# Electronic Devices

and Amplifier Circuits

Second Edition

Steven T. Karris

B WI T A H MATL

®

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

C

OM PUT ING

Electronic Devices

and Amplifier Circuits

with MATLAB® Computing

Second Edition

Students and working professionals will find Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB® Computing, Second Edition, to be a concise and easy-to-learn text. It provides complete, clear, and detailed explanations of the state-of-the-art electronic devices and integrated circuits. All topics are illustrated with many real-world examples.

This text includes the following chapters and appendices: • Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals • Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics - Diodes • Bipolar Junction Transistors • Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices • Operational Amplifiers • Integrated Circuits • Pulse Circuits and Waveforms Generators • Frequency Characteristics of Single-Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers • Tuned Amplifiers • Sinusoidal Oscillators • Introduction to MATLAB® • Introduction to Simulink® • PID Controllers • Compensated Attenuators • The Substitution, Reduction, and Miller’s Theorems Each chapter contains numerous practical applications supplemented with detailed instructions for using MATLAB to plot the characteristics of non-linear devices and to obtain quick solutions.

Steven T. Karris is the founder and president of Orchard Publications, has undergraduate and graduate degrees in electrical engineering, and is a registered professional engineer in California and Florida. He has more than 35 years of professional engineering experience and more than 30 years of teaching experience as an adjunct professor, most recently at UC Berkeley, California. products and the publication of MATLAB® and His area of interest is in The MathWorks, Inc. Simulink® based texts.

™

Orchard Publications Visit us on the Internet www.orchardpublications.com or email us: info@orchardpublications.com

934404-1 14-4 4 ISBN-10: 1-9 1-9 934404-1 14-0 0 ISBN-13: 978-1 $70.00 U.S.A.

**Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits
**

with MATLAB®Computing

Second Edition

Steven T. Karris

Orchard Publications www.orchardpublications.com

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB®Computing, Second Edition Copyright ” 2008 Orchard Publications. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Direct all inquiries to Orchard Publications, info@orchardpublications.com Product and corporate names are trademarks or registered trademarks of The MathWorks, Inc. They are used only for identification and explanation, without intent to infringe.

**Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
**

Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN) 2008934432

TXu1−254-969 ISBN-13: 978−1−934404−14−0 ISBN-10: 1−934404−14−4

Disclaimer

The author has made every effort to make this text as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty is implied. The author and publisher shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this text.

Preface

This text is an undergraduate level textbook presenting a thorough discussion of state−of−the art electronic devices. It is self−contained; it begins with an introduction to solid state semiconductor devices. The prerequisites for this text are first year calculus and physics, and a two−semester course in circuit analysis including the fundamental theorems and the Laplace transformation. No previous knowledge of MATLAB®is required; the material in Appendix A and the inexpensive MATLAB Student Version is all the reader needs to get going. Our discussions are based on a PC with Windows XP platforms but if you have another platform such as Macintosh, please refer to the appropriate sections of the MATLAB’s User Guide which also contains instructions for installation. Additional information including purchasing may be obtained from The MathWorks, Inc., 3 Apple Hill Drive, Natick, MA 01760-2098. Phone: 508 647−7000, Fax: 508 647−7001, e− mail: info@mathwork.com and web site http://www.mathworks.com.This text can also be used without MATLAB. This is our fourth electrical and computer engineering-based text with MATLAB applications. My associates, contributors, and I have a mission to produce substance and yet inexpensive texts for the average reader. Our first three texts* are very popular with students and working professionals seeking to enhance their knowledge and prepare for the professional engineering examination. The author and contributors make no claim to originality of content or of treatment, but have taken care to present definitions, statements of physical laws, theorems, and problems. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the nature of small signals used in electronic devices, amplifiers, definitions of decibels, bandwidth, poles and zeros, stability, transfer functions, and Bode plots. Chapter 2 is an introduction to solid state electronics beginning with simple explanations of electron and hole movement. This chapter provides a thorough discussion on the junction diode and its volt-ampere characteristics. In most cases, the non-linear characteristics are plotted with simple MATLAB scripts. The discussion concludes with diode applications, the Zener, Schottky, tunnel, and varactor diodes, and optoelectronics devices. Chapters 3 and 4 are devoted to bipolar junction transistors and FETs respectively, and many examples with detailed solutions are provided. Chapter 5 is a long chapter on op amps. Many op amp circuits are presented and their applications are well illustrated. The highlight of this text is Chapter 6 on integrated devices used in logic circuits. The internal construction and operation of the TTL, NMOS, PMOS, CMOS, ECL, and the biCMOS families

