acceleration is constant in a great number of situations.24) where the subscript 0 denotes an initial value and the absence of a subscript denotes a final value in whatever motion is under consideration. (2.30) which seems logical.26 The final position To find x is given by the equation x = x 0 + v.= 0 reflects the fact that. 2 2 (2.8 Calculating Displacement: How Far does the Jogger Run? A jogger runs down a straight stretch of road with an average velocity of 4. v.= Δx .29) v +v v. in motions where acceleration changes drastically. That is. we start with the definition of average velocity: v. x . each of which has its own constant acceleration. 2 The equation (2.28) where the average velocity is v +v v.7 (2. (2.= 0 = = 45 km/h.52 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Δt = t ⎫ Δx = x − x 0⎬ Δv = v − v 0 ⎭ (2. This content is available for free at http://cnx. the motion can be considered in separate parts. Δt Substituting the simplified notation for Solving for Δx and Δt yields x yields (2.31) . (2. a. when acceleration is constant. in many other situations we can accurately describe motion by assuming a constant acceleration equal to the average acceleration for that motion. For one thing. Finally. Solving for Displacement ( Δx ) and Final Position ( x ) from Average Velocity when Acceleration ( a ) is Constant To get our first two new equations. taking his initial position to be zero? Strategy Draw a sketch.25) so we use the symbol a for acceleration at all times. then your average velocity during this steady v +v increase is 45 km/h. we identify the values of x 0 . with constant acceleration) from 30 to 60 km/h.00 min. We now make the important assumption that acceleration is constant. For 2 example.= a = constant. we see that 2 v + v 30 km/h + 60 km/h v.27) x = x 0 + v.t. What is his final position.org/content/col11406/1. Figure 2. and t from the statement of the problem and substitute them into the equation. This assumption allows us to avoid using calculus to find instantaneous acceleration. v is just the simple average of the initial and final velocities. Since acceleration is constant.= 0 (constant a). Example 2.. such as a car accelerating to top speed and then braking to a stop. Using the equation v = 0 to check this.

It shows.0 m/s and then decelerates at 1. What is its final velocity? Strategy Draw a sketch.9 Calculating Final Velocity: An Airplane Slowing Down after Landing An airplane lands with an initial velocity of 70. x = x 0 + v.0 s.t gives insight into the relationship between displacement. 2. we will get twice as far in a given time if we average 90 km/h than if we average 45 km/h.00 m/s . Identify the knowns. Δt = 2. When graphed. t . We draw the acceleration vector in the direction opposite the velocity vector because the plane is decelerating. linear functions look like straight lines with a constant slope. and time. (By linear function. average velocity.50 m/s 2 for 40.32) Discussion Velocity and final displacement are both positive. x = x 0 + v. 53 . for example. For a given time far as the other object. that displacement is a linear function of average velocity. and x 0 = 0 m .= 4.33) v yields Example 2. (2.00 m/s)(120 s) = 480 m (2.34) v = v 0 + at (constant a).00 min .t = 0 + (4. an object moving twice as fast as another object will move twice as Solving for Final Velocity We can derive another useful equation by manipulating the definition of acceleration. we mean that displacement depends on v rather than on v raised to The equation some other power.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Solution 1. Enter the known values into the equation. which means they are in the same direction. v. for example. (2. a = Δv Δt Substituting the simplified notation for Δv and Δt gives us v − v0 t (constant a). such as v 2 .) On a car trip. Figure 2.35) a= Solving for (2.27 There is a linear relationship between displacement and average velocity.

e. 4. 3. With jet engines. Determine which equation to use.50 m/s 2 .org/content/col11406/1. a = −1. That would be indicated by a negative final velocity. We can calculate the final velocity using the equation v = v 0 + at . it is final velocity. then the final velocity equals the initial velocity (v • if a is negative. Δv = 70. velocity is constant) (All of these observations fit our intuition. But the Space This content is available for free at http://cnx. In this case. the equation v = v 0 + at gives us insight into the relationships among velocity.0 m/s .28 Solution 1. which is positive.54 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2.29 The airplane lands with an initial velocity of 70. t = 40.7 .0 s) = 10.0 s .30 The Space Shuttle Endeavor blasts off from the Kennedy Space Center in February 2010.) Making Connections: Real-World Connection Figure 2. Flickr) An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) has a larger average acceleration than the Space Shuttle and achieves a greater velocity in the first minute or two of flight (actual ICBM burn times are classified—short-burn-time missiles are more difficult for an enemy to destroy). Note that the acceleration is negative because its direction is opposite to its velocity. (credit: Matthew Simantov. which is not the case here.0 m/s and slows to a final velocity of 10. Figure 2. 2. and time. for example. In addition to being useful in problem solving. Plug in the known values and solve.0 m/s (2.36) Discussion The final velocity is much less than the initial velocity. and it is always useful to examine basic equations in light of our intuition and experiences to check that they do indeed describe nature accurately. then the final velocity is less than the initial velocity = v 0) . acceleration. as desired when slowing down. vf . Identify the knowns. From it we can see. as expected (i. Identify the unknown.0 m/s before heading for the terminal. that • final velocity depends on how large the acceleration is and how long it lasts • if the acceleration is zero..0 m/s + ⎛⎝−1. reverse thrust could be maintained long enough to stop the plane and start moving it backward. but still positive.50 m/s 2⎞⎠(40. v = v 0 + at = 70.

and t from 2 Solution 1.) Strategy Draw a sketch. then 2 Now we substitute this expression for v. 2 2 (2. Identify the knowns. so that it can orbit the earth rather than come directly back down as an ICBM does.32 We are asked to find displacement. Col. Photo Courtesy of U. Starting from rest means that v 0 = 0 . which is x if we take x 0 to be zero.38) v. We start with v = v 0 + at.S. Army.31 U.40) v0 + v = v.0 m/s 2 .) We can use the equation the statement of the problem. Army Top Fuel pilot Tony “The Sarge” Schumacher begins a race with a controlled burnout. a . It can be anywhere.56 s. x = x 0 + v.for constant acceleration.t . The Space Shuttle does this by accelerating for a longer time.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Shuttle obtains a greater final velocity.56 s. William Thurmond. Figure 2. Suppose such a dragster accelerates from rest at this rate for 5. a is given as 26.37) v 0 to each side of this equation and dividing by 2 gives v0 + v = v 0 + 1 at.0 m/s 2 and t is given as 5.10 Calculating Displacement of an Accelerating Object: Dragsters Dragsters can achieve average accelerations of it travel in this time? 26.S. but we call it 0 and measure all other positions relative to it.39) x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 (constant a). 55 . How far does Figure 2. (Think about it like the starting line of a race. x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 once we identify v 0 . yielding Example 2. Adding Since (2.into the equation for displacement. 2 (2. 2 (2.= v 0 + 1 at. (credit: Lt. Solving for Final Position When Velocity is Not Constant ( a ≠ 0) We can combine the equations above to find a third equation that allows us to calculate the final position of an object experiencing constant acceleration.

Strategy Draw a sketch. v 2 = v 20 + 2a(x − x 0) and solve for v. but top-notch dragsters can do a quarter mile in even less time than this.41) Since the initial position and velocity are both zero. If we solve v = v 0 + at for t .org/content/col11406/1. Plug the knowns into the equation a = 26. acceleration.10). 2 (2. the dragster covers only one fourth of the total distance in the first half of the elapsed time • if acceleration is zero. we find that the distance covered is very close to one quarter of a mile. What else can we learn by examining the equation x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 ? We see that: 2 • displacement depends on the square of the elapsed time when acceleration is not zero. Solution 1.42) x = 1 ⎛⎝26. this simplifies to Substituting the identified values of x = 1 at 2.0 m/s 2 . we get t= Substituting this and v − v0 a . Then we note that x − x 0 = 402 m (this was the answer in Example 2.10. This is an impressive displacement in only 5.43) x = 402 m. (2. Figure 2. Identify the known values. In Example 2.56 s. the standard distance for drag racing. We know that v 0 = 0 . the average acceleration was given to be 2. and no time information is required. 2 (2.7 .46) Example 2. (2. So the answer is reasonable. Plug the known values into the equation to solve for the unknown x: x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2. and displacement. (2. Finally.44) a and t gives yielding Discussion If we convert 402 m to miles.10 without using information about time.56 s) 2 . then the initial velocity equals average velocity ( v 0 = v ) and x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 becomes x = x 0 + v 0t 2 Solving for Final Velocity when Velocity Is Not Constant ( a ≠ 0) A fourth useful equation can be obtained from another algebraic manipulation of previous equations.56 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 2.0 m/s 2⎞⎠(5.33 The equation v 2 = v 20 + 2a(x − x 0) is ideally suited to this task because it relates velocities. This content is available for free at http://cnx.11 Calculating Final Velocity: Dragsters Calculate the final velocity of the dragster in Example 2.45) v +v v. since the dragster starts from rest. we get 2 v 2 = v 20 + 2a(x − x 0) (constanta).= 0 into x = x 0 + v t . 2 (2.

50) (2. a car can decelerate at a rate of 7. we need to list all of the known values and identify exactly what we need to solve for.47) v 2 = 2.51) (2.34 In order to determine which equations are best to use.) Putting Equations Together In the following examples. Strategy Draw a sketch.09×10 4 m 2 /s 2 = 145 m/s.49) Thus To get v . The box below provides easy reference to the equations needed. (2. using tables to set them off. (This is why we have reduced speed zones near schools. note that a square root has two values.00 m/s 2 . but even this breakneck speed is short of the record for the quarter mile.54) Example 2. whereas on wet concrete it can decelerate at only 5. taking into account his reaction time of 0. finding the displacement from the point where the driver sees a traffic light turn red. but in situations requiring slightly more algebraic manipulation. we take the square root: Discussion 145 m/s is about 522 km/h or about 324 mi/h. Find the distances necessary to stop a car moving at 30.t v +v v.00 m/s 2 .53) (2. (2.= 0 2 v = v 0 + at x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 2 v 2 = v 20 + 2a(x − x 0) (2. Solution for (a) 57 . An examination of the equation v 2 = v 20 + 2a(x − x 0) can produce further insights into the general relationships among physical quantities: • The final velocity depends on how large the acceleration is and the distance over which it acts • For a fixed deceleration. a car that is going twice as fast doesn’t simply stop in twice the distance—it takes much further to stop. We shall do this explicitly in the next several examples. we further explore one-dimensional motion. The examples also give insight into problem-solving techniques.12 Calculating Displacement: How Far Does a Car Go When Coming to a Halt? On dry concrete.48) v = 2. Also. Summary of Kinematic Equations (constant a) x = x 0 + v.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS v 2 = 0 + 2⎛⎝26. (c) Repeat both calculations. (2.0 m/s (about 110 km/h) (a) on dry concrete and (b) on wet concrete. Figure 2.0 m/s 2⎞⎠(402 m).52) (2.09×10 4 m 2 /s 2.500 s to get his foot on the brake. we took the positive value to indicate a velocity in the same direction as the acceleration.

58 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 1. We could use them but it would entail additional calculations. It is reasonable to assume that the velocity remains constant during the driver’s reaction time. 1.500 s reaction time. x braking + x reaction = x total (2.57) x − x0 = 4.0 m/s. Rearrange the equation to solve for x. as calculated in this example.) 3. The best equation to use is v 2 = v 20 + 2a(x − x 0). This content is available for free at http://cnx.0 m/s) 2 2⎛⎝−7. 2. x .500 s) = 15. v. We take v 0 = 30. Identify the knowns and what we want to solve for. x−0= Thus. v = 0 . the stopping distance is the same as it is in Parts A and B for dry and wet concrete.0 m/s .59) Solution for (c) Once the driver reacts. Identify the equation that will help up solve the problem.35 The distance necessary to stop a car varies greatly.0 m.3 m on dry concrete. 90.00 m/s 2 ( a is negative because it is in x 0 to be 0. The result is x wet = 90. So to answer this question. depending on road conditions and driver reaction time. (There are other equations that would allow us to solve for x .t works well because the only unknown value is x . x = 0 + (30.3 m + 15. (2. making the total displacements in the two cases of dry and wet concrete 15. (2.0 m = 105 m when wet Figure 2.0 m on wet concrete.3 m when dry b. we need to calculate how far the car travels during the reaction time.0 m/s)(0. We know that to be 0. or x − x 0 . We are looking for x reaction .0 m + 15.00 m/s 2⎞⎠ (2. 3. Enter known values. x = x 0 + v.0 m greater than if he reacted instantly.55) This equation is best because it includes only one unknown. x = 64.00 m/s 2 .61) a. The only difference is that the deceleration is – 5. which is what we want to solve for. 4.0 m/s . 64. Plug in the knowns to solve the equation. Also shown are the total distances traveled from the point where the driver first sees a light turn red. and then add that to the stopping time. (2. Shown here are the braking distances for dry and wet pavement. but they require us to know the stopping time.58) Solution for (b) This part can be solved in exactly the same manner as Part A.0 m = 79. We know the values of all the other variables in this equation.org/content/col11406/1. for a car initially traveling at 30. Add the displacement during the reaction time to the displacement when braking.56) 0 2 − (30.60) This means the car travels 15. t .500 s . t reaction = 0. assuming a 0. which we do not know.= 30. Identify the best equation to use. We take x 0 − reaction 2. a reaction = 0 . We know that a direction opposite to velocity). v 2 − v 20 2a (2. a = −7. (2. Identify the knowns and what we want to solve for.7 . We are looking for displacement Δx .0 m while the driver reacts.

The various parts of this example can in fact be solved by other methods. If its initial velocity is 10. Use the quadratic formula to solve for (2. Choose the best equation. where t is the magnitude of time and s is the unit.0 s. t ).67) t = 10. (2. (2. It is interesting that reaction time adds significantly to the displacements.0.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Discussion The displacements found in this example seem reasonable for stopping a fast-moving car. a = 2.36 We are asked to solve for the time t . We know that 2. how long does Strategy Draw a sketch.) 2.00 m/s 2 . We need to solve for variable v 0 = 10 m/s . We can get the units of seconds (s) to cancel by taking t = t s . x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 works best because the only unknown in the equation is the 2 t for which we need to solve. In this case.0 m/s)t + 1 ⎛⎝2.0 and−20. It should take longer to stop a car on wet rather than dry pavement. 2a (2. The units of meters (m) cancel because they are in each term.0 m/s and it accelerates at it take to travel the 200 m up the ramp? (Such information might be useful to a traffic engineer. (2. Solution 1.00.00 m/s 2⎞⎠ t 2 2 (2.13 Calculating Time: A Car Merges into Traffic Suppose a car merges into freeway traffic on a 200-m-long ramp. We will need to rearrange the equation to solve for t . (b) Its solutions are given by the quadratic formula: This yields two solutions for In this case. There is often more than one way to solve a problem. which are t = t in seconds. an equation with one unknown. t . 5. but the solutions presented above are the shortest. Identify the knowns and what we want to solve for. But more important is the general approach to solving problems. then.62) 4.64) at 2 + bt + c = 0. and x = 200 m . We identify the knowns and the quantities to be determined and then find an appropriate equation.0.0 s and − 20. and c = −200 .68) t . we identify the known quantities in order to choose a convenient physical relationship (that is.65) This is a quadratic equation of the form where the constants are a = 1. Figure 2. As before. the time is 2 t = −b ± b − 4ac . Simplify the equation. b = 10. Example 2. or 59 .66) t = 10. it will be easier to plug in the knowns first.63) t. (a) Rearrange the equation to get 0 on one side of the equation.00 m/s 2 . Doing so leaves 200 = 10t + t 2. t 2 + 10t − 200 = 0 (2. 3. 200 m = 0 m + (10.

since it would mean that the event happened 20 s before the motion began. and trains. v = v 0 + at (2. Step 1 Examine the situation to determine which physical principles are involved. More importantly. Thus.60 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS A negative value for time is unreasonable.69) Discussion Whenever an equation contains an unknown squared. We can discard that solution. usually represented by equations. whereas a list of facts cannot be made long enough to contain every possible circumstance. How long does it take the rocket reach a velocity of 400 m/s? Solution To answer this. we have also glimpsed a general approach to problem solving that produces both correct answers and insights into physical relationships. While traveling in a car. With the basics of kinematics established. such as the above. choose an equation that allows you to solve for time Rearrange to solve for t .7 . In the process of developing kinematics. a = Δv / Δt . Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment—Breaking News We have been using SI units of meters per second squared to describe some examples of acceleration or deceleration of cars.37 Problem-solving skills are essential to your success in Physics. the following general procedures facilitate problem solving and make it more meaningful. Problem-Solving Basics discusses problem-solving basics and outlines an approach that will help you succeed in this invaluable task. A certain amount of creativity and insight is required as well. one can measure the braking deceleration of a car doing a slow (and safe) stop. Have a passenger note the initial speed in miles per hour and the time taken (in seconds) to stop. 2. t = 10. To achieve a better feel for these numbers. You will also need to decide which direction is positive and note that on your sketch. It often helps to draw a simple sketch at the outset. Such analytical skills are useful both for solving problems in this text and for applying physics in everyday and professional life. only one solution is reasonable. Flickr) Problem-solving skills are obviously essential to success in a quantitative course in physics. Recall that. runners.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics Figure 2. (credit: scui3asteveo.70) v 400 m/s − 0 m/s = 20 s t = v− a = 20 m/s 2 (2. In some problems both solutions are meaningful. but in others. Check Your Understanding A manned rocket accelerates at a rate of 20 m/s 2 during launch. to specific situations is a very powerful form of knowledge.0 s answer seems reasonable for a typical freeway on-ramp. it is much easier to find and apply the This content is available for free at http://cnx. From this. there will be two solutions. and v .0 s. (2. v 0 .org/content/col11406/1. Problem-Solving Steps While there is no simple step-by-step method that works for every problem. Convert this to meters per second squared and compare with other decelerations mentioned in this chapter. we can go on to many other interesting examples and applications. the ability to apply broad physical principles. calculate the deceleration in miles per hour per second.71) t. given only a . for average acceleration. The 10. slowly apply the brakes as you come up to a stop sign. Once you have identified the physical principles. Analytical skills and problem-solving abilities can be applied to new situations. Calculate the distance traveled in braking. It is much more powerful than memorizing a list of facts.

so you can easily solve for the unknown. Your judgment will improve as you solve more and more physics problems. v = v 0 + at = 0 + ⎛⎝0. then an additional equation is needed to solve the problem. To see if the answer is reasonable. Step 3 Identify exactly what needs to be determined in the problem (identify the unknowns). For example. improper units. and we often can take initial time and position as zero.4 m/s each second.72) Step 2 Check to see if the answer is reasonable. to determine what is the cause. In the example given in the preceding paragraph. Your list of knowns and unknowns can help here. (2. Step 6 Check the answer to see if it is reasonable: Does it make sense? This final step is extremely important—the goal of physics is to accurately describe nature. and relationships among physical quantities. keep in mind that equations represent physical principles. The physics is correct in a sense. Step 4 Find an equation or set of equations that can help you solve the problem. One way to get practice is to work out the text’s examples for yourself as you read. if a person starting a foot race accelerates at 0. Once you become involved in physics. Does this seem reasonable? If so. The acceleration could be too great or the time too long. starting with the easiest to build confidence and progressing to the more difficult. and we also tend to do several steps simultaneously. if it is not. In some problems.73) This velocity is about four times greater than a person can run—so it is too large. in addition to its units. It is not possible for someone to accelerate at a constant rate of 0. you will see it all around you. Although finding the correct equation is essential. several unknowns must be determined to get at the one needed most. especially. Step 3 If the answer is unreasonable. Step 5 Substitute the knowns along with their units into the appropriate equation. you would identify the givens as the acceleration and time and use the equation below to find the unknown final velocity. In such problems it is especially important to keep physical principles in mind to avoid going astray in a sea of equations.40 m/s 2 for 100 s (almost two minutes). Is it too large or too small. there are only two assumptions that are suspect. Making a list can help. a numerical solution is meaningless. In complex problems. Many problems are stated very succinctly and require some inspection to determine what is known. but there is more to describing nature than just manipulating equations correctly. you may need to convert meters per second into a more familiar unit. it also provides a check on units that can help you find errors. Step 1 Solve the problem using strategies as outlined and in the format followed in the worked examples in the text. and obtain numerical solutions complete with units. we often perform these steps in different order.40 m/s 2⎞⎠(100 s) = 40 m/s. If someone accelerates at 0. You may have to use two (or more) different equations to get the final answer. Without a conceptual understanding of a problem. A sketch can also be very useful at this point. Use the following strategies to determine whether an answer is reasonable and. Formally identifying the knowns is of particular importance in applying physics to real-world situations. If you can judge whether the answer is reasonable. If the equation contains more than one unknown.28 ⎝ s ⎠⎝ m ft ⎞⎛ 1 mi ⎞⎛60 s ⎞⎛60 min ⎞ = 89 mph ⎠⎝5280 ft ⎠⎝ min ⎠⎝ 1 h ⎠ (2. The physical principle applied correctly then produces an unreasonable result. That is. then an error has been made. or does it have the wrong sign. Another is to work as many end-of-section problems as possible. and the basics of problem solving become almost automatic. Step 2 Make a list of what is given or can be inferred from the problem as stated (identify the knowns). Checking the result of a problem to see if it is reasonable does more than help uncover errors in problem solving—it also builds intuition in judging whether nature is being accurately described.40 m/s 2 . his final speed will be 40 m/s (about 150 km/h)—clearly unreasonable because the time of 100 s is an unreasonable premise.40 m/s 2 for 100 s. look for what specifically could cause the identified difficulty.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS equations representing those principles. When solving problems. laws of nature. Creativity and insight grow with experience. you have a deeper understanding of physics than just being able to mechanically solve a problem. This step brings the problem back to its conceptual meaning. just as is done in many of the applications in this text. In the example of the runner. be warned that correct units do not guarantee that the numerical part of the answer is also correct. First look at the acceleration and think about what the number means. and you can begin to apply it to situations you encounter outside the classroom. If the units of the answer are incorrect. such as miles per hour. “stopped” means velocity is zero. Some problems have results that are unreasonable because one premise is unreasonable or because certain premises are inconsistent with one another. 61 . This step produces the numerical answer. Remember. Unreasonable Results Physics must describe nature accurately. There is no rigid procedure that will work every time. the time must be too long. it is not always obvious what needs to be found or in what sequence. all of the other variables are known. It is easiest if you can find equations that contain only one unknown—that is. However. …? In this case. ⎛40 m ⎞⎛3. their velocity is increasing by 0. and it will become possible for you to make finer and finer judgments regarding whether nature is adequately described by the answer to a problem. check both its magnitude and its sign.

neglecting the effects of air resistance. This opens a broad class of interesting situations to us.38 A hammer and a feather will fall with the same constant acceleration if air resistance is considered negligible. This is a general characteristic of gravity not unique to Earth.80 m/s 2.org/content/col11406/1. which means we can apply the kinematics equations to any falling object where air resistance and friction are negligible. Strategy Draw a sketch.80 m/s 2 . the motion is one-dimensional and has constant acceleration of magnitude g . The force of gravity causes objects to fall toward the center of Earth. If we define the upward direction as positive. In fact.83 m/s 2 . the object is in free-fall.67 m/s 2 . If the object is dropped. The rock misses the edge of the cliff as it falls back to earth.0 m/s. Figure 2.gt y = y 0 + v 0t . The acceleration due to gravity is so important that its magnitude is given its own symbol. and if we define the downward direction as positive. The acceleration of free-falling objects is therefore called the acceleration due to gravity. Once the object has left contact with whatever held or threw it.1 gt 2 (2.76) v 2 = v 20 . depending on latitude.75) 2 (2. then a = g = 9.74) g varies from 9.7 Falling Objects Falling objects form an interesting class of motion problems. if air resistance and friction are negligible. g . Scott demonstrated on the Moon in 1971.77) Example 2. air resistance can cause a lighter object to fall slower than a heavier object of the same size.14 Calculating Position and Velocity of a Falling Object: A Rock Thrown Upward A person standing on the edge of a high cliff throws a rock straight up with an initial velocity of 13. as astronaut David R. Note that whether the acceleration a in the kinematic equations has the value +g or −g depends on how we define our coordinate system.00 s after it is thrown. we know the initial velocity is zero.7 . we can examine some interesting situations and learn much about gravity in the process. where the acceleration due to gravity is only 1. By applying the kinematics developed so far to falling objects. One-Dimensional Motion Involving Gravity The best way to see the basic features of motion involving gravity is to start with the simplest situations and then progress toward more complex ones. Gravity The most remarkable and unexpected fact about falling objects is that.2g(y − y 0) (2. 2. In the real world. its direction defines what we call vertical. because we are so accustomed to the effects of air resistance and friction that we expect light objects to fall slower than heavy ones.80 m/s 2 will be used in this text unless otherwise specified.00 s.80 m/s 2 . independent of their mass. and 3. These assumptions mean that the velocity (if there is any) is vertical. we can estimate the depth of a vertical mine shaft by dropping a rock into it and listening for the rock to hit the bottom. So we start by considering straight up and down motion with no air resistance or friction. For the ideal situations of these first few chapters. We will also represent vertical displacement with the symbol y and use x for horizontal displacement.78 m/s 2 to 9. altitude. and local topography.) Air resistance opposes the motion of an object through the air. then a = −g = −9. The acceleration due to gravity is constant.62 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 2. the average value of 9. This content is available for free at http://cnx.00 s. A tennis ball will reach the ground after a hard baseball dropped at the same time. while friction between objects—such as between clothes and a laundry chute or between a stone and a pool into which it is dropped—also opposes motion between them. Kinematic Equations for Objects in Free-Fall where Acceleration = -g v = v 0 . Calculate the position and velocity of the rock 1. (It might be difficult to observe the difference if the height is not large. an object falling without air resistance or friction is defined to be in free-fall. This experimentally determined fact is unexpected. It is constant at any given location on Earth and has the average value g = 9. For example. underlying geological formations. Under these circumstances. The direction of the acceleration due to gravity is downward (towards the center of Earth). Although (2. then in a given location all objects fall toward the center of Earth with the same constant acceleration.

Plug in the known values and solve for y = y 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 because it includes only one unknown.10 m 3.00 s are the same as those above.80 m/s 2 2.0 m/s . we will refer to these as Solution for Position y 1 and v 1 .00 s 6. and y 3 and v 3 .00 s. We know that above that y 1 = 8.00 s 8. y Velocity. We also know from the solution 2.00 s −5. and t = 1.00 s) = 3. where 3.0 m/s .60 m/s −9. y 0 = 0 .4 m/s −9. the only way to tell is to calculate v 1 and find out if it is positive or negative. The results are summarized in Table 2.00 s . a = −g = −9.80 m/s 2⎞⎠(1. v 0 = 13. Plug in the knowns and solve. We will use value we want to find.0 m/s)(1. Identify the knowns. This problem involves onedimensional motion in the vertical direction.00 s) + 1 ⎛⎝−9.00 s and 3. here). as expected.00 s) 2 = 8. The acceleration due to gravity is downward. and t = 1.80 m/s 2 .1 and illustrated in Figure 2. Identify the best equation to use. Identify the best equation to use.39 We are asked to determine the position y at various times. 63 . a = −g = −9. v 1 = v 0 − gt = 13. v = v 0 − gt (from v = v 0 + at . However. y (or y 1 .40. Identify the knowns. so a is negative. and the rock is thrown upward. It could be moving up or down. v 0 = 13.0 m/s − ⎛⎝9. which is the 2 y1 . It is reasonable to take the initial position y 0 to be zero. y1 1.40 m −6. with up being positive and down negative.00 s . 3.20 m/s (2. It is crucial that the initial velocity and the acceleration due to gravity have opposite signs.78) Discussion The rock is 8.1 Results Time. Solution for Velocity v1 1. t = 2.10 m 2 (2. a 1.79) Discussion The positive value for v 1 means that the rock is still heading upward at t = 1. v Acceleration. Since we are asked for values of position and velocity at three times.80 m/s 2 3. 2.0 m/s. Solution for Remaining Times The procedures for calculating the position and velocity at Table 2. We know that y 0 = 0 .10 m above its starting point at t = 1. We use plus and minus signs to indicate direction. the initial velocity must be positive too.80 m/s 2 Graphing the data helps us understand it more clearly.20 m/s −9. Since up is positive.10 m .80 m/s 2 . y = 0 + (13. y 2 and v 2 .CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. it has slowed from its original 13. The most straightforward is a = gravitational acceleration = −g ).00 s . since y 1 > y 0 .10 m −16.80 m/s 2⎞⎠(1. t Position. Opposite signs indicate that the acceleration due to gravity opposes the initial motion and will slow and eventually reverse it.

Notice that when the rock is at its highest point (at 1. time graph shows vertical position only. not the total distances traveled. its velocity is zero.00 s the rock is above its starting point and heading upward. and try to catch it between your two fingers. At 2. Discussion y 1 and v 1 are both positive. Finally. the horizontal axis is time. At 1.org/content/col11406/1.80 m/s 2 for the whole trip—while it is moving up and while it is moving down. Have a friend hold a ruler between your thumb and index finger. since are negative.40 Vertical position. Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment—Reaction Time A simple experiment can be done to determine your reaction time. Astronauts training in the famous Vomit Comet. experience free-fall while arcing up as well as down.00 s. Note that the values for y are the positions (or displacements) of the rock. but its acceleration is still −9. for example. But this is not the case. Note the mark on the ruler that is right between your fingers.00 s. note that free-fall applies to upward motion as well as downward. time for a rock thrown vertically up at the edge of a cliff.5 s).7 . but the negative velocity means it is moving downward. Both have the same acceleration—the acceleration due to gravity. Notice that velocity changes linearly with time and that acceleration is constant. meaning the rock is below its starting point and continuing to move downward. How far would you travel in a car (moving at 30 m/s) if the time it took your foot to go from the gas pedal to the brake was twice this reaction time? This content is available for free at http://cnx. At 3. Misconception Alert! Notice that the position vs. the rock is still above its starting point. Note the new reading on the ruler. The actual path of the rock in space is straight up.64 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. and straight down. as we will discuss in more detail later. It is easy to get the impression that the graph shows some horizontal motion—the shape of the graph looks like the path of a projectile. calculate your reaction time. and vertical acceleration vs. Its acceleration is −9. which remains constant the entire time. both y 3 and v 3 The interpretation of these results is important. vertical velocity. Assuming acceleration is that due to gravity.80 m/s 2 . not space. separated by about 1 cm. Have your friend drop the ruler unexpectedly.

the positive value occurs when the rock is at 8. and the negative value occurs when the rock is at 8.10 m and heading back down. (2.81) The negative root is chosen to indicate that the rock is still heading down.) This is not a coincidental result.80 m/s 2⎞⎠(−5. a result of ±3.96 m 2 /s 2.41 Since up is positive.4 m/s. (2.0 m/s. Identify the knowns.10 m above the starting point (using the method from Example 2.42(a). the initial velocity is downward and therefore negative. v 0 = −13.14 and Figure 2.10 m below the starting point.20 m/s is obtained. if the velocity of the rock is calculated at a height of 8. Enter the known values v 2 = (−13.80 m/s 2 . Choose the kinematic equation that makes it easiest to solve the problem.82) Discussion Note that this is exactly the same velocity the rock had at this position when it was thrown straight upward with the same initial speed. (2. Similarly. calculate the velocity of the rock when it is 5. 65 .CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Example 2.80) where we have retained extra significant figures because this is an intermediate result. gives v = ±16.0 m/s) 2 + 2⎛⎝−9. and has been thrown downward with an initial speed of 13. v = −16.10 m . Solution 1. 2. (We will plug y 1 in for y . and noting that a square root can be positive or negative.10 m − 0 m) = 268. We expect the final velocity to be negative since the rock will continue to move downward.14) when the initial velocity is 13. as is the acceleration due to gravity. the speed of a falling object depends only on its initial speed and its vertical position relative to the starting point. Taking the square root. (See Example 2.15 Calculating Velocity of a Falling Object: A Rock Thrown Down What happens if the person on the cliff throws the rock straight down. Thus. For example.0 m/s straight up. The equation unknown in it is v . Figure 2.10 m and heading up. Strategy Draw a sketch. the final position of the rock will be negative because it finishes below the starting point at y 0 = 0 .0 m/s . y 1 = − 5. instead of straight up? To explore this question. Because we only consider the acceleration due to gravity in this problem. y 0 = 0 .4 m/s. Here both signs are meaningful. It has the same speed but the opposite direction.) v 2 = v 20 + 2a(y − y 0) works well because the only 3. a = −g = −9.

66 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2.g. and 3.16 Find g from Data on a Falling Object The acceleration due to gravity on Earth differs slightly from place to place. An object. as in Example 2.00. The arrows are velocity vectors at 0. whether you are on a hill or in a valley) and subsurface geology (whether there is dense rock like iron ore as opposed to light rock like salt beneath you.) The precise acceleration due to gravity can be calculated from data taken in an introductory physics laboratory course. it has the same speed on its way down as on its way up. Very precise results can be produced with this method if sufficient care is taken in measuring the distance fallen and the elapsed time.15. This content is available for free at http://cnx.14. for example. the rock is thrown up with an initial velocity of When its position is 13. It rises and then falls back down.43.7 . its velocity is −13. as long as the speed with which it was initially thrown is the same. That is. Example 2.0 m/s or thrown it downwards at −13. Note that at the same distance below the point of release.0 m/s . as explored in Example 2. 1.0 m/s . The velocity of the rock on its way down from y = 0 is the same whether we have thrown it up or down to start We would then expect its velocity at a position of with. y = −5. is dropped and the time it takes to fall a known distance is measured.14. 2.00 s.00.0 m/s . depending on topography (e. usually a metal ball for which air resistance is negligible.org/content/col11406/1. (b) A person throws a rock straight down from a cliff with the same initial speed as before. Figure 2. See.. y = 0 on its way back down. Another way to look at it is this: In Example 2. the rock has the same velocity in both cases.10 m to be the same whether we have thrown it upwards at +13.42 (a) A person throws a rock straight up.

67 . Note that in this case.43 Positions and velocities of a metal ball released from rest when air resistance is negligible.44 We need to solve for acceleration Solution a . Acceleration is a constant and is equal to gravitational acceleration.0000 m in 0. Figure 2. what is the precise acceleration due to gravity at this location? Strategy Draw a sketch. Velocity is seen to increase linearly with time while displacement increases with time squared. as is acceleration. Suppose the ball falls 1. Assuming the ball is not affected by air resistance.45173 s. displacement is downward and therefore negative.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2.

Thus.8010 m/s 2.80 m/s 2 . so 9. it takes about 2.org/content/m42102/1.8010 m/s 2 makes sense.87) Discussion The negative value for the average value of a indicates that the gravitational acceleration is downward.7 . how long does it take to hit the water? Solution We know that initial position y 0 = 0 .8010 m/s 2 . t = 0.jar) 2. Inserting a = −g .0000 m . 2 (2.80 m/s where we take the positive value as the physically relevant answer. Since the data going into the calculation are relatively precise.0 meters before it hits the water.45173 . we obtain 2 y t2 t = 0 + 0 − 1 gt 2 2 2y = −g (2. velocity. (0. is worth a thousand words. t2 (2. Substituting 0 for v 0 yields y = y 0 + 1 at 2. g = 9. and acceleration versus time to illustrate one-dimensional kinematics.45173 s) 2 (2. Substitute known values yields a= so.85) 2( − 1. this value for g is more precise than the average value of 9.12 s 2 = 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion A graph. Assuming it falls freely (there is no air resistance). View the curves for the individual terms (e. Check Your Understanding A chunk of ice breaks off a glacier and falls 30. y = –1. y = bx ) to see how they add to generate the polynomial curve. Figure 2. Substitute 0 for Solving for (2. We can then use the equation y = y 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 to solve for t .88) 2y 2( − 30. The shape of the curve changes as the constants are adjusted.5 s 2 −9. Choose the equation that allows you to solve for a using the known values. it represents the local value for the acceleration due to gravity.5 seconds for the piece of ice to hit the water.0 m) = ± −g = ± = ± 6. y 0 = 0 .0000 m – 0) = −9. Graphs not only contain numerical information.45 Equation Grapher (http://cnx.80 m/s 2 . (2. and a = −g = −9. 2. because a = −g with the directions we have chosen.5/equation-grapher_en. Identify the knowns. like a picture. as expected.86) a gives a= 4. PhET Explorations: Equation Grapher Learn about graphing polynomials. final position y = −30. they also reveal relationships between physical quantities. y = y 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 2 3.80 m/s 2 .83) v 0 and rearrange the equation to solve for a .84) 2(y − y 0) . This content is available for free at http://cnx.g. We expect the value to be somewhere around 9.47 s ≈ 2. This section uses graphs of displacement.68 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 1. v 0 = 0 .0 m .org/content/col11406/1.

If we call the horizontal axis the x -axis and the vertical axis the y -axis.and the x = v.89) b is used for the y-intercept. (2. velocity. A graph of displacement versus time would. or x 0 . The equation for a straight line is y = mx + b (2. Graph of Displacement vs. depend upon.91) Thus a graph of displacement versus time gives a general relationship among displacement. have x on the vertical axis and t on the horizontal axis. one horizontal and the other vertical. The letter which is the point at which the line crosses the vertical axis. Here m is the slope. Figure 2. Figure 2.90) x = x 0 + v. and time. time t is velocity v . such as displacement.46 A straight-line graph. It shows a graph of displacement versus time for a jet-powered car on a very flat dry lake bed in Nevada. as well as giving detailed numerical information about a specific situation.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Slopes and General Relationships First note that graphs in this text have perpendicular axes. a straight-line graph has the general form y = mx + b.46. When two physical quantities are plotted against one another in such a graph.47 is just such a straight-line graph. defined to be the rise divided by the run (as seen in the figure) of the straight line. Time (a = 0. as in Figure 2. .47 Graph of displacement versus time for a jet-powered car on the Bonneville Salt Flats.92) 69 . we see that the slope in the graph above is average velocity intercept is displacement at time zero—that is. Substituting these symbols into y = mx + b gives v.t. so v is constant) Time is usually an independent variable that other quantities.t + x 0 (2. thus. The Slope of x vs. the horizontal axis is usually considered to be an independent variable and the vertical axis a dependent variable. Figure 2. t The slope of the graph of displacement x vs. slope = Δx = v Δt (2. Using the relationship between dependent and independent variables.

In this case.org/content/col11406/1. 2000 m) and (0.70 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Notice that this equation is the same as that derived algebraically from other motion equations in Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension. Substitute the x and t values of the chosen points into the equation.50 s yielding v. and so on. 525 m). Choose two points on the line. Δt (2.. From the figure we can see that the car has a displacement of 400 m at time 0. but only during the time when its acceleration is constant. we choose the points labeled on the graph: (6. (Generally speaking. Δt 6.= 250 m/s.650 m at t = 1.47. Strategy The slope of a graph of change in time.93) Since the slope is constant here. since slope equals rise over run. This content is available for free at http://cnx.4 s.) Solution 1. that you could choose any two points. so that x vs. information about its velocity and acceleration can also be obtained from the graph.7 . t is average velocity. (Note. Example 2. but considerably shy of the record of 343 m/s (1234 km/h or 766 mi/h) set in 1997. Its displacement at times other than those listed in the table can be read from the graph. rise = change in displacement and run = slope = Δx = v. In this case.95) Discussion This is an impressively large land speed (900 km/h. This is because any error in reading data from the graph is proportionally smaller if the interval is larger. and the displacement and velocity are initially 200 m and 15 m/s. v. Graphs of Motion when a is constant but a ≠ 0 The graphs in Figure 2.= Δx = 2000 m − 525 m .48 below represent the motion of the jet-powered car as it accelerates toward its top speed.) 2. (2.50 s. it is most accurate to use two widely separated points on the straight line. or about 560 mi/h): much greater than the typical highway speed limit of 60 mi/h (27 m/s or 96 km/h).0 s.17 Determining Average Velocity from a Graph of Displacement versus Time: Jet Car Find the average velocity of the car whose position is graphed in Figure 2.4 s − 0. Time starts at zero for this motion (as if measured with a stopwatch). however. respectively. any two points on the graph can be used to find the slope. Remember in calculating change (Δ) we always use final value minus initial value. furthermore.94) (2.

and the instantaneous velocities obtained are plotted in the next graph. t graph is velocity. indicating constant acceleration. (b) The slope of the v vs. Instantaneous velocity at any point is the slope of the tangent at that point.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. (c) Acceleration has the constant value of 5. This is shown at two points. t graph is constant for this part of the motion. (a) The slope of an x vs.0 m/s 2 over the time interval plotted. 71 .48 Graphs of motion of a jet-powered car during the time span when its acceleration is constant.

Strategy The slope of a curve at a point is equal to the slope of a straight line tangent to the curve at that point. The slope of the curve becomes steeper as time progresses.7 v vs.48(a) is a curve rather than a straight line.48(b) is obtained. 3. Slope is rise divided by run. v Q = 1820 m = 140 m/s.S. then the graph of velocity versus time shown in Figure 2. The slope at any point on a displacement-versus-time graph is the instantaneous velocity at that point. Air Force jet car speeds down a track.50 The slope of an x vs. Furthermore. on a rise = change in velocity Δv and run = change in time Δt . t graph in the graph below. graph is velocity. Flickr) The graph of displacement versus time in Figure 2.50.96) Thus. (credit: Matt Trostle. Instantaneous velocity at any point is the slope of the tangent at that point. These correspond to a position of 1300 m at time 19 s and a position of 3120 m at time 32 s. .97) Discussion This is the value given in this figure’s table for t can be obtained in this fashion. where Q is the point at t = 25 s .18 Determining Instantaneous Velocity from the Slope at a Point: Jet Car Calculate the velocity of the jet car at a time of 25 s by finding the slope of the Figure 2.48(c).72 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. t graph. 2. This is shown at two points. the slope of the graph of velocity versus time is acceleration. Carrying this one step further. Solution 1. The value of 140 m/s for v Q is plotted in Figure 2. which is shown in Figure 2. showing that the velocity is increasing over time. Tangent lines are shown for two points in Figure 2. 13 s (2. we note that the slope of a velocity versus time graph is acceleration.48(a). This content is available for free at http://cnx.50. This principle is illustrated in Figure 2.org/content/col11406/1. It is found by drawing a straight line tangent to the curve at the point of interest and taking the slope of this straight line. Find the tangent line to the curve at t = 25 s . slope = v Q = v.49 A U. t x vs. The entire graph of v vs. Determine the endpoints of the tangent. Plug these endpoints into the equation to solve for the slope. v at t = 25 s . Δx Q (3120 m − 1300 m) = Δt Q (32 s − 19 s) (2. If this is done at every point on the curve and the values are plotted against time. Example 2.

respectively. the intercept b is v 0 . and time has again been obtained from a graph. Time again starts at zero. In this case. mathematical relationships can sometimes be postulated. after which time the slope is constant.48. acceleration. Additional general information can be obtained from Figure 2. Further experiments are then performed to determine the validity of the hypothesized relationships. Notice that this equation was also derived algebraically from other motion equations in Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension. and the initial displacement and velocity are 2900 m and 165 m/s. From such graphs.50 and the expression for a straight line.48(c). velocity increases until 55 s and then becomes constant. y is V . It is not accidental that the same equations are obtained by graphical analysis as by algebraic techniques.) Acceleration gradually decreases from 5. Substituting these symbols yields v = v 0 + at. Correlations imply physical relationships and might be shown by smooth graphs such as those above. the slope m is a .99) A general relationship for velocity. Similarly. t graph increases until t = 55 s . and the horizontal axis x is t . its slope is the same everywhere.51. In fact. since acceleration decreases to zero at 55 s and remains zero afterward.48(b) is a straight line. (These were the final displacement and velocity of the car in the motion graphed in Figure 2. 73 .CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS The Slope of v vs. the vertical axis y = mx + b . an important way to discover physical relationships is to measure various physical quantities and then make graphs of one quantity against another to see if they are correlated in any way.0 m/s 2 to zero when the car hits 250 m/s. (2. t The slope of a graph of velocity v vs. Acceleration versus time is graphed in Figure 2. Graphs of Motion Where Acceleration is Not Constant Now consider the motion of the jet car as it goes from 165 m/s to its top velocity of 250 m/s.98) Since the velocity versus time graph in Figure 2. slope = Δv = a Δt (2. implying that acceleration is constant. time t is acceleration a . The slope of the x vs. graphed in Figure 2.

Solution Determine endpoints of the tangent line from the figure.101) .51 Graphs of motion of a jet-powered car as it reaches its top velocity. This motion begins where the motion in Figure 2.48 ends. it is plotted in the next graph.0 s) a = 50 m/s = 1. t graph in Figure 2. (c) Acceleration gradually declines to zero when velocity becomes constant.74 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. (2.7 a. (260 m/s − 210 m/s) slope = Δv = Δt (51 s − 1. The slope of this graph is acceleration. Example 2. as illustrated in Figure 2. Strategy The slope of the curve at t = 25 s is equal to the slope of the line tangent at that point. 50 s Discussion This content is available for free at http://cnx.100) (2.19 Calculating Acceleration from a Graph of Velocity versus Time Calculate the acceleration of the jet car at a time of 25 s by finding the slope of the v vs.51(b).51(b). it is plotted in the final graph.0 m/s 2. (a) The slope of this graph is velocity.org/content/col11406/1. (b) The velocity gradually approaches its top value. and then plug them into the equation to solve for slope.

(a) Describe the motion of the ship based on the graph. it is easy to find the slope at any point and you have the slope for every point. time of a ship coming into a harbor is shown below. If the graph is linear (i. usually plotted along the instantaneous acceleration: acceleration at a specific point in time instantaneous speed: magnitude of the instantaneous velocity x -axis 75 .. We do this by finding the slope of the graphs at every point. Check Your Understanding A graph of velocity vs. Graphical analysis of motion can be used to describe both specific and general characteristics of kinematics. usually plotted along the y -axis displacement: the change in position of an object distance traveled: the total length of the path traveled between two positions distance: the magnitude of displacement between two positions elapsed time: the difference between the ending time and beginning time free-fall: the state of movement that results from gravitational force only independent variable: the variable that the dependent variable is measured with respect to. Graphs can also be used for other topics in physics. and constant negative acceleration. and a graph of velocity versus time can be used to generate a graph of acceleration versus time.51(c) at t = 25 s . a line with a constant slope). A graph of displacement versus time can be used to generate a graph of velocity versus time. time would show zero acceleration in the first leg.53 Glossary acceleration due to gravity: acceleration of an object as a result of gravity acceleration: the rate of change in velocity. large and constant negative acceleration in the second leg. An important aspect of exploring physical relationships is to graph them and look for underlying relationships. acceleration that results in a decrease in velocity dependent variable: the variable that is being measured. At some point. It maintains this lower deceleration rate until it stops moving.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Note that this value for a is consistent with the value plotted in Figure 2.e. (b)What would a graph of the ship’s acceleration look like? Figure 2. (b) A graph of acceleration vs.52 Solution (a) The ship moves at constant velocity and then begins to decelerate at a constant rate. Figure 2. its deceleration rate decreases. the change in velocity over time average acceleration: the change in velocity divided by the time over which it changes average speed: distance traveled divided by time during which motion occurs average velocity: displacement divided by time over which displacement occurs deceleration: acceleration in the direction opposite to velocity.

Displacement and velocity are vectors. The SI unit for displacement is the meter (m). and Speed • Time is measured in terms of change. Displacement has a direction as well as a magnitude. average acceleration v −v a.= Δv = t f − t 0 . • Distance traveled is the total length of the path traveled between two positions. Velocity is a vector and thus has a direction. • In symbols. Deceleration is an acceleration with a direction opposite to that of the velocity. Instantaneous velocity v is the velocity at a specific instant or the average velocity for an infinitesimal interval. 2. • Average velocity • • • • • • v. as it has no direction specified. Δt 0 f • • • • • a. and its SI unit is the second (s). so that a = a at all times.4 Acceleration • Acceleration is the rate at which velocity changes. In this chapter.is The SI unit for acceleration is m/s 2 . where t f is the final time and t 0 is the initial time. 2. Instantaneous acceleration a is the acceleration at a specific instant in time. Instantaneous speed is the magnitude of the instantaneous velocity.1 Displacement • Kinematics is the study of motion without considering its causes. called onedimensional motion.) Speed is a scalar quantity.org/content/col11406/1. The initial time is often taken to be zero.= Δx = t f − t 0 . x 0 is the initial position and x f is the final position. (Average speed is not the magnitude of the average velocity. assign which direction will be positive. • We also take initial time to be zero. whereas distance and speed are scalars. • When you start a problem. In this text. displacement Δx is defined to be Δx = x f − x 0. the Greek letter Δ (delta) always means “change in” whatever quantity follows it. direction is specified by a plus or minus sign to signify left or right.value when x = 0. 2. the elapsed time is then just t . Instantaneous speed is a scalar quantity. Δt 0 f The SI unit for velocity is m/s. In symbols.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension • To simplify calculations we take acceleration to be constant. • Displacement is the change in position of an object.2 Vectors. or the average velocity over an infinitesimal time interval kinematics: the study of motion without considering its causes model: simplified description that contains only those elements necessary to describe the physics of a physical situation position: the location of an object at a particular time scalar: a quantity that is described by magnitude. and Coordinate Systems • • • • A vector is any quantity that has magnitude and direction.is defined as displacement divided by the travel time. but not direction slope: the difference in y -value (the rise) divided by the difference in x -value (the run) of two points on a straight line time: change. In symbols.3 Time. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Velocity. up or down.76 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS instantaneous velocity: velocity at a specific instant. In one-dimensional motion. Acceleration is a vector. Average speed is the total distance traveled divided by the elapsed time. or when the graph crosses the y -axis Section Summary 2. • Distance is the magnitude of displacement between two positions. A scalar is any quantity that has magnitude but no direction. average velocity is x −x v. and thus has a both a magnitude and direction. it has no direction associated with it. Scalars. where 2. or the interval over which change occurs vector: a quantity that is described by both magnitude and direction y-intercept: the y.7 . Elapsed time for an event is Δt = t f − t 0. and the like. as if measured with a stopwatch. Acceleration can be caused by either a change in the magnitude or the direction of the velocity. it is limited to motion along a straight line.

a = +g = 9. all free-falling objects have an acceleration due to gravity g .= 0 2 v = v 0 + at x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 2 • In vertical motion. Speeds of up to 50 μm/s ⎛⎝50×10 −6 m/s⎞⎠ have been observed. and magnitude of displacement.80 m/s is negative. is acceleration a vector or a scalar quantity? Explain. Is this temperature a vector or a scalar quantity? 2. time t is velocity v . Specifically identify each quantity in your example.1 Displacement 1.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics • The six basic problem solving steps for physics are: Step 1. Given this information.80 m/s 2 is positive. instantaneous velocity. The slope of a graph of displacement x vs.4? 6. Since acceleration is constant. Average velocity. If you choose the upward a = −g = −9. Identify exactly what needs to be determined in the problem (identify the unknowns). Under what circumstances does distance traveled equal magnitude of displacement? What is the only case in which magnitude of displacement and displacement are exactly the same? 3.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS • Initial position and velocity are given a subscript 0. Step 4. Step 6. Substitute the knowns along with their units into the appropriate equation.2 Vectors. and acceleration. Give an example (but not one from the text) of a device used to measure time and identify what change in that device indicates a change in time.” What is wrong with the student’s statement? What has the student 5. A weather forecast states that the temperature is predicted to be Explain. final values have no subscript. Make a list of what is given or can be inferred from the problem as stated (identify the knowns). Acceleration is the change in velocity over time. Step 5. time t graph is acceleration a . while its displacement is small. and obtain numerical solutions complete with units.7 Falling Objects • An object in free-fall experiences constant acceleration if air resistance is negligible. What is the speed of the bird in Exercise 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion • • • • • Graphs of motion can be used to analyze motion. Graphical solutions yield identical solutions to mathematical methods for deriving motion equations. which averages g = 9. Bacteria move back and forth by using their flagella (structures that look like little tails). 2 • For objects in free-fall. 2. 2. Step 2.3 Time. displacement. The slope of a graph of velocity v vs. up is normally taken as positive for displacement. The total distance traveled by a bacterium is large for its size. and Speed 8. Conceptual Questions 2.t v +v v. Find an equation or set of equations that can help you solve the problem. Scalars. Δt = t ⎫ Δx = x − x 0⎬ Δv = v − v 0 ⎭ • The following kinematic equations for motion with constant a are useful: x = x 0 + v. −5ºC the following day. and Coordinate Systems 4. and acceleration can all be obtained by analyzing graphs. “A bird that is diving for prey has a speed of actually described? Explain. • Whether the acceleration a should be taken as +g or −g is determined by your choice of coordinate system. 7. Step 3. v 2 = v 20 + 2a(x − x 0) y is substituted for x . In the opposite case. 2. Velocity. − 10 m / s . • On Earth.80 m/s 2. 77 . Check the answer to see if it is reasonable: Does it make sense? 2. Why is this? 2. Examine the situation to determine which physical principles are involved. the kinematic equations above can be applied with the appropriate +g or −g substituted for a . direction as positive. Give an example in which there are clear distinctions among distance traveled. A student writes. Thus. velocity.

or t e ) at which the instantaneous velocity is greatest.) at which the instantaneous velocity is greatest. Is it possible for speed to be constant while acceleration is not zero? Give an example of such a situation. What is the last thing you should do when solving a problem? Explain. t c . Is it possible for velocity to be constant while acceleration is not zero? Explain. and the rock misses on the way up but hits the coconut on the way down. then its speed when it returns to the starting point is the same as when it was released. What information do you need in order to choose which equation or equations to use to solve a problem? Explain.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics 18.7 Falling Objects 20. What is the sign of an acceleration that reduces the magnitude of a negative velocity? Of a positive velocity? 2.55. 23.54 to describe the change in velocity over time. This is one-dimensional motion. and (d) the time at which it is negative. If air resistance were not negligible.7 . How are instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed related to one another? How do they differ? 2. Give an example that illustrates the difference between these two quantities. There is a distinction between average speed and the magnitude of average velocity. what is the direction of its acceleration? Is the acceleration positive or negative? 17.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion 26. are you calculating the average speed or the magnitude of the average velocity? Under what circumstances are these two quantities the same? 12. Identify (b) the time ( t a . What is the acceleration of a rock thrown straight upward on the way up? At the top of its flight? On the way down? 21. how does the speed of the rock when it hits the coconut on the way down compare with what it would have been if it had hit the coconut on the way up? Is it more likely to dislodge the coconut on the way up or down? Explain. t d . t b . An object that is thrown straight up falls back to Earth. 14. How many times higher could an astronaut jump on the Moon than on Earth if his takeoff speed is the same in both locations (gravitational acceleration on the Moon is about 1/6 of g on Earth)? 2.org/content/col11406/1. how many times higher could a safe fall on the Moon be than on Earth (gravitational acceleration on the Moon is about 1/6 that of the Earth)? 25. Plus and minus signs are used in one-dimensional motion to indicate direction. Give an example in which velocity is zero yet acceleration is not. (b) Identify the time or times ( t a . If a subway train is moving to the left (has a negative velocity) and then comes to a stop. If an object is thrown straight up and air resistance is negligible. (c) At which times is it zero? (d) At which times is it negative? This content is available for free at http://cnx. t c . If you divide the total distance traveled on a car trip (as determined by the odometer) by the time for the trip. Figure 2.78 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 9. 10. Neglecting air resistance. The severity of a fall depends on your speed when you strike the ground. 19. t b .4 Acceleration 13. (a) Explain how you can use the graph of position versus time in Figure 2. (a) When is its velocity zero? (b) Does its velocity change direction? (c) Does the acceleration due to gravity have the same sign on the way up as on the way down? 22.54 27. 15. 16. how would its speed upon return compare with its initial speed? How would the maximum height to which it rises be affected? 24. etc. (a) Sketch a graph of velocity versus time corresponding to the graph of displacement versus time given in Figure 2. Suppose you throw a rock nearly straight up at a coconut in a palm tree. All factors but the acceleration due to gravity being the same. 2. (c) the time at which it is zero. Does a car’s odometer measure position or displacement? Does its speedometer measure speed or velocity? 11.

how does acceleration change over time? Figure 2. t c .56 29.56. The acceleration for the entire trip is not constant so we cannot use the equations of motion from Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension for the complete trip. Suppose the elevator is initially at rest.) at which the acceleration is greatest. (b) Identify the time or times ( t a . time and (b) acceleration vs. then decelerates for 5 seconds until it stops. however. (a) Sketch a graph of acceleration versus time corresponding to the graph of velocity versus time given in Figure 2. etc. (a) Explain how you can determine the acceleration over time from a velocity versus time graph such as the one in Figure 2. time for this trip. Consider the velocity vs. t b .55 28. (We could. (b) Based on the graph.57.57 30.) Sketch graphs of (a) position vs. use them in the three individual sections where acceleration is a constant. (c) At which times is it zero? (d) At which times is it negative? Figure 2. 79 .58. maintains that velocity for 15 seconds.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. time graph of a person in an elevator shown in Figure 2. It then accelerates for 3 seconds.

80 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Figure 2. A cylinder is given a push and then rolls up an inclined plane. This content is available for free at http://cnx. velocity. and acceleration of the cylinder vs.58 31. sketch the position.org/content/col11406/1.7 . time as it goes up and then down the plane. If the origin is the starting point.

Find the following for path B in Figure 2. and was witnessed by more than a million people along the route. 3.20×10 m/s .1 Displacement 12.59: (a) The distance traveled. 4 minutes. Air Force officer who studied the effects of extreme deceleration on the human body. What is its average acceleration in m/s 2 and in multiples of g (9. 21. (a) Calculate the average speed of the blade tip in the helicopter’s frame of reference. On May 26. A commuter backs her car out of her garage with an acceleration of 1. neglecting any time delays in the electronic equipment). A football quarterback runs 15. In this model you can view hydrogen. A student drove to the university from her home and noted that the odometer reading of her car increased by 12.75 s. Tidal friction is slowing the rotation of the Earth.0 min. (a) If the average speed of 6 the electron in this orbit is known to be 2. (b) What is the electron’s average velocity? 4. what is her deceleration? 19.20 s. 2. The trip took 18.0º south of east.00×10 m/s) . Calculate the distance from Earth to the Moon given that the echo time was 2. accelerating from rest to a top speed of 282 m/s (1015 km/h) in 5. as having a single electron in a −10 circular orbit 1.80 m/s 2) by taking its ratio to the 6.84×10 m (1%)? 11. and 1.0 s (the actual speed and time are classified).8 km. John Paul Stapp was U.S. On December 10.0 km. If the deceleration −3 of the ball is 2.20×10 m/s 2 for 8.0 m/s in 7. what was her average velocity? (c) If she returned home by the same path 7 h 30 min after she left. Its run from Denver to Chicago took 13 hours. Velocity.0 m straight down the playing field in 2.59: (a) The distance traveled. which is east of the fault. (c) The displacement from start to finish.59 1. Its tip is 5. 14.800 s.00 m from the center of rotation. What is its muzzle velocity (that is.0 m in 5. how long does it take for the nerve signal to travel this distance? 13.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension 20. (a) What is her speed 2. How far in the future will this occur if the displacement to be made is 590 km northwest. how many years will pass 6 before the radius of the Moon’s orbit increases by 3. and Speed 17.80 m/s 2) ? 2. (c) The displacement from start to finish. 2. (b) What is its average velocity over one revolution? 7.1 m long. Figure 2.00 s. (c) The displacement from start to finish. The speed of propagation of the action potential (an electrical signal) in a nerve cell depends (inversely) on the diameter of the axon (nerve fiber).56 s and that 8 radio waves travel at the speed of light (3. A well-thrown ball is caught in a well-padded mitt.85 ms (1 ms = 10 s) elapses from the time the ball first touches the mitt until it stops. 18. what were her average speed and velocity for the entire trip? 16.3 km in a direction 25. 58 seconds. time for this period. A bullet in a gun is accelerated from the firing chamber to the end of 5 the barrel at an average rate of 6. Stapp rode a rocket sled. and the nerve impulse speed is 18 m/s.3 Time. At this rate how long will it take them to drift 500 km farther apart than they are at present? 8. Conversations with astronauts on the lunar surface were characterized by a kind of echo in which the earthbound person’s voice was so loud in the astronaut’s space helmet that it was picked up by the astronaut’s microphone and transmitted back to Earth. Los Angeles is west of the fault and may thus someday be at the same latitude as San Francisco. The North American and European continents are moving apart at a rate of about 3 cm/y. (c) The displacement from start to finish. Assuming this to be a constant rate. As a result.50 s. Find the following for path C in Figure 2. the simplest atom. stainless steel diesel train called the Zephyr set the world’s nonstop long-distance speed record for trains. 1954. He breaks the tackle and runs straight forward another 21. calculate the number of revolutions per second it makes about the nucleus.40 s! Calculate his (a) acceleration and (b) deceleration.40 s later? (b) Sketch a graph of her position vs. 1934. and was brought jarringly back to rest in only 1. What is its acceleration? acceleration of gravity. what was the initial velocity of the ball? 22.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS Problems & Exercises 2.50 km/s in 60. Assume that an intercontinental ballistic missile goes from rest to a suborbital speed of 6.00 m straight backward in 1. Find the following for path A in Figure 2. If the nerve cell connecting the spinal cord to your feet is 1.40 m/s 2 . (a) Calculate Earth’s average speed relative to the Sun. (a) How long does it take her to reach a speed of 2. assuming the motion remains constant? 9. the orbit of the Moon is increasing in radius at a rate of approximately 4 cm/ year.50 m/s 2 . The planetary model of the atom pictures electrons orbiting the atomic nucleus much as planets orbit the Sun.4 Acceleration 2. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. He is then hit and pushed 3. It is reasonable to assume that the echo time equals the time necessary for the radio wave to travel from the Earth to the Moon and back (that is. The total distance traveled was 1633.06×10 m in diameter. 15.00 s.59: (a) The distance traveled.10×10 4 m/s 2 .59: (a) The distance traveled. Express each in multiples of g (9. A cheetah can accelerate from rest to a speed of 30. Professional Application 5. (a) What was her average speed? (b) If the straight-line distance from her home to the university is 10. A helicopter blade spins at exactly 100 revolutions per minute.10×10 −4 s .00 m/s? (b) If she then brakes to a stop in 0. a streamlined. Calculate his average velocity (a) for each of the three intervals and (b) for the entire motion. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. (b) The magnitude of the displacement from start to finish. What was its average speed in km/h and m/s? 10. Land west of the San Andreas fault in southern California is moving at an average velocity of about 6 cm/y northwest relative to land east of the fault. its final velocity)? 81 . An Olympic-class sprinter starts a race with an acceleration of 4. Find the following for path D in Figure 2. (b) What is its average velocity over a period of one year? Dr.

00 min. 35.50. (d) What is the car’s final velocity? Solve for this unknown in the same manner as in part (c). How long does it take to reach its top speed of 80. making its stopping distance 4.69 s.00 m ahead when the winner started to accelerate.00 s to reach his maximum speed.0 m/s. In World War II. (a) If the swan must reach a velocity of 6. and Burt accelerated at this rate until he reached his maximum speed. (b) If the squirrel stops in a distance of 2.00 m/s to 40. (a) What is the final velocity of a freight train that accelerates at a rate of 0.00 m/s at a rate of 2.33×10 −2 s . If we assume that a pilot’s speed upon impact was 123 mph (54 m/s). (d) 2. then what was his deceleration? Assume that the trees and snow stopped him over a distance of 3. how much time did he save? (c) One other racer was 5.00 m/s to take off and it accelerates from rest at an average rate of 0. .00 s. Dragsters can actually reach a top speed of 145 m/s in only 4. Professional Application: Blood is accelerated from rest to 30. (b) During the same Olympics.0 m/s from the Verrazano Narrows Bridge in New York City.0 m/s and decelerates at a rate of 0. A swan on a lake gets airborne by flapping its wings and running on top of the water. calculate the distance over which the puck accelerates. If he was 300 m from the finish line when he started to accelerate. Acceleration rates are often described by the time it takes to reach 60. (a) If we ignore air resistance in this case (only for the sake of this problem). the woodpecker’s head comes to a stop from an initial velocity of 0. An express train passes through a station. For these lucky pilots.00 m/s? (b) If the train can slow down at a rate of 0. Does it make sense? 26. 41. While entering a freeway. If we assume that Bolt accelerated for 3. (a) How long is the nose of the train in the station? (b) How fast is it going when the nose leaves the station? (c) If the train is 130 m long. Calculate the displacement and velocity at times of (a) 0.500 m/s 2 for 7.80 cm by the left ventricle of the heart.550 m/s 2 . coming to rest from 80. (c) Why is the final velocity greater than that used to find the average acceleration? Hint: Consider whether the assumption of constant acceleration is valid for a dragster. starting from rest? (b) The same train ordinarily decelerates at a rate of 1. expressed in multiples of g ? 33.00 s? (b) What is her final velocity? (c) Evaluate the result. (c) How long does the acceleration take? To solve this part. Professional Application: A woodpecker’s brain is specially protected from large decelerations by tendon-like attachments inside the skull. (a) What is his final velocity? (b) The racer continues at this velocity to the finish line. An unwary football player collides with a padded goalpost while running at a velocity of 7.50 s for a rock thrown straight down with an initial velocity of 14. The racer has an initial velocity of 11. (a) A world record was set for the men’s 100-m dash in the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing by Usain Bolt of Jamaica.7 Falling Objects Assume air resistance is negligible unless otherwise stated. 36. (d) Is the answer reasonable when compared with the time for a heartbeat? 27.0 m above the water. (a) A light-rail commuter train accelerates at a rate of 1.0 s. How long does it take to come to a stop from its top speed? (c) In emergencies the train can decelerate more rapidly. on the Bonneville Salt Flats in Utah. (b) 1. compare its deceleration with that of the airman in the previous problem. calculate his maximum speed and his acceleration. first identify the unknown. check your units.58 mi/h.org/content/col11406/1. (b) List the knowns in this problem. 38. (a) How far does she travel in the next 5. discuss whether the acceleration would be greater at the beginning or end of the run and what effect that would have on the final velocity. Take the point of release to be y 0 = 0 .500.350 m/s 2 .50 mm (greater than the head and. and traveled at 11.00 s for a ball thrown straight up with an initial velocity of 15. but he was unable to accelerate.35 m/s 2 .0 km/h in 8. and (d) 2. 25.350 m. Using the same assumptions as for the 100-m dash. (c) The tendons cradling the brain stretch.0 mi/h from rest. What is the brain’s deceleration. how long did it take Burt to complete the course? 40.0 s? To solve this part.80 m/s 2⎞⎠ .30 s.00 mi long. and then discuss how you chose the appropriate equation to solve for it. Freight trains can produce only relatively small accelerations and decelerations.0 m/s over a distance of 0. show your steps in solving for the unknown.0 cm/s in a distance of 1.00. determine a squirrel’s velocity just before hitting the ground.82 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 23.65 m/s 2 .000 feet (6000 m). If this shot takes 3. less deceleration of the brain). (a) Draw a sketch of the situation. when does the end of the train leave the station? (d) What is the velocity of the end of the train as it leaves? 37. (a) What is its average acceleration? (b) How far does it travel in that time? 29. While pecking on a tree. Some fell about 20. The one-way course was 5.10 and Example 2.0500 m/s 2 for 8.0 m. how long will it take to come to a stop from this velocity? (c) How far will it travel in each case? 30. (b) Calculate the stopping time. a car accelerates from rest at a rate of 2. Bolt “coasted” across the finish line with a time of 9. In 1967. checking your units.0 m/s in the same direction. a runner decelerates from a velocity of 9. Bolt also set the world record in the 200-m dash with a time of 19. A bicycle racer sprints at the end of a race to clinch a victory. starting with an initial velocity of 4. It enters with an initial velocity of 22. (a) Make a sketch of the situation. (a) How long did the acceleration last? (b) Calculate the acceleration.00.00 mm. showing all steps explicitly. The roadway of this bridge is 70. and some of them survived. Consider a grey squirrel falling out of a tree to the ground. At the end of a race.0 km/h. (b) Find the final velocity of this dragster starting from rest and accelerating at the rate found in (a) for 402 m (a quarter mile) without using any information on time.40 m/s 2 for 12. (c) How far does the car travel in those 12.5 m/s and accelerates at the rate of 0.8 m/s until the finish line. (a) Find the acceleration in m/s 2 and in multiples of g ⎛⎝g = 9. hence. first identify the unknown. (b) List the knowns in this problem. After choosing the equation. What is its emergency deceleration in m/s 2 ? 24. 28. In a slap shot. The station is 210 m long.00. there were several reported cases of airmen who jumped from their flaming airplanes with no parachute to escape certain death. How far ahead of him (in meters and in seconds) did the winner finish? 39. assuming it fell from a height of 3. A fireworks shell is accelerated from rest to a velocity of 65. and then discuss how you chose the appropriate equation to solve for it.0 m. New Zealander Burt Munro set the world record for an Indian motorcycle.50. If this time was 4. and (e) 2. If not. (b) 1.8 m/s (100 km/h) in only 3. and maintained that speed for the rest of the race. (a) What is his deceleration? (b) How long does the collision last? 34. show your steps in solving for the unknown.11. (c) 1.90 s.500. (a) Calculate the average acceleration for such a dragster. 42.30 s. what was his maximum speed for this race? 2.600 m/s in a distance of only 2. A powerful motorcycle can accelerate from rest to 26. After choosing the equation. (c) 1. the tree branches and snow drifts on the ground allowed their deceleration to be relatively small. with few life-threatening injuries. 31.250 m.50 m/s and comes to a full stop after This content is available for free at http://cnx. of 183.150 m/s 2 as it goes through. Calculate the displacement and velocity at times of (a) 0.45 s—considerably less time than given in Example 2. how far will it travel before becoming airborne? (b) How long does this take? 32.00 s.00 m/s 2 . and discuss whether the answer is reasonable.7 compressing the padding and his body 0. a hockey player accelerates the puck from a velocity of 8.0 cm through bending its limbs.

For the coin.0 m/s. A coin is dropped from a hot-air balloon that is 300 m above the ground and rising at 10.50×10 s) .0 m/s.62 to verify that the velocity at t = 10 s is 207 m/s. calculate the distance to the water if the sound returns in 2. A basketball referee tosses the ball straight up for the starting tipoff. Standing at the base of one of the cliffs of Mt.60. A dolphin in an aquatic show jumps straight up out of the water at a velocity of 13.50 m and rebounds to a height of 1. (b) Calculate its velocity just after it leaves the floor on Figure 2. 57. (a) How long are her feet in the air? (b) What is her highest point above the board? (c) What is her velocity when her feet hit the water? 47.25 m above the floor in an attempt to get the ball? its way back up.0 m/s upward. (c) How long is the dolphin in the air? Neglect any effects due to his size or orientation. Then identify the unknown. (b) How long would it take to reach the ground if it is thrown straight down with the same speed? the ball compress during its collision with the floor. (b) its position and velocity 4.00 m/s in this well. assuming the floor is absolutely rigid? 2.00 m/s.62 83 .0 m/s 2 .30 s to go past the window. (a) Determine the distance traveled during the first second. but inept.00-m-high window 7. It passes a 2. A steel ball is dropped onto a hard floor from a height of 1.60 52. first note that the final velocity is now a known and identify its value. 45.300 s. (a) Neglecting the time required for sound to travel up the well. After choosing the equation. It passes a tree branch on the way up at a height of 7.50 m high. (c) Determine the distance traveled during the last second of motion before hitting the ground.00 s after being released.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion Note: There is always uncertainty in numbers taken from graphs. (b) Now calculate the distance taking into account the time for sound to travel up the well.00 m.40 m/s and observes that it takes 1.0 m above ground level. (a) How far above the hiker is the rock when he can see it? (b) How much time does he have to move before the rock hits his head? Figure 2. A swimmer bounces straight up from a diving board and falls feet first into a pool. show your steps in solving for the unknown. If your answers differ from expected values. 56. (a) Calculate its velocity just before it strikes the floor. using precision equipment. 48. (a) List the knowns in this problem. (b) Determine the final velocity at which the object hits the ground. One of the rescuers throws a life preserver straight down to the victim with an initial velocity of 1. how long will a tourist at the bottom have to get out of the way after hearing the sound of the rock breaking loose (neglecting the height of the tourist. and he is 1. (a) By taking the slope of the curve in Figure 2. (a) How fast will it be going when it strikes the ground? (b) Assuming a reaction time of 0. A rescue helicopter is hovering over a person whose boat has sunk. What was the ball’s initial velocity? Figure 2. verify that the velocity of the jet car is 115 m/s at t = 20 s .61. She starts with a velocity of 4.35 s for a rock to hit the ground when it is thrown straight up from the cliff with an initial velocity of 8.0000 s. A soft tennis ball is dropped onto a hard floor from a height of 1.80 m above the pool. 54.00 m/s. and discuss how you chose the appropriate equation to solve for it.CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 43. He can’t see the rock right away but then does.45 m. 59.00×10 44. assuming the floor is absolutely rigid? 58. (a) Calculate its velocity just before it strikes the floor. 55. and discuss whether the answer is reasonable.10 m. (b) Calculate its velocity just after it leaves the floor on its way back up.50 s later. which would become negligible anyway if hit)? The speed of sound is 335 m/s on this day. (a) Calculate the height of a cliff if it takes 2. A very strong.50 ms (3. You throw a ball straight up with an initial velocity of 15. (b) How high above the water was the preserver released? Note that the downdraft of the helicopter reduces the effects of air resistance on the falling life preserver. (c) Calculate its acceleration during contact with the −5 s) . Suppose a boulder breaks loose from the top of this cliff.0800 ms (8. and (c) the time before it hits the ground. (a) Calculate its vertical speed when it leaves the ground. (b) How high does his body rise above the water? To solve this part.80 m tall? 49. An object is dropped from a height of 75. Australia. At what velocity must a basketball player leave the ground to rise 1. Arapiles in Victoria. (b) How long is it in the air? 51. checking units. The speed of sound is 332. A kangaroo can jump over an object 2. shot putter puts the shot straight up vertically with an initial velocity of 11. find (a) the maximum height reached.0 m/s.8 s to reach the water. Take the slope of the curve in Figure 2. (d) How much did floor if that contact lasts 0. so that an acceleration equal to that of gravity is reasonable. you measure the time for the sound of a splash to return.50 m and rebounds to a height of 1.20 m. A ball is thrown straight up.61 60. verify that the jet car’s acceleration is 5. How long does he have to get out of the way if the shot was released at a height of 2. Suppose you drop a rock into a dark well and. (c) Calculate its acceleration during contact −3 with the floor if that contact lasts 3. and her takeoff point is 1. (d) How much did the ball compress during its collision with the floor. How much additional time will pass before the ball passes the tree branch on the way back down? 50. 46.50 m off the ground on its path up and takes 1. 53. examine them to see if they are within data extraction uncertainties estimated by you. There is a 250-m-high cliff at Half Dome in Yosemite National Park in California. (a) List the knowns in this problem. 1. (b) By taking the slope of the curve at any point in Figure 2. a hiker hears a rock break loose from a height of 105 m.

68 Figure 2.62 to verify that the velocity at t = 30. v(t) is shown for a world-class track sprinter in a 100-m race.5 s. Construct the displacement graph for the subway shuttle train as shown in Figure 2.67 66.65. You will need to use the information on acceleration and velocity given in the examples for this figure.65 This content is available for free at http://cnx.67). (b) Repeat at 7. A graph of Figure 2.org/content/col11406/1. verify that the 3.66 65. acceleration is Figure 2.63 63. Figure 2. (a) What is his average velocity for the first 4 s? (b) What is his instantaneous velocity at t = 5 s ? (c) What is his average acceleration between 0 and 4 s? (d) What is his time for the race? 64.48(a).7 . These values must be consistent with the graph in Figure 2. 62.0 s is 238 m/s. By taking the slope of the curve in Figure 2. Figure 2. Take the slope of the curve in Figure 2. Draw the corresponding velocity and acceleration graphs.64 to find the jogger’s velocity at t = 2.2 m/s 2 at t = 10 s . (a) Take the slope of the curve in Figure 2. Figure 2.68 shows the displacement graph for a particle for 5 s.84 CHAPTER 2 | KINEMATICS 61.5 s . (See Figure 2.64 Figure 2.63.