* These are Circuit Analysis I, ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0, Circuit Analysis II, ISBN 978−0−9709511−5− 1, and Signals and Systems, 978−1−934404−11−9.

of those devices are fully discussed. Moreover, the interpretation of the most important parameters listed in the manufacturers data sheets are explained in detail. Chapter 7 is an introduction to pulse circuits and waveform generators. There, we discuss the 555 Timer, the astable, monostable, and bistable multivibrators, and the Schmitt trigger. Chapter 8 discusses to the frequency characteristic of single-stage and cascade amplifiers, and Chapter 9 is devoted to tuned amplifiers. Sinusoidal oscillators are introduced in Chapter 10. This is the second edition of this title, and includes several Simulink models. Also, two new appendices have been added. Appendix A, is an introduction to MATLAB. Appendix B is an introduction to Simulink, Appendix C is an introduction to Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controllers, Appendix D describes uncompensated and compensated networks, and Appendix D discusses the substitution, reduction, and Miller’s theorems. The author wishes to express his gratitude to the staff of The MathWorks™, the developers of MATLAB® and Simulink® for the encouragement and unlimited support they have provided me with during the production of this text. A companion to this text, Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink® Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs, ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8 is recommended as a companion. This text is devoted strictly on Boolean logic, combinational and sequential circuits as interconnected logic gates and flip−flops, an introduction to static and dynamic memory devices. and other related topics. Although every effort was made to correct possible typographical errors and erroneous references to figures and tables, some may have been overlooked. Our experience is that the best proofreader is the reader. Accordingly, the author will appreciate it very much if any such errors are brought to his attention so that corrections can be made for the next edition. We will be grateful to readers who direct these to our attention at info@orchardpublications.com. Thank you. Orchard Publications Fremont, California 94538−4741 United States of America www.orchardpublications.com info@orchardpublications.com

**Table of Contents 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals
**

1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 Signals and Signal Classifications ......................................................................... 1−1 Amplifiers .............................................................................................................. 1−3 Decibels ................................................................................................................. 1−4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response .................................................................... 1−5 Bode Plots............................................................................................................. 1−8 Transfer Function ................................................................................................. 1−9 Poles and Zeros.................................................................................................... 1−11 Stability ............................................................................................................... 1−12 Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit................................................................. 1−17 Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit................................................................. 1−19 Summary ............................................................................................................. 1−21 Exercises .............................................................................................................. 1−24 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises.............................................................. 1−26

MATLAB Computing Pages 1−7, 1−14, 1−15, 1−19, 1−27, 1−28, 1−31 Simulink Modeling Pages 1−34, 1−35

2

Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 Electrons and Holes ............................................................................................... 2−1 Junction Diode ...................................................................................................... 2−4 Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non−Linear Devices ..................................... 2−9 Piecewise Linear Approximations....................................................................... 2−13 Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes ............................................ 2−15 Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits...................................................... 2−19 Peak Rectifier Circuits ........................................................................................ 2−30 Clipper Circuits ................................................................................................... 2−32 DC Restorer Circuits........................................................................................... 2−35 Voltage Doubler Circuits .................................................................................... 2−36 Diode Applications in Amplitude Modulation (AM) Detection Circuits ......... 2−37 Diode Applications in Frequency Modulation (FM) Detection Circuits........... 2−37 Zener Diodes ....................................................................................................... 2−38 Schottky Diode ................................................................................................... 2−45 Tunnel Diode ...................................................................................................... 2−45 Varactor .............................................................................................................. 2−48 i

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20

Optoelectronic Devices.......................................................................................2−49 Summary..............................................................................................................2−52 Exercises ..............................................................................................................2−56 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ..............................................................2−61

MATLAB Computing Pages 2−27, 2−28, 2−29, 2−61, 2−70 Simulink Modeling Pages 2−19, 2−22, 2−25, 2−30

3

Bipolar Junction Transistors 3.1 3.2 3.3 Introduction ....................................................................................................... 3−1 NPN Transistor Operation ................................................................................ 3−3 Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier ...................................................... 3−3 3.3.1 Equivalent Circuit Models − NPN Transistors........................................ 3−6 3.3.2 Equivalent Circuit Models − PNP Transistors ........................................ 3−7 3.3.3 Effect of Temperature on the i C – v BE − Characteristics...................... 3−10 3.3.4 Collector Output Resistance − Early Voltage ....................................... 3−11 Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing ................................................................ 3−18 Fixed Bias ......................................................................................................... 3−21 Self−Bias ........................................................................................................... 3−25 Amplifier Classes and Operation ..................................................................... 3−28 3.7.1 Class A Amplifier Operation................................................................. 3−31 3.7.2 Class B Amplifier Operation ................................................................. 3−34 3.7.3 Class AB Amplifier Operation .............................................................. 3−35 3.7.4 Class C Amplifier Operation................................................................. 3−37 Graphical Analysis ........................................................................................... 3−38 Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier .......................................... 3−42 Piecewise−Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier ................................... 3−44 Incremental Linear Models .............................................................................. 3−49 Transconductance............................................................................................ 3−54 High−Frequency Models for Transistors.......................................................... 3−55 The Darlington Connection ............................................................................ 3−60 Transistor Networks......................................................................................... 3−61 3.15.1 h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Base Transistor..................... 3−61 3.15.2 T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Base Transistor .................... 3−64 3.15.3 h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Emitter Transistor ................ 3−65 3.15.4 T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Emitter Transistor................ 3−70 3.15.5 h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Collector Transistor ............. 3−71 3.15.6 T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Collector Transistor............. 3−76

3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7

3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15

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Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

3.16 Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions..................................................... 3−77 3.16.1 Cutoff Region ....................................................................................3−78 3.16.2 Active Region....................................................................................3−78 3.16.3 Saturation Region .............................................................................3−78 3.17 The Ebers−Moll Transistor Model................................................................. 3−81 3.18 Schottky Diode Clamp...................................................................................3−85 3.19 Transistor Specifications................................................................................3−85 3.20 Summary ........................................................................................................3−87 3.21 Exercises.........................................................................................................3−91 3.22 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ........................................................3−97 MATLAB Computing Pages 3−13, 3−39, 3−113

4

Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4.1 Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) ............................................................. 4−1 4.2 Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) ..................... 4−6 4.2.1 N−Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode................................... 4−8 4.2.2 N−Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode ...................................... 4−12 4.2.3 P−Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode ................................. 4−14 4.2.4 P−Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode ....................................... 4−17 4.2.5 Voltage Gain ......................................................................................... 4−17 4.3 Complementary MOS (CMOS)....................................................................... 4−19 4.3.1 CMOS Common−Source Amplifier ..................................................... 4−20 4.3.2 CMOS Common−Gate Amplifier......................................................... 4−20 4.3.3 CMOS Common−Drain (Source Follower) Amplifier......................... 4−20 4.4 Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET)............................................................ 4−21 4.5 Unijunction Transistor ..................................................................................... 4−22 4.6 Diac.................................................................................................................. 4−23 4.7 Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR).................................................................. 4−24 4.7.1 SCR as an Electronic Switch ................................................................ 4−27 4.7.2 SCR in the Generation of Sawtooth Waveforms .................................. 4−28 4.8 Triac ............................................................................................................... 4−37 4.9 Shockley Diode.............................................................................................. 4−38 4.10 Other PNPN Devices...................................................................................... 4−40 4.11 The Future of Transistors ............................................................................... 4−41 4.12 Summary ........................................................................................................ 4−42 4.13 Exercises ........................................................................................................ 4−45 4.14 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ........................................................ 4−47 MATLAB Computing Pages 4−5, 4−10

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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5