2. rarely as tortuous as a rollercoaster ride like this—the Dragon Khan in Spain’s Universal Port Aventura Amusement Park. 3. thankfully.4. Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction • Observe that motion in two dimensions consists of horizontal and vertical components. and can be described in a similar fashion to one-dimensional motion.1. • Apply graphical methods of vector addition and subtraction to determine the displacement of moving objects. Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods • Understand the rules of vector addition and subtraction using analytical methods. • Determine the location and velocity of a projectile at different points in its trajectory. 3. 3. • Apply the principle of independence of motion to solve projectile motion problems. range. subtraction. paths. maximum height. However. Addition of Velocities • Apply principles of vector addition to determine relative velocity. Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods • Understand the rules of vector addition.3. 85 .1 Everyday motion that we experience is.5. such as acceleration due to gravity. Motion along a curved path is two. and trajectory.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS 3 TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. • Apply analytical methods to determine vertical and horizontal component vectors. (credit: Boris23/Wikimedia Commons) Learning Objectives 3. most motion is in curved. and multiplication. • Explain the significance of the observer in the measurement of velocity. 3. rather than straight-line. • Understand the independence of horizontal and vertical vectors in two-dimensional motion.or three-dimensional motion. • Apply analytical methods to determine the magnitude and direction of a resultant vector. Projectile Motion • Identify and explain the properties of a projectile.

a and b . and so you are forced to take a two-dimensional path. Instead.86 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Introduction to Two-Dimensional Kinematics The arc of a basketball. and a puppy chasing its tail are but a few examples of motions along curved paths. Figure 3. The straight-line path that a helicopter might fly is blocked to you as a pedestrian. In this scene. the orbit of a satellite. making two-dimensional. and so the Pythagorean theorem. and so in this case its length in units of city blocks is (9 blocks) 2+ (5 blocks) 2= 10. a swimmer diving into a pool.4 The Pythagorean theorem relates the length of the legs of a right triangle. labeled c . Figure 3. Both two. labeled a 2 + b 2 = c 2 .2 Walkers and drivers in a city like New York are rarely able to travel in straight lines to reach their destinations. (credit: Margaret W.org/content/col11406/1.3 A pedestrian walks a two-dimensional path between two points in a city. is described by threedimensional kinematics. blood gushing out of a wound. with the hypotenuse. as pictured in Figure 3. such as a car following a winding mountain road. The relationship is given by: The hypotenuse of the triangle is the straight-line path. and it will also yield unexpected insights about nature. This simple extension will allow us to apply physics to many more situations. Motion not confined to a plane. What is the straight-line distance? An old adage states that the shortest distance between two points is a straight line. and thus described by two-dimensional kinematics. The two legs of the trip and the straight-line path form a right triangle. all blocks are square and are the same size. 9 east followed by 5 north. they must follow roads and sidewalks. You walk 14 blocks in all.3. Motion along a curved path on a flat surface or a plane (such as that of a ball on a pool table or a skater on an ice rink) is two-dimensional. considerably shorter than the 14 blocks you walked. can be used to find the straight-line distance. zigzagged paths.3 blocks . solving for c : c = a 2 + b 2 . most motions in nature follow curved paths rather than straight lines.7 . This can be rewritten. 3. Carruthers) Two-Dimensional Motion: Walking in a City Suppose you want to walk from one point to another in a city with uniform square blocks. (Note that we are using three significant figures in This content is available for free at http://cnx. In fact. such as the one shown. a bicycle rounding a curve. a 2 + b 2 = c 2 .and three-dimensional kinematics are simple extensions of the one-dimensional kinematics developed for straightline motion in the previous chapter.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction Figure 3.

0 or 9. the vertical positions of the two balls are the same. Any motion in the horizontal direction does not affect motion in the vertical direction. another is thrown horizontally from the same height and follows a curved path. It is remarkable that for each flash of the strobe. with a 10. followed by another.6 This shows the motions of two identical balls—one falls from rest.5 is less than the total distance walked (14 blocks) is one example of a general characteristic of vectors. One baseball is dropped from rest. These vectors are added to give the third vector. All blocks are square and the same size. Arrows represent horizontal and vertical velocities at each position. The length of the arrow is proportional to the vector’s magnitude. It is also true of more complicated motion involving movement in two directions at once. and not by any horizontal forces. How far he or she walks east is only affected by his or her motion eastward. the vectors that we are adding are perpendicular to each other and thus form a right triangle.5. At the same instant. not just those perpendicular to one another. The second represents a 5-block displacement north. and vice versa. the vertical motion of a falling object is influenced by gravity only. The first represents a 9-block displacement east.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS the answer. the path of an object can be represented with three vectors: one vector shows the straight-line path between the initial and final points of the motion. This result means 87 . For two-dimensional motion. Similarly.) Careful examination of the ball thrown horizontally shows that it travels the same horizontal distance between flashes.” We have decided to use three significant figures in the answer in order to show the result more precisely.3 and Figure 3. Figure 3. Despite the difference in horizontal velocities. The arrow points in the same direction as the vector. The arrow’s length is indicated by hash marks in Figure 3. and one vector shows the vertical component of the motion. the other has an initial horizontal velocity.5. observe the three vectors in Figure 3.) Figure 3. how far he or she walks north is only affected by his or her motion northward. This is true in a simple scenario like that of walking in one direction first. let’s compare the motions of two baseballs. For example. For example. they are discrete numbers. (Recall that vectors are quantities that have both magnitude and direction. in Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods and Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods.) The Independence of Perpendicular Motions The person taking the path shown in Figure 3.) As for one-dimensional kinematics. We will develop techniques for adding vectors having any direction. The third vector is the straight-line path between the two points. This is due to the fact that there are no additional forces on the ball in the horizontal direction after it is thrown. This similarity implies that the vertical motion is independent of whether or not the ball is moving horizontally. (Assuming no air resistance.5 The straight-line path followed by a helicopter between the two points is shorter than the 14 blocks walked by the pedestrian.3 blocks) in Figure 3.00 blocks.5 walks east and then north (two perpendicular directions). while the ball on the left has no horizontal velocity. Note that in this example. (Note that we cannot use the Pythagorean theorem to add vectors that are not perpendicular. Although it appears that “9” and “5” have only one significant digit. A stroboscope has captured the positions of the balls at fixed time intervals as they fall. we use arrows to represent vectors. Independence of Motion The horizontal and vertical components of two-dimensional motion are independent of each other. The ball on the right has an initial horizontal velocity. This shows that the vertical and horizontal motions are independent. In this case “9 blocks” is the same as “9. The horizontal and vertical components of the motion add together to give the straight-line path.3-block total displacement. The fact that the straight-line distance (10. the vertical velocities and positions are identical for both balls. one vector shows the horizontal component of the motion. Each subsequent position is an equal time interval. This means that we can use the Pythagorean theorem to calculate the magnitude of the total displacement.

using an arrow having length proportional to the vector’s magnitude and pointing in the direction of the vector. We shall use the notation that a boldface symbol. and the direction of the In this text. such as D . velocity and acceleration vectors. the direction of a vector can be given simply by a plus or minus sign. Its magnitude is represented by the symbol in italics. such as variable will be given by an angle θ. The magnitude of the vector will be represented by a variable in italics. or journey segments. Move the ladybug by setting the position.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods Figure 3.org/content/col11406/1.jar) 3.88 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS that the horizontal velocity is constant. Choose linear. Resolving twodimensional motion into perpendicular components is possible because the components are independent. motion.. velocity or acceleration.7 . and record and playback the motion to analyze the behavior.org/content/m42104/1. such as this one of the Hawaiian Islands. The key to analyzing such motion. In onedimensional. and force. we will represent a vector with a boldface variable. PhET Explorations: Ladybug Motion 2D Learn about position. however.9 shows such a graphical representation of a vector. which has F . called projectile motion. stands for a vector.e. Figure 3. circular or elliptical motion. and see how the vectors change. In two dimensions (2-d). We shall see how to resolve vectors in Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods and Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods. air resistance will affect the speed of the balls in both directions. For example. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Figure 3. velocity.8 Displacement can be determined graphically using a scale map. or straight-line. Displacement.7 Ladybug Motion 2D (http://cnx. Note that this case is true only for ideal conditions. are all vectors. and its direction by θ .4/ladybug-motion-2d_en. for example. These segments can be added graphically with a ruler to determine the total two-dimensional displacement of the journey. is to resolve (break) it into motions along perpendicular directions. (credit: US Geological Survey) Vectors in Two Dimensions A vector is a quantity that has magnitude and direction. In the real world. we will represent the quantity force with the vector both magnitude and direction. we specify the direction of a vector relative to some reference frame (i. We will find such techniques to be useful in many areas of physics. acceleration. and affected neither by vertical motion nor by gravity (which is vertical). A journey from Hawai’i to Moloka’i has a number of legs. coordinate system). The two-dimensional curved path of the horizontally thrown ball is composed of two independent one-dimensional motions (horizontal and vertical). Vectors in this Text F . D . using as an example the total displacement for the person walking in a city considered in Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction.

3 units. The displacement is 10. the magnitude D D D.11 below and in the steps following. east-pointing vector. of the arrow is proportional to the vector’s magnitude and is measured along the of the vector is 10. In this example. (c) Draw a line from the tail of the east-pointing vector to the head of the north-pointing vector to form the sum or resultant vector D . The length of the arrow (or horizontal axis) θ D is proportional to the vector’s magnitude and is measured to be 10. Vector Addition: Head-to-Tail Method The head-to-tail method is a graphical way to add vectors.10 To describe the resultant vector for the person walking in a city considered in Figure 3. The tail of the vector is the starting point of the vector. and the head (or tip) of a vector is the final.1º north of east.9.3 blocks at an angle 29.9 graphically. Figure 3. (a) Draw a vector representing the displacement to the east. The length line with a ruler.11 Head-to-Tail Method: The head-to-tail method of graphically adding vectors is illustrated for the two displacements of the person walking in a city considered in Figure 3.3 units . pointed end of the arrow. Figure 3. (b) Draw a vector representing the displacement to the north. Draw an arrow to represent the first vector (9 blocks to the east) using a ruler and protractor. Step 1. Its direction.1º .9 A person walks 9 blocks east and 5 blocks north. described in Figure 3.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. draw a line at an angle θ relative to the east-west axis. draw an arrow to represent the total displacement vector Using a protractor. The tail of this vector should originate from the head of the first.1º north of east. 89 . described as the angle with respect to the east is measured with a protractor to be 29. and the direction θ is 29.

Now draw an arrow to represent the second vector (5 blocks to the north). (Note that in most calculations. Draw an arrow from the tail of the first vector to the head of the last vector. of the other vectors.13 Step 3.7 . Step 4. Place the tail of the second vector at the head of the first vector. or the sum. continue this process for each vector to be added. measure the angle it makes with the reference frame using a protractor. (Note that in most calculations. so we have finished placing arrows tip to tail. To get the magnitude of the resultant.12 Step 2. It is valid for any number of vectors.90 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. we will use the Pythagorean theorem to determine this length. This is the resultant. Figure 3. Note that in our example.14 Step 5. To get the direction of the resultant. This content is available for free at http://cnx. If there are more than two vectors.org/content/col11406/1. measure its length with a ruler. Figure 3. we have only two vectors.) Step 6. we will use trigonometric relationships to determine this angle.) The graphical addition of vectors is limited in accuracy only by the precision with which the drawings can be made and the precision of the measuring tools.

Figure 3. Finally. she walks 25. she walks 23.0° south of east. denoted R . 91 . and a protractor to measure the direction of R . While the direction of the vector can be specified in many ways.0 m in a direction 68.1 Adding Vectors Graphically Using the Head-to-Tail Method: A Woman Takes a Walk Use the graphical technique for adding vectors to find the total displacement of a person who walks the following three paths (displacements) on a flat field.16 (3) Draw the resultant vector. the second B . R.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Example 3. labeling the first A . she turns and walks 32.0 m heading 15. Solution (1) Draw the three displacement vectors. the easiest way is to measure the angle between the vector and the nearest horizontal or vertical axis.0º north of east. Since the resultant vector is south of the eastward pointing axis. The head-to-tail method outlined above will give a way to determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant displacement.0º north of east. Strategy Represent each displacement vector graphically with an arrow. First. Then.0 m in a direction 49. making the lengths proportional to the distance and the directions as specified relative to an east-west line. we flip the protractor upside down and measure the angle between the eastward axis and the vector. Figure 3. and the third C .17 (4) Use a ruler to measure the magnitude of R .15 (2) Place the vectors head to tail retaining both their initial magnitude and direction. Figure 3.

for example). and direction. By using its magnitude R = 50. Therefore.92 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. B has the same length as –B . Vector addition is commutative. It is also important to note that the resultant is independent of the order in which the vectors are added. The negative of a vector direction. the total displacement R is seen to have a magnitude of 50. Vectors can be added in any order.19 and we will still get the same solution. Figure 3. graphically the negative of any vector has the same magnitude but the opposite direction. To define subtraction (say we want to subtract must first define what we mean by subtraction. we see that when the same vectors are added in a different order.0º south of east.org/content/col11406/1. that is. but points in the opposite Vector subtraction is a straightforward extension of vector addition. this vector can be expressed as Discussion The head-to-tail graphical method of vector addition works for any number of vectors.1) 2 + 3 or 3 + 2 . Essentially.18 In this case. This content is available for free at http://cnx.7 . as shown in Figure 3. Vector Subtraction B from A .0 m and to lie in a direction 7. In other words. we B is defined to be –B . This characteristic is true in every case and is an important characteristic of vectors. we just flip the vector so it points in the opposite direction. the result is the same. A + B = B + A.19 Here. we could add the vectors in any order as illustrated in Figure 3. (This is true for the addition of ordinary numbers as well—you get the same result whether you add (3. written A – B .0 m and θ = 7.0º south of east.20.

Thus. the techniques outlined above are used. When vectors are subtracted graphically. The subtraction of vector B from vector A is then simply defined to be the addition of negative vector. (3. Figure 3.21 Strategy A . We can represent the first leg of the trip with a vector Figure 3. and then travel 30. she will end up at a location A + (–B) . If the woman makes a mistake and travels in the opposite direction for the second leg of the trip. as the following example illustrates. If the woman mistakenly travels in the opposite direction for the second leg of the journey.0º west of north). where will she end up? Compare this location with the location of the dock.5 m in a direction 66.0 m) in the direction 180º – 112º = 68º south of east. We represent this as –B . Note that vector subtraction is the addition of a A – B = A + (–B). The instructions read to first sail 27. and the second leg of the trip with a vector B . with the location at which the woman mistakenly arrives. as shown below.22 We will perform vector addition to compare the location of the dock. 93 .0 m in a direction 112º north of east (or 22. The vector –B has the same magnitude as B but is in the opposite direction. for example. she will travel a distance B (30. or A – B . B is the negative of –B .20 The negative of a vector is just another vector of the same magnitude but pointing in the opposite direction.2 Subtracting Vectors Graphically: A Woman Sailing a Boat A woman sailing a boat at night is following directions to a dock. The dock is located at a location A + B . This is analogous to the subtraction of scalars (where. The order of subtraction does not affect the results.0º north of east from her current location. it has the same length –B to A . the result is independent of the order in which the subtraction is made. Again. So but opposite direction.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. A + (–B) . Example 3.2) 5 – 2 = 5 + (–2) ). A + B .

draw vectors A and –B . In our case. Notice that the magnitude changes. This is an example of multiplying a vector by a positive scalar. dividing by 2 is the same as multiplying by the value (1/2). (4) Use a ruler and protractor to measure the magnitude and direction of R. the direction is reversed. in a direction 66. then multiplying a vector by it changes the vector’s magnitude and gives the new vector the opposite direction. c = 3 and A = 27.0º north of east. (3) Draw the resultant vector R. Vectors are multiplied by scalars in many situations. Note that division is the inverse of multiplication.9 m and θ = 90. Figure 3. For example. the magnitude doubles but the direction changes.5º south of east. the direction of the vector does not change.5 m .0 m and θ = 7. A. or 82. but the direction stays the same. • if c is negative. The rules for multiplication of vectors by scalars are the same for division. (5) To determine the location of the dock.5 m. • the magnitude of the vector becomes the absolute value of c • if c is positive.23 In this case. then we would walk 3 × 27. We can see that the woman will end up a significant distance from the dock if she travels in the opposite direction for the second leg of the trip. Discussion Because subtraction of a vector is the same as addition of a vector with the opposite direction.5 m . For example.94 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Solution (1) To determine the location at which the woman arrives by accident. simply treat the divisor as a scalar between 0 and 1.org/content/col11406/1. we repeat this method to add vectors A and B . the graphical method of subtracting vectors works the same as for addition. if you multiply by –2.7 . This content is available for free at http://cnx. Multiplication of Vectors and Scalars If we decided to walk three times as far on the first leg of the trip considered in the preceding example. We can summarize these rules in the following way: When vector A is multiplied by a scalar c . We obtain the resultant vector R ' : Figure 3. R = 23.1º north of east. (2) Place the vectors head to tail.24 In this case R = 52. If the scalar is negative.

and y-components. we may know that the total displacement of a person walking in a city is 10. Figure 3. A y = 4 m north. (3. we have been adding vectors to determine the resultant vector. analytical methods are more concise. We will see this soon in Projectile Motion. add to produce it. is shown together with its x.25 Maze Game (http://cnx.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods Analytical methods of vector addition and subtraction employ geometry and simple trigonometry rather than the ruler and protractor of graphical methods. Add more walls to the arena to make the game more difficult.0º north of east and want to find out how many blocks east and north had to be walked. Use the green arrow to move the ball.org/content/m42127/1. For example. and precise than graphical methods. so that right triangles are involved. These vectors form a right triangle. We very often need to separate a vector into perpendicular components. and A = 5 m north-east. Part of the graphical technique is retained. A x . That is. The analytical relationships among these vectors are summarized below. This method is called finding the components (or parts) of the displacement in the east and north directions. and A y form a right triangle: A x + A y = A.4) 95 . The analytical techniques presented in Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods are ideal for finding vector components. given a vector like A in Figure 3.26 The vector A x and A y . we may wish to find which two perpendicular vectors. we will need to do the opposite. and it is the inverse of the process followed to find the total displacement. accurate.and y-axes. Try to make a goal as fast as you can.3 blocks in a direction 29. For example. A . for example the x. this involves determining the perpendicular components of a single vector. with its tail at the origin of an x. The relationship does not apply for the magnitudes alone. However. or the north-south and east-west components. because vectors are still represented by arrows for easy visualization.26. 3m+4m ≠ 5m Thus. In most cases. A x and A y . In many cases. however. There are many applications in physics where this is a useful thing to do. and much more when we cover forces in Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion.jar) 3. Analytical methods are limited only by the accuracy and precision with which physical quantities are known. The three vectors A . y-coordinate system. then it is true that the vectors A x + A y = A . PhET Explorations: Maze Game Learn about position. which are limited by the accuracy with which a drawing can be made.and y-components. Figure 3. It is one example of finding the components of a vector.3) Note that this relationship between vector components and the resultant vector holds only for vector quantities (which include both magnitude and direction). Most of these involve finding components along perpendicular axes (such as north and east).7/maze-game_en. A x and A y are defined to be the components of A along the x. and acceleration in the "Arena of Pain". However. (3. it is not true that the sum of the magnitudes of the vectors is also equal. if A x = 3 m east. For example.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Resolving a Vector into Components In the examples above. We will need to take a single vector and find what other vectors added together produce it. velocity. Resolving a Vector into Perpendicular Components Analytical techniques and right triangles go hand-in-hand in physics because (among other things) motions along perpendicular directions are independent.

then A can also be found analytically. To find the magnitude A and θ of a vector from its perpendicular components A x and A y .28 We can use the relationships A x = A cos θ and A y = A sin θ to determine the magnitude of the horizontal and vertical component vectors in this example. we use the following relationships: A = A x2 + Ay2 (3. A x = A cos θ (3.and y-components. that A is the vector representing the total displacement of the person walking in a city considered in Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction and Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods. To find A x and A y . Here we see A y = A sin θ .1º⎞⎠ = 9.6) A y = A sin θ. Figure 3. (3.1º .0 blocks A y = A sin θ = ⎛⎝10.3 blocks⎞⎠⎛⎝cos 29.9) Calculating a Resultant Vector If the perpendicular components direction A x and A y of a vector A are known.96 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Ax + Ay ≠ A If the vector (3. (3. so that A x = A cos θ = ⎛⎝10.org/content/col11406/1.10) θ = tan −1(A y / A x). its x. for example.5) A is known. Suppose.7 .3 blocks and θ = 29.0 blocks. we use the following relationships for a right triangle. then its magnitude A (its length) and its angle θ (its direction) are known. Then A = 10.8) (3.1º⎞⎠ = 5.3 blocks⎞⎠⎛⎝sin 29. (3.11) This content is available for free at http://cnx.27 The magnitudes of the vector components that A x = A cos θ and Ax and Ay can be related to the resultant vector A and the angle θ with trigonometric identities.7) and Figure 3.

There are many ways to arrive at the same point. Figure 3. A and B are two legs of a walk. Determining Vectors and Vector Components with Analytical Methods Equations and A x = A cos θ and A y = A sin θ are used to find the perpendicular components of a vector—that is.30 Vectors direction of R.31. Both processes are crucial to analytical methods of vector addition and subtraction. The angles that vectors A and B make with the x-axis are θ A and θ B . Those paths are the x. then R is the total displacement. respectively. to go from A and θ to A x A y . and B y . Equations A = A 2x + A 2y and θ = tan –1(A y / A x) are used to find a vector from its perpendicular components—that is. For A x and A y are 9 and 5 blocks. we can find R and θ using the equations If A = A x 2 + A y 2 and θ = tan –1(A y / A x) .CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3.29 The magnitude and direction of the resultant vector can be determined once the horizontal and vertical components Note that the equation example. again consistent with the example of the person walking in a city.30. In Figure 3. Finally.3 blocks. When you use the analytical method of vector addition.1º . you can determine the components or the magnitude and direction of a vector. the direction is θ = tan –1(5/9)=29. find the components of each vector to be added along the chosen perpendicular axes. The person taking the walk ends up at the tip of R. these components are B x . 97 . as before. in which the vectors resultant R. Use the equations A x = A cos θ and A y = A sin θ to find the components. R x and R y . Adding Vectors Using Analytical Methods To see how to add vectors using perpendicular components. You can use analytical methods to determine the magnitude and A and B represent two legs of a walk (two displacements). A = A 2x + A 2y is just the Pythagorean theorem relating the legs of a right triangle to the length of the hypotenuse. If we know R x and R y . the person could have walked first in the x-direction and then in the y-direction.and y-components of the resultant. In particular. Ay . if Ax and Ay have been determined. and R A and B are added to produce the is the resultant or total displacement. Step 1. Identify the x. Then. then A = 9 2 +5 2=10.and y-axes that will be used in the problem. to go from A x and A y to A and θ . consider Figure 3. Ax . respectively.

7 .14) θ = tan −1(R y / R x). the first 3 blocks east and the second 6 blocks east.12) R y = A y + B y. Step 2. its magnitude and direction can be found. Now that the components of R are known.32 The magnitude of the vectors vectors Ay and By Ax B x add to give the magnitude R x of the resultant vector in the horizontal direction. a 9-block eastward walk could be taken in two legs. Similarly. as shown in Figure 3. Add the vector This content is available for free at http://cnx. first determine the horizontal and vertical components of each vector. (3.and y-axes are along the east–west and north–south directions. (For example. respectively. using perpendicular components along the x. because they are along the same direction.0º north of east. (3.) So resolving vectors into components along common axes makes it easier to add them.org/content/col11406/1.0 m in a direction 63. are vectors along the same line and. To get the direction of the resultant: The following example illustrates this technique for adding vectors using perpendicular components. B x and By shown in the image. These are the dotted vectors A x .3 Adding Vectors Using Analytical Methods A to the vector B shown in Figure 3.15) Step 4. the magnitudes of the R y of the resultant vector in the vertical direction. Find the components of the resultant along each axis by adding the components of the individual vectors along that axis. and add to give the magnitude Components along the same axis. Rx = Ax + Bx (3.31 To add vectors A and B . Step 3. Vector B represents the second leg.33. say the x-axis. The x. use the Pythagorean theorem: R = R 2x + R 2y. The same is true for components along the y-axis. Vector A represents the first leg of a walk in which a person walks 53.98 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3.13) and Figure 3. That is. A y . Example 3. To get the magnitude R of the resultant.and y-axes. can be added to one another like ordinary numbers. a displacement of 34.32. (3.0 m in a direction 20. thus. for a total of 9.0º north of east.

0º) = (34. B = 34. (3.8 m (3.0 º north of the x-axis.0 m)(0. Solution Following the method outlined above.4 m = 65.0 m .CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. (3.454) = 15.0 m .21) and Now we can find the magnitude of the resultant by using the Pythagorean theorem: R = R 2x + R 2y = (65. We find the x-components by using A x = A cos θ .0 m)(0.24) θ = tan −1(0. Note that A = 53. (3.and y-axes.0 m)(cos 63.18) B y = B sin θ B = (34.0 m and direction 20.0º .4 m.1 m+30.16) B x = B cos θ B = (34.940) = 49.891) = 30. (3.8 m + 15.3 m. Vector axis. which gives A x = A cos θ A = (53.0 m and direction 63.22) R = 81. 99 .6 º .0 º ) (3.and y-axes represent walking due east and due north to get to the same ending point. B has magnitude 34.2 m.20) R y = A y + B y = 18.3 m = 48.23) θ = tan −1(R y / R x)=+tan −1(48. we first find the components of A and B along the x. The x. the y-components are found using A y = A sin θ A : A y = A sin θ A = (53. You can use analytical methods to determine the magnitude and direction of R.and y-components of the resultant are thus R x = A x + B x = 49. Once found.0 m)(sin 20. we find the direction of the resultant: Thus.4 / 65.4 m.4) 2 m (3. and θ B = 63. (3.342) = 18.2) 2 + (48.2).0 m)(0. θ A = 20.17) and Similarly.25) so that Finally.0º .19) = (53.0º north of the x- Strategy The components of A and B along the x.0 m)(sin 63.742) = 36.33 Vector A has magnitude 53.0 m)(cos 20. they are combined to produce the resultant.2 m (3.0º) = (53.0º) (3.0 m)(0.1 m and = (34.

The next module.100 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. Vector subtraction using perpendicular components is very similar—it is just the addition of a negative vector.26) R y = A y + ⎛⎝ – B y⎞⎠ (3. Drag vectors onto a graph. The components of –B are the negatives of the components of B .) Analyzing vectors using perpendicular components is very useful in many areas of physics.6º north of east. Figure 3.jar) This content is available for free at http://cnx. The method of subtraction is the PhET Explorations: Vector Addition Learn how to add vectors.and y-components of the resultant A − B = R are thus Subtraction of vectors is accomplished by the addition of a negative vector.org/content/col11406/1. The magnitude. Thus.27) and and the rest of the method outlined above is identical to that for addition.org/content/m42128/1. (See Figure 3.34 Using analytical methods. R x = A x + ⎛⎝ – B x⎞⎠ (3.2 m and its direction is 36. change their length and angle. because perpendicular quantities are often independent of one another. –B are the negatives of the components of B . the method for the subtraction of vectors using perpendicular components is identical to that for addition. Discussion This example illustrates the addition of vectors using perpendicular components.35.36 Vector Addition (http://cnx. angle. Figure 3. The x. That is. and sum them together. Projectile Motion. The components of same as that for addition.35 The subtraction of the two vectors shown in Figure 3. A − B ≡ A + (–B) .30.10/vector-addition_en. is one of many in which using perpendicular components helps make the picture clear and simplifies the physics. and components of each vector can be displayed in several formats.7 . we see that the magnitude of R is 81.

Figure 3.4 Projectile Motion Projectile motion is the motion of an object thrown or projected into the air. Both accelerations are constant. The magnitude of the components of displacement s along these axes are x and y. Figure 3. Step 2. we will simply The magnitudes of these vectors are s. The key to analyzing two-dimensional projectile motion is to break it into two motions. a x = 0 .) Of course. because acceleration due to gravity is vertical—thus. If you arrange the coordinate system instead such that the downwards direction is positive.t v +v v. Review of Kinematic Equations (constant a) x = x 0 + v.34) (3. where v is the magnitude of the velocity and θ is its direction. and its path is called its trajectory.= 0 2 v = v 0 + at (3. We will assume all forces except gravity (such as air resistance and friction. as covered in Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics. Given these assumptions. The kinematic equations for horizontal and vertical motion take the following forms: Horizontal Motion(a x = 0) x = x 0 + v xt v x = v 0x = v x = velocity is a constant.and y-axes. we consider twodimensional projectile motion.80m/s 2) (3. The most important fact to remember here is that motions along perpendicular axes are independent and thus can be analyzed separately. subject to only the acceleration of gravity.37 illustrates the notation for displacement. respectively. we call the horizontal axis the x-axis and the vertical axis the y-axis. We must find their components along the xand y-axes. (Note that in the last section we used the notation and represent the component vectors as x and y . so the kinematic equations can be used. However. (This choice of axes is the most sensible. as usual.32) x and y along the horizontal and vertical axes. This fact was discussed in Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction. where s is defined to be the total displacement and x and y are its components along the horizontal and vertical axes. In this section. to describe motion we must deal with velocity and acceleration. then acceleration due to gravity takes a positive value.30) x = x 0 + v 0t + 1 at 2 2 (3.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS 3. is a simple one-dimensional type of projectile motion in which there is no horizontal movement.33) (3.36) 101 . and it makes an angle θ s of a soccer ball at a point along its path. we would call displacement s with components s x and s y .) Because gravity is vertical.28) (3. The vector s has components (3. (Note that this definition assumes that the upwards direction is defined as the positive direction.35) (3.29) (3.80 m/s 2 .37 The total displacement is s . The motion of falling objects. as well as with displacement. The components of acceleration are then very simple: a y = – g = – 9. Resolve or break the motion into horizontal and vertical components along the x. where vertical and horizontal motions were seen to be independent. Initial values are denoted with a subscript 0. too. there will be no acceleration along the horizontal axis when air resistance is negligible. for example) are negligible. the following steps are then used to analyze projectile motion: Step 1. one horizontal and the other vertical. and y. Treat the motion as two independent one-dimensional motions. If we continued this format.) As is customary. A to represent a vector with components A x A y . The magnitudes of the components of the velocity v are v x = v cos θ and v y = v sin θ. one along the horizontal axis and the other along the vertical. to simplify the notation. so A x = A cos θ and A y = A sin θ are used. Its magnitude with the horizontal. x.38. These axes are perpendicular. such as that of a football or other object for which air resistance is negligible. as shown in Figure 3.31) v 2 = v 20 + 2a(x − x 0). Vertical Motion(assuming positive is up a y = −g = −9. The object is called a projectile.

102 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS y = y 0 + 1 (v 0y + v y)t 2 v y = v 0y − gt (3.org/content/col11406/1. the vertical velocity increases again in magnitude but points in the opposite direction to the initial vertical velocity. (b) The horizontal motion is simple. As the object falls towards the Earth again.0º above the horizontal. where θ is the direction of the displacement s and θ v is the direction of the velocity v : Total displacement and velocity s = x2 + y2 (3. at its highest point. (a) Calculate the height at which the shell explodes.42) v = v 2x + v 2y (3. (3.39) (3.7 . (c) The velocity in the vertical direction begins to decrease as the object rises. Step 4. because ax = 0 and vx is thus constant. a shell is shot into the air with an initial speed of 70.37) y = y 0 + v 0yt − 1 gt 2 2 (3.38 (a) We analyze two-dimensional projectile motion by breaking it into two independent one-dimensional motions along the vertical and horizontal axes.41) θ = tan −1(y / x) (3. (b) How much time passed between the launch of the shell and the explosion? (c) What is the horizontal displacement of the shell when it explodes? Strategy This content is available for free at http://cnx. The problem solving procedures here are the same as for one-dimensional kinematics and are illustrated in the solved examples below.40) Step 3. Note that the only common variable between the motions is time t .and y -motions are perpendicular.43) θ v = tan −1(v y / v x).and y -motions are recombined to give the total velocity at any given point on the trajectory. The fuse is timed to ignite the shell just as it reaches its highest point above the ground. (3.0 m/s at an angle of 75.4 A Fireworks Projectile Explodes High and Away During a fireworks display.39. Solve for the unknowns in the two separate motions—one horizontal and one vertical. we determine these vectors by using the techniques outlined in the Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods and employing A = A 2x + A 2y and θ = tan −1(A y / A x) in the following form. the vertical velocity is zero. Because the x . as illustrated in Figure 3. Recombine the two motions to find the total displacement s and velocity v .44) Figure 3. Example 3. (d) The x .38) v 2y = v 20y − 2g(y − y 0).

47) v 0y .39 The trajectory of a fireworks shell. we use the following equation to find y : By “height” we mean the altitude or vertical position when v 2y = v 20y − 2g(y − y 0). the component of the initial velocity in the y-direction. Because y 0 and v y are both zero.6 m/s. The motion can be broken into horizontal and vertical motions in which a x = 0 and a y = – g . there is more than one way to solve for the time to the highest point. (3. In this case. It is given by v 0y = v 0 sin θ .80 m/s 2) (3. and v 20y .49) y = 233m.50) so that Discussion for (a) Note that because up is positive.0 m/s)(sin 75º) = 67. which is found to be at a height of 233 m and 125 m away horizontally. the equation simplifies to 0 = v 20y − 2gy.51) 103 .45) Figure 3. where v 0y is the initial velocity of θ 0 = 75. 2 (3. 2(9. the analysis method outlined above can be used.6 m/s) 2 . this equation reduces to simply 2 y = 1 (v 0y + v y)t. and so the initial velocity would have to be somewhat larger than that given to reach the same height.48) y is y= (67. The numbers in this example are reasonable for large fireworks displays. The fuse is set to explode the shell at the highest point in its trajectory. so that any projectile with a 67. Solution for (b) As in many physics problems. called the apex. the shells of which do reach such heights before exploding.0º is the initial angle. In practice.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Because air resistance is negligible for the unexploded shell. as is the maximum height. the initial velocity is positive. is reached v y = 0 . Solution for (a) y above the starting point. The highest point in any trajectory. v 0y = v 0 sin θ 0 = (70. Solving for y gives y= Now we must find 70. but the acceleration due to gravity is negative. Thus. (3. Since we know the initial and final velocities as well as the initial position. 2g (3. We can then define x 0 and y 0 to be zero and solve for the desired quantities.6 m/s initial vertical component of velocity will reach a maximum height of 233 m (neglecting air resistance). Because y 0 is zero. and (3. Note also that the maximum height depends only on the vertical component of the initial velocity. the easiest method is to use y = y 0 + 1 (v 0y + v y)t .0 m/s.46) (3. air resistance is not completely negligible.

0º) = 18. Defining a Coordinate System It is important to set up a coordinate system when analyzing projectile motion.55) Discussion for (c) The horizontal motion is a constant velocity in the absence of air resistance.5 Calculating Projectile Motion: Hot Rock Projectile Kilauea in Hawaii is the world’s most continuously active volcano. The horizontal displacement found here could be useful in keeping the fireworks fragments from falling on spectators. and the positive horizontal direction is usually the direction of the object’s motion. it is occasionally useful to define the coordinates differently.0º above the horizontal. Discussion for (b) This time is also reasonable for large fireworks. v y .90 s. Very active volcanoes characteristically eject red-hot rocks and lava rather than smoke and ash. the vertical acceleration.7 . then.90 s) = 125 m. air resistance has a major effect.0 m lower than its starting point. takes a negative value (since it is directed downwards towards the Earth). Thus. It is also important to define the positive and negative directions in the x and y directions. (b) What are the magnitude and direction of the rock’s velocity at impact? This content is available for free at http://cnx. However. which is given by v x = v 0 cos θ 0 . v x = v 0 cos θ 0 = (70.56) This equation defines the maximum height of a projectile and depends only on the vertical component of the initial velocity.1 m/s)(6. Call v 20y . When you are able to see the launch of fireworks. we define the positive vertical direction as upwards.org/content/col11406/1. h= y is valid for any projectile motion where air resistance is negligible. as shown in Figure 3. the expression we found for the maximum height y = h .52) = 6. Suppose a large rock is ejected from the volcano with a speed of 25. Example 3. Once the shell explodes. The horizontal displacement is horizontal velocity multiplied by time as given by x = x 0 + v xt . If this is the case. (a) Calculate the time it takes the rock to follow this path.53) v x is the x-component of the velocity. g.0 m/s)(cos 75. Typically.0 m/s and at an angle 35. One part of defining the coordinate system is to define an origin for the x and y positions. The time (3. it may make sense to define the positive direction downwards since the motion of the ball is solely in the downwards direction. where (3. 2g (3. (3.) 2 Solution for (c) a x = 0 and the horizontal velocity is constant.1 m/s. g takes a positive value. and many fragments will land directly below.40.54) t for both motions is the same.6 m/s) (3. The rock strikes the side of the volcano at an altitude 20.104 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Note that the final vertical velocity. In solving part (a) of the preceding example. Often. at the highest point is zero. as discussed above. (Another way of finding the time is by using y = y 0 + v 0yt − 1 gt 2 . For example. you will notice several seconds pass before the shell explodes. if you are analyzing the motion of a ball thrown downwards from the top of a cliff. When this is the case. Now. it is convenient to choose the initial position of the object as the origin such that x 0 = 0 and y 0 = 0 . where x 0 is equal to zero: Because air resistance is negligible. and so x is x = (18. t = 2y 2(233 m) = (v 0y + v y) (67. and solving the quadratic equation for t . x = v xt.

(It is left as an exercise for the reader to verify these solutions.96 s) (3. (3.96 s or – 1. In this case.0º ) = 14. Thus. The negative value of time implies an event before the start of motion. found from v 0y = v 0 sin θ 0 = ( 25. We will solve for t first. Solution for (b) From the information now in hand.03 s .90 This expression is a quadratic equation of the form solutions are given by the quadratic formula: m/s 2⎞⎠t 2 − (14.0 m.5 m/s. This example asks for the final velocity.0 m = (14. using the following equation: 105 . the horizontal motion continues at a constant velocity. we chose the starting point since we know both the initial velocity and initial angle.96 s in the air.40 The trajectory of a rock ejected from the Kilauea volcano.63) v y = 14. (3. and c = – 20.0 m lower than its starting altitude. b = – 14.3 m/s)t − ⎛⎝4. we can find the final horizontal and vertical velocities v x and v y and combine them to find the total velocity v and the angle θ 0 it makes with the horizontal.0 m) = 0.58) t = 3. and so we discard it.3 m/s . Solution for (a) While the rock is in the air.90 m/s 2⎞⎠t 2.62) The final vertical velocity is given by the following equation: where v y = v 0y − gt.90 . where the constants are a = 4.59) at2 + bt + c = 0 .3 m/s − (9. Rearranging terms gives a quadratic equation in t: ⎛ ⎝4.0 m below its starting altitude will spend 3. v x is constant so we can solve for it at any horizontal location. so that To find the magnitude of the final velocity v we combine its perpendicular components. resolving this two-dimensional motion into two independent one-dimensional motions will allow us to solve for the desired quantities. Now the initial vertical velocity is the vertical component of the initial velocity. Therefore: v x = v 0 cos θ 0 = (25. While the rock is rising and falling vertically. We can find the time for this by using y = y 0 + v 0yt − 1 gt 2. Thus. So any projectile that has an initial vertical velocity of 14. t = 3.3 . 2 If we take the initial position (3.5 m/s. The time a projectile is in the air is governed by its vertical motion alone. the vertical and horizontal results will be recombined to obtain v and θ v at the final time t determined in the first part of the example.96 s.64) v y = −24.61) Discussion for (a) The time for projectile motion is completely determined by the vertical motion.0. (3.3 m/s)t − (20. then the final position is y = −20.60) 2 t = −b ± b − 4ac .65) v 0y was found in part (a) to be 14.) The time is t = 3.0 m/s)(cos 35º) = 20.3 m/s . Its (3.03 .80 m/s 2)(3.96 and t = – 1. Strategy Again.3 m/s and lands 20. Substituting known values yields −20. 2a This equation yields two solutions: (3. Thus. (3. (3. Of course.57) y 0 to be zero.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. it rises and then falls to a final position 20.0 m/s )( sin 35.

40.69) θ v = −50. g v 0 is the initial speed and θ 0 is the initial angle relative to the horizontal. Galileo and many others were interested in the range of projectiles primarily for military purposes—such as aiming cannons. the maximum range is obtained with θ 0 = 45º . If air resistance is 38º .0 m lower than the initial altitude. Galileo was the first person to fully comprehend this characteristic. (b) The effect of initial angle θ 0 15º and 75º . He used it to predict the range of a projectile.5) = tan −1( − 1. This content is available for free at http://cnx. the greater the range. How does the initial velocity of a projectile affect its range? Obviously. the maximum angle is approximately range—the sum of those angles is resistance is negligible is given by R= where v 20 sin 2θ 0 . the greater the range for a given initial angle. The proof of this equation is left as an end-of-chapter problem (hints are given).5 / 20.41(a).106 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS v = v 2x + v 2y = (20. On level ground. (See Figure 3. such as might be produced by a cannon. The range R of a projectile on level ground for which air considered. (3. Discussion for (b) The negative angle means that the velocity is 50. we define range to be the horizontal distance R traveled by a projectile.7 (3.70) which gives The direction θ v is found from the equation: so that Thus. The range also depends on the value of the acceleration of gravity g . the greater the initial speed 3. This result is consistent with the fact that the final vertical velocity is negative and hence downward—as you would expect because the final altitude is 20. For a fixed initial speed.68) θ v = tan −1( − 24. Figure 3. there are two angles that give the same 90º . (a) The greater the initial speed the range of a projectile with a given initial speed.67) θ v = tan −1(v y / v x) (3. Interestingly. such as the orbits of satellites around the Earth.41(b). The initial angle on v 0 .) One of the most important things illustrated by projectile motion is that vertical and horizontal motions are independent of each other.org/content/col11406/1.9 m/s.1 º .19). but it does fit the major features of projectile range as described. Let us consider projectile range further. for every initial angle except 45º .1º below the horizontal.5 m/s) 2 + ( − 24. (3.71) .5 m/s) 2.41 Trajectories of projectiles on level ground. This is true only for conditions neglecting air resistance. investigating the range of projectiles can shed light on other interesting phenomena. (3. as shown in Figure θ 0 also has a dramatic effect on the range. as illustrated in Figure 3.66) v = 31. although the maximum heights of those paths are different. The lunar astronaut Alan Shepherd was able to drive a golf ball a great distance on the Moon because gravity is weaker there. Note that the range is the same for v 0 . However. (3.

Once again we see that thinking about one topic. the Earth curves away below the projectile and acceleration of gravity changes direction along the path.org/content/m42042/1. which is another important aspect of two-dimensional kinematics and will also yield insights beyond the immediate topic. The reason. such as the Earth orbits. With a large enough initial speed. the range is large. The boat does not move in the direction in which it is pointed. The plane is moving straight ahead relative to the air. The object thus falls continuously but never hits the surface. Figure 3. This possibility was recognized centuries before it could be accomplished. The range is larger than predicted by the range equation given above because the projectile has farther to fall than it would on level ground. In Addition of Velocities. If. Similarly. as illustrated in Figure 3. can lead us to others. Add air resistance. will be covered analytically and in greater depth later in this text. as in Figure 3. PhET Explorations: Projectile Motion Blast a Buick out of a cannon! Learn about projectile motion by firing various objects. Make a game out of this simulation by trying to hit a target. These and other aspects of orbital motion.45. of course. we will examine the addition of velocities.44. the boat instead moves diagonally relative to the shore. but the movement of the air mass relative to the ground carries it sideways. Figure 3. a projectile is launched from a very high tower to avoid air resistance.8/projectile-motion_en.jar) 3.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS When we speak of the range of a projectile on level ground. When an object is in orbit. the projectile goes into orbit.43 Projectile Motion (http://cnx. initial speed. With increasing initial speed. orbit is achieved. This is called escape velocity. (See Figure 3. In each case shown here. 107 .5 Addition of Velocities Relative Velocity If a person rows a boat across a rapidly flowing river and tries to head directly for the other shore.42. such as the range of a projectile. the Earth curves away from underneath the object at the same rate as it falls. however. we assume that R is very small compared with the circumference of the Earth.42 Projectile to satellite. such as the rotation of the Earth. is that the river carries the boat downstream. Set the angle. if a small airplane flies overhead in a strong crosswind. and mass.) If the initial speed is great enough. you can sometimes see that the plane is not moving in the direction in which it is pointed. the range increases and becomes longer than it would be on level ground because the Earth curves away underneath its path.

profusely sweating goalkeeper standing in front of the goal. either graphical or analytical techniques can be used to add velocities.73) v = v 2x + v 2y (3.75) This content is available for free at http://cnx. as indicated in Figure 3.45 An airplane heading straight north is instead carried to the west and slowed down by wind. These situations are only two of many in which it is useful to add velocities. For example. just as they do for any other vectors. The plane does not move relative to the ground in the direction it points. it moves in the direction of its total velocity (solid arrow). we first re-examine how to add velocities and then consider certain aspects of what relative velocity means. In two-dimensional motion. Figure 3. In each of these situations. Its total velocity (solid arrow) relative to the shore is the sum of its velocity relative to the river plus the velocity of the river relative to the shore. if a field hockey player is moving at 5 m/s straight toward the goal and drives the ball in the same direction with a velocity of 30 m/s relative to her body. How do we add velocities? Velocity is a vector (it has both magnitude and direction). the rules of vector addition discussed in Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods and Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods apply to the addition of velocities. (3.7 .44 and Figure 3.45.org/content/col11406/1.74) θ = tan −1(v y / v x). the addition of velocities is simple—they add like ordinary numbers. then the velocity of the ball is 35 m/s relative to the stationary. We will concentrate on analytical techniques. rather.108 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3. In one-dimensional motion. The velocity of the object relative to the observer is the sum of these velocity vectors. an object has a velocity relative to a medium (such as a river) and that medium has a velocity relative to an observer on solid ground. In this module. The following equations give the relationships between the magnitude and direction of velocity ( v and θ ) and its components ( v x and v y ) along the xand y-axes of an appropriately chosen coordinate system: v x = v cos θ v y = v sin θ (3.72) (3.44 A boat trying to head straight across a river will actually move diagonally relative to the shore as shown.

Take-Home Experiment: Relative Velocity of a Boat Fill a bathtub half-full of water.6 Adding Velocities: A Boat on a River Figure 3. The current in the river. v boat . flows at a speed of 1. Example 3. its velocity relative to the water is parallel to the y -axis and perpendicular to the velocity of the river. The first two equations are used to find the components of a velocity when its magnitude and direction are known. v . v river . What is the total displacement of the boat relative to the shore? Refer to Figure 3.75 m/s in the y -direction relative to the river and the velocity of the river. as shown in Figure 3. v tot .47.76) v x = v river = 1. Try pushing the boat from one side of the tub to the other and perpendicular to the flow of water. heading of the boat.46 The velocity. Because the boat is directed straight toward the other shore. Take a toy boat or some other object that floats in water.47 A boat attempts to travel straight across a river at a speed 0. which shows a boat trying to go straight across the river. These equations are valid for any vectors and are adapted specifically for velocity. however. is 1. of an object traveling at an angle θ to the horizontal axis is the sum of component vectors vx and vy . Thus. Which way do you need to push the boat so that it ends up immediately opposite? Compare the directions of the flow of water.77) where 109 . Solution The magnitude of the total velocity is v tot = v 2x + v 2y.47.20 m/s (3. The velocity of the boat. Strategy We start by choosing a coordinate system with its x -axis parallel to the velocity of the river.20 m/s to the right. The last two are used to find the magnitude and direction of velocity when its components are known.75 m/s. Unplug the drain so water starts to drain. we can add the two velocities by using the equations v tot = v 2x + v 2y and θ = tan −1(v y / v x) directly.20 m/s to the right. and actual velocity of the boat. is 0. Let us calculate the magnitude and direction of the boat’s velocity relative to an observer on the shore. (3.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3.

though its velocity relative to the ground is 38.81) θ = 32.42 m/s.0º ) the total large compared with the velocity of the boat.750 m/s) 2 (3. yielding The direction of the total velocity θ is given by: This equation gives Discussion Both the magnitude v and the direction θ of the total velocity are consistent with Figure 3. The plane is known to be moving at 45. This result is evidenced by the small angle (only velocity has relative to the riverbank.48.7 Calculating Velocity: Wind Velocity Causes an Airplane to Drift Calculate the wind velocity for the situation shown in Figure 3.0 m/s in a direction 20. The quantity v p is known. Note that because the velocity of the river is 32. it is swept rapidly downstream. we know the total velocity v w . we choose a coordinate system with its x-axis due east and its y-axis due north (parallel to v p ). None of the velocities are In this problem. (3. (3.110 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS and v y = v boat = 0.82) Thus.) Solution This content is available for free at http://cnx. As shown in Figure 3.0 m/s at an angle west of north. somewhat different from the previous example.org/content/col11406/1. Figure 3.78) v tot = (1. then we can combine them to solve for its magnitude and direction. (You may wish to look back at the discussion of the addition of vectors using perpendicular components perpendicular. (3.0º. and we are asked to find v w .48.80) θ = tan −1(v y / v x) = tan −1(0. v w (the wind) and v p (the plane relative to the air mass).7 .48 An airplane is known to be heading north at 45. (3.0º west of north.20).0 m/s due north relative to the air mass.750 / 1.20 m/s) 2 + (0. but it is possible to find their components along a common set of perpendicular axes.47.750 m/s.79) v tot = 1. If we can find the components of in Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods. What is the speed and direction of the wind? Strategy v tot and that it is the sum of two other velocities.0 m/s. Example 3. while its velocity relative to the ground (its total velocity) is 38.

(3. as seen in Figure 3.940) − 45. Because the plane is fighting a strong combination of crosswind and head-wind. in projectile motion we always use a coordinate system with one axis parallel to gravity. v totx = v wx (3. Einstein revolutionized our view of nature with his modern theory of relativity. we were able to make the mathematics easier by choosing a coordinate system with one axis parallel to one of the velocities.91) θ = 35.0 m/s)(–0. or will it hit behind the mast because the ship is moving forward? The answer is that if air resistance is negligible. The binoculars 111 .0 m/s. One observer is on the ship and the other on shore. This minus sign indicates motion south which is consistent with the diagram.0 m/s = −9. the greatest physicist of the 20th century. Suppose a sailor at the top of a mast on a moving ship drops his binoculars.0 m/s)(0. the magnitude is vw = = v 2wx + v 2wy (3.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Because v tot is the vector sum of the v w and v p .29 m/s) 2 so that v w = 16.0) (3.87) v wy = (38. Note that in both of the last two examples.85) and We can use the first of these two equations to find Because v wx : v tot = 38.92) The direction is: giving Discussion The wind’s speed and direction are consistent with the significant effect the wind has on the total velocity of the plane.342)=–13.89) ( − 13. Now.and y-components are the sums of the x. Relative velocities are one aspect of relativity. Most things we encounter in daily life move slower than this speed.000 km/s . (3.48.0 m / s and cos 110º = – 0. For example. Relative Velocities and Classical Relativity When adding velocities. Now let us consider what two different observers see when the binoculars drop. These velocities are called relative velocities. We will repeatedly find that choosing an appropriate coordinate system makes problem solving easier.88) v toty = v totsin 110º . thus.0 m/s.342 we have v wx = (38. For example. That is. we can find the magnitude and direction of v w . (3. Nearly everyone has heard of relativity and immediately associates it with Albert Einstein (1879–1955). we have been careful to specify that the velocity is relative to some reference frame.0 m/s) 2 + ( − 9. to find Here v wy we note that v toty = v wx + v p (3.and y-components of the wind and plane velocities. (3. The relative velocities in this section are actually aspects of classical relativity. it ends up with a total velocity significantly less than its velocity relative to the air mass as well as heading in a different direction. first discussed correctly by Galileo and Isaac Newton.90) θ = tan −1(v wy / v wx) = tan −1( − 9. Both are quite different from the velocity of an airplane relative to its passengers (which should be close to zero).29 / −13. which is defined to be the study of how different observers moving relative to each other measure the same phenomenon. (3. Where will it hit the deck? Will it hit at the base of the mast.6º. less than 3. (3.84) v wx = v totx = v totcos 110º. First.86) The minus sign indicates motion west which is consistent with the diagram.83) v toty = v wx + v p. Classical relativity is limited to situations where speeds are less than about 1% of the speed of light—that is. which we shall study in later chapters. its x. the velocity of an airplane relative to an air mass is different from its velocity relative to the ground.29 m/s. Note that the plane only has vertical component of velocity so v px = 0 and v py = v p . Now that the perpendicular components of the wind velocity v wx and v wy are known. the binoculars will hit at the base of the mast at a point directly below its point of release. Let us consider an example of what two different observers see in a situation analyzed long ago by Galileo.

An observer on the moving ship sees the binoculars dropped from the top of its mast fall straight down. the initial velocity of the coin is zero relative to the plane. so the motion is that of a falling object (one-dimensional). so this motion is a projectile motion. The initial horizontal velocity is different relative to the two observers.49. What is the velocity of the coin when it strikes the floor 1.50 m. (See Figure 3. (b) An observer on the ground sees the coin move almost horizontally.112 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS have no horizontal velocity relative to the observer on the ship. moving forward with the ship.) To the observer on shore. we note that the initial velocity and position are zero. so both move the same distance forward while the binoculars are falling. and so he sees them fall straight down the mast. To get the correct description. Solution for (a) Using the given information. it is best to use a coordinate system with vertical and horizontal axes.) Example 3.49. the initial velocity is 260 m/s horizontal relative to the Earth and gravity is vertical. In part (b).8 Calculating Relative Velocity: An Airline Passenger Drops a Coin An airline passenger drops a coin while the plane is moving at 260 m/s.50 m below its point of release: (a) Measured relative to the plane? (b) Measured relative to the Earth? Figure 3. and the final position is 1. it is crucial to correctly specify the velocities relative to the observer. Strategy Both problems can be solved with the techniques for falling objects and projectiles.7 . each sees the same result—the binoculars hit at the base of the mast and not behind it. the binoculars and the ship have the same horizontal velocity. The same motion as viewed by two different observers.org/content/col11406/1. In both parts.49 Classical relativity. Figure 3. An observer on shore sees the binoculars take the curved path. Both observers see the binoculars strike the deck at the base of the mast. In part (a). This observer sees the curved path shown in Figure 3. (The ship is shown moving rather fast to emphasize the effect. The final velocity can be found using the equation: This content is available for free at http://cnx. (a) An observer in the plane sees the coin fall straight down.50 The motion of a coin dropped inside an airplane as viewed by two different observers. Although the paths look different to the different observers.

simple harmonic.97) v = 260. Once again. and acceleration vectors.93) v y 2 = 0 2 − 2(9.51 Motion in 2D (http://cnx. (3.50. PhET Explorations: Motion in 2D Try the new "Ladybug Motion 2D" simulation for the latest updated version.42 and -5. The motions as seen by different observers (one in the plane and one on the ground) in this example are analogous to those discussed for the binoculars dropped from the mast of a moving ship. the final vertical velocity for the coin relative to the ground is v y = − 5. This result is also true in moving cars.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS v y 2 = v 0y 2 − 2g(y − y 0).42. In contrast to part (a). Figure 3. Time varies with observer. However. This result fits our experience. there now is a horizontal component of the velocity.42 m/s) 2 (3. yielding The direction is given by: so that Discussion In part (a).org/content/m42045/1. The velocity’s magnitude had to be calculated to five digits to see any difference from that of the airplane. (3.96) v = (260 m/s) 2 + ( − 5. the other a nearly horizontal path. energy is stored as increased mass.) In addition. the final velocity relative to the plane is the same as it would be if the coin were dropped from rest on the Earth and fell 1.99) θ = tan −1( − 0. the outcomes are spectacularly unexpected.and y-components of velocity can be combined to find the magnitude of the final velocity: v = v x 2 + v y 2.80 m/s 2)( − 1. since there is no horizontal acceleration.19º.06 m/s. both observers see the coin fall 1.0208) = −1.94) v y = −5. an observer on the ground sees a much different motion for the coin.95) Substituting known values into the equation. one observer sees a vertical path. The plane is moving so fast horizontally to begin with that its final velocity is barely greater than the initial velocity. Move the ball with the mouse or let the simulation move the ball in four types of motion (2 types of linear. the same as found in part (a). we see that in two dimensions.06 m/s .jar) 113 . and so the motion is straight down relative to the plane. In part (b). objects in a plane fall the same way when the plane is flying horizontally as when it is at rest on the ground.100) Thus. (3.4 m 2 /s 2 (3.42 / 260) (3.42 m/s.8/motion-2d_en. (3.50 m. Solution for (b) Because the initial vertical velocity is zero relative to the ground and vertical motion is independent of horizontal motion.42) m/s . We choose the negative root because we know that the velocity is directed downwards.50 m − 0 m) = 29. but the one on the ground also sees it move forward 144 m (this calculation is left for the reader). Making Connections: Relativity and Einstein Because Einstein was able to clearly define how measurements are made (some involve light) and because the speed of light is the same for all observers. (3. Learn about position. except that the velocity of the plane is much larger. so that the two observers see very different paths. vectors do not add like ordinary numbers—the final velocity v in part (b) is not (260 – 5. Thus. (See Figure 3. The x.42 m/s . There is no initial horizontal velocity relative to the plane and no horizontal acceleration.4 has two roots: 5. it is 260. circle).98) θ = tan −1(v y / v x) = tan −1( − 5. rather. the initial and final horizontal velocities are the same and v x = 260 m/s . we get yielding We know that the square root of 29. velocity. and we have defined the positive direction to be upwards. and more surprises await.50 m vertically.

the direction of the product points in the same direction as A . every 2-d vector can be expressed as a sum of two vertical and horizontal vector components direction (of a vector): the orientation of a vector in space head (of a vector): the end point of a vector.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction • The shortest path between any two points is a straight line. if c is negative. and vice versa. an arrow used to represent quantities with both magnitude and direction velocity: speed in a given direction Section Summary 3. The magnitude and direction of R are then determined with a ruler and protractor. when solving basic physics problems. If c is positive. The resultant vector R is defined such that A + B = R . this path can be represented by a vector with horizontal and vertical components. In two dimensions.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods • The graphical method of adding vectors A and B involves drawing vectors on a graph and adding them using the head-to-tail method.org/content/col11406/1. Motion in the horizontal direction does not affect motion in the vertical direction. which is defined as −B . also referred to as the “tip” head-to-tail method: a method of adding vectors in which the tail of each vector is placed at the head of the previous vector kinematics: the study of motion without regard to mass or force magnitude (of a vector): the length or size of a vector. vector addition is commutative because the order in which vectors are added together does not affect the final sum component (of a 2-d vector): a piece of a vector that points in either the vertical or the horizontal direction. the direction of the product points in the opposite direction as A . • The horizontal and vertical components of a vector are independent of one another. • The graphical method of subtracting vector B from A involves adding the opposite of vector B . magnitude is a scalar quantity motion: displacement of an object as a function of time projectile motion: the motion of an object that is subject only to the acceleration of gravity projectile: an object that travels through the air and experiences only acceleration due to gravity range: the maximum horizontal distance that a projectile travels relative velocity: the velocity of an object as observed from a particular reference frame relativity: the study of how different observers moving relative to each other measure the same phenomenon resultant vector: the vector sum of two or more vectors resultant: the sum of two or more vectors scalar: a quantity with magnitude but no direction tail: the start point of a vector. less than 3000 km/s commutative: refers to the interchangeability of order in a function. the location of the tip of the vector’s arrowhead. Then.7 . A – B = A + (–B) = R .114 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Glossary air resistance: a frictional force that slows the motion of objects as they travel through the air. • The head-to-tail method of adding vectors involves drawing the first vector on a graph and then placing the tail of each subsequent vector at the head of the previous vector. the head-to-tail method of addition is followed in the usual way to obtain the resultant vector R . opposite to the head or tip of the arrow trajectory: the path of a projectile through the air vector addition: the rules that apply to adding vectors together vector: a quantity that has both magnitude and direction. In this case. This content is available for free at http://cnx. The resultant vector is then drawn from the tail of the first vector to the head of the final vector. 3. air resistance is assumed to be zero analytical method: the method of determining the magnitude and direction of a resultant vector using the Pythagorean theorem and trigonometric identities classical relativity: the study of relative velocities in situations where speeds are less than about 1% of the speed of light—that is. • Addition of vectors is commutative such that A + B = B + A . • If a vector A is multiplied by a scalar quantity c . respectively. the magnitude of the product is given by cA .

3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods • The analytical method of vector addition and subtraction involves using the Pythagorean theorem and trigonometric identities to determine the magnitude and direction of a resultant vector. 2. 2g • The maximum horizontal distance traveled by a projectile is called the range. 3. Then. Analyze the motion of the projectile in the vertical direction using the following equations: Vertical motion(Assuming positive direction is up. of the resultant vector R : Step 3: Use the Pythagorean theorem to determine the magnitude. and the components of the velocity v are given by v x = v cos θ and v y = v sin θ . Step 2: Add the horizontal and vertical components of each vector to determine the components R x and R y of the resultant vector. θ . • The steps to add vectors A and B using the analytical method are as follows: Step 1: Determine the coordinate system for the vectors.4 Projectile Motion • Projectile motion is the motion of an object through the air that is subject only to the acceleration of gravity. 3. 4. • The maximum height h of a projectile launched with initial vertical velocity v 0y is given by h= v 20y . determine the horizontal and vertical components of each vector using the equations A x = A cos θ B x = B cos θ and A y = A sin θ B y = B sin θ.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS 3. Recombine the horizontal and vertical components of location and/or velocity using the following equations: s = x2 + y2 θ = tan −1(y / x) v = v 2x + v 2y θ v = tan −1(v y / v x). Determine a coordinate system. R . The components of position s are given by the quantities x and y .80 m/s 2) y = y 0 + 1 (v 0y + v y)t 2 v y = v 0y − gt y = y 0 + v 0yt − 1 gt 2 2 v 2y = v 20y − 2g(y − y 0). resolve the position and/or velocity of the object in the horizontal and vertical components. g R of a projectile on level ground launched at an angle 115 . • To solve projectile motion problems. Then. R : Rx = Ax + Bx and R y = A y + B y. Step 4: Use a trigonometric identity to determine the direction. R = R 2x + R 2y. a y = −g = −9. of R : θ = tan −1(R y / R x). where v is the magnitude of the velocity and θ is its direction. The range θ 0 above the horizontal with initial speed v 0 is given by R= v 20 sin 2θ 0 . Analyze the motion of the projectile in the horizontal direction using the following equations: Horizontal motion(a x = 0) x = x 0 + v xt v x = v 0x = v x = velocity is a constant. perform the following steps: 1.

Which of the following is a vector: a person’s height. each taking a different path. explain why he could end up anywhere on the circle shown in Figure 3. What other information would he need to get to Sacramento? Figure 3. 8. two nonzero displacements).53. and that along Path 2 is 8. stating its magnitude.5 km. Under what circumstances can you end up at your starting point? More generally. the altitude on Mt. can two vectors with different magnitudes ever add to zero? Can three or more? This content is available for free at http://cnx. 3. can you end up at your starting point? More generally. the Earth’s population.5 Addition of Velocities • Velocities in two dimensions are added using the same analytical vector techniques. the age of the Earth. and it varies dramatically with reference frame.52 5.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods 1. Suppose you take two steps A and B (that is. the boiling point of water.org/content/col11406/1. units. as illustrated below. If an airplane pilot is told to fly 123 km in a straight line to get from San Francisco to Sacramento. which are rewritten as v x = v cos θ v y = v sin θ v = v 2x + v 2y θ = tan −1(v y / v x). particularly when the observers move relative to one another. Two campers in a national park hike from their cabin to the same spot on a lake.2 km. • Relative velocity is the velocity of an object as observed from a particular reference frame.7 . Classical relativity is limited to situations where speed is less than about 1% of the speed of light (3000 km/s). • Relativity is the study of how different observers measure the same phenomenon. Give a specific example of a vector.53 6. The total distance traveled along Path 1 is 7. the cost of this book. What is the final displacement of each camper? Figure 3. Explain why it is not possible to add a scalar to a vector. the acceleration of gravity? 2. Conceptual Questions 3. If you take two steps of different sizes.116 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS 3. Everest. What do vectors and scalars have in common? How do they differ? 4. under what circumstances can two nonzero vectors add to give zero? Is the maximum distance you can end up from the starting point A + B the sum of the lengths of the two steps? 7. and direction.

Considering factors that might affect the ability of an archer to hit a target. such as wind. Describe the subsequent motion of the two coins. During a lecture demonstration. If the vectors direction of A? A and B are perpendicular. Answer the following questions for projectile motion on level ground assuming negligible air resistance (the initial angle being neither 0º nor 90º ): (a) Is the velocity ever zero? (b) When is the velocity a minimum? A maximum? (c) Can the velocity ever be the same as the initial velocity at a time other than at t = 0 ? (d) Can the speed ever be the same as the initial speed at a time other than at t = 0 ? 14. 117 . She then flicks one of the coins horizontally off the table. Give an example of a nonzero vector that has a component of zero. What is the direction of its velocity relative to the truck just before it hits? Is this the same as the direction of its velocity relative to ground just before it hits? Explain your answers. For a fixed initial speed. What frame or frames of reference do you instinctively use when driving a car? When flying in a commercial jet airplane? 18. Draw its path as viewed by a stationary observer.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS 3. explain why the smaller angle (closer to the horizontal) is preferable. Suppose you add two vectors A and B . He is moving fast. The hat of a jogger running at constant velocity falls off the back of his head. What relative direction between them produces the resultant with the greatest magnitude? What is the maximum magnitude? What relative direction between them produces the resultant with the smallest magnitude? What is the minimum magnitude? 10. Explain why a vector cannot have a component greater than its own magnitude. A clod of dirt falls from the bed of a moving truck. It strikes the ground directly below the end of the truck.4 Projectile Motion 13. is it possible for the ball to fall straight down as viewed by a person standing at the side of the road? Under what condition would this occur? How would the motion of the ball appear to the person who threw it? 20. 3. there are two angles that give the same range. Draw a sketch showing the path of the hat in the jogger’s frame of reference. in particular discussing whether they hit the floor at the same time. 12. 21. Why doesn’t he need to keep his eyes on the ball? 19. A basketball player dribbling down the court usually keeps his eyes fixed on the players around him.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods 9. 11. If someone is riding in the back of a pickup truck and throws a softball straight backward. what is the component of A along the direction of B ? What is the component of B along the 3. When would it be necessary for the archer to use the larger angle? Why does the punter in a football game use the higher trajectory? 16. simultaneously nudging the other over the edge. a professor places two coins on the edge of a table. For all but the maximum. the range of a projectile is determined by the angle at which it is fired.5 Addition of Velocities 17. Answer the following questions for projectile motion on level ground assuming negligible air resistance (the initial angle being neither 0º nor 90º ): (a) Is the acceleration ever zero? (b) Is the acceleration ever in the same direction as a component of velocity? (c) Is the acceleration ever opposite in direction to a component of velocity? 15.

Find the following for path B in Figure 3. Find the following for path A in Figure 3.) then leg (This problem shows that Figure 3. Find the sum A+B+C then find their sum when added in a different order and show the result is the same.54 The various lines represent paths taken by different people walking in a city. and C .52.57.54: (a) the total distance traveled.0º north of east (which is equivalent to subtracting B from A —that is.0 m in a direction exactly 40º south of west.0º south of west. Suppose you walk 18. but for the second leg you walk 20.A = . Find the magnitudes of velocities Figure 3.0 m straight west and then 25.0º south of west and then 12. Find the following for path C in Figure 3. as in Figure 3.118 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Problems & Exercises 3.0 m in a direction 40. then this problem finds their sum 3.55 The two displacements R having magnitude R A and direction and θ. 3.org/content/col11406/1. Find the components of 12.54: (a) the total distance traveled.0 m straight north.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods 13. and what is the compass direction of a line connecting your starting point to your final position? (If you represent the two legs of the walk as vector displacements A and B . B v A and v B in Figure 3. 10. Show that the order of addition of three vectors does not affect their sum. How far are you from your starting point. 2.57 add to give a total displacement 5. show that you get the same final result.56 6. Suppose you first walk 12. B . 1.7 .0 m in a direction exactly 20º west of north. then this problem asks you to find their sum R = A + B . and A . v tot along the x.0 m in a direction 40. R′′ = B . you first walk leg B .0 m in a direction 20.58: (a) the total distance traveled and (b) the magnitude and direction of the displacement from This content is available for free at http://cnx.57. That is. and (b) the magnitude and direction of the displacement from start to finish. (b) Repeat the problem two problems prior.) 9.0 m in a direction 40. A + B = B + A . but reverse the order of the two legs of the walk.57 The two velocities Figure 3. How far are you from your starting point. to finding R′ = A − B ). all having different lengths and directions. as in Figure 3. B . Figure 3.24.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods Use graphical methods to solve these problems. but now you first walk 20. (a) Repeat the problem two problems prior.0º east of south (which is equivalent to subtracting to finding A from B —that is. which is 20. R = A + B . Repeat the problem above. and (b) the magnitude and direction of the displacement from start to finish. Find the north and east components of the displacement for the hikers shown in Figure 3. Show that the sum of the vectors discussed in Example 3.and y-axes in Figure v tot along a set of perpendicular axes 30º counterclockwise relative to those in Figure 3. Show this property by choosing any three vectors A . 3. and what is the compass direction of a line connecting your starting point to your final position? (If you represent the two legs of the walk as vector displacements A and B . 4. (There are five other orders in which A . Show that this is the case.) 7.) vA 11. which is 12.2 gives the result shown in Figure 3.R′ ). and C can be added.55. choose only one.0 m in a direction 20º west of north and then 20. You may assume data taken from graphs is accurate to three digits.56. All blocks are 120 m on a side. Find the components of rotated and vB add to give a total v tot . 8.

What is his result? Figure 3. B + A = A + B . (This determination is equivalent to finding the components of the displacement along the south and west directions.59 Figure 3. A new landowner has a triangular piece of flat land she wishes to fence.0 m straight south.) Discuss how taking another path to reach the same point might help to overcome an obstacle blocking you other path.59. then this problem asks you to find their sum R = A + B . finding R′ = A – B ) (b) Repeat 25.) (b) Show that you still arrive at the same point if the east and north legs are reversed in order. B add to give a total displacement Note that you can also solve this graphically. explicitly show how you follow the steps of the analytical method of vector addition. (This is equivalent to subtract A from B —that is.0º south of west. Repeat Exercise 3. Discuss why the analytical technique for solving this problem is potentially more accurate than the graphical technique. as in Figure 3. All blocks are 120 m on a side. but reverse the order of the two legs of the walk and show that you get the same final result. and then correctly calculates the length and orientation of the fourth side D . In this part of the problem. and then in a direction 22.62. He measures the first three sides. Solve the following problem using analytical techniques: Suppose you walk 18.) (b) Find the distances you would have to fly first in a direction 45.61.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS start to finish.60 The two displacements R having magnitude R A and direction and θ. she measures the first side to be 80. Find the following for path D in Figure 3.58 The various lines represent paths taken by different people walking in a city. to find A = B + C .60. and C in Figure 3. 18. You fly 32. (a) Find the distances you would have to drive straight east and then straight north to arrive at the same point. (This determination is equivalent to find the components of the displacement along the east and north directions. B from A —that is.50 km in a straight line in a direction 15º east of north. Find the north and east components of the displacement from San Francisco to Sacramento shown in Figure 3. and what is the compass direction of a line connecting your starting point to your final position? (If you represent the two legs of the walk as vector displacements A and B .0º west of north. B.0 m north and then 18. You drive 7. She then correctly calculates the length and orientation of the third side result? C .) 21. These are the components of the displacement along a different set of axes—one rotated 45º . Do Exercise 3. explicitly show how you follow the steps of the analytical method of vector addition. subtracting 15.61 16. but now you first walk 20. (This is equivalent to 14. Is that consistent with your result?) again. Starting at the west corner. 19.0 m long and the next to be 105 m. (This problem shows that adding them in reverse order gives the same result—that is. 119 .58: (a) the total distance traveled and (b) the magnitude and direction of the displacement from start to finish. Figure 3. What is her Figure 3. In this part of the problem.0 km in a straight line in still air in the direction 35.0 m straight west and then 25. (a) Find the distances you would have to fly straight south and then straight west to arrive at the same point. shown as A.16 using analytical techniques.0º south of west 45. These sides are represented as displacement vectors A from B in Figure 3.0 m east. A farmer wants to fence off his four-sided plot of flat land. 17.16 again using analytical techniques and change the second leg of the walk to 25.0 m straight north. How far are you from your starting point.

00 seconds later. (a) How long is the ball in the air? (b) What must have been the initial horizontal component of the velocity? (c) What is the vertical component of the velocity just before the ball hits the ground? (d) What is the velocity (including both the horizontal and vertical components) of the ball just before it hits the ground? 28.0 m straight downfield.0 m/s? In this part of the problem. whose out line is 6. Suppose a pilot flies qualitatively how this flight would be altered by a wind from the north and how the effect of the wind would depend on both wind speed and the speed of the plane relative to the air mass. (a) At what speed does the ball hit the ground? (b) For how long does the ball remain in the air? (c)What maximum height is attained by the ball? 27.00 m west and 12.0 m distant target. assuming that the smaller of the two possible angles was used? (b) What other angle gives the same range. It strikes a target above the ground 3.25 times the acceleration due to gravity. one squats and then pushes off with the legs to see how far one can jump.0 m above the center of the 30. then 1. (a) If a gun is sighted to hit targets that are at the same height as the gun and 100.70 km 60.00 m/s when the fish in her talons wiggles loose and falls into the lake 5. consider how much greater the range is than the horizontal distance he must travel to miss the end of the last bus. Verify the ranges shown for the projectiles in Figure 3. (a) At what angle must the arrow be released to hit the bull’s-eye if its initial speed is 35. What is the angle θ such that the ball just crosses the net? Will the ball land in the service box. where it is caught at the same height as it left his hand. and finally 2. A football quarterback is moving straight backward at a speed of 200 m/s when he throws a pass to a player 18.91 m high.41(b) for an initial velocity of 50 m/s at the given initial angles. The owl is flying east at 3. Calculate the velocity of the fish relative to the water when it hits the water. Gilligan builds a raft and sets to sea.5 m/s? State your assumptions.0º above the horizontal.20 km 55. Verify the ranges for the projectiles in Figure 3. and why would it not be used? (c) How long did this pass take? 31. (Increased range can be achieved by swinging the arms in the direction of the jump.0-m building and lands 100.95 m (Mike Powell.00 m below.41(a) for and the given initial velocities. the bull’s-eye of the target is at same height as the release height of the arrow.0 s later. Treated as a projectile. explicitly show how you follow the steps involved in solving projectile motion problems.30 km 25.0º south of west. In an attempt to escape his island. An owl is carrying a mouse to the chicks in its nest. A ball is thrown horizontally from the top of a 60.) (c) The ocean is not flat.0 cm diameter nest. θ = 45º 32. then 1.0 km.00º east of north. It lands on the top edge of the cliff 4. The cannon on a battleship can fire a shell a maximum distance of 32. Assume that the radius of the Earth is 6.0º north of west.0º north of east.00 m across the field. An eagle is flying horizontally at a speed of 3.0 km in a direction 60º north of east and then flies 30.0 m. calculate the horizontal position of the mouse when it has fallen 12. Will the arrow go over or under the branch? 30. A projectile is launched at ground level with an initial speed of 50. (b) What maximum height does it reach? (At its highest.10 km straight east.0 km in a direction 15º north of east as shown in Figure 3.0 m away? The muzzle velocity of the bullet is 275 m/s.0 m long? (b) Discuss what your answer implies about the margin of error in this act—that is.0º below the horizontal when it accidentally drops the mouse. The wind shifts a great deal during the day. the shell is above 60% of the atmosphere—but air resistance is not really negligible as assumed to make this problem easier.50 km 45. In the standing broad jump. (a) What is the height of the cliff? (b) What is the maximum height reached by the arrow along its trajectory? (c) What is the arrow’s impact speed just before hitting the cliff? 35.120 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS Figure 3.37×10 km . g . It is shot with a velocity of 30 m/s at an angle of 60º above the horizontal.0 m away.) 29. and he is blown along the following straight lines: 2. a tennis player hits the ball at a height of 2. effectively making the gun accurate only for a specific range. 40.0º south of east.50 m/s at an angle 30. Serving at a speed of 170 km/h. Ignore air resistance. then 7.63. . (Neglect air resistance. How many buses can he clear if the top of the takeoff ramp is at the same height as the bus tops and the buses are 20. what is its initial speed relative to the ground? (b) How long does it take to get to the receiver? (c) What is its maximum height above its point of release? 39. USA. Is the owl lucky enough to have the mouse hit the nest? To answer this question. 42. The service line is 11. which is 0. 41.40 m from the net? 38.70 km 5.600 m and the acceleration achieved from this position is 1.7 can they jump? State your assumptions.4 Projectile Motion 25. (a) Calculate the initial velocity of the shell. 33. An archer shoots an arrow at a 75. An arrow is shot from a height of 1.0º south of west. Suppose the extension of the legs from the crouch position is 0.0 m/s (144 km/h) .50 m above the release height of the arrow. (a) A daredevil is attempting to jump his motorcycle over a line of buses parked end to end by driving up a 32º ramp at a speed of 40.0 m/s at an angle of 30.) 36.0 m from the base of the building.0 m/s. 1991). then 5. (b) There is a large tree halfway between the archer and the target with an overhanging horizontal branch 3. The world long jump record is 8. how low will the bullet hit if aimed directly at a target 150. How far Figure 3. How many meters lower will its surface be 32. Suppose a soccer player kicks the ball from a distance 30 m toward the goal. What are the x and y distances from where the projectile was launched to where it lands? 26. Find the initial speed of the ball if it just passes over the goal.63 3.5 m and an angle θ below the horizontal. what is the maximum range obtainable by a person if he has a take-off speed of 9. A rugby player passes the ball 7.9 m from the net. A ball is kicked with an initial velocity of 16 m/s in the horizontal direction and 12 m/s in the vertical direction.5 m toward a cliff of height H . Gun sights are adjusted to aim high to compensate for the effect of gravity. Its position at that time is 4.org/content/col11406/1. because the Earth 3 is curved. then 4. What is his final position relative to the island? 40. Discuss 24. (a) At what angle was the This content is available for free at http://cnx. 37. Find her total distance R from the starting point and the direction θ of the straight-line path to the final position. ball thrown if its initial speed was 12.62 23. (b) Discuss qualitatively how a larger muzzle velocity would affect this problem and what would be the effect of air resistance.0 km from the ship along a horizontal line parallel to the surface at the ship? Does your answer imply that error introduced by the assumption of a flat Earth in projectile motion is significant here? 34. (a) If the ball is thrown at an angle of 25º relative to the ground and is caught at the same height as it is released.80 km 10.

50 m in the frame of reference of the Earth. In 2007.0º angle.0º relative to the ground and is caught at the same height as it is released.00 km relative to the Earth. Construct Your Own Problem Consider a ball tossed over a fence. Explicitly show how you follow the steps involved in solving projectile motion problems. What is the velocity of the wind relative to the water? 63. A player standing on the free throw line throws the ball with an initial speed of 7. how long will he take to return 6. (a) What is the initial speed of the ball? (b) When the ball is near its maximum height it experiences a brief gust of wind that reduces its horizontal velocity by 1. (c) Discuss how the answers give a consistent result for the position at which the sandal hits the deck. What was his average velocity relative to the air? (c) What was his total displacement relative to the air mass? 53. At what angle above the horizontal must the ball be thrown to exactly hit the basket? Note that most players will use a large initial angle rather than a flat shot because it allows for a larger margin of error. (d) If such a muzzle velocity could be obtained.20 m/s. What was the initial speed of the shot if he released it at a height of 2. while its direction of travel relative to the air is 5. Australia. The free throw line in basketball is 4. The 121 . Using the data from the figure. Prove that the trajectory of a projectile is parabolic.15 m/s. 44.20 m/s in a direction 30. (a) In what direction would the ship in Exercise 3. the distance to the fence from the point of release of the ball. Can a goalkeeper at her/ his goal kick a soccer ball into the opponent’s goal without the ball touching the ground? The distance will be about 95 m. heading due north at 7. A football quarterback is moving straight backward at a speed of 2.53 m/s in a direction 45º south of east. with the Milky Way Galaxy at the center. Michael Carter (U. Its direction of motion relative to the Earth is 45. who will win the race. longer range than 45º in the shot put. You should also consider whether it is possible to choose the initial speed for the ball and just calculate the angle at which it is thrown.0 m/s in a direction 15º south of east. discuss the effects of air resistance. The velocity of the wind relative to the water is crucial to sailboats. releasing it at a height of 2. Derive R= 50. 40º above the 43. The ball is thrown at an angle of 25. 3.0 m/s in a direction 20º south of east (as in Exercise 3. A jet airplane flying from Darwin. A basketball player is running at 5.5 Addition of Velocities 52.) 38º will give a 46.57 have to travel in order to have a velocity straight north relative to the Earth.50 m/s in a direction of 50. It encounters a wind that has a velocity of 4. Among the things to determine are.) You should obtain an equation of the form y = ax + bx 2 where a and b are constants. What was his total displacement? (b) Allen encountered a headwind averaging 2.S.0º south of west relative to the Earth. which is 3. solve the equation He flew for 169 min at an average velocity of 3.0 min to travel 6. given the initial direction to be horizontal. What is the initial velocity of the ball relative to the quarterback ? 57. positions of a projectile that starts at the origin.) set a world record in the shot put with a throw of 24. having the form y = ax + bx 2 . What is the velocity of the airplane relative to the Earth? (b) Discuss whether your answers are consistent with your expectations for the effect of the wind on the plane’s path. The Netherlands.00 m/s almost precisely in the opposite direction of his motion relative to the Earth. 62. assuming they run at constant velocity? (c) What distance ahead will the winner be when she crosses the finish line? 55.0º south of west. It is in the jet stream. Calculate the velocity of the sandal when it hits the deck of the ship: (a) relative to the ship and (b) relative to a stationary observer on shore. A seagull flies at a velocity of 9. 45. Bryan Allen pedaled a human-powered aircraft across the English Channel from the cliffs of Dover to Cap Gris-Nez on June 12. and the height at which the ball is released. 59. Unreasonable Results (a) Find the maximum range of a super cannon that has a muzzle velocity of 4. 51.00 m/s straight into the wind. thus. (a) What is the velocity of the second runner relative to the first? (b) If the front runner is 250 m from the finish line.50 m/s in a direction 40. A sandal is dropped from the top of a 15.44 m (8 ft) above the floor. noting that R = x − x 0 49.CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS 2.0º above the horizontal? (Although the maximum distance for a projectile on level ground is achieved at 45º when air resistance is neglected.00 m/s directly toward the basket when he jumps into the air to dunk the ball. and the curvature of the Earth on the range of the super cannon. The local ocean current is 1. thinning air with altitude.00 m/s relative to the water. (b) What is unreasonable about the range you found? (c) Is the premise unreasonable or is the available equation inapplicable? Explain your answer. What is the airplane’s speed relative to the air mass? (b) What is the airplane’s speed relative to the Earth? 61.0º north of east. the actual angle to achieve maximum range is smaller. It appears to an observer on the Earth that we are at the center of an expanding universe. 54.4 m above the ground.0 m straight downfield.750 m above the floor? (b) How far from the basket (measured in the horizontal direction) must he start his jump to reach his maximum height at the same time as he reaches the basket? 47. which is x = v 0x t for t and substitute it into the expression for blowing at 35.0-m-high mast on a ship moving at 1.00 m/s ? (b) What would its speed be relative to the Earth? y = v 0yt – (1 / 2)gt 2 (These equations describe the x and y v 20 sin 2θ 0 for the range of a projectile on level g ground by finding the time t at which y becomes zero and substituting this value of t into the expression for x − x 0 . 56. A ship sets sail from Rotterdam. The great astronomer Edwin Hubble discovered that all distant galaxies are receding from our Milky Way Galaxy with velocities proportional to their distances.64 illustrates this for five galaxies lying along a straight line. Without an effect from the wind. calculate the velocities: (a) relative to galaxy 2 and (b) relative to galaxy 5.0º east of north relative to the Earth. Figure 3. the first two runners are separated by a distance of 45.00º south of west.77 m.0 km/s. (a) If it takes the bird 20.50 m/s. (a) Another airplane is flying in a jet stream that is blowing at 45. assuming its speed relative to the water remains 7.00 m/s when he throws a pass to a player 18. 1979. what is the velocity of the wind? (b) If the bird turns around and flies with the wind. A football player punts the ball at a 45. has an air speed of 260 m/s in a direction 5. (a) 60. Verify that the coin dropped by the airline passenger in the Example 3. What is the velocity of the ship relative to the Earth? 58.8 travels 144 m horizontally while falling 1.0º south of west. the height of the fence.00 km? (c) Discuss how the wind affects the total round-trip time compared to what it would be with no wind. and the second a velocity of 4. A goalkeeper can give the ball a speed of 30 m/s. What distance does the ball travel horizontally? 48.50 m/s.58).0 m horizontally. He maintains his horizontal velocity. To obtain this expression.75 m/s due south. Suppose a sailboat is in an ocean current that has a velocity of 2.57 m (15 ft) from the basket. The front runner has a velocity of 3. Construct a problem in which you calculate the ball’s needed initial velocity to just clear the fence. Also examine the possibility of multiple solutions given the distances and heights you have chosen. (a) What vertical velocity does he need to rise 0.10 m and threw it at an angle of 38.05 m (10 ft) above the floor.0 m. Near the end of a marathon race. the ball would travel 60.

Unreasonable Results Suppose you wish to shoot supplies straight up to astronauts in an orbit 36.00º west of north. He reaches the opposite side at a distance 40 m downstream from his starting point. how long ago would all of the galaxies have been at approximately the same position? The two parts of this problem give you some idea of how the Hubble constant for universal expansion and the time back to the Big Bang are determined. The line between the center of the goal and the player makes a 90. 64.0º angle relative to his path as shown in Figure 3. Among the things to consider are the direction of the runway. Discuss any last minute maneuvers the pilot might have to perform in order for the plane to land with its wheels pointing straight down the runway.65.50 h.00 m/s when he hits the puck toward the goal. Construct Your Own Problem Consider an airplane headed for a runway in a cross wind. The distances are in millions of light years (Mly). an average galaxy is about 0. The velocities are nearly proportional to the distances. (a) What was the velocity of the plane relative to the ground? (b) Calculate the magnitude and direction of the tailwind’s velocity. The sizes of the galaxies are greatly exaggerated.64 Five galaxies on a straight line. The speed of the puck relative to the player is 29. How fast is the water in the river flowing with respect to the ground? What is the speed of the swimmer with respect to a friend at rest on the ground? 66. An athlete crosses a 25-m-wide river by swimming perpendicular to the water current at a speed of 0.0 m/s.1 Mly across. What angle must the puck’s velocity make relative to the player (in his frame of reference) to hit the center of the goal? Figure 3. (b) If you extrapolate back in time. Figure 3. 68. .000 km above the surface of the Earth. Construct a problem in which you calculate the angle the airplane must fly relative to the air mass in order to have a velocity parallel to the runway. and they would likely be aware of relative velocities. What is the velocity of the Gulf Stream? (The velocity obtained is typical for the Gulf Stream a few hundred kilometers off the east coast of the United States.5 m/s relative to the water. concluding that it is not possible to locate the center of expansion with the given information.7 the speed of the plane relative to the air mass.org/content/col11406/1. the wind speed and direction (its velocity) and This content is available for free at http://cnx. Also calculate the speed of the airplane relative to the ground.64 to find the rate of expansion as a function of distance. 69.122 CHAPTER 3 | TWO-DIMENSIONAL KINEMATICS results mean that observers on all galaxies will see themselves at the center of the expanding universe. It travels 3000 km in a direction 5º south of east in 1. An ice hockey player is moving at 8.) 67. Unreasonable Results A commercial airplane has an air speed of 280 m/s due east and flies with a strong tailwind. (a) Use the distance and velocity data in Figure 3. where a light year is the distance light travels in one year. (a) At what velocity must the supplies be launched? (b) What is unreasonable about this velocity? (c) Is there a problem with the relative velocity between the supplies and the astronauts when the supplies reach their maximum height? (d) Is the premise unreasonable or is the available equation inapplicable? Explain your answer. (c) What is unreasonable about both of these velocities? (d) Which premise is unreasonable? 70.65 An ice hockey player moving across the rink must shoot backward to give the puck a velocity toward the goal.0º west of north at a speed of 4. showing their distances and velocities relative to the Milky Way (MW) Galaxy.80 m/s 5. respectively. Its velocity relative to the Earth is 4. 65.00 m/s relative to the water. A ship sailing in the Gulf Stream is heading 25.

4. Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction • Understand the four basic forces that underlie the processes in nature.2. and Other Examples of Forces • Define normal and tension forces. Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System • Define net force. Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia • Define mass and inertia.1. • Apply Newton's third law to define systems and solve problems of motion. • Use trigonometric identities to resolve weight into components. Problem-Solving Strategies • Understand and apply a problem-solving procedure to solve problems using Newton's laws of motion. Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion • Apply problem-solving techniques to solve for quantities in more complex systems of forces. Normal.3. • Apply Newton’s second law to determine the weight of an object.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 4 DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. • Understand Newton’s second law of motion. (credit: Jin Jang) Learning Objectives 4.4. Tension. 4.6.8.1 Newton’s laws of motion describe the motion of the dolphin’s path. Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces • Understand Newton's third law of motion. 4. 123 . Development of Force Concept • Understand the definition of force. external force. 4.7. and system.5. 4. 4. • Understand Newton's first law of motion. • Integrate concepts from kinematics to solve problems using Newton's laws of motion. • Apply Newton's laws of motion to solve problems involving a variety of forces. 4.

If two people push in different directions on a third person. his work could not be suppressed or denied. Galileo’s use of the telescope was his most notable achievement in demonstrating the importance of observation. a cannon exerts a strong force on a cannonball that is launched into the air. For many centuries natural philosophers had debated the nature of the universe based largely on certain rules of logic with great weight given to the thoughts of earlier classical philosophers such as Aristotle (384–322 BC). After his death.124 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Introduction to Dynamics: Newton’s Laws of Motion Motion draws our attention. and because of the manner in which he dealt with those in authority. For this reason. a push or a pull—is a good place to start. Newton’s laws of motion are the foundation of dynamics. Making Connections: Past and Present Philosophy The importance of observation and the concept of cause and effect were not always so entrenched in human thinking. it adds just like other vectors. It is amazing that many of these developments were made with Newton working alone. It proposed scientific laws that are still used today to describe the motion of objects. without the benefit of the usual interactions that take place among scientists today. as illustrated in Figure 4. Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. and make great contributions to the theories of light and color.2 Issac Newton’s monumental work. Newton. The achievements of Galileo. Our everyday experiences also give us a good idea of how multiple forces add. which enabled him to develop laws of motion. We know that a push or pull has both magnitude and direction (therefore.7 . Motion itself can be beautiful. or the orbit of a satellite. Because others before Galileo had also made discoveries by observing the nature of the universe. we need a working definition of force.1 Development of Force Concept Dynamics is the study of the forces that cause objects and systems to move. was published in 1687. This realization was a part of the evolution of modern physics from natural philosophy. These laws provide an example of the breadth and simplicity of principles under which nature functions. Albert Einstein (1879–1955) developed the theory of relativity and. To understand this. his work was verified by others. At the beginning of the 20th century. Most of the scientific theories that are described in this book descended from the work of these scientists. and others were key milestones in the history of scientific thought. Among the many great thinkers who contributed to this change were Newton and Galileo. causing us to marvel at the forces needed to achieve spectacular motion. He discovered moons orbiting Jupiter and made other observations that were inconsistent with certain ancient ideas and religious dogma. These constraints define the realm of classical mechanics. Since force is a vector. These ideas were developed in Two-Dimensional Kinematics. Earth exerts only a tiny downward pull on a flea. All of the situations we consider in this chapter. Newton made use of the work of his predecessors. It was not until the advent of modern physics early in the 20th century that it was discovered that Newton’s laws of motion produce a good approximation to motion only when the objects are moving at speeds much. Galileo also contributed to the formation of what is now called Newton’s first law of motion. For example. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Forces. The development of Newton’s laws marks the transition from the Renaissance into the modern era. They are also universal laws in that they apply to similar situations on Earth as well as in space. discover the law of gravity. such as that of a dolphin jumping out of the water. like other vectors. are in the realm of classical physics. it is a vector quantity) and can vary considerably in each regard.org/content/col11406/1. Galileo was tried by the Inquisition and punished. as illustrated in Figure 4. and his ideas were eventually accepted by the church and scientific communities. we might expect the total force to be in the direction shown. (credit: Service commun de la documentation de l'Université de Strasbourg) Galileo was instrumental in establishing observation as the absolute determinant of truth. Dynamics considers the forces that affect the motion of moving objects and systems. and because repeated observations verified those of Galileo. 4. as discussed in Introduction to the Nature of Science and Physics. Our intuitive definition of force—that is. This theory does not have the constraints present in classical physics. This transition was characterized by a revolutionary change in the way people thought about the physical universe. much less than the speed of light and when those objects are larger than −9 the size of most molecules (about 10 m in diameter). or the flight of a bird. invent calculus.3(a) for two ice skaters. and all those preceding the introduction of relativity in Special Relativity. Issac Newton’s (1642–1727) laws of motion were just one part of the monumental work that has made him legendary. are represented by arrows and can be added using the familiar head-to-tail method or by trigonometric methods. but kinematics only describes the way objects move—their velocity and their acceleration. rather than “logical” argument.3. The study of motion is kinematics. In contrast. developed quantum theory. or a pole vaulter. Figure 4. Einstein. He spent the final years of his life under a form of house arrest. along with many other scientists.

because only external forces acting on the body affect its motion. Note the repeated use of the verb “remains. the spring exerts a restoring force. Figure 4. (a) This spring has a length Take-Home Experiment: Force Standards To investigate force standards and cause and effect. Here F restore has a magnitude of 6 units in the force standard being employed. and only those forces acting on the body from the outside (external forces) are shown. would the object still slow down? The idea of cause and effect is crucial in accurately describing what happens in various situations. and that an object in motion tends to slow down and stop unless some effort is made to keep it moving. F restore . Many other possibilities exist for standard forces. We can ignore any internal forces within the body. as illustrated in Figure 4.3(b) is our first example of a free-body diagram. Figure 4. or. (c) A spring scale is one device that uses a spring to measure force. we see a free-body diagram representing the forces acting on the third skater. We will define net external force in the next section.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. two. (b) When stretched a distance Δx . and use this item as a weight to investigate the stretch of the rubber band. The force F restore is exerted on whatever is attached to the hook. In part (b). The body is represented by a single isolated point (or free body).) Free-body diagrams are very useful in analyzing forces acting on a system and are employed extensively in the study and application of Newton’s laws of motion. which is reproducible. (One that we will encounter in Magnetism is the magnetic force between two wires carrying electric current.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia Experience suggests that an object at rest will remain at rest if left alone.4 The force exerted by a stretched spring can be used as a standard unit of force. Hang one rubber band vertically on a hook. and use the force it exerts to pull itself back to its relaxed shape—called a restoring force—as a standard. If we spray the surface with talcum powder to make the surface smoother. and four of these (identical) items suspended from the rubber band. The object quickly grinds to a halt. Forces are vectors and add like other vectors. If friction disappeared.) Some alternative definitions of force will be given later in this chapter. Find a small household item that could be attached to the rubber band using a paper clip. x when undistorted. if in motion. get two identical rubber bands. What is the relationship between the number of items and the amount of stretch? How large a stretch would you expect for the same number of items suspended from two rubber bands? What happens to the amount of stretch of the rubber band (with the weights attached) if the weights are also pushed to the side with a pencil? 4. An object sliding across a table or floor slows down due to the net force of friction acting on the object.” We can think of this law as preserving the status quo of motion.3 Part (a) shows an overhead view of two ice skaters pushing on a third. however. is the following: Newton’s First Law of Motion A body at rest remains at rest. (These forces are the only ones shown.4. Measure the amount of stretch produced in the rubber band with one. One possibility is to stretch a spring a certain fixed distance. For example. so the total force on the third skater is in the direction shown. A more quantitative definition of force can be based on some standard force. consider what happens to an object sliding along a rough horizontal surface. which is a technique used to illustrate all the external forces acting on a body. Newton’s first law of motion states that there must be a cause (which is a net external force) for there to be any change in velocity (either a change in magnitude or direction). Rather than contradicting our experience. The magnitude of all other forces can be stated as multiples of this standard unit of force. remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by a net external force. 125 . just as distance is measured in units relative to a standard distance. What Newton’s first law of motion states.

Consider an air hockey table. Operationally. The quantity or amount of matter in an object is determined by the numbers of atoms and molecules of various types it contains. The idea of generally applicable or universal laws is important not only here—it is a basic feature of all laws of physics. as we shall see in the next section. we see that a net external force causes acceleration. Newton’s first law is often called the law of inertia. “That is the nature of the beast. In practice. was to ask the fundamental question. When the air is turned off. we can imagine the object sliding in a straight line indefinitely. It is obviously more difficult to change the motion of a large boulder than that of a basketball. Newton’s first law says that a net external force causes a change in motion. the force the child in the wagon exerts to hang onto the wagon is an internal force between elements of the system of interest. mass. The quantities that might differ between them are volume and density. so masses are not often determined in this manner. but not a useful insight. thus. A kilogram of one substance is equal in mass to a kilogram of another substance. according to Newton’s first law. Experiments have thoroughly verified that any change in velocity (speed or direction) must be caused by an external force. the object slides farther yet. 4. As we know from experience. mass is a measure of the amount of “stuff” (or matter) in something. whereas other times identifying the boundaries of a system is more subtle. However. Sometimes the system is obvious. For example. mass does not vary with location.) You must define the boundaries of the system before you can determine which forces are external. “What is the cause?” Thinking in terms of cause and effect is a worldview fundamentally different from the typical ancient Greek approach when questions such as “Why does a tiger have stripes?” would have been answered in Aristotelian fashion.5(a) the system of interest is the wagon plus the child in it. The genius of Galileo. (The internal forces actually cancel. The object would not slow down at all if friction were completely eliminated. First. What do we mean by an external force? An intuitive notion of external is correct—an external force acts from outside the system of interest. in orbit. the puck slides only a short distance before friction slows it to a stop. Unlike weight.5(a). for example. A change in velocity means. we can accurately predict how quickly the object will slow down. Newton’s second law of motion is more quantitative and is used extensively to calculate what happens in situations involving a force.126 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION the object slides farther. if we know enough about the friction. or on the surface of the Moon. some objects have more inertia than others. the masses of objects are determined by comparison with the standard kilogram. we need to sharpen some ideas that have already been mentioned. what do we mean by a change in motion? The answer is that a change in motion is equivalent to a change in velocity. Before we can write down Newton’s second law as a simple equation giving the exact relationship of force. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Again looking at Figure 4. Mass The property of a body to remain at rest or to remain in motion with constant velocity is called inertia. It mathematically states the cause and effect relationship between force and changes in motion. Extrapolating to a frictionless surface. The concept of a system is fundamental to many areas of physics.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System Newton’s second law of motion is closely related to Newton’s first law of motion. that there is an acceleration. Only external forces affect the motion of a system. by definition. Identifying these laws is like recognizing patterns in nature from which further patterns can be discovered.7 . and Newton. Newton’s first law is completely general and can be applied to anything from an object sliding on a table to a satellite in orbit to blood pumped from the heart. Another question immediately arises.” True perhaps. Check Your Understanding Which has more mass: a kilogram of cotton balls or a kilogram of gold? Solution They are equal. This concept will be revisited many times on our journey through physics. in Figure 4. Friction is thus the cause of the slowing (consistent with Newton’s first law). who clarified it. it creates a nearly frictionless surface. and the puck glides long distances without slowing down. and acceleration. as is the correct application of Newton’s laws. who first developed the idea for the first law. The two forces exerted by the other children are external forces. The mass of an object is the same on Earth. Friction is an external force. it is very difficult to count and identify all of the atoms and molecules in an object. An internal force acts between elements of the system. when the air is turned on. The inertia of an object is measured by its mass. Additionally. If we make the surface even smoother by rubbing lubricating oil on it.org/content/col11406/1. Roughly speaking.

2) where m is the mass of the system. Arrows representing all external forces are shown. using the head-to-tail method.” and F net is the net external force. The vector f w of the system and the support of the ground N are also shown for completeness and are represents the friction acting on the wagon. Figure 4. 127 . The proportionality is written as 1 a∝m (4. (a) Two children push a wagon with a child in it. Each force vector extends from this dot. they are assumed to cancel since there is no acceleration in the vertical direction. The vertical forces are the weight w and the support of the ground N . The system of interest is the wagon and its rider. the same net external force applied to a car produces a much smaller acceleration than when applied to a basketball. In other words. let alone the myriad of forces between atoms in the objects. just as it is exactly linearly proportional to the net external force. For completeness. (b) All of the external forces acting on the system add together to produce a net force. where the symbol (4. opposing the motion of the wagon. (c) A larger net external force produces a larger acceleration ( a′ > a ) when an adult pushes the child. but by doing so. it is important to identify the external forces and ignore the internal ones. F net . Because there are two forces acting to the right. a smaller force causes a smaller acceleration than the larger force illustrated in part (c). such as muscular forces within the child’s body. the vertical forces are also shown. we can easily solve some very complex problems with only minimal error due to our simplification Now.5 Different forces exerted on the same mass produce different accelerations. The dot represents the center of mass of the system. we draw the vectors collinearly. It is a tremendous simplification not to have to consider the numerous internal forces acting between objects within the system. as illustrated in Figure 4. In part (a). The weight assumed to cancel. And indeed. we first write the relationship of acceleration and net external force as the proportionality a ∝ F net . and it acts to the left. or analytically. we will define friction as a force that opposes the motion past each other of objects that are touching.5(b) shows how vectors representing the external forces add together to produce a net force. the larger the mass (the inertia).6. The techniques are the same as for the addition of other vectors. and the horizontal force f represents the force of friction. and are covered in Two-Dimensional Kinematics. F net . Experiments have shown that acceleration is exactly inversely proportional to mass.1) ∝ means “proportional to. Once the system of interest is chosen. it also seems reasonable that acceleration should be inversely proportional to the mass of the system.5. This assumption has been verified experimentally and is illustrated in Figure 4. These will be discussed in more detail in later sections. To obtain an equation for Newton’s second law.) This proportionality states what we have said in words—acceleration is directly proportional to the net external force. it seems reasonable that acceleration should be directly proportional to and in the same direction as the net (total) external force acting on a system. (The net external force is the vector sum of all external forces and can be determined graphically. using components. The free-body diagram shows all of the forces acting on the system of interest. the smaller the acceleration produced by a given force. For now. Now.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4.

Substituting these into Newton’s second law gives F net = w . In equation form.4) This is often written in the more familiar form When only the magnitude of force and acceleration are considered. (c) The free-body diagrams are identical. commonly called its weight w .6 The same force exerted on systems of different masses produces different accelerations. Newton’s second law states that the magnitude of the net external force on an object is Since the object experiences only the downward force of gravity.128 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. this equation is simply F net = ma. Weight can be denoted as a vector w because it has a direction. (4. where 1 N = 0.225 lb. (4. it accelerates toward the center of Earth.5) Although these last two equations are really the same. length. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Units of Force F net = ma is used to define the units of force in terms of the three basic units for mass. Combining the two proportionalities just given yields Newton's second law of motion. Consider an object with mass m falling downward toward Earth.6) While almost the entire world uses the newton for the unit of force. all objects fall with the same acceleration g . Using Galileo’s result and Newton’s second law. The magnitude of weight is denoted as w . The validity of the second law is completely based on experimental verification. (4. It has been found that the acceleration of an object depends only on the net external force and the mass of the object. the net force on a falling object is the gravitational force. A series of patterns for the free-body diagram will emerge as you do more problems. since F net = ma . the first gives more insight into what Newton’s second law means. Weight and the Gravitational Force When an object is dropped.7 (4. or Weight This is the equation for weight—the gravitational force on a mass m: w = mg. If air resistance is negligible. and hence weight is a downward force. a = g . by definition.3) F net = ma.org/content/col11406/1. (The effect of gravity on the ball is ignored. (4. (a) A basketball player pushes on a basketball to make a pass. 1 N = 1 kg ⋅ m/s 2. It experiences only the downward force of gravity. Newton’s Second Law of Motion The acceleration of a system is directly proportional to and in the same direction as the net external force acting on the system. permitting direct comparison of the two situations.7) .) (b) The same player exerts an identical force on a stalled SUV and produces a far smaller acceleration (even if friction is negligible). The law is a cause and effect relationship among three quantities that is not simply based on their definitions. Galileo was instrumental in showing that. we can derive an equation for weight. which has magnitude w . the direction of gravity. Newton’s second law of motion is F net a= m . down is. and inversely proportional to its mass. and time. Newton’s second law states that a net force on an object is responsible for its acceleration. F net = ma . in the United States the most familiar unit of force is the pound (lb). That is. We know that the acceleration of an object due to gravity is g . in the absence of air resistance. The SI unit of force is called the newton (abbreviated N) and is the force needed to accelerate a 1-kg system at the rate of 1m/s 2 .

such as Earth.80 m/s 2 ). A 1.1 What Acceleration Can a Person Produce when Pushing a Lawn Mower? Suppose that the net external force (push minus friction) exerted on a lawn mower is 51 N (about 11 lb) parallel to the ground. Weight is equal to the mass of an object ( m ) multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity ( g ). depending on the positive direction in the coordinate system. Furthermore. when people say that they are “losing weight.8 N on Earth and only about 1.80 m/s 2 on Earth. Recall that (4. regardless of its location. as we see: w = mg = (1.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Since g = 9. While standing on a bathroom scale. from the definition of weight used by NASA and the popular media in relation to space travel and exploration. Be sure to take this into consideration when solving problems with weight.8) g can take a positive or negative value. since most of our examples take place on Earth. For example.8 N. When they speak of “weightlessness” and “microgravity. it will remain the same. when objects fall downward toward Earth. In most countries. The broadest definition of weight in this sense is that the weight of an object is the gravitational force on it from the nearest large body.” they really mean that they are losing “mass” (which in turn causes them to weigh less).0 kg)(9. the Moon. is a measure of the force of gravity acting on an object. where the weight of an object only varies a little with the location of the object. the only force acting on the object is the force of gravity. because weight depends on the acceleration due to gravity. What is its acceleration? 129 . the weight of a 1. the weight of an object can change when the object enters into a region with stronger or weaker gravity. Like any other force. they are never truly in free-fall because there is always some upward force from the air acting on the object. However. We shall use the above definition of weight. although they are closely related.7 N on the Moon.0-kg mass thus has a weight of 9. the acceleration due to gravity on the Moon is 1. The springs provide a measure of your weight (for an object which is not accelerating). and so on. for example. and we will make careful distinctions between free-fall and actual weightlessness. It is tempting to equate the two. Mass is a measure of how much matter is in an object. This is the most common and useful definition of weight in physics. The typical measure of mass is the kilogram (or the “slug” in English units). However. Weight. the acceleration due to gravity is only 1. push down on a table next to you. The scale contains springs that compress in proportion to your weight—similar to rubber bands expanding when pulled. in science.80 to give a reading in mass units of kilograms. the measurement is divided by 9. The scale measures weight but is calibrated to provide information about mass. we say that it is in free-fall. but never in the correct units of newtons. When the net external force on an object is its weight. Weight Mass and weight are often used interchangeably in everyday language. Take-Home Experiment: Mass and Weight What do bathroom scales measure? When you stand on a bathroom scale. That is. Assuming the mass of an object is kept intact. Common Misconceptions: Mass vs.” they are really referring to the phenomenon we call “free-fall” in physics. these terms are distinctly different from one another. 9. On the Moon. even though you do not look any skinnier. It is important to be aware that weight and mass are very different physical quantities.8 N. Weight varies dramatically if one leaves Earth’s surface. This is because the force of gravity is weaker on the Moon. the Sun.67 m/s 2 . It differs dramatically. what happens to the scale? It depresses slightly. The acceleration due to gravity g varies slightly over the surface of Earth. for example. What happens to the reading? Why? Would your scale measure the same “mass” on Earth as on the Moon? Example 4. our medical records often show our “weight” in kilograms. you would find that you “weigh” much less. Mass is the quantity of matter (how much “stuff”) and does not vary in classical physics. whereas weight is the gravitational force and does vary depending on gravity. on the other hand. If you measured your weight on Earth and then measured your weight on the Moon.80 m/s 2 ) = 9.67 m/s 2 (which is much less than the acceleration due to gravity on Earth. the terms mass and weight are used interchangeably in everyday language. however.0 kg object on Earth is 9. In the real world. In fact. weight is measured in terms of newtons (or pounds in English units). The mass of the mower is 24 kg. This is a force in newtons (or pounds). so that the weight of an object depends on location and is not an intrinsic property of the object.

missile equipment. but we can say something about their relative magnitudes.org/content/col11406/1. Calculate the magnitude of force exerted by each rocket. This content is available for free at http://cnx.9) kg ⋅ m/s 2 for N yields a= 51 kg ⋅ m/s 2 = 2. For example. They consisted of a platform that was mounted on one or two rails and propelled by several rockets. and the vertical forces must cancel if there is to be no acceleration in the vertical direction (the mower is moving only horizontally). and the force of friction opposing the motion is known to be 650 N. Entering known values gives a = 51 N 24 kg Substituting the units (4.1 m/s 2.2 What Rocket Thrust Accelerates This Sled? Prior to manned space flights.8. the acceleration can be calculated directly from Newton’s second law as stated in F net = ma . 24 kg (4. rocket sleds were used to test aircraft. There is no information given in this example about the individual external forces acting on the system. Example 4. the mass of the system is 2100 kg. and physiological effects on human subjects at high speeds. called its thrust T . The sled’s initial acceleration is 49 m/s 2. which is parallel to the ground. for the four-rocket propulsion system shown in Figure 4.7 The net force on a lawn mower is 51 N to the right.10) Discussion The direction of the acceleration is the same direction as that of the net force. Solution The magnitude of the acceleration F net a is a = m . At what rate does the lawn mower accelerate to the right? Strategy Since F net and m are given. Such an effort would not last too long because the person’s top speed would soon be reached. the force exerted by the person pushing the mower must be greater than the friction opposing the motion (since we know the mower moves forward).130 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4.7 . The acceleration found is small enough to be reasonable for a person pushing a mower.

land speeds of 10. we solve for the total thrust 4T: Substituting known values yields So the total thrust is and the individual thrusts are Discussion The numbers are quite large. (4.17) Substituting this into Newton’s second law gives Using a little algebra. In equation form. with accelerations of 45 g 's.” we need to consider only the magnitudes of these quantities in the calculations. which is approximately 440 m/s 2 . and rider. As in other situations where there is only on the system that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to its weight.16) 5 T = 1. is 9. Hence we begin with F net = ma. mass. the acceleration due to gravity. 4 (4.80 m/s 2 .12) F net = ma = 4T − f . The arrow representing friction ( f ) is drawn larger than scale.000 km/h have been obtained with rocket sleds. it is 45×9. as in the preceding one. the vertical forces cancel. This leaves us with only horizontal forces and a simpler one-dimensional problem. (Recall that g . Directions are indicated with plus or minus signs. with right taken as the positive direction.80 m/s 2 . so the result might surprise you. Experiments such as this were performed in the early 1960s to test the limits of human endurance and the setup designed to protect human subjects in jet fighter emergency ejections.15) 4T = 1. We can see from Figure 4.13) 4T = ma + f . Each rocket creates an identical thrust horizontal acceleration. Solution Since acceleration. the net external force is F net = 4T − f . the system of interest is obvious.14) 4T = ma + f = (2100 kg)(49 m/s 2 ) + 650 N. and the force of friction are given.) While living subjects are not used any more.0×10 N = 2. 131 . Since we have defined the direction of the force and acceleration as acting “to the right. w . we start with Newton’s second law and look for ways to find the thrust of the engines. We will see in later examples that choosing the system of interest is crucial—and the choice is not always obvious. See the free-body diagram in the figure. we assume the vertical forces cancel since there is no vertical acceleration. The ground exerts an upward force N T . (4.8 A sled experiences a rocket thrust that accelerates it to the right. Speeds of 1000 km/h were obtained. its rockets. so none of the forces between these objects are considered. (4.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4.8 that the engine thrusts add. When we say that an acceleration is 45 g 's.11) where F net is the net force along the horizontal direction. (4. (4. (4.0×10 5 N.5×10 4 N. while friction opposes the thrust. In this example. Strategy Although there are forces acting vertically and horizontally. The system here is the sled.

sometimes breaking their hand by hitting an opponent’s body. and one body cannot exert a force on another without experiencing a force itself. as illustrated in Figure 4. Note that the swimmer pushes in the direction opposite to that in which she wishes to move. the first body experiences a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force that it exerts. then F wall on feet is an external force on this system and affects its motion. w . the force F feet on wall acts on the wall and not on our system of interest. the gravitational force. Figure 4. but she’s a lot harder than me and you know what they say. For example.7 . They actually work better in a vacuum. The line around the swimmer indicates the system of interest. does not F wall on feet . Newton’s Third Law of Motion Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body. The swimmer moves in the direction of F wall on feet . professional cage fighters experience reaction forces when they punch. rockets move forward by expelling gas backward at high velocity. You might think that two equal and opposite forces would cancel. An octopus propels itself in the water by ejecting water through a funnel from its body. The floor exerts a reaction force forward on the professor that causes her to accelerate forward. it’s going to be bad for the pitcher. the wall exerts a force F wall on feet equal in magnitude but in the direction opposite to the one she exerts on it. force. In a situation similar to Sancho’s. confirm this.” where the force exerted is the action and the force experienced as a consequence is the reaction. The next section introduces the third and final law of motion. In contrast. the buoyant force of the water supporting the swimmer’s weight. a car accelerates because the ground pushes forward on the drive wheels in reaction to the drive wheels pushing backward on the ground. Similarly. It can help us make predictions. The wall has exerted an equal and opposite force back on the swimmer. In this case. If we select the swimmer to be the system of interest. Helicopters similarly create lift by pushing air down. Thus the free-body diagram shows only F wall on feet .org/content/col11406/1. she accelerates in the direction opposite to that of her push. As a professor paces in front of a whiteboard. The reaction to her push is thus in the desired direction. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Newton’s third law has practical uses in analyzing the origin of forces and understanding which forces are external to a system. We sometimes refer to this law loosely as “action-reaction. We can readily see Newton’s third law at work by taking a look at how people move about. Sancho. The vertical forces w and BF cancel since there is no vertical motion.9. ‘Whether the stone hits the pitcher or the pitcher hits the stone. does not cancel F feet on wall on her. the wings of a bird force air downward and backward in order to get lift and move forward. in accordance with Newton’s third law of motion. and the gas therefore exerts a large reaction force forward on the rocket.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces There is a passage in the musical Man of la Mancha that relates to Newton’s third law of motion. You can see evidence of the wheels pushing backward when tires spin on a gravel road and throw rocks backward. Each of those physical quantities can be defined independently. Numerous common experiences. Birds and airplanes also fly by exerting force on air in a direction opposite to that of whatever force they need. Consider a swimmer pushing off from the side of a pool.’” This is exactly what happens whenever one body exerts a force on another—the first also experiences a force (equal in magnitude and opposite in direction). so the second law tells us something basic and universal about nature. “Of course I hit her back. This opposition occurs because. there are two systems that we could investigate: the swimmer or the wall.132 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Newton’s second law of motion is more than a definition. as in the figure. 4. It is a common misconception that rockets propel themselves by pushing on the ground or on the air behind them. and mass. says. but they do not because they act on different systems. and BF . she exerts a force backward on the floor. She pushes against the pool wall with her feet and accelerates in the direction opposite to that of her push. This law represents a certain symmetry in nature: Forces always occur in pairs. where they can more readily expel the exhaust gases. thereby experiencing an upward reaction force.9 When the swimmer exerts a force is in the direction opposite to F feet on wall on the wall. it is a relationship among acceleration. This means the rocket exerts a large backward force on the gas in the rocket combustion chamber. Thus F feet on wall does not directly affect the motion of the system and does not cancel F wall on feet . This reaction force is called thrust. Your Grace. thus. Other examples of Newton’s third law are easy to find. It is precisely stated in Newton’s third law of motion. such as stubbing a toe or throwing a ball. similar to a jet ski. In another example. This means the net external force on her F feet on wall . Note that act on this system (the swimmer) and. in describing a fight with his wife to Don Quixote.

total 24.20) The mass of System 1 is These values of F net and m produce an acceleration of F net a= m . the system of interest must be defined differently for each. For example.0 kg. All forces opposing the motion. and equipment. which allow us to apply Newton’s second law.18) The net external force on System 1 is deduced from Figure 4. f opposes the motion and is thus in the opposite direction of F floor .21) Discussion None of the forces between components of System 1. Different questions are asked in each example. since it is too small to draw to scale).0 kg.5 m/s 2 . a = 126 N = 1.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Example 4.3 Getting Up To Speed: Choosing the Correct System A physics professor pushes a cart of demonstration equipment to a lecture hall. vary with the system chosen. such as between the professor’s hands and the cart.0 + 7. See the free-body diagram in the figure. The professor pushes backward with a force F foot of 150 N. the force exerted by the professor on the cart results in an equal and opposite 133 .10 A professor pushes a cart of demonstration equipment. as seen in Figure 4.0 kg. There are no other significant forces acting on System 1. Calculate the acceleration produced when the professor exerts a backward force of 150 N on the floor. the floor exerts a forward reaction force F floor of 150 N on System 1.0) kg = 84 kg. Her mass is 65. cart. and we do not include F foot because it acts on the floor.0 N. The lengths of the arrows are proportional to the magnitudes of the forces (except for f . since it asks for the acceleration of the entire group of objects. As noted.10. System 1 is appropriate for Example 4. 84 kg (4. the cart’s is 12. we can assume there is no net force in the vertical direction. we can use Newton’s second law to find the acceleration as requested. such as friction on the cart’s wheels and air resistance. we define the system to be the professor. All F prof will be an external force and enter into Newton’s second law. thus. contribute to the net external force because they are internal to System 1. Only F floor and f other forces either cancel or act on the outside world.10. (4. Note that the free-body diagrams. (4. Another way to look at this is to note that forces between components of a system cancel because they are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. (4.19) m = (65. Solution Newton’s second law is given by F net a= m . The problem is therefore onedimensional along the horizontal direction. According to Newton’s third law.10 and the discussion above to be F net = F floor − f = 150 N − 24.0 + 12.0 N = 126 N. Because all motion is horizontal. System 2 is chosen for this example so that are external forces acting on System 1 along the line of motion. and the equipment’s is 7. This is System 1 in Figure 4.4. Strategy Since they accelerate as a unit. not on the system. Figure 4. If the net external force can be found from all this information. Note that we do not include the forces F prof or F cart because these are internal forces.

org/content/col11406/1.24) F prof .0 kg + 7.22) and noting that the magnitude of the net external force on System 2 is we solve for The value of F net = F prof − f . (4. thrust. Not all of that 150-N force is transmitted to the cart. PhET Explorations: Gravity Force Lab Visualize the gravitational force that two objects exert on each other.0 kg)(1. then the net external force on System 2 is the force the professor exerts on the cart minus friction.0 kg ( m = 12.4 Force on the Cart—Choosing a New System Calculate the force the professor exerts on the cart in Figure 4. and Other Examples of Forces Forces are given many names. (4. forces have been grouped into several categories and given names relating to their source. therefore.5 m/s 2 in the previous example. Change properties of the objects in order to see how it changes the gravity force. F net = ma. The choice of a system is an important analytical step both in solving problems and in thoroughly understanding the physics of the situation (which is not necessarily the same thing).27) F prof = F net + f . Strategy If we now define the system of interest to be the cart plus equipment (System 2 in Figure 4. together with some interesting applications. Choosing System 1 was crucial to solving this problem.jar) 4. Figure 4.134 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION force back on her.org/content/m42074/1. Example 4.11 Gravity Force Lab (http://cnx. (4. lift.10). so we must calculate net F net . and tension. Thus internal forces (between components of a system) cancel. such as push.29) Now we can find the desired force: Discussion It is interesting that this force is significantly less than the 150-N force the professor exerted backward on the floor. cancel.0 kg) and its acceleration was found to be Thus. Traditionally. friction.0 N = 53 N. where the mass of System 2 is 19. Starting with F net a= m (4. Tension. In this case both forces act on the same system and.4/gravity-force-lab_en. F prof was internal to System 1. how they are transmitted.10 using data from the previous example if needed.28) F prof = 29 N+24. weight. the desired quantity: f is given. pull. This content is available for free at http://cnx. (4. Using Newton’s second law we see that F net = ma.23) F prof = F net + f . Further examples of forces are discussed later in this text.5 Normal.7 . (4. Solution Newton’s second law can be used to find F prof .5 m/s 2 ) = 29 N. That can be done since both the acceleration and mass of System 2 are known. is an external force acting on System 2. (4. but it is external to System 2 and will enter Newton’s second law for System 2. The force she exerts on the cart.26) F net = (19.25) a = 1. F prof . (4. some of it accelerates the professor. or their effects. The most important of these categories are discussed in this section.

Elastic restoring forces in the table grow as it sags until they supply a force magnitude and opposite in direction to the weight of the load. You definitely notice that you must support the weight of a heavy object by pushing up on it when you hold it stationary. But it is similar to the sagging of a trampoline when you climb onto it.12 (a) The person holding the bag of dog food must supply an upward force F hand equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the weight of the food The card table sags when the dog food is placed on it. Example 4. This should not be confused with the symbol for the newton. The normal force can be less than the object’s weight if the object is on an incline. (This is not the unit for force N. Another example of this is the quantity work ( W ) and the unit watts (W). the table actually sags slightly under the load. but even rigid objects deform when a force is applied to them. a Two-Dimensional Problem Consider the skier on a slope shown in Figure 4. the greater the restoring force. the normal force N that the floor exerts on a chair might be N = 100 N .12(b)? When the bag of dog food is placed on the table. For example. the table sags until the restoring force becomes as large as the weight of the load. which is represented by the variable N . This would be noticeable if the load were placed on a card table. Common Misconception: Normal Force (N) vs. If the force supporting a load is perpendicular to the surface of contact between the load and its support. must supply an upward force equal to the weight of the load. such as shown in Figure 4. much like a stiff trampoline. The greater the deformation.) The word normal means perpendicular to a surface. Figure 4. and the sag is slight so we do not notice it.12(a). be it animate or not. which is also represented by the letter N. One important difference is that normal force is a vector. as illustrated in Figure 4. At this point the net external force on the load is zero. But how do inanimate objects like a table support the weight of a mass placed on them. (b) equal in We must conclude that whatever supports a load. it will exert a restoring force much like a deformed spring (or trampoline or diving board).0 N? 135 . Be careful not to confuse these letters in your calculations! You will encounter more similarities among variables and units as you proceed in physics. (a) What is her acceleration if friction is negligible? (b) What is her acceleration if friction is known to be 45.5 Weight on an Incline.13. as you will see in the next example. as we assumed in a few of the previous examples.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Normal Force Weight (also called force of gravity) is a pervasive force that acts at all times and must be counteracted to keep an object from falling. So when the load is placed on the table. Her mass including equipment is 60. That is the situation when the load is stationary on the table. this force is defined to be a normal force and here is given the symbol N . N w . while the newton is simply a unit.0 kg. Unless the object is deformed beyond its limit. The table sags quickly. Newton (N) In this section we have introduced the quantity normal force. These symbols are particularly important to distinguish because the units of a normal force ( N ) happen to be newtons (N).

so that F net ∥ mg sin (25º) a∥ = m = = g sin (25º) m (9.31) 4.4226) = (4. Since the acceleration is parallel to the slope. so that there is no motion perpendicular to the slope. So the net external force is now F net ∥ = w ∥ − f .4226) − 45.34) ∣ = We substitute known values to obtain which yields This content is available for free at http://cnx. m m (4. respectively labeled w . The only external forces acting on the system are the skier’s weight. namely w⊥ and w∥ .) The forces parallel to the slope are the amount of the skier’s weight parallel to the slope w ∥ and friction f . (b) Including friction. and the support of the slope.32) F net ∥ m . Choose a convenient coordinate system and project the vectors onto its axes. since the forces on the skier (the system of interest) are not parallel. Strategy This is a two-dimensional problem. because there is no motion perpendicular to the slope and because friction is always parallel to the surface between two objects. (Remember that motions along mutually perpendicular axes are independent. it is most convenient to project all forces onto a coordinate system where one axis is parallel to the slope and the other is perpendicular (axes shown to left of skier).13. is less than w∥ . N is always perpendicular to the slope. gives a∥ = F net ∣ m w∥ −f mg sin (25º) − f = . f .0 N .136 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. (4. and the magnitude of the w⊥ = w cos (25º) = mg cos (25º) . a∥ = where F net ∥ m . but f w has components along both axes. The most convenient coordinate system for motion on an incline is one that has one coordinate parallel to the slope and one perpendicular to the slope. But w is not in the direction of either axis. since there is no acceleration in that direction.80 m/s 2)(0. but .org/content/col11406/1. Once this is done. creating two connected one-dimensional problems to solve. N is equal in magnitude to N w⊥ is perpendicular to the slope and f is parallel to the slope. so that there is a downslope acceleration (along the parallel axis). and f is parallel to it. respectively.13 Since motion and friction are parallel to the slope. and so the first step we take is to project it into components along the chosen axes.14 m/s 2 is the acceleration. friction.0 kg)(9. We now have a given value for friction. a∥ = (4.) We use the symbols ⊥ and ∥ to represent perpendicular and parallel. and N in Figure 4.7 . Solution The magnitude of the component of the weight parallel to the slope is component of the weight perpendicular to the slope is w ∥ = w sin (25º) = mg sin (25º) .0 kg (4.80 m/s 2)(0. (Forces perpendicular to the slope add to zero.33) a∥ = (60. assuming no friction for this part. Using Newton’s second law. with subscripts to denote quantities parallel to the slope. we can consider the two separate problems of forces parallel to the slope and forces perpendicular to the slope. The approach we have used in twodimensional kinematics also works very well here. defining w ∥ to be the component of weight parallel to the slope and w⊥ the component of weight perpendicular to the slope. (a) Neglecting friction. and we know its direction is parallel to the slope and it opposes motion between surfaces in contact.30) F net ∥ = w ∥ = mg sin (25º) . 60. we need only consider forces parallel to the slope. This choice of axes simplifies this type of problem. and substituting this into Newton’s second law.

(4.0 N of opposing friction. such as a rope or cable. it is helpful to be able to determine them from reason. or cable. causes the object to accelerate down the incline. Notice that the angle θ of the incline is the same as the angle formed between w and w⊥ . Similarly. opposes the motion of the object. If the angle of the incline is at an angle then the magnitudes of the weight components are θ to the horizontal.37) and Instead of memorizing these equations. consider the phrase: “You can’t push a rope. the force of gravity acting on the object is divided into two components: a force acting perpendicular to the plane. How much does the rubber band stretch when you hang the object from the end of the board? Now place the board at an angle so that the object slides off when placed on the board. The word “tension” comes from a Latin word meaning “to stretch. Knowing this property. and a force acting parallel to the plane.39) Take-Home Experiment: Force Parallel To investigate how a force parallel to an inclined plane changes. slide down a frictionless incline with the same acceleration (if the angle is the same). chain.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION a ∥ = 3. and a board you can position at different angles. find a rubber band. The force acting parallel to the plane. w ∥ = w sin (θ) = mg sin (θ) (4. w ∥ . some objects to hang from the end of the rubber band. wire. is typically equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the normal force. the flexible cords that carry muscle forces to other parts of the body are called tendons. What does this show? Tension A tension is a force along the length of a medium. a force carried by a flexible connector is a tension with direction parallel to the connector. How much does the rubber band extend if it is lined up parallel to the board and used to hold the object stationary on the board? Try two more angles.14 An object rests on an incline that makes an angle θ with the horizontal. rope. regardless of mass.” Not coincidentally. When an object rests on an incline that makes an angle θ with the horizontal. w ∥ . In fact. so it acts upward along the plane. f . w⊥ .” The tension force pulls outward along the two ends of a rope. especially a force carried by a flexible medium. thus.36) w⊥ = w cos (θ) = mg cos (θ).15. then the acceleration down the incline is a = g sinθ . regardless of mass. In contrast.38) (4.35) which is the acceleration parallel to the incline when there is 45. The perpendicular force of weight. Consider a person holding a mass on a rope as shown in Figure 4. Discussion Since friction always opposes motion between surfaces. can exert pulls only parallel to its length. Any flexible connector. The force of friction. w⊥ . the acceleration is smaller when there is friction than when there is none. This is related to the previously discussed fact that all objects fall with the same acceleration in the absence of air resistance. you can use trigonometry to determine the magnitude of the weight components: w⊥ w = w cos (θ) = mg cos (θ) cos (θ) = w⊥ w∥ w = w sin (θ) = mg sin (θ) sin (θ) = w∥ (4. all objects. Resolving Weight into Components Figure 4. it is a general result that if friction on an incline is negligible. draw the right triangle formed by the three weight vectors. To do this. (4. such as a string.39 m/s 2. It is important to understand that tension is a pull in a connector. N . 137 . It is important to be careful when resolving the weight of the object into components.

80 m/s 2 ) = 49.138 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4.16 (a) and (b). This content is available for free at http://cnx. and thus F net = 0 . The only external forces acting on the mass are its weight w and the tension T supplied by the rope.15 When a perfectly flexible connector (one requiring no force to bend it) such as this rope transmits a force T . Once you have determined the tension in one location.0 N. as we can prove using Newton’s second law. (4. (4. the tension equals the weight of the supported mass: T = w = mg. as shown.00-kg mass. providing a direct observation and measure of the tension force in the rope.00 kg)(9. Only its direction changes. F net = T − w = 0. This is illustrated in Figure 4. then its acceleration is zero. If the 5.00-kg mass in the figure is stationary. the spring would extend a length corresponding to a force of 49. Thus. just as you would expect. that force must be parallel to the length of the rope. Thus. The tension anywhere in the rope between the hand and the mass is equal. the tension is transmitted undiminished. a finger joint. Note that the rope pulls with equal force but in opposite directions on the hand and the supported mass (neglecting the weight of the rope). such as in a hospital traction system. The pull such a flexible connector exerts is a tension. you have determined the tension at all locations along the rope.40) where T and w are the magnitudes of the tension and weight and their signs indicate direction. Flexible connectors are often used to transmit forces around corners.41) For a 5. This is an example of Newton’s third law.0 N. with up being positive here. The rope is the medium that carries the equal and opposite forces between the two objects. Tension in the rope must equal the weight of the supported mass. and it is always parallel to the flexible connector. or a bicycle brake cable.42) If we cut the rope and insert a spring.org/content/col11406/1. (4. If there is no friction. then (neglecting the mass of the rope) we see that T = mg = (5.7 .

usually changing the force’s direction. Figure 4. In this case the best coordinate system has one axis horizontal and the other vertical. forces are vectors represented pictorially by arrows having the same directions as the forces and lengths proportional to their magnitudes. The system is the tightrope walker. the easiest method of solution is to pick a convenient coordinate system and project the vectors onto its axes. T from the handlebars to the brake mechanism. but not its magnitude (the tendons are relatively friction free). as illustrated.16 (a) Tendons in the finger carry force T from the muscles to other parts of the finger.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. The system of interest here is the point in the wire at which the tightrope walker is standing.0-kg tightrope walker shown in Figure 4. A little trigonometry can now be used to find the tensions. We call the horizontal the x -axis and the vertical the y -axis. the magnitude of those forces must be equal so that they cancel each other out. Strategy As you can see in the figure. the tension on either side of the person has an upward component that can support his weight.6 What Is the Tension in a Tightrope? Calculate the tension in the wire supporting the 70. the wire is not perfectly horizontal (it cannot be!). Thus. Solution First. It helps to draw a new free-body diagram showing all of the horizontal and vertical components of each force acting on the system. Whenever we have two-dimensional vector problems in which no two vectors are parallel.17. and the only forces acting to the left and right are T L and T R . This is because there is no horizontal acceleration in the rope. the direction but not the magnitude of T Example 4. As usual.0 degrees.17 The weight of a tightrope walker causes a wire to sag by 5. The net external force is zero since the system is stationary. Again. we need to resolve the tension vectors into their horizontal and vertical components. One conclusion is possible at the outset—we can see from part (b) of the figure that the magnitudes of the tensions T L and T R must be equal. (b) The brake cable on a bicycle carries the tension is changed. and the only external forces acting on him are his weight w and the two tensions T L (left tension) and T R (right tension). Thus. It is reasonable to neglect the weight of the wire itself. but is bent under the person’s weight. 139 .

F nety = T Ly + T Ry − w = 0.0º) = T Lx TL T Lx = T L cos (5.18. considering the vertical components (denoted by a subscript Newton’s second law implies that net y ). we can substitute the values for = T Ly and T Ry .0º) = T R cos (5.18.0º) − w = 0 2 T sin (5. T Ry .0º) = T sin (5. since the person is stationary.18.0º) + T sin (5. their components along those axes must add to zero.46) T L = T R = T. (4. since the tightrope walker is stationary. since the person is stationary.140 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4.50) . Thus. Observing Figure 4.18 When the vectors are projected onto vertical and horizontal axes.48) T Ly .47) T Lx and T Rx : Thus. observe Figure 4. as illustrated in the free-body diagram in Figure 4. The net external horizontal force (4. sin (5. You can use trigonometry to determine the magnitude of Equating (4. Now. (4. F netx = 0 = T Lx − T Rx T Lx = T Rx . as predicted. Thus.7 (4.org/content/col11406/1.0º). Now.0º) Now.49) T Ry TR T Ry = T R sin (5.0º) = w and This content is available for free at http://cnx.0º) − w = 0 2 T sin (5.45) T L cos (5.0º). Again.0º) sin (5. F y = 0 . we can solve for T .0º) = T sin (5. (4. Consider the horizontal components of the forces (denoted with a subscript x ): F netx = T Lx − T Rx.44) T L and T R . and T .0º) = Rx TR T Rx = T R cos (5. into the net force equation in the vertical direction: F nety F nety = T Ly + T Ry − w = 0 = T sin (5.43) F netx = 0 . (4. The small angle results in T being much greater than w .0º) = (4.0º) T cos (5. we can use trigonometry to determine the relationship between analysis in the horizontal direction.0º). Notice that: cos (5. As we determined from the TL = TR = T : T Ly TL T Ly = T L sin (5.

as illustrated in Figure 4. as shown. Each time the car moves forward. The large horizontal components are in opposite directions and cancel. Wikimedia Commons) 141 . As we saw in the last example. Since the wire is nearly horizontal. 2 sin (5.80 m/s 2) . We saw that the tension in the roped related to the weight of the tightrope walker in the following way: T= We can extend this expression to describe the tension w . (See Figure 4.53) Discussion Note that the vertical tension in the wire acts as a normal force that supports the weight of the tightrope walker.0º) (4. Figure 4. is very large.. 2(0. the vertical component of its tension is only a small fraction of the tension in the wire. except that the tensions shown here are those transmitted to the car and the tree rather than those acting at the point where F⊥ is applied. which take on the characteristic shape. 2 sin (θ) (4. If we wish to create a very large tension.19. T T= F⊥ 2 sin (θ) . The tension is almost six times the 686-N weight of the tightrope walker.20 Unless an infinite tension is exerted. Figure 4. 2 sin (θ) (4.51) so that T= (70.52) and the tension is T = 3900 N. usually cables. all we have to do is exert a force perpendicular to a flexible connector.55) θ is the angle between the horizontal and the bent connector.0 kg)(9.19 We can create a very large tension in the chain by pushing on it perpendicular to its length. (4. any flexible connector—such as the chain at the bottom of the picture—will sag under its own weight. Even the θ = 0 and sin θ = 0 ).54) T created when a perpendicular force ( F⊥ ) is exerted at the middle of a flexible connector: T= F⊥ . since an infinite tension would result if it were horizontal (i. In this case. and so most of the tension in the wire is not used to support the weight of the tightrope walker.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION T= mg w = . the chain is tightened to keep it as nearly straight as possible. T becomes very large as θ approaches zero.) Note that relatively small weight of any flexible connector will cause it to sag.e. This situation is analogous to the tightrope walker shown in Figure 4. the weight of the tightrope walker acted as a force perpendicular to the rope. giving a characteristic curve when the weight is evenly distributed along the length.0º) 2 sin (5. Suspension bridges—such as the Golden Gate Bridge shown in this image—are essentially very heavy flexible connectors. The tension in the chain is given by since θ is small. Suppose we wish to pull a car out of the mud when no tow truck is available.0872) (4. The weight of the bridge is evenly distributed along the length of flexible connectors.19. (credit: Leaflet.17.

As usual. such as one that rotates (like a merry-go-round) or undergoes linear acceleration (like a car slowing down). Real forces are those that have some physical origin. Contrastingly. then to an observer on Earth it will appear to experience a force to the west that has no physical origin. Charts show the forces. position. PhET Explorations: Forces in 1 Dimension Explore the forces at work when you try to push a filing cabinet. however. whereas others are not. presented earlier in this text. one in which Newton’s laws have the simple forms given in this chapter.142 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Extended Topic: Real Forces and Inertial Frames There is another distinction among forces in addition to the types already mentioned.22(a). Once it is determined that Newton’s laws of motion are involved (if the problem involves forces). All the forces discussed in this section are real forces.7 . if a satellite is heading due north above Earth’s northern hemisphere. all phenomena discussed in this text are considered in inertial frames. It is natural.org/content/col11406/1. Unless stated otherwise. and acceleration vs. Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s Laws of Motion Step 1. Are some more basic than others? Are some different manifestations of the same underlying force? The answer to both questions is yes. the effects can be easily observed. it is particularly important to draw a careful sketch of the situation. You ordinarily must perform precise experiments to observe fictitious forces and the slight departures from Newton’s laws. but specific strategies useful in applying Newton’s laws of motion are emphasized. but there are a number of other real forces. are followed here. The basics of problem solving. such as the effect just described. They are more specialized. and so the following techniques should reinforce skills you have already begun to develop. Figure 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies Success in problem solving is obviously necessary to understand and apply physical principles. View a free-body diagram of all the forces (including gravitational and normal forces). Then. velocity. time. Many problem-solving strategies are stated outright in the worked examples. equivalently. On the large scale. These techniques also reinforce concepts that are useful in many other areas of physics. This content is available for free at http://cnx. fictitious forces are those that arise simply because an observer is in an accelerating frame of reference. The crucial factor in determining whether a frame of reference is inertial is whether it accelerates or rotates relative to a known inertial frame. Such a sketch is shown in Figure 4. use arrows to represent all forces. Create an applied force and see the resulting friction force and total force acting on the cabinet. to ask where the basic simplicity we seek to find in physics is in the long list of forces. such as the gravitational pull. Some forces are real. Earth’s rotation is slow enough that Earth is nearly an inertial frame. An inertial frame of reference is one in which all forces are real and.org/content/m42075/1. In Earth’s frame this looks like a westward force on the satellite. such as for the rotation of weather systems and ocean currents.22(b). Of course. it is first necessary to identify the physical principles involved. not to mention the more immediate need of passing exams. For example.5/forces-1d_en. that are not discussed in this section. or it can be interpreted as a violation of Newton’s first law (the law of inertia). label them carefully. such as lift and thrust. as in Figure 4.jar) 4. and make their lengths and directions correspond to the forces they represent (whenever sufficient information exists). what is happening here is that Earth is rotating toward the east and moves east under the satellite. as will be seen in the next (extended) section and in the treatment of modern physics later in the text. and it is not necessary to discuss every type of force.21 Forces in 1 Dimension (http://cnx.

For example. if all forces are parallel—then they add like scalars. the choice of axes can simplify the problem.22(d) for a particular situation. In some cases. In general. If the acceleration is zero in a particular direction. Figure 4. That is. This is done in Figure 4. Applying Newton’s Second Law Before you write net force equations.22(c) shows a free-body diagram for the system of interest. Similarly. if Tarzan is stationary. Note that no internal forces are shown in a free-body diagram. We have drawn several of these in worked examples. are assumed negligible. This choice becomes easier with practice. because it is not a force acting on the system of acts on the outside world. This is done by projecting the force vectors onto a set of axes chosen for convenience. make a list of knowns and unknowns. It is almost always convenient to make one axis parallel to the direction of motion. Step 3. a necessary step to employ Newton’s second law. then the net force is zero in that direction. since Newton’s second law involves only external forces. the vine. then it must be broken down into a pair of one-dimensional problems. If the problem is two-dimensional. when an incline is involved. it should be a straightforward task to put them into equation form and solve for the unknown. Identify what needs to be determined and what is known or can be inferred from the problem as stated. As illustrated earlier in this chapter. A diagram showing the system of interest and all of the external forces is called a free-body diagram. (4.22 (a) A sketch of Tarzan hanging from a vine. As seen in previous examples. (b) Arrows are used to represent all forces. We then define the system of interest as shown and draw a free-body diagram. but it is not accelerating in the vertical direction. rather. (4. not acceleration or velocity. This decision is a crucial step. For example. once external forces are clearly identified in free-body diagrams. a set of axes with one axis parallel to the incline and one perpendicular to it is most convenient. Once a free-body diagram is drawn. FT is the force he exerts on is his weight. such as the nudge of a breeze. intuition develops gradually through problem solving. then you will have the following conclusions: F net x = ma.w . as done in all previous examples. Only forces are shown on free-body diagrams. As always. For example. the system of interest depends on what question we need to answer.57) You will need this information in order to determine unknown forces acting in a system. All other forces. If the problem is one-dimensional—that is. if the acceleration is nonzero in a particular direction. Newton’s second law can be applied to solve the problem. In practice. Step 2.) Newton’s third law may be used to identify whether forces are exerted between components of a system (internal) or between the system and something outside (external). it is reasonable to find that friction causes an object to slide down an incline more slowly than when no friction exists. then the net force is described by the equation: F net = ma .CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. it becomes possible to determine which forces are external and which are internal. check the solution to see whether it is reasonable. It is apparent that T = .22(c). T is the tension in the vine above Tarzan. it is critical to determine whether the system is accelerating in a particular direction. 143 .56) F net y = 0. Then carefully determine the system of interest. (d) Showing only the arrows. if the system is accelerating in the horizontal direction. (c) Suppose we are given the ape man’s mass and asked to find the FT FT is no longer shown. this is obvious. the head-to-tail method of addition is used. Step 4. Once the system of interest has been identified. Skill in clearly defining systems will be beneficial in later chapters as well. if this is known. interest. (See Figure 4. and w tension in the vine. eventually developing into an almost unconscious process.

2. and then apply Newton’s second law to solve for the drag force F D . the x. The angle is given by ⎛F y ⎞ ⎝F x ⎠ θ = tan −1 5 ⎞ ⎛ θ = tan −1 3. as shown in the free-body diagram in Figure 4. Example 4. First.) Strategy The directions and magnitudes of acceleration and the applied forces are given in Figure 4.6×10 5 N = 53º. These serve also to illustrate some further subtleties of physics and to help build problem-solving skills. (b) The free-body diagram for the ship contains only forces acting in the plane of the water.org/content/col11406/1.5×10 5 N.and y-axes are in the same direction as since friction is in the direction opposite to If the mass of the barge is Fx and F y .7 (4. If you are solving for force and end up with units of m/s. The system of interest here is the barge.23 (a) A view from above of two tugboats pushing on a barge.23(b). a few more of which are presented in this section. Another way to check your solution is to check the units. Since the applied forces are perpendicular.6×10 5 N) 2 = 4.6×10 N in the y-direction.58) F D will be in the direction opposite to F app .7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion There are many interesting applications of Newton’s laws of motion.7×10 N ⎠ This content is available for free at http://cnx. the magnitude and direction of F app are easily found. The first tugboat exerts a force of 5 direction. 4. Solution Since F x and F y are perpendicular.23.144 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION and with experience it becomes progressively easier to judge whether an answer is reasonable. F app . It omits the two vertical forces—the weight of the barge and the buoyant force of the water supporting it cancel and are not shown.7 Drag Force on a Barge Suppose two tugboats push on a barge at different angles. We will define the total force of the tugboats on the barge as F app so that: F app =F x + F y Since the barge is flat bottomed.59) F app = F 2x + F 2y F app = (2. and the second tugboat exerts a force of 3. The drag force opposes the motion of the object.7×10 5 N) 2 + (3. The problem quickly becomes a one-dimensional problem along the direction of F app . Our strategy is to find the magnitude and direction of the net applied force F app . such as air or water. as shown in Figure 4.0×10 6 kg and its acceleration is observed to be 7. then you have made a mistake. the resultant magnitude is given by the Pythagorean theorem: (4. 5. the drag of the water (4. since the forces on it are given as well as its acceleration.5×10 −2 m/s 2 in the direction shown.7×10 5 N in the x- Figure 4. what is the drag force of the water on the barge resisting the motion? (Note: drag force is a frictional force exerted by fluids.60) . ⎝2.23(a).

145 . since it acts to F app . and small speeds are desirable to avoid running the barge into the docks. where F D is less than 1/600th of the weight of the ship. Therefore. Example 4. but its magnitude is slightly less than F app . where the angles are not equal. neglecting the masses of the wires.63) But Newton’s second law states that Thus.24. because of Newton’s first law. Find the tension in each wire. (4. The problem is now one-dimensional. In the earlier example of a tightrope walker we noted that the tensions in wires supporting a mass were equal only because the angles on either side were equal.65) Substituting known values gives The direction of F D has already been determined to be in the direction opposite to F app . (4.0 kg) suspended from two wires as shown in Figure 4. the net external force is in the same direction as F D is in the opposite direction of F app . is the same direction as the acceleration. slightly more trigonometry is involved. consistent with the answer to this example. (4. Consider the following example.62) F app − F D = ma. we can see that F net = F app − F D. This can be solved for the magnitude of the drag force of the water F D in terms of known quantities: F D = F app − ma. or at an angle of 53º south of west.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION which we know.5×10 –2 m/s 2 ) = 7. (4. It is certainly difficult to obtain larger accelerations with tugboats. Discussion The numbers used in this example are reasonable for a moderately large barge. (4. slow down the acceleration.5×10 4 N.0×10 6 kg)(7. From Figure 4.8 Different Tensions at Different Angles Consider the traffic light (mass 15.64) F D = (4.5×10 5 N) − (5.23(b).61) F net = ma. Drag is relatively small for a well-designed hull at low speeds.

68) Thus.24(c). (c) Only forces acting on the system are shown here. and so they must be projected onto a coordinate system. These two equations come from applying Newton’s second law along the vertical and horizontal axes. Solution First consider the horizontal or x-axis: F netx = T 2x − T 1x = 0. (e) The free-body diagram shows the vertical and horizontal forces acting on the traffic light. (4. The most convenient coordinate system has one axis vertical and one horizontal. so two equations are needed to find them. and the vector projections on it are shown in part (d) of the figure. noting that the net external force is zero along each axis because acceleration is zero. and its free-body diagram is shown in Figure 4.67) T 1 cos (30º) = T 2 cos (45º).7 . The three forces involved are not parallel. Strategy The system of interest is the traffic light. There are two unknowns in this problem ( T 1 and T 2 ). (d) The forces projected onto vertical (y) and horizontal (x) axes. The free-body diagram for the traffic light is also shown.24 A traffic light is suspended from two wires. (4.org/content/col11406/1. The horizontal components of the tensions must cancel. (b) Some of the forces involved.66) T 1x = T 2x.146 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. and the sum of the vertical components of the tensions must equal the weight of the traffic light. (4. as you might expect. This gives us the following relationship between T 1 and T 2 : This content is available for free at http://cnx.

500) + (1.20 m/s 2 . and (b) if the elevator moves upward at a constant speed of 1 m/s.225T 1)(0. (4. and they will be equal if and only if the angles on either side are the same (as they were in the earlier example of a tightrope walker).75) T 2 is determined using the relationship between them.70) T 1y + T 2y = w. T 2 = 1. but substituting the expression for (4. The bathroom scale is an excellent example of a normal force acting on a body.225 T 1 . (4. There are two unknowns in this equation. Thus we obtain T 2 = 132 N. Now consider the force components along the vertical or y-axis: F net y = T 1y + T 2y − w = 0. found above.707) = w = mg. It is reasonable that T 2 ends up being greater than T 1 . Note that (4.25 shows a 75. It provides a quantitative reading of how much it must push upward to support the weight of an object.9 What Does the Bathroom Scale Read in an Elevator? Figure 4. 147 .74) which yields Solving this last equation gives the magnitude of T 1 to be T 1 = 108 N. because the angles on either side are not equal.73) (1.80 m/s 2). But can you predict what you would see on the dial of a bathroom scale if you stood on it during an elevator ride? Will you see a value greater than your weight when the elevator starts up? What about when the elevator moves upward at a constant speed: will the scale still read more than your weight at rest? Consider the following example. (4.366)T 1 = (15.0 kg)(9.69) T 1 and T 2 are not equal in this case.71) This implies Substituting the expressions for the vertical components gives T 1 sin (30º) + T 2 sin (45º) = w. the magnitude of (4.76) Discussion Both tensions would be larger if both wires were more horizontal.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Thus. Example 4. (4. because it is exerted more vertically than T 1 .225)T 1. T 2 = (1. Finally. Calculate the scale reading: (a) if the elevator accelerates upward at a rate of 1.0-kg man (weight of about 165 lb) standing on a bathroom scale in an elevator.72) T 2 in terms of T 1 reduces this to one equation with one unknown: T 1(0. (4.

org/content/col11406/1. (b) The free-body diagram shows only the external forces acting on the designated Strategy If the scale is accurate. The only forces acting on the person are his weight w and the upward force of the scale F s . simply No assumptions were made about the acceleration. so that F s − w = ma.77) F net = F s − w . its reading will equal F p .0 kg)(9. and so this solution should be valid for a variety of accelerations in addition to the ones in this exercise. because (4. the weight of the scale. Figure 4. The arrows are approximately correct for when the elevator is accelerating upward—broken arrows represent forces too large to be drawn to scale. as usual. we is the weight of the elevator. (4.0 kg)(1. We can do this. and person.81) . Fp w is the weight of the person. Solution for (a) In this part of the problem. a = 1. so that F s = (75.80 m/s 2). Analysis of the free-body diagram using Newton’s laws can produce answers to both parts (a) and (b) of this example.25(a) shows the numerous forces acting on the elevator. (4. is the force of the scale on the person. as well as some other questions that might arise.148 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. Ft ws is is the force of the is the force of the floor upward on the scale. the magnitude of the force the person exerts downward on it.78) F s = ma + w. by applying Newton’s second law. scale.20 m/s 2 ) + (75. scale on the floor of the elevator. yielding This content is available for free at http://cnx. so that we need to find F s in order to find what the scale reads. According to Newton’s third law F p and F s are equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. (4. N Fs T is the tension in the supporting cable. and system of interest—the person.20 m/s 2 . From the free-body diagram we see that Solving for or. F net = ma.7 (4. It makes this one-dimensional problem look much more formidable than if the person is chosen to be the system of interest and a free-body diagram is drawn as in Figure 4.25(b).79) F s = ma + mg.25 (a) The various forces acting when a person stands on a bathroom scale in an elevator. is the force of the person on the scale.80) F s gives an equation with only one unknown: w = mg .