Operational Amplifiers 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.11 5.12 5.13 5.14 5.15 5.16 5.17 5.18 5.19 5.20 5.21 5.22 5.23 5.24 Operational Amplifier.......................................................................................5−1 An Overview of the Op Amp ...........................................................................5−1 Op Amp in the Inverting Mode........................................................................5−2 Op Amp in the Non−Inverting Mode ..............................................................5−5 Active Filters.....................................................................................................5−8 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits ..........................................................................5−11 Input and Output Resistances ........................................................................5−22 Op Amp Open Loop Gain ..............................................................................5−25 Op Amp Closed Loop Gain ............................................................................5−26 Transresistance Amplifier ...............................................................................5−29 Closed Loop Transfer Function ......................................................................5−30 Op Amp Integrator .........................................................................................5−31 Op Amp Differentiator ...................................................................................5−35 Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits ....................................................5−37 Differential Input Op Amp..............................................................................5−39 Instrumentation Amplifiers .............................................................................5−42 Offset Nulling ..................................................................................................5−44 External Frequency Compensation .................................................................5−45 Slew Rate .........................................................................................................5−45 Circuits with Op Amps and Non-Linear Devices ...........................................5−46 Comparators ....................................................................................................5−50 Wien Bridge Oscillator....................................................................................5−50 Digital−to−Analog Converters ........................................................................5−52 Analog−to−Digital Converters ........................................................................5−56 5.24.1 Flash Analog−to−Digital Converter ....................................................5−57 5.24.2 Successive Approximation Analog−to−Digital Converter..................5−58 5.24.3 Dual−Slope Analog−to−Digital Converter..........................................5−59 Quantization, Quantization Error, Accuracy, and Resolution.......................5−61 Op Amps in Analog Computers .....................................................................5−63 Summary .........................................................................................................5−67 Exercises..........................................................................................................5−71 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises .........................................................5−78

5.25 5.26 5.27 5.28 5.29

MATLAB Computing Pages 5−80, 5−89

6

iv

Integrated Circuits 6.1 Basic Logic Gates.............................................................................................. 6−1 6.2 Positive and Negative Logic ..............................................................................6−1

6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12

6.13

6.14 6.15 6.16 6.17 6.18

Inverter ............................................................................................................. 6−2 AND Gate......................................................................................................... 6−6 OR Gate............................................................................................................ 6−8 NAND Gate ..................................................................................................... 6−9 NOR Gate....................................................................................................... 6−14 Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates ........................... 6−15 Fan-In, Fan-Out, TTL Unit Load, Sourcing Current, and Sinking Current . 6−17 Data Sheets ..................................................................................................... 6−20 Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL)......................................................................... 6−24 NMOS Logic Gates......................................................................................... 6−28 6.12.1 NMOS Inverter................................................................................... 6−31 6.12.2 NMOS NAND Gate ........................................................................... 6−31 6.12.3 NMOS NOR Gate .............................................................................. 6−32 CMOS Logic Gates ........................................................................................ 6−32 6.13.1 CMOS Inverter ................................................................................... 6−33 6.13.2 CMOS NAND Gate ........................................................................... 6−34 6.13.3 The CMOS NOR Gate ....................................................................... 6−35 Buffers, Tri-State Devices, and Data Buses ................................................... 6−35 Present and Future Technologies................................................................... 6−39 Summary......................................................................................................... 6−43 Exercises ......................................................................................................... 6−46 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ......................................................... 6−49

7

Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Astable (Free-Running) Multivibrators ........................................................... 7−1 555 Timer ......................................................................................................... 7−2 Astable Multivibrator with 555 Timer ............................................................. 7−3 Monostable Multivibrators ............................................................................. 7−14 Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops)............................................................... 7−19 7.5.1 Fixed−Bias Flip-Flop............................................................................ 7−19 7.5.2 Self−Bias Flip−Flop .............................................................................. 7−22 7.5.3 Triggering Signals for Flip−Flops ......................................................... 7−28 7.5.4 Present Technology Bistable Multivibrators ....................................... 7−30 The Schmitt Trigger ....................................................................................... 7−30 Summary......................................................................................................... 7−33 Exercises ......................................................................................................... 7−34 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ......................................................... 7−37

7.6 7.7 7.8 7.9

MATLAB Computing Pages 7−11, 7−26, 7−38, 7−39

v

8

Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8.9 8.10 Properties of Signal Waveforms........................................................................8−1 The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies..................................................8−5 The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies.................................................8−9 Combined Low- and High−Frequency Characteristics...................................8−14 Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers ........................................8−15 Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers ...........................................8−27 Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers ........8−32 Summary .........................................................................................................8−34 Exercises..........................................................................................................8−36 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises..........................................................8−39

MATLAB Computing Pages 8−9, 8−25, 8−45

9

Tuned Amplifiers 9.1 Introduction to Tuned Circuits.......................................................................... 9−1 9.2 Single-tuned Transistor Amplifier...................................................................... 9−8 9.3 Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers ............................................................................. 9−14 9.3.1 Synchronously Tuned Amplifiers ........................................................... 9−14 9.3.2 Stagger−Tuned Amplifiers...................................................................... 9−18 9.3.3 Three or More Tuned Amplifiers Connected in Cascade...................... 9−27 9.4 Summary........................................................................................................... 9−28 9.5 Exercises ........................................................................................................... 9−30 9.6 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises ........................................................... 9−31 MATLAB Computing Page 9−18