0 kg.10 What Force Must a Soccer Player Exert to Reach Top Speed? A soccer player starts from rest and accelerates forward.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION F s = 825 N. Clearly. and Δv = 0 . a topic of dynamics found in this chapter.82) Discussion for (a) This is about 185 lb. Step 2. and hence the relevance of earlier chapters. or stationary. as mentioned. consistent with what you feel in rapidly accelerating versus slowly accelerating elevators. checking to see if the answer is reasonable. What would the scale have read if he were stationary? Since his acceleration would be zero.80 m/s 2). the greater the scale reading. then the scale reading will be zero and the person will appear to be weightless. 2. The following worked example illustrates how these strategies are applied to an integrated concept problem. acceleration.83) = (75. as it must in order to accelerate him upward.85) F s = 735 N. (4. the force of the scale would be equal to his weight: F net = ma = 0 = F s − w F s = w = mg Fs Fs (4.84) F s = (75. and air resistance is negligible. Solution for (b) Now. Part (a) of this example considers acceleration along a straight line. reaching a velocity of 8. which equals the person’s weight. Δt Thus. Part (b) deals with force. the greater the acceleration of the elevator.0 kg)(9.50 s. Strategy 1. This is a topic of kinematics. Listing the givens and the quantities to be calculated will allow you to identify the principles involved. and so forth. This means that the scale is pushing up on the person with a force greater than his weight. Identify which physical principles are involved. what happens when the elevator reaches a constant upward velocity? Will the scale still read more than his weight? For any constant velocity—up. until a constant downward velocity is reached. The following solutions to each part of the example illustrate how the specific problem-solving strategies are applied. Solution for (a) 149 . (4. down.86) Now which gives Discussion for (b) The scale reading is 735 N. the scale reading in the elevator is greater than his 735-N (165 lb) weight.80 m/s 2) = 735 N. The solution to the previous example also applies to an elevator accelerating downward. we must first identify the physical principles involved and identify the chapters in which they are found. velocity. or stationary—acceleration is zero because a = Δv . Newton’s laws of motion can also be integrated with other concepts that have been discussed previously in this text to solve problems of motion. For example. a topic of kinematics. use the following steps to approach the problem: Problem-Solving Strategy Step 1.0 kg)(9. and the scale reading is less than the weight of the person. at which time the scale reading again becomes equal to the person’s weight. (4.00 m/s in 2. When approaching problems that involve various types of forces. and/or position. To solve an integrated concept problem. Integrating Concepts: Newton’s Laws of Motion and Kinematics Physics is most interesting and most powerful when applied to general situations that involve more than a narrow set of physical principles. You should also refer to the sections of the text that deal with a particular topic. you should refer to them. Example 4. F s = ma + mg = 0 + mg. (4. (a) What was his average acceleration? (b) What average force did he exert backward on the ground to achieve this acceleration? The player’s mass is 70. moving down. forces produce accelerations. These involve identifying knowns and unknowns. a is negative. Solve the problem using strategies outlined in the text. This will be the case whenever the elevator has a constant velocity—moving up. If the elevator is in free-fall and accelerating downward at g . So. When an elevator accelerates downward. If these are available for the specific topic.

and nuclear forces in Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics. Substituting the known values of F net = ma. such as in your profession. The first step is to identify the physical principles involved in the problem. thus.90) m and a gives Discussion for (b) This is about 50 pounds. The following problems will build your skills in the broad application of physical principles. in other science disciplines. Nuclear forces determine not only the stability of nuclei. the basic forces are all thought to act through the exchange of microscopic carrier particles. (The gravitational force is the only force we experience directly that is not electromagnetic. although they are crucial to the very structure of matter. Z0 Strong nuclear 1 < 10 –15 m attractive and repulsive gluons This content is available for free at http://cnx. Action at a distance. such as the gravitational force of Earth on the Moon.0 kg)(3. electric force in Electric Charge and Electric Field. thus. the electromagnetic force. electromagnetism and gravity are the basis for all forces.” The four basic forces are the gravitational force. but they are not directly experienced on the macroscopic scale.) This is a tremendous simplification of the myriad of apparently different forces we can list. indirectly determine the chemistry of the atom.7 . On a macroscopic scale. Neglecting air resistance. and many worked examples show how to use them for single topics.150 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION We are given the initial and final velocities (zero and 8. and the characteristics of the basic forces are determined by the types of particles exchanged. we do not experience them directly. (4.87) a = 8. Their properties are summarized in Table 4. Concept Connections: The Four Basic Forces The four basic forces will be encountered in more detail as you progress through the text. The gravitational force is defined in Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation. a reasonable average force. we can use Newton’s second law to find the force exerted. These forces determine which nuclei are stable and which decay. but also the relative abundance of elements in nature.20 m/s 2. These strategies are found throughout the text. In fact. and so Δv = 8. and in everyday life. Solution for (b) Here we are asked to find the average force the player exerts backward to achieve this forward acceleration.00 m/s 2.89) F net = (70.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction One of the most remarkable simplifications in physics is that only four distinct forces account for all known phenomena.88) Substituting the known values yields Discussion for (a) This is an attainable acceleration for an athlete in good condition. 4. Since we now know the player’s acceleration and are given his mass. We are given the Δt = 2. the size of a nucleus or less. The unknown is acceleration. The properties of the nucleus of an atom determine the number of electrons it has and. As we will see.1 Properties of the Four Basic Forces[1] Force Approximate Relative Strengths Range Attraction/Repulsion Carrier Particle Gravitational 10 −38 ∞ attractive only Graviton Electromagnetic 10 – 2 ∞ attractive and repulsive Photon Weak nuclear 10 – 13 < 10 –18 m attractive and repulsive W+ . the change in velocity is elapsed time. That is. the weak nuclear force. called the electromagnetic force. More will be said of all of these topics in later chapters. is explained by the existence of a force field rather than by “physical contact. and they are the basis of the release of energy in certain nuclear reactions. Table 4. W – . This worked example illustrates how to apply problem-solving strategies to situations that include topics from different chapters. The second step is to solve for the unknown using familiar problem-solving strategies.1.20 m/s 2) = 224 N. which can be found from its definition: a = Δv . Δt (4.00 m/s . magnetic force in Magnetism. this would be equal in magnitude to the net external force on the player.00 m/s forward). The nuclear forces are vital to the substructure of matter. since this force causes his acceleration.50 s . only a few of which were discussed in the previous section. (4. and the strong nuclear force.50 s = 3. (4.org/content/col11406/1. nearly all of the forces we experience directly are due to only one basic force. Since the weak and strong nuclear forces act over an extremely short range. You will find these techniques for integrated concept problems useful in applications of physics outside of a physics course.

On the very large scale. as well as to describe them with precision and to link forces with subatomic carrier particles. as in astronomical systems. + 0 The particles W . When a positive test charge is placed in the field.) Figure 4. this yields w = mg at Earth’s surface). Concept Connections: Force Fields The concept of a force field is also used in connection with electric charge and is presented in Electric Charge and Electric Field. and they nearly cancel for macroscopic objects. Earth’s gravitational field. The electromagnetic force is a combination of electrical forces (such as those that cause static electricity) and magnetic forces (such as those that affect a compass needle). It is now known that under conditions of extremely high density and temperature. and their existence is indicated by meson exchange in the nuclei of atoms. independent of the presence of other masses. It is also a useful idea for all the basic forces. starting in 1935 1. planets. As useful as the field concept is. Further progress in unifying all forces is proving difficult—especially the inclusion of the gravitational force. Friction. The field is defined so as to be a characteristic of the object creating it. See the discussion of gravitational waves later in this section. though it has not yet been observed by scientists.26 The electric force field between a positively charged particle and a negatively charged particle. such as existed in the early universe. So the list of four has been reduced in a sense to only three. The graviton is a proposed particle. for example. when scientists began to discover that they are different manifestations of the same force. Attempts to unify all forces into one come under the rubric of Grand Unified Theories (GUTs). for example. Action at a Distance: Concept of a Field All forces act at a distance. it is fascinating that such underlying simplicity exists in the face of the overt complexity of the universe. Earth and the Moon. It is still convenient to consider these forces separately in specific applications. This discovery is a classical case of the unification of forces. The field concept has been applied very successfully. As we shall see later in the study of general relativity. Concept Connections: Unifying Forces Attempts to unify the four basic forces are discussed in relation to elementary particles later in this text. such as the Sun. Physicists are now exploring whether the four basic forces are in some way related. it leaves unanswered the question of what carries the force. The gravitational force also affects the nature of space and time. the gravitational force is the dominant force determining the motions of moons. the electromagnetic and weak nuclear forces are indistinguishable. While the unification of forces will not affect how we discuss forces in this text. as will be seen in Particle Physics. What is it that carries forces between objects? One way to answer this question is to imagine that a force field surrounds whatever object creates the force. the charge will experience a force in the direction of the force field lines. because of the ways they manifest themselves. however. These two forces were thought to be quite distinct until early in the 19th century. the field does not depend on the test object placed in it. which has the special characteristics of affecting the space and time in which the other forces exist. stars. It is also true for all other forces.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION The gravitational force is surprisingly weak—it is only because gravity is always attractive that we notice it at all. They are long-range forces. Even if such unification is achieved. we can calculate motions and describe nature to high precision using field equations. There is no reason that nature must be simple—it simply is.26. and galaxies. of course) are due to electromagnetic interactions of atoms and molecules. the forces will retain their separate characteristics on the macroscopic scale and may be identical only under extreme conditions such as those existing in the early universe. and all of the other classes of forces we experience directly (except gravity. tension. and time actually slows down near massive bodies. Fields help us to visualize forces and how they are transmitted. A second object (often called a test object) placed in this field will experience a force that is a function of location and other variables. and Z are called vector bosons. called the electroweak force. space is curved in the vicinity of very massive bodies. W − . (Remember that it is the net external force that is important. which act over extremely large distances. these were predicted by theory and first observed in 1983. with which there has been some success in recent years. There are eight types of gluons proposed by scientists. (See Figure 4. It has been proposed in recent decades. The field itself is the “thing” that carries the force from one object to another. however. This is obvious for the gravitational force. Similarly. Our weight is the gravitational force due to the entire Earth acting on us. is a function of the mass of Earth and the distance from its center. electromagnetic forces would completely overwhelm the gravitational force. is an electromagnetic force between atoms that may not actually touch. They can now be considered to be different manifestations of one force. 151 . and motions can be calculated from these equations. Electromagnetic forces can be either attractive or repulsive. for example. friction. interact without coming into contact. By “unify” we mean finding connections between the forces that show that they are different manifestations of a single force.) If they did not cancel. The concept of a field is useful because equations can be written for force fields surrounding objects (for gravity.

Yet physics is an experimental science. that carry the four forces. This accelerator (27 km in circumference) allows two high-energy proton beams. Almost 100 years ago. This accelerator began preliminary operation in 2008. thereby exerting a repulsive force without touching one another. An energy of 14 million electron volts will be available. All of this research eventually led to the proposal of quarks as the underlying substructure of matter. both observed and proposed. It is more satisfying philosophically to think of something physical actually moving between objects acting at a distance. Questions as broad as what is the origin of mass and what was matter like the first few seconds of our universe will be explored. Two beams. External magnets determine the beam’s path. (c) The analogous exchange of a meson between a proton and a neutron carries the strong nuclear forces F exch and F′ exch F′ B away from between them. collide in a tube similar to the central tube shown here. This idea of particle exchange deepens rather than contradicts field concepts. so the test of these theories must lie in the domain of the real world. (credit: Frank Hommes) Tiny particles also have wave-like behavior. An attractive force can also be exerted by the exchange of a mass—if person 2 pulled the basketball away from the first person as he tried to retain it. Figure 4. Special detectors will analyze particles created in these collisions.) Figure 4. traveling in opposite directions.27 The exchange of masses resulting in repulsive forces. will be found. these theories will explain not only forces. (See Figure 4. The observation of its properties might tell us why different particles have different masses. possibly force carrier particles.28. This content is available for free at http://cnx. We can visualize particle exchange as analogous to macroscopic phenomena such as two people passing a basketball back and forth. that all forces are transmitted by the exchange of elementary particles. Table 4. (See Figure 4.27. stimulating yet more research. something we will explore more in a later chapter. to collide.) One of the force carriers of high interest that researchers hope to detect is the Higgs boson.152 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION with Hideki Yukawa’s (1907–1981) work on the strong nuclear force. It is anticipated that some new particles. But the real fruit of the particle-exchange proposal is that searches for Yukawa’s proposed particle found it and a number of others that were completely unexpected. If successful. The search for gravitational waves has been going on for a number of years. which is a basic tenet of GUTs. let us consider gravity. To better understand force-carrier particles from another perspective.7 . (b) The person catching the basketball exerts a force F p2 F p1 on it toward the other person and feels a on it to stop the ball and feels a reaction force the first person.org/content/col11406/1.1 lists the exchange or carrier particles.28 The world’s largest particle accelerator spans the border between Switzerland and France. then the force between them would be attractive. but also the structure of matter itself. As of this writing. (a) The person throwing the basketball exerts a force reaction force FB away from the second person. traveling in opposite directions close to the speed of light. scientists at the CERN laboratory in Switzerland are starting to test these theories using the world’s largest particle accelerator: the Large Hadron Collider.

photons are carrier particles of the electromagnetic force dynamics: the study of how forces affect the motion of objects and systems external force: a force acting on an object or system that originates outside of the object or system force field: a region in which a test particle will experience a force force: a push or pull on an object with a specific magnitude and direction. such as earthquakes. all forces acting in an inertial frame of reference are real forces. Glossary acceleration: the rate at which an object’s velocity changes over a period of time carrier particle: a fundamental particle of nature that is surrounded by a characteristic force field. and the forces are represented by vectors extending outward from the dot free-fall: a situation in which the only force acting on an object is the force due to gravity friction: a force past each other of objects that are touching.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Einstein predicted the existence of these waves as part of his general theory of relativity.S. “I’m sure LIGO will tell us something about the universe that we didn’t know before. Accuracy to within 10% of the size of an atom will be needed to detect any waves.000.000-km sides) (Figure 4. Similar installations have been built in Italy (VIRGO). LISA will complement LIGO by looking at much more massive black holes through the observation of gravitational-wave sources emitting much larger wavelengths. can be expressed as a multiple of a standard force free-body diagram: a sketch showing all of the external forces acting on an object or system. Three satellites will be placed in space above Earth in an equilateral triangle (with 5.29 Space-based future experiments for the measurement of gravitational waves. only time will tell. Earthquakes and other Earthly noises will be no problem for these monitoring spacecraft. The launch of this project might be as early as 2018. University of Florida Figure 4. Gravitational waves are created during the collision of massive stars. can be represented by vectors. The lasers will transmit a signal to measure the distance between each satellite’s test mass. as opposed to fictitious forces that are observed due to an accelerating frame of reference law of inertia: see Newton’s first law of motion mass: the quantity of matter in a substance.29). Each satellite of LISA will consist of a laser source and a mass. or in supernova explosions—like shock waves. and Japan (TAMA300) to provide a worldwide network of gravitational wave detectors. These gravitational waves will travel through space from such sites much like a pebble dropped into a pond sends out ripples—except these waves move at the speed of light. in black holes. LIGO Input Optics Manager. Each installation is designed to use optical lasers to examine any slight shift in the relative positions of two masses due to the effect of gravity waves. (credit: NASA) The ideas presented in this section are but a glimpse into topics of modern physics that will be covered in much greater depth in later chapters. Germany (GEO600). The two sites allow simultaneous measurements of these small effects to be separated from other natural phenomena.. A detector apparatus has been built in the U. the system is represented by a dot. consisting of two large installations nearly 3000 km apart—one in Washington state and one in Louisiana! The facility is called the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). The history of science tells us that any time you go where you haven’t been before. Shown here is a drawing of LISA’s orbit.” —David Reitze. you usually find something that really shakes the scientific paradigms of the day. International collaboration in this area is moving into space with the joint EU/US project LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna). and work is proceeding on increasing their sensitivity. Whether gravitational wave astrophysics will do that. examples include rough surfaces and air resistance inertia: the tendency of an object to remain at rest or remain in motion inertial frame of reference: a coordinate system that is not accelerating. The system will measure the relative positions of each satellite to detect passing gravitational waves. Initial operation of the detectors began in 2002. measured in kilograms 153 . The relative motion of these masses will provide information about passing gravitational waves.

This is also known as the law of inertia. • When objects rest on an inclined plane that makes an angle θ with the horizontal surface. • Force is a push or pull that can be defined in terms of various standards. when a rope supports the weight of an object.154 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Newton’s first law of motion: a body at rest remains at rest. The object experiences an acceleration due to gravity g : w = mg. airplanes. F net on an object with mass m is proportional to and in the same direction as the F net a . • Friction is a force that opposes the motion past each other of objects that are touching. where g is the magnitude and direction of the acceleration due to gravity Section Summary 4. also known as the law of inertia Newton’s second law of motion: the net external force acceleration of the object. • When objects rest on a non-accelerating horizontal surface. • Mass is the quantity of matter in a substance. if in motion.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia • Newton’s first law of motion states that a body at rest remains at rest. causes a mass to accelerate normal force: the force that a surface applies to an object to support the weight of the object. These components can be calculated using: This content is available for free at http://cnx. • The weight w of an object is defined as the force of gravity acting on an object of mass m . the magnitude of the normal force is equal to the weight of the object: N = mg.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System • Acceleration. F net a= m . • In equation form. Tension. A free-body diagram is a drawing of all external forces acting on a body. 4. 4. as opposed to internal forces. N . especially a stretched flexible connector.1 Development of Force Concept • Dynamics is the study of how forces affect the motion of objects. or. • An external force is one acting on a system from outside the system. remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by a net external force.7 . the weight of the object can be resolved into components that act perpendicular ( w⊥ ) and parallel ( w ∥ ) to the surface of the plane. 4. • A thrust is a reaction force that pushes a body forward in response to a backward force. or. Newton’s second law of motion is • If the only force acting on an object is due to gravity. the object is in free fall.org/content/col11406/1. is defined as a change in velocity. Inertia is related to an object’s mass. the force on the object due to the rope is called a tension force thrust: a reaction force that pushes a body forward in response to a backward force. This supporting force acts perpendicular to and away from the surface.5 Normal. defined mathematically as a = m Newton’s third law of motion: whenever one body exerts a force on a second body. • Inertia is the tendency of an object to remain at rest or remain in motion. meaning a change in its magnitude or direction. which act between components within the system. or both. and cars are pushed forward by a thrust reaction force. the first body experiences a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force that the first body exerts. It is called a normal force. all forces originating from outside of the system are considered external forces tension: the pulling force that acts along a medium. It states: Whenever one body exerts a force on a second body. acts perpendicular to the surface on which the object rests system: defined by the boundaries of an object or collection of objects being observed. • External forces are any outside forces that act on a body. • This is often written in the more familiar form: F net = ma . remains in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by a net external force. airplanes. the surface applies a force to the object that supports the weight of the object. and inversely proportional to the mass. and it is a vector having both magnitude and direction. defined mathematically as: w = mg . and inversely proportional to its mass.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces • Newton’s third law of motion represents a basic symmetry in nature. • Newton’s second law of motion states that the acceleration of a system is directly proportional to and in the same direction as the net external force acting on the system. Rockets. rockets. and cars are pushed forward by a thrust reaction force weight: the force w due to gravity acting on an object of mass m . and Other Examples of Forces • When objects rest on a surface. a . the first body experiences a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force that the first body exerts net external force: the vector sum of all external forces acting on an object or system. 4. such as a rope or cable. if in motion.

Draw a free-body diagram. velocity. resolve all force vectors into horizontal and vertical components. Describe a situation in which the net external force on a system is not zero.1. 12. Your standard must be capable of producing the same force repeatedly. How are inertia and mass related? 4. if the object is on an inclined plane. If a constant. A rock is thrown straight up. the normal force will always be less than the full weight of the object. If an object is accelerating. A system can have a nonzero velocity while the net external force on it is zero. such as a rope or cable. Explain how the choice of the “system of interest” affects which forces must be considered when applying Newton’s second law of motion. 4. and the forces are represented by vectors extending in different directions from the dot. • The properties of these forces are summarized in Table 4. and identify the system of interest. nonzero force is applied to an object. is called tension. Which statement is correct? (a) Net force causes motion.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System 5. the normal force will be less than or greater than the weight of the object.6 Problem-Solving Strategies • To solve problems involving Newton’s laws of motion. Explain your answer and give an example. Always analyze the direction in which an object accelerates so that you can determine whether F net = ma or F net = 0 . such as forces.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction • The various types of forces that are categorized for use in many applications are all manifestations of the four basic forces in nature. 9. Write Newton’s second law in the horizontal and vertical directions and add the forces acting on the object. If the object does not accelerate in a particular direction (for example. which is a sketch showing all of the forces acting on an object. Also. of an object that is at rest. the x -direction) then F net x = 0 . If the acceleration of a system is zero. • The pulling force that acts along a stretched flexible connector. follow the procedure described: 1. Attempts are being made to show all four forces are different manifestations of a single unified force. Be sure to draw diagrams. Draw a sketch of the problem. are no external forces acting on it? What about internal forces? Explain your answers. • The normal force on an object is not always equal in magnitude to the weight of the object. 13. F net x = ma .CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION w ∥ = w sin (θ) = mg sin (θ) w⊥ = w cos (θ) = mg cos (θ). but they are not directly sensed because of their short ranges. resolve the vectors into horizontal and vertical components and draw them on the free-body diagram. What is the relationship between weight and mass? Which is an intrinsic. (c) What law accurately describes both effects? State it in words and as an equation. You can apply concepts from kinematics and dynamics in order to solve these problems of motion. • In any inertial frame of reference (one that is not accelerated or rotated). 10. what can you say about the velocity and acceleration of the object? 155 . yet its speed remains constant. • Some problems will contain multiple force vectors acting in different directions on an object. 2. 4. The object is represented by a dot. or position. 6. Is the answer reasonable? Are the units correct? 4. 3. What properties do forces have that allow us to classify them as vectors? 4. Conceptual Questions 4. 2. Why can we neglect forces such as those holding a body together when we apply Newton’s second law of motion? 7. unchanging property of a body? 4. When a rope supports the weight T = mg. the tension in the rope is equal to the weight of the object: T . Propose a force standard different from the example of a stretched spring discussed in the text. • Everything we experience directly without sensitive instruments is due to either electromagnetic forces or gravitational forces. If the object does accelerate in that direction. (b) Net force causes change in motion. Newton’s laws have the simple forms given in this chapter and all forces are real forces having a physical origin. • A force field surrounds an object creating a force and is the carrier of that force. What is the net external force acting on the rock when it is at the top of its trajectory? 11. Identify known and unknown quantities. producing different accelerations.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion • Newton’s laws of motion can be applied in numerous situations to solve problems of motion. (b) Give an example of the same net external force acting on systems of different masses. 4.2 Newton’s First Law of Motion: Inertia 3. Check your answer. (a) Give an example of different net external forces acting on the same system to produce different accelerations. The nuclear forces are responsible for the submicroscopic structure of matter. If vectors act in directions that are not horizontal or vertical.1 Development of Force Concept 1. and draw a free-body diagram. • Some problems will contain various physical quantities. Describe such a situation. 8. acceleration.

Which of Newton’s laws of motion apply? 18. Explain why you move backward in the seat—is there really a force backward on you? (The same reasoning explains whiplash injuries. Why does an ordinary rifle recoil (kick backward) when fired? The barrel of a recoilless rifle is open at both ends. Use Newton’s laws and draw a free-body diagram of an appropriate system to explain how he can still out-push the opposition if he is strong enough. 4.) (Note that the femur is the shin bone shown in this image. as a consequence. Describe a situation in which one system exerts a force on another and. A cartoon shows the toupee coming off the head of an elevator passenger when the elevator rapidly stops during an upward ride. Newton’s third law of motion tells us that forces always occur in pairs of equal and opposite magnitude. since no matter how hard he pushes he will experience an equal and opposite force from the other player.” What physics principle(s) are involved here to measure the force of cardiac contraction? How might we construct such a device? 17.6 is ignored. What is the dominant force between astronomical objects? Why are the other three basic forces less significant over these very large distances? 27. 20.5 Normal.30 A leg is suspended by a traction system in which wires are used to transmit forces. in this accelerated frame of reference? Is there any difference between their apparent weightlessness in orbit and in the aircraft? 24.) 4.156 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 14. consider one child pulling a toy out of the hands of another. and Other Examples of Forces 21. what is the tension in the rope? Figure 4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces 15. Can you safely stand close behind one when it is fired? 19.) This content is available for free at http://cnx. If a leg is suspended by a traction setup as shown in Figure 4. in terms of the properties of the four basic forces. In a traction setup for a broken bone. as measured by standing on a bathroom scale. An American football lineman reasons that it is senseless to try to out-push the opposing player. The gravitational force on the basketball in Figure 4. Tension.30.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction 25. or still horizontal? 4. astronauts are trained in the hold of a cargo aircraft that is accelerating downward at g. Can this really happen without the person being tied to the floor of the elevator? Explain your answer. why people notice the gravitational force acting on their bodies if it is such a comparatively weak force. To simulate the apparent weightlessness of space orbit. what is the direction of the net external force on the basketball—above horizontal. there is a sensation of being pushed back into the seat. Describe how Newton’s third law applies when one is fired. When you take off in a jet aircraft. with pulleys and rope available.30. 26. (For example. 4. how might we be able to increase the force along the femur using the same weight? (See Figure 4. Explain.org/content/col11406/1. Frictionless pulleys change the direction of the force T without changing its magnitude. Give a detailed example of how the exchange of a particle can result in an attractive force. When gravity is taken into account. Explain how the choice of the “system of interest” affects whether one such pair of forces cancels.) 16. A device used since the 1940s to measure the kick or recoil of the body due to heart beats is the “ballistocardiograph.7 . below horizontal. in which the head is apparently thrown backward. experiences a force that is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. Why will they appear to be weightless.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion 23. 22.

0 m/s 2 . Tension. A 63.20 m/s 2 backward. A cleaner pushes a 4.20 m/s 2 .) 9. One way to do this is to exert a known force on an astronaut and measure the acceleration produced.50-kg laundry cart in such a way that the net external force on it is 60.7. (a) Calculate the tension in a vertical strand of spider web if a spider −5 of mass 8. 19. Suppose the mass of a fully loaded module in which astronauts take off from the Moon is 10.32 starts with only one rocket burning. the forces are exerted by the seat and restraining belts. What force is necessary to produce this deceleration? Assume that the rockets are off.) What force does the motorcycle exert backward on the ground to produce its acceleration if the mass of the motorcycle with rider is 245 kg? 11. 4. What force does a trampoline have to apply to a 45.0-kg sprinter starts a race with an acceleration of What is the net external force on him? 4. Each of the first team’s members has an average mass of 68 kg and exerts an average force of 1350 N horizontally.31 7. 2.33 accelerates at a rate of 49. and the force of friction opposing the motion is known to be 650 N.0 kg.1 s from a speed of 1000 km/h? (Such deceleration caused one test subject to black out and have temporary blindness.50 m/s 2 while traveling at 90. Suppose two children push horizontally. but in exactly opposite directions. How much do they weigh on Earth? What is the mass on the Moon? On Earth? 14. Two teams of nine members each engage in a tug of war. including all forces acting on the system. (b) Could it lift off from Earth? If not.31 is decelerated at a rate of 196 m/s 2 . (b) Calculate the 157 . A brave but inadequate rugby player is being pushed backward by an opposing player who is exerting a force of 800 N on him.0 N? 10. a clever method of measuring their masses is needed to monitor their mass gains or losses to adjust diets. In Figure 4. Its passenger has a mass of 75. Since astronauts in orbit are apparently weightless. How far will 6. (a) Calculate the horizontal component of the force the seat exerts against his body. What net external force is exerted on a 1100-kg artillery shell fired from a battleship if the shell is accelerated at 2.000 kg.0-kg gymnast to accelerate her straight up at 7. A powerful motorcycle can produce an acceleration of 3. What is the deceleration of the rocket sled if it comes to rest in 1.0 N. (b) Why is the acceleration not one-fourth of what it is with all rockets burning? 16. Suppose a net external force of 50. Repeat the previous problem for the situation in which the rocket sled decelerates at a rate of 201 m/s 2 .50 m/s 2 ? Note that the answer is independent of the velocity of the gymnast—she can be moving either up or down. At that speed the forces resisting motion. what is its acceleration? Assume that the mass of the system is 2100 kg. including friction and air resistance. Figure 4. (a) What is the force of friction between the losing player’s feet and the grass? (b) What force does the winning player exert on the ground to move forward if his mass plus equipment is 110 kg? (c) Draw a sketch of the situation showing the system of interest used to solve each part. (d) What would the acceleration be if friction were 15. and he is accelerating at 1.32 8. The rocket sled shown in Figure 4.33 12.5 m/s when the force the mower go before stopping? F is removed. why not? If it could.0 kg. and then maintains that velocity for the remainder of the 100-m dash. (a) Calculate its acceleration in a vertical takeoff from the Moon. Propose a method in which recoil of the vehicle is avoided. the second a force of 90.00×10 kg hangs motionless on it. For this situation. Compare this with his weight by using a ratio.40×10 4 m/s 2 ? What force is exerted on the ship by the artillery shell? Figure 4. Calculate its acceleration.0 km/h.893 m/s 2 .0 N. a free-body diagram. It always opposes the motion of an object. calculate its acceleration. (b) By exerting a force on the astronaut. (a) If the rocket sled shown in Figure 4. friction is 12. Discuss how this would affect the measurement of the astronaut’s acceleration. on a third child in a wagon. The weight of an astronaut plus his space suit on the Moon is only 250 N.0 N is exerted and the astronaut’s acceleration is measured to be 0. 1.0 N. Each of the second team’s members has an average mass of 73 kg and exerts an average force of 1365 N horizontally. 4.000 N. and the mass of the third child plus wagon is 23. The first child exerts a force of 75. The mass of the losing player plus equipment is 90.0 kg. (Air resistance is analogous to air friction. If the force of friction opposing the motion is 24 N. and Other Examples of Forces Figure 4.4 Newton’s Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces 15.3 Newton’s Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System You may assume data taken from illustrations is accurate to three digits. (a) What is the acceleration of the two teams? (b) What is the tension in the section of rope between the teams? 18.5 Normal. (c) Calculate the acceleration. what will be his time for the race? 3. (b) Calculate the direction and magnitude of the total force the seat exerts against his body. (a) What is the system of interest if the acceleration of the child in the wagon is to be calculated? (b) Draw 17. If the sprinter from the previous problem accelerates at that rate for 20 m. draw a free-body diagram and write the net force equation.0 N. The thrust of its engines is 30. 4. or be stationary. the vehicle in which they orbit experiences an equal and opposite force. 5.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Problems & Exercises 4. 13. The same rocket sled drawn in Figure 4. (a) Calculate her mass. In this problem. The mass of the system is 2100 kg. total 400 N. the net external force on the 24-kg mower is stated to be 51 N. what force F (in newtons) is the person exerting on the mower? Suppose the mower is moving at 1.

(a) An 1800-kg tractor exerts a force of 1. What is the rocket’s acceleration? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion. (a) What force must each engine exert backward on the track to accelerate the train at a rate of 5. as stated in the text. that add to give Figure 4.150 m/s 2 . (b) Show graphically that the same total force is obtained independent of the order of addition of F 1 and F 2 . and trailer. Show that. if the car exerts a 1900-N force on the road and produces an acceleration of 0.550 m/s 2 ? The mass of the boat plus trailer is 700 kg. A 5.00×10 4 -kg engines and 45 cars 5. This may be done either graphically or by using trigonometry.50×10 5 N . 26. The wheels of a midsize car exert a force of 2100 N backward on the road to accelerate the car in the forward direction. and the system experiences forces resisting motion that total 2400 N. assuming all cars have the same mass and that friction is evenly distributed among all of the cars and engines? 28.34 A baby is weighed using a spring scale. 29. A 1100-kg car pulls a boat on a trailer. assuming the engines exert identical forces? This is not a large frictional force for such a massive system.36. (b) What is the force in the hitch between the car and the trailer if 80% of the resisting forces are experienced by the boat and trailer? 30.0-kg gymnast climbs a rope. 2 sin (θ) 25. (c) Find the direction and magnitude of some other pair of vectors F tot .00 times the acceleration due to gravity. draw a free-body diagram and write the net force equation. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion.17) gives rise to a tension of magnitude T= F⊥ .00 times the acceleration due to gravity. Calculate the force a 70. T 2 in the cord attaching the scale to the ceiling. Draw these to scale on the same drawing used in part (b) or a similar picture. (a) What is the tension in the rope if he climbs at a constant speed? (b) What is the tension in the rope if he accelerates upward at a rate of 1.00-kg sled and child system. . Compare this with the tension in the vertical strand (find their ratio). Suppose a 60. what is the mass of the airplane? (b) Calculate the force exerted by the tractor on the airplane. 24.35. If the acceleration is 0. (a) What total force resists the motion of the car.50×10 4 kg . Calculate the force she must exert if her deceleration is 7. The strand sags at an angle of 12º below the horizontal.0-kg gymnast decelerates by pushing straight down on the mat. including the free-body diagrams for each.7 Figure 4. boat.250×10 N of thrust. (a) What is the mass of the child and basket if a scale reading of 55 N is observed? (b) What is the tension T 1 in the cord attaching the baby to the scale? (c) What is the tension show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion. Its engines 6 7 produce 1. what is the mass of the car plus its occupants? Explicitly This content is available for free at http://cnx.0-kg high jumper must exert on the ground to produce an upward acceleration 4. The masses of the cords are negligible. For this situation.500 kg? (d) Draw a sketch of the situation indicating the system of interest used to solve each part. Consider the baby being weighed in Figure 4.17. 27.75×10 4 N backward on the pavement. and consequently trains are very energy-efficient transportation systems.158 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION tension in a horizontal strand of spider web if the same spider sits motionless in the middle of it much like the tightrope walker in Figure 4. (a) Find the magnitudes of the forces F 1 and F 2 that add to give the total force F tot shown in Figure 4. with average masses of 8. (b) What is the force in the coupling between the 37th and 38th cars (this is the force each exerts on the other). a 40. 4.50×10 N .80 m/s 2 . assuming 2200 N of the friction is experienced by the airplane. a force F⊥ exerted on a flexible medium at its center and perpendicular to its length (such as on the tightrope wire in Figure 4. If the force of friction including air resistance is 250 N and the acceleration of the car is 1. Rolling friction for trains is small.00×10 5-kg rocket is accelerating straight up.34.6 Problem-Solving Strategies 23. Note that the direction of the frictional force is unspecified. 20. if the scale has a mass of 0. (c) Draw two sketches showing the systems of interest used to solve each part. and air resistance is 4. it will be in the opposite direction of the sum of F 1 and F 2 .org/content/col11406/1.50 m/s 2 ? 21. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion. A freight train consists of two 22.35 31. When landing after a spectacular somersault.00×10 –2 m/s 2 if the force of friction is 7. Commercial airplanes are sometimes pushed out of the passenger loading area by a tractor. Two children pull a third child on a snow saucer sled exerting forces F 1 and F 2 as shown from above in Figure 4. Find the acceleration of the 49.

39 shows Superhero and Trusty Sidekick hanging motionless from a rope. Will the tension be the same everywhere in the rope? 35. (b) What force must the nurse exert to move at a constant velocity? 36.000 N on the car if the angle is 2. 37.00° and you still apply the force found in part (a) to its center? Figure 4. Trusty Sidekick. (b) Real ropes stretch under such forces. The loaded cart has a mass of 28. Indicate on your free-body diagram the system of interest used to solve each part. (b) Find the tension in the rope above Superhero.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION Figure 4. draw a free-body diagram. F app . and the time taken to reach that velocity. (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (This result has been unintentionally achieved by several real rockets. the engines of 6 which produce a thrust of 2. Figure 4. (a) Draw a free-body diagram of the situation showing all forces acting on Superhero.00°? In this part. What force is exerted on the tooth in Figure 4. Show vector forces and their components and explain the choice of coordinates. points straight toward the back of the mouth.0 N. and why is it unreasonable? 39. 34.37 to pull it out. and the masses of the toboggan and children. Taking the elevator and its load to be the system of interest. Construct Your Own Problem Consider two people pushing a toboggan with four children on it up a snow-covered slope.00×10 N ? Do not neglect gravity.0º below the horizontal. while Trusty Sidekick’s is 55. Shown in this figure are the tensions applied by the wire to the protruding tooth. and the force of friction is 60. Construct Your Own Problem Consider the tension in an elevator cable during the time the elevator starts from rest and accelerates its load upward to some cruising velocity. the final velocity. explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion. Figure 4.29. Construct a problem in which you calculate the acceleration of the toboggan and its load. (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (c) Which premise is unreasonable. but assume an acceleration of 1.) (c) Which premise is unreasonable.50×10 kg at takeoff.38 Braces are used to apply forces to teeth to realign them. Unreasonable Results (a) What is the initial acceleration of a 6 rocket that has a mass of 1. Among the things to consider are the mass of the elevator and its load. Explicitly show how you follow steps in the Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton’s laws of motion.20 m/s 2 is produced. Among the things to be considered are the forces exerted by those pushing.36 An overhead view of the horizontal forces acting on a child’s snow saucer sled.) 159 . Then calculate the tension in the cable. and the mass of the rope is negligible. Unreasonable Results (a) Repeat Exercise 4.38 if the tension in the wire is 25.0 kg. the angle of the slope. The total force applied to the tooth by the wire. (a) What force would you have to exert perpendicular to the center of the rope to produce a force of 12. Suppose your car was mired deeply in the mud and you wanted to use the method illustrated in Figure 4. or which premises are inconsistent? (You may find it useful to compare this problem to the rocket problem earlier in this section. Superhero’s mass is 90. What force would be exerted on the car if the angle increases to 7. A nurse pushes a cart by exerting a force on the handle at a downward angle 35. 32. (a) Draw a free-body diagram for the system of interest. but this is necessitated by practical considerations of how force can be applied in the mouth. Figure 4.39 Superhero and Trusty Sidekick hang motionless on a rope as they try to figure out what to do next. Include a free-body diagram of the appropriate system of interest as the basis for your analysis.37 33.0 kg. (c) Find the tension in the rope between Superhero and Trusty Sidekick.0 kg.0 N? Note that the force applied to the tooth is smaller than the tension in the wire. and the rope. 38.

Unreasonable Results (a) What is the final velocity of a car originally traveling at 50. (a) Calculate the scale reading in newtons and compare it with his weight. 41. What type of movement could be caused by this force? 43.50 m/s in 2.40.800 s.0º from the vertical. Integrated Concepts A basketball player jumps straight up for a ball. Calculate the tension in the cable supporting the elevator. (b) How long does it take to reach a velocity of 120 km/h straight up.0-kg man stands on a bathroom scale in an elevator that accelerates from rest to 30.450 m long.500×10 N on the flea. where the strong and electromagnetic forces also act. such as inside nuclei. (a) What is the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to that of the strong nuclear force? (b) What is the ratio of the strength of the . What is the tension in the cable during this time? (c) The elevator decelerates at a rate of 0. Figure 4.0 to 7. To do this.50 s.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces—An Introduction Figure 4.00 s. and its engines produce a thrust of 3. as shown in Figure 4. 46. a type of nuclear decay not explained by other forces.20 m/s 2 for 1. (a) What is his final speed? (b) How far does he travel? 45.7 52. given that his mass is 110 kg. the mass of a rocket decreases significantly as its fuel is consumed.0 m/s in 2. Integrated Concepts An elevator filled with passengers has a mass of 1700 kg. since the more vertical rope supports a greater part of her weight (a vertical force). or which premises are inconsistent? 4. or which premises are inconsistent? 51. (c) What is the average force on the shell in the mortar? Express your answer in newtons and as a ratio to the weight of the shell.300 m. Find the direction and −7 magnitude of the acceleration of the flea if its mass is 6. (b) The elevator continues upward at constant velocity for 8.600 m/s 2 for 3. (b) Calculate his acceleration while he is straightening his legs. He goes from zero to the velocity found in part (a) in a distance of 0. A 76. calculate the shell’s velocity when it leaves the mortar.50×10 N . assuming constant mass and thrust? (c) In reality. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Calculate the average acceleration of the shell in the tube as it goes from zero to the velocity found in (a). it might seem surprising that we have any knowledge of it at all. 49. and what is its final velocity? 50. This player leaves the floor with a vertical velocity sufficient to carry him 0. (b) The mortar itself is a tube 0. but we will make it for this example).50-kg fireworks shell is fired straight up from a mortar and reaches a height of 110 m. he lowers his body 0. (c) Calculate the force he exerts on the floor to do this.400 m/s 2 for 50. (a) The elevator accelerates upward from rest at a rate of 1. (a) Find its initial acceleration if it takes off vertically.41. We have such knowledge because the weak nuclear force is responsible for beta decay. 53.00×10 kg .0 km/h that decelerates at a rate of 0. Integrated Concepts A 35.0-kg dolphin decelerates from 12. (These muscles are called the medial and lateral heads of the gastrocnemius muscle.) 44.0-kg sprinter exerts an average force of 650 N backward on the ground for 0.41 The force T2 needed to hold steady the person being rescued from the fire is less than her weight and less than the force T1 in the other rope.) Find the magnitude and direction of the total force on the Achilles tendon. 47. Two muscles in the back of the leg pull upward on the Achilles tendon.) (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (c) Which premise is unreasonable.900 m above the floor. Describe qualitatively how this affects the acceleration and time for this motion.40 Achilles tendon 42. Integrated Concepts Repeat Exercise 4. 48.300 m and then accelerates through this distance by forcefully straightening his legs.0-kg person is being pulled away from a burning building as shown in Figure 4. (a) Neglecting air resistance (a poor assumption. What average force was exerted to slow him if he was moving horizontally? (The gravitational force is balanced by the buoyant force of the water. A breeze blowing on the flea parallel to the ground −6 exerts a force of 0.00×10 6 kg 7 at takeoff. Unreasonable Results A 75. Include a free-body diagram in your solution.00 s.20×10 N straight down on the ground. (The scale exerts an upward force on him equal to its reading. a 70. Integrated Concepts A large rocket has a mass of 2.47 for a shell fired at an angle 10. Integrated Concepts A 2. What is the tension in the cable during deceleration? (d) How high has the elevator moved above its original starting point. Integrated Concepts When starting a foot race.org/content/col11406/1.30 s to join another dolphin in play.50 s. (a) What is the strength of the weak nuclear force relative to the strong nuclear force? (b) What is the strength of the weak nuclear force relative to the electromagnetic force? Since the weak nuclear force acts at only very short distances.0 s? (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (c) Which premise is unreasonable.160 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION 4. Calculate the tension in the two ropes if the person is momentarily motionless. A flea jumps by exerting a force of 1.7 Further Applications of Newton’s Laws of Motion −5 40. Do not neglect the gravitational force. (a) Calculate his velocity when he leaves the floor.

At these sizes. 161 . you might expect that the strong force dominates the nucleus. These facts will be used to explain nuclear fusion and fission later in this text. however. which is true for small nuclei. Large nuclei. the electromagnetic force begins to affect nuclear stability. What is the ratio of the strength of the strong nuclear force to that of the electromagnetic force? Based on this ratio.CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION gravitational force to that of the weak nuclear force? (c) What is the ratio of the strength of the gravitational force to that of the electromagnetic force? What do your answers imply about the influence of the gravitational force on atomic nuclei? 54. have sizes greater than the range of the strong nuclear force.

162 CHAPTER 4 | DYNAMICS: FORCE AND NEWTON'S LAWS OF MOTION This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.7 .

• Describe the various types of friction. 163 .1 Total hip replacement surgery has become a common procedure. • Define terminal velocity. AND ELASTICITY Figure 5.3. DRAG.2. Friction • Discuss the general characteristics of friction. 5. shear modulus and bulk modulus. Elasticity: Stress and Strain • State Hooke’s law. • Determine the change in length given mass. 5. length and radius.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. via Wikimedia Commons) Learning Objectives 5. (credit: National Institutes of Health. Drag Forces • Express mathematically the drag force. • Calculate the magnitude of static and kinetic friction. • Explain Hooke’s law using graphical representation between deformation and applied force. • Discuss the three types of deformations such as changes in length. sideways shear and changes in volume. AND ELASTICITY 5 FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. The head (or ball) of the patient’s femur fits into a cup that has a hard plastic-like inner lining. • Describe with examples the young’s modulus.1. • Determine the terminal velocity given mass. • Discuss the applications of drag force. DRAG.

It is useful at this point to look at some particularly interesting and common forces that will provide further applications of Newton’s laws of motion. air or liquid drag. for example.164 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. Thus a force is required just to set the object in motion. We have in mind the forces of friction. Imagine. indicating that the kinetic friction force is less than the static friction force. then the friction between them is called kinetic friction. there are fewer points of contact (fewer molecules adhering). the crate seems to slip suddenly and starts to move.1 Friction Friction is a force that is around us all the time that opposes relative motion between systems in contact but also allows us to move (which you have discovered if you have ever tried to walk on ice). estimate the dimensions of the artificial device. the behavior of friction is actually very complicated and is still not completely understood. then the friction between them is called kinetic friction. AND ELASTICITY Introduction: Further Applications of Newton’s Laws Describe the forces on the hip joint. What means are taken to ensure that this will be a good movable joint? From the photograph (for an adult) in Figure 5. When there is no motion between the objects. or do both. While a common force. for example.2 Frictional forces. If you add mass to the crate. Such adhesive forces also depend on the substances the surfaces are made of. position. the magnitude of static friction f s is f s ≤ μ sN. However. you must raise the object until it can skip along with just the tips of the surface hitting. We have to rely heavily on observations for whatever understandings we can gain. which explain the dependence of friction on the nature of the substances. It is difficult to categorize forces into various types (aside from the four basic forces discussed in previous chapter). such as f . always oppose motion or attempted motion between objects in contact. DRAG. At small but nonzero speeds.2 is a crude pictorial representation of how friction occurs at the interface between two objects. The magnitude of the frictional force has two forms: one for static situations (static friction). also requiring a force to maintain motion. Part of the friction is due to adhesive forces between the surface molecules of the two objects. static friction can act between them. Once in motion it is easier to keep it in motion than it was to get it started. Close-up inspection of these surfaces shows them to be rough. Adhesion varies with substances in contact and is a complicated aspect of surface physics. Figure 5. In order for the object to move. Friction arises in part because of the roughness of the surfaces in contact. For example. as seen in the expanded view.1. friction is nearly independent of speed. a crate). 5.7 (5. One of the simpler characteristics of friction is that it is parallel to the contact surface between systems and always in a direction that opposes motion or attempted motion of the systems relative to each other. where μ s is the coefficient of static friction and N is the magnitude of the normal force (the force perpendicular to the surface). the static friction is usually greater than the kinetic friction between the objects. so less force is required to keep the object moving. Figure 5. Much of the friction is actually due to attractive forces between molecules making up the two objects. the more force is needed to move them. we can still deal with its more elementary general characteristics and understand the circumstances in which it behaves. so that even perfectly smooth surfaces are not friction-free. you need to push even harder to get it started and also to keep it moving. the other for when there is motion (kinetic friction). explaining. break off the points. But when objects are stationary. A considerable force can be resisted by friction with no apparent motion. So when you push to get an object moving (in this case. why rubber-soled shoes slip less than those with leather soles. it must rise to where the peaks can skip along the bottom surface. Some of the peaks will be broken off. trying to slide a heavy crate across a concrete floor—you may push harder and harder on the crate and not move it at all. We know that a net force affects the motion. The harder the surfaces are pushed together (such as if another box is placed on the crate). But if you finally push hard enough. and shape of an object. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Once an object is moving. say by placing a box on top of it.1) . Furthermore. Kinetic Friction If two systems are in contact and moving relative to one another. friction slows a hockey puck sliding on ice. If two systems are in contact and moving relative to one another. This means that the static friction responds to what you do—it increases to be equal to and in the opposite direction of your push. and deformation. if you oiled the concrete you would find it to be easier to get the crate started and keep it going (as you might expect). Friction Friction is a force that opposes relative motion between systems in contact.org/content/col11406/1.

2) μ s is the coefficient of static friction and N is the magnitude of the normal force.3 Steel on steel (dry) 0.3 Waxed wood on wet snow 0.3 Steel on steel (oiled) 0.1. Static friction is a responsive force that increases to be equal and opposite to whatever force is exerted. and perpendicular to the normal force.0.30.1 0. That values of μ in Table 5. Once the applied force exceeds f s(max) .7 Rubber on wet concrete 0. you would have to exert a force parallel to the floor greater than f s(max) = μ sN = (0.5 0.1 are stated to only one or.1 0. The symbol ≤ means less than or equal to. Table 5. at most.016 0.4) μ k is the coefficient of kinetic friction. The direction of friction is always opposite that of motion.1 Metal on wood 0. friction is less and the coefficient of kinetic friction might be 0.5 0.1 Coefficients of Static and Kinetic Friction Static friction μ s Kinetic friction μ k Rubber on dry concrete 1. parallel to the surface between objects. where (5. if the crate you try to push (with a force parallel to the floor) has a mass of 100 kg.5 Wood on wood 0.05 0. the coefficients of kinetic friction are less than their static counterparts.14 0. AND ELASTICITY Magnitude of Static Friction Magnitude of static friction f s is f s ≤ μ sN. where (5.7 0.02 The equations given earlier include the dependence of friction on materials and the normal force.9 0. Coefficient of friction is a unit less quantity with a magnitude usually between 0 and 1. If the coefficient of static friction is 0. the magnitude of kinetic friction (5. both coefficients are considerably less than they would be without lubrication. perpendicular to the floor. Magnitude of Kinetic Friction The magnitude of kinetic friction f k is given by f k = μ kN. The coefficient of the friction depends on the two surfaces that are in contact. Thus f s(max) = μ sN.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION.04 0.03 Steel on ice 0. then the normal force would be equal to its weight.05 Ice on ice 0.6 0. A system in which f k = μ kN is described as a system in which friction behaves simply.30)(980 N) = 290 N ) would keep it moving at a constant speed. two digits is an indication of the approximate description of friction given by the above two equations.7 Shoes on ice 0.45. up to its maximum limit. For example. the object will move. so that a force of only 290 N ( f k = μ kN = (0.3) f k is given by f k = μ kN. where (5. 165 . Once there is motion.015 Shoes on wood 0. implying that static friction can have a minimum and a maximum value of μ s N .04 Bone lubricated by synovial fluid 0.80 m/s 2) = 980 N . W = mg = (100 kg)(9. DRAG. Once an object is moving.4 0. If the floor is lubricated.5) μ k is the coefficient of kinetic friction. As seen in Table 5.45)(980 N) = 440 N to move the crate.03 System Teflon on steel 0.0 0.

and when a person moves. thus. The hip is a ball (at the end of the femur) and socket (part of the pelvis) joint. during breathing. These replacements can be made of metals (stainless steel or titanium) or plastic (polyethylene). we see the post-op x rays of the right knee joint replacement. Figure 5. almost glassy surface.3 Artificial knee replacement is a procedure that has been performed for more than 20 years. the normal force should equal the component of the skier’s weight perpendicular to the slope. However. especially the joints. which are connected by thick tissues. have much smaller coefficients of friction—often three or four times less than ice. The ends of the bones in the joint are covered by cartilage. Why? Many people have experienced the slipperiness of walking on ice. the coefficient of kinetic friction can be found if we can find the normal force of the skier on a slope. (credit: Mike Baird. In this figure. The joints also produce a fluid (synovial fluid) that reduces friction and wear. Example 5.3). DRAG. For example. What happens now when you give the object the same-sized tap? Now add a few drops of (vegetable or olive) oil on the surface of the water and give the same tap. Flickr) Other natural lubricants include saliva produced in our mouths to aid in the swallowing process. Strategy The magnitude of kinetic friction was given in to be 45. Artificial lubricants are also common in hospitals and doctor’s clinics. The knee joint is formed by the lower leg bone (the tibia) and the thighbone (the femur).166 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. A damaged or arthritic joint can be replaced by an artificial joint (Figure 5. also with very small coefficients of friction.) This content is available for free at http://cnx.4. a gel is used to lubricate the surface between the transducer and the skin—thereby reducing the coefficient of friction between the two surfaces. allowing them to move freely past each other during heartbeats. which provides a smooth. Kinetic friction is related to the normal force N as f k = μ kN . Now spray water on the table.7 . This allows the transducer to mover freely over the skin. many parts of the body. and the slippery mucus found between organs in the body. A joint is formed by the ends of two bones.0 N.org/content/col11406/1. What happens now? This latter situation is particularly important for drivers to note. Find the coefficient of kinetic friction for the skier if friction is known to be 45. and since there is no motion perpendicular to the surface. when ultrasonic imaging is carried out.0 N. The normal force is always perpendicular to the surface. AND ELASTICITY Take-Home Experiment Find a small plastic object (such as a food container) and slide it on a kitchen table by giving it a gentle tap. (See the skier and free-body diagram in Figure 5. especially after a light rain shower. simulating a light shower of rain.1 Skiing Exercise A skier with a mass of 62 kg is sliding down a snowy slope.

Writing these out: f k = Fg x Solving for (5.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. N is equal in magnitude to w⊥ .0 N = 0. we get f k = μ kmg cos 25º. These forces act in opposite directions. so there is no motion perpendicular to parallel to the slope and the other is perpendicular (axes shown to left of skier). and f (the friction) is parallel to the w ⊥ and W // . we find that μk = Put a coin on a book and tilt it until the coin slides at a constant velocity down the book.1. friction is given by f k = μ kmg cos θ . However. mg cos θ (5. In situations like this. (5.4 The motion of the skier and friction are parallel to the slope and so it is most convenient to project all forces onto a coordinate system where one axis is N (the normal force) is perpendicular to the slope. but it is still reasonable since values of the coefficients of friction can vary greatly.8) mg cos 25º.6) Substituting this into our expression for kinetic friction. All objects will slide down a slope with constant acceleration under these circumstances. We can use this fact to measure the coefficient of kinetic friction between two objects. The component of the weight down the slope is equal to mg sin θ (see the free-body diagram in Figure 5. Note that the coin will not start to slide at all until an angle greater than θ is attained.1 for waxed wood on snow. namely the slope. As shown in Example 5. That is. DRAG. since the coefficient of static friction is larger than the coefficient of kinetic friction. where an object of mass m slides down a slope that makes an angle θ with the horizontal. (5. so there is acceleration down the slope (along the x-axis).082.12) μ k . Take-Home Experiment An object will slide down an inclined plane at a constant velocity if the net force on the object is zero.7) μk .4). N = w⊥ = w cos 25º = mg cos 25º. μ k and 167 .9) Discussion This result is a little smaller than the coefficient listed in Table 5. (62 kg)(9. the kinetic friction on a slope f k = μ kmg cos θ .906) (5.80 m/s 2)(0. Solution Solving for μ k gives μk = fk = N fk w cos 25º = fk (5. Substituting known values on the right-hand side of the equation. Discuss how this may affect the value for its uncertainty. the acceleration is zero.11) mg sin θ = tan θ. slope. AND ELASTICITY Figure 5. so when they have equal magnitude. μk = 45. Proof of this is left for this chapter’s Problems and Exercises. but w (the skier’s weight) has components along both axes. You might need to tap the book lightly to get the coin to move. Measure the angle of tilt relative to the horizontal and find μ k . f is less than W // in magnitude. which can now be solved for the coefficient of kinetic friction (5.10) μ k mg cos θ = mg sin θ.

Create an applied force and see the resulting friction force and total force acting on the cabinet.5 illustrates one macroscopic characteristic of friction that is explained by microscopic (small-scale) research. But the atomic-scale view promises to explain far more than the simpler features of friction. The mechanism for how heat is generated is now being determined. but not to the area in contact. The variation in shear stress is remarkable (more than a factor of 10 12 ) and difficult to predict theoretically. When there is a greater normal force as a result of a greater applied force. DRAG. Draw a free-body diagram of all the forces (including gravitational and normal forces). why do surfaces get warmer when rubbed? Essentially. The force needed to drag the tip can be measured and is found to be related to shear stress. PhET Explorations: Forces and Motion Explore the forces at work when you try to push a filing cabinet. a somewhat counterintuitive notion. We have noted that friction is proportional to the normal force. Furthermore. there is a normal force supporting it equal in magnitude to its weight. Chemical reactions that are related to frictional wear can also occur between atoms and molecules on the surfaces. This content is available for free at http://cnx.6 shows how the tip of a probe drawn across another material is deformed by atomic-scale friction. Great strides have been made in the atomicscale explanation of friction during the past several decades. the actual contact area is a tiny fraction of the total area since only high spots touch. Figure 5.org/content/col11406/1. the actual contact area increases.7 . When two rough surfaces are in contact. The sound waves diminish with distance and their energy is converted into heat. AND ELASTICITY We have discussed that when an object rests on a horizontal surface.168 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. Charts show the forces. Researchers are finding that the atomic nature of friction seems to have several fundamental characteristics. the surface atoms adhere and cause atomic lattices to vibrate—essentially creating sound waves that penetrate the material. In other words. time. but shear stress is yielding a fundamental understanding of a large-scale phenomenon known since ancient times—friction. atoms are linked with one another to form lattices. simple friction is always proportional to the normal force. Making Connections: Submicroscopic Explanations of Friction The simpler aspects of friction dealt with so far are its macroscopic (large-scale) characteristics. Measurements of how the force varies for different materials are yielding fundamental insights into the atomic nature of friction. Figure 5. Figure 5. and it is found that the friction is proportional to this area. velocity. the area of actual contact increases as does friction. When a greater normal force is exerted.6 The tip of a probe is deformed sideways by frictional force as the probe is dragged across a surface. position.5 Two rough surfaces in contact have a much smaller area of actual contact than their total area. and acceleration vs. When surfaces rub. which will be discussed later in this chapter. These characteristics not only explain some of the simpler aspects of friction—they also hold the potential for the development of nearly friction-free environments that could save hundreds of billions of dollars in energy which is currently being converted (unnecessarily) to heat. Figure 5.

We can write this relationship mathematically as F D ∝ v 2 . the magnitude of the drag force is proportional to the square of the speed. Unlike simple friction. 2 where (5. the drag force always opposes the motion of an object.8 From racing cars to bobsled racers. You feel the drag force when you move your hand through water. DRAG. 169 .2 Drag Forces Another interesting force in everyday life is the force of drag on an object when it is moving in a fluid (either a gas or a liquid).13) C is the drag coefficient. Bobsleds are designed for speed. the exponent n is equal to 1. via Wikimedia Commons) The value of the drag coefficient. (credit: U. “Aerodynamic” shaping of an automobile can reduce the drag force and so increase a car’s gas mileage. You might also feel it if you move your hand during a strong wind. A is the area of the object facing the fluid. Mathematically FD ∝ v2 F D = 1 CρAv 2. and the fluid it is in.5CρA . Drag Force Drag force F D is found to be proportional to the square of the speed of the object. where b is a constant equivalent to 0. its size. usually with the use of a wind tunnel. (Recall that density is mass per unit volume. Army. cars. the harder it is to move.14) (5. The faster you move your hand.jar) 5. the magnitude of the drag force F D is found to be proportional to the square of the speed of the object. (See Figure 5. and ρ is the density of the fluid.S. As we shall see in a few pages on fluid dynamics. For most large objects such as bicyclists.9). AND ELASTICITY Figure 5.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. and ρ is the density of the fluid. They are shaped like a bullet with tapered fins.8).) This equation can also be written in a more generalized fashion as F D = bAv 2 . This functionality is complicated and depends upon the shape of the object.org/content/m42139/1. 2 where (5.7 Forces and Motion (http://cnx. (See Figure 5. You feel a smaller drag force when you tilt your hand so only the side goes through the air—you have decreased the area of your hand that faces the direction of motion. A is the area of the object facing the fluid. C . Athletes as well as car designers seek to reduce the drag force to lower their race times. Like friction. aerodynamic shaping is crucial to achieving top speeds. Figure 5. and baseballs not moving too slowly. When taking into account other factors.4/forces-and-motion_en. when an object is moving at high velocity through air. We have set the exponent n for these equations as 2 because. the drag force is proportional to some function of the velocity of the object in that fluid. for small particles moving at low speeds in a fluid. this relationship becomes F D = 1 CρAv 2. is determined empirically. its velocity.15) C is the drag coefficient.

Table 5.2 lists some typical drag coefficients for a variety of objects. One consequence is that careful and precise guidelines must be continuously developed to maintain the integrity of the sport. Such innovations can have the effect of slicing away milliseconds in a race.170 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. (credit: NASA/Ames) The drag coefficient can depend upon velocity. At highway speeds. AND ELASTICITY Figure 5.32 Honda Civic 0. Table 5.43 Sphere 0. The dimples on golf balls are being redesigned as are the clothes that athletes wear. over 50% of the power of a car is used to overcome air drag.28 Ford Focus 0.90 Skydiver (horizontal) 1. sometimes making the difference between a gold and a silver medal. DRAG. Bicycle racers and some swimmers and runners wear full bodysuits.64 Skydiver (feet first) 0. Australian Cathy Freeman wore a full body suit in the 2000 Sydney Olympics.2 Drag Coefficient Values Typical values of drag coefficient C . it might have made a difference in breaking many world records (See Figure 5.05 Toyota Camry 0.12 Substantial research is under way in the sporting world to minimize drag. Notice that the drag coefficient is a dimensionless quantity.37 Dodge Ram pickup 0. Many swimmers in the 2008 Beijing Olympics wore (Speedo) body suits.7 . and won the gold medal for the 400 m race. but we will assume that it is a constant here.45 Hummer H2 SUV 0.10). maximum speeds on highways were set at about 90 km/h (55 mi/h). The most fuel-efficient cruising speed is about 70–80 km/h (about 45–50 mi/h).org/content/col11406/1.9 NASA researchers test a model plane in a wind tunnel. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Object C Airfoil 0.36 Ferrari Testarossa 0.0 Circular flat plate 1.70 Bicycle 0. Most elite swimmers (and cyclists) shave their body hair. For this reason. during the 1970s oil crisis in the United States.

) They obtain terminal velocity quite quickly. have been credited with many world records after their release in 2008. that terminal velocity may decrease to about 200 km/h as the area increases. In a spread-eagle position. and five nested filters to fall to the floor from the same height (roughly 2 m). as given by Newton’s second law. Leaving them in their original shape.19) ρ = 1. due to the way the filters are nested. At this point. The two forces acting on him are the force of gravity and the drag force (ignoring the buoyant force).21 kg/m 3)(0. AND ELASTICITY Figure 5. v = (5. However. We find that Assume the density of air is 2(75 kg)(9. Gather together some nested coffee filters. DRAG.18 m 2 and a drag coefficient of approximately C = 0. (Note that. drag is constant and only mass varies. Plot the terminal velocity v versus mass.21 kg/m 3 . 2 (5. At the terminal velocity. measure the time it takes for one.80 m/s 2) (1. consider a skydiver falling through air under the influence of gravity.16) mg = F D. a heavier skydiver must go faster for F D to equal his weight.18) Thus. thus producing a net force of zero. ρCA (5.70 . the person’s velocity remains constant and we say that the person has reached his terminal velocity ( v t ). two. we have Solving for the velocity. such as this LZR Racer Suit.70)(0. so find this velocity as a function of mass. the magnitude of the drag force increases until the magnitude of the drag force is equal to the gravitational force. four. as the person’s velocity increases. (credit: NASA/Kathy Barnstorff) Some interesting situations connected to Newton’s second law occur when considering the effects of drag forces upon a moving object. The downward force of gravity remains constant regardless of the velocity at which the person is moving.2 A Terminal Velocity Find the terminal velocity of an 85-kg skydiver falling in a spread-eagle position. Also plot v 2 versus mass.18 m 2) = 98 m/s = 350 km/h. Which of these relationships is more linear? What can you conclude from these graphs? Example 5. F net = mg − F D = ma = 0. minimizing the area and his drag. A 75-kg skydiver descending head first will have an area approximately A = 0. Let’s see how this works out more quantitatively.10 Body suits. For instance. Strategy 171 . we obtain v= 2mg .CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION.20) This means a skydiver with a mass of 75 kg achieves a maximum terminal velocity of about 350 km/h while traveling in a pike (head first) position. Take-Home Experiment This interesting activity examines the effect of weight upon terminal velocity. Since F D is proportional to the speed. This terminal velocity becomes much smaller after the parachute opens. three.17) mg = 1 ρCAv 2. A zero net force means that there is no acceleration. (5. (5. Using the equation for drag force. Smoother “skin” and more compression forces on a swimmer’s body provide at least 10% less drag.

we find that 2(85 kg)(9. we find F net = 0 . If you fall from a 5-m high branch of a tree. Using our equation for (5. we find that many of these objects travel unaided only at a constant (terminal) velocity. which states that F s = 6πrηv. The following interesting quote on animal size and terminal velocity is from a 1928 essay by a British biologist. but its surface only to a hundredth. on arriving at the bottom. vt = (5.21) Solution All quantities are known except the person’s projected area. η is the viscosity of the fluid. Haldane.24) r is the radius of the object. η is the viscosity of the fluid. Flocks of birds fly in the shape of a spear head as the flock forms a streamlined pattern (see Figure 5. DRAG. So the resistance to falling in the case of the small animal is relatively ten times greater than the driving force. Terminal velocities for bacteria (size about 1 μm ) can be about 2 μm/s . Because each of these objects is so small. one important example of streamlining is the shape of sperm. Using the equation of mg = 1 ρCAv 2 . or is in a denser medium than air.B.0)(0. you can see how drag has influenced evolution.172 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. breadth. but the squirrel does. (5. However. Stokes’ Law where F s = 6πrηv. In humans.21 kg/m 3)(1. The size of the object that is falling through air presents another interesting application of air drag. which need to be efficient in their use of energy. Sediment in a lake can move at a greater terminal velocity (about 5 μm/s ). where (5. Fishes. Good examples of this law are provided by microorganisms.22) v t . The 75-kg skydiver going feet first had a v = 98 m / s . its weight is reduced to a thousandth. You don’t reach a terminal velocity in such a short distance. J. and. a man is broken. and v is the object’s velocity.70 m 2.80 m/s 2) (1. and even massive whales are streamlined in shape to reduce drag forces. AND ELASTICITY At terminal velocity. For the resistance presented to movement by the air is proportional to the surface of the moving object. [gravity] presents practically no dangers. and v is the object’s velocity. pollen.70 m 2) = 44 m/s.35 m) = 0. drag force. and dust particles. ρCA (5.org/content/col11406/1. To move at a greater speed. Divide an animal’s length. Birds are streamlined and migratory species that fly large distances often have particular features such as long necks. without getting hurt. and height each by ten. You can drop a mouse down a thousand-yard mine shaft. and a horse splashes. Then we find that the drag force is proportional just to the velocity. We can estimate the frontal area as A = (2 m)(0.25) r is the radius of the object.11). you will likely get hurt—possibly fracturing a bone.S. 2 Thus the terminal velocity v t can be written as vt = 2mg . is going very slow. dolphins.7 . This relationship is given by Stokes’ law.23) Discussion This result is consistent with the value for v t mentioned earlier. many bacteria swim using flagella (organelles shaped like little tails) that are powered by little motors embedded in the cell. He weighed less but had a smaller frontal area and so a smaller drag due to the air. it gets a slight shock and walks away. This is an adult (82 kg) falling spread eagle. A rat is killed. Thus the drag force on the skydiver must equal the force of gravity (the person’s weight). so it can take days to reach the bottom of the lake after being deposited on the surface. a small squirrel does this all the time. The above quadratic dependence of air drag upon velocity does not hold if the object is very small. titled “On Being the Right Size. This content is available for free at http://cnx. If we compare animals living on land with those in water. provided that the ground is fairly soft.” To the mouse and any smaller animal.

the size of the deformation is proportional to the force—that is. ΔL = F k (5. potential.org/content/m42080/1. Transport the lab to different planets.28) F . and also allows them a better way to communicate. and k is a proportionality constant that (5. If a bulldozer pushes a car into a wall. and thermal energy for each spring. A chart shows the kinetic.jar) 5.26) ΔL is the amount of deformation (the change in length. You can even slow time. Bones are brittle and the elastic region is small and the fracture abrupt. for example) produced by the force F . Note that this force is a function of the deformation constant as a kinetic friction force is. the straight line region in which Hooke’s law pertains is much larger. how do you think he measured their fall time? If the objects were the same size.29) 173 . Hooke’s Law F = kΔL. Figure 5.11 Geese fly in a V formation during their long migratory travels. the object returns to its original shape when the force is removed—that is. where (5.13 shows the Hooke’s law relationship between the extension ΔL of a spring or of a human bone. two important characteristics are observed. for example) produced by the force depends on the shape and composition of the object and the direction of the force. Hooke’s law is given by F = kΔL. For metals or springs.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. for small deformations. and k is a proportionality constant that ΔL —it is not depends on the shape and composition of the object and the direction of the force.12 Masses & Springs (http://cnx. what do you think he should have observed? Would this result be different if done on the Moon? PhET Explorations: Masses & Springs A realistic mass and spring laboratory. For small deformations.27) makes it clear that the deformation is proportional to the applied force. In equation form. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. AND ELASTICITY Figure 5. This shape reduces drag and energy consumption for individual birds. Second. DRAG. Since stopwatches weren’t readily available. but with different masses. First. where ΔL is the amount of deformation (the change in length. Rearranging this to ΔL = F k (5.4/mass-spring-lab_en. the car will not move but it will noticeably change shape. He measured how long it took each to reach the ground. Even very small forces are known to cause some deformation. Eventually a large enough stress to the material will cause it to break or fracture.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain We now move from consideration of forces that affect the motion of an object (such as friction and drag) to those that affect an object’s shape. the deformation is elastic for small deformations. Figure 5. Wikimedia Commons) Galileo’s Experiment Galileo is said to have dropped two objects of different masses from the Tower of Pisa. A change in shape due to the application of a force is a deformation. Hooke’s law is obeyed. (credit: Julo.

DRAG. and the elongation the force is removed.15. Changes in Length—Tension and Compression: Elastic Modulus A change in length ΔL is produced when a force is applied to a wire or rod parallel to its length L 0 . Finally.) This content is available for free at http://cnx. The straight segment is the linear region where Hooke’s law is obeyed. The slope of the straight region is 1 . all three strings return to their normal lengths when The proportionality constant tightened. Most materials will behave in this manner if the deformation is less that about 0. Figure 5. sideways shear (stress). Stretch Yourself a Little How would you go about measuring the proportionality constant k of a rubber band? If a rubber band stretched 3 cm when a 100-g mass was attached to it. then how much would it stretch if two similar rubber bands were attached to the same mass—even if put together in parallel or alternatively if tied together in series? We now consider three specific types of deformations: changes in length (tension and compression). For larger forces.org/content/col11406/1. and the one on the right is steel. indicating that a small increase in F is producing a large increase in L near the fracture.1% or about 3 1 part in 10 . Note that in this graph the slope increases just before fracture.13 A graph of deformation k depends upon a number of factors for the material. provided the deformation is small.14 The same force. the graph is curved but the deformation is still elastic— ΔL will return to zero if the force is removed. the one in the middle is thicker nylon. The shape of the curve near fracture depends on several factors.14). in this case a weight ( w ). either stretching it (a tension) or compressing it. implying they have a larger k (see Figure 5.7 . The string on the left is thin nylon. AND ELASTICITY ΔL versus applied force F . (See Figure 5. including how the force F is applied. Figure 5. Thicker nylon strings and ones made of steel stretch less for the same applied force. a guitar string made of nylon stretches when it is ΔL is proportional to the force applied (at least for small deformations). For example. applied to three different guitar strings of identical length produces the three different deformations shown as shaded segments. Still greater forces permanently deform the object k until it finally fractures. and changes in volume. All deformations are assumed to be small unless otherwise stated.174 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION.

Experiments have shown that the change in length ( ΔL ) depends on only a few variables. The same rod is compressed by forces with the same magnitude in the opposite direction.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. For larger deformations. said to have a large tensile strength because they deform less for a given tension or compression.30) ΔL is the change in length. For very small deformations and uniform materials. 175 . DRAG. (b) Compression. F the applied force. Additionally. For example. and a thick string will stretch less than a thin one. We can combine all these factors into one equation for ΔL : ΔL = 1 F L 0. and L 0 is the original length. the cross-sectional area changes as the rod is compressed or stretched. ΔL is proportional to the force F and depends on the substance from which the object is made. AND ELASTICITY Figure 5. called the elastic modulus or Young’s modulus. As already noted. a long guitar string will stretch more than a short one.15 (a) Tension.3 lists values of Y for several materials—those with a large Y are substance. The rod is stretched a length ΔL when a force is applied parallel to its length. YA where (5. that depends on the A is the cross-sectional area. Table 5. ΔL is approximately the same for the same magnitude of tension or compression. Y is a factor. the change in length is proportional to the original length L 0 and inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area of the wire or rod.

(See Figure 5. Assume that the cable has a diameter of 5. Example 5. Young’s moduli Y for tension and compression sometimes differ but are averaged here. Calculate the amount of stretch in the steel cable. which also exerts a force of magnitude w .2 Young’s moduli are not listed for liquids and gases in Table 5. AND ELASTICITY Table 5. DRAG.5 Mercury 25 Water 2. Flickr) Strategy 1. (credit: Rudy Herman.6 cm and the maximum tension it can 6 withstand is 3. Bone has significantly different Young’s moduli for tension and compression.16) Consider a suspension cable that includes an unsupported span of 3 km. Approximate and average values. cast 100 40 90 Material Lead 16 5 50 Marble 60 20 70 Nylon 5 Polystyrene 3 Silk 6 Spider thread 3 80 130 Steel Tendon 210 1 Acetone 0.3 The Stretch of a Long Cable Suspension cables are used to carry gondolas at ski resorts. For example.3 because they cannot be stretched or compressed in only one direction. Note that there is an assumption that the object does not accelerate.176 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION.3 Elastic Moduli[1] Young’s modulus (tension–compression)Y (10 9 N/m2) Shear modulus S (10 9 N/m2) Bulk modulus B (10 9 N/m2) Aluminum 70 25 75 Bone – tension 16 80 8 Bone – compression 9 Brass 90 35 75 Brick 15 Concrete 20 Glass 70 20 30 Granite 45 20 45 Hair (human) 10 Hardwood 15 10 Iron.7 .16 Gondolas travel along suspension cables at the Gala Yuzawa ski resort in Japan. so that there are actually two applied forces of magnitude F acting in opposite directions.9 Glycerin 4.15 are being pulled down by a force of magnitude w and held up by the ceiling. This content is available for free at http://cnx. the strings in Figure 5.org/content/col11406/1.7 Ethanol 0.0×10 N . Figure 5.

the tendon (the tissue connecting muscle to bone) must stretch easily at first when a force is applied. like support tendons (as in the leg) can change length up to 10%. and in the failure region individual fibers begin to break.0 kg man supports 62. Functionally. A simple model of this relationship can be illustrated by springs in parallel: different springs are activated at different lengths of stretch. the arteries and lungs need to be very stretchable. Thus. Three regions are shown: (1) toe region (2) linear region. Some tendons have a high collagen content so there is relatively little strain. The heart is also an organ with special elastic properties.80 m/s 2⎞⎠ = 607.0×10 6 N ⎞ 1 ⎝210×10 9 N/m 2 ⎠⎝2.46×10 −3 m 2 . In the first part of the stretch called the toe region. on the whole. Figure 5. YA Solution All quantities are known. which need to be strong as well as elastic. Examples of this are given in the problems at end of this chapter. Effects of temperature upon length might be important in these environments. The elasticity of all organs reduces with age. Strategy The force is equal to the weight supported. Another biological example of Hooke’s law occurs in tendons.17 Typical stress-strain curve for mammalian tendon. The elastic properties of the arteries are essential for blood flow. resulting in the bone shearing or snapping.17 shows a stress-strain relationship for a human tendon. The pressure in the arteries increases and arterial walls stretch when the blood is pumped out of the heart.0×10 6 N .0 kg⎞⎠⎛⎝9.6 N. you would not feel a pulse. or length change. Bones are classified as weight-bearing structures such as columns in buildings and trees. assuming the bone to be equivalent to a uniform rod that is 40. Ligaments (tissue connecting bone to bone) behave in a similar way. especially for the young. Note that this stress-strain curve is nonlinear. Example 5.4 Calculating Deformation: How Much Does Your Leg Shorten When You Stand on It? Calculate the change in length of the upper leg bone (the femur) when a 70. The behavior of bones under tension and compression is important because it determines the load the bones can carry.0 cm long and 2. The cross-sectional area is πr 2 = 2. Bones. Figure 5. or F = mg = ⎛⎝62. In the linear region.257×10 −3 m 2 . you are feeling exactly this—the elastic behavior of the arteries as the blood gushes through with each pump of the heart. Rather they generally fracture due to sideways impact or bending. YA (5. columns in building have steel-reinforcing rods while trees and bones are fibrous. When you feel your pulse. ΔL = ⎛ ⎞⎛ 3. others. When the aortic valve shuts.6% of the unsupported length. Discussion This is quite a stretch. Unlike bones and tendons. the fibrils will be stretched.31) = 18 m.00 cm in radius. or F = 3.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. The equation ΔL = 1 F L 0 can be used to find the change in length. Weight-bearing structures have special features. The lungs expand with muscular effort when we breathe in but relax freely and elastically when we breathe out. DRAG. The equation ΔL = 1 F L 0 can be used to find the change in length. Thus the bone in the top of the femur is arranged in thin sheets separated by marrow while in other places the bones can be cylindrical and filled with marrow or just solid.32) 177 . A young person can go from 100 kg to 60 kg with no visible sag in their skins. but only about 0. and the cross-sectional area is Solution πr 2 = 1. and (3) failure region. If the arteries were rigid. Gradual physiological aging through reduction in elasticity starts in the early 20s. the pressure in the arteries drops and the arterial walls relax to maintain the blood flow.46×10 –3 m 2 ⎠(3020 m) (5. the fibers in the tendon begin to align in the direction of the stress—this is called uncrimping. The bones in different parts of the body serve different structural functions and are prone to different stresses. but offer a much greater restoring force for a greater strain. since the slope of the line changes in different regions.0 kg of his mass on it. AND ELASTICITY The force is equal to the maximum tension. do not fracture due to tension or compression. Overweight people have a tendency toward bone damage due to sustained compressions in bone joints and tendons. Our skins are particularly elastic.

AND ELASTICITY All quantities except ΔL are known. ΔL .39) S is the shear modulus (see Table 5. ΔL . as illustrated in Figure 5.7 (5.36) we see that it is the same as Hooke’s law with a proportionality constant k = YA . rather than parallel as with tension and compression. (5. L0 (5. Again. and both are more easily bent than keep the object from accelerating. L0 A The ratio of force to area.35) In this form. This content is available for free at http://cnx. there are actually two equal and opposite forces The equation is logical—for example. is defined as strain (a unitless quantity). several of the substances listed in Table 5. A Strain The ratio of the change in length to length.178 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. In other words. and the ratio of the change in length to length. In fact. Although bone is rigid compared with fat or muscle. ΔL = ⎛ ⎞⎛ 607.33) = 2×10 −5 m. Stress The ratio of force to area. they are more rigid and have greater tensile strength. SA where (5. SA S is the shear modulus and F is the force applied perpendicular to L 0 and parallel to the cross-sectional area A .3) and F is the force applied perpendicular to L 0 and parallel to the cross-sectional area A . is defined as stress measured in N/m2. to F applied across opposite faces.38) Sideways Stress: Shear Modulus Δx and it is perpendicular to L 0 . and changes in volume. If we again rearrange this equation to the form F = YA ΔL . (5.34) F . even the rather large forces encountered during strenuous physical activity do not compress or bend bones by large amounts. with stress analogous to force and strain analogous to deformation. sideways bending.6 N ⎞ 1 ⎝9×10 9 N/m 2 ⎠⎝1. DRAG.18 illustrates what is meant by a sideways stress or a shearing force.37) This general idea—that force and the deformation it causes are proportional for small deformations—applies to changes in length. (5.400 m) (5. consistent with our experience that bones are rigid. A ) than a short thick one. is defined as strain (a L0 A unitless quantity). Thus. Here the deformation is called Δx = 1 F L 0. In other words.18. The expression for shear deformation is Figure 5. stress = Y×strain. Shear deformation behaves similarly to tension and compression and can be described with similar equations. is defined as stress (measured in N/m 2 ).257×10 −3 m 2 ⎠(0. it is easier to bend a long thin pencil (small similar steel rods (large S ). L0 stress = Y×strain.org/content/col11406/1.40) . the equation is analogous to Hooke’s law. Discussion This small change in length seems reasonable. F . In other words. Note that the compression value for Young’s modulus for bone must be used here. L0 (5. The equation for change in length is traditionally rearranged and written in the following form: F = Y ΔL . Shear Deformation where Δx = 1 F L 0.3 have larger values of Young’s modulus Y .

thereby increasing the curvature in their spine and so increasing the shear component of the stress. but is very poor against shear. The spinal column has normal curvature for stability. the weight of the upper body exerts some of both.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. If we can find w . Concrete used in buildings can withstand compression. so the cross-sectional area is (5. See Example 5. This is one reason that bones can be long and relatively thin.19. because they flow in response to shearing forces. leading to increased shearing forces on the lower vertebrae. The lumbosacral disc (the wedge shaped disc below the last vertebrae) is particularly at risk because of its location. Most bone fractures are not caused by compression but by excessive twisting and bending. Pregnant women and people that are overweight (with large abdomens) need to move their shoulders back to maintain balance. AND ELASTICITY Figure 5. Almost by definition. Bone is a remarkable exception. but it is as large as that of steel. we see that all other quantities can be found: SA F = SA Δx. but it should be kept in mind that in addition to the two shearing forces. Examination of the shear moduli in Table 5. DRAG. F .80 µm . Discs are better at withstanding compressional forces than shear forces.5 for a calculation of the mass of the picture. These higher shear forces increase the risk of back injury through ruptured discs. The nail flexes very slightly (shown much larger than actual) because of the shearing effect of the supported weight. The equation Δx = 1 F L can be solved for F . given that the nail bends only 1.3 and is S = 80×10 9 N/m 2 . then the mass of the picture is just w . The shear moduli for concrete and brick are very small. Its shear modulus is not only greater than its Young’s modulus. as in pillars and arches. Strategy F on the nail (neglecting the nail’s own weight) is the weight of the picture w . L0 S is found in Table 5. they are too highly variable to be listed. The spinal column (consisting of 26 vertebral segments separated by discs) provides the main support for the head and upper part of the body. as might be encountered in heavily loaded floors or during earthquakes. Example 5. The weight of the object also is not shown. liquids and gases have shear moduli near zero. An increased angle due to more curvature increases the shear forces along the plane. shear moduli are less than Young’s moduli for most materials. producing a deformation Δx . Modern structures were made possible by the use of steel and steel-reinforced concrete.3 reveals some telling patterns. The radius r is 0. The distorting effects of these supporting forces are ignored in this treatment. Because the spine is not vertical. For example. illustrating that there are equal and opposite forces applied across opposite cross sections of the nail.19 Side view of a nail with a picture hung from it. Vertical forces are not shown. since it is usually negligible compared with forces large enough to cause significant deformations. Also shown is the upward force of the wall on the nail.41) 179 . (Assume the shear modulus is known to two significant figures. Bones can support loads comparable to that of concrete and steel.5 Calculating Force Required to Deform: That Nail Does Not Bend Much Under a Load Find the mass of the picture hanging from a steel nail as shown in Figure 5. but this curvature can be increased. g SA 0 The force Solution Solving the equation Δx = 1 F L 0 for F .18 Shearing forces are applied perpendicular to the length L0 and parallel to the area A .750 mm (as seen in the figure).) Figure 5. there must be supporting forces to keep the object from rotating.

It is relatively easy to compress gases and extremely difficult to compress liquids and solids. First. and compression previously discussed.80 µm —an amount undetectable to the unaided eye.44) Discussion This is a fairly massive picture. The deformation produced is a change in volume ΔV .) The relationship of the change in volume to other physical quantities is given by ΔV = 1 F V 0. you must actually compress their atoms and molecules. or ratio of force to area F on all surfaces.45) B is the bulk modulus (see Table 5. V 0 is the original volume. What are some examples of bulk compression of solids and liquids? One practical example is the manufacture of industrial-grade diamonds by compressing carbon with an extremely large force per unit area. Example 5. To compress a gas. especially in deep parts of the oceans. Water exerts an inward force on all surfaces of a submerged object.20.00×10 m) (5. BA where (5. you must force its atoms and molecules closer together. DRAG. For example. and very strong electromagnetic forces in them oppose this compression. −3 (5.77×10 −6 m 2.00×10 7 N / m 2 .42) L 0 is also shown in the figure. The value for (5. Changes in Volume: Bulk Modulus An object will be compressed in all directions if inward forces are applied evenly on all its surfaces as in Figure 5. To compress liquids and solids. F= This 51 N force is the weight (80×10 9 N/m 2)(1. AND ELASTICITY A = πr 2 = 1.00 km depth. where extremely large forces result from the weight of overlying material.2 kg. Thus. and F is the force per unit area applied uniformly inward on all surfaces. A Note that no bulk moduli are given for gases. The reason for these different compressibilities is that atoms and molecules are separated by large empty spaces in gases but packed close together in liquids and solids. where the force per unit area is 5. The carbon atoms rearrange their crystalline structure into the more tightly packed pattern of diamonds. Another natural source of large compressive forces is the pressure created by the weight of water. so the picture’s mass is F m=w g = g = 5. since a compression of the entire object is equivalent to compressing each of its three dimensions.20 An inward force on all surfaces compresses this cube. (This is not surprising.43) w of the picture. At great depths. as the following example illustrates. air in a wine bottle is compressed when it is corked.7 . we note that a force “applied evenly” is defined to have the same stress. We can describe the compression or volume deformation of an object with an equation.6 Calculating Change in Volume with Deformation: How Much Is Water Compressed at Great Ocean Depths? Calculate the fractional decrease in volume ( ΔV ) for seawater at 5. tension. water is measurably compressed.org/content/col11406/1. and is related to the compressibility of the substance. and even on the water itself.180 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION.80×10 −6 m) = 51 N. (5.77×10 −6 m 2) (1. you cannot compress the wine—some must be removed if the cork is to be inserted. In nature. a similar process occurs deep underground. But if you try corking a brim-full bottle. Its change in volume is proportional to the force per unit area and its original volume. which is found to behave very A similarly to the shear. and it is impressive that the nail flexes only 1. V0 Strategy This content is available for free at http://cnx. Figure 5.3).

where μ s is the coefficient of static friction and N is the magnitude of the normal force F s = 6πrηv .46) B from Table 5. V0 BA Solution Solving for the unknown ΔV gives V0 ΔV = 1 F .3%. 2 where C is the drag coefficient. Other types of deformations. (A normal force is always perpendicular to the contact surface between systems. and bulk deformations considered here. A is the area of the object facing the fluid. ΔV = 5. 181 . and ρ is the density of the fluid friction: a force that opposes relative motion or attempts at motion between systems in contact Hooke’s law: proportional relationship between the force F on a material and the deformation ΔL it causes. Liquids and solids are extraordinarily difficult to compress. expands when it freezes. AND ELASTICITY Equation ΔV = 1 F V 0 is the correct physical relationship.3.47) Discussion Although measurable. where r is the radius of the object. they deform or break their container. η is the viscosity of the fluid. and it can easily fracture a boulder. mathematically FD ∝ v2 F D = 1 CρAv 2. If the materials are tightly constrained. (5. Glossary deformation: change in shape due to the application of force drag force: F D . and v is the object’s velocity shear deformation: deformation perpendicular to the original length of an object static friction: a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and are not moving relative to one another strain: ratio of change in length to original length stress: ratio of force to area tensile strength: measure of deformation for a given tension or compression Section Summary 5. Another very common example occurs when water freezes. All quantities in the equation except ΔV are known. DRAG. such as torsion or twisting. since most materials expand when their temperature increases. behave analogously to the tension.) Friction depends on both of the materials involved. V0 BA Substituting known values with the value for the bulk modulus (5. found to be proportional to the square of the speed of the object. very large forces are created by liquids and solids when they try to expand but are constrained from doing so—which is equivalent to compressing them to less than their normal volume. Conversely. where μ k is the coefficient of kinetic friction f s ≤ μ s N .1 Friction • Friction is a contact force between systems that opposes the motion or attempted motion between them. shear.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. The magnitude of static friction f s between systems stationary relative to one another is given by f s ≤ μ sN. Simple friction is proportional to the normal force N pushing the systems together. F = kΔL kinetic friction: a force that opposes the motion of two systems that are in contact and moving relative to one another magnitude of kinetic friction: magnitude of static friction: Stokes’ law: f k = μ kN . This often occurs when a contained material warms up. unlike most materials.00×10 7 N/m 2 V0 2. Water. rupture a biological cell. this is not a significant decrease in volume considering that the force per unit area is about 500 atmospheres (1 million pounds per square foot).023 = 2. or crack an engine block that gets in its way.2×10 9 N/m 2 = 0.

oil and gasoline leaks onto the road surface. If a light rain falls.org/content/col11406/1. η is the fluid viscosity. DRAG. Two expressions were used for the drag force experienced by a moving object in a liquid. Athletes such as swimmers and bicyclists wear body suits in competition.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain This content is available for free at http://cnx. The glue on a piece of tape can exert forces. where F s = 6πηrv. measured in N/m2. In which types of motion would each of these expressions be more applicable than the other one? 7.) 5. which depends on both of the materials. When you push a piece of chalk across a chalkboard. 5. BA F where B is the bulk modulus. μ k is the coefficient of kinetic friction. 3. which also depends on both materials. in particular explaining how it is related to the fact that kinetic friction is less than static friction. while the other was proportional to the square of the speed.182 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION.2). r is the radius of the object. while a human could break a bone in such a fall? 5. When you learn to drive. YA where Y is Young’s modulus. 6. is defined as strain (a unitless quantity). • The relationship of the change in volume to other physical quantities is given by ΔV = 1 F V 0. 2 where v in air.2 Drag Forces • Drag forces acting on an object moving in a fluid oppose the motion. Explain this in terms of the relationship between static and kinetic friction. Describe this process in more detail. F .7 . and k is a proportionality constant that depends on the shape and composition of the object and the direction of the force. For larger objects (such as a baseball) moving at a velocity drag force is given by F D = 1 CρAv 2. which depends on the substance. where ΔL is the amount of deformation (the change in length). A is the cross-sectional area. Define normal force. you discover that you need to let up slightly on the brake pedal as you come to a stop or the car will stop with a jerk. • For small objects (such as a bacterium) moving in a denser medium (such as water). and is the force per unit area applied uniformly inward on all surfaces. What is its relationship to friction when friction behaves simply? 2. As cars travel. Why can a squirrel jump from a tree branch to the ground and run away undamaged. and v is the object’s velocity. In other words. Formulate a list of pros and cons of such suits. considering especially that tape can stick to vertical walls and even to ceilings. AND ELASTICITY μ s is the coefficient of static friction. 5. the C is the drag coefficient (typical values are given in Table 5. The relationship between the deformation and the applied force can also be written as ΔL = 1 F L 0. • The expression for shear deformation is Δx = 1 F L 0. what does this do to the control of the car? Does a heavy rain make any difference? 8. (The same slip-grab process occurs when tires screech on pavement. V 0 is the original volume. ΔL . SA where S is the shear modulus and F is the force applied perpendicular to L 0 and parallel to the cross-sectional area A . is defined as stress. 4. A is the area of the object facing the fluid. F is the applied force. • The kinetic friction force f k between systems moving relative to one another is given by where where f k = μ kN.2 Drag Forces 5. it sometimes screeches because it rapidly alternates between slipping and sticking to the board. A • The ratio of the change in length to length. and L 0 is the original length. One depended upon the speed.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain • Hooke’s law is given by F = kΔL.1 Friction 1. stress = Y×strain. L0 • The ratio of force to area. and ρ is the fluid density. Can these forces be a type of simple friction? Explain. A Conceptual Questions 5. the drag force is given by Stokes’ law.

The bottle will break if it was filled to its tightly capped lid. The elastic properties of the arteries are essential for blood flow. An old carpenter’s trick to keep nails from bending when they are pounded into hard materials is to grip the center of the nail firmly with pliers. Why can a squirrel jump from a tree branch to the ground and run away undamaged. AND ELASTICITY 9. Is there a factor of 6 difference? 11.CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. DRAG. and also explain how a pocket of air above the vinegar would prevent the break. What are you feeling when you feel your pulse? Measure your pulse rate for 10 s and for 1 min. When a glass bottle full of vinegar warms up. including sports shoes and thongs. Would you expect your height to be different depending upon the time of day? Why or why not? 13. 10. Explain the importance of this in terms of the characteristics of the flow of blood (pulsating or continuous). both the vinegar and the glass expand.) 183 . In terms of physics. Explain why pregnant women often suffer from back strain late in their pregnancy. but vinegar expands significantly more with temperature than glass. 15. Examine different types of shoes. while a human could break a bone in such a fall? 14. Why does this help? 16. Explain why. why are the bottom surfaces designed as they are? What differences will dry and wet conditions make for these surfaces? 12. (This is the function of the air above liquids in glass containers.

Consider the 52.) Calculate for a car: (a) On dry concrete. DRAG.4 N and 18. (a) Calculate the acceleration of a skier heading down a 10.184 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. A freight train consists of two with average masses of 8. What is the normal force between the piston and cylinder? (b) What force would she have to exert if the steel parts were oiled? 3. (a) What maximum force can you exert horizontally on the crate without moving it? (b) If you continue to exert this force once the crate starts to slip.0 kg.100 . Assume that the force is exerted parallel to her legs. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies. and the loaded sled with its rider has a mass of 210 kg.0-kg mountain climber in Figure 5. Rolling friction for trains is small. What is the maximum force of friction under such conditions? The frictional forces in joints are relatively small in all circumstances except when the joints deteriorate. Repeat Exercise 5. What is it? 2.00×10 3 kg utility truck is supported by its two drive wheels. Show that the acceleration of any object down a frictionless incline that makes an angle θ with the horizontal is a = g sin θ . The result of Exercise 5. (a) Find the direction and magnitude of F tot . and consequently trains are very energy-efficient transportation systems. assuming that μ s = 0.) (a) On dry concrete. a = 0 and that static friction has 13. the same as for shoes on ice.1 to be useful. (b) What is the minimum coefficient of friction between her shoes and the cliff? Figure 5.2 for a car with four-wheel drive. If an object is to rest on an incline without slipping.00×10 5-kg engines and 45 cars 5. (b) What is her initial F 1 and acceleration if she is initially stationary and wearing steel-bladed skates that point in the direction of F tot ? (c) What is her acceleration assuming she is already moving in the direction of F tot ? (Remember that friction always acts in the direction opposite that of motion or attempted motion between surfaces in contact. 12. (c) On ice.22.1 Friction 1. 4.50×10 5 N .) 9. Suppose you have a 120-kg wooden crate resting on a wood floor.org/content/col11406/1. then friction must equal the component of the weight of the object parallel to the incline. The dogs have average masses of 19. Note that the acceleration is independent of This content is available for free at http://cnx. assuming all cars have the same mass and that friction is evenly distributed among all of the cars and engines? 17. what will its acceleration then be? 5. what is the maximum acceleration it can achieve on dry concrete? (b) Will a metal cabinet lying on the wooden bed of the truck slip if it accelerates at this rate? (c) Solve both problems assuming the truck has four-wheel drive. (a) If half of the weight of a small 1. You may use the result of the previous problem. You may assume that the weight of the car is evenly distributed on all four tires and that the coefficient of static friction is involved—that is.100 . assuming the engines exert identical forces? This is not a large frictional force for such a massive system. he quickly calculates the normal force. (a) When rebuilding her car’s engine. Knowing the coefficient of kinetic friction between the two materials. 7. Assume that reached its maximum value. 16. AND ELASTICITY mass and reduces to the expression found in the previous problem when friction becomes negligibly small (μ k = 0). and you will find the result of Exercise 5. 6. such as from injury or arthritis. assuming the coefficient of friction for waxed wood on wet snow. 15. (a) Calculate the acceleration starting from rest if each dog exerts an average force of 185 N backward on the snow. 11. You can neglect air resistance in both parts. where f k = μ kN ) is a = g( sin θ − μ kcos θ). (a) Find the tension in the rope and the force that the mountain climber must exert with her feet on the vertical rock face to remain stationary. assume negligible force exerted by her arms. assuming that μ s = 0. (b) What is the force in the coupling between the 37th and 38th cars (this is the force each exerts on the other). This requires greater and greater friction for steeper slopes. (Note that this acceleration is independent of mass. (a) What force must each engine exert backward on the track to accelerate the train at a rate of 5. 14.21 8. Problems & Exercises 5.200 N. Show that the acceleration of any object down an incline where friction behaves simply (that is. Consider the 65. respectively. Calculate the deceleration of a snow boarder going up a 5. Show that the maximum angle of an incline above the horizontal for which an object will not slide down is θ = tan –1 μ s . a physics major must exert 300 N of force to insert a dry steel piston into a steel cylinder.0 kg of her mass on that knee? (b) During strenuous exercise it is possible to exert forces to the joints that are easily ten times greater than the weight being supported. Calculate the maximum acceleration of a car that is heading up a 4º slope (one that makes an angle of 4º with the horizontal) under the following road conditions.00×10 −2 m / s 2 if the force of friction is 7. Calculate the maximum deceleration of a car that is heading down a 6º slope (one that makes an angle of 6º with the horizontal) under the following road conditions. calculate the force in the coupling between the dogs and the sled. (Ignore rolling. the same as for shoes on ice. (b) What is the acceleration once the sled starts to move? (c) For both situations.6 N. slope assuming the coefficient of friction for waxed wood on wet snow. given that the magnitudes F 2 are 26.0º slope.50×10 5 kg . the total force exerted on her by the others. Assume that only half the weight of the car is supported by the two drive wheels and that the coefficient of static friction is involved—that is. A physics major is cooking breakfast when he notices that the frictional force between his steel spatula and his Teflon frying pan is only 0.1 may be useful. (b) On wet concrete. (Ignore rolling.7 . the tires are not allowed to slip during the deceleration.) 10. but be careful to consider the fact that the snow boarder is going uphill. (b) Find the angle of the slope down which this skier could coast at a constant velocity. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in Problem-Solving Strategies. A team of eight dogs pulls a sled with waxed wood runners on wet snow (mush!). the tires are not allowed to slip during the acceleration. Increased frictional forces can cause further damage and pain. (a) What is the maximum frictional force in the knee joint of a person who supports 66.0º . Also. (c) On ice. (b) On wet concrete.0-kg ice skater being pushed by two others shown in Figure 5.21.

00×10 3 kg/m 3 . (a) Calculate the minimum force F he must exert to get the block moving. TV broadcast antennas are the tallest artificial structures on Earth.0-kg skydiver falling in a pike (headfirst) position with a surface area of 0. AND ELASTICITY terminal velocity is small)? Assume all values are accurate to three significant digits. assuming no drag contribution in such a short distance? 23. Using Stokes’ law.70 m 2 ) (b) What is the drag force at 70 km/h and 100 km/h for a Hummer H2? (Drag area is 2. 28. (a) What are the drag forces at 70 km/h and 100 km/h for a Toyota Camry? (Drag area is 0. Take the size across of the drop to be 4 mm. How long will it take for each skydiver to reach the ground (assuming the time to reach the lead in an automatic pencil if you tap it straight into the pencil with a force of 4. (b) Is the answer reasonable? That is. During a wrestling match. During a circus act. A 560-g squirrel with a surface area of 930 cm 2 falls from a 5. To maintain a constant speed.10 cm in radius.800-cm diameter nylon rope when she hangs 35.0 kg. (Use a drag coefficient for a horizontal skydiver.150 m in radius? 33.22 Part of the climber’s weight is supported by her rope and part by friction between her feet and the rock face. (a) By how much does a 65.8×10 kg/m . Repeat Exercise 5. If the upward force on the lower performer is three times her weight. if we consider it to be equivalent to a steel cylinder 0. diameter 3. and the surface area to be πr 2 . (b) What is its acceleration once it starts to move.23(a). 26. how much do the bones (the femurs) in her upper legs stretch? You may assume each is equivalent to a uniform rod 35. By how much was the antenna compressed. verify that the units for viscosity are kilograms per meter per second.0 m below a rock outcropping? (b) Does the answer seem to be consistent with what you have observed for nylon ropes? Would it make sense if the rope were actually a bungee cord? 185 .50 mm in diameter and 60 mm long.23 Which method of sliding a block of ice requires less force—(a) pushing or (b) pulling at the same angle above the horizontal? 5.0 N. Suppose a steel ball bearing (density 7.) What will be the velocity of a 56-kg person hitting the ground. 24.0-m tree to the ground. 21. the density to be 1. A contestant in a winter sporting event pushes a 45.10×10 kg/m . performer by the legs. Calculate the viscosity of the oil. (a) The “lead” in pencils is a graphite composition with a Young’s 9 modulus of about 1×10 N / m 2 .CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. DRAG. 27. By how much does the upper arm bone shorten in length? The bone can be represented by a uniform rod 38. Estimate its terminal velocity. if that force is maintained? 19. a 150 kg wrestler briefly stands on one hand during a maneuver designed to perplex his already moribund adversary.0-kg block of ice across a frozen lake as shown in Figure 5. also upside-down. A 60-kg and a 90-kg skydiver jump from an airplane at an altitude of 6000 m.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain 29. both falling in the pike position. Stokes’ law describes sedimentation of particles in liquids and can be used to measure viscosity. One can measure the time it takes for a particle to fall a certain distance and then use Stokes’ law to calculate the viscosity of 3 3 the liquid.00 μm ) falling in water. Find the terminal velocity (in meters per second and kilometers per hour) of an 80. Take the density of the 3 3 bacterium to be 1.44 m 2 ) Assume all values are accurate to three significant digits. does it seem to be consistent with what you have observed when using pencils? 32. Make some assumption on their frontal areas and calculate their terminal velocities. the force provided by a car’s engine must equal the drag force plus the force of friction of the road (the rolling resistance). 25.0 cm long and 1.00 km (a) in the absence of air drag (b) with air drag. In 1987. 18. The lead is 0.80 cm in radius. Calculate the velocity a spherical rain drop would achieve falling from 5. one performer swings upside down hanging from a trapeze holding another. 30. Calculate the change in length of Figure 5. a 72.0-kg mountain climber stretch her 0.0 mm ) is dropped in a container of motor oil. Find the terminal velocity of a spherical bacterium (diameter 2.0 cm in length and 2.3 with the contestant pulling the block of ice with a rope over his shoulder at the same angle above the horizontal as shown in Figure 5.60 m.2 Drag Forces 20. Her mass is 60.0-kg physicist placed himself and 400 kg of equipment at the top of one 610-m high antenna to perform gravity experiments. 5. You will first need to note that the drag force is equal to the weight at terminal velocity. Particles in liquids achieve terminal velocity quickly. 31.140 m 2 . The terminal velocity of a person falling in air depends upon the weight and the area of the person facing the fluid. It takes 12 s to fall a distance of 0.23(b). By what factor does the drag force on a car increase as it goes from 65 to 110 km/h? Figure 5. 22.

How far to the side does the top of the pole flex? 35.0º below the horizontal with each supporting pole. This problem returns to the tightrope walker studied in Example 3 4. Calculate the stretch in a new 6. 39. The left wire made an angle 30. What force per unit area is water capable of exerting on a container when it freezes? (It is acceptable to use the bulk modulus of water in this problem.8. (a) Calculate the compression of the pole. The 12.50 cm in diameter.35 m long. has an 18. The pole is 15. do you think the bottle will survive? 42. (a) When water freezes.00 mm. The pipe is equivalent in strength to a solid cylinder 5. 38. When using a pencil eraser. taking the vertebra to be a cylinder 3. Calculate the force exerted by the juice per square centimeter if its bulk modulus is 1. in such a way that the volume increases by 0. if the wire is originally 0. (c) Find the tension in a guy wire used to keep the pole straight if it is attached to the top of the pole at an angle of 30. 37. A farmer making grape juice fills a glass bottle to the brim and caps it tightly.0º bend in a power line and is therefore subjected to more shear force than poles in straight parts of the line.0-m tall hollow aluminum flagpole is equivalent in strength to a solid cylinder 4. A disk between vertebrae in the spine is subjected to a shearing force of 600 N.8×10 9 N/m 2 .00×10 4 N .0 cm diameter.700 cm high and 4. who created a tension of 3.) This content is available for free at http://cnx. and the like? 43.0 m tall.05% (that is. DRAG. Find its shear deformation.00 cm high and 4.24 is at a 90. at the angles shown.05×10 −2 ).00 m length of steel pipe that supports 3.00 cm in diameter. A guy wire is 30º with the vertical. (a) By how much does the wood flex perpendicular to its length? (b) How much is it compressed lengthwise? 40.0 kg/m and a 100-kg drill bit. Find the shear deformation. taking it to have the shear 9 modulus of 1×10 N / m 2 . 36. The disk is equivalent to a solid cylinder 0. In view of your answer. A 20.186 CHAPTER 5 | FURTHER APPLICATIONS OF NEWTON'S LAWS: FRICTION. (a) How far is it bent to the side? (b) By how much is it compressed? 41. assuming the bottle does not break.org/content/col11406/1.0º to the horizontal. Calculate the force a piano tuner applies to stretch a steel piano wire 8. its volume increases by 9.850 mm in diameter and 1.0º below the horizontal with the top of its pole and carried a tension of 108 N.0 m tall hollow aluminum pole is equivalent in strength to a 4. ΔV / V 0 = 2×10 −3 ) relative to the space available. A strong wind bends the pole much as a horizontal force of 900 N exerted at the top would. 44.00 cm in diameter.00 cm in diameter.50 cm diameter solid cylinder.94×10 N in a wire making an angle 5. The pencil is 6.24 This telephone pole is at a 90º attached to the top of the pole at an angle of bend in a power line.2% (that is. and can be considered to have half the strength of hardwood. To consider the effect of wires hung on poles.00 mm in diameter and is held at an angle of 20.0º with the vertical. (Clearly. in which tensions in wires supporting a traffic light were calculated.) (b) Is it surprising that such forces can fracture engine blocks. The tension in each line is 4.00 cm in diameter. (b) Find how much it bends and in what direction. The pole in Figure 5.00 km of pipe having a mass of 20. the guy wire must be in the opposite direction of the bend.00 cm from the hardwood-eraser joint.6. each new section of drill pipe supports its own weight and that of the pipe and drill bit beneath it.00 N at a distance of 2. Calculate how much this tension stretches the steel wire if it was originally 15 m long and 0. As an oil well is drilled.7 Figure 5. boulders. A vertebra is subjected to a shearing force of 500 N. AND ELASTICITY 34. we take data from Example 4. you exert a vertical force of 6. ΔV / V 0 = 9. The juice expands more than the glass when it warms up. .

3. • Describe the gravitational effect of the Moon on Earth. • Discuss the non-inertial frame of reference.2. • Discuss weightlessness in space.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION 6 UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. • Describe the effects of the Coriolis force. Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation • Explain Earth’s gravitational force. Centripetal Acceleration • Establish the expression for centripetal acceleration. rotation angle. Its wheels also spin rapidly—the latter completing many revolutions. 6. • Discuss the Ptolemaic model of the universe. the former only part of one (a circular arc). Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity • Define arc length. 6.1 This Australian Grand Prix Formula 1 race car moves in a circular path as it makes the turn. 187 .1. Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity • State Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. • Explain the centrifuge. 6.6. radius of curvature and angular velocity. • Calculate the angular velocity of a car wheel spin. (credit: Richard Munckton) Learning Objectives 6. • Derive the third Kepler’s law for circular orbits. The same physical principles are involved in each.5. Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force • Discuss the inertial frame of reference. • Calculate ideal speed and angle of a car on a turn. 6. • Examine the Cavendish experiment 6. Centripetal Force • Calculate coefficient of friction on a car tire.4.

We will therefore study not only motion along curves. In this chapter. Pure rotational motion occurs when points in an object move in circular paths centered on one point.2 rotates about its center—each point in the object follows a circular arc. such as a rotating hockey puck moving along ice. Consider a line from the center of the CD to its edge. Each pit used to record sound along this line moves through the same angle in the same amount of time. Projectile motion is a special case of two-dimensional kinematics in which the object is projected into the air. we consider situations where the object does not land but moves in a curve. The arc length Δs Δθ in a time Δt . Δs is the distance traveled along a circular path as shown in Figure 6. We know that for one complete revolution.2 All points on a CD travel in circular arcs. The pits along a line from the center to the edge all move through the same angle Figure 6.3 The radius of a circle is rotated through an angle The arc length Δθ . Some motion combines both types. We define the rotation angle Δθ to be the ratio of the arc length to the radius of curvature: Δθ = Δs r . and lands a distance away. Thus for . this chapter is a continuation of Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion as we study more applications of Newton’s laws of motion. motion in a circular path at constant speed. is described on the circumference.1) Figure 6. The rotation angle is the amount of rotation and is analogous to linear distance. In some ways. 6. while being subject to the gravitational force. Studying this topic illustrates most concepts associated with rotational motion and leads to the study of many new topics we group under the name rotation. The circumference of a circle is 2πr . but also the forces that cause it.org/content/col11406/1. (6. when the CD (compact disc) in Figure 6. are curved. the arc length is the circumference of a circle of radius one complete revolution the rotation angle is This content is available for free at http://cnx. Recall that Newton’s first law tells us that motion is along a straight line at constant speed unless there is a net external force.7 r . we studied motion along a straight line and introduced such concepts as displacement.3 Note that r is the radius of curvature of the circular path.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity In Kinematics. including gravitational forces. velocity. Two-Dimensional Kinematics dealt with motion in two dimensions. We begin the study of uniform circular motion by defining two angular quantities needed to describe rotational motion. such as the arc of a bird’s flight or Earth’s path around the Sun. Rotation Angle When objects rotate about some axis—for example. Pure translational motion is motion with no rotation. uniform circular motion.188 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation Many motions. and acceleration. This chapter deals with the simplest form of curved motion.

Δt (6.3) A comparison of some useful angles expressed in both degrees and radians is shown in Table 6.1 Comparison of Angular Units Degree Measures Figure 6. this is ω = Δθ . the greater the angular velocity. (6. then the CD has made one complete revolution. The greater the rotation angle in a given amount of time. but point 2 moves through a greater arc length (Δs) because it is at a greater distance from the center of If Δθ = 2π rad. Angular velocity ω is analogous to linear velocity v .2) Δθ to be radians (rad). Because there are in a circle or one revolution. we again consider a pit on Δs in a time Δt . 2π (6. Δt (6. (6. the relationship between radians and degrees is thus 360º 2π rad = 360º (6.6) where an angular rotation Δθ takes place in a time Δt .5) so that Angular Velocity How fast is an object rotating? We define angular velocity ω as the rate of change of an angle.4 Points 1 and 2 rotate through the same angle ( rotation (r) . 2π rad = 1 revolution. The units for angular velocity are radians per second (rad/s). and so it has a linear velocity the rotating CD.4) 1 rad = 360º = 57.1.7) 189 . and every point on the CD is back at its original position. In symbols. This pit moves an arc length v = Δs .CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Δθ = 2πr r = 2π.3º. defined so that This result is the basis for defining the units used to measure rotation angles. To get the precise relationship between angular and linear velocity. Radian Measure 30º π 6 60º π 3 90º π 2 120º 2π 3 135º 3π 4 180º π Δθ ). Table 6.

Thus the car moves forward at linear velocity the car. But the angular velocity must have units of rad/s. Strategy v = 15.5 A car moving at a velocity v to the right has a tire rotating with an angular velocity the car were jacked up.5. Substituting this into the expression for v gives v = rΔθ = rω. where r ω . Because the linear speed of the tire rim is the same as the speed of the car.0 m/s = 50.300 m (6.20 m in radius. Angular velocity has only two directions with respect to the axis of rotation—it is either clockwise or counterclockwise. See Figure 6. 0.6. we can simply insert them into the answer for the angular velocity. Similarly. we have Solution To calculate the angular velocity. the faster the tire spins—large v means a large ω . say 1. (6.org/content/col11406/1. So the faster the car moves. we can use the second relationship in v = rω. This content is available for free at http://cnx.0/s. (6. Knowing v and r . the same as if is the tire radius.10) Substituting the knowns. Figure 6. Also note that if an earth mover with much larger tires. The second relationship in v = rω or ω = v r can be illustrated by considering the tire of a moving car. thus.300 m.0 m/s (about 54 km/h ). as illustrated in Figure 6. its tires would rotate more slowly.12) Both ω and v have directions (hence they are angular and linear velocities.11) Discussion When we cancel units in the above calculation. A larger angular velocity for the tire means a greater velocity for Example 6.7 .8) We write this relationship in two different ways and gain two different insights: v = rω or ω = vr . we will use the following relationship: ω = vr .190 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION From Δθ = Δs r we see that Δs = rΔθ . We can also call this linear speed v of a point on the rim the tangential speed.0 m/s. were moving at the same speed of 15. ω = vr to calculate the angular velocity.The speed of the tread of the tire relative to the axle is v . Because radians are actually unitless (radians are defined as a ratio of distance). The radius of the tire is given to be r = 0.0 rad/s.5 rad/s. it is largest for a point on the rim (largest r ).1 How Fast Does a Car Tire Spin? Calculate the angular velocity of a 0.9) v = rω or ω = vr states that the linear velocity v is proportional to the distance from the center of rotation. (6. ω = 15.0 m/s) / (1. as you might expect. Note that the speed of a point on the rim of the tire is the The first relationship in same as the speed v of the car. we get 50. Linear velocity is tangent to the path.5. See Figure 6. v = rω .300 m radius car tire when the car travels at 15. because v = rω .0 m/s. respectively).20 m) = 12. They would have an angular velocity ω = (15. Δt (6. a larger-radius tire rotating at the same angular velocity ( ω ) will produce a greater linear speed ( v ) for the car.

y position. Maintain uniform speed as the object swings and measure the angular velocity of the motion.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Take-Home Experiment Tie an object to the end of a string and swing it around in a horizontal circle above your head (swing at your wrist). The direction of the angular velocity is clockwise in this case.jar) Join the ladybug in an exploration of rotational motion. You experience this acceleration yourself when you turn a corner in your car. What is the approximate speed of the object? Identify a point close to your hand and take appropriate measurements to calculate the linear speed at this point. or choose a constant angular velocity or angular acceleration.) What you notice is a sideways acceleration because you and the car are changing direction. velocity. or both.” 191 .2 Centripetal Acceleration We know from kinematics that acceleration is a change in velocity. 6. The sharper the curve and the greater your speed.4/rotation_en. its instantaneous velocity is always tangent to the circle. This pointing is shown with the vector diagram in the figure. In uniform circular motion.6 As an object moves in a circle. the direction of the velocity changes constantly. In this section we examine the direction and magnitude of that acceleration. Rotate the merry-go-round to change its angle. Acceleration is in the direction of the change in velocity. Explore how circular motion relates to the bug's x.8 shows an object moving in a circular path at constant speed. you are in uniform circular motion. either in its magnitude or in its direction. We call the acceleration of an object moving in uniform circular motion (resulting from a net external force) the centripetal acceleration( a c ). The direction of the instantaneous velocity is shown at two points along the path. the more noticeable this acceleration will become. PhET Explorations: Ladybug Revolution Figure 6. even though the magnitude of the velocity might be constant. Figure 6. (If you hold the wheel steady during a turn and move at constant speed.7 Ladybug Revolution (http://cnx. here a fly on the edge of an old-fashioned vinyl record.org/content/m42083/1. Figure 6. Identify other circular motions and measure their angular velocities. centripetal means “toward the center” or “center seeking. so there is always an associated acceleration. which points directly toward the center of rotation (the center of the circular path). and acceleration using vectors or graphs.

have been used to test the tolerance of astronauts to the effects of accelerations larger than that of Earth’s gravity. the acceleration is also toward the center. Substituting v = rω into the above expression. as illustrated in examples below. Using the properties of two similar triangles.192 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. (6.16) which is the acceleration of an object in a circle of radius r at a speed v . (Because Δθ is very small. Both the triangles ABC and PQR are isosceles triangles (two equal sides).7 .8 The directions of the velocity of an object at two different points are shown. You may use whichever expression is more convenient. we find a c = (rω) 2 / r = rω 2 . yielding Δv = v × Δs . from a solution. Human centrifuges.13) Δv / Δt . noting that (6. and the change in velocity a c = Δv / Δt .9b) is a rotating device used to separate specimens of different densities.) (See small inset.) Because Δv is seen to point directly toward the center of curvature. It is also useful to express a c in terms of angular velocity. But it is a bit surprising that a c is proportional to speed squared. Centrifuges are used in a variety of applications in science and medicine. but what is its magnitude? Note that the triangle formed by the velocity vectors and the one formed by the radii r and Δs are similar. as you have probably noticed. so that a c is greater for tighter turns. and so we first solve this expression for Δv : Δv = vr Δs. So.17) a c is toward the center.15) Δv / Δt = a c and that Δs / Δt = v . we see that the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration is 2 a c = vr . Recall that the direction of (6.14) Δt . including the separation of single cell suspensions such as bacteria. a c = rω 2. Centrifuges are often rated in terms of their centripetal acceleration relative to acceleration due to gravity (g) . Δt r Δt Finally. High centripetal acceleration significantly decreases the time it takes for separation to occur. such as DNA and protein. we obtain Δv = Δs . The two equal sides of the velocity vector triangle are the speeds v 1 = v 2 = v . the arc length The direction of centripetal acceleration is toward the center of curvature. and blood cells from a liquid medium and the separation of macromolecules.org/content/col11406/1. for example. viruses. and makes separation possible with small samples. maximum centripetal acceleration of several hundred thousand g is possible in a vacuum. A centrifuge (see Figure 6. as you have noticed when driving a car. We can express the magnitude of centripetal acceleration using either of two equations: 2 a c = vr . extremely large centrifuges. A sharp corner has a small radius. centripetal acceleration is greater at high speeds and in sharp curves (smaller radius). This content is available for free at http://cnx. implying. that it is four times as hard to take a curve at 100 km/h than at 50 km/h. Then we divide this by (6. the linear or tangential speed. v r Acceleration is (6. is called centripetal acceleration. a c Δs is equal to the chord length Δr for small time differences.

Thus.2.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Example 6.2 How Does the Centripetal Acceleration of a Car Around a Curve Compare with That Due to Gravity? What is the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of a car following a curve of radius 500 m at a speed of 25.50 cm from the axis of an ultracentrifuge spinning at ratio of this acceleration to that due to gravity. (b) A particle of mass in a centrifuge is rotating at constant angular velocity . Determine the 193 .0 m/s) 2 a c = vr = = 1.0 m/s and r = 500 m into the first expression for a c gives 2 (25. a c = rω 2 is the most convenient to use.5 × 10 4 rev/min. Strategy 7. The magnitude of the necessary acceleration is found in Example 6.80 m/s 2) .0 m/s (about 90 km/h)? Compare the acceleration with that due to gravity for this fairly gentle curve taken at highway speed.9(a). See Figure 6. Example 6. The magnitude of this centripetal acceleration is found in Example 6. Solution Entering the given values of v = 25. 500 m (6. See Figure 6.25 m/s 2. we take the ratio of a c / g = ⎛⎝1.9 (a) The car following a circular path at constant speed is accelerated perpendicular to its velocity.80 m/s 2⎞⎠ = 0.128 . the first expression in a c = vr .18) Discussion To compare this with the acceleration due to gravity (g = 9.3 How Big Is the Centripetal Acceleration in an Ultracentrifuge? Calculate the centripetal acceleration of a point 7.3. a c = 0. as shown. It must be accelerated perpendicular to its velocity or it would continue in a straight line.128 g and is noticeable especially if you were not wearing a seat belt.25 m/s 2⎞⎠ / ⎛⎝9. Figure 6.9(b). Strategy Because 2 v and r are given.

(6. the force of Earth’s gravity on the Moon. the acceleration is the centripetal acceleration— a = a c . The direction of a centripetal force is toward the center of curvature. Note that if you solve the first expression for r . Centripetal force the center of curvature.20) Converting 7. the magnitude of centripetal force F c is F c = ma c.63×10 6 m/s 2. (6. It is no wonder that such high ω centrifuges are called ultracentrifuges. For uniform circular motion.7 . we obtain the angular velocity 2 given. Just a few examples are the tension in the rope on a tether ball. By using the expressions for centripetal acceleration (6. The extremely large accelerations involved greatly decrease the time needed to cause the sedimentation of blood cells or other materials.org/content/m42084/1.194 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION The term rev/min stands for revolutions per minute. PhET Explorations: Ladybug Motion 2D Learn about position. Note that the unitless radians are discarded in order to get the correct units for centripetal acceleration. a net external force is needed to cause any acceleration. a c = rω 2 as a c = rω 2.50 cm to meters and substituting known values gives a c = (0. we get two expressions for the centripetal force F c in terms of mass.0 s Now the centripetal acceleration is given by the second expression in (6. You may use whichever expression for centripetal force is more convenient. Choose linear. By converting this to radians per second. angular velocity. Because r is Solution To convert 7.0 s. Move the ladybug by setting the position. Figure 6. we can use the second expression in the equation a c = vr . the same as the direction of centripetal acceleration.000 times as strong as g . Thus. we will consider the forces involved in circular motion.19) 2 a c = vr .24) F c = m vr . ω .72×10 . According to Newton’s second law of motion.6/ladybug-motion-2d_en. velocity. and forces on the tube of a spinning centrifuge.50×10 4 rev × 2π rad × 1 min = 7854 rad/s. and radius of curvature: 2 (6. a c = rω 2 to calculate the centripetal acceleration.63×10 6 5 g = 9. net force is mass times acceleration: net F = ma .jar) 6. we use the facts that one revolution is 2πrad and one minute is 60. velocity and acceleration vectors.0750 m)(7854 rad/s) 2 = 4. friction between roller skates and a rink floor.50×10 4 rev / min to radians per second. Thus. just as Newton proposed in his second law of motion. min 1 rev 60.3 Centripetal Force Any force or combination of forces can cause a centripetal or radial acceleration. and record and playback the motion to analyze the behavior. Taking the ratio of (6. because F c is always perpendicular to the path and pointing to a c is perpendicular to the velocity and pointing to the center of curvature.org/content/col11406/1. So a net external force is needed to cause a centripetal acceleration. F c = mrω 2. Of course. a c = rω 2 . and see how the vectors change. circular or elliptical motion.21) a c to g yields a c 4.23) 2 a c from a c = vr . ω = 7.22) Discussion This last result means that the centripetal acceleration is 472. Any net force causing uniform circular motion is called a centripetal force. a banked roadway’s force on a car. you get This content is available for free at http://cnx.10 Ladybug Motion 2D (http://cnx. velocity or acceleration.80 = 4. In Centripetal Force.

(6. so that N = mg . 2 (900 kg)(25. The larger the curve.12 shows the forces acting on the car on an unbanked (level ground) curve. Thus the centripetal force in this situation is F c = f = μ sN = μ smg. Figure 6.29) 195 . static friction being the reason that keeps the car from slipping (see Figure 6. We solve this for μ s . and obtain (6. The normal force equals the car’s weight on level ground.0 m/s) 2 F c = mv = = 1125 N. where μ s is the static coefficient of friction and N is the normal force.11 Centripetal force is perpendicular to velocity and causes uniform circular motion.12). Using the first expression for 2 ⎫ F c = m vr ⎬. the friction is the centripetal force in this case.0 m/s. noting that mass cancels. Fc (6. Strategy and Solution for (a) We know that 2 F c = mv r . find the minimum static coefficient of friction. (b) Assuming an unbanked curve.28) F c = mrω 2⎭ 2 m vr = μ smg. a tight curve. Now we have a relationship between centripetal force and the coefficient of friction.25) This implies that for a given mass and velocity.27) F c from the equation (6.4 What Coefficient of Friction Do Car Tires Need on a Flat Curve? (a) Calculate the centripetal force exerted on a 900 kg car that negotiates a 500 m radius curve at 25. the smaller the radius of curvature r and the sharper the Example 6. but a larger F c produces a smaller r′ .26) Strategy for (b) Figure 6. We know that the maximum static friction (at which the tires roll but do not slip) is μ s N . a large centripetal force causes a small radius of curvature—that is. keeping the car from slipping. Thus. Friction is to the left. between the tires and the road. The second curve has the same v . F c . r (500 m) (6.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION 2 r = mv . and because it is the only horizontal force acting on the car.

13. the net external force equals the horizontal centripetal force in the absence of friction. being able to assume a value less than but no more than μ s N . The centripetal force causing the car to turn in a circular path is due to friction between the tires and the road. If the surface of the road were banked.” the angle θ is such that you can negotiate the curve at a certain speed without the aid of friction between the tires and the road. Figure 6. For ideal banking.7 (6. 2 N sin θ = mv r . (500 m)(9. The car will still negotiate the curve if the coefficient is greater than 0. but if the coefficient of friction is less. Figure 6. the answer is given to only two digits.13. In cases in which forces are not parallel. The components of the normal force N in the horizontal and vertical directions must equal the centripetal force and the weight of the car.13. The only two external forces acting on the car are its weight w and the normal force of the road N . or the car will move in a larger-radius curve and leave the roadway.31) (Because coefficients of friction are approximate. (A frictionless surface can only exert a force perpendicular to the surface—that is. a normal force. and r are given. The greater the angle θ . the normal force would be less as will be discussed below. (6. the vertical and horizontal directions.) Discussion We could also solve part (a) using the first expression in 2 ⎫ F c = m vr ⎬. Race tracks for bikes as well as cars. respectively.80 m/s 2) (6. the safe speed would be less than 25 m/s.0 m/s) 2 = 0. Let us now consider banked curves. In an “ideally banked curve. implying that in this example. the faster you can take the curve. Mass cancels because friction is assumed proportional to the normal force. and so this must equal the centripetal force—that is. Because this is the crucial force and it is horizontal.org/content/col11406/1. This content is available for free at http://cnx. often have steeply banked curves.13 shows a free body diagram for a car on a frictionless banked curve.32) .196 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION 2 μ s = vrg . we use a coordinate system with vertical and horizontal axes. where the slope of the road helps you negotiate the curve.12 This car on level ground is moving away and turning to the left. We will derive an expression for θ for an ideally banked curve and consider an example related to it. because static friction is a responsive force. μs = (25. then the net external force will equal the necessary centripetal force. v. because m. for example. which in turn is proportional to mass. A minimum coefficient of friction is needed. Note that mass cancels. Only the normal force has a horizontal component.30) Solution for (b) Substituting the knowns. The coefficient of friction found in F c = mrω 2⎭ part (b) is much smaller than is typically found between tires and roads. it does not matter how heavily loaded the car is to negotiate the turn. See Figure 6.) These two forces must add to give a net external force that is horizontal toward the center of curvature and has magnitude mv 2 /r . If the angle θ is ideal for the speed and radius. A higher coefficient would also allow the car to negotiate the curve at a higher speed. it is most convenient to consider components along perpendicular axes—in this case.

and the only other vertical force is the car’s weight.14.39) 197 . the net vertical force must be zero. as desired. Solution Starting with 2 tan θ = vrg (6. calculate the speed at which a 100 m radius curve banked at 65. Solving the second equation for N = mg / (cos θ) .CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Because the car does not leave the surface of the road. because it allows you to take the curve at greater or lower speed than if the curve is frictionless. To illustrate. (6. thus. meaning that the vertical components of the two external forces must be equal in magnitude and opposite in direction. thus.5 What Is the Ideal Speed to Take a Steeply Banked Tight Curve? Curves on some test tracks and race courses.0° should be driven if the road is frictionless. (6. and substituting this into the first yields 2 mg sin θ = mv r cos θ (6. Now we can combine the last two equations to eliminate (6. with the aid of tire friction and very stable car configurations. we need only rearrange it so that speed appears on the left-hand side and then substitute known quantities. From the figure.38) we get Noting that tan 65.0º = 2. no friction). Friction helps. Discussion 1/2 (6.36) This expression can be understood by considering how θ depends on v and r . Strategy We first note that all terms in the expression for the ideal angle of a banked curve except for speed are known.13 The car on this banked curve is moving away and turning to the left.80 m/s 2)(2. we obtain v = ⎡ ⎣(100 m)(9.14)⎤⎦ = 45.34) 2 mg tan(θ) = mv r tan θ = Taking the inverse tangent gives (6. This banking. Note that θ does not depend on the mass of the vehicle. we see that the vertical component of the normal force is N cos θ . Figure 6. roads must be steeply banked for high speeds and sharp curves. are very steeply banked. N cos θ = mg. These must be equal in magnitude. That is.8 m/s. ⎛ 2⎞ θ = tan −1⎝vrg ⎠ (ideally banked curve. Example 6. A large θ will be obtained for a large v and a small r . allows the curves to be taken at very high speed.37) v = (rg tan θ) 1 / 2.33) N and get an expression for θ . such as the Daytona International Speedway in Florida.35) v2 rg.

a physicist would say that you are going in a straight line but the car moves to the right. An even more common experience occurs when you make a tight curve in your car—say. This content is available for free at http://cnx.jar) 6. In such a frame of reference. is actually accelerating to the right.7 . and the car moves to the right.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force What do taking off in a jet airplane. a rapidly rotating playground merry-go-round. forced) toward the left relative to the car.15 (a) The car driver feels herself forced to the left relative to the car when she makes a right turn. obeying Newton’s first law. You feel as if you are thrown (that is. turning a corner in a car. the driver moves in a straight line.14 Gravity and Orbits (http://cnx. Rather you must hang on to make yourself go in a circle because otherwise you would go in a straight line.org/content/m42086/1. Let us now take a mental ride on a merry-go-round—specifically. In that non-inertial frame. you feel a fictitious force. named centrifugal force (not to be confused with centripetal force). (b) In the Earth’s frame of reference. Newton’s laws of motion take the form given in Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion The car is a non-inertial frame of reference because it is accelerated to the side. Recall Newton’s first law. as well as the driver. Calculations similar to those in the preceding examples can be performed for a host of interesting situations in which centripetal force is involved—a number of these are presented in this chapter’s Problems and Exercises. and there is no real force backward on you. Yet a physicist would say that you tend to remain stationary while the seat pushes forward on you. in which all forces have an identifiable physical origin). The force to the left sensed by car passengers is a fictitious force having no physical origin. most people would agree it feels as if you are being pushed back into the seat as the airplane accelerates down the runway. The physicist chooses Earth because it is very nearly an inertial frame of reference—one in which all forces are real (that is. because the observer’s frame of reference is accelerating or rotating. In Earth’s frame of reference. Passengers instinctively use the car as a frame of reference. and turn off gravity to see what would happen without it! Figure 6. Take-Home Experiment Ask a friend or relative to swing a golf club or a tennis racquet. Again. Take appropriate measurements to estimate the centripetal acceleration of the end of the club or racquet.6/gravity-and-orbits_en. Let us concentrate on people in a car. and there is no real force on you to the left. to the right. Visualize the sizes and distances between different heavenly bodies. consistent with a very steeply banked and rather sharp curve.org/content/col11406/1. You take the merry-go-round to be your frame of reference because you rotate together. trying to throw you off. Tire friction enables a vehicle to take the curve at significantly higher speeds. moon and space station to see how it affects their gravitational forces and orbital paths.198 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION This is just about 165 km/h. There is a real force to the right on the car to make it turn. earth. There is nothing real pushing them left—the car. and the circular motion of a tropical cyclone have in common? Each exhibits fictitious forces—unreal forces that arise from motion and may seem real. there is no force trying to throw you off. Figure 6. When taking off in a jet. We can reconcile these points of view by examining the frames of reference used. while a physicist uses Earth. right off the merry-go-round. You must hang on tightly to counteract the centrifugal force. There is no real force to the left on the driver relative to Earth. PhET Explorations: Gravity and Orbits Move the sun. This is a fictitious force arising from the use of the car as a frame of reference. You may choose to do this in slow motion. riding a merry-go-round.

is needed to cause a circular path.17 Centrifuges use inertia to perform their task. carrying you away from the center of rotation if there is no centripetal force to cause circular motion. the particles will come into contact with the test tube walls. what if you slide a ball directly away from the center of the merry-go-round. A real force. The large angular velocity of the centrifuge quickens the sedimentation. A centrifuge spins a sample very rapidly. (b) In an inertial frame of reference and according to Newton’s laws.18? The ball follows a straight path relative to Earth (assuming negligible friction) and a path curved to the right on the merry-go-round’s surface. 199 . Ultimately. we explain the apparent curve to the right by using a fictitious force. Viewed from the rotating frame of reference. the fictitious centrifugal force throws particles outward. The greater the angular velocity. hastening their sedimentation. This fictitious force is called the centrifugal force—it explains the rider’s motion in the rotating frame of reference. as shown in Figure 6. Let us now consider what happens if something moves in a frame of reference that rotates. This inertial effect. For example. called the Coriolis force.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. But what really happens is that the inertia of the particles carries them along a line tangent to the circle while the test tube is forced in a circular path by a centripetal force. as mentioned earlier in this chapter.17). Particles in the fluid sediment come out because their inertia carries them away from the center of rotation. which will then supply the centripetal force needed to make them move in a circle of constant radius. that causes the ball to curve to the right. Figure 6. F centripetal . The fictitious Coriolis force can be used by anyone in that frame of reference to explain why objects follow curved paths and allows us to apply Newton’s Laws in non-inertial frames of reference. A person standing next to the merry-go-round sees the ball moving straight and the merry-goround rotating underneath it. is put to good use in centrifuges (see Figure 6. it is his inertia that carries him off and not a real force (the unshaded rider has F net = 0 and heads in a straight line). the greater the centrifugal force.16 (a) A rider on a merry-go-round feels as if he is being thrown off. In the merry-go-round’s frame of reference.

In an inertial frame. these inward winds are deflected to the right. must be invented to explain the curved path. and tropical cyclones contain particularly low pressures. Earth rotates counterclockwise. Most consequences of Earth’s rotation can be qualitatively understood by analogy with the merry-go-round. producing a counterclockwise circulation at the surface for low-pressure zones of any type. which also produces cooling and cloud formation. any motion in Earth’s northern hemisphere experiences a Coriolis force to the right. for example. the force is to the left. in the sense that all forces have real origins and explanations. there. The Coriolis force causes hurricanes in the northern hemisphere to rotate in the counterclockwise direction. we have considered Earth to be an inertial frame of reference with little or no worry about effects due to its rotation. Figure 6. and tropical storm are regionally-specific names for tropical cyclones. As on the merry-goround. such as wind patterns. but a view in an inertial frame is the simplest and truest. Viewed from above the North Pole. In the northern hemisphere. storm systems characterized by low pressure centers. The terms hurricane. Air flows toward any region of low pressure. typhoon. it has substantial effects. while the tropical cyclones (what hurricanes are called below the equator) in the southern hemisphere rotate in the clockwise direction. as shown in the figure. Conversely.19 helps show how these rotations take place. Yet such effects do exist—in the rotation of weather systems. fictitious forces. Just the opposite occurs in the southern hemisphere. Either view allows us to describe nature. This content is available for free at http://cnx. The person slides the ball toward point B. wind circulation around high-pressure zones is clockwise in the northern hemisphere but is less visible because high pressure is associated with sinking air.18.18 Looking down on the counterclockwise rotation of a merry-go-round. producing clear skies. The rotation of tropical cyclones and the path of a ball on a merry-go-round can just as well be explained by inertia and the rotation of the system underneath. the Coriolis force is usually negligible. Low pressure at the surface is associated with rising air. and heavy rains. When non-inertial frames are used. Thus winds flow toward the center of a tropical cyclone or a low-pressure weather system at the surface.org/content/col11406/1. such as the Coriolis force. starting at point A. but for large-scale motions. and no force is found to be without an identifiable source. as does the merry-go-round in Figure 6. strong winds. making low-pressure patterns quite visible from space. Because Earth’s angular velocity is small. Both points rotate to the shaded positions (A’ and B’) shown in the time that the ball follows the curved path in the rotating frame and a straight path in Earth’s frame. Up until now.7 . we see that a ball slid straight toward the edge follows a path curved to the right.200 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. There is no identifiable physical source for these fictitious forces. inertia explains the path.

without physical contact. producing a clockwise rotation. parabolas. and is expressed by a formula that is valid everywhere in the universe. for masses and distances that vary from the tiny to the immense. stars to orbit the center of the galaxy.20. This theoretical prediction was a major triumph—it had been known for some time that moons. a falling apple. had also made some progress toward understanding gravitation. but no one had been able to propose a mechanism that caused them to follow these paths and not others. See Figure 6. An apple falls from a tree because of the same force acting a few meters above Earth’s surface. His forerunner Galileo Galilei had contended that falling bodies and planetary motions had the same cause. and the orbit of the Moon have in common? Each is caused by the gravitational force. producing a counterclockwise rotation. But Newton was the first to propose an exact mathematical form and to use that form to show that the motion of heavenly bodies should be conic sections—circles. But Newton was not the first to suspect that the same force caused both our weight and the motion of planets. such as Robert Hooke. (d) Wind flowing away from a high-pressure zone is also deflected to the right. (credit: NASA) 6. (c) The Coriolis force deflects the winds to the right. Our feet are strained by supporting our weight—the force of Earth’s gravity on us. And the Moon orbits Earth because gravity is able to supply the necessary centripetal force at a distance of hundreds of millions of meters. (e) The opposite direction of rotation is produced by the Coriolis force in the southern hemisphere. 201 . such as that found in tropical cyclones. Christopher Wren.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. leading to tropical cyclones. planets. It is a force that acts at a distance. Gravity is another example of underlying simplicity in nature. (credit: NASA) (b) Without the Coriolis force. and in some ways the least understood.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation What do aching feet. It is the weakest of the four basic forces found in nature. and comets follow such paths. In fact. the same force causes planets to orbit the Sun. and hyperbolas. air would flow straight into a low-pressure zone.19 (a) The counterclockwise rotation of this northern hemisphere hurricane is a major consequence of the Coriolis force. and Edmund Halley. Sir Isaac Newton was the first scientist to precisely define the gravitational force. ellipses. Some of Newton’s contemporaries. and to show that it could explain both falling bodies and astronomical motions. and galaxies to cluster together.

Misconception Alert The magnitude of the force on each object (one has larger mass than the other) is the same. Great importance is attached to it because Newton’s universal law of gravitation and his laws of motion answered very old questions about nature and gave tremendous support to the notion of underlying simplicity and unity in nature. Newton’s universal law of gravitation states that every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them.20 According to early accounts. Scientists still expect underlying simplicity to emerge from their ongoing inquiries into nature. For two bodies having masses m and M with a distance r between their centers of mass. The bodies we are dealing with tend to be large. The gravitational force is relatively simple. consistent with Newton’s third law. Stated in modern language. The force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. and it depends only on the masses involved and the distance between them. The inspiration of Newton’s apple is a part of worldwide folklore and may even be based in fact.org/content/col11406/1.202 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. The magnitude of the force is the same on each. To simplify the situation we assume that the body acts as if its entire mass is concentrated at one specific point called the center of mass (CM).40) .21 Gravitational attraction is along a line joining the centers of mass of these two bodies. it might also reach the Sun. which will be further explored in Linear Momentum and Collisions. Figure 6. the equation for Newton’s universal law of gravitation is F = G mM .7 (6. It is always attractive. Newton was inspired to make the connection between falling bodies and astronomical motions when he saw an apple fall from a tree and realized that if the gravitational force could extend above the ground to a tree. consistent with Newton’s third law. r2 This content is available for free at http://cnx.

22 The distance between the centers of mass of Earth and an object on its surface is very nearly the same as the radius of Earth. This is an extraordinarily small force. Do they hit the floor at the same time? If you drop a piece of paper as well.42) where m is the mass of the object. and a spoon and drop them from the same height.38×10 6 m) 2 (6.000 m will experience a gravitational attraction of 6.673×10 −11 N .80 m/s 2 on Earth. space. leading us to think of gravitation as bending space and time. The small magnitude of the gravitational force is consistent with everyday experience. G is a universal gravitational constant—that is.67×10 −11 N ⋅ m . This is the expected value and is independent of the body’s mass.41) G are such that a force in newtons is obtained from F = G mM . As we shall see in Particle Physics. and r is the distance to the center of Earth (the distance between the centers of mass of the object and Earth). we make a comparison similar to one made by Newton himself.” 203 . does it behave like the other objects? Explain your observations. For example. The weight of an object mg is the gravitational force between it and Earth. explaining the observation in terms of a force that causes objects to fall—in fact. modern physics is exploring the connections of gravity to other forces. In fact. r2 (6. our body weight is the force of attraction of the entire Earth on us with a mass of 6×10 24 kg .98×10 24 kg ⎟× g = ⎜6. Making Connections Attempts are still being made to understand the gravitational force. two 1.673×10 −11 N ⋅ m kg 2 in SI units. leaving an equation for g : g = G M2 . a ball. Newton found that the two accelerations agreed “pretty nearly. The mass m of the object cancels. In the following example.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION where F is the magnitude of the gravitational force and G is a proportionality factor called the gravitational constant. because Earth is so much larger than the object. General relativity alters our view of gravitation.80 m/s 2. It has been measured experimentally to be G = 6. We can now determine why this is so. Substituting mg for F in Newton’s universal law of gravitation gives Recall that the acceleration due to gravity mg = G mM .22. and time. M is the mass of Earth. Take-Home Experiment Take a marble. See Figure 6. ⎛ 2 ⎞ 5.000 kg masses separated by 1. Note that the units of 2 (6. it is thought to be the same everywhere in the universe.43) Substituting known values for Earth’s mass and radius (to three significant figures). Newton’s law of gravitation takes Galileo’s observation that all masses fall with the same acceleration a step further.45) Figure 6. g is about 9. (6. He noted that if the gravitational force caused the Moon to orbit Earth. We are unaware that even large objects like mountains exert gravitational forces on us.44) and we obtain a value for the acceleration of a falling body: g = 9. in terms of a universally existing force of attraction between masses. r (6. when considering masses in kilograms and r2 distance in meters. then the acceleration due to gravity should equal the centripetal acceleration of the Moon in its orbit. ⎝ kg 2 ⎠ (6.

then the Moon should exert an equal and opposite force on Earth (see Figure 6.46) = 2. as expected from Newton’s third law.400 s d hr min (6. We do not sense the Moon’s effect on Earth’s motion.84×10 8 m) 2 r (6.48) ω is the angular velocity of the Moon about Earth. where (6. and compare it with the value of the acceleration due to Earth’s gravity that you have just found.47) We choose to use the second form: a c = rω 2. 2 Strategy for (b) Centripetal acceleration can be calculated using either form of 2⎫ a c = vr ⎬.7 .84×10 8 m)(2.66×10 −6 rad/s) 2 (6.98×10 24 kg ⎟× g = G M2 = ⎜6. The radius of the Moon’s nearly circular orbit is 3.204 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Example 6.67×10 −11 N ⋅ m 2 ⎝ kg ⎠ (3. yields ⎛ 2 ⎞ 5.3 d)(86.72×10 −3 m/s.org/content/col11406/1. (b) Calculate the centripetal acceleration needed to keep the Moon in its orbit (assuming a circular orbit about a fixed Earth).70×10 −3 m/s.400 s/d) (6. (d) and using 1 d×24 hr ×60 min ×60 s = 86.23).66×10 −6 rad s . The clear implication is that Earth’s gravitational force causes the Moon to orbit Earth. Discussion The centripetal acceleration of the Moon found in (b) differs by less than 1% from the acceleration due to Earth’s gravity found in (a). Δt (27.51) we see that The centripetal acceleration is = 2. 2 The direction of the acceleration is toward the center of the Earth. Why does Earth not remain stationary as the Moon orbits it? This is because.50) a c = rω 2 = (3. because the Moon’s gravity moves our bodies right along with Earth but there are other signs on Earth that clearly show the effect of the Moon’s gravitational force as discussed in Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity. and Earth is not stationary (rather the Earth-Moon system rotates about its center of mass. except that 8 Earth to the center of the Moon. remembering that M is the mass of Earth not the Moon.84×10 m . Strategy for (a) This calculation is the same as the one finding the acceleration due to gravity at Earth’s surface.3 days.6 Earth’s Gravitational Force Is the Centripetal Force Making the Moon Move in a Curved Path (a) Find the acceleration due to Earth’s gravity at the distance of the Moon. Solution for (b) Given that the period (the time it takes to make one complete rotation) of the Moon’s orbit is 27. which is located some 1700 km below Earth’s surface). This content is available for free at http://cnx. r is the distance from the center of Solution for (a) Substituting known values into the expression for g found above. a c = rω 2⎭ (6.49) 2π rad ω = Δθ = = 2. if Earth exerts a force on the Moon. This agreement is approximate because the Moon’s orbit is slightly elliptical.

although it has about half the effect of the Moon. Why is there also a high tide on the opposite side of Earth? The answer is that Earth is pulled toward the Moon more than the water on the far side. 90º to the 205 . The smallest tides. occur when the Sun is at a 90º angle to the Earth-Moon alignment. Thus there are two tides per day (the actual tidal period is about 12 hours and 25.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. (c)Neap tide: The lowest tides occur when the Sun lies at Earth-Moon alignment.2 minutes). a high tide is created on the side of Earth nearest to the Moon. Figure 6.24 is a simplified drawing of the Moon’s position relative to the tides. occur when Earth. As Earth rotates. because Earth rotates under the tidal bulge.25 (a. because Earth is closer to the Moon. called spring tides. The distances and sizes are not to scale. Because water easily flows on Earth’s surface. and the Sun are aligned. the Moon. Note that this figure is not drawn to scale. Figure 6. but Earth’s path around the Sun has “wiggles” in it. and by attracting Earth more than the water on the far side. the Moon. called neap tides. (b) Their center of mass orbits the Sun in an elliptical orbit. the tidal bulge (an effect of the tidal forces between an orbiting natural satellite and the primary planet that it orbits) keeps its orientation with the Moon. there are two high and two low tides per day at any location. However. and the Sun are aligned. Similar wiggles in the paths of stars have been observed and are considered direct evidence of planets orbiting those stars.23 (a) Earth and the Moon rotate approximately once a month around their common center of mass. So the water on the side of Earth closest to the Moon is pulled away from Earth. the largest tides. This is important because the planets’ reflected light is often too dim to be observed. The Sun also affects tides. Figure 6. Tides Ocean tides are one very observable result of the Moon’s gravity acting on Earth.24 The Moon causes ocean tides by attracting the water on the near side more than Earth. and Earth is pulled away from water on the far side. For this simplified representation of the Earth-Moon system. where the Moon’s gravitational pull is strongest. b) Spring tides: The highest tides occur when Earth. because the Moon moves in its orbit each day as well).

Experiments flown in space also have shown that some bacteria grow faster in microgravity than they do on Earth.org/content/col11406/1.206 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Tides are not unique to Earth but occur in many astronomical systems. because the higher column of blood exerts a downward force on it. so crystallography studies on their structure can yield much better results. This content is available for free at http://cnx. creating light and X-rays observable from Earth. One hopes to be able to understand these mechanisms so that similar successes can be achieved on the ground. but there is still uncertainty about structural changes in plants grown in a microgravity environment. Figure 6. 70% of your blood is below the level of the heart. the passengers inside will be in free fall and will experience weightlessness. accelerating with the acceleration due to gravity. inorganic crystals and protein crystals have been grown in outer space that have much higher quality than any grown on Earth. The term just means that the astronaut is in free-fall. Some studies have indicated that plant growth and development are not affected by gravity. such as near black holes (see Figure 6. These have masses greater than the Sun but have diameters only a few kilometers across. There is no “zero gravity” in an astronaut’s orbit. Of immediate concern is the effect on astronauts of extended times in outer space.7 . purifying water. Many interesting biology and physics topics have been studied over the past three decades in the presence of microgravity. Roots grow downward and shoots grow upward. In another area of physics space research. possibly making the crew members more vulnerable to infectious diseases. A few likely candidates for black holes have been observed in our galaxy.26). studies indicate that microbial antibiotic production can increase by a factor of two in space-grown cultures. (credit: NASA) Microgravity refers to an environment in which the apparent net acceleration of a body is small compared with that produced by Earth at its surface. just the opposite occurs. such as at the International Space Station. Study continues on cardiovascular adaptation to space flight. while in a horizontal position. ”Weightlessness” and Microgravity In contrast to the tremendous gravitational force near black holes is the apparent gravitational field experienced by astronauts orbiting Earth. What difference does the absence of this pressure differential have upon the heart? Some findings in human physiology in space can be clinically important to the management of diseases back on Earth. The tidal forces near them are so great that they can actually tear matter from a companion star. On Earth. blood pressure is usually higher in the feet than in the head. spaceflight is known to affect the human immune system. This black hole was created by the supernova of one star in a two-star system. due to gravity. On a somewhat negative note. Researchers have observed that muscles will atrophy (waste away) in this environment.26 A black hole is an object with such strong gravity that not even light can escape it. Figure 6. and producing food. Plants might be able to provide a life support system for long duration space missions by regenerating the atmosphere. You can experience short periods of weightlessness in some rides in amusement parks. The tidal forces created by the black hole are so great that it tears matter from the companion star. on a positive note. The most extreme tides occur where the gravitational force is the strongest and varies most rapidly. When standing. There is also a corresponding loss of bone mass. This matter is compressed and heated as it is sucked into the black hole. Plants have evolved with the stimulus of gravity and with gravity sensors.27 Astronauts experiencing weightlessness on board the International Space Station. However. If an elevator cable breaks. What is the effect of “weightlessness” upon an astronaut who is in orbit for months? Or what about the effect of weightlessness upon plant growth? Weightlessness doesn’t mean that an astronaut is not being acted upon by the gravitational force.

CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION The Cavendish Experiment: Then and Now As previously noted. do gravitational effects depart from the inverse square law? So far. Such experiments continue today. So Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity that knowing The Cavendish experiment is also used to explore other aspects of gravity. Cavendish’s experiment was very difficult because he measured the tiny gravitational attraction between two ordinary-sized masses (tens of kilograms at most). and r is the distance to the center of Earth (the distance between the centers of mass of the object and Earth). no deviation has been observed. that the gravitational force does not depend on the substance. the universal gravitational constant G is determined experimentally. A Hungarian scientist named Roland von Eötvös pioneered this inquiry early in the 20th century. All these motions are governed by gravitational force. Distance between the masses can be varied to check the dependence of the force on distance. r2 (6.54) M yields M= M can be calculated because all quantities on the right.28 Cavendish used an apparatus like this to measure the gravitational attraction between the two suspended spheres ( m ) and the two on the stand ( M ) by observing the amount of torsion (twisting) created in the fiber. M is the mass of Earth. we can describe an important class of orbits without the use of computers. Cavendish-type experiments such as those of Eric Adelberger and others at the University of Washington. whether one kilogram of lead exerts the same gravitational pull as one kilogram of water. have also put severe limits on the possibility of a fifth force and have verified a major prediction of general relativity—that gravitational energy contributes to rest mass. Hundreds of artificial satellites orbit Earth together with thousands of pieces of debris.21. of all the fundamental constants in physics. One of the most interesting questions is whether the gravitational force depends on substance as well as mass—for example. using apparatus like that in Figure 6. galaxies. an English scientist. These orbits have the following characteristics: 207 . Figure 6. The Moon’s orbit about Earth has intrigued humans from time immemorial. and we shall find it instructive to study them. Remarkably. The orbits of planets. and other celestial objects orbiting one another and interacting through gravity. Modern experiments of this type continue to explore gravity. r (6. and comets about the Sun are no less interesting. However. as Cavendish used) to examine how Newton’s law of gravitation works over sub-millimeter distances. This was done by measuring the M from the relationship Newton’s universal law of acceleration due to gravity as accurately as possible and then calculating the mass of Earth gravitation gives mg = G mM . The mass m of the object cancels. more than 100 years after Newton published his universal law of gravitation. If we look further. we see almost unimaginable numbers of stars. are known from direct measurements. See Figure 6. his value for G differs by less than 1% from the best modern value.52) where m is the mass of the object. and it is possible to describe them to various degrees of precision. This definition was first done accurately by Henry Cavendish (1731–1810).28. asteroids. Ongoing measurements there use a torsion balance and a parallel plate (not spheres. including the radius of Earth r . and have improved upon Eötvös’ measurements. We shall see in G also allows for the determination of astronomical masses.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity Examples of gravitational orbits abound. He found. meteors. with an accuracy of five parts per billion. Interestingly. G (6. G is by far the least well determined.53) gr 2 . in 1798. Precise descriptions of complex systems must be made with large computers. On this small-scale. One important consequence of knowing G was that an accurate value for Earth’s mass could finally be obtained. leaving an equation for g : Rearranging to solve for g = G M2 . The measurement of G is very basic and important because it determines the strength of one of the four forces in nature. 6.

This allows us to view the motion as if M were stationary—in fact. (b) For any closed gravitational orbit. this is a descriptive equation only. giving no information as to the cause of the equality. A small mass 2. The system is isolated from other masses. These descriptive laws are named for the German astronomer Johannes Kepler (1571–1630).org/content/col11406/1. Such careful collection and detailed recording of methods and data are hallmarks of good science. if the orbit is gravitationally bound. and then placing a string around a pencil and the pins and tracing a line on paper. Kepler’s first law states this fact for planets orbiting the Sun. that describe the orbits of all bodies satisfying the two previous conditions (not just planets in our solar system). planets were studied first. Figure 6. called Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. and by the satellites of other planets. m follows an elliptical path with M at one focus. and there is a classical set of three laws.208 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION m orbits a much larger mass M . This allows us to neglect any small effects due to outside masses. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Kepler’s Third Law The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets about the Sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the Sun. The conditions are satisfied. who devised them after careful study (over some 20 years) of a large amount of meticulously recorded observations of planetary motion done by Tycho Brahe (1546–1601). Most importantly.7 . by Earth’s satellites (including the Moon). Mass m is the satellite of M . as if from an inertial frame of reference placed on M —without significant error. You can draw an ellipse as shown by putting a pin at each focus. Kepler’s Second Law Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times (see Figure 6.30).29 (a) An ellipse is a closed curve such that the sum of the distances from a point on the curve to the two foci ( f1 and f 2 ) is a constant. to good approximation. In equation form. Historically. 1. A circle is a special case of an ellipse in which the two foci coincide (thus any point on the circle is the same distance from the center). this is T 12 T 22 = r 13 . 3 (6. This equation is valid only for comparing two small masses orbiting the same large one. by objects orbiting the Sun.55) r2 where T is the period (time for one orbit) and r is the average radius. Data constitute the evidence from which new interpretations and meanings can be constructed. Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion Kepler’s First Law The orbit of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus.

Figure 6. People immediately search for deeper meaning when broadly applicable laws.93 h. calculate the period of Strategy The period. and from E to F. Newton discovered that gravitational force was the cause. are discovered. 3/2 (6. but it has broader validity. ⎛ 7880 km ⎞ T 2 = 27. 8 m from the center of Earth. Kepler’s second law was originally devised for planets orbiting the Sun.58) . This fact is related to the condition that the satellite’s mass is small compared with that of Earth. we cross-multiply and take the square root. The height of the artificial satellite above Earth’s surface is given. 209 .3 d× 24. yielding 3 ⎛r ⎞ T 22 = T 12 ⎝r 2 ⎠ (6. Let us use T 2 . The given information tells us that the orbital radius of r 1 = 3. Kepler’s laws are stated for planets orbiting the Sun.84×10 8 m . they are actually valid for all bodies satisfying the two previously stated conditions. from C to D. and that the period of the Moon is T 1 = 27.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION m to go from A to B. for historical reasons.57) 1 3/2 ⎛r ⎞ T 2 = T 1 ⎝r 2 ⎠ 1 Substituting known values yields (6.3 d and that it is an average distance of 3. It was Newton who took the next giant step when he proposed the law of universal gravitation. It is interesting that any satellite at this altitude will orbit in the same amount of time.59) Discussion This is a reasonable period for a satellite in a fairly low orbit. While Kepler was able to discover what was happening. is related to the radius of the orbit by Kepler’s third law.30 The shaded regions have equal areas.84×10 an artificial satellite orbiting at an average altitude of 1500 km above Earth’s surface.3 d . and so Solution Kepler’s third law is T 12 T 22 To solve for = r 13 (6.84×10 5 km ⎠ d = 1. The mass m M . It takes equal times for to moves fastest when it is closest Note again that while.0 h × ⎝3. given in mathematical form in the subscript 1 for the Moon and the subscript 2 for the satellite. Now all quantities are known. and so we must add the radius of Earth (6380 km) to get T 2 can be found.7 Find the Time for One Orbit of an Earth Satellite Given that the Moon orbits Earth each 27. Example 6. r 2 = (1500 + 6380) km = 7880 km . We are asked to find the Moon is T 12 T 22 = r 13 r 23 . like Kepler’s. or time for one orbit.56) . 3 r2 T 2 .

By definition. those It is clear from Table 6. The point is to demonstrate that the force of gravity is the cause for Kepler’s laws (although we will only derive the third one). T is the time for one complete orbit.) Now. and for those of Jupiter. all masses orbit at the same speed. (See Table 6. Here we see that at a given orbital radius r . and taking the ratio of the last equation for satellite 1 to satellite 2 yields T 12 T 22 = r 13 . such as near black holes.2 that the ratio of perturbations can be—and have been—used to predict the location of new planets and moons. general relativity also explains such phenomena as small but long-known deviations of the orbit of the planet Mercury from classical predictions. GM r = T2 (6. 2 (6. period is the circumference divided by the period—that is. for all listed satellites of the Sun. Starting with Newton’s second law applied to circular motion.62) m cancels. Now the average speed v v = 2πr . GM (6. satisfying the two conditions stated at the beginning of this section. Furthermore. at least to the third digit.66) r2 This is Kepler’s third law. starting with Newton’s laws of motion and his universal law of gravitation. T (6. However. Newton’s gravity is not seriously in error—it was and still is an extremely good approximation for most situations. Interestingly. This is another verification of Newton’s universal law of gravitation. then the mass M of the parent can be calculated. We obtain a relationship that can be used to determine the mass M of a GM parent body from the orbits of its satellites: r 3 = G M.63) 4π 2 r 2 . This content is available for free at http://cnx. Small variations in that ratio have two causes—uncertainties in the r and T data.210 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Derivation of Kepler’s Third Law for Circular Orbits We shall derive Kepler’s third law.65) Substituting this into the previous equation gives Solving for T 2 yields Using subscripts 1 and 2 to denote two different satellites. (6. T 2 4π 2 If (6. and perturbations of the orbits due to other bodies. because only then does the mass of the parent body M cancel. Let us consider a circular orbit of a small mass m around a large mass M .org/content/col11406/1. Note that Kepler’s third law is valid only for comparing satellites of the same parent body. r2 (6. This principle has been used extensively to find the masses of heavenly bodies that have satellites. r 3 / T 2 should be a constant for all satellites of the same parent body (because r 3 / T 2 is constant. The net external force on mass m is gravity. yielding The fact that m cancels out is another aspect of the oft-noted fact that at a given location all masses fall with the same acceleration.61) 2 GM r =v . 3 (6. as we shall see in Particle Physics.60) F net = ma c = m vr . and so we substitute the force of gravity for F net : 2 The mass G mM = m vr .64) 2 T 2 = 4π r 3. we must get the period T into the equation.7 .67) r and T are known for a satellite. Making Connections Newton’s universal law of gravitation is modified by Einstein’s general theory of relativity. (This was implied by the result of the preceding worked example. Now consider what we get if we solve 2 T 2 = 4π r 3 for the ratio r 3 / T 2 . Gravity supplies the centripetal force to mass m . the ratio r 3 / T 2 = GM / 4π 2 ). Einstein’s modification is most noticeable in extremely large gravitational fields. to get at Kepler’s third law.2).

79×10 7 0.01×10 18 Sun Mercury 5.082×10 8 0.19 d) 3. This is called the Ptolemaic view.0457 (16.35×10 24 Neptune 4. has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit.000 3. we note some important points.88×10 6 0.22×10 5 0. There tended to be a different rule for each heavenly body and a general lack of simplicity.” In 2006.19×10 21 Callisto 1. Figure 6.46 3.86 3.19×10 21 Europa 6. Galileo.31(a).35×10 24 Jupiter 7. Pluto was demoted to a ‘dwarf planet’ after scientists revised their definition of what constitutes a “true” planet.55 d) 3.427×10 9 29.16 d) 3. such as the orbits of the planets and moons in the solar system.2 Orbital Data and Kepler’s Third Law Parent Satellite Average orbital radius r(km) Period T(y) r3 / T2 (km3 / y2) Earth Moon 3.6150 3. While it is beyond the scope of this text to cover that history in any detail.35×10 24 Pluto 5. Copernicus.881 3.497×10 9 164. the solar system was thought to revolve around Earth as shown in Figure 6. Table 6.496×10 8 1. That single equation for the gravitational force describes all situations in which gravity acts. 211 .07×10 6 0.84×10 5 0.20×10 21 Jupiter The universal law of gravitation is a good example of a physical principle that is very broadly applicable.00972 (3.35×10 24 Earth 1. The definition of planet set in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) states that in the solar system.07481 1.90×10 9 248. Newton.2409 3.31(b) represents the modern or Copernican model. As our knowledge of nature has grown. has sufficient mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium and 3. 2. for the Greek philosopher who lived in the second century AD. but all other situations involving gravity.3 3. The breadth and simplicity of the laws of physics are compelling.00485 (1. A non-satellite body fulfilling only the first two of the above criteria is classified as “dwarf planet.279×10 8 1. It gives a cause for a vast number of effects.0196 (7. and others.71×10 5 0. It epitomizes the underlying unity and simplicity of physics. Before the discoveries of Kepler. a small set of rules and a single underlying force explain not only all motions in the solar system. is in orbit around the Sun. a planet is a celestial body that: 1.35×10 24 Mars 2.20×10 21 Ganymede 1. This model is characterized by a list of facts for the motions of planets with no cause and effect explanation. the basic simplicity of its laws has become ever more evident.34×10 24 Venus 1.8 3.77 d) 3.35×10 24 Saturn 1. In this model.783×10 8 11.33×10 24 Io 4.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION The Case for Simplicity The development of the universal law of gravitation by Newton played a pivotal role in the history of ideas.

which is in proportion to the ideal speed ideal banking: the sloping of a curve in a road. the force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them non-inertial frame of reference: an accelerated frame of reference pit: a tiny indentation on the spiral track moulded into the top of the polycarbonate layer of CD radians: a unit of angle measurement radius of curvature: radius of a circular path rotation angle: the ratio of the arc length to the radius of curvature on a circular path: Δθ = Δs r ultracentrifuge: a centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds uniform circular motion: the motion of an object in a circular path at constant speed This content is available for free at http://cnx. where the angle of the slope allows the vehicle to negotiate the curve at a certain speed without the aid of friction between the tires and the road. the rate of change of the angle with which an object moves on a circular path Δs . including Newton’s universal law of gravitation.org/content/col11406/1. It is fully explained by a small number of laws of physics. the planets. containing no hints as to what are the causes of these motions. it is thought to be the same everywhere in the universe ideal angle: the angle at which a car can turn safely on a steep curve. which can be made progressively more accurate by adding more circles. G: a proportionality factor used in the equation for Newton’s universal law of gravitation.31 (a) The Ptolemaic model of the universe has Earth at the center with the Moon.212 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. This geocentric model. the distance traveled by an object along a circular path banked curve: the curve in a road that is sloping in a manner that helps a vehicle negotiate the curve Coriolis force: the fictitious force causing the apparent deflection of moving objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference center of mass: the point where the entire mass of an object can be thought to be concentrated centrifugal force: a fictitious force that tends to throw an object off when the object is rotating in a non-inertial frame of reference centripetal acceleration: the acceleration of an object moving in a circle. is purely descriptive. (b) The Copernican model has the Sun at the center of the solar system. it is a universal constant—that is. the net external force on the vehicle equals the horizontal centripetal force in the absence of friction ideal speed: the maximum safe speed at which a vehicle can turn on a curve without the aid of friction between the tire and the road microgravity: an environment in which the apparent net acceleration of a body is small compared with that produced by Earth at its surface Newton’s universal law of gravitation: every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them. and the stars revolving about it in complex superpositions of circular paths.7 . the Sun. directed toward the center centripetal force: any net force causing uniform circular motion fictitious force: a force having no physical origin gravitational constant. Glossary angular velocity: arc length: ω .

In equation form.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Section Summary 6.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation • Newton’s universal law of gravitation: Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle with a force along a line joining them. The force is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.3º . where a rotation Δθ takes place in a time velocity ω are related by 2π rad = 360º= 1 revolution. a c = rω 2.⎬ or ⎪ 2 ⎭ F c = mrω 6. such as the Coriolis force. 6. 2 a c = vr . Kepler’s third law The ratio of the squares of the periods of any two planets about the Sun is equal to the ratio of the cubes of their average distances from the Sun: T 12 r 13 = . It always points toward the center of rotation. • Newton’s law of gravitation applies universally. this is F = G mM . Linear velocity v and angular v = rω or ω = vr . given by G = 6. It is a “center-seeking” force that always points toward the center of rotation.3 Centripetal Force • Centripetal force F c is any force causing uniform circular motion. G is the gravitational constant. 6. It is perpendicular to the linear velocity v and has the magnitude • The unit of centripetal acceleration is m / s2 . The rotation angle curvature: Δθ is defined as the ratio of the arc length to the radius of Δθ = Δs r .4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force • Rotating and accelerated frames of reference are non-inertial. Δt Δt .2 Centripetal Acceleration • Centripetal acceleration a c is the acceleration experienced while in uniform circular motion. for which • The conversion between radians and degrees is 1 rad • Angular velocity ω is the rate of change of an angle.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity • Uniform circular motion is motion in a circle at constant speed. Kepler’s second law Each planet moves so that an imaginary line drawn from the Sun to the planet sweeps out equal areas in equal times. r2 where F is the magnitude of the gravitational force. 6. • The period and radius of a satellite’s orbit about a larger body M are related by where 213 . • Fictitious forces.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity • Kepler’s laws are stated for a small mass m orbiting a larger mass M in near-isolation. T 22 r 23 T is the period (time for one orbit) and r is the average radius of the orbit. The units of angular velocity are radians per second (rad/s). where arc length Δs is distance traveled along a circular path and r is the radius of curvature of the circular path. The quantity Δθ is measured in units of radians (rad).673×10 –11 N ⋅ m 2/kg 2 . 6. It is perpendicular to linear velocity v and has magnitude F c = ma c. = 57. ω = Δθ . Kepler’s laws of planetary motion are then as follows: Kepler’s first law The orbit of each planet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun at one focus. which can also be expressed as 2 ⎫ F c = m vr ⎪ . are needed to explain motion in such frames.

32 Two paths around a race track curve are shown.org/content/col11406/1. 6. Race car drivers will take the inside path (called cutting the corner) whenever possible because it allows them to take the curve at the highest speed. and so on) be a centripetal force? Can any combination of forces be a centripetal force? 5. tension.214 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION 2 T 2 = 4π r 3 GM or r 3 = G M. Can any type of force (for example. gravity alone will supply the centripetal force. Race car drivers routinely cut corners as shown in Figure 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration 2.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity 1. If the car goes over the top at just the right speed.32. What other force acts and what is its direction if: (a) The car goes over the top at faster than this speed? (b)The car goes over the top at slower than this speed? This content is available for free at http://cnx.3 Centripetal Force 3. gravitational force. would you use large.7 .or small-diameter tires? Explain. T 2 4π 2 Conceptual Questions 6. There is an analogy between rotational and linear physical quantities. If centripetal force is directed toward the center. the cars are attached to the rails in such a way that they cannot fall off. why do you feel that you are ‘thrown’ away from the center as a car goes around a curve? Explain. For safety. 6. Explain how this allows the curve to be taken at the greatest speed. If you wish to reduce the stress (which is related to centripetal force) on high-speed tires. A number of amusement parks have rides that make vertical loops like the one shown in Figure 6.33. friction. Define centripetal force. 7. 4. Can centripetal acceleration change the speed of circular motion? Explain. What rotational quantities are analogous to distance and velocity? 6. Figure 6.

Suppose a mass is moving in a circular path on a frictionless table as shown in figure.34 A child riding on a merry-go-round releases her lunch box at point P. Suppose a child is riding on a merry-go-round at a distance about halfway between its center and edge. Is that trail straight. As a skater forms a circle. B. what force is responsible for making her turn? Use a free body diagram in your answer. so that there is very little friction between it and the merry-go-round. She has a lunch box resting on wax paper. Using concepts related to centripetal force and Newton’s third law. or C. will it follow path A. Which path shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. identifying its physical origin. In the Earth’s frame of reference. explain what force stretches the string. 215 .34 will the lunch box take when she lets go? The lunch box leaves a trail in the dust on the merry-go-round. Assuming it slides with negligible friction.33 Amusement rides with a vertical loop are an example of a form of curved motion. yet there is a very real force stretching the string attaching the mass to the nail. or curved to the right? Explain your answer. 8. This is a view from above the clockwise rotation.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6.33 under the following circumstances: (a) The car goes over the top at such a speed that the gravitational force is the only force acting? (b) The car goes over the top faster than this speed? (c) The car goes over the top slower than this speed? 9. curved to the left. Do you feel yourself thrown to either side when you negotiate a curve that is ideally banked for your car’s speed? What is the direction of the force exerted on you by the car seat? 12. 10. there is no centrifugal force pulling the mass away from the centre of rotation. as viewed from Earth’s frame of reference? What will be the shape of the path it leaves in the dust on the merry-go-round? 11. What is the direction of the force exerted by the car on the passenger as the car goes over the top of the amusement ride pictured in Figure 6.

5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation 19.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force 13. A non-rotating frame of reference placed at the center of the Sun is very nearly an inertial one. 15. The barrel is spun up and the floor drops away. Two friends are having a conversation. What is the ultimate determinant of the truth in physics. What is the ultimate determinant of the truth in physics. was once thought to be illogical and therefore untrue. explain what causes the rotation and which direction it has in the northern hemisphere. and we now expect to find such underlying order in complex situations. This is a fictitious force sensed and used by the riders to explain events in the rotating frame of reference of the barrel. Draw a free body diagram for a satellite in an elliptical orbit showing why its speed increases as it approaches its parent body and decreases as it moves away. Is there a real force that throws water from clothes during the spin cycle of a washing machine? Explain how the water is removed. In one amusement park ride. was once thought to be illogical and therefore untrue.216 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6. Tom says a satellite in orbit is not in freefall because the acceleration due to gravity is not 9. Newton’s laws of motion and gravity were among the first to convincingly demonstrate the underlying simplicity and unity in nature.) Would the direction of rotation reverse if water were forced up the drain? 14. 22. and identify all of the real forces acting on them. (Note that this is a small effect and in most toilets the rotation is caused by directional water jets. the water (and other material) begins to rotate about the drain on the way down. Many other examples have since been discovered. such as is the case for gravity. Assuming no initial rotation and a flow initially directly straight toward the drain. and why was this action ultimately accepted? 20.7 . Anna says a satellite in orbit is in freefall because the satellite keeps falling toward Earth.org/content/col11406/1.35 A mass attached to a nail on a frictionless table moves in a circular path. Why is it not exactly an inertial frame? 6.80 m/s 2 . 16. Action at a distance. What is the physical origin of the force on the string? 6. riders enter a large vertical barrel and stand against the wall on its horizontal floor. When a toilet is flushed or a sink is drained. and why was this action ultimately accepted? 17. Two friends are having a conversation. Who do you agree with and why? 21. or do they contain causal information? This content is available for free at http://cnx. In what frame(s) of reference are Kepler’s laws valid? Are Kepler’s laws purely descriptive.80 m/s 2 . Tom says a satellite in orbit is not in freefall because the acceleration due to gravity is not 9. such as is the case for gravity. The force stretching the string is real and not fictional. Anna says a satellite in orbit is in freefall because the satellite keeps falling toward Earth. Is there proof that such order will always be found in new explorations? 6. Explain in an inertial frame of reference (Earth is nearly one) what pins the riders to the wall. Action at a distance.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity 23. Riders feel as if they are pinned to the wall by a force something like the gravitational force. Who do you agree with and why? 18.

neglecting air resistance.4×10 6 m at its equator. at how many revolutions per minute will the riders be subjected to a centripetal acceleration 1. Among the variables to consider are the radius of the cylinder and the coefficients of friction between the riders’ clothing and the wall. The outer wall of the rotating space station would become a floor for the astronauts.420 m radius tires travels at 32.0 rad/s and the ball is 1.0 m/s? (c) Find the maximum range of the football. An ordinary workshop grindstone has a radius of 7. Helicopter blades withstand tremendous stresses. they are spun at rapid rates and experience large centripetal accelerations. (a) What is the period of rotation of Earth in seconds? (b) What is the angular velocity of Earth? (c) Given that Earth has a radius of 6. 16. (a) At how many rev/min are the tires rotating? (b) What is the centripetal acceleration at the edge of the tire? (c) With what force must a determined 1.2 s and runs at constant speed throughout the race. A truck with 0. Integrated Concepts Riders in an amusement park ride shaped like a Viking ship hung from a large pivot are rotated back and forth like a rigid pendulum.000 rotations. Problems & Exercises 6. Include a free body diagram of a single rider. A rotating space station is said to create “artificial gravity”—a loosely-defined term used for an acceleration that would be crudely similar to gravity.0 m/s and the hip joint is 1.0 m/s. 21.120 m radius? (d) Comment on the magnitudes of the accelerations found. 6.05 m from the tip of the shoe. The hub is weighted so that it does not rotate. The propeller of a World War II fighter plane is 2. rotating the forearm about the elbow.850 m. (a) If the velocity of the tip of the kicker’s shoe is 35. At takeoff. how many kilometers should the odometer read? 2. but it contains gears to count the number of wheel revolutions—it then calculates the distance traveled. especially at the tip. Olympic ice skaters are able to spin at about 5 rev/s.120 m from the axis of rotation? (c) An exceptional skater named Dick Button was able to spin much faster in the 1950s than anyone since—at about 9 rev/s.100 m from its center. a commercial jet has a 60.0 m/s and the ball is 0.50 cm and rotates at 6500 rev/min. Semi-trailer trucks have an odometer on one hub of a trailer wheel. (a) Calculate the centripetal acceleration at the tip of a 4.50 times that due to gravity? 11.500 kg football for 20. what is the angular velocity of the forearm? 6. A runner taking part in the 200 m dash must run around the end of a track that has a circular arc with a radius of curvature of 30 m. Construct Your Own Problem Consider an amusement park ride in which participants are rotated about a vertical axis in a cylinder with vertical walls. How many revolutions do the tires make. If the velocity of the ball in the pitcher’s hand is 35. assuming it is at 0.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION 13. (a) Calculate the centripetal acceleration at its edge in meters per second squared and convert it to multiples of g .2 Centripetal Acceleration 10. (b) What is the linear speed of a point on its edge? 15. In addition to supporting the weight of a helicopter. (a) What is its angular velocity in radians per second if it spins at 1200 rev/min? (b) What is the linear speed of its tip at this angular velocity if the plane is stationary on the tarmac? (c) What is the centripetal acceleration of the propeller tip under these conditions? Calculate it in meters per second squared and convert to multiples of g . What is the angular velocity of the rotating tires in radians per second? What is this in rev/min? 8. what is the velocity of the ball? 7. A fairground ride spins its occupants inside a flying saucer-shaped container. If the wheel has a 1. What is this in revolutions per second? What is the angular velocity in radians per second? 3. What was the centripetal acceleration of the tip of his nose. What percentage of the acceleration at Earth’s surface is the acceleration due to gravity at the position of a satellite located 300 km above Earth? 18. Its tires have a diameter of 0. Construct a problem in which you calculate the necessary angular velocity that assures the riders will not slide down the wall. An automobile with 0.30 m from the elbow joint.80 m/s 2 at the rim? 20.00 m long helicopter blade that rotates at 300 rev/min. and centripetal acceleration supplied by the floor would allow astronauts to exercise and maintain muscle and bone strength more naturally than in non-rotating space environments.0 ms. neglecting any backing up and any change in radius due to wear? 4. It is reputed that Button ruptured small blood vessels during his spins. 19. what is the shoe tip’s angular velocity? (b) The shoe is in contact with the initially nearly stationary 0. If the horizontal circular path the riders follow has an 8. In lacrosse. the ship is momentarily motionless at the 217 . (a) What is their angular velocity in radians per second? (b) What is the centripetal acceleration of the skater’s nose if it is 0. Microwave ovens rotate at a rate of about 6 rev/min. If he completes the 200 m dash in 23.300 m from the elbow joint. Integrated Concepts When kicking a football. If the angular velocity of the ball about the elbow joint is 30.15 m diameter and goes through 200.00×10 −15 kg bacterium cling to the rim? (d) Take the ratio of this force to the bacterium’s weight. calculate the approximate total distance Earth has traveled since its birth (in a frame of reference stationary with respect to the Sun). the floor drops away and friction between the walls and the riders prevents them from sliding down.50 km/s. (b) Compare the linear speed of the tip with the speed of sound (taken to be 340 m/s).5 ×10 11 has not changed and is circular. what is the linear velocity at Earth’s surface? 5. (b) The linear speed of Earth in its orbit about the Sun (use data from the text on the radius of Earth’s orbit and approximate it as being circular). If the space station is 200 m in diameter. what angular velocity would produce an “artificial gravity” of 9. what is his centripetal acceleration as he runs the curved portion of the track? 9 12.0 m/s speed. A baseball pitcher brings his arm forward during a pitch. What average force is exerted on the football to give it a velocity of 20. Taking the age of Earth to be about 4×10 years and assuming its orbital radius of 1. a ball is thrown from a net on the end of a stick by rotating the stick and forearm about the elbow. the kicker rotates his leg about the hip joint. 9. 17.000 rev/min.260 m radius tires travels 80. 14. Verify that the linear speed of an ultracentrifuge is about 0. rotating at 50. Sometime near the middle of the ride.000 km before wearing them out. Once the angular velocity reaches its full value.00 m radius. and Earth in its orbit is about 30 km/s by calculating: (a) The linear speed of a point on an ultracentrifuge 0.30 m in diameter.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity 1.

The swing is suspended 2. The ship then swings down under the influence of gravity. The force on the bicycle wheel can be resolved into two perpendicular components—friction parallel to the road (this must supply the centripetal force). the force exerted by the ground must be on a line going through the center of gravity. acceleration is (c) Does this acceleration seem large to you? supports the weight of the cage. and the radius of curvature r (c) Compare each force with her weight.00 m from its center? Figure 6.0 m (as in a race). (a) What is the centripetal acceleration of the child at the low point? (b) What force does the child exert on the seat if his mass is 18.218 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION top of its circular arc.00 rev/min if she is 8.0 rev/min. To be stable.0 m/s. What is the ideal speed to take a 100 m radius curve banked at a 20. allowing it to swing outward during rotation as shown in Figure 6.36 A bicyclist negotiating a turn on level ground must lean at the correct angle—the ability to do this becomes instinctive. The vertical component of the force on the wheel cancels the weight of the system while its horizontal component must supply the centripetal force. What centripetal force must she exert to stay on if she is 1. banking of roadways. like the one shown in Figure 6. is used to expose aspiring astronauts to accelerations similar to those experienced in rocket launches and atmospheric reentries.0 kg? (c) What is unreasonable about these results? (d) Which premises are unreasonable or inconsistent? 6. assuming it is ideally banked? θ . as seen in Figure 6. assuming everyone travels at the limit? 26.0 kg child is riding a playground merry-go-round that is rotating at 40.25 m from its center? (b) What centripetal force does she need to stay on an amusement park merry-go-round that rotates at 3. (a) Show that θ (as defined in the figure) is related to the speed v and radius of curvature r of the turn in the same way as for an ideally banked roadway—that is. This process produces a relationship among the angle v . 22. (a) A 22.5 rev/s.37(b).36. What is the ideal banking angle for a gentle turn of 1.0° and taken at 30.20 km radius on a highway with a 105 km/h speed limit (about 65 mi/h).0 m/s turn of radius 30.7 . Part of riding a bicycle involves leaning at the correct angle when making a turn. and the vertical normal force (which must equal the system’s weight). θ = tan –1 v 2 rg / (b) Calculate θ for a 12. Calculate the centripetal force on the end of a 100 m (radius) wind turbine blade that is rotating at 0. the of the turn similar to that for the ideal 29.0 kg rider and compare it to her weight.00 m above the child’s center of mass. Draw a free body diagram of the forces to see what the angle θ should be. At what angle θ below the horizontal will the cage hang when the centripetal 10 g ? (Hint: The arm supplies centripetal force and (b) Calculate the centripetal acceleration.0° angle? 27.0 m from the center of rotation? (b) The rider’s cage hangs on a pivot at the end of the arm. (a) What is the radius of a bobsled turn banked at 75. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Unreasonable Results A mother pushes her child on a swing so that his speed is 9.org/content/col11406/1. A large centrifuge. (a) What is the centripetal acceleration at the bottom of the arc? (b) Draw a free body diagram of the forces acting on a rider at the bottom of the arc. The net external force on the system is the centripetal force.) 28.00 m/s at the lowest point of his path. (a) At what angular velocity is the centripetal acceleration 10 g if the rider is 15. 25. The force of the ground on the wheel needs to be on a line through the center of gravity. speed 24.3 Centripetal Force 23. Assume the mass is 4 kg.37(a). (c) Find the force exerted by the ride on a 60. (d) Discuss whether the answer seems reasonable.

(b) By what factor would your weight increase if you could stand on the Sun? (Never mind that you cannot. 30.38. (a) Calculate the ideal speed to take a 100 m radius curve banked at 15.0 m/s.0 km/h? 31. (b) Calculate the acceleration due to gravity at Earth due to the Sun. (This is 1690 km below the surface. A circular loop would cause a jolting change in acceleration at entry. keeping the passengers pressed firmly into their seats. This means that the centripetal acceleration builds from zero to a maximum at the top and gradually decreases again. Modern roller coasters have vertical loops like the one shown in Figure 6. The radius of curvature is smaller at the top than on the sides so that the downward centripetal acceleration at the top will be greater than the acceleration due to gravity. the centripetal acceleration can more easily be kept greater than g so that the passengers do not lose contact with their seats nor do they need seat belts to keep them in place. (b) Calculate the centripetal acceleration of the center of Earth as it rotates about that point once each lunar month (about 27.0 m and the downward acceleration of the car is 1. The Moon and Earth rotate about their common center of mass. friction is needed to keep it from sliding toward the inside of the curve (a real problem on icy mountain roads). 219 . (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (c) Which premises are unreasonable or inconsistent? Figure 6.418×10 23 kg and 3.38×10 6 m . This allows the total force exerted on the rider by the cage to be along its axis at all times.3 d) and compare it with the acceleration found in part (a).50 g? 6.830 m/s 2 and the radius of the Earth is 6371 km from pole to pole. What is the speed of the roller coaster at the top of the loop if the radius of curvature there is 15. (b) What is the minimum coefficient of friction needed for a frightened driver to take the same curve at 20. With a small radius of curvature at the top. Unreasonable Results (a) Calculate the minimum coefficient of friction needed for a car to negotiate an unbanked 50.979×10 24 kg 34.38 Teardrop-shaped loops are used in the latest roller coasters so that the radius of curvature gradually decreases to a minimum at the top. Comment on whether or not they are equal and why they should or should not be. Integrated Concepts If a car takes a banked curve at less than the ideal speed. (b) Compare this with the accepted value of 5. which is located about 4700 km from the center of Earth. 32. (a) Calculate the acceleration due to gravity at Earth due to the Moon.0º. (credit: NASA) (b) Rider in cage showing how the cage pivots outward during rotation.37 (a) NASA centrifuge used to subject trainees to accelerations similar to those experienced in rocket launches and reentries.0 m radius curve at 30. 35. (a) Calculate Earth’s mass given the acceleration due to gravity at the North Pole is 9.) 37.CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION Figure 6.5 Newton’s Universal Law of Gravitation 33.) (a) Calculate the acceleration due to the Moon’s gravity at that point. (a) What is the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the Moon? (b) On the surface of Mars? The mass of Mars is its radius is 6. 36. (a) Calculate the acceleration due to gravity on the surface of the Sun. (c) Take the ratio of the Moon’s acceleration to the Sun’s and comment on why the tides are predominantly due to the Moon in spite of this number. a disadvantage discovered long ago in railroad curve design.

the NEAR spacecraft was successfully inserted into orbit around Eros. .2.62×10 25 kg .50×10 12 m apart. To illustrate that Pluto has a minor effect on the orbit of Neptune compared with the closest planet to Neptune: (a) Calculate the acceleration due to gravity at Neptune due to Pluto when they are 4. much less that an unknown force causes it.) 49. makes much of the position of the planets at the moment of one’s birth. This content is available for free at http://cnx.00 h orbit? 50. Construct Your Own Problem On February 14. Although Eros is not spherical. because Pluto is small and the irregularities in Neptune’s orbit were not well known.00 x 10 4 light years in radius. Construct a problem in which you determine the orbital speed for a satellite near Eros. How does the force of Jupiter on the baby compare to the force of the father on the baby? Other objects in the room and the hospital building also exert similar gravitational forces.org/content/col11406/1.200 m away at birth (he is assisting. (a) Calculate the gravitational force exerted on a 4. the existence of very massive black holes at the centers of some galaxies.) Calculate the centripetal acceleration of the Sun in its galactic orbit. 46. Solve part (b) of Example 6. 41.6 using ac = v2 / r . Your instructor may also wish to have you calculate the escape velocity from this point on Eros. Astronomical observations of our Milky Way galaxy indicate that it has a mass of about 8.7 47. Does the answer surprise you? 42. The existence of the dwarf planet Pluto was proposed based on irregularities in Neptune’s orbit. some 6. 45. Pluto was subsequently discovered near its predicted position.4×10 22 kg . But it now appears that the discovery was fortuitous.00 mm in size. A star orbiting on the galaxy’s periphery is about 6.0×10 7 instead.20 kg baby by a 100 kg father 0.00 h. so he is close to the child). The only known force a planet exerts on Earth is gravitational. there could be an unknown force acting. (a) Calculate the speed of a satellite in an orbit 900 km above Earth’s surface. (Of course. what is the mass of the galaxy? Such calculations are used to imply the existence of “dark matter” in the universe and have indicated. What is the velocity of the rivet relative to the satellite just before striking it? (c) Given the rivet is 3. Unreasonable Result A mountain 10.6 Satellites and Kepler’s Laws: An Argument for Simplicity 43.0 km from a person exerts a gravitational force on him equal to 2. calculate the orbital radius for an Earth satellite having a period of 1. The mass of Uranus is 8. (b) What is unreasonable about this result? (c) What is unreasonable or inconsistent about the premise of a 1. Find the ratio of the mass of Jupiter to that of Earth based on data in Table 6. but scientists first need to be convinced that there is even an effect. (a) The Sun orbits the Milky Way galaxy once each 2. (A light year is the distance traveled by light in 1 y. Unreasonable Results (a) Based on Kepler’s laws and information on the orbital characteristics of the Moon. (b) Calculate the acceleration due to gravity at Neptune due to Uranus. Astrology. as they are at present. (b) Suppose a loose rivet is in an orbit of the same radius that intersects the satellite’s orbit at an angle of 90º relative to Earth. for example.29×10 11 m away.2. Find the mass of Jupiter based on data for the orbit of one of its moons.0×10 11 solar masses.) 6. Calculate the mass of the Sun based on data for Earth’s orbit and compare the value obtained with the Sun’s actual mass. becoming the first artificial satellite of an asteroid. with a roughly circular orbit averaging 3. Such orbits are useful for communication and weather observation because the satellite remains above the same point on Earth (provided it orbits in the equatorial plane in the same direction as Earth’s rotation). 44.0×10 4 light years from its center. Calculate the radius of such an orbit based on the data for the moon in Table 6. Does your result support the contention that a nearly inertial frame of reference can be located at the Sun? (b) Calculate the average speed of the Sun in its galactic orbit. (b) Calculate the force on the baby due to Jupiter if it is at its closest distance to Earth. 2000. and compare it with that due to Pluto. (a) Calculate the mass of the mountain.50×10 12 m apart. that unlikely and vague pseudoscience. You will need to find the mass of the asteroid and consider such things as a safe distance for the orbit. (a) What should the orbital period of that star be? (b) If its period is 6.220 CHAPTER 6 | UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION AND GRAVITATION 38. and compare your result with its actual mass. The mass of Pluto is 1. what is the average force it exerts on the satellite? (e) How much energy in joules is generated by the collision? (The satellite’s velocity does not change appreciably. A geosynchronous Earth satellite is one that has an orbital period of precisely 1 day. calculate the acceleration due to gravity on its surface at a point an average distance from its center of mass. (b) Compare the mountain’s mass with that of Earth. presently about 2. because its mass is much greater than the rivet’s. how long will its collision with the satellite last? (d) If its mass is 0.500 g. 39. 48.00% of his weight.) 40.60 x 10 8 y . (c) What is unreasonable about these results? (d) Which premises are unreasonable or inconsistent? (Note that accurate gravitational measurements can easily detect the effect of nearby mountains and variations in local geology. Integrated Concepts Space debris left from old satellites and their launchers is becoming a hazard to other satellites.

negative. Nonconservative Forces • Define nonconservative forces and explain how they affect mechanical energy. 7. into thermal energy.4. Conservation of Energy • Explain the law of the conservation of energy.1. What makes it even more important is that the total amount of energy in the universe is constant. Wikimedia Commons) Learning Objectives 7. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Figure 7. • Show that the gravitational potential energy of an object of mass m at height h on Earth is given by PE g = mgh . 7. and Energy Resources Energy plays an essential role both in everyday events and in scientific phenomena. potential energy. Gravitational Potential Energy • Explain gravitational potential energy in terms of work done against gravity. 7. to the sunlight that warms us on the beach. Power • Calculate power by calculating changes in energy over time. • Explain why the inevitable conversion of energy to less useful forms makes it necessary to conserve energy resources. You can no doubt name many forms of energy.5. 7. • Explain the potential energy of a spring in terms of its compression when Hooke’s law applies. but it cannot appear from nothing or disappear without a trace. • Describe some of the many forms of energy. to the energy we use to run our cars. Conservative Forces and Potential Energy • Define conservative force. 7. rather than being transformed. and is one of the most important concepts of physics. Energy. Germany. 7. and Power in Humans • Explain the human body’s consumption of energy when at rest vs. when engaged in activities that do useful work. • Explain how relative directions of force and displacement determine whether the work done is positive. AND ENERGY RESOURCES 7 WORK. it is involved in almost all phenomena. ENERGY. 7. Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem • Explain work as a transfer of energy and net work as the work done by the net force. Energy. 7. Work: The Scientific Definition • Explain how an object must be displaced for a force on it to do work. • Use the work-energy theorem to show how having only conservative forces implies conservation of mechanical energy.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. or zero. Work.1 How many forms of energy can you identify in this photograph of a wind farm in Iowa? (credit: Jürgen from Sandesneben. Not only does energy have many interesting forms. You can also cite examples of what people call energy that may not be scientific. • Define efficiency of an energy conversion process as the fraction left as useful energy or work.9.2. • Explain and apply the work-energy theorem. for example.8. • Show how knowledge of the potential energy as a function of position can be used to simplify calculations and explain physical phenomena. 221 . from that provided by our foods. • Show how the principle of conservation of energy can be applied by treating the conservative forces in terms of their potential energies and any nonconservative forces in terms of the work they do.7.6. and mechanical energy. • Examine power consumption and calculations of the cost of energy consumed. World Energy Use • Describe the distinction between renewable and nonrenewable energy sources.3. Introduction to Work. Energy is thus one of a handful of physical quantities that we say is conserved. Energy can change forms. ENERGY. such as someone having an energetic personality. • Calculate the conversion of chemical energy in food into useful work.

d is the magnitude of the displacement of the system. yet accurate. and θ is the angle F and the displacement vector d .org/content/col11406/1. with ominous consequences economically. Energy is characterized by its many forms and the fact that it is conserved. scientific definition for energy.1 Work: The Scientific Definition What It Means to Do Work The scientific definition of work differs in some ways from its everyday meaning.1) θ is the angle between the force vector F and the displacement vector d . For work.2) To find the work done on a system that undergoes motion that is not one-way or that is in two or three dimensions. (7. where (7. From a societal viewpoint. this is expressed in equation form as W = ∣ F ∣ (cos θ) ∣ d ∣ .3) W is work. conservation of energy has always been found to apply. F is the magnitude of the force on the system. For one-way motion in one dimension. we begin the chapter with a discussion of work. politically. admitting that in some circumstances not all energy is available to do work. energy is one of the major building blocks of modern civilization. Formally.7 . and Figure 7. d is the displacement of the system. as in W = Fd cos θ. continues to grow. especially oil. and environmentally. Even as scientists discovered new forms of energy.222 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. The scientific definition of work reveals its relationship to energy—whenever work is done. a force must be exerted and there must be motion or displacement in the direction of the force. For one-way motion in one dimension. What is Work? The work done on a system by a constant force is the product of the component of the force in the direction of motion times the distance through which the force acts. The world use of energy resources. where W is work. We will briefly examine the world’s energy use patterns at the end of this chapter. Perhaps the most dramatic example of this was supplied by Einstein when he suggested that mass is equivalent to energy (his famous equation E = mc 2 ). AND ENERGY RESOURCES Conservation of energy (as physicists like to call the principle that energy can neither be created nor destroyed) is based on experiment. in the scientific sense. We can loosely define energy as the ability to do work. we divide the motion into one-way one-dimensional segments and add up the work done over each segment. We can also write this as (7. socially. such as writing an exam or carrying a heavy load on level ground. There is no simple. Work is intimately related to energy and how energy moves from one system to another or changes form. to be done. ENERGY. 7. this is expressed in equation form as W = Fd cos θ. between the force vector This content is available for free at http://cnx. energy is transferred.2. Because of the association of energy with work. Energy resources are key limiting factors to economic growth. the work done on a system by a constant force is defined to be the product of the component of the force in the direction of motion times the distance through which the force acts. Certain things we think of as hard work. are not work as defined by a scientist.

when a force exerted on the system has a component in the direction of motion. In contrast. Here d = 0 . and so W = 0 . One interpretation is that the briefcase’s weight does work on the generator. The person holding the briefcase in Figure 7. because the force is perpendicular to the motion.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. energy is transferred from the briefcase to a generator. because F and d are in opposite directions. There are two good ways to interpret this energy transfer. (d) Work is done on the briefcase by carrying it up stairs at constant speed. ENERGY. Here the work done on the briefcase by the generator is negative. The other interpretation is that the 223 . let us consider the other situations shown in Figure 7. Finally. and there must be a component of the force in the direction of the motion.2 Examples of work. Energy is transferred to the briefcase and could in turn be used to do work. That is. but they are doing no work on the system of interest (the “briefcase-Earth system”—see Gravitational Potential Energy for more details). AND ENERGY RESOURCES Figure 7. There must be motion for work to be done. For example. (a) The work done by the force F on this lawn mower is Fd cos θ .2. To examine what the definition of work means. Why is it you get tired just holding a load? The answer is that your muscles are doing work against one another. cos 90º = 0 . work is done—energy is transferred to the briefcase. (c) The person moving the briefcase horizontally at a constant speed does no work on it. in Figure 7. (e) When the briefcase is lowered. No energy is transferred to or from the briefcase. because there is no motion.2(c) does no work on it. removing energy from the briefcase. (b) A person holding a briefcase does no work on it. and transfers no energy to it. energy is transferred out of the briefcase and into an electric generator. Note that F cos θ is the component of the force in the direction of motion. giving it energy. for example.2(e).2(d). the person carrying the briefcase on level ground in Figure 7.2(b) does no work. because there is necessarily a component of force F in the direction of the motion. such as in Figure 7. so W = 0 .

0 N at an angle 35º below the 25. with the force from the generator upward on the briefcase. we see that those units are force times distance. From the definition of work. 2400 kcal (7. while one food calorie (1 kcal) is equivalent to 4184 J .6) Discussion This ratio is a tiny fraction of what the person consumes. The area under the curve is divided into strips.1 Calculating the Work You Do to Push a Lawn Mower Across a Large Lawn How much work is done on the lawn mower by the person in Figure 7. and 1 J = 1 N ⋅ m = 1 kg ⋅ m 2/s 2 .7 . In contrast. this is W net = F netd cos θ where θ is the angle between the force vector and the displacement vector. or the work done. W = Fd cos θ . or net. One calorie (1 cal) of heat is the amount required to warm 1 g of water by 1ºC . The more general process where the force varies. We will find that some types of work leave the energy of a system constant.2(a) if he exerts a constant force of 75. in SI units. thus removing energy from it. if the lawn mower in Figure 7. Even when we “work” all day long. ENERGY. such as making it move. it would lift a small 100-gram apple a distance of about 1 meter. and eventually leaves the system in the form of heat transfer. and cos 180º = –1 . but it is typical. and is equivalent to 4. so that only the work W is unknown. each having an average force This content is available for free at http://cnx. an vs. For example. In this section we begin the study of various types of work and forms of energy. Converting the work in joules to kilocalories yields W = (1536 J)(1 kcal / 4184 J) = 0. A newton-meter is given the special name joule (J).0 N)(25. Net Work and the Work-Energy Theorem We know from the study of Newton’s laws in Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion that net force causes acceleration. One joule is not a large amount of energy. In fact.0 m on level ground? Convert the amount of work from joules to kilocalories and compare it with this 10. AND ENERGY RESOURCES generator does negative work on the briefcase. work done on the briefcase by the person carrying it up stairs in Figure 7. The ratio of the work done to the daily consumption is W = 1.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem Work Transfers Energy What happens to the work done on a system? Energy is transferred into the system. horizontal and pushes the mower person’s average daily intake of Strategy We can solve this problem by substituting the given values into the definition of work done on a system. 7. for example. work and energy are measured in newton-meters. Figure 7. as shown in Figure 7. and the displacement downward.367 kcal . Calculating Work Work and energy have the same units.2(a) is pushed just hard enough to keep it going at a constant speed. Let us start by considering the total. Some of the energy imparted to the stone blocks in lifting them during construction of the pyramids remains in the stone-Earth system and has the potential to do work. stated in the equation The force. and displacement are given. In this case.0 m) cos (35. such as the energy of motion. therefore. We will see in this section that work done by the net force gives a system energy of motion.184 J .0º) (7. The drawing shows the latter.3(a) shows a graph of force versus displacement for the component of the force in the direction of the displacement—that is. F cos θ d graph. then energy put into the mower by the person is removed continuously by friction. F cos θ is constant. You can see that the area under the graph is F cos θ . but in what form? Does it remain in the system or move on? The answers depend on the situation.5) 3 = 1536 J = 1. Thus. the building of the pyramids in ancient Egypt is an example of storing energy in a system by doing work on the system.224 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. Net work is defined to be the sum of work done by all external forces—that is.2(e). Very little of the energy released in the consumption of food is used to do work. We will also develop definitions of important forms of energy. Figure 7.2(d) is stored in the briefcase-Earth system and can be recovered at any time. whereas others change the system in some way. (7.54×10 J.53×10 −4. In equation form. Example 7. W is negative.3(b) shows a (F cos θ) i(ave) . angle. Solution The equation for the work is W = Fd cos θ. and in the process we will also find an expression for the energy of motion. net work is the work done by the net external force F net .4) Substituting the known values gives W = (75.org/content/col11406/1. This makes θ = 180º . less than 10% of our food energy intake is used to do work and more than 90% is converted to thermal energy or stored as chemical energy in fat.000 kJ (about 2400 kcal ) of food energy. work done on a system.

and doing some algebra. Solving for acceleration gives a = a is substituted into the preceding expression for W net . Moreover. and the total work done is the sum of the W i . Figure 7. the total area under the curve equals the total work done. When d if the acceleration has the a . Thus the total work done is the total area under the curve.4. namely. d . we take (7. thus. The effect of the net force (7.) By using Newton’s second law. The kinetic energy of the package increases. Figure 7. v 2 = v 0 2 + 2ad (note that a appears in the expression for the net work). The net force arises solely from the horizontal applied force F app and the horizontal friction force work is given by f . indicating that the net work done on the system is positive.8) d = x − x 0 and use the equation studied in Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension for the change in speed over a distance constant value . ENERGY. a useful property to which we shall refer later. The force of gravity and the normal force acting on the package are perpendicular to the displacement and do no work. as expected. To get a relationship between net work and the speed given to a system by the net force acting on it.4 A package on a roller belt is pushed horizontally through a distance d.7) F net is to accelerate the package from v 0 to v . when F cos θ is constant. so that θ = 0º and cos θ = 1 . Such a situation occurs for the package on the roller belt conveyor system shown in Figure 7. (See Example 7. we obtain v2 − v02 2d 225 . Thus. The work done for each interval is the area of each strip.3 (a) A graph of F cos θ vs. d in Net work will be simpler to examine if we consider a one-dimensional situation where a force is used to accelerate an object in a direction parallel to its initial velocity. Substituting F net = ma from Newton’s second law gives W net = mad. and the net W net = F netd. we can reach an interesting conclusion. F cos θ vs. the net force is parallel to the displacement. they are also equal in magnitude and opposite in direction so they cancel in calculating the net force.2. AND ENERGY RESOURCES work done is (F cos θ) i(ave)d i for each strip. The area under the curve represents the work done by the force.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. (b) A graph of which the force varies.

This proportionality means. but it may be a bit surprising that kinetic energy is proportional to speed squared.9) W net = m⎜ The d cancels. its kinetic energy is not large at this relatively low speed. and we rearrange this to obtain W = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 02 . 2 (Translational kinetic energy is distinct from rotational kinetic energy. AND ENERGY RESOURCES ⎛v 2 − v 2 ⎞ 0 ⎟d. 2 (7. that a car traveling at 100 km/h has four times the kinetic energy it has at 50 km/h. Example 7.4 is moving at 0.0 kg)(0. 2 Solution The kinetic energy is given by KE = 1 mv 2. We will now consider a series of examples to illustrate various aspects of work and energy. (a) Calculate the net work done on the package.500 m/s) 2. or system of objects moving together.800 m. (7.3 Determining the Work to Accelerate a Package Suppose that you push on the 30. although this is a fairly massive package. It is also interesting that. We are aware that it takes energy to get an object. the same as the unit of work.226 CHAPTER 7 | WORK.0-kg package on the roller belt conveyor system in Figure 7. KE = 1 mv 2. 2 (7.10) This expression is called the work-energy theorem. as mentioned when work was first defined. Strategy and Concept for (a) This content is available for free at http://cnx. for example.75 J. the translational kinetic energy. and it actually applies in general (even for forces that vary in direction and magnitude). (b) Solve the same problem as in part (a).2 Calculating the Kinetic Energy of a Package Suppose a 30. What is its kinetic energy? Strategy Because the mass m and speed v are given.) In equation form. like a car or the package in Figure 7. ⎝ 2d ⎠ (7.15) Entering known values gives which yields Discussion Note that the unit of kinetic energy is the joule. This quantity is our first example of a form of energy. This fact is consistent with the observation that people can move packages like this without exhausting themselves. Example 7.11) 1 mv 2 in the work-energy theorem is defined to be the translational kinetic energy (KE) of a mass m moving at a speed v .13) KE = 0.4 with a constant force of 120 N through a distance of 0. ENERGY. (7. Kinetic energy is a form of energy associated with the motion of a particle.5(30.7 .4. this time by finding the work done by each force that contributes to the net force.org/content/col11406/1.14) KE = 3.500 m/s. single body. although we have derived it for the special case of a constant force parallel to the displacement.0-kg package in Figure 7. 2 2 (7. 2 The Work-Energy Theorem The net work on a system equals the change in the quantity 1 mv 2 . which is considered later. the kinetic energy can be calculated from its definition as given in the equation KE = 1 mv 2 .75 kg ⋅ m 2/s 2 = 3. and that the opposing friction force averages 5.12) is the energy associated with translational motion. up to speed. The theorem implies that the net work on a system equals the change in the quantity 1 mv 2 .00 N. helping to explain why high-speed collisions are so devastating. 2 W net = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 02 2 2 The quantity (7.

by the applied force. so that they cancel in calculating the net force.800 m) = 92. (7.4 Determining Speed from Work and Energy Find the speed of the package in Figure 7. using work and energy concepts. AND ENERGY RESOURCES This is a motion in one dimension problem. and thus the final speed v .0 J. These 2 Solution The work-energy theorem in equation form is Solving for W net = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 0 2.0 J The friction force and displacement are in opposite directions.21) 1 mv 2 = W + 1 mv 2. Strategy Here the work-energy theorem can be used. 2 W net . (7. (7.20) Discussion for (b) The calculated total work W total as the sum of the work by each force agrees. W app = F appd cos(0º) = F appd (7.16) Discussion for (a) This value is the net work done on the package. friction. net 2 2 0 (7. 2 2 (7. while the applied force. The net work equals the sum of the work done by each individual force. or F net = 120 N – 5.00 J. Strategy and Concept for (b) The forces acting on the package are gravity. 1 mv 0 2 . Example 7.800 m) = 96. because we have just calculated the net work.0 N ⋅ m = 92. W app = 96. W fr = − 4.00 N = 115 N . by the normal force. and the applied force. Thus the net work is W net = F netd = (115 N)(0.18) So the amounts of work done by gravity.4 at the end of the push. W gr = 0. and the displacement are all horizontal. as expected. Solution for (a) The net force is the push force minus friction.00 J. 1 mv 2 . (See Figure 7. The person actually does more work than this. and by friction are.00 N)(0. the net work is the net force times distance. The total work done as the sum of the work done by each force is then seen to be W total = W gr + W N + W app + W fr = 92. the normal force.0 J. because the downward force (from the weight of the package) and the normal force have equal magnitude and opposite direction. (7. and the initial kinetic energy. Solution for (b) The applied force does work. calculations allow us to find the final kinetic energy. and therefore do no work.19) W N = 0. Friction does negative work and removes some of the energy the person expends and converts it to thermal energy.4. and the work done by friction is W fr = F frd cos(180º) = −F frd = −(5. with the work W net done by the net force.800 m) = −4.) As expected.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. ENERGY. the force of friction. so that θ = 180º .22) 1 mv 2 gives 2 227 . respectively. The normal force and force of gravity are each perpendicular to the displacement. The work done by a collection of forces acting on an object can be calculated by either approach.17) = (120 N)(0.0 J. because friction opposes the motion.

0 kg = 2. friction will bring the package to rest. then the force needed to lift it is equal to its weight gravitational potential energy m through a height h .2 m. To reduce the kinetic energy of the package to zero. The difference in gravitational potential energy of an object (in the Earth-object system) between two rungs of a ladder will be the same for the first two rungs as for the last two rungs. hence. An object’s gravitational potential is due to its position relative to the surroundings within the Earthobject system. friction does negative work until it has removed all of the package’s kinetic energy.228 CHAPTER 7 | WORK.25) d′ = 19. v = Discussion Using work and energy. ENERGY.75 J . (7. what is important is the difference in gravitational potential energy. so θ = 180º . This energy is associated with the state of separation between two objects that attract each other by the gravitational force. recognizing that this is energy stored in the gravitational field of Earth.75 J. In terms of energy. Furthermore.23) Solving for the final speed as requested and entering known values gives (7.75 J = 95. Why do we use the word “system”? Potential energy is a property of a system rather than of a single object—due to its physical position. f 5. because this difference is what relates to the work done. Let us calculate the work done in lifting an object of mass speed. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Thus. Because gravitational potential energy depends on relative position. Too How far does the package in Figure 7. The work done by friction is the force of friction times the distance traveled times the cosine of the angle between the friction force and displacement.0 J+3. so it removes the kinetic energy. 7. we refer to this as the PE g gained by the object. Note that the work done by friction is negative (the force is in the opposite direction of motion). The work done against the gravitational force goes into an important form of stored energy that we will explore in this section. solutions involving energy are generally shorter and easier than those using kinematics and dynamics alone. d′ = − W fr = −95. such as in Figure 7. there is a transformation of energy. the work W fr by friction must be minus the kinetic energy that the package started with plus what the package accumulated due to the pushing. W fr = − −95. and it acts opposite to the displacement. from outside the system. 1 mv 2 = 92. Solution The normal force and force of gravity cancel in calculating the net force. The work done on the mass is then W = Fd = mgh .5 Work and Energy Can Reveal Distance. The force applied to the object is an external force.26) and so Discussion This is a reasonable distance for a package to coast on a relatively friction-free conveyor system. We usually choose this point to be Earth’s surface. If the object is lifted straight up at constant mg . For convenience. Thus. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Thus W fr = f d′ cos θ = – f d′ . we not only arrive at an answer.4 coast after the push. We define this to be the (PE g) put into (or gained by) the object-Earth system. When there is work. this gives us a way of finding the distance traveled after the person stops pushing.00 N (7. On the whole. we see that the final kinetic energy is the sum of the initial kinetic energy and the net work done on the package. but at the expense of missing out on gaining insights about what work and energy are doing in this situation. Some of the examples in this section can be solved without considering energy. 2 (7. where d′ is the distance it takes to stop. but this point is arbitrary.75 J .5.24) 191. Example 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy Work Done Against Gravity Climbing stairs and lifting objects is work in both the scientific and everyday sense—it is work done against the gravitational force.75 J) = m 30.7 . we need a reference level at which to set the potential energy equal to 0. This means that the work indeed adds to the energy of the package. When it does positive work it increases the gravitational potential energy of the system.5 kg ⋅ m 2/s 2 2(95. assuming friction remains constant? Use work and energy considerations.org/content/col11406/1.53 m/s. The horizontal friction force is then the net force. Strategy We know that once the person stops pushing.

The idea of gravitational potential energy has the double advantage that it is very broadly applicable and it makes calculations easier. Note that the units of gravitational potential energy turn out to be joules. For example. the mass is lowered. We can think of the mass as gradually giving up its 4.500-kg mass hung from a cuckoo clock is raised 1.90 J. (See Example 7. thereby increasing its kinetic energy by that same amount (by the work-energy theorem).90 J of gravitational potential energy. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Converting Between Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy Gravitational potential energy may be converted to other forms of energy. we denote the change in height by h rather than the usual Δh . (See Figure 7. this gravitational potential energy is transferred to the cuckoo clock. we will consider that any change in vertical position h of a mass m is accompanied by a change in gravitational potential energy mgh . (7. such as kinetic energy. From now on. and we will avoid the equivalent but more difficult task of calculating work done by or against the gravitational force.27) where. 229 . then its change in gravitational potential energy is mgh = ⎛⎝0. (b) As the weight moves downward. ENERGY. for simplicity. More precisely. and vice versa.500 kg⎞⎠⎛⎝9.) This shortcut makes it is easier to solve problems using energy (if possible) rather than explicitly using forces.90 kg ⋅ m 2/s 2 = 4. the same as for work and other forms of energy. We will find it more useful to consider just the conversion of PE g to KE without explicitly considering the intermediate step of work. As the clock runs.00 m) (7. If we release the mass. Figure 7.7.28) = 4.00 m. without directly considering the force of gravity that does the work.80 m/s 2⎞⎠(1.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. Using Potential Energy to Simplify Calculations The equation ΔPE g = mgh applies for any path that has a change in height of h .5 (a) The work done to lift the weight is stored in the mass-Earth system as gravitational potential energy.6. Note that h is positive when the final height is greater than the initial height. not just when the mass is lifted straight up.) It is much easier to calculate mgh (a simple multiplication) than it is to calculate the work done along a complicated path. gravitational force will do an amount of work equal to mgh on it. if a 0. we define the change in gravitational potential energy ΔPE g to be ΔPE g = mgh.

If he lands stiffly (with his knee joints compressing by 0.31) −Fd = mgh. so it does negative work. (7. The initial PE g is transformed into KE as he falls. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Figure 7. The distance d that the person’s knees bend is much smaller than the height energy during the knee bend is ignored. Gravity is one of a small class of forces where the work done by or against the force depends only on the starting and ending points.32) W gives h is negative because the person fell down.00 m. Example 7.7 . calculate the force on the knee joints. ΔPE g = mgh for any path between the two points.org/content/col11406/1. The kinetic energy the person has upon reaching the floor is the amount of potential energy lost by falling through height KE = −ΔPE g = −mgh.00 m) mgh =− = 3. ENERGY.6 The Force to Stop Falling A 60. Solution The work done on the person by the floor as he stops is given by W = Fd cos θ = −Fd. (7.00×10 −3 m (7. A bending motion of 0.80 m/s ⎠(−3.500 cm).6 The change in gravitational potential energy (ΔPE g) between points A and B is independent of the path.53×10 5 N. A much better way to cushion the shock is by bending the legs or rolling on the ground.29) (cos θ = cos 180º = − 1) . The work done by the floor reduces this kinetic energy to zero.0-kg person jumps onto the floor from a height of 3. so the additional change in gravitational potential W done by the floor on the person stops the person and brings the person’s kinetic energy to zero: Combining this equation with the expression for Recalling that W = −KE = mgh.33) Discussion Such a large force (500 times more than the person’s weight) over the short impact time is enough to break bones. not on the path between them. increasing the time over which the force acts. the force on the knee joints is given by F=− 2⎞ ⎛ ⎞⎛ ⎝60.0 kg⎠⎝9. d 5.5 m this way yields This content is available for free at http://cnx.30) h of the fall. The floor removes energy from the system. The work h: (7.230 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. Strategy This person’s energy is brought to zero in this situation by the work done on him by the floor as he stops. with a minus sign because the displacement while stopping and the force from floor are in opposite directions (7.

However. which is the desired quantity. ENERGY. Solution for (a) ΔKE = 1 mv 2 .8 if it starts from rest at the top of the 20. A kangaroo's hopping shows this method in action. (credit: Chris Samuel. Since h 2 is negative in this case.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. we can solve for the final speed v . all ΔPE g is converted to KE . the impact on the bones is reduced.7 Finding the Speed of a Roller Coaster from its Height (a) What is the final speed of the roller coaster shown in Figure 7.7. we will rewrite this as ΔPE g = −mg ∣ h ∣ to show the minus sign clearly.35) becomes 231 . but the shock in hopping is cushioned by the bending of its hind legs in each jump. 2 (7. Flickr) Example 7. The kangaroo is the only large animal to use hopping for locomotion. Here the initial kinetic energy is zero. Strategy The roller coaster loses potential energy as it goes downhill. We neglect friction.0 m hill and work done by frictional forces is negligible? (b) What is its final speed (again assuming negligible friction) if its initial speed is 5. Thus. The loss of gravitational potential energy from moving downward through a distance h equals the gain in kinetic energy. If work done by friction is negligible. by applying the force of the ground on the hind legs over a longer distance. AND ENERGY RESOURCES a force 100 times smaller than in the example. This can be written in equation form as −ΔPE g = ΔKE . which is perpendicular to the direction of motion and does no work.00 m/s? Figure 7.8 The speed of a roller coaster increases as gravity pulls it downhill and is greatest at its lowest point. The equation for change in potential energy states that ΔPE g = mgh . so that the remaining force exerted by the track is the normal force.34) mg ∣ h ∣ = 1 mv 2. the roller-coaster-Earth system’s gravitational potential energy is converted to kinetic energy.) Figure 7.(See Figure 7. Viewed in terms of energy. The net work on the roller coaster is then done by gravity alone. so that −ΔPE g = ΔKE (7.7 The work done by the ground upon the kangaroo reduces its kinetic energy to zero as it lands. Using the equations for PE g and KE .

and we will see that this leads to a formal definition of the law of conservation of energy. We can do the same thing for a few other forces. Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation—Converting Potential to Kinetic Energy One can study the conversion of gravitational potential energy into kinetic energy in this experiment. On a smooth. the final speed in part (b) is greater than in part (a).4 m/s.0 m) + (5. and its speed on the level surface is measured. we find that mass cancels and that v = 2g ∣ h ∣ . Figure 7. This reveals another general truth. Finally.80 m/s 2)(20. level surface. Place a marble at the 10-cm position on the ruler and let it roll down the ruler.41) Discussion and Implications First. note that mass cancels. For example. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Solving for v . Second.38) 1 mv 2 = mg ∣ h ∣ + 1 mv 2. 2 2 (7. Solution for (b) Again − ΔPE g = ΔKE . only the speed of the roller coaster is considered. there is no information about its direction at any point. use a ruler of the kind that has a groove running along its length and a book to make an incline (see Figure 7. What is the shape of each plot? If the shape is a straight line. allowing us to define the simplifying concept of gravitational potential energy. and perhaps unexpectedly. the roller coaster will have the same final speed whether it falls 20.0 m) (7. and not on the path between. the speed of a falling body depends only on its initial speed and height. measure the time it takes to roll one meter. This is quite consistent with observations made in Falling Objects that all objects fall at the same rate if friction is negligible.org/content/col11406/1. We have seen that work done by or against the gravitational force depends only on the starting and ending points. but by far less than 5. In this case there is initial kinetic energy. Now.9 A marble rolls down a ruler. This equation is very similar to the kinematics equation (7. and not on its mass or the path taken. whereas our equation above is valid for any path regardless of whether the object moves with a constant acceleration. but it is more general—the kinematics equation is valid only for constant acceleration. 2 2 0 (7.9).00 m/s. Now place the marble at the 20-cm and the 30-cm positions and again measure the times it takes to roll 1 m on the level surface. When friction is negligible. (7. (7.80 m/s 2⎞⎠(20. and v = 2g ∣ h ∣ + v 0 2.37) Substituting known values. Third.00 m/s) 2 = 20. v = = 19. Plot velocity squared versus the distance traveled by the marble. so ΔKE = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 0 2 .0 m straight down or takes a more complicated path like the one in the figure.232 CHAPTER 7 | WORK.7 . the plot shows that the marble’s kinetic energy at the bottom is proportional to its potential energy at the release point. ENERGY. This content is available for free at http://cnx. When it hits the level surface. 2 2 mg ∣ h ∣ = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 0 2. substituting known values gives v = 2(9. note that speed can be found at any height along the way by simply using the appropriate value of h at the point of interest. Mass again cancels.8 m/s.36) 2⎛⎝9.40) v = v 0 2 + 2ad . Find the velocity of the marble on the level surface for all three positions.39) Rearranging gives This means that the final kinetic energy is the sum of the initial kinetic energy and the gravitational potential energy. Thus.

CHAPTER 7 | WORK. We can define a potential energy (PE) for any conservative force.) For our spring. s 2 k . (We treat these springs as ideal. (b) The force needed to stretch (or compress) the spring a distance x has a magnitude F = kx . shape. F = kΔL .4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy Potential Energy and Conservative Forces Work is done by a force. It is stored energy that is completely recoverable. not the path followed. let us obtain an expression for the potential energy stored in a spring ( PE s ). and some forces. and states that the magnitude of force resulting deformation PE s = 1 kx 2. 233 . That is. when you wind up a toy. we noted in 2 2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem that the area under a graph of F vs. In Figure 7. We therefore define the potential energy of a spring. you do work against its spring and store energy in it.42) k is the spring’s force constant and x is the displacement from its undeformed position. an egg timer.10(c) we see that this area is also 1 kx 2 . and it can be fully recovered. So the force needed to stretch the spring has magnitude F = kx . stored energy is PE s = 1 kx 2 . The work done against a conservative force to reach a final configuration depends on the configuration.) (See Figure 7. Potential Energy and Conservative Forces Potential energy is the energy a system has due to position. Thus the work done in stretching or compressing the spring is W s = Fd = ⎝kx ⎠x = 1 kx 2 . where the spring and the energy stored in it as a result of stretching or compressing it a distance Figure 7. and is the potential energy added. The ⎛ ⎞ average force is kx / 2 . and it is useful to think of it as potential energy contained in the spring.) This stored energy is recoverable as work. x has a slope of PE s stored in it. in that we assume there is no friction and no production of thermal energy. PE s . we will replace ΔL (the amount of deformation produced by a force F ) by the distance x that the spring is stretched or compressed along its length. and the area under the graph is 1 kx 2 . AND ENERGY RESOURCES 7. or an oldfashioned watch. A conservative force is one. Alternatively. this work is stored as potential energy (PE ) in the spring. The force increases linearly from 0 at the start to kx in the fully stretched position. For example. such as weight. The potential energy represents the work done on x . A conservative force is one for which work done by or against it depends only on the starting and ending points of a motion and not on the path taken. x is the work done by the force. the reason that the spring has this characteristic is that its force is conservative. a conservative force results in stored or potential energy.10. Potential energy can be stored in any elastic 2 medium by deforming it. Potential Energy of a Spring First. 2 2 PE s = 1 kx 2 has general validity beyond the special case for which it was derived. Indeed.10 (a) An undeformed spring has no work done to stretch (or compress) it is (c) A graph of F The equation vs. Another example is 2 seen in Figure 7. The potential energy of the spring PE s does not depend on the path taken. 2 (7. For shape or position deformations. Indeed. just as we did for the gravitational force. We will also see how conservative forces are related to the conservation of energy. the general definition of potential energy is energy due to position. like the gravitational force. where k is the force constant of the particular system and x is its deformation. have special characteristics. We calculate the work done to stretch or compress a spring that F on the spring and the ΔL are proportional. as is the energy stored in a spring. it depends only on the stretch or squeeze x in the final configuration. Gravitational potential energy is one example.11 for a guitar string. for which work done by or against it depends only on the starting and ending points of a motion and not on the path taken. or configuration. (Hooke’s law was examined in Elasticity: Stress and Strain. and the 1 kx 2 . to be 2 obeys Hooke’s law. or configuration. We can define a potential energy (PE) for any conservative force. shape. where k is the spring’s force constant. Because the force is conservative. Thus the work done or potential energy stored is 1 kx 2 . ENERGY.

(7. W c = −ΔPE . Thus. W c = ΔKE. does work. Conservation of Mechanical Energy Let us now consider what form the work-energy theorem takes when only conservative forces are involved. KE and the various types of Example 7. That is.00 cm and has a force constant of 250. find (a) how fast the car is going before it starts up the slope and (b) how fast it is going at the top of the slope. That is. the system loses potential energy.8 Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy to Calculate the Speed of a Toy Car A 0. so that friction is negligible. The total kinetic plus potential energy of a system is defined to be its mechanical energy. In equation form.11 Work is done to deform the guitar string.46) ΔKE + ΔPE = 0. The spring is compressed 4. The car follows a track that rises 0. with the total energy remaining constant. −ΔPE = ΔKE (7. Assuming work done by friction to be negligible. there is a potential energy associated with each force.100-kg toy car is propelled by a compressed spring. then where W c is the total work done by all conservative forces.12.48) where i and f denote initial and final values.44) If only conservative forces act. giving it potential energy. the potential energy is converted to kinetic energy and back to potential as the string oscillates back and forth.180 m above the starting point. Therefore. This will lead us to the conservation of energy principle. The work-energy theorem states that the net work done by all forces acting on a system equals its change in kinetic energy. In a system that experiences only conservative forces. ENERGY. When released. (7. KE i + PE i = KE f + PE f ⎭ KE + PE = constant (7. this is W net = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 0 2 = ΔKE.47) or This equation means that the total kinetic and potential energy is constant for any process involving only conservative forces.45) Now. if the conservative force. A very small fraction is dissipated as sound energy.org/content/col11406/1. 2 2 (7.234 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. such as the gravitational force or a spring force. it is known as the conservation of mechanical energy principle.7 . AND ENERGY RESOURCES Figure 7. and the energy only changes form between PE . (7. slowly removing energy from the string. or ⎫ ⎬(conservative forces only).0 N/m. Remember that this applies to the extent that all the forces are conservative.43) W net = W c. as shown in Figure 7. This content is available for free at http://cnx. This equation is a form of the work-energy theorem for conservative forces. (KE + PE) .

53) This form of the equation means that the spring’s initial potential energy is converted partly to gravitational potential energy and partly to kinetic energy. 2 i 2 f (7.54) ⎛250. so conservation of mechanical energy can be used. we do not directly calculate the work they do. because the path may be complicated and forces may vary along the way. the potential energy in the spring is first completely converted to kinetic energy.8. ENERGY. Discussion Another way to solve this problem is to realize that the car’s kinetic energy before it goes up the slope is converted partly to potential energy—that is.0400 m) 0.0 N/m (0. The details of the path are unimportant because all forces are conservative—the car would have the same final speed if it took the alternate path shown.0 N/m ⎞ 2 2 ⎝ 0.00 m/s. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Figure 7. the initial potential energy in the spring is converted completely to kinetic energy in the absence of friction. to take the final conditions in part (a) to be the initial conditions in part (b).687 m/s. Doing the same type of analysis to find which terms are zero. Note that. so that both h i and h f are zero. Furthermore.50) or where h is the height (vertical position) and x is the compression of the spring. i 2 i f 2 f 2 f 2 i (7. First. 235 . This assumption is usually a tremendous simplification. for conservative forces. vf = (7. we must identify the initial and final conditions in a problem. Take the initial height to be zero. Solution for (a) This part of the problem is limited to conditions just before the car is released and just after it leaves the spring. rather. completely ignoring everything in between. Thus.52) Solution for (b) One method of finding the speed at the top of the slope is to consider conditions just before the car is released and just after it reaches the top of the slope.80 m/s )(0.51) In other words. Note also that we do not consider details of the path taken—only the starting and ending points are important (as long as the path is not impossible).12 A toy car is pushed by a compressed spring and coasts up a slope.100 kg = 2. just as we did in Example 7. This general statement looks complex but becomes much simpler when we start considering specific situations. then.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. the conservation of mechanical energy becomes 1 kx 2 = 1 mv 2 + mgh . f 2 i 2 f (7. and then to a combination of kinetic and gravitational potential energy as the car rises. we enter them into the last equation to solve for an unknown.49) 1 mv 2 + mgh + 1 kx 2 = 1 mv 2 + mgh + 1 kx 2. Solving for v f and substituting known values gives vf = = kx i 2 m − 2gh f (7.100 kg ⎠(0. Solving for the final speed and entering known values yields k m xi = 250. and so several terms in the conservation of mechanical energy equation are zero and it simplifies to 1 kx 2 = 1 mv 2. we consider their effects through their corresponding potential energies. the initial speed v i is zero and the final compression of the spring x f is zero. KE i +PE i = KE f + PE f (7. Strategy The spring force and the gravitational force are conservative forces. Assuming negligible friction.0400 m) − 2(9. The final speed at the top of the slope will be less than at the bottom.180 m) = 0.

work done against friction depends on the length of the path between the starting and ending points. even if the thermal energy is retained or captured. The force here is friction. AND ENERGY RESOURCES PhET Explorations: Energy Skate Park Learn about conservation of energy with a skater dude! Build tracks. Less work is done and less of the face is erased for the path in (a) than for the path in (b). Figure 7. Friction. it loses kinetic energy. Conservative forces were discussed in Conservative Forces and Potential Energy.15 Comparison of the effects of conservative and nonconservative forces on the mechanical energy of a system. reducing its mechanical energy. and most of the work goes into thermal energy that subsequently leaves the system (the happy face plus the eraser). Figure 7. removing energy from the system.236 CHAPTER 7 | WORK.15(a) first before studying more complicated systems as in Figure 7.15 compares the effects of conservative and nonconservative forces. potential energy and friction as he moves.org/content/m42149/1.14. there is no potential energy associated with nonconservative forces. where it once again has only potential energy due to gravity. which is dissipated as thermal energy. so it is lost or not recoverable in that sense as well. sound. Because of this dependence on path. We often choose to understand simpler systems such as that described in Figure 7. when a car is brought to a stop by friction on level ground. ramps and jumps for the skater and view the kinetic energy.jar) 7. it cannot be fully converted back to work. The rock has lost mechanical energy.org/content/col11406/1. The energy expended cannot be fully recovered. Friction is a good example of a nonconservative force. (b) A system with nonconservative forces.5 Nonconservative Forces Nonconservative Forces and Friction Forces are either conservative or nonconservative. and surface distortion. for example.13 Energy Skate Park (http://cnx. When a rock is dropped onto a spring.14 The amount of the happy face erased depends on the path taken by the eraser between points A and B. its mechanical energy remains constant (neglecting air resistance) because the force in the spring is conservative. creates thermal energy that dissipates. An important characteristic is that the work done by a nonconservative force adds or removes mechanical energy from a system. as does the work done against friction. How Nonconservative Forces Affect Mechanical Energy Mechanical energy may not be conserved when nonconservative forces act. Figure 7. For example.15(b). The spring can propel the rock back to its original height. (a) A system with only conservative forces. A nonconservative force is one for which work depends on the path taken. When the same rock is dropped onto the ground. You can also take the skater to different planets or even space! Figure 7. it is stopped by nonconservative forces that dissipate its mechanical energy as thermal energy. Furthermore. This content is available for free at http://cnx. ENERGY.4/energy-skate-park_en. As illustrated in Figure 7.7 .

or W net = ΔKE .00 m/s and the force of friction against him is a constant 450 N. your work done is removed by the work of friction.9 Calculating Distance Traveled: How Far a Baseball Player Slides Consider the situation shown in Figure 7. when you push a lawn mower at constant speed on level ground. decreased. We will see that the work done by nonconservative forces equals the change in the mechanical energy of a system. As the crate is pushed up the ramp. and nonconservative forces are balanced. Example 7. where a baseball player slides to a stop on level ground. including the potential energy changes. If W nc is zero. so that W c = −ΔPE .0-kg baseball player slides. So even if energy is not conserved for the system of interest (such as the crate). That is. But when seeking instead to find a change in total mechanical energy in situations that involve changes in both potential and kinetic energy. 237 . we note that work done by a conservative force comes from a loss of gravitational potential energy. As in the previous section. then mechanical W nc is negative. and add to it the work done.56) so that where W nc is the total work done by all nonconservative forces and W c is the total work done by all conservative forces. We rearrange W nc = ΔKE + ΔPE to obtain KE i +PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f . this is the work done by the person minus the work done by friction. then mechanical energy is conserved.15(b). Substituting this equation into the previous one and solving for W nc gives W nc = ΔKE + ΔPE. applying KE i +PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f amounts to applying the work-energy theorem by setting the change in kinetic energy to be equal to the net work done on the system. AND ENERGY RESOURCES How the Work-Energy Theorem Applies Now let us consider what form the work-energy theorem takes when both conservative and nonconservative forces act. Consider Figure 7. In Figure 7. by any nonconservative forces involved. Figure 7.CHAPTER 7 | WORK.16. with the proper sign. it gains mechanical energy. we know that an equal amount of work was done to cause the change in total mechanical energy. such as when the rock hits the ground in Figure 7. The net work is the sum of the work by nonconservative forces plus the work by conservative forces. and the mower has a constant energy. the previous equation KE i + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f says that you can start by finding the change in mechanical energy that would have resulted from just the conservative forces. W net = W nc + W c. This equation means that the total mechanical energy (7. Using energy considerations. both forces oppose the person’s push. the work-energy theorem states that the net work on a system equals the change in its kinetic energy. (7.16. in which a person pushes a crate up a ramp and is opposed by friction. For example. (7. As noted in Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem.55) W nc + W c = ΔKE. which in the most general case includes both conservative and nonconservative forces.16 A person pushes a crate up a ramp. If Applying Energy Conservation with Nonconservative Forces When no change in potential energy occurs. If energy is increased. calculate the distance the 65. (7.58) W nc is positive.57) (KE + PE) changes by exactly the amount of work done by nonconservative forces. such as when the person pushes the crate up the ramp in Figure 7. Friction and gravitational force (not shown) also do work on the crate. given that his initial speed is 6.16. doing work on the crate.17. ENERGY. implying that the work done by the person is greater than the work done by friction. then mechanical energy is This means that the amount of work done by nonconservative forces adds to the mechanical energy of a system.

Figure 7. because f is in the opposite direction of the motion (that is. the work done by friction. which is negative. and so cos θ = −1 ).0 kg)(6.org/content/col11406/1.60 m.60) or This equation can now be solved for the distance d.59) fd = 1 mv 2.9 is running up a hill having a 5.18 The same baseball player slides to a stop on a 5. Solution Solving the previous equation for d and substituting known values yields d = mv i 2 2f (7.61) (65. to the final mechanical energy he has by moving through distance d to reach height h along the hill. you must work harder to stop a truck.00º . Strategy Friction stops the player by converting his kinetic energy into other forms.17 The baseball player slides to a stop in a distance d . In the process. θ = 180º . including thermal energy. is added to the initial kinetic energy to reduce it to zero. = Discussion The most important point of this example is that the amount of nonconservative work equals the change in mechanical energy.238 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. Example 7. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Figure 7. ENERGY.10 Calculating Distance Traveled: Sliding Up an Incline Suppose that the player from Example 7. Thus W nc = − fd . 2 i (7. with h = d sin 5.00º slope.00 m/s) 2 (2)(450 N) = 2. The equation simplifies to 1 mv 2 − fd = 0 2 i (7. The player slides with the same initial speed. with its large mechanical energy.7 . than to stop a mosquito. This is expressed by the equation This content is available for free at http://cnx. The work done by friction is negative.00º incline upward with a surface similar to that in the baseball stadium. friction removes the player’s kinetic energy by doing an amount of work fd equal to the initial kinetic energy. Determine how far he slides. In terms of the work-energy theorem. Strategy In this case. For example. the work done by the nonconservative friction force on the player reduces the mechanical energy he has from his kinetic energy at zero height.

let the marble roll into the cup positioned at the bottom of the ruler. which no longer cancel each other because they point in different directions.63) ⎛1 ⎞ 2 ⎝ 2 ⎠mv i (7. we need only consider the gravitational potential energy mgh . you will need a foam cup with a small hole in the side. AND ENERGY RESOURCES KE + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f . place the marble at the 20-cm and the 30-cm positions and again measure the distance the cup moves after the marble enters it. Graphs show forces.00º) = 2. This simplifies the solution considerably. You could then use the net force and the net work to find the distance d that reduces the kinetic energy to zero.5)(65. In addition.0 kg)(9. Is this relationship linear? With some simple assumptions. ⎝ ⎠ 2 i d to obtain d = (7.64) f + mg sin θ (0. 2 i the final energy contributions are KE f = 0 for the kinetic energy and PE f = mgh = mgd sin θ for the potential energy. = Discussion As might have been expected. This method would have required combining the normal force and force of gravity vectors. is the velocity of this steel marble the same as the velocity of the marble at the bottom of the ruler? Is the distance the cup moves proportional to the mass of the steel and glass marbles? Figure 7. The force of friction f on the cup is μ k N . Note that the problem could also have been solved in terms of the forces directly and the work energy theorem. The work done by friction is fd . Releasing it from the same positions on the ruler as you did with the glass marble. Lower and raise the ramp to see how the angle of inclination affects the parallel forces acting on the file cabinet.19 Rolling a marble down a ruler into a foam cup. and marble from Take-Home Investigation—Converting Potential to Kinetic Energy. which moves horizontally.80 m/s 2) sin (5. you can use these data to find the coefficient of kinetic friction μ k of the cup on the table.00 m/s) 2 450 N+(65.62) Solution W nc = − fd .31 m. energy and work as you push household objects up and down a ramp. energy and work. as shown in Figure 7. You will need the mass of the marble as well to calculate its initial kinetic energy. and friction. (7. By applying conservation of energy and using the potential energy instead. the player slides a shorter distance by sliding uphill. to find the net force. From the 10-cm position on the ruler. without combining and resolving force vectors. where the normal force N is just the weight of the cup plus the marble. Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation—Determining Friction from the Stopping Distance This experiment involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy into thermal energy. Measure the distance d the cup moves before stopping. Use the ruler.19. book. PhET Explorations: The Ramp Explore forces.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. The work done by friction is again Substituting these values gives Solve this for 1 mv 2 + 0 + ⎛ − fd⎞ = 0 + mgd sin θ. What forces caused it to stop? What happened to the kinetic energy of the marble at the bottom of the ruler? Next. initially the potential energy is PE i = mg ⋅ 0 = 0 and the kinetic energy is KE i = 1 mv 2 . 239 . instead of using the potential energy.0 kg)(6. Plot the distance the cup moves versus the initial marble position on the ruler. ENERGY. The normal force and force of gravity do no work because they are perpendicular to the displacement of the cup. It is interesting to do the above experiment also with a steel marble (or ball bearing).

6 Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy Energy. knowns. or electromagnetic radiation. It may change in form or be transferred from one system to another. Step 1. The law of conservation of energy can be stated as follows: Total energy is constant in any process. such as gasoline and food. The strategies help in organizing and reinforcing energy concepts. and into the energy of the heat transfer and blast in weapons. in those situations OE was constant. You will find that energy is discussed in many contexts. Most energy sources on Earth are in fact stored energy from the energy we receive from the Sun. Fuels. But energy takes many other forms. Chemical fuel can also produce electrical energy. Nuclear energy is transformed into the energy of sunlight. which includes visible light. Many of these will be covered in later chapters. they are used in the examples presented in this chapter.6/the-ramp_en. work done by nonconservative forces is W nc . infrared. or released from various objects and in various phenomena. These and all other forms of energy can be converted into one another and can do work. Table 7. Kinetic energy is conservative force is represented by Making Connections: Usefulness of the Energy Conservation Principle The fact that energy is conserved and has many forms makes it very important. This exploration led to the definition of two major types of energy—mechanical energy (KE + PE) and energy transferred via work done by nonconservative forces (W nc) . because it is related to the temperature of the object. and energy. into electrical energy in power plants. The familiar general problem-solving strategies presented earlier—involving identifying physical principles. Step 3. ENERGY. When does OE play a role? One example occurs when a person eats. Food is oxidized with the release of carbon dioxide. manifesting itself in many different ways. and unknowns. and so it subtracted out and was not directly considered. (7. is conserved. We sometimes refer to this as radiant energy. This internal mechanical energy from the random motions is called thermal energy. work done by a PE .65) KE . and all other energies are included as OE . Step 2. Problem-Solving Strategies for Energy You will find the following problem-solving strategies useful whenever you deal with energy.org/content/m42150/1. then forces are all conservative. It will also become apparent that many situations are best understood in terms of energy and that problems are often most easily conceptualized and solved by considering energy.240 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. which is a very pure form of energy.org/content/col11406/1. water. and you can apply conservation of mechanical energy simply in terms of potential and kinetic energy. such as in batteries. Nuclear energy comes from processes that convert measurable amounts of mass into energy.jar) 7. checking units. and to thermal energy (another form of OE ). Atoms and molecules inside all objects are in random motion. as we have noted. If you know the potential energies for the forces that enter into the problem. but let us detail a few here. This equation applies to all previous examples. we deal with all other forms of energy by lumping them into a single group called other energy ( OE ). Examine all the forces involved and determine whether you know or are given the potential energy from the work done by the forces. In fact. Then use step 3 or step 4. The range of energies and the variety of types and situations is impressive. and ultraviolet radiation. Some of the Many Forms of Energy What are some other forms of energy? You can probably name a number of forms of energy not yet discussed. A sketch will help. making it one of the most important physical quantities in nature. and we need to be able to deal with all of these before we can write an equation for the above general statement of the conservation of energy. because it is involved in all processes. Determine the system of interest and identify what information is given and what quantity is to be calculated. All types of energy and work can be included in this very general statement of conservation of energy.1 gives the amount of energy stored.7 . carry chemical energy that can be transferred to a system through oxidation. Then we can state the conservation of energy in equation form as KE i + PE i + W nc + OE i = KE f + PE f + OE f . and so on—continue to be relevant here. Electrical energy is a common form that is converted to many other forms and does work in a wide range of practical situations. but the total remains the same. used. Batteries can in turn produce light. We have explored some forms of energy and some ways it can be transferred from one system to another. The equation expressing conservation of energy is This content is available for free at http://cnx. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Figure 7. Other Forms of Energy than Mechanical Energy At this point. Some of this chemical energy is converted to kinetic energy when the person moves. to potential energy when the person changes altitude.20 The Ramp (http://cnx.

CHAPTER 7 | WORK. light energy is converted into chemical energy through photosynthesis. which in turn can be used to run an electric motor. This important point is discussed later in this section. KE i + PE i + W nc + OE i = KE f + PE f + OE f .21) produces electricity. (7. You have already identified the types of work and energy involved (in step 2). possibly because some of them are nonconservative and do not have a potential energy. eliminate terms wherever possible to simplify the algebra. reexamine the forms of work and energy to see if you have set up the conservation of energy equation correctly.66) Step 4. Once you have solved a problem. the work done by conservative forces. (In all of these examples.) Another example of energy conversion occurs in a solar cell. Before solving for the unknown. (credit: NASA) 241 . but not 80 km/h. Then solve for the unknown in the customary manner. Transformation of Energy The transformation of energy from one form into others is happening all the time. (7.21 Solar energy is converted into electrical energy by solar cells. or if there are other energies that are not easily treated in terms of force and work. which is connected to a generator to produce electrical energy. simplifying its solution. then the conservation of energy law in its most general form must be used. choose h = 0 at either the initial or final point. AND ENERGY RESOURCES KE i + PE i = KE f + PE f . not all of the initial energy is converted into the forms mentioned. If you know the potential energy for only some of the forces. ENERGY. and so on. so that PE g is zero there. In most problems. In a larger example. one or more of the terms is zero. work done against friction should be negative. Figure 7. which is used to run a motor in this solar-power aircraft. This thermal energy in the steam in turn is converted to mechanical energy as it spins a turbine. it is Step 5. Check the answer to see if it is reasonable. potential energy at the bottom of a hill should be less than that at the top. Step 6. For example. Energy is converted from the primary source of solar energy into electrical energy and then into mechanical energy. Also check to see that the numerical value obtained is reasonable. For example. Do not calculate already incorporated in the PE terms.67) W c . For example. Sunlight impinging on a solar cell (see Figure 7. the chemical energy contained in coal is converted into thermal energy as it burns to turn water into steam in a boiler. The chemical energy in food is converted into thermal energy through metabolism. the final speed of a skateboarder who coasts down a 3-m-high ramp could reasonably be 20 km/h.

1×10 5 1 g fat (9.2×10 8 Daily home electricity use (developed countries) 7×10 7 Daily adult food intake (recommended) 1.3 kcal) 3.8×10 16 1 kg hydrogen (fusion to helium) 6.000-ton aircraft carrier at 30 knots 1.7×10 4 Tennis ball at 100 km/h 22 ⎛ Mosquito ⎝10 –2 g at 0. ENERGY. This content is available for free at http://cnx.3×10 −6 Single electron in a TV tube beam 4.1 Energy of Various Objects and Phenomena Object/phenomenon Energy in joules Big Bang 10 68 Energy released in a supernova 10 44 Fusion of all the hydrogen in Earth’s oceans 10 34 Annual world energy use 4×10 20 Large fusion bomb (9 megaton) 3. about 40% of the chemical energy in the coal becomes useful electrical energy. the output of useful energy or work will be less than the energy input.2×10 7 1000-kg car at 90 km/h 3.2×10 13 90. E in total energy input (7.68) Table 7. The efficiency Eff of an energy conversion process is defined as Efficiency (Eff ) = useful energy or work output W out = .5 m/s⎞⎠ 1.7×10 4 1 g protein (4.9×10 9 1 ton TNT 4.0×10 −15 Energy to break one DNA strand 10 −19 Efficiency Even though energy is conserved in an energy conversion process.4×10 14 1 kg uranium (nuclear fission) 8. The other 60% transforms into other (perhaps less useful) energy forms.2×10 9 1 gallon of gasoline 1. for example.1 kcal) 1.7 .242 CHAPTER 7 | WORK.0×10 13 Hiroshima-size fission bomb (10 kiloton) 4. such as thermal energy. In a coal-fired power plant.1×10 10 1 barrel crude oil 5.org/content/col11406/1. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Table 7. which is then released to the environment through combustion gases and cooling towers.2×10 4 1 g carbohydrate (4.1 kcal) 1.2 lists some efficiencies of mechanical devices and human activities.9×10 4 ATP hydrolysis reaction 3.

Transport the lab to different planets.5/mass-spring-lab_en. Representative values 243 . 1.7 Power What is Power? Power—the word conjures up many images: a professional football player muscling aside his opponent. potential.org/content/m42151/1. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Table 7. ENERGY. Figure 7. and thermal energies for each spring. a dragster roaring away from the starting line. surface 2 Swimming. (credit: NASA) These images of power have in common the rapid performance of work. Hang masses from springs and adjust the spring stiffness and damping. as in Figure 7. You can even slow time. or a rocket blasting off.CHAPTER 7 | WORK.22 Masses and Springs (http://cnx. consistent with the scientific definition of power ( P ) as the rate at which work is done.2 Efficiency of the Human Body and Mechanical Devices Activity/device Efficiency (%)[1] Cycling and climbing 20 Swimming.jar) 7. submerged 4 Shoveling 3 Weightlifting 9 Steam engine 17 Gasoline engine 30 Diesel engine 35 Nuclear power plant 35 Coal power plant 42 Electric motor 98 Compact fluorescent light 20 Gas heater (residential) 90 Solar cell 10 PhET Explorations: Masses and Springs A realistic mass and spring laboratory. a volcano blowing its lava into the atmosphere. Figure 7. A chart shows the kinetic.23.23 This powerful rocket on the Space Shuttle Endeavor did work and consumed energy at a very high rate.

) Figure 7. starting from rest but having a final speed of 2. where h is the vertical height of the stairs. power is also the rate at which energy is expended.50 s 120 J + 1764 J = 3. when a powerful car accelerates rapidly. we take both KE and PE g as initially zero. Calculating Power from Energy Example 7.7 . Great power means a large amount of work or energy developed in a short time. Because all terms are given.0 kg⎞⎠(2. expends 60 J of energy per second.0 kg⎞⎠⎛⎝9.00 m high flight of stairs in 3.24 When this woman runs upstairs starting from rest. it does a large amount of work and consumes a large amount of fuel in a short time.69) (1 W = 1 J/s).org/content/col11406/1.5⎛⎝60. Solution Substituting the expression for W into the definition of power given in the previous equation. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Power Power is the rate at which work is done.70) Entering known values yields 0.50 s.00 m/s) 2 + ⎛⎝60. (7.00 m/s? (See Figure 7.50 s = 538 W. t t (7. At the bottom of the stairs. Because work is energy transfer. Strategy and Concept The work going into mechanical energy is W= KE + PE . thus. P=W t The SI unit for power is the watt ( W ).244 CHAPTER 7 | WORK.80 m/s 2⎞⎠(3. most of her power output is required for climbing rather than accelerating. P = W / t yields 1 mv 2 + mgh f 2 P=W = . where 1 watt equals 1 joule/second (7. she converts the chemical energy originally from food into kinetic energy and gravitational potential energy. for example. W = KE f + PE g = 1 mv f 2 + mgh . we can calculate W and then 2 divide it by time to get power.24. For example. Her power output depends on how fast she does this. thus. A 60-W light bulb. ENERGY. It is impressive that this woman’s useful power output is slightly less than 1 horsepower (1 hp = 746 W) ! People can generate more than a horsepower with their leg muscles for short periods of time by rapidly converting available blood sugar and oxygen into work output.71) Discussion The woman does 1764 J of work to move up the stairs compared with only 120 J to increase her kinetic energy.11 Calculating the Power to Climb Stairs What is the power output for a 60.0-kg woman who runs up a 3.00 m) P = 3. (A horse can put This content is available for free at http://cnx.

(credit: Kleinolive. Power implies that energy is transferred. A coal-fired power plant may produce 6 1000 megawatts.25. (See Table 7. Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation—Measure Your Power Rating Determine your own power rating by measuring the time it takes you to climb a flight of stairs. We will ignore the gain in kinetic energy. 1 megawatt (MW) is 10 W of electric power. as rapidly as it is created. ENERGY. the typical electric power plant converts only 35 to 40% of its fuel into electricity. A tiny fraction of this is retained by Earth over the long term.) Sunlight reaching Earth’s surface carries a maximum power of about 1. power output decreases and the person begins to breathe rapidly to obtain oxygen to metabolize more food—this is known as the aerobic stage of exercise. so it is inevitable that they will be depleted. Wikimedia Commons) 245 . then her power output would be much less. Examples of Power Examples of power are limited only by the imagination. For example. But the power plant consumes chemical energy at a rate of about 2500 MW. with 55 W dissipating into thermal energy.5 hp. natural gas. (See Figure 7. The large cooling towers here are needed to transfer heat as rapidly as it is produced. although the amount of work done would be the same. Don’t expect that your output will be more than about 0.3 for some examples.) Once oxygen is depleted. AND ENERGY RESOURCES out 1 hp for hours on end. The transfer of heat is not unique to coal plants but is an unavoidable consequence of generating electric power from any fuel—nuclear. The remainder becomes a huge amount of thermal energy that must be dispersed as heat transfer. a 60-W incandescent bulb converts only 5 W of electrical power to light. If the woman climbed the stairs slowly. or the like.) Figure 7. creating heat transfer to the surroundings at a rate of 1500 MW. Furthermore. It is never possible to change one form completely into another without losing some of it as thermal energy.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. perhaps changing form. oil.25 Tremendous amounts of electric power are generated by coal-fired power plants such as this one in China. Our consumption rate of fossil fuels is far greater than the rate at which they are stored.3 kilowatts per square meter (kW/m 2). but an even larger amount of power goes into heat transfer to the surroundings. coal. as the above example showed that it was a small portion of the energy gain. because there are as many types as there are forms of work and energy.

we must find Solution The energy consumed in kW ⋅ h is E = Pt = (0. (7.0 d) = 36.120 per kW ⋅ h ? Strategy E from E = Pt and then calculate the cost. It is clear that the cost is a combination of power and time. the cost is high. where E is the energy supplied by the electricity company.73) cost = (36.0 kW ⋅ h. This unit is convenient because electrical power consumption at the kilowatt level for hours at a time is typical.0 kW ⋅ h)($0. Example 7.7 . at the start of a problem such as this it is convenient to convert the units into kW and hours. So the energy consumed over a time t is E = Pt.32 per month. such as for an air conditioner in the summer. person at rest (total useful and heat transfer) 8 Electric clock 3 Pocket calculator 10 −3 Power and Energy Consumption We usually have to pay for the energy we use. Cost is based on energy consumed. the greater the cost of that appliance. Electricity bills state the energy used in units of kilowatt-hours (7.0 d if the cost of electricity is $0. It is interesting and easy to estimate the cost of energy for an electrical appliance if its power consumption rate and time used are known.120 per kW ⋅ h) = $4. (7. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Table 7.3 Power Output or Consumption Object or Phenomenon Power in Watts Supernova (at peak) 5×10 37 Milky Way galaxy 10 37 Crab Nebula pulsar 10 28 The Sun 4×10 26 Volcanic eruption (maximum) 4×10 15 Lightning bolt 2×10 12 Nuclear power plant (total electric and heat transfer) 3×10 9 Aircraft carrier (total useful and heat transfer) 10 8 Dragster (total useful and heat transfer) 2×10 6 Car (total useful and heat transfer) 8×10 4 Football player (total useful and heat transfer) 5×10 3 Clothes dryer 4×10 3 Person at rest (all heat transfer) 100 Typical incandescent light bulb (total useful and heat transfer) 60 Heart.200-kW computer 6. When both are high.200 kW)(6. The power consumption rate is P = W / t = E / t . which is the product of power in kilowatts and time in hours. thus.org/content/col11406/1. Because electrical energy is expressed in kW ⋅ h .12 Calculating Energy Costs What is the cost of running a 0.00 h per day for 30.72) (kW ⋅ h). ENERGY.00 h/d)(30.246 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. This content is available for free at http://cnx. The higher the power consumption rate and the longer the appliance is used.74) and the cost is simply given by Discussion The cost of using the computer in this example is neither exorbitant nor negligible.

Armed with the knowledge that energy consumed is the product of power and time. Useful work requires a force exerted through a distance on the outside world.26. the potential for energy to produce useful work has been “degraded” in the energy transformation. Conservation of energy implies that the chemical energy stored in food is converted into work. and so it excludes internal work. Athletes have a greater BMR due to this last factor. Of course. so that they can change the mechanical energy ( KE + PE ) of the system worked upon.) The fraction going into each form depends both on how much we eat and on our level of physical activity. The total energy conversion rate of a person at rest is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and is divided among various systems in the body. like all living organisms. for example. About 75% of the calories burned in a day go into these basic functions. Table 7. Power of Doing Useful Work Work done by a person is sometimes called useful work. Figure 7. (See Figure 7. with the brain coming next.) Approximately 20 kJ of energy are produced for each liter of oxygen consumed. We can measure the energy people use during various activities by measuring their oxygen use. Even though energy in an isolated system is a conserved quantity. although the fraction varies depending on the type of physical activity. If we eat more than is needed to do work and stay warm. because these are accomplished by exerting forces on the outside world. gender. (See Figure 7.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. such as water heaters and air conditioners. during vigorous exercise. the energy consumption of the skeletal muscles and heart increase markedly. It is sometimes possible to use devices that have greater efficiencies—that is. Either power or time must be reduced. It would also not include electric clocks.4 Basal Metabolic Rates (BMR) Power consumed at rest (W) Oxygen consumption (mL/min) Percent of BMR Liver & spleen Organ 23 67 27 Brain 16 47 19 Skeletal muscle 15 45 18 Kidney 9 26 10 Heart 6 17 7 Other 16 48 19 Totals 85 W 250 mL/min 100% Energy consumption is directly proportional to oxygen consumption because the digestive process is basically one of oxidizing food. has made reduction in energy use as well as a shift to nonfossil fuels of the utmost importance. A baseball player throwing a ball. and/or stored as chemical energy in fatty tissue. increases both the ball’s kinetic and potential energy. 247 . ENERGY. Power Consumed at Rest The rate at which the body uses food energy to sustain life and to do different activities is called the metabolic rate. total body weight. The largest fraction goes to the liver and spleen. which is work done on the outside world. 7. which produces over four times more light per watt of power consumed than its incandescent cousin. you can estimate costs for yourself and make the necessary value judgments about where to save energy. Modern civilization depends on energy. One example is the compact fluorescent light bulb. This would not include relatively high power devices like toasters. By far the largest fraction goes to thermal energy. As we will discuss in more detail in Thermodynamics.26 Energy consumed by humans is converted to work. in spite of their 24-hour-per-day usage. and Power in Humans Energy Conversion in Humans Our own bodies. devices that consume less power to accomplish the same task. Forces exerted by the body are nonconservative. Energy. independent of the type of food. as shown in Table 7. and amount of muscle mass (which burns more calories than body fat). The likelihood of a link between global warming and fossil fuel use (with its concomitant production of carbon dioxide). because they are on only a few minutes per day. such as that done by the heart when pumping blood. The BMR is a function of age.4. It is most cost-effective to limit the use of high-power devices that normally operate for long periods of time. the final result of most energy transformations is waste heat transfer to the environment. the remainder goes into body fat. such as lifting weights. but current levels of energy consumption and production are not sustainable. which is no longer useful for doing work.8 Work. Useful work does include that done in climbing stairs or accelerating to a full run. thermal energy. AND ENERGY RESOURCES The motivation to save energy has become more compelling with its ever-increasing price. because they are very low power devices. thermal energy.5 shows energy and oxygen consumption rates (power expended) for a variety of activities. are energy conversion machines. Table 7. and this is often the goal. and stored fat.27.

26 Swimming breaststroke 475 1. Figure 7. the amount of exercise needed to produce a loss in fat.org/content/col11406/1. for an average 76-kg male This content is available for free at http://cnx.30 Sprinting 2415 6. Such measurements can indicate the level of athletic conditioning as well as certain medical problems.56 Climbing stairs (116/min) 685 1. The time required to work off 1000 kJ at this rate is then Time = energy ⎛ energy ⎞ ⎝ time ⎠ = 1000 kJ = 2500 s = 42 min.60 Walking (5 km/h) 280 0.5 states that 400 W are used when cycling at a moderate speed.5 Energy and Oxygen Consumption Rates[2] (Power) Energy consumption in watts Oxygen consumption in liters O2/min Sleeping 83 0. the person’s body will obtain the needed energy by metabolizing body fat. Oxymeters can be used to determine a person’s metabolic rate. 400 W (7.90 Activity 2. such as when doing vigorous work.5 km/h) 545 1.12 Playing basketball 800 2. However.000 kJ per day. can be large.80 Cycling (13–18 km/h) 400 1. If the person uses 13.21 Playing tennis 440 1. he will steadily gain weight. Example 7. then the amount of fat loss will be ⎛1.28 Cycling.14 Shivering 425 1.24 Sitting at rest 120 0.75) Discussion If this person uses more energy than he or she consumes. (credit: UusiAjaja. So exercise can be helpful in losing fat.36 Sitting in class 210 0. as Example 7. which is the rate at which food energy is converted to another form.96 Cycling (21 km/h) 700 2.36 Ice skating (14. professional racer 1855 5.7 . or to burn off extra calories consumed that day. ENERGY.00 Running cross-country 740 2.27 A pulse oxymeter is an apparatus that measures the amount of oxygen in blood.13 illustrates. AND ENERGY RESOURCES If a person needs more energy than they consume.000 kJ (3000 kcal) of food energy per day consumes 13. How much bicycling per day is required to work off this extra 1000 kJ? Solution Table 7.0 g fat ⎞ Fat loss = (1000 kJ)⎝ = 26 g.000 kJ.248 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. 39 kJ ⎠ (7. the body must draw upon the chemical energy stored in fat.34 Standing relaxed 125 0.13 Calculating Weight Loss from Exercising If a person who normally requires an average of 12.000 kJ but consumes only 12.76) assuming the energy content of fat to be 39 kJ/g. Wikimedia Commons) Table 7.

from sleeping to head scratching. coal. China surpassed Japan as the world’s second largest consumer of oil. in fact. although natural gas and solar contributions are increasing. the patient was being asked to recognize faces. require energy. But current levels of energy consumption and production are not sustainable. from thinking to lifting weights. renewable energy is growing very fast. ultimately become thermal energy.28. Germany plans to meet 20% of its electricity and 10% of its overall energy needs with renewable resources by the year 2020.) This bioelectrical energy ultimately becomes mostly thermal energy.) The many small muscle actions accompanying all quiet activity.S. but some is utilized to power chemical processes such as in the kidneys and liver. as do less visible muscle actions by the heart. and biomass. The likelihood of a link between global warming and fossil fuel use. 66% of that oil is imported! Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Sources The principal energy resources used in the world are shown in Figure 7. However. with 4. has made. wind. While much of this growth will come from the rapidly booming economies of China and India.29 World energy consumption by source. (credit: KVDP) The World’s Growing Energy Needs World energy consumption continues to rise. Here. and digestive tract. in the eyes of many scientists. (See Figure 7.28 This fMRI scan shows an increased level of energy consumption in the vision center of the brain. (Nerve cells use this electrical potential in nerve impulses. is an involuntary response to low body temperature that pits muscles against one another to produce thermal energy in the body (and do no work). The fuel mix has changed over the years but now is dominated by oil.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. with its production of carbon dioxide through combustion. We live in a very interdependent world. The U.) Energy is a key constraint in the rapid economic growth of China and India. and much of that goes to transportation uses. AND ENERGY RESOURCES All bodily functions. About 40% of the world’s energy comes from oil. coal dominates the commercial energy resources of China. especially in the developing countries. Although presently only a small percentage. accounting for 2/3 of its 249 . (See Figure 7. Figure 7. many of the developed countries. lungs. such as water. consumes 24% of the world’s oil production per year. For example. especially those in Europe. are hoping to meet their energy needs by expanding the use of renewable sources. over 1/3 of this is imported.9 World Energy Use Energy is an important ingredient in all phases of society. especially wind energy. natural gas. Unlike most Western countries. In 2003. in billions of kilowatt-hours: 2006.30. (See Figure 7.5% of the world’s population. ENERGY. but the biggest surprise of all it that a full 25% of all energy consumed by the body is used to maintain electrical potentials in all living cells. Oil prices are dependent as much upon new (or foreseen) discoveries as they are upon political events and situations around the world.. and in fat production. The kidneys and liver consume a surprising amount of energy. (credit: NIH via Wikimedia Commons) 7. solar. Shivering.31. and access to adequate and reliable energy resources is crucial for economic growth and for maintaining the quality of our lives. Figure 7. Renewable forms of energy are those sources that cannot be used up. About 85% of our energy comes from nonrenewable fossil fuels—oil. a shift to nonfossil fuels of utmost importance—but it will not be easy.) Global demand for energy has tripled in the past 50 years and might triple again in the next 30 years.29.

and it has the largest solar cooking program in the world.6 displays the 2006 commercial energy mix by country for some of the prime energy users in the world. Figure 7. Yet there are sizeable strides being made in renewable energy. ENERGY. Half of India’s oil is imported. some countries get a sizeable percentage of their electricity from renewable resources. Flickr) Table 7. 105 40% 23% 22% 8% 3% 1% 12500 340 World 432 39% 23% 24% 6% 6% 2% 2600 71 This content is available for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11406/1.S.S.31 Solar cell arrays at a power plant in Steindorf. 2011) Figure 7. Energy Information Administration.250 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. In 2009 China surpassed the United States as the largest generator of CO 2 . electricity is generated by renewable resources. Table 7. It is difficult to determine total contributions of renewable energy in some countries with a large rural population. the main energy resources are biomass (wood and dung) and coal. Germany (credit: Michael Betke. AND ENERGY RESOURCES energy consumption. About 70% of India’s electricity is generated by highly polluting coal. Only 10% of the U.30 Past and projected world energy use (source: Based on data from U.6 Energy Consumption—Selected Countries (2006) Country Consumption. While non-renewable sources dominate.7 .9 51% 26% 16% 0% 2% 3% 420 22 Japan 24 48% 14% 21% 12% 4% 1% 7100 176 New Zealand 0. about 67% of New Zealand’s electricity demand is met by hydroelectric.4 50% 41% 1% 0% 6% 990 32 Germany 16 37% 24% 24% 11% 1% 3% 6400 173 India 15 34% 7% 52% 1% 5% 470 13 Indonesia 4. so these percentages in this table are left blank. For example. India has a rapidly growing wind energy base.4 34% 17% 44% 0% 3% 1% 10000 260 Brazil 9. in EJ (1018 J) Oil Natural Gas Coal Nuclear Hydro Other Renewables Electricity Use per capita (kWh/ yr) Energy Use per capita (GJ/ yr) Australia 5.S. primarily hydroelectric.6 48% 7% 5% 1% 35% 2% 2000 50 China 63 22% 3% 69% 1% 6% 1500 35 Egypt 2.44 32% 26% 6% 0% 11% 19% 8500 102 Russia 31 19% 53% 16% 5% 6% 5700 202 U. In India.

AND ENERGY RESOURCES Energy and Economic Well-being The last two columns in this table examine the energy and electricity use per capita. To state it in another way. Since energy in an isolated system is not destroyed or created or generated.) Glossary basal metabolic rate: the total energy conversion rate of a person at rest chemical energy: the energy in a substance stored in the bonds between atoms and molecules that can be released in a chemical reaction conservation of mechanical energy: the rule that the sum of the kinetic energies and potential energies remains constant if only conservative forces act on and within a system conservative force: a force that does the same work for any given initial and final configuration. friction changes mechanical energy into thermal energy gravitational potential energy: the energy an object has due to its position in a gravitational field horsepower: an older non-SI unit of power. and coal friction: the force between surfaces that opposes one sliding on the other. and in most countries higher standards of living.g. Wikimedia Commons) Conserving Energy As we finish this chapter on energy and work. are matched by higher levels of energy consumption per capita. Note the increase in energy usage with increasing GDP. Economic well-being is dependent upon energy use. the potential for energy to produce useful work has been “degraded” in the energy transformation.. etc. This is borne out in Figure 7. useful energy or work divided by the total input of energy electrical energy: the energy carried by a flow of charge energy: the ability to do work fossil fuels: oil. It states that the total amount of energy in an isolated system will always remain constant. but remarkably different from it. and no exceptions have ever been found. one might wonder why we need to be concerned about our energy resources. turning down thermostats. ENERGY. energyefficient compact fluorescent lights. with 1 hp = 746 W 251 . regardless of the path followed efficiency: a measure of the effectiveness of the input of energy to do work.32. The problem is that the final result of most energy transformations is waste heat transfer to the environment and conversion to energy forms no longer useful for doing work. but is a very good bookkeeping device. credit: Frank van Mierlo. As has been mentioned elsewhere. Related to this principle.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. Figure 7. the “law of the conservation of energy” is a very useful principle in analyzing physical processes. it is relevant to draw some distinctions between two sometimes misunderstood terms in the area of energy use. This concept has to do with seeking to decrease the amount of energy used by an individual or group through (1) reduced activities (e. natural gas. Increased efficiency of energy use will change this dependency. It is a statement that cannot be proven from basic principles. driving fewer kilometers) and/or (2) increasing conversion efficiencies in the performance of a particular task—such as developing and using more efficient room heaters. (This will be discussed in more detail in Thermodynamics. as measured by GDP (gross domestic product) per capita. since energy is a conserved quantity.32 Power consumption per capita versus GDP per capita for various countries. (2007. A global problem is balancing energy resource development against the harmful effects upon the environment in its extraction and use. is the important philosophy of energy conservation. cars that have greater miles-per-gallon ratings.

AND ENERGY RESOURCES joule: SI unit of work and energy.e. • Work done on an object transfers energy to the object. that the net work done on an object is equal to its change in kinetic energy work: the transfer of energy by a force that causes an object to be displaced. the product of the component of the force in the direction of the displacement and the magnitude of the displacement Section Summary 7. non-rotational) motion of an object of 2 law of conservation of energy: the general law that total energy is constant in any process. with 1 W = 1 J/s work-energy theorem: the result. 7. In symbols. wind. have physical significance. when Hooke’s law applies.7 .2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem • The net work W net is the work done by the net force acting on an object. where F of the force. is ΔPE g = mgh . This content is available for free at http://cnx. and negative if they have opposite direction. W net = 1 mv 2 − 1 mv 0 2 .org/content/col11406/1. • The work W that a force F does on an object is the product of the magnitude times the cosine of the angle θ between them. ENERGY. and biomass thermal energy: the energy within an object due to the random motion of its atoms and molecules that accounts for the object's temperature useful work: work done on an external system watt: (W) SI unit of power..3 Gravitational Potential Energy • Work done against gravity in lifting an object becomes potential energy of the object-Earth system. or vector sum of all the forces. • The translational kinetic energy of an object of mass • The work-energy theorem states that the net work m moving at speed v is KE = 1 mv 2 .1 Work: The Scientific Definition • Work is the transfer of energy by a force acting on an object as it is displaced. equal to m moving at speed v 1 mv 2 for the translational (i. • The gravitational potential energy of an object near Earth’s surface is due to its position in the mass-Earth system.252 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. such as the fusion of two light nuclei or the fission of a heavy nucleus potential energy of a spring: the stored energy of a spring as a function of its displacement. shape. equal to one newton-meter kilowatt-hour: kinetic energy: mass (kW ⋅ h) unit used primarily for electrical energy provided by electric utility companies the energy an object has by reason of its motion. W = Fd cos θ. solar. Only differences in gravitational potential energy. • The SI unit for work and energy is the joule (J). ΔPE g . or configuration power: the rate at which work is done radiant energy: the energy carried by electromagnetic waves renewable forms of energy: those sources that cannot be used up. but the total remains the same mechanical energy: the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy metabolic rate: the rate at which the body uses food energy to sustain life and to do different activities net work: work done by the net force. acting on an object nonconservative force: a force whose work depends on the path followed between the given initial and final configurations nuclear energy: energy released by changes within atomic nuclei. 1 J = 1 N ⋅ m = 1 kg ⋅ m 2/s 2 . it is given by the expression 1 kx 2 where x is the distance the spring is compressed or extended and k is the spring constant 2 potential energy: energy due to position. • The change in gravitational potential energy. with h being the increase in height and g the acceleration due to gravity. energy may change in form or be transferred from one system to another. • The work done by a force is zero if the displacement is either zero or perpendicular to the force. times the magnitude d of the displacement. ΔPE g . • The work done is positive if the force and displacement have the same direction. based on Newton’s laws. such as water. 2 W net on a system changes its kinetic energy. 2 2 7.

7. • Work W nc done by a nonconservative force changes the mechanical energy of a system. conservation of energy is written in equation form as KE i + PE i + W nc + OE i = KE f + PE f + OE f . where 1 hp = 746 W . • When all forms of energy are considered. • When only conservative forces act on and within a system. and the brain coming next. • When both conservative and nonconservative forces act. and/or chemical energy that is stored in fatty tissue. energy conservation can be applied and used to calculate motion in terms of the known potential energies of the conservative forces and the work done by nonconservative forces. Conceptual Questions 7. and in most countries higher standards of living. equivalently. so that ΔKE= −ΔPE g . energy that can be used to do work is always partly converted to less useful forms. but it is not possible to convert all the energy of a system to work. Energy may change in form or be transferred from one system to another. its gravitational potential energy changes into kinetic energy corresponding to increasing speed. • The potential energy of a spring is PE s = 1 kx 2 . • The power of many devices such as electric motors is also often expressed in horsepower (hp). but the total remains the same. in accordance with the law of conservation of energy. where W out is useful work output and E in is the energy E in consumed. because the digestive process is basically one of oxidizing food. • Mechanical energy is defined to be KE + PE for a conservative force. or in equation form. In equation form. 7. ENERGY. P for work W done over a time t . energy can never be created or destroyed. and thermal energy. • The United States obtains only about 10% of its energy from renewable sources. Energy. the total mechanical energy is constant. • The efficiency Eff of a machine or human is defined to be Eff = W out .6 Conservation of Energy • The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy is constant in any process. KE i + PE i + W nc = KE f + PE f . • Energy is often utilized to do work. in all of our uses of energy for practical purposes. mostly hydroelectric power. although natural gas and solar contributions are increasing. radiant energy. not on the path taken. nuclear energy. where k is the spring’s force constant and x is the displacement from its undeformed 2 position. just as we defined PE g for the gravitational force. 7. with the largest fraction going to the liver and spleen. or having to directly apply Newton’s laws. • The energy consumption of people during various activities can be determined by measuring their oxygen use. • We can define potential energy (PE) for any conservative force. where OE is all other forms of energy besides mechanical energy. This is known as the conservation of mechanical energy. AND ENERGY RESOURCES • As an object descends without friction. • About 75% of food calories are used to sustain basic body functions included in the basal metabolic rate. where 1 W = 1 J/s . W nc = ΔKE + ΔPE or.7 Power • Power is the rate at which work is done.9 World Energy Use • The relative use of different fuels to provide energy has changed over the years. • Friction is an example of a nonconservative force that changes mechanical energy into thermal energy. as measured by GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita. In equation form.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy • A conservative force is one for which work depends only on the starting and ending points of a motion. are matched by higher levels of energy consumption per capita. • Commonly encountered forms of energy include electric energy. such as waste heat to the environment. or ⎫ ⎬ KE i + PE i = KE f + PE f ⎭ KE + PE = constant where i and f denote initial and final values. and the corresponding rate when at rest is called the basal metabolic rate (BMR) • The energy included in the basal metabolic rate is divided among various systems in the body.1 Work: The Scientific Definition 253 .8 Work. for the average power • The SI unit for power is the watt (W). P = W / t . instead of finding the net work from the net force. thermal energy. and Power in Humans • The human body converts energy stored in food into work.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. 7. but fuel use is currently dominated by oil. • Economic well-being is dependent upon energy use. • Although non-renewable sources dominate. chemical energy. • Even though.5 Nonconservative Forces • A nonconservative force is one for which work depends on the path. 7. 7. some countries meet a sizeable percentage of their electricity needs from renewable resources. • The rate at which the body uses food energy to sustain life and to do different activities is called the metabolic rate.

Describe the energy transfers and transformations for a javelin. Explain why it does no work. 7. In Example 7.34. running out of gasoline after a short distance. and then rolled back down to a final point 20 m below the start. then downhill again. Do devices with efficiencies of less than one violate the law of conservation of energy? Explain.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 7.4.org/content/col11406/1. and how they are changed and transferred in this series of events. Explain.6 Conservation of Energy 13. 8. 2. Consider the following scenario. Is energy transferred or changed in form in your example? If so. Explain in terms of conservation of energy. This content is available for free at http://cnx. AND ENERGY RESOURCES 1. 14. The driver lets the car coast farther down the hill. What is the relationship of mechanical energy to nonconservative forces? What happens to mechanical energy if only conservative forces act? 12. Assuming friction is negligible. over a small crest.) Figure 7. Why? 7. stopped. List four different forms or types of energy. and comes to a stop at a gas station. we kept only the positive root. but the force does no work. Work done on a system puts energy into it.7 .7. Under what conditions would the mower gain energy? Under what conditions would it lose energy? Figure 7.34 A car experiencing non-negligible friction coasts down a hill. Give an example of a situation in which there is a force and a displacement.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem 4. Give one example of a conversion from each of these forms to another form. The force exerted by a diving board is conservative. Work done by a system removes energy from it. 16. Give an example of something we think of as work in everyday circumstances that is not work in the scientific sense. starting just before the swimmer steps on the board until just after his feet leave it. 11. He then coasts down that hill into a gas station. describe changes in the potential energy of a diving board as a swimmer dives from it. Define mechanical energy.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy 9. ENERGY. provided the internal friction is negligible. Suppose the roller coaster had had an initial speed of 5 m/s uphill instead. (See Figure 7. Describe a situation in which a force is exerted for a long time but does no work. and it coasted uphill. 15. 6.33 5. The person in Figure 7. Identify the forms of energy the car has. explain how this is accomplished without doing work.254 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. What is the relationship of potential energy to conservative force? 7.33 does work on the lawn mower. we calculated the final speed of a roller coaster that descended 20 m in height and had an initial speed of 5 m/s downhill. A car for which friction is not negligible accelerates from rest down a hill. When solving for speed in Example 7. Give an example for each statement. then up and over a small crest. Does the work you do on a book when you lift it onto a shelf depend on the path taken? On the time taken? On the height of the shelf? On the mass of the book? 7. What is a conservative force? 10. starting from the point at which an athlete picks up the javelin and ending when the javelin is stuck into the ground after being thrown. 3. where he brakes to a stop and fills the tank with gasoline. We would find in that case that it had the same final speed.

7. Explain why you are not injured by such a spark. AND ENERGY RESOURCES 17. why energy consumption is sometimes listed in kilowatt-hours rather than joules.) Explain in terms of the definition of power.CHAPTER 7 | WORK. Energy. Shivering is an involuntary response to lowered body temperature. then what do we mean when we say that energy is a conserved quantity? 255 . What is the efficiency of the body when shivering. If the efficiency of a coal-fired electrical generating plant is 35%.9 World Energy Use 25. noting that most athletic activities consume food energy at a rate of 400 to 500 W. 7. What is the difference between energy conservation and the law of conservation of energy? Give some examples of each. Explain why it is easier to climb a mountain on a zigzag path rather than one straight up the side.8 Work. Do you do work on the outside world when you rub your hands together to warm them? What is the efficiency of this activity? 23.7 Power 18. List the energy conversions that occur when riding a bicycle. such as that you might receive from a doorknob on a cold dry day. in terms of the definition of power. 19. Most electrical appliances are rated in watts. Is your increase in gravitational potential energy the same in both cases? Is your energy consumption the same in both? 22. Discuss the relative effectiveness of dieting and exercise in losing weight. 26. Does this rating depend on how long the appliance is on? (When off. and is this a desirable value? 24. it is a zero-watt device. may carry a few hundred watts of power. A spark of static electricity. What is the relationship between these two energy units? 20. Specifically. while a single cup of yogurt can contain 1360 kJ (325 kcal). and Power in Humans 21. Explain. ENERGY. whereas protracted dieting may reduce it. 7. is it likely that exercise alone will be sufficient to lose weight? You may wish to consider that regular exercise may increase the metabolic rate.

7 15.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 16. against a 35.0-kg sprinter running at 10.0 m/s? 5.00 cm. Compare the kinetic energy of a 20. if he encounters a headwind that exerts an average force of 30.35 A man pushes a crate up a ramp.0º slope at constant speed.00×10 kg) . Calculate the force exerted on the car and compare it with the force found in part (a). as shown in Figure 7.0º below the horizontal. 11.0 m/s. A shopper pushes a grocery cart 20. (a) Calculate the work done on a 1500-kg elevator car by its cable to lift it 40. Boxing gloves are padded to lessen the force of a blow.36? Assume no friction acts on the wagon.00 N? Express your answer in joules and kilocalories.0 N against him. Figure 7. (a) Calculate the force exerted by a boxing glove on an opponent’s face. (a) What is the gravitational potential energy relative to the generators 13 3 of a lake of volume 50. (b) Suppose instead the car hits a concrete abutment at full speed and is brought to a stop in 2.00 m up along a ramp that makes an angle of 20.0 N frictional force. You will need to look up the definition of a nautical mile (1 knot = 1 nautical mile/h).00 to 8. and uses 2.37.0 m/s. (See Figure 7.0 m above the generators? (b) Compare this with the energy stored in a 9-megaton fusion bomb. The bumper cushions the shock by absorbing the force over a distance.0 gal of gasoline.38) converts the gravitational potential energy of water behind a dam to electric energy.50 meters in height. Suppose the ski patrol lowers a rescue sled and victim. 7.1 for the energy content of gasoline. Only 30% of the gasoline goes into useful work by the force that keeps the car moving at constant speed despite friction. A car’s bumper is designed to withstand a 4. given that the lake has an average height of 40. how many gallons will be used to drive 108 km at a speed of 28.0-kg astronaut in orbit moving at 27. ENERGY. The coefficient of friction between the sled and the snow is 0.600 m horizontally with a force of 5.) (a) What is the force exerted to keep the car moving at constant speed? (b) If the required force is directly proportional to speed. Using energy considerations.200 m while bringing a 900-kg car to rest from an initial speed of 1. Suppose a car travels 108 km at a speed of 30.1.0 km ( mass = 5.) He exerts a force of 500 N on the crate parallel to the ramp and moves at a constant speed. (a) How fast must a 3000-kg elephant move to have the same kinetic energy as a 65. having a total mass of 90. 12. AND ENERGY RESOURCES Problems & Exercises 7. (c) Discuss the magnitude of the force with glove on.0 m/s? (b) Discuss how the larger energies needed for the movement of larger animals would relate to metabolic rates.0 m. How much work does a supermarket checkout attendant do on a can of soup he pushes 0. (a) What is the work done on the cart by friction? (b) What is the work done on the cart by the gravitational force? (c) What is the work done on the cart by the shopper? (d) Find the force the shopper exerts.35.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem 9. Calculate the magnitude of the average force on a bumper that collapses 0. . 7. (a) How much work is done by friction as the sled moves 30. He pushes in a direction 25. Find the work done to accomplish this task.36 The boy does work on the system of the wagon and the child when he pulls them as shown. if the glove and face compress 7.0-kg person climbs stairs.0-kg sprinter exerts backward on the track to accelerate from 2.0 m at constant speed. 10.500 km/h.0 m at constant speed on level ground.0-kg man who pushes a crate 4.0 km/h in a distance of 120 m (a fairly typical distance for a non-panic stop).0 kg. A hydroelectric power facility (see Figure 7. 14.0 m along the hill? (b) How much work is done by the rope on the sled in this distance? (c) What is the work done by the gravitational force on the sled? (d) What is the total work done? This content is available for free at http://cnx.1 Work: The Scientific Definition 1.000-kg truck moving at 110 km/h with that of an 80. using energy considerations.0º with the horizontal. gaining 2. Be certain to include the work he does on the crate and on his body to get up the ramp. Figure 7. 3.256 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. How much work is done by the boy pulling his sister 30. 2. (b) Calculate the force exerted by an identical blow in the gory old days when no gloves were used and the knuckles and face would compress only 2. assuming friction averages 100 N.00 m.37 A rescue sled and victim are lowered down a steep slope.50 cm during a blow in which the 7.1 m/s.1-m/s) collision with an immovable object without damage to the body of the car. calculate the average force a 60. Does it seem high enough to cause damage even though it is lower than the force with no glove? Figure 7.0 m in a wagon as shown in Figure 7. 6. (See Table 7.00-kg arm and glove are brought to rest from an initial speed of 10. 13. (b) What is the work done on the lift by the gravitational force in this process? (c) What is the total work done on the lift? 4. down a 60.100.0-km/h (1. (e) What is the total work done on the cart? 8. (a) Calculate the force needed to bring a 950-kg car to rest from a speed of 90. Calculate the work done by an 85. Confirm the value given for the kinetic energy of an aircraft carrier in Table 7.org/content/col11406/1. 7. A 75.00 m/s in a distance of 25.

0 m was only slightly greater when it had an initial speed of 5.0 kg? Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Energy. if the child 29. To what maximum height can a child jump on the stick using only the energy in the spring. Using energy considerations and assuming negligible air resistance. What is the force constant k of the spring? 23. The car follows the curved track in Figure 7.180 m in altitude. as natural geothermal energy is. This implies that ΔPE >> KE i . Later model tube TVs had shielding that absorbed x rays before they escaped and exposed viewers. Figure 7. To illustrate this. in actuality.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy 22.5 m above the surrounding ground? (b) How does this energy compare with the daily food intake of a person? 18.7 Power 30.00 m/s and it coasts up the frictionless slope. 28. calculate the approximate factor by which the power output of this astronomical object has declined since its explosion.0800. A 60.6 Conservation of Energy 19.0 m above water with an initial speed of 15. (a) How much gravitational potential energy (relative to the ground on which it is built) is stored in the Great Pyramid of Cheops.5 m from the ground to a branch. Find her final speed at the top.0 m along a 30º slope neglecting friction: (a) Starting from rest.D. In Example 7. Wikimedia Commons) 17. 27.CHAPTER 7 | WORK.0 m/s strikes the water with a speed of 24. 7. Confirm this statement by taking the ratio of ΔPE to KE i .00 m/s than when it started from rest. which can be compressed 12. 1054. gaining 0.3. (Note that mass cancels.39 A toy car moves up a sloped track. how many of the 9-megaton variety would be needed for a year’s supply of energy (using data from Table 7. (This is because the initial kinetic energy is small compared with the gain in gravitational potential energy on even small hills.) Figure 7.38 Hydroelectric facility (credit: Denis Belevich.687 m/s if its initial speed is 2.40 The skier’s initial kinetic energy is partially used in coasting to the top of a rise. ENERGY.1. 25. Using data from Table 7.39. such as the duration of stable economic systems? 7. The Crab Nebula (see Figure 7. (a) How much work did the bird do on the snake? (b) How much work did it do to raise its own center of mass to the branch? Figure 7. 257 . (Hint: Find the distance traveled up the incline assuming a straight-line path as shown in the figure. given that the coefficient of friction between her skis and the snow is 0. Using values from Table 7. but they did create dangerous x rays.00×10 5-kg subway train is brought to a stop from a speed of 0. In a downhill ski race. (b) How does this time compare with historically significant events. find the final speed and the time taken for a skier who skies 70.5º above the horizontal? 7. Flickr) 21. Fusion would be a relatively clean and almost limitless supply of energy.50 m/s. how much thermal energy was generated by friction? (c) What is the average force of friction if the hill has a slope 2. (a) Use of hydrogen fusion to supply energy is a dream that may be realized in the next century. Suppose a 350-g kookaburra (a large kingfisher bird) picks up a 75-g snake and raises it 2. AND ENERGY RESOURCES and stick have a total mass of 40.7.50-mhigh rise as shown in Figure 7.8 m/s independent of the direction thrown.500 m/s in 0.5 Nonconservative Forces 24.41) pulsar is the remnant of a supernova that occurred in A.0 cm.) 20.0-kg skier with an initial speed of 12.400 m by a large spring bumper at the end of its track. how many DNA molecules could be broken by the energy carried by a single electron in the beam of an oldfashioned TV tube? (These electrons were not dangerous in themselves. If the energy in fusion bombs were used to supply the energy needs of the world. a 750-kg car with an initial speed of 110 km/h is observed to coast up a hill to a height 22. A 100-g toy car is propelled by a compressed spring that starts it moving. surprisingly. (b) Starting with an initial speed of 2. calculate how many years the present energy needs of the world could be supplied by one millionth of the oceans’ hydrogen fusion energy.40. A 5.0 m above its starting point. and their energy can be trapped in underground explosions and converted to electricity. we found that the speed of a roller coaster that had descended 20. (c) Does the answer surprise you? Discuss why it is still advantageous to get a running start in very competitive events. little advantage is gained by getting a running start.50×10 4 N/m .0 m/s coasts up a 2.1)? This is not as farfetched as it may sound—there are thousands of nuclear bombs. given that 9 its mass is about 7 × 10 kg and its center of mass is 36. (credit: Leszek Leszczynski. show that a rock thrown from a bridge 20. 7. Show that the final speed of the toy car is 0. as can be seen from Table 7. (a) How high a hill can a car coast up (engine disengaged) if work done by friction is negligible and its initial speed is 110 km/h? (b) If.1.) To demonstrate this.) 26. A pogo stick has a spring with a force constant of 2.

10×10 5 J of useful work while metabolizing 500 kcal of food energy? (b) How many food calories would a well-conditioned athlete metabolize in doing the same work with an efficiency of 20%? . (This small conversion efficiency is due to the devices themselves. (Take the power output of the Sun to be 4.0 m/s.30 s? 38.30 kW/m 2 reaches Earth’s surface. Note that there are on the order of 10 11 observable galaxies. Calculate the power output needed for a 950-kg car to climb a 2. via Wikimedia Commons) 31. neglecting friction? (b) How long will this acceleration take if the car also climbs a 3. emitting 1000 times the power) suddenly goes supernova. Energy.0900 per kW ⋅ h ? 34. but the full 10.) 7.50×10 -kg airplane with engines that produce 100 MW of power to reach a speed of 250 m/s and an altitude of 12.00 s? (b) Considering the amount of power generated.0 m/s while encountering wind resistance and friction totaling 600 N.org/content/col11406/1. A person in good physical condition can put out 100 W of useful power for several hours at a stretch. (a) What is the power output in watts and horsepower of a 70.) 42. Calculate the power output in watts and horsepower of a shot-putter who takes 1.) 36.0 m/s. A large household air conditioner may consume 15. (b) What does it cost. what is the average force of air resistance if the airplane takes 1200 s? (Hint: You must find the distance the plane travels in 1200 s assuming constant acceleration.0 kcal of energy in a 10. (Do not include the power produced to accelerate his body.4×10 18 J)? China’s energy needs (6.3: (a) By what factor does its power output increase? (b) How many times brighter than our entire Milky Way galaxy is the supernova? (c) Based on your answers. if electricity is $0. ENERGY. 32.00 h per day for 30.0 km if air resistance were negligible? (b) If it actually takes 900 s. (a) What is the average power consumption in watts of an appliance that uses 5.0 kW of power.00×10 −3 W ? 5 41. A 500-kg dragster accelerates from rest to a final speed of 110 m/s in 400 m (about a quarter of a mile) and encounters an average frictional force of 1200 N. (a) What is the efficiency of an out-of-condition professor who does 2.) 37. perhaps by pedaling a mechanism that drives an electric generator.) (b) Part of this is absorbed and reflected by the Figure 7.27-kg shot from rest to 14. while raising it 0. (a) What is the average useful power output of a person who does 6.00×10 4 J run a pocket calculator that consumes energy at the rate of 1.41 Crab Nebula (credit: ESO.42 Shot putter at the Dornoch Highland Gathering in 2007. and the fact that the sun is directly overhead only briefly.0 d if the cost of electricity is $0.05×10 J)? Australia’s energy needs (5.00×10 26 W. so that a maximum of 1. (credit: John Haslam.7 Figure 7. Flickr) 47. Note that the total mass of the counterbalanced system is 10.00-kW electric clothes dryer? (b) How many people would it take to replace a large electric power plant that generates 800 MW? 33. AND ENERGY RESOURCES 40. (a) How long would it take a 1.00 m/s.0 m/s in 3. if it also increases the speed from rest to 4.258 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. what area would be needed to meet the 20 United States’ energy needs (1.00-W electric clock for a year if the cost of electricity is $0. Explicitly show how you follow the steps in the Problem-Solving Strategies for Energy.00-W electric clock for 18 months? (b) How long can a battery that can supply 8. 43.) With the same assumptions. do you think a well-trained athlete could do this repetitively for long periods of time? 46.0 s. how long will it take this person to lift 2000 kg of bricks 1.50 m to a platform? (Work done to lift his body can be omitted because it is not considered useful output here. the average brightness of which is somewhat less than our own galaxy. (a) How long can you rapidly climb stairs (116/min) on the 93.800 m. what is the power? (c) Given this power.000 kg—so that only 2500 kg is raised in height.0 hp (1 hp = 746 W) to reach a speed of 15. Neglecting any problems of generator efficiency and practical considerations such as resting time: (a) How many people would it take to run a 4. (a) How long will it take an 850-kg car with a useful power output of 40. (a) Calculate the power per square meter reaching Earth’s upper atmosphere from the Sun.00º slope at a constant 30. in joules.0-kg sprinter who accelerates from rest to 10.0 m in 12. What is the cost of operating a 3.8 Work. discuss whether it should be possible to observe supernovas in distant galaxies. Calculate the area in km 2 of solar energy collectors needed to replace an electric power plant that generates 750 MW if the collectors convert an average of 2.000 kg is accelerated.00 kW ⋅ h of energy per day? (b) How many joules of energy does this appliance consume in a year? atmosphere.20 s to accelerate the 7.00×10 6 J of useful work in 8.00% of the maximum power into electricity. What is the cost of operating this air conditioner 3. (a) What is the available energy content.3×10 19 J)? (These energy consumption values are from 2006. Suppose a star 1000 times brighter than our Sun (that is. (a) Find the useful power output of an elevator motor that lifts a 2500-kg load a height of 35.0-g pat of butter? (b) How many flights is this if each flight has 16 stairs? 45. and Power in Humans 44. of a battery that operates a 2.00 h? (b) Working at this rate. What is its average power output in watts and horsepower if this takes 7.110 per kW ⋅ h ? 35.0900 per kW ⋅ h ? This content is available for free at http://cnx.00-m-high hill in the process? 39. Using data from Table 7.

49. Shoveling snow can be extremely taxing because the arms have such a low efficiency in this activity.46 exerts to do a pushup at constant speed.5 for the energy consumption rates of these activities. assuming there were 1000 of them and they consumed food energy at the rate of 300 kcal/h. bringing food and water.80 m long stroke.43 The Daedalus 88 in flight. and 35% fat. Very large forces are produced in joints when a person jumps from some height to the ground. 259 . AND ENERGY RESOURCES 48. (b) How much useful work does the climber do if he and his equipment have a mass of 90.9 World Energy Use Figure 7.) 55. How many grams of fat will you gain if you eat 10.00 m/s.43). (a) What is his work output in each stroke? (b) Calculate the power output of his arms if he does 120 strokes per minute.44 exerts an average horizontal backward force of 80. 53. working 12-hour days. Figure 7.00 h.00 h? Use data from Table 7. a speed of 6. Using the efficiency for cycling from Table 7. with a mass of about 7×10 kg . 330 days per year. Mountain climbers carry bottled oxygen when at very high altitudes. The awe-inspiring Great Pyramid of Cheops was built more than 4500 years ago. attends classes for 4.CHAPTER 7 | WORK.0 N with his arm during each 1. (credit: NASA photo by Beasley) 60. and Power in Humans. (a) How long can you play tennis on the 800 kJ (about 200 kcal) of energy in a candy bar? (b) Does this seem like a long time? Discuss why exercise is necessary but may not be sufficient to cause a person to lose weight. (She does work in both directions. Jogging on hard surfaces with insufficiently padded shoes produces large forces in the feet and legs. and stops in a distance of 1.) (b) In practice the knees bend almost involuntarily to help extend the distance over which you stop.400 m.0 h of climbing.00 h.) (c) How much waste heat transfer in kilojoules will she generate in the process? 52.) 50. (b) Only a fraction of the workers lifted blocks. (b) What is the average power consumption rate in watts if she does this in 3.1 acres. Using data from Table 7. ENERGY.50 cm.0 kg and he gains 1000 m of altitude? (c) What is his efficiency for the 10. most were involved in support services such as building ramps (see Figure 7. covered 9 13. Kanellos Kanellopoulos flew 119 km from Crete to Santorini.45). (These are liters at sea level. and studies for 6.0-kg jogger’s body.00 h. (a) Calculate the force produced if an 80. What is the efficiency of a subject on a treadmill who puts out work at the rate of 100 W while consuming oxygen at the rate of 2. (a) Assuming that a mountain climber uses oxygen at twice the rate for climbing 116 stairs per minute (because of low air temperature and winds). in the Daedalus 88. (c) Compare both forces with the weight of the person. (Studying consumes energy at the same rate as sitting in class.000 kJ (about 2500 kcal) one day and do nothing but sit relaxed for 16. (a) Calculate the gravitational potential energy stored in the pyramid. (Be certain to include the weight of the 75.00 min? Figure 7.50 cm as a result. on April 23.240 m? (c) What is her useful power output if she does 25 push-ups in 1 min? (Should work done lowering her body be included? See the discussion of useful work in Work. and hauling blocks to the site. What does your answer imply about how much of their work went into block-lifting. Its square base. (a) Calculate the force the woman in Figure 7. taking all data to be known to three digits. The swimmer shown in Figure 7. Suppose a person shoveling a footpath metabolizes food at the rate of 800 W.300 m.5. (These proportions neglect the mass of bulk and nondigestible materials consumed.) Note that only 40% of the inhaled oxygen is utilized.600–m-high ledge and lands stiffly.0-kg woman who does 50 deep knee bends in which her center of mass is lowered and raised 0.00 h.) (b) Compare this force with the weight of the jogger.) 51.5.) Historians estimate that 20. (a) Calculate the force needed to stop the downward motion of a jogger’s leg. (credit: Franck Monnier. His useful power output for the 234-min trip was about 350 W.0-kg person jumps from a 0. the rest is exhaled. given its center of mass is at one-fourth its height. Greece. cycles for 2.0-h climb? 58. (Be certain to include the weight of the person. (The pyramid’s dimensions are slightly different today due to quarrying and some sagging. calculate the daily energy needs of a person who sleeps for 7.00 h. 1988. assuming that the average worker required 3600 kcal per day and that their diet was 5% protein. Wikimedia Commons) 59. originally 230 m on a side. calculate how many liters of oxygen a climber would need for 10. 7. Integrated Concepts 56.2. sits relaxed for 3.20 m? (This could be the amount of heavy snow on 20 m of footpath. Calculate the force produced if the stopping distance is 0. (a) What is her useful power output? (b) How long will it take her to lift 3000 kg of snow 1. 54. versus how much work went into friction and lifting and lowering their own bodies? (c) Calculate the mass of food that had to be supplied each day.0 h and sleep for the other 8. Energy that is not utilized for work or heat transfer is converted to the chemical energy of body fat containing about 39 kJ/g. compressing joint material 1. (b) How much work does she do if her center of mass rises 0.000 workers spent 20 years to construct it. an aircraft powered by a bicycle-type drive mechanism (see Figure 7.0 kg. if his leg has a mass of 13. Calculate the efficiency of the workers who did the lifting.45 Ancient pyramids were probably constructed using ramps as simple machines. walks for 2.00 L/min? (Hint: See Table 7. (a) Calculate the energy in kJ used by a 55. 60% carbohydrate.00 h.) You may assume her efficiency is 20%.44 57. Energy. and it was 146 m high. calculate the food energy in kilojoules he metabolized during the flight.

500 kg in 2.org/content/col11406/1. his ability to generate power with his legs.44 starts a race with an initial velocity of 1. Integrated Concepts A toy gun uses a spring with a force constant of 300 N/m to propel a 10. (a) How many kcal are supplied by the metabolization of 0. (c) What is unreasonable about the results? (d) Which premise is unreasonable.00 h. (b) What average force does he exert backward on the snow to accomplish this? (c) If he continues to exert this force and to experience the same air resistance when he reaches a level area.0 gal of gasoline.00 m away at the same height as the gun? (d) What is the gun’s maximum range on level ground? 64. Assume all values are known to three significant figures. Unreasonable Results A car advertisement claims that its 900-kg car accelerated from rest to 30.0 N backward with his arms during each 1. (b) What is unreasonable about the result? (c) Which premise is unreasonable. and the need for electricity 24 hours per day.80 m long stroke. Construct Your Own Problem Consider a person climbing and descending stairs. Integrated Concepts The 70.400 m while waiting to jump.7 Consider humans generating electricity by pedaling a device similar to a stationary bicycle. Unreasonable Results Body fat is metabolized.0 m/s and drove 100 km.500 kg of fat? (b) Calculate the kcal/ min that you would have to utilize to metabolize fat at the rate of 0. how long will it take him to reach a velocity of 10.0 m? (c) What is the final speed of the elevator if it starts from rest? (d) How much work went into thermal energy? 65. ENERGY.500 kg of fat per day by vigorously exercising for 2. (a) What is his initial acceleration if water resistance is 45. If the spring is compressed 7.46 Forces involved in doing push-ups. (a) Calculate the car’s efficiency.0º slope at a constant speed of 2. his feet leave the floor and his center of gravity rises 0.00 h per day on their machine. Find his power output for work done against the gravitational force and air resistance. Integrated Concepts (a) What force must be supplied by an elevator cable to produce an acceleration of 0. Discuss the practical implications of your results.0-kg swimmer in Figure 7. Among the things to consider are the power output that is reasonable using the legs. The average force of friction including air resistance was 700 N. or which premises are inconsistent? 67. 63. rest time.0-kg cross-country skier is climbing a 3.50 m/s? (c) Discuss whether water resistance seems to increase linearly with velocity.00 cm and friction is negligible: (a) How much force is needed to compress the spring? (b) To what maximum height can the ball be shot? (c) At what angles above the horizontal may a child aim to hit a target 3. gaining 3. or which premises are inconsistent? 66.400 m. After exerting a force on the floor through this 0. AND ENERGY RESOURCES time in spite of the fact that very similar forces are exerted going down as going up.0 N.0 N? (b) What is the subsequent average resistance force from the water during the 5.800 m/s 2 against a 200-N frictional force. The woman’s weight acts as a force exerted downward on her center of gravity (CG).) (c) What was his power output during the acceleration phase? .950 m above its normal standing erect position. Integrated Concepts A 105-kg basketball player crouches down 0. Also consider why the same person can descend stairs at a faster rate for a nearly unlimited This content is available for free at http://cnx. Construct a problem in which you calculate the long-term rate at which stairs can be climbed considering the mass of the person.00 s it takes him to reach his top velocity of 2. supplying 9. and the height of a single stair step. (This points to a fundamentally different process for descending versus climbing stairs. calculate his velocity when he leaves the floor.0 m/s? 62.) 68.30 kcal/g. Integrated Concepts A 75. Construct Your Own Problem Figure 7.260 CHAPTER 7 | WORK. Construct a problem in which you determine the number of people it would take to replace a large electrical generation facility. (b) What average force did he exert on the floor? (Do not neglect the force to support his weight as well as that to accelerate him.00 km in altitude. 69. The manufacturers of an exercise bicycle claim that you can lose 0. when dietary intake is less than needed to fuel metabolism. (a) Using energy considerations.00 m/s and encounters air resistance of 25.0-g steel ball. if the mass of the loaded elevator is 1500 kg? (b) How much work is done by the cable in lifting the elevator 20. on 1.25 m/s and exerts an average force of 80. 61.

Elastic Collisions in One Dimension • Describe an elastic collision of two objects in one dimension. • Calculate momentum given mass and velocity. 8. 8. (credit: ozzzie. 8. • Explain the relationship between momentum and force. Impulse • Define impulse. • Describe effects of impulses in everyday life. and scattering angle. • Explain the principle of conservation of momentum as it relates to atomic and subatomic particles. • Calculate average force and impulse given mass. • Explain conservation of momentum with examples.4. • Explain the principle involved in propulsion of rockets and jet engines. • Determine the magnitude and direction of the final velocity given initial velocity. • State Newton’s second law of motion in terms of momentum. 8. • Derive an expression for conservation of internal kinetic energy in a one dimensional collision.6. • Determine recoil velocity and loss in kinetic energy given mass and initial velocity. • Explain perfectly inelastic collision. • Describe the function of a space shuttle. 8. • Derive an expression for conservation of momentum along x-axis and y-axis.7.1. • Determine the final velocities in an elastic collision given masses and initial velocities.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 8 LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Figure 8. Conservation of Momentum • Describe the principle of conservation of momentum. • Derive an expression for the conservation of momentum. Introduction to Rocket Propulsion • State Newton’s third law of motion. • Describe elastic collisions of two objects with equal mass. • Discuss the factors that affect the rocket’s acceleration. Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions • Discuss two dimensional collisions as an extension of one dimensional analysis. 8. velocity. • Define point masses.5. Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension • Define inelastic collision. which will affect the outcome of their collisions with each other and the ground. Flickr) Learning Objectives 8. • Derive an expression for the acceleration of the rocket. • Define internal kinetic energy. 261 .2.3. and time. • Apply an understanding of collisions to sports. • Determine the average effective force using graphical representation. Linear Momentum and Force • Define linear momentum.1 Each rugby player has great momentum.

00 m/s. Δp is the change in momentum. and studying them yields fundamental insight into how nature works.410 kg⎞⎠(25. the magnitude of momentum can be calculated directly from the definition of momentum given in the equation. and Δt is the change in time. Thus the momentum of the player is much greater than the momentum of the football. (8. substitute the known values for the player’s mass and speed into the equation.7) . Momentum p is a vector having the same direction as the velocity v . 8.4) Solution for (b) To determine the momentum of the ball. We speak of sports teams or politicians gaining and maintaining the momentum to win. the greater its momentum. (8. Δt F net is the net external force. slower object. Using symbols.org/content/col11406/1.410-kg football that has a speed of 25. We shall quantify what happens in such collisions in terms of momentum in later sections.1 Calculating Momentum: A Football Player and a Football (a) Calculate the momentum of a 110-kg football player running at 8.) In both parts of this example. which becomes p = mv (8. whereas one that is italicized. Momentum and Newton’s Second Law The importance of momentum. momentum implies a tendency to continue on course—to move in the same direction—and is associated with great mass and speed. In symbols. As a result. Solution for (a) To determine the momentum of the player. Strategy No information is given regarding direction.3) when only magnitudes are considered. like energy. Only a few physical quantities are conserved in nature. Linear momentum is defined as the product of a system’s mass multiplied by its velocity. Momentum. the player has a much greater mass.1 Linear Momentum and Force Linear Momentum The scientific definition of linear momentum is consistent with most people’s intuitive understanding of momentum: a large. Momentum was deemed so important that it was called the “quantity of motion. and so we can calculate only the magnitude of the momentum. linear momentum is expressed as p = mv. we expect their momenta to have great effects in the resulting collisions.” Newton actually stated his second law of motion in terms of momentum: The net external force equals the change in momentum of a system divided by the time over which it changes. p player = ⎛⎝110 kg⎞⎠(8. This content is available for free at http://cnx. substitute the known values for the ball’s mass and speed into the equation.262 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Introduction to Linear Momentum and Collisions We use the term momentum in various ways in everyday language. Generally. as we shall see in our study of momentum.7 (8. fast-moving object has greater momentum than a smaller. For example.3 = 85.5) The ratio of the player’s momentum to that of the ball is p player 880 p ball = 10.0 m/s. (As usual.00 m/s) = 880 kg · m/s (8. this law is F net = where Δp . p . a symbol that is in italics is a magnitude. (8. The SI unit for momentum is kg · m/s .9. Thus the greater an object’s mass or the greater its velocity. (b) Compare the player’s momentum with the momentum of a hardthrown 0. p ball = ⎛⎝0.3 kg · m/s (8.1) Momentum is directly proportional to the object’s mass and also its velocity. as you might guess. unlike the importance of energy. boldfaced.6) Discussion Although the ball has greater velocity. looking at the rugby players in the photograph colliding and falling to the ground.0 m/s) = 10. and most of these ways are consistent with its precise scientific definition.2) Example 8. and has an arrow is a vector. the player’s motion is only slightly affected if he catches the ball. was recognized early in the development of classical physics. Linear Momentum Linear momentum is defined as the product of a system’s mass multiplied by its velocity: p = mv. is important because it is conserved. We also recognize that momentum has something to do with collisions.

306 kg ⋅ m/s = Δt 5.2 Calculating Force: Venus Williams’ Racquet During the 2007 French Open. and Newton’s second law of motion. (8.057 kg⎞⎠(58 m/s – 0 m/s) = 3. Momentum continues to be a key concept in the study of atomic and subatomic particles in quantum mechanics. Newton’s second law of motion stated in terms of momentum is more generally applicable because it can be applied to systems where the mass is changing.0 ms (milliseconds)? Strategy This problem involves only one dimension because the ball starts from having no horizontal velocity component before impact. the change in momentum is given by Δp = mΔv = m(v f − v i).12) when the mass of the system is constant. the velocity just after impact and the change in time are given. once (8. Newton’s second law stated in terms of momentum is then written as F net = Δp . Δp = Δ⎛⎝mv⎞⎠. This statement of Newton’s second law of motion includes the more familiar note that the change in momentum Δp is given by F net =ma as a special case.8) Making Connections: Force and Momentum Force and momentum are intimately related. such as in the following example. such as rockets.306 kg · m/s ≈ 3. Δp can be used to find Δt Solution To determine the change in momentum.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Newton’s Second Law of Motion in Terms of Momentum The net external force equals the change in momentum of a system divided by the time over which it changes. when mass is constant. Newton’s second law of motion becomes F net = Because Δp mΔv = .16) 263 . Δt (8.14) Δp is calculated. F net = (8. we get the familiar equation Δt F net =ma (8.15) (8. however. In this example. Force acting over time can change momentum. as well as to systems of constant mass.057-kg tennis ball by Venus Williams’ racquet. First. then So that for constant mass. Example 8. the relationship between momentum and force remains useful when mass is constant.0×10 −3 s = 661 N ≈ 660 N.9) Δ(mv) = mΔv.3 kg · m/s Now the magnitude of the net external force can determined by using F net = Δp : Δt Δp 3.10) If the mass of the system is constant. Δt Δt (8.11) Δv = a . F net = the force. We can derive this form as follows.13) As noted above. Venus Williams hit the fastest recorded serve in a premier women’s match. Δp = m(v f – v i) = ⎛⎝0. What is the average force exerted on the 0. We will consider systems with varying mass in some detail. and that the ball remained in contact with the racquet for 5. (8. can be stated in its most broadly applicable form in terms of momentum. thus. substitute the values for the initial and final velocities into the equation above. that the initial horizontal component of the velocity before impact is negligible. F net = Δp Δt (8. assuming that the ball’s speed just after impact is 58 m/s. reaching a speed of 58 m/s (209 km/ h).

or landing with a parachute. but the force (to bring the occupant to a stop) will be much less if it acts over a larger time. A longer collision time means the force on the car will be less. especially in the event of a head-on collision. By rearranging the equation F net = Δp to be Δt Δp = F netΔt.17) F net Δt is given the name impulse. a very large force acting for a short time had a great effect on the momentum of the tennis ball. the effect we are talking about is the change in momentum Δp . and certainly the airbags. which results in better gas mileage. which is equal to the impulse imparted to the ball. consider the force on the ball due to the wall using Newton’s second law and then apply Newton’s third law to determine the direction. Cars today have many plastic components. Solution for (b) This content is available for free at http://cnx. as well as how great the force is.7 y . One advantage of plastics is their lighter weight. The dashboard padding in a car. The quantity (8. Δp = F netΔt The quantity (8. The second ball strikes the wall at an angle of 30º from the perpendicular. A small force could cause the same change in momentum. In Example 8. −x direction. For example. but it would have to act for a much longer time.3 Calculating Magnitudes of Impulses: Two Billiard Balls Striking a Rigid Wall Two identical billiard balls strike a rigid wall with the same speed. (b) Calculate the ratio of the magnitudes of impulses on the two balls by the wall. but that force was not due to the racquet). Impulse is the same as the change in momentum. as seen by sketching a diagram of the angles involved and keeping in mind the proportionality between velocity and momentum. The second ball continues with the same momentum component in the y direction. but reverses its x -component of momentum.18) F net Δt is given the name impulse. and are reflected without any change of speed. Solution for (a) The first ball bounces directly into the wall and exerts a force on it in the +x direction. Deaths during car races decreased dramatically when the rigid frames of racing cars were replaced with parts that could crumple or collapse in the event of an accident. Discussion This quantity was the average force exerted by Venus Williams’ racquet on the tennis ball during its brief impact (note that the ball also experienced the 0. This problem could also be solved by first finding the acceleration and then using F net = ma . allow the net force on the occupants in the car to act over a much longer time when there is a sudden stop. The first ball strikes perpendicular to the wall. the gravitational force (which is much smaller than the tennis racquet’s force) would eventually reverse the momentum of the ball. or at least limbs. but one additional step would be required compared with the strategy used in this example. The momentum direction and the velocity direction are the same.1.org/content/col11406/1. and bounces off at an angle of 30º from perpendicular to the wall. If you jump onto the floor from a table. The momentum change is the same for an occupant. Assume the x -axis to be normal to the wall and to be positive in the initial direction of motion.2 Impulse The effect of a force on an object depends on how long it acts. we can see how the change in momentum equals the average net external force multiplied by the time this force acts. the force on your legs can be immense if you land stiff-legged on a hard surface. Rolling on the ground after jumping from the table. Strategy for (a) In order to determine the force on the wall. These changes mean the change in momentum for both balls is in the direction. There are many ways in which an understanding of impulse can save lives. Impulse: Change in Momentum Change in momentum equals the average net external force multiplied by the time this force acts. Quantitatively. Choose the -axis to be along the wall in the plane of the second ball’s motion. Bones in a body will fracture if the force on them is too large. so the force of the wall on each ball is along the −x Strategy for (b) Calculate the change in momentum for each ball. Another advantage is that a car will crumple in a collision. (a) Determine the direction of the force on the wall due to each ball. whether an air bag is deployed or not. if the ball were thrown upward.264 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS where we have retained only two significant figures in the final step. 8.56-N force of gravity. extends the time over which the force (on you from the ground) acts. Example 8. Therefore the wall exerts a force on the ball in the −x direction.

try catching a ball while keeping your hands still. t 1 . and consider the change in momentum of the first ball which strikes perpendicular to the wall. Now consider the change in momentum of the second ball.21) p xf = – mu cos 30º. p yi = 0 (8. It is. Choose the x -axis and y -axis as previously described.2 A graph of force versus time with time along the x -axis and force along the y -axis for an actual force and an equivalent effective force. p yf = 0 (8. the force on the wall due to each ball is normal to the wall along the positive x -direction. Forces are usually not constant. Figure 8. 2mu cos 30º 3 (8. it is normal to the wall and along the negative Newton’s third law. pulling your hands toward your body. however. Figure 8. Thus the impulses and their effects are the same for both the actual and effective forces. Which orientations would you advise people to avoid and why? Making Connections: Constant Force and Constant Acceleration The assumption of a constant force in the definition of impulse is analogous to the assumption of a constant acceleration in kinematics.19) p xf = −mu. hit the water again by diving your hand with your fingers first into the water. In both cases.20) Impulse is the change in momentum vector. (Your full palm represents a swimmer doing a belly flop and your diving hand represents a swimmer doing a dive. nature is adequately described without the use of calculus. The area under the curve has units of momentum and is equal to the impulse or change in momentum between times t 1 and t 2 . Our definition of impulse includes an assumption that the force is constant over the time interval x -direction. p xi = mu.2 shows a graph of what an actual force looks like as a function of time for a ball bouncing off the floor. The ratio of the magnitudes of the impulse imparted to the balls is 2mu = 2 = 1. possible to find an average effective force result as the corresponding time-varying force.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Let u be the speed of each ball before and after collision with the wall.) Explain what happens in each case and why. Forces vary F eff that produces the same considerably even during the brief time intervals considered. That area is equal to the area inside the rectangle bounded by F eff . and m the mass of each ball. Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation—Hand Movement and Impulse Try catching a ball while “giving” with the ball. Hit water in a tub with your full palm. p yi = –mu sin 30º (8. Therefore the x -component of impulse is equal to −2mu and the y -component of impulse is equal to zero. p y does not. The areas under the two curves are equal. p yf = −mu sin 30º (8.22) p x changes sign after the collision. After the water has settled. and t 2 . It should be noted here that while p xi = mu cos 30º. 265 . Therefore the x -component of impulse is equal to −2mu cos 30º and the y -component of impulse is equal to zero.155. Making use of Δt . Then.23) Discussion The direction of impulse and force is the same as in the case of (a).

28) (8.27) Because the changes in momentum add to zero. it seems obvious that the collision time is the same for both cars.org/content/col11406/1. However. As a result. The momentum of each car is changed. but it is only true for objects traveling at ordinary speeds. This assumption must be modified for objects travelling near the speed of light. Figure 8. the changes in momentum are equal and opposite.266 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 8. the change in momentum of car 1 is given by Δp 1 = F 1Δt. p 1 + p 2 = p′ 1 + p′ 2.3. (8. and Δp 1 + Δp 2 = 0. the change in momentum of car 2 is Δp 2 = F 2Δt. Using the definition of impulse. even if momentum changes for components of the system. (8.26) Thus. where Similarly. Consider what happens if the masses of two colliding objects are more similar than the masses of a football player and Earth—for example. That is. Because Earth is many orders of magnitude more massive than the player. The only unbalanced force on each car is the force of the collision. p 1 + p 2 = constant. Both cars are coasting in the same direction when the lead car (labeled m 2) is bumped by the trailing car (labeled m 1). its recoil is immeasurably small and can be neglected in any practical sense.29) .7 (8. as shown in Figure 8. (8. the Earth also recoils —conserving momentum—because of the force applied to it through the goalpost.) Car 1 slows down as a result of the collision.3 A car of mass a velocity of v′ 1 m1 moving with a velocity of v1 and the second speeds up to a velocity of bumps into another car of mass m2 and velocity v2 that it is following. It is always possible to find a larger system in which total momentum is constant. losing some momentum. If a football player runs into the goalpost in the end zone. the first car slows down to v′ 2 . and we assume the duration of the collision Δt is the same for both cars. Under what circumstances is momentum conserved? The answer to this question entails considering a sufficiently large system. (Assume that the effects due to friction are negligible.25) F 2 is the force on car 2 due to car 1. and so Δp 2 = −F 1Δt = −Δp 1. there will be a force on him that causes him to bounce backward. the total momentum of the two-car system is constant.24) F 1 is the force on car 1 due to car 2. one car bumping into another. where large changes in momentum were produced by forces acting on the system of interest. Intuitively. where (8. Yet it was not conserved in the examples in Impulse and Linear Momentum and Force.3 Conservation of Momentum Momentum is an important quantity because it is conserved. but the total momentum p tot of the two cars is the same before and after the collision (if you assume friction is negligible). We know from Newton’s third law that F 2 = – F 1 . This content is available for free at http://cnx. and Δt is the time the force acts (the duration of the collision). We shall now show that the total momentum of the two-car system remains constant. while car 2 speeds up and gains some momentum. but it is real nevertheless. without affecting the result that momentum is conserved.

and p tot is constant.) An isolated system is defined to be one for which the net external force is zero ⎛⎝F net = 0⎞⎠. we find that the total momentum is conserved. because the net vertical force F y – net is not zero. (8. (See Figure 8. In the vertical direction. momentum is conserved in the horizontal direction because horizontal forces are zero and momentum is unchanged.30) p tot = p′ tot.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS where p′ 1 and p′ 2 are the momenta of cars 1 and 2 after the collision.31) or p tot is the total momentum (the sum of the momenta of the individual objects in the system) and p′ tot is the total momentum some time later. The conservation of momentum principle can be applied to systems as different as a comet striking Earth and a gas containing huge numbers of atoms and molecules. (The total momentum can be shown to be the momentum of the center of mass of the system. For example. (We often use primes to denote the final state. Δt We have noted that the three length dimensions in nature— x . ⎛⎝F net = 0⎞⎠ . (8. For an isolated system. the conservation of momentum principle for an isolated system is written p tot = constant. In equation form. 267 .32) Isolated System An isolated system is defined to be one for which the net external force is zero ⎛ ⎝ F net = 0⎞⎠. The forces causing the separation are internal to the system.) This result—that momentum is conserved—has validity far beyond the preceding one-dimensional case. y . even in this case where a space probe separates. the two-car system conserves momentum while each one-car system does not. where Conservation of Momentum Principle p tot = constant p tot = p′ tot (isolated system) (8. It can be similarly shown that total momentum is conserved for any isolated system. thus. and z —are independent. For example. the space probe-Earth system needs to be considered and we find that the total momentum is conserved. Conservation of momentum is violated only when the net external force is not zero. so that the net external horizontal force F x – net is still zero. But another larger system can always be considered in which momentum is conserved by simply including the source of the external force.4. Perhaps an easier way to see that momentum is conserved for an isolated system is to consider Newton’s second law in terms of momentum. during projectile motion and where air resistance is negligible. Δp tot = 0 . Figure 8.) However. with any number of objects in it. in the collision of two cars considered above. if the momentum of the projectile-Earth system is considered in the vertical direction. and it is interesting to note that momentum can be conserved in different ways along each dimension. the net vertical force is not zero and the momentum of the projectile is not conserved. The vertical component of the momentum is not conserved. The center of mass of the space probe takes the same path it would if the separation did not occur.4 The horizontal component of a projectile’s momentum is conserved if air resistance is negligible. F net = Δp tot . But along the vertical direction.

Momentum is found to be a property of all subatomic particles including massless particles such as photons that compose light. (Be careful!) What happens? Explain your observations. On the small scale. About once a second. Figure 8. Giant machines hurl subatomic particles at one another. Explain your observations. Some aquatic animals such as jellyfish move around based on the principles of conservation of momentum. Furthermore. A force in the opposite direction is exerted on the rest of your body (recall Newton’s third law). we find that particles and their properties are invisible to the naked eye but can be measured with our instruments. This measurement is done by using a sensor (resting on the person) or by using a moving table suspended from the ceiling. Squids propel themselves in a similar manner but. A jellyfish fills its umbrella section with water and then pushes the water out resulting in motion in the opposite direction to that of the jet of water. and researchers evaluate the results by assuming conservation of momentum (among other things). In experiments seeking evidence for quarks. we find that the conservation of momentum principle is valid when considering systems of particles. A ballistocardiograph is a device that can measure this reaction force. Electrons occasionally scattered straight backward in a manner that implied a very small and very dense particle makes up the proton—this observation is considered nearly direct evidence of quarks.7 . The ballistocardiograph (BCG) was a diagnostic tool used in the second half of the 20th century to study the strength of the heart. the electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) and the echocardiogram (cardiac ECHO or ECHO. This technique can gather information on the strength of the heart beat and the volume of blood passing from the heart. a technique that uses ultrasound to see an image of the heart) are more widely used in the practice of cardiology. What happened? Explain your observations. momentum relates to wave properties and plays a fundamental role in what measurements are taken and how we take these measurements. electrons were observed to occasionally scatter straight backward from a proton. Typical squids can move at speeds of 8 to 12 km/h. We use this principle to analyze the masses and other properties of previously undetected particles. Subatomic Collisions and Momentum The conservation of momentum principle not only applies to the macroscopic objects. such as the nucleus of an atom and the existence of quarks that make up particles of nuclei. What happened? Explain your observations.5 below illustrates how a particle scattering backward from another implies that its target is massive and dense. and models of these subatomic particles can be constructed to describe the results.org/content/col11406/1. Now hold the tennis ball above and in contact with the basketball. Momentum being a property of particles hints that momentum may have an identity beyond the description of an object’s mass multiplied by the object’s velocity. Figure 8. However. Drop the balls together. Now mark the center of the string with bright ink or attach a brightly colored sticker to it and throw again. The analysis was based partly on the same conservation of momentum principle that works so well on the large scale.5 A subatomic particle scatters straight backward from a target particle. Experiments seeking evidence that quarks make up protons (one type of particle that makes up nuclei) scattered high-energy electrons off of protons (nuclei of hydrogen atoms). Making Connections: Conservation of Momentum and Collision Conservation of momentum is quite useful in describing collisions. Momentum is crucial to our understanding of atomic and subatomic particles because much of what we know about these particles comes from collision experiments. are able to control the direction in which they move by aiming their nozzle forward or backward. This content is available for free at http://cnx. forcing blood into the aorta. in contrast with jellyfish.268 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation—Drop of Tennis Ball and a Basketball Hold a tennis ball side by side and in contact with a basketball. Indeed. Hold one ball and let the other hang down and throw it in a ballistic trajectory. it is also essential to our explorations of atomic and subatomic particles. your heart beats. What do you think will happen if the basketball ball is held above and in contact with the tennis ball? Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation—Two Tennis Balls in a Ballistic Trajectory Tie two tennis balls together with a string about a foot long.

and they illustrate many of the physical principles involved in collisions. Thus. to solve problems involving one-dimensional elastic collisions between two objects we can use the equations for conservation of momentum and conservation of internal kinetic energy. Example 8. (8. elastic—some kinetic energy is always converted into other forms of energy such as heat transfer due to friction and sound. 1 m v 2 + 1 m v 2 = 1 m v′ 2 + 1 m v′ 2 (two-object elastic collision) 2 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 (8.34) or where the primes (') indicate values after the collision. Now. Truly elastic collisions can only be achieved with subatomic particles. Figure 8. Elastic Collision An elastic collision is one that conserves internal kinetic energy.50 kg.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 8. (8. Icy surfaces and air tracks are nearly frictionless.35) expresses the equation for conservation of internal kinetic energy in a one-dimensional collision.36) 269 . and it can be used whenever the net external force on a system is zero. Internal kinetic energy is the sum of the kinetic energies of the objects in the system. An elastic collision is one that also conserves internal kinetic energy. First.6 An elastic one-dimensional two-object collision. but not quite.00 m/s. m 2 = 3. v 1 = 4. the equation for conservation of momentum for two objects in a one-dimensional collision is p 1 + p 2 = p′ 1+ p′ 2 ⎛⎝F net = 0⎞⎠ (8.6 illustrates an elastic collision in which internal kinetic energy and momentum are conserved.500 kg. and v 2 = 0. and so the sum of kinetic energies before the collision equals the sum after the collision. given that m 1 = 0. such as electrons striking nuclei. Internal Kinetic Energy Internal kinetic energy is the sum of the kinetic energies of the objects in the system. Another nearly elastic collision is that between two carts with spring bumpers on an air track.33) m 1 v 1 + m 2v 2 = m 1v′ 1 + m 2v′ 2 ⎛⎝F net = 0⎞⎠. Momentum and internal kinetic energy are conserved. We start with the elastic collision of two objects moving along the same line—a one-dimensional problem. an elastic collision conserves internal kinetic energy. By definition. Figure 8. Macroscopic collisions can be very nearly. These collisions are the easiest to analyze.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension Let us consider various types of two-object collisions. One macroscopic collision that is nearly elastic is that of two steel blocks on ice. more readily allowing nearly elastic collisions on them.4 Calculating Velocities Following an Elastic Collision Calculate the velocities of two objects following an elastic collision. The conservation of momentum principle is very useful here.

6 where both objects are initially moving. 1 m v 2 = 1 m v′ 2 + 1 m v′ 2. The first solution thus represents the situation before the collision and is discarded.00)⎦ m/s 3. The equations for conservation of momentum and internal kinetic energy as written above can be used to describe any one-dimensional elastic collision of two objects. A small object strikes a larger one at rest and bounces backward. This situation is slightly simpler than the situation shown in Figure 8. Both can be simplified by the fact that object 2 is initially at rest. PhET Explorations: Collision Lab Investigate collisions on an air hockey table. try calculating the internal kinetic energy before and after the collision. There are two solutions to any quadratic equation. is unchanged. 2 (8.7 . masses and initial conditions.00 m/s. Is momentum conserved? Is kinetic energy conserved? Vary the elasticity and see what happens. Once we simplify these equations.00 m/s) is negative.40) Substituting this expression into the second equation (internal kinetic energy equation) eliminates the variable v′ 2 . we combine them algebraically to solve for the unknowns.38) or Using conservation of internal kinetic energy and that v2 = 0 . visualize what the initial conditions mean—a small object strikes a larger object that is initially at rest. and thus v 2 = 0 . both solutions may or may not be meaningful.42) and As noted when quadratic equations were encountered in earlier chapters. the first solution is the same as the initial condition.44) or Discussion The result of this example is intuitively reasonable. leaving only v′ 1 as an unknown (the algebra is left as an exercise for the reader).37) m 1 v 1 = m 1v′ 1 + m 2v′ 2. meaning that the first object bounces backward. This content is available for free at http://cnx.43) v′ 2 = 1. To find two unknowns.50 kg 2 (8. Try to avoid edge-on collisions and collisions with rotating ice cubes. Set up your own experiments: vary the number of discs. they are v′ 1 = 4. we get m 0.) As a check. but with a low speed. We are asked to find two unknowns (the final velocities v′ 1 and v′ 2 ). Have you created approximately elastic collisions? Explain the speeds and directions of the ice cubes using momentum. Place the ice cubes on the surface several centimeters away from each other. 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 2 2 Solving the first equation (momentum equation) for (8.41) v′ 1 = −3. too.00 m/s (8. p 1 = p′ 1 + p′ 2 (8. Because this collision is elastic.270 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Strategy and Concept First. Thus. in this example. note that v 2 = 0 and use conservation of momentum. In this case. Solution For this problem. The second solution (v′ 1 = −3. (This is like a compact car bouncing backward off a full-size SUV that is initially at rest. we can use the above two equations. you will find it.00 m/s. The larger one is knocked forward. Flick one ice cube toward a stationary ice cube and observe the path and velocities of the ice cubes after the collision.00 − (−3.39) v′ 2 .00 J.org/content/col11406/1. These equations can be extended to more objects if needed. Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation—Ice Cubes and Elastic Collision Find a few ice cubes which are about the same size and a smooth kitchen tabletop or a table with a glass top. (8. (8. we must use two independent equations. You will see that the internal kinetic energy is unchanged at 4. (8. we obtain m v′ 2 = m 1 ⎛⎝v 1 − v′ 1⎞⎠. Also check the total momentum before and after the collision.500 kg ⎡ ⎤ v′ 2 = m 1 ⎛⎝v 1 − v′ 1⎞⎠ = ⎣4. When this negative value of v′ 1 is used to find the velocity of the second object after the collision.

This lack of conservation means that the forces between colliding objects may remove or add internal kinetic energy.” Figure 8.jar) 8.3/collision-lab_en. For inelastic collisions. Or it may convert stored energy into internal kinetic energy.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Figure 8. but internal kinetic energy is not conserved.0 m/s. Inelastic Collision An inelastic collision is one in which the internal kinetic energy changes (it is not conserved).5 Calculating Velocity and Change in Kinetic Energy: Inelastic Collision of a Puck and a Goalie (a) Find the recoil velocity of a 70. An inelastic collision is one in which the internal kinetic energy changes (it is not conserved). Momentum is conserved. Figure 8. The internal kinetic energy of the system changes in any inelastic collision and is reduced to zero in this example. Example 8. who catches a 0. this internal work may transform some internal kinetic energy into heat transfer. Two objects that have equal masses head toward one another at equal speeds and then stick ⎛ ⎞ together. conserving 2 2 momentum.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension We have seen that in an elastic collision. Perfectly Inelastic Collision A collision in which the objects stick together is sometimes called “perfectly inelastic.org/content/m42163/1. (a) Two objects of equal mass initially head directly toward one another at the same speed.7 Collision Lab (http://cnx. (See Figure 8. In fact. But the internal kinetic energy is zero after the collision. (b) The objects stick together (a perfectly inelastic collision). such a collision reduces internal kinetic energy to the minimum it can have while still conserving momentum.8 shows an example of an inelastic collision. internal kinetic energy is conserved. and so their final velocity is zero.8 An inelastic one-dimensional two-object collision. The two objects come to rest after sticking together. Their total internal kinetic energy is initially mv 2⎝1 mv 2 + 1 mv 2⎠ . (b) How much kinetic energy is lost during the collision? Assume friction between the ice and the puck-goalie system is negligible. Work done by internal forces may change the forms of energy within a system.0-kg ice hockey goalie. A collision in which the objects stick together is sometimes called a perfectly inelastic collision because it reduces internal kinetic energy more than does any other type of inelastic collision.150-kg hockey puck slapped at him at a velocity of 35. originally at rest. such as when colliding objects stick together.9 ) 271 . such as when exploding bolts separate a satellite from its launch vehicle.

0 m/s) = 7.0 kg + 0. the kinetic energies can be calculated before and after the collision and compared as requested.9 J = − 91.45) m 1 v 1 + m 2v 2 = m 1v′ 1 + m 2v′ 2. Because the goalie catches the puck. KE int = 1 mv 2 = 1 ⎛⎝0.196 J − 91.0 m/s) 2 2 2 = 91. Solution for (a) Momentum is conserved because the net external force on the puck-goalie system is zero.49) Discussion for (a) This recoil velocity is small and in the same direction as the puck’s original velocity. we get ⎛ v′ = ⎝ ⎞ 0. Solution for (b) Before the collision. Solving for v′ yields m v′ = m +1m v 1. Because the goalie is initially at rest. We can thus use conservation of momentum to find the final velocity of the puck and goalie system. the internal kinetic energy is 2 KE′ int = 1 (m + M)v 2 = 1 ⎛⎝70.48) Entering known values in this equation. Conservation of momentum is p 1 + p 2 = p′ 1 + p′ 2 (8. as we might expect. Once the final velocity is found.196 J. Strategy Momentum is conserved because the net external force on the puck-goalie system is zero.50) After the collision. or v′ 1 = v′ 2 = v′ . (8.51) The change in internal kinetic energy is thus KE′ int − KE int = 0.150 kg ⎠ (8. 70.52) . the final velocities are equal.150 kg (35.46) or v 2 = 0 . (8.7 (8. (8.47) (8.org/content/col11406/1. Therefore. Note that the initial velocity of the goalie is zero and that the final velocity of the puck and goalie are the same.48×10 −2 m/s⎞⎠ 2 2 = 0. the internal kinetic energy KE int is initially KE int of the system is that of the hockey puck.48×10 −2 m/s. Discussion for (b) This content is available for free at http://cnx. because the goalie is initially at rest.150 kg⎞⎠(35.7 J where the minus sign indicates that the energy was lost. 1 2 (8. the conservation of momentum equation simplifies to m 1 v 1 = (m 1 + m 2)v′.9 J. we know Thus. The initial kinetic energy of the puck is almost entirely converted to thermal energy and sound in this inelastic collision.9 An ice hockey goalie catches a hockey puck and recoils backward.15 kg⎞⎠⎛⎝7.272 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Figure 8.

Determine c for the cases in Part 1 and for the case of a tennis ball bouncing off a concrete or wooden floor ( c tennis balls used on a tennis court). badminton. Drop a tennis ball on the strings from a measured height. The coefficient of restitution (c) is a measure of the elasticity of a collision between a ball and an object. Place the racquet on the floor and stand on the handle.500 kg and an initial velocity of −0. cart 1 is observed to recoil with a velocity of −4. as is the part of the stroke during which the impact occurs.350 kg. c can be shown to be c = (h / H) 1 / 2 where h is the height to which the ball bounces and H is the height from which the ball is dropped. A tennis player tries to hit the ball on the “sweet spot” on the racquet. Recall that in a collision. two carts collide inelastically. Measure how high the ball bounces and observe what happens to your friend’s hand during the collision. the potential energy of a compressed spring is released during the collision and is converted to internal kinetic energy.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Nearly all of the initial internal kinetic energy is lost in this perfectly inelastic collision. Find a racquet (a tennis. The mass of cart 1 and the spring is 0. and the cart and the spring together have an initial velocity of 2. the objects do not stick together and less of the internal kinetic energy is removed—such as happens in most automobile accidents. Cart 1 (denoted m 1 carries a spring which is initially compressed. After the collision. 2. Measure how high the ball bounces.85 for new Example 8.500 m/s . it is momentum and not force that is important. This conclusion also holds true for other sports—a lightweight bat (such as a softball bat) cannot hit a hardball very far. and is defined as the ratio of the speeds after and before the collision.6 deals with data from such a collision.10.00 m/s .6 Calculating Final Velocity and Energy Release: Two Carts Collide In the collision pictured in Figure 8. Take-Home Experiment—Bouncing of Tennis Ball 1. (a) What is the final velocity of cart 2? (b) How much energy was released by the spring (assuming all of it was converted into internal kinetic energy)? Strategy 273 . Figure 8. In this collision. KE int is mostly converted to thermal energy and sound.10 shows a one-dimensional example in which two carts on an air track collide. = 0. Let us look briefly at tennis. During the collision. so that momentum is conserved. stored energy may be converted into internal kinetic energy during a collision. The location of the impact of the tennis ball on the racquet is also important. releasing potential energy from a compressed spring. or other racquet will do). For a ball bouncing off the floor (or a racquet on the floor). examined in Example 8. Explain your observations and measurements.10) has a mass of 0. Figure 8. So. Cart 2 (denoted m 2 in Figure 8.10 An air track is nearly frictionless. A smooth motion results in the maximizing of the velocity of the ball after impact and reduces sports injuries such as tennis elbow. the spring releases its potential energy and converts it to internal kinetic energy. A perfectly elastic collision has a c of 1. where the vibration and impact are minimized and the ball is able to be given more velocity. Now ask a friend to hold the racquet firmly by the handle and drop a tennis ball from the same measured height above the racquet. Sports science and technologies also use physics concepts such as momentum and rotational motion and vibrations. Collisions are particularly important in sports and the sporting and leisure industry utilizes elastic and inelastic collisions.00 m/s . During some collisions. a heavier tennis racquet will have the advantage over a lighter one.6. Alternatively. Example 8. Motion is one-dimensional.

The internal kinetic energy in this collision increases by 5.00 m/s) 2 + 1 ⎛⎝0.46 J. The simplest collision is one in which one of the particles is initially at rest.500 m/s) ⎛⎝0. we can compare the internal kinetic energy before and after the collision to see how much energy was released by the spring.55) After the collision. the components of momentum along the x .350 kg⎞⎠(2. we considered only one-dimensional collisions.500 kg⎞⎠(−0.org/content/col11406/1. during such collisions. Solution for (a) As before. because F net = 0 (the track is frictionless and the force of the spring is internal).763 J = 5.350 kg⎞⎠(−4. 8. meaning that it is moving to the right after the collision.70 m/s) 2 2 2 = 6. That energy was released by the spring. But what about collisions. Resolving the motion yields a pair of one-dimensional problems to be solved simultaneously.500 kg⎞⎠( – 0.54) Solution for (b) The internal kinetic energy before the collision is KE int = 1 m 1 v 21 + 1 m 2 v 22 2 2 ⎛ 1 = ⎝0. (Even with the simplifying assumptions of point masses. (8. one particle initially at rest. (8. (8. The approach taken (similar to the approach in discussing two-dimensional kinematics and dynamics) is to choose a convenient coordinate system and resolve the motion into components along perpendicular axes.00 m/s) = ⎝ − 0.500 m/s) 2 2 2 = 0.22 J − 0. in which objects scatter to the side? These are two-dimensional collisions. structureless particles that cannot rotate or spin. One complication arising in two-dimensional collisions is that the objects might rotate before or after their collision.53) v′ 1 .500 kg 0.350 kg⎞⎠(-4.00 m/s) + ⎛⎝0. the incoming and outgoing velocities are all along the same line.56) The change in internal kinetic energy is thus KE′ int − KE int = 6. but with the We start by assuming that chosen coordinate system.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions In the previous two sections. the equation for conservation of momentum in a two-object system is m 1 v 1 + m 2v 2 = m 1v′ 1 + m 2v′ 2 .00 m/s) 2 + 1 ⎛⎝0. and we shall see that their study is an extension of the one-dimensional analysis already presented. if two ice skaters hook arms as they pass by one another. such as those between billiard balls. F net = 0 .22 J. they will spin in circles. we consider only the scattering of point masses—that is.) This content is available for free at http://cnx.70 m/s. (See Figure 8.500 kg = 3. The only unknown in this equation is (8. We will not consider such rotation until later. as shown in Figure 8. p y is initially zero and p x is the momentum of the incoming particle.11.) The best choice for a coordinate system is one with an axis parallel to the velocity of the incoming particle.57) Discussion The final velocity of cart 2 is large and positive.350 kg⎠(2. v′ 2 = (8. Once this velocity is determined. the internal kinetic energy is KE′ int = 1 m 1 v′ 21 + 1 m 2 v′ 22 2 2 = 1 ⎛⎝0. and a convenient coordinate system.500 kg⎞⎠(3. so that momentum p is conserved.763 J. Because momentum is conserved. For example. To avoid rotation. and so for now we arrange things so that no rotation is possible. Both facts simplify the analysis. we still gain new insights into nature from the analysis of two-dimensional collisions.11. Solving for v′ 2 and substituting known values into the previous equation yields m 1 v 1 + m 2v 2 − m 1 v′ 1 m2 ⎛ ⎞ 0.274 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS We can use conservation of momentum to find the final velocity of cart 2.7 .46 J.and y -axes (p x and p y) will also be conserved.

CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Figure 8. because many scattering experiments have a target that is stationary in the laboratory. conservation of momentum along the y -axis gives the following equation: 0 = m 1v′ 1 sin θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 sin θ 2. the equation for conservation of momentum is p 1y + p 2y = p′ 1y + p′ 2y (8. while particles are scattered from it to determine the particles that make-up the target and how they are bound together. Conservation of Momentum along the (8. Thus. The components of the velocities along the Conservation of momentum along the x -axis have the form v cos θ . where (8. Because particle 2 is initially at rest.67) 275 . we find v 1x = v 1 .61) θ 1 and θ 2 are as shown in Figure 8. this equation becomes m 1 v 1x = m 1v′ 1x + m 2v′ 2x.65) (8.11 A two-dimensional collision with the coordinate system chosen so that m2 is initially at rest and v1 is parallel to the x -axis. the equation for conservation of momentum is p 1x + p 2x = p′ 1x + p′ 2x. (8.11. v 2y is also zero. The components of the velocities along the y -axis have the form v sin θ . Along the x -axis. This coordinate system is sometimes called the laboratory coordinate system. (8.63) m 1 v 1y + m 2v 2y = m 1v′ 1y + m 2v′ 2y.58) Where the subscripts denote the particles and axes and the primes denote the situation after the collision.62) y -axis.64) or But v 1y is zero.66) y -axis 0 = m 1v′ 1 sin θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 sin θ 2 (8. (8. but their initial and final velocities are. this equation is m 1 v 1x + m 2v 2x = m 1v′ 1x + m 2v′ 2x. The equation for conservation of momentum along the y -axis becomes 0 = m 1v′ 1y + m 2v′ 2y. because particle 1 initially moves along the x -axis. The particles may not be observed directly.60) (8. x -axis gives the following equation: m 1 v 1 = m 1v′ 1 cos θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 cos θ 2. Conservation of Momentum along the Along the x -axis m 1 v 1 = m 1v′ 1 cos θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 cos θ 2 (8. Because particle 1 initially moves along the x -axis. In terms of masses and velocities.59) But because particle 2 is initially at rest.

250-kg object is originally 2. which are precisely the quantities we wish to find.400-kg object after the collision. v′ 1 cos θ 1 − v 1 (8. θ 2 = tan −1(−1.5º ≈ 312º. The 0. so this angle indicates that expected (this angle is in the fourth quadrant).71) (8.7485 v′ 2 = − ⎝ (8. you will find that the internal kinetic energy is less after the collision.50 m/s)(0.276 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS The equations of conservation of momentum along the x -axis and y -axis are very useful in analyzing two-dimensional collisions of particles.50 m/s)(0.50 m/s)⎝ 0. Angles are defined as positive in the counter clockwise direction.50 m/s after the collision. This content is available for free at http://cnx. Strategy Momentum is conserved because the surface is frictionless. (8. Everything is known in these equations except Solution Solving m 1 v 1 = m 1v′ 1 cos θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 cos θ 2 and 0 = m 1v′ 1 sin θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 sin θ 2 for v′ 2 sin θ 2 and taking the ratio yields an ⎛ equation (because ⎝tan θ ⎞ = sin θ ⎠ in which all but one quantity is known: cos θ v′ 1 sin θ 1 .and y -directions. Example 8.72) Thus.69) tan θ 2 = Entering known values into the previous equation gives tan θ 2 = Thus.73) Discussion It is instructive to calculate the internal kinetic energy of this two-object system before and after the collision. The coordinate system shown in Figure 8. But two equations can only be used to find two unknowns.7 .7 Determining the Final Velocity of an Unseen Object from the Scattering of Another Object Suppose the following experiment is performed. where it strikes an (m 2) . m sin θ 1 v′ 2 = − m 1 v′ 1 sin θ 2 2 Entering known values into this equation gives ⎛0. and so other data may be necessary when collision experiments are used to explore nature at the subatomic level.org/content/col11406/1. m 2 is originally at rest v′ 2 and θ 2 .250-kg object initially stationary object with mass of 0. but the latter equation is easiest because it has fewer terms. Either equation for the (8.250-kg object emerges from the room at an angle of 45. A 0. The speed of the 0.0º with its incoming direction. so that conservation of momentum along the x .12 is one in which and the initial velocity is parallel to the x -axis.) If you do this calculation. (This calculation is left as an end-ofchapter problem.250 kg ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ (1.70) m 2 is scattered to the right in Figure 8. v′ 2 = 0. 0. as x .68) (1. This type of result makes a physicist want to explore the system further. (1.7071) = −1.400 kg (m 1) is slid on a frictionless surface into a dark room. where one is originally stationary (a common laboratory situation).7071 ⎠.886 m/s.00 m/s (8.400 kg ⎠ −0.and y -axes is applicable. Calculate the magnitude and direction of the velocity (v′ 2 and θ 2) of the 0.or y -axis can now be used to solve for v′ 2 .7071) − 2. We can find two unknowns because we have two independent equations: the equations describing the conservation of momentum in the x . and so the collision is inelastic.00 m/s and is 1.129.12.129) = 311.

1 2 2 1 2 2 Because the masses are equal. The propulsion of all rockets.7. and even squids and octopuses is explained by the same physical 277 . This assumption also implies that. By measuring the angle and speed at which m1 m1 is scattered by an initially stationary object. which must also be conserved. incoming ball continues unaffected cos(θ 1 − θ 2) = 0 : angle of separation (θ 1 − θ 2) is 90º after the collision All three of these ways are familiar occurrences in billiards and pool.76) There are three ways that this term can be zero. The incoming object object’s mass m2 is known. to a good approximation. If you play enough pool. Elastic Collisions of Two Objects with Equal Mass Some interesting situations arise when the two colliding objects have equal mass and the collision is elastic. the internal kinetic energy before and after the collision of two objects that have equal masses is 1 mv 2 = 1 mv′ 2 + 1 mv′ 2.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Figure 8.74) m 1 = m 2 = m . The problems below explore these and other characteristics of two-dimensional collisions. Only the stationary emerges from the room. although it will vary from this value if a great deal of spin is placed on the ball. 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1 2 2 (Remember that (8.) First. incoming ball stops v′ 2 = 0 : no collision. discovered the nature of the atomic nucleus from such experiments. Again. and precisely the case with some subatomic particle collisions. (8. Connections to Nuclear and Particle Physics Two-dimensional collision experiments have revealed much of what we know about subatomic particles. 8. Ernest Rutherford. (Refer to Figure 8. momentum is conserved for the two-ball system in billiards and pool.) The two preceding equations can both be true only if mv′ 1 v′ 2 cos⎛⎝θ 1 − θ 2⎞⎠ = 0.75) θ 2 is negative here. deflating balloons.11 for masses and angles. jet engines. for example.) The assumption that the scattering of billiard balls is elastic is reasonable based on the correctness of the three results it produces.12 A collision taking place in a dark room is explored in Example 8. Then. (8. you will notice that the angle between the balls is very close to 90º after the collision. let us assume object 2 (m 2) is initially at rest.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion Rockets range in size from fireworks so small that ordinary people use them to immense Saturn Vs that once propelled massive payloads toward the Moon. (Large spin carries in extra energy and a quantity called angular momentum. This situation is nearly the case with colliding billiard balls. as we shall see in Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics and Particle Physics.and y - directions can show that 1 mv 2 = 1 mv′ 2 + 1 mv′ 2 + mv′ v′ cos⎛⎝θ − θ ⎞⎠. They are • • • v′ 1 = 0 : head-on collision. We can thus get a mental image of a collision of subatomic particles by thinking about billiards (or pool). an elastic collision conserves internal kinetic energy. it is possible to calculate the magnitude and direction of the initially stationary object’s velocity after the collision. Algebraic manipulation (left to the reader) of conservation of momentum in the x . although most of us try to avoid the second.

The reaction force on the rocket is what overcomes the gravitational force and accelerates it upward. The gun exerts a force on a bullet to accelerate it and consequently experiences an equal and opposite force. In part (a). The remainder of the mass (m − Δm) now has a greater velocity (v + Δv) . In fact. m and a velocity v relative to Earth. This content is available for free at http://cnx. the rocket has a mass the net external force on a system multiplied by the time it acts. Δt where (8. v a = me Δm − g Δt “The rocket” is that part of the system remaining after the gas is ejected.) So. producing an equal and opposite reaction on what remains. the following expression can be shown to be a good approximation for the acceleration of the rocket.278 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS principle—Newton’s third law of motion. The momentum of the entire system (rocket plus expelled gas) has actually decreased because the force of gravity has acted for a time Δt . By calculating the change in momentum for the entire system over Δt . and Δt is the time in which the gas is ejected. and (8. part of the system can accelerate upward. In which direction does the air come out of the balloon and in which direction does the balloon get propelled? If you fill the balloon with water and then let the balloon go. the ejected gas and the remainder of the rocket. (b) A time Δt later the system has two main parts. the force exerted on the rocket by the exhaust gases. v e is the escape velocity. and it equals the change in momentum of the system. gases are easier to expel into a vacuum. Δm is the mass of the ejected gas. and hence a momentum mv . that is. the center of mass of the system is in free fall but. Then. It is a commonly held misconception that the rocket exhaust pushes on the ground.org/content/col11406/1. producing a negative impulse Δp = −mgΔt . If we consider thrust.13 (a) This rocket has a mass m and an upward velocity v . let the balloon go.7 .13 shows a rocket accelerating straight up. then a rocket’s thrust is greater in outer space than in the atmosphere or on the launch pad. does the balloon’s direction change? Explain your answer.77) g is the acceleration due to gravity. and equating this change to the impulse. m is the mass of the rocket. Acceleration of a Rocket Acceleration of a rocket is v a = me Δm − g.78) a is the acceleration of the rocket. if air resistance is neglected. Figure 8. by rapidly expelling mass. The net external force on the system is −mg . a time Δt has elapsed in which the rocket has ejected a mass Δm of hot gas at a velocity v e relative to the rocket. causing the gun’s recoil or kick. Matter is forcefully ejected from a system. (Remember that impulse is Figure 8. In part (b). Another common example is the recoil of a gun. Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment—Propulsion of a Balloon Hold a balloon and fill it with air.

It is difficult to build a rocket in which the fuel has a mass 180 times 279 . The acceleration does increase steadily as the rocket burns fuel. The smaller the mass is (all other factors being the same).83) This result means that only 1 / 88 of the mass is left when the fuel is burnt. Discussion m decreases Δm while v e and remain constant. engines.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS A rocket’s acceleration depends on three major factors.20 m/s 2 . Expressed as percentages.2×10 m/s . the final velocity of a one-stage rocket initially at rest is m v = v e ln m0 . the greater the acceleration. the mass m r remaining can only be about m 0 / 180 . Strategy This problem is a straightforward application of the expression for acceleration because of the equation are given. or escape Earth’s gravity altogether. the mass of the rocket other than fuel must be as small as possible. the greater its acceleration. the greater the acceleration is. Knowing this acceleration and the mass of the rocket.” The faster the rocket burns its fuel. in the absence of air resistance and neglecting gravity. because 3. The rocket mass m decreases dramatically during flight because most of the rocket is fuel to begin with. obtain orbit.40×10 4 kg/s . Example 8. even for an initial acceleration.48 r e 2. consistent with the equation for acceleration of a rocket . It can be shown that.5×10 m/s for conventional (non-nuclear) hot-gas propulsion systems.9% of the rocket is fuel. The second factor is the rate at which mass is ejected from the rocket. The third factor is the mass m of the rocket. • The faster the rocket burns its fuel. given that the escape 3 3 velocity from Earth is about 11. is called "thrust. First. and other components make up only 1.5×10 m/s .2×103 m/s = 4. the greater the acceleration.8 Calculating Acceleration: Initial Acceleration of a Moon Launch A Saturn V’s mass at liftoff was 2. reaching a maximum just before the fuel is exhausted.48 = 88. a is the unknown and all of the terms on the right side Solution Substituting the given values into the equation for acceleration yields v a = me Δm − g Δt 3 = 2. so the equation can be used for any segment of the flight. and 87 / 88 of the initial mass was fuel. Calculate its initial acceleration. To achieve the high speeds needed to hop continents. and assuming an exhaust velocity v e = 2. you can show that the thrust of the engines was Δt This value is fairly small. and the exhaust velocity was 2.40×10 3 m/s .79) = 2. v e .80) r ln⎛⎝m 0 / m r⎞⎠ is the natural logarithm of the ratio of the initial mass of the rocket (m 0) to what is left (m r) after all of the fuel is exhausted.10%.5×10 m/s Solving for (8. mr = e (8.81) m 0 / m r gives m0 4. the change in velocity where equals the final velocity. (8.80 m/s 2 2. while payload. Taking air resistance and gravitational force into account. the greater the acceleration.82) Thus.36×10 7 N . The quantity (Δm / Δt)v e . The practical limit for v e is about 2. • The smaller the rocket’s mass (all other factors being the same). let us calculate the mass ratio needed to escape Earth’s gravity starting from rest. This is the factor Δm / Δt in the equation. the greater its thrust. 88 (8. (Note that v is actually the change in velocity. so that acceleration increases continuously.80×10 6 kg . fuel tanks.40×10 6m/s ⎛⎝1. 98. the greater the exhaust 3 velocity of the gases relative to the rocket. its fuel-burn rate was 1.80×10 kg (8.40×10 4 kg/s⎞⎠ − 9. the mass of the rocket is mr = m0 . with units of newtons. If we start from rest. and the greater its acceleration. Factors Affecting a Rocket’s Acceleration • The greater the exhaust velocity v e of the gases relative to the rocket.) For example. 3 m ln m0 = vv = 11.

Using airplanes has the double advantage that the initial velocity is significantly above zero and a rocket can avoid most of the atmosphere’s resistance. unmanned rockets. The result is that each successive stage can have smaller engines and more payload relative to its fuel.org/content/col11406/1. such as the repair of the Hubble space telescope. The real lunar lander is very hard to control. Each stage only needs to achieve part of the final velocity and is discarded after it burns its fuel. and the entire orbiter returned to Earth for use in subsequent flights.280 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS everything else. The solution is multistage rockets. made it at least as costly for launching satellites as expendable. As a result. the shuttle would only have been used when human activities were required for the success of a mission. fuel consumption rate. just before your fuel runs out.15 Lunar Lander (http://cnx. Rockets with satellites can also be launched from airplanes. too. however. thrust. the ratio of payload to fuel becomes more favorable.jar) Glossary change in momentum: the difference between the final and initial momentum.org/content/m42166/1. The large liquid fuel tank was expended. Solid fuel boosters on either side were recovered and refueled after each flight. Ideally. it permitted multiple launches as opposed to single-use rockets. equal to the change in momentum inelastic collision: a collision in which internal kinetic energy is not conserved internal kinetic energy: the sum of the kinetic energies of the objects in a system isolated system: a system in which the net external force is zero linear momentum: the product of mass and velocity perfectly inelastic collision: a collision in which the colliding objects stick together point masses: structureless particles with no rotation or spin This content is available for free at http://cnx. and lunar gravity. the total momentum of the system is conserved or constant elastic collision: a collision that also conserves internal kinetic energy impulse: the average net external force times the time it acts. The space shuttle was an attempt at an economical vehicle with some reusable parts. Figure 8.14) The shuttle’s need to be operated by humans. The space shuttle was a complex assemblage of technologies.14 The space shuttle had a number of reusable parts.7 .4/lunar-lander_en. the mass times the change in velocity conservation of momentum principle: when the net external force is zero. employing both solid and liquid fuel and pioneering ceramic tiles as reentry heat shields. Figure 8. such as the solid fuel boosters and the craft itself. (See Figure 8. Once out of the atmosphere. (credit: NASA) PhET Explorations: Lunar Lander Can you avoid the boulder field and land safely. as Neil Armstrong did in 1969? Our version of this classic video game accurately simulates the real motion of the lunar lander with the correct mass.

8. • In symbols. stated by xm 1 v 1 = m 1v′ 1 cos θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 cos θ 2 and along the direction perpendicular to the initial direction (the y -axis) stated by 0 = m 1v′ 1y +m 2v′ 2y . The greater the exhaust velocity of the gases. • The internal kinetic before and after the collision of two objects that have equal masses is 1 mv 2 = 1 mv′ 2 + 1 mv′ 2 + mv′ v′ cos⎛⎝θ − θ ⎞⎠. 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension • An elastic collision is one that conserves internal kinetic energy. linear momentum p is defined to be m is the mass of the system and v is its velocity.1 Linear Momentum and Force • Linear momentum (momentum for brevity) is defined as the product of a system’s mass multiplied by its velocity.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension • An inelastic collision is one in which the internal kinetic energy changes (it is not conserved). Newton’s second law of motion is defined to be F net = Δp . • The conservation of momentum principle is valid when considering systems of particles. momentum is conserved in the horizontal direction because horizontal forces are zero. and Δt is the change time. They are 1. p = mv. • Conservation of kinetic energy and momentum together allow the final velocities to be calculated in terms of initial velocities and masses in one dimensional two-body collisions. • Forces are usually not constant over a period of time. the greater the acceleration. • A collision in which the objects stick together is sometimes called perfectly inelastic because it reduces internal kinetic energy more than does any other type of inelastic collision.2 Impulse • Impulse. there is an equal and opposite reaction.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions • The approach to two-dimensional collisions is to choose a convenient coordinate system and break the motion into components along perpendicular axes. where • Newton’s second law of motion in terms of momentum states that the net external force equals the change in momentum of a system divided by the time over which it changes.3 Conservation of Momentum • The conservation of momentum principle is written or p tot = constant p tot = p′ tot (isolated system). v • Acceleration of a rocket is a = e Δm − g . m Δt • A rocket’s acceleration depends on three main factors. p tot is the initial total momentum and p′ tot is the total momentum some time later.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion • Newton’s third law of motion states that to every action. • The SI unit for momentum is kg · m/s . 8. • In symbols. Δp is the change in momentum. • Two-dimensional collisions of point masses where mass 2 is initially at rest conserve momentum along the initial direction of mass 1 (the axis).CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS quark: fundamental constituent of matter and an elementary particle second law of motion: physical law that states that the net external force equals the change in momentum of a system divided by the time over which it changes Section Summary 8. 8. Δt F net is the net external force. 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 • Point masses are structureless particles that cannot spin. • Sports science and technologies also use physics concepts such as momentum and rotational motion and vibrations. 8. equals the average net external force multiplied by the time this force acts: Δp = F netΔt. Choose a coordinate system with the x -axis parallel to the velocity of the incoming particle. • An isolated system is defined to be one for which the net external force is zero ⎛ ⎝ F net = 0⎞⎠. • Conservation of momentum applies only when the net external force is zero. 281 . • During projectile motion and where air resistance is negligible. 8. or change in momentum.

and energy.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 15. Under what circumstances is momentum conserved? 10. under what conditions? If not. Can objects in a system have momentum while the momentum of the system is zero? Explain your answer. 6. explain how a football player can be more effective with his feet on the ground.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions 19. you reach greater depths than if you do a belly flop. Explain this difference in depth using what you have learned in this chapter. emerge after colliding elastically with the cube. (b) Answer the same questions if the small object instead collides with a massive sphere. Momentum for a system can be conserved in one direction while not being conserved in another. the so-called impact parameter? Ignore any effects that might be due to rotation after the collision. Which mass has the largest momentum? 3. An object that has a small mass and an object that has a large mass have the same kinetic energy. In which case can you reach a greater height and why? 7. 3. Professional Application Tennis racquets have “sweet spots. Using the concepts of momentum. the greater the acceleration.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 16. and tackle with their feet on the ground rather than by leaping through the air.3 Conservation of Momentum 8. What is an inelastic collision? What is a perfectly inelastic collision? 17. Can momentum be conserved for a system if there are external forces acting on the system? If so. 14. Explain why this is the case. While jumping on a trampoline.1 Linear Momentum and Force 1. tile floor for a day care center. 8. 9. Professional Application Explain in terms of impulse how padding reduces forces in a collision. what is their velocity after their bodies meet? 18. Professional Application If you dive into water. 4. clasp hands.7 . Professional Application Football coaches advise players to block. 13. They reach out. What is the effect of the dogs on the motion of the center of mass of the system (truck plus entire load)? What is their effect on the motion of the truck? 8. 8. why not? 11. such as the advantages of a carpeted vs. hit. Professional Application Explain in terms of momentum and Newton’s laws how a car’s air resistance is due in part to the fact that it pushes air in its direction of motion. Assuming there is no friction between the blades of their skates and the ice. work.org/content/col11406/1. What is an elastic collision? 8.282 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 2. Two dogs in the back of the truck are moving and making various inelastic collisions with each other and the walls. A small pickup truck that has a camper shell slowly coasts toward a red light with negligible friction. State this in terms of a real example. How can a small force impart the same momentum to an object as a large force? 8. Must the total energy of a system be conserved whenever its momentum is conserved? Explain why or why not. (a) Describe the directions (angle θ 1 ) at which the small object can θ 1 depend on b . the greater its acceleration. The smaller the rocket's mass. The faster the rocket burns its fuel.2 Impulse 5. Figure 8.16 shows a cube at rest and a small object heading toward it. and pull themselves together by only using their arms. 12. Conceptual Questions 8. sometimes you land on your back and other times on your feet. Mixed-pair ice skaters performing in a show are standing motionless at arms length just before starting a routine.” If the ball hits a sweet spot then the player's arm is not jarred as much as it would be otherwise. and assume that the cube is much more massive than the small object. How does This content is available for free at http://cnx. What is the angle between the directions? Give an example. Explain this difference in depth using the concept of conservation of energy. Which object has the largest kinetic energy? 2. An object that has a small mass and an object that has a large mass have the same momentum.

22. θ 1 . Professional Application It is possible for the velocity of a rocket to be greater than the exhaust velocity of the gases it ejects. out of reach of any solid object on which he could exert a force. How is the rocket still able to obtain thrust by ejecting the gases? 283 .16 A small object approaches a collision with a much more massive cube. after which its velocity has the direction scattered are determined by the shape of the object it strikes and the impact parameter b. How is the motion of the center of mass affected by the explosion? How would it be affected if the pieces experienced significantly more air resistance than the intact shell? 21. Professional Application During a visit to the International Space Station.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Figure 8. and explain the physics involved. an astronaut was positioned motionless in the center of the station. the gas velocity and gas momentum are in the same direction as that of the rocket.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion 20. The angles at which the small object can be 8. Suggest a method by which he could move himself away from this position. Professional Application Suppose a fireworks shell explodes. breaking into three large pieces for which air resistance is negligible. When that is the case.

The ball hits a vertical wall and bounces off so that it is moving 60º above the −x -direction with the same speed.000 kg and a velocity of −0. A person slaps her leg with her hand.) 16. Water from a fire hose is directed horizontally against a wall at a rate of 50. You may neglect friction between the car and floor.0 kg/s and a speed of 42.00×10 -kg airplane have to fly to 1. Calculate the force exerted on the wall. Compute the time required for a force of 1500 N to bring the car to rest.150 s.300 m/s. what average force is exerted upon it by the gun? (c) Compare this to the force exerted on the gun if the bullet is accelerated to its velocity in 10. (a) Calculate the momentum of a 2000-kg elephant charging a hunter at a speed of 7.496×10 11 m . (a) What is the average force exerted on the leg.3 Conservation of Momentum 23.50 m/s . the pier.0 m/s ? (c) If the ship is an aircraft carrier that launches these airplanes with a catapult. but there are far greater numbers of very small objects. The ball leaves the foot with a speed of 18 m/s at an angle 55º above the horizontal. A runaway train car that has a mass of 15.50 kg? (b) Would the force be any different if the woman clapped her hands together at the same speed and brought them to rest in the same time? Explain why or why not.0-kg hunter running at 7. (a) Calculate the impulse imparted by this blow. The mass of Earth is average of 5.00-kg plunger that directly interacts with a 0. Professional Application A 75.000 kg travels at a speed of 5. Professional Application Train cars are coupled together by being bumped into one another. Suppose two loaded train cars are moving toward one another. What is the average force exerted on a 0.00×10 m/s .750 m/s. Professional Application This content is available for free at http://cnx. which exerts a force of 4000 N on the car for 0.) What is their final velocity? Suppose a child drives a bumper car head on into the side rail. Professional Application A car moving at 10 m/s crashes into a tree and stops in 0. (b) If this part is stopped over a distance of 20.7 8. Using these data.0 m/s when the car runs into a bridge abutment. It runs into another clay model. assuming the water’s horizontal momentum is reduced to zero.00 cm.120 m/s .0400-kg tranquilizer dart fired at a speed of 600 m/s . Suppose a clay model of a koala bear has a mass of 0. discuss the implications of your answer to (b) as it relates to recoil effects of the catapult on the ship. 3. derive an equation for the kinetic energy of a particle expressed as a function of its momentum. 20.00 m/s but collides head-on with a padded goalpost and experiences a backward force of 1.40 m/s after missing the elephant? 2. 22.0200-kg bullet fired at 600 m/s from the gun. (a) Calculate the duration of the impact.0300-kg bullet to accelerate it to a speed of 600 m/s in a time of 2.76×10 4 N for 5.60×10 9 kg · m/s (the same as the ship’s momentum in the problem above)? (b) What is the plane’s momentum when it is taking off at a speed of 60. the first having a mass of 150.284 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS Problems & Exercises 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force 1.450-kg hammer is moving horizontally at 7.0 m/s. A punter drops a ball from rest vertically 1 meter down onto his foot. 18. a player hits the ball when its velocity is zero (at the highest point of a vertical toss). Calculate the force the seat belt exerts on a passenger in the car to bring him to a halt.0 ms (milliseconds). The larger distance reduces the average force needed to stop the internal part. The mass of the passenger is 70 kg.0 m/s ? (b) At what speed would an 8. given the collision lasts 6.60×10 9 kg · m/s . 6.00×10 s. Calculate the force exerted by a 0.50×10 –2 s . A bullet is accelerated down the barrel of a gun by hot gases produced in the combustion of gun powder. such as flakes of paint. (a) Calculate the recoil velocity of a 1.80 m/s and the car plus driver have a mass of 200 kg. Professional Application One hazard of space travel is debris left by previous missions. (b) Compare the elephant’s momentum with the momentum of a 0. giving it a final velocity of 45.750 m/s.00 m/s. Professional Application 24. The racquet exerts a force of 540 N on the ball for 5.0 cm. Calculate the final speed of a 110-kg rugby player who is initially running at 8. (b) What is the opponent’s final velocity. (a) At what speed would a have a momentum of 4 2.0 cm.50 milliseconds from an initial speed of 4. 15. It comes to rest 6. 14.000 kg and a velocity of 0.200 s. (The minus indicates direction of motion.00 m/s when it strikes a nail and comes to rest after driving the nail 1.2 Impulse 7.00-kg trash can have the same momentum as the truck? 5.00 ms. .200 kg and slides on ice at a speed of 0.00 ms (milliseconds)? 8. taking the effective mass of the hand and forearm to be 1. 9.00 m later. (a) Calculate the average force on the person if he is stopped by a padded dashboard that compresses an average of 1. What is the impulse delivered by the wall? 21. There are several thousand objects orbiting Earth that are large enough to be detected by radar.100-mg chip of paint that strikes a spacecraft window at a relative 3 –8 speed of 4. (a) What impulse is imparted by this force? (b) Find the final velocity of the bumper car if its initial velocity was 2. damaging the ship. Calculate its linear momentum. (c) What is the momentum of the 90. A ball with an initial velocity of 10 m/s moves at an angle 60º above the +x -direction. 13. A 0. (d) Discuss the implications of your answers for parts (b) and (c). When serving a tennis ball. (b) What was the average force exerted on the nail? 19.0 m/s. and the second having a mass of 110. Starting with the definitions of momentum and kinetic energy. Professional Application Military rifles have a mechanism for reducing the recoil forces of the gun on the person firing it. find the mass of the ball.org/content/col11406/1. 4.0-kg head if hit in this manner.00×10 7 kg strikes a pier at a speed of 0. What is the impulse delivered by the foot (magnitude and direction)? 11. (Hint: First calculate the time it took to bring the ship to rest. (a) What is the mass of a large ship that has a momentum of 1. assuming the head does not initially transfer significant momentum to the boxer’s body.4 m/s down a track. (a) What is the momentum of a garbage truck that is 4 1. A professional boxer hits his opponent with a 1000-N horizontal blow that lasts for 0. Calculate the average force exerted on the pier using the concept of impulse. A cruise ship with a mass of 1. An internal part recoils over a relatively large distance and is stopped by damping mechanisms in the gun. if his mass is 105 kg and he is motionless in midair when struck near his center of mass? (c) Calculate the recoil velocity of the opponent’s 10.20×10 kg and is moving at 10.0 km/h? (b) Compare the ship’s momentum to the momentum of a 1100-kg artillery shell fired at a speed of 1200 m/s . 10. bringing her hand to rest in 2. 12. 8.0-kg person is riding in a car moving at 20. 17. when the ship is moving at a speed of 48. (b) Calculate the average force on the person if he is stopped by an air bag that compresses an average of 15.972×10 24 kg and its orbital radius is an 1.26 s.00 cm into a board. and the tugboat captain’s finances.

(e) Calculate the momentum of a 110-kg football player running at 8. What would their final velocities be in this case? 8. Show that both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. The first player is 95. This nucleus is radioactive and decays by splitting into a ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ ⎞ helium-4 nucleus and a uranium-235 nucleus ⎝4 He + 235 U⎠ .36×10 22 kg ) ? (b) How much kinetic energy is lost in the collision? Such an event may have been observed by medieval English monks who reported observing a red glow and subsequent haze about the Moon. whereas the change in kinetic energy is the same in both.0 m/s. assuming the plutonium nucleus is originally at rest. 36. Might the loss of kinetic energy be related to how much it hurts to catch the pass? 34. Calculate its recoil velocity. (a) Calculate the velocities of the two nuclei. for the ship and the shell). A battleship that is 6.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS which is initially motionless and has a mass of 0. catches a 0.410-kg football that has a speed of 25. 26.68×10 kg . – 13 The energy emitted in the plutonium decay is 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 28. and the second a mass of 7. (a) At what speed does the Moon recoil after the perfectly inelastic collision (the mass of the Moon is 7.1 and assuming that the football player catches the ball with his feet off the ground with both of them moving horizontally. 29. After the collision. The mass of the passenger is 70 kg. During an ice show. intending to dock. Professional Application Two football players collide head-on in midair while trying to catch a thrown football.0150 s. Professional Application A 30. Both being soft clay.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 31.00 m/s strikes the bumper of a pool table and bounces straight back at 2. and analyzed the plume produced by the impact. Professional Application The Moon’s craters are remnants of meteorite collisions. Explain why the change in velocity is different in the two frames. 39.00-kg rifle. they naturally stick together. The collision lasts 0. (They bolt away from one another. A 0. The pain of the rifle’s kick is much worse if you hold the gun loosely a few centimeters from your shoulder rather than holding it tightly against your shoulder. Professional Application One of the waste products of a nuclear reactor is plutonium-239 ⎛ 239 Pu⎞ .0250-kg bullet is accelerated from rest to a speed of 550 m/s in a 3. (a) If the shell is fired straight aft (toward the rear of the ship).0 m/s. NASA crashed a rocket into the Moon. What are their subsequent velocities using the frame of reference in which they were at rest before separation? 38. This energy is less than the energy released by the gun powder—significant heat transfer occurs. A 1. 40.00×10 7 kg and is originally at rest fires a 1100-kg artillery shell horizontally with a velocity of 575 m/s. The first has a mass of 4. (c) Repeat parts (a) and (b) for the situation in which the ball and the player are going in opposite directions. A 70.00 m/s? (b) How much kinetic energy is lost? 33. – 27 The mass of the helium nucleus is 6.50×10 3 kg . (b) Calculate the increase in internal kinetic energy (that is. 27. Professional Application Two manned satellites approaching one another. and that 5000 J of kinetic energy is supplied to the two parts.0 kg and has an initial velocity of 285 . (b) What is the loss of kinetic energy in this inelastic collision? (c) Repeat both parts by using the frame of reference in which the second satellite was originally at rest.0 kg? (d) How much kinetic energy is transferred to the rifle-shoulder combination? The pain is related to the amount of kinetic energy. just after it hits a 150-kg deer initially running at 12. Would the answer to this question be different if the car with the 70-kg passenger had collided with a car that has a mass equal to and is traveling in the opposite direction and at the same speed? Explain your answer. If the two satellites collide elastically rather than dock.50×10 3 kg .00×10 kg .00×10 12 kg (about a kilometer across) strikes the Moon at a speed of 15. calculate: (a) the final velocity if the ball and player are going in the same direction and (b) the loss of kinetic energy in this case. (a) What is their final velocity assuming negligible friction and that the 60.) Answer part (a) and (b) for this real-life experiment.000-kg freight car is coasting at 0. the moving object is stationary and the other moves with the same speed as the other originally had. the latter of which is also radioactive and will itself decay some time later.650-kg dove from behind in midair.240-kg billiard ball that is moving at 3. Professional Application Using mass and speed data from Example 8. which is significantly less in this latter situation.26 s.00 m/s. Calculate the force the seatbelt exerts on a passenger in the car to bring him to a halt.000 kg of scrap metal into it.92×10 – 25 kg (note that the ratio of the masses is 4 to 235).150-kg hockey puck slapped at him at a velocity of 35.250 m/s.350 kg. at a relative speed of 3 0. The first has a mass of 4.0-kg ice hockey goalie. How does the plume produced alter these results? 41. while that of the uranium is 3. The mass of the rocket was 2000 kg and its speed upon impact was 9000 km/h. What is their final velocity? 25. (b) How much kinetic energy does each nucleus carry away? Note that the data given here are accurate to three digits only. Suppose a fairly large asteroid that has a mass of 5.0-kg skater. (c) In October 2009. (b) How much kinetic energy in joules is lost during the collision? (c) What percent of the original energy is left? 32. Professional Application Space probes may be separated from their launchers by exploding bolts. what is their final relative velocity? 30.00 m/s in the same direction? 8.00×10 kg .80-kg falcon catches a 0. intending to dock. (a) What is the final velocity of the loaded freight car? (b) How much kinetic energy is lost? 37. What is their velocity after impact if the falcon’s velocity is initially 28.0 km/s.40×10 J and is entirely converted to kinetic energy of the helium and uranium nuclei. (b) How much kinetic energy does the rifle gain? (c) What is the recoil velocity if the rifle is held tightly against the shoulder. originally at rest. there will be negligible friction opposing the ship’s recoil.0 m/s and the dove’s velocity is 7.250 m/s. Discuss its relationship to this problem.40 m/s (80% of its original speed). (a) Calculate the recoil velocity of the rifle if it is held loosely away from the shoulder. Two identical objects (such as billiard balls) have a one-dimensional collision in which one is initially motionless.0 m/s in the same direction? Assume the deer remains on the car.0-kg skater’s original horizontal velocity is 4. (Significant amounts of water were detected.850 m/s with negligible friction under a hopper that dumps 110. What is the velocity of a 900-kg car initially moving at 30. 35. Suppose the goalie and the ice puck have an elastic collision and the puck is reflected back in the direction from which it came. (a) Calculate the final velocity (after docking) by using the frame of reference in which the first satellite was originally at rest. Professional Application Consider the following question: A car moving at 10 m/s crashes into a tree and stops in 0.) Suppose a 4800-kg satellite uses this method to separate from the 1500-kg remains of its launcher. a 60. A 0. Compare the player’s momentum with the momentum of a hard-thrown 0. making the effective mass 28.0-kg skater leaps into the air and is caught by an initially stationary 75. Professional Application Two manned satellites approach one another at a relative speed of 3 0. and the second a mass of 7.0 m/s. (a) Calculate the average force exerted on the ball by the bumper.

20×10 m/s? 55. Professional Application Calculate the increase in velocity of a 4000-kg space probe that expels 3 3500 kg of its mass at an exhaust velocity of 2. Derive the equation for the vertical acceleration of a rocket. Discuss how spin on the ball might be converted to linear kinetic energy in the collision. The total mass is initially 75. What is the speed of a garbage truck that is 1. Professional Application mass ratio is 4 to 197). (b) These engines are usually designed to produce a very small thrust for a very long time—the type of engine that might be useful on a trip to the outer planets. and the masses of the helium and gold nuclei were 6. These techniques allow a much more favorable payload-to-fuel ratio.68×10 −27 kg and 3. where the acceleration due to gravity is only 1. Professional Application limit the acceleration of a rocket? Two cars collide at an icy intersection and stick together afterward. how far does the player recoil in the time it takes the puck to reach the goal 15. 49. (a) If the incoming puck has a speed of 6. calculate the helium nucleus’s final speed and the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the gold nucleus. Integrated Concepts A 90.29×10 −25 kg .40×10 3 m/s .6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions 8. the final velocity is 10.) (b) Confirm that the collision is elastic. The mass of the rocket just as it runs out of fuel is 75. you must look for other simplifying aspects.0 kg and the horizontal component of its velocity is 8.00 m/s and scatters to an angle of 30. During a circus act.7 ⎝ ⎠ . You may assume the gravitational force is negligible at the probe’s location. Two identical pucks collide on an air hockey table.and y -directions. The first car has a mass of 1200 kg and is approaching at 8. Starting from rest. (a) Calculate its recoil velocity when it fires a 15. 1 mv 1 2 = 1 mv′ 1 2+ 1 mv′ 2 2+mv′ 1v′ 2 cos ⎝θ 1 − θ 2⎠ 2 2 2 as discussed in the text. (a) Calculate the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the bowling ball. 46.50×10 given velocity.850-kg bowling pin. an elderly performer thrills the crowd by catching a cannon ball shot at him.00×10 m/s . (a) Calculate the final velocity (magnitude and direction) of the cars.00 m/s due south. Professional Application Ernest Rutherford (the first New Zealander to be awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry) demonstrated that nuclei were very small and ⎛ ⎞ dense by scattering helium-4 nuclei 4 He from gold-197 nuclei ⎝ ⎠ ⎛ 197 Au⎞⎠ . instead. if the rocket expels 8.00×10 −13 J . If the clown recoils with a velocity of 0.0º above the horizontal.00 kg of gas per second at an exhaust velocity of 3 2. prove that for an elastic collision of two objects of ⎛ ⎞ equal masses.00 m/s collides with a 0.org/content/col11406/1. which is scattered at an angle of 85. 51.0 m/s just after it hits and adheres to a trash can that is 80.) Note that because both cars have an initial velocity. giving the puck a velocity of 45. (a) During an ice skating performance.0 kg after the extinguisher is fired. (b) What is the kinetic energy of the cannon? This energy is dissipated as heat transfer in shock absorbers that stop its recoil. This content is available for free at http://cnx. (a) If a helium nucleus scatters to an angle of 120º during an elastic collision with a gold nucleus. Assume that the acceleration of gravity is the same ⎛ ⎞ as on Earth’s surface 9.7 do conserve momentum in both the x . Confirm that the results of the example Example 8. If both are initially at rest and if the ice is frictionless. calculate the average exhaust velocity of the gases expelled from the extinguisher. What is their velocity just after impact if they cling together? 42. A 3000-kg cannon is mounted so that it can recoil only in the horizontal direction.50-kg bowling ball moving at 9. The second car has a mass of 850 kg and is approaching at 17. Calculate the −6 kg/s at the acceleration of such an engine if it expels 4.and y -directions and assuming that one object is originally stationary. 56.0-kg shell at 480 m/s at an angle of 20.0-kg ice hockey player hits a 0. The energy of the incoming helium nucleus was ⎝ 8. If the performer is on nearly frictionless roller skates. To illustrate this fact: (a) Calculate the increase in velocity of a 20. while the second player is 115 kg and has an initial velocity of –3. Professional Application What is the acceleration of a 5000-kg rocket taking off from the Moon. respectively (note that their Antiballistic missiles (ABMs) are designed to have very large accelerations so that they may intercept fast-moving incoming missiles in the short time available. (b) Is the collision elastic? (c) Linear kinetic energy is greater after the collision. (b) How much kinetic energy is lost in the collision? (This energy goes into deformation of the cars.00×10 6 m/s . perhaps as great as 8. what is the mass of the barbell? (b) How much kinetic energy is gained by this maneuver? (c) Where does the kinetic energy come from? for conservation of momentum along the x -axis and y -axis. The clown’s ice skates allow her to recoil frictionlessly.0-kg clown throws a fake barbell away. Professional Application masses. 52.80 m/s 2 .286 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 6. Professional Application Ion-propulsion rockets have been proposed for use in space.000-kg ABM that expels 196 kg of gas per second at an exhaust 3 velocity of 2.0-kg performer catches it. for example.6 m/s 2 .0º .7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion 45.20×10 4 kg and is initially moving at 25.000-kg space probe that expels only 40.0 m away? 8.0-kg of its mass at the given exhaust velocity. (b) Why might it be necessary to 50.00 m/s when the 65. 57.0º to the initial direction of the bowling ball and with a speed of 15.0 m/s due west.0 m/s.0 kg and is 70. (c) What happens to the vertical component of momentum that is imparted to the cannon when it is fired? 48. an initially motionless 80. Starting with equations and m 1 v 1 = m 1v′ 1 cos θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 cos θ 2 0 = m 1v′ 1 sin θ 1 + m 2v′ 2 sin θ 2 for conservation of momentum in the x .000-kg.50×10 m/s? 54.50 m/s. What is the takeoff acceleration of a 10. what is his recoil velocity? 44.00 m/s. assuming the acceleration due to gravity is negligible. The cannon ball has a mass of 10. One puck was originally at rest. Professional Application A 5.500 m/s and the barbell is thrown with a velocity of 10.150-kg puck.0 m/s. 58. Given the following data for a fire extinguisher-toy wagon rocket experiment.0 m/s. (b) What is the final kinetic energy of the helium nucleus? (a) Calculate the maximum rate at which a rocket can expel gases if its acceleration cannot exceed seven times that of gravity.0 kg and is initially at rest? 43. and its exhaust velocity is 2. 47.what is the velocity (magnitude and direction) of the second puck? (You may use the result that θ 1 − θ 2 = 90º for elastic collisions of objects that have identical 53. you cannot use the equations 59.0 m/s. They employ atomic ionization techniques and nuclear energy sources to produce extremely high exhaust velocities.

What is the recoil velocity of the squid if the ejection is done in 0. (b) How much energy is lost to work done against friction? 62. Unreasonable Results Squids have been reported to jump from the ocean and travel 30. (b) The squid propels itself by squirting water. and the distance to the ship. 64.CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS 60.0º . Professional Application (a) A 5.0 m (measured horizontally) before re-entering the water. gravitational force and friction are neglected. Among the things to be considered are the masses involved. (c) What is unreasonable about the results? (d) Which premise is unreasonable. Construct Your Own Problem Consider an astronaut in deep space cut free from her space ship and needing to get back to it.100 s and there is a 5. How much of a single-stage rocket that is 100. (a) Calculate the initial speed of the squid if it leaves the water at an angle of 20. Construct Your Own Problem Consider an artillery projectile striking armor plating. 3 given that it expels gases at an exhaust velocity of 2.0 m/s.00-N frictional force opposing the squid’s movement.000 kg can be anything but fuel if the rocket is to have a final speed of 8.20×10 m/s? 61. Construct a problem in which you calculate the time it takes her to get back by throwing all the packages at one time compared to throwing them one at a time. Your instructor may also wish for you to consider the relative merits of depleted uranium versus lead projectiles based on the greater density of uranium. assuming negligible lift from the air and negligible air resistance.0 m/s . the force she can exert on the packages through some distance. Construct a problem in which you find the force exerted by the projectile on the plate.00 km/s . Among the things to be considered are the mass and speed of the projectile and the distance over which its speed is reduced.00-kg squid initially at rest ejects 0.250-kg of fluid with a velocity of 10. The astronaut has a few packages that she can throw away to move herself toward the ship. or which premises are inconsistent? 63. What fraction of its mass would it have to eject in order to achieve the speed found in the previous part? The water is ejected at 12. 287 .

org/content/col11406/1.7 .288 CHAPTER 8 | LINEAR MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS This content is available for free at http://cnx.

Simple Machines • Describe different simple machines. Applications of Statics.2. • Discuss the benefits of skeletal muscles attached close to joints. Furthermore. and joints. • State and discuss various problem-solving strategies in Statics. or motionless relative to the Earth.3. • Explain dynamic equilibrium. 9. bridges. Introduction to Statics and Torque What might desks. The Second Condition for Equilibrium • State the second condition that is necessary to achieve equilibrium.4. and mountains have in common—at least in the eyes of a physicist? The answer is that they are ordinarily motionless relative to the Earth. • Describe the role of torque in rotational mechanics.CHAPTER 9 | STATICS AND TORQUE 9 STATICS AND TORQUE Figure 9. 9. The First Condition for Equilibrium • State the first condition of equilibrium. Including Problem-Solving Strategies • Discuss the applications of Statics in real life.com) Learning Objectives 9. bones.1 On a short time scale.1. • State how a bad posture causes back strain. their acceleration is zero because they remain motionless. • Describe stable and unstable equilibriums. rocks like these in Australia’s Kings Canyon are static. trees. • Discuss various complexities in the real system of muscles.5. That means they also have 289 . • Explain torque and the factors on which it depends. Stability • State the types of equilibrium. buildings.6. 9. 9. Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints • Explain the forces exerted by muscles. 9. • Explain static equilibrium. (credit: freeaussiestock. • Describe neutral equilibrium. • Calculate the mechanical advantage.

including consideration of such possible effects as the rotation and deformation of an object by the forces acting on it. We have already considered a few such situations. This content is available for free at http://cnx.2 This motionless person is in static equilibrium. but the net external force in any direction is zero. in this chapter. the net external forces along the typical x. equilibrium is achieved. Expressed as an equation.5. the stick experiences accelerated rotation. But in Figure 9. because anything with a constant velocity also has an acceleration of zero. Consider the two situations illustrated in Figure 9. This will be explored further in the next section.3 This car is in dynamic equilibrium because it is moving at constant velocity. then the net external force in any direction is zero. This is written as net F x = 0 and F y = 0 Figure 9. a large group of situations that makes up a special case of Newton’s second law.org/content/col11406/1.4 and Figure 9. we cover the topic more thoroughly. the important part—Newton’s second law states that net F = ma . 9.