10

Sinusoidal Oscillators 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 Introduction to Oscillators ...........................................................................10−1 Sinusoidal Oscillators ...................................................................................10−1 RC Oscillator................................................................................................10−4 LC Oscillators...............................................................................................10−5 The Armstrong Oscillator ............................................................................10−6 The Hartley Oscillator .................................................................................10−7 The Colpitts Oscillator.................................................................................10−7 Crystal Oscillators ........................................................................................10−8 The Pierce Oscillator..................................................................................10−10

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10.10 Summary .................................................................................................... 10−12 10.11 Exercises ..................................................................................................... 10−14 10.12 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises..................................................... 10−15

A

Introduction to MATLAB® A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 A.6 A.7 A.8 A.9 A.10 A.11 MATLAB® and Simulink®......................................................................... A−1 Command Window....................................................................................... A−1 Roots of Polynomials..................................................................................... A−3 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots............................................... A−4 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values............................................ A−6 Rational Polynomials..................................................................................... A−8 Using MATLAB to Make Plots .................................................................. A−10 Subplots....................................................................................................... A−18 Multiplication, Division and Exponentiation ............................................. A−18 Script and Function Files ............................................................................ A−26 Display Formats........................................................................................... A−31

MATLAB Computing Pages A−3 through A−8, A−10, A−13, A−14, A−16, A−17, A−21, A−22, A−24, A−27

B

Introduction to Simulink® B.1 Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB..............................................................B−1 B.2 Simulink Demos................................................................................................B−20 MATLAB Computing Page B−4 Simulink Modeling Pages B−7, B−12, B−14, B−18

C

Proportional−Integral−Derivative (PID) Controller C.1 Description and Components of a Typical PID................................................. C−1 C.2 The Simulink PID Blocks .................................................................................. C−2 Simulink Modeling Pages C−2, C−3

D

Compensated Attenuators D.1 Uncompensated Attenuator.............................................................................. D−1 D.2 Compensated Attenuator .................................................................................. D−2

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.. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications ......E−10 References Index R−1 IN−1 viii Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing...........................E−6 E......... Reduction......................1 The Substitution Theorem .........................................................................................E Substitution..3 Miller’s Theorem .......................................E−1 E......................................2 The Reduction Theorem ............................... and Miller’s Theorems E....

temperature. Consider the waveform shown in Figure 1. The average value of f ( t ) in the interval a ≤ t ≤ b is f ( t ) dt a Area . capacitors and inductors existed long ago before the advent of semiconductor diodes and transistors. Typical waveform of a signal We will now define the average value of a waveform. E 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−1 . As we know.1) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1. current.= ----------------------= ---------------Period b–a a b f ( t ) ave ∫ b (1. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity. these devices are thought of as electrical devices and the systems that consist of these devices are generally said to be electrical rather than electronic systems. electronic systems may include resistors. radio. or radar. image. with today’s technology. current. such as voltage. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. and so on. ICs are becoming smaller and smaller and thus the modern IC technology is referred to as microelectronics. Because resistors. pressure. Figure 1. telephony.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals lectronics may be defined as the science and technology of electronic devices and systems. sound. electric or magnetic field strength. television.2.1 shows a typical signal f ( t ) that varies with time where f ( t ) can be any physical quantity such as voltage. Electronic devices are primarily non−linear devices such as diodes and transistors and in general integrated circuits (ICs) in which small signals (voltages and currents) are applied to them.1 Signals and Signal Classifications A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication. f(t) t Figure 1. capacitors and inductors as well. Of course.

4) and 1 P ave = -T ∫ T 0 1 p ( t ) dt = -T ∫ T Ri 2 dt 0 R = --T ∫ T i 2 dt (1.2) for all time t and for all integers n .2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . that is. t T T t T t Figure 1. Of course.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals f(t) f(a ) Area f(b) t a Period b Figure 1.3) Also. Average Power = P ave = RI eff = RI dc 2 2 (1. Defining the average value of a typical waveform A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) (1. The constant T is the period and it is the smallest value of time which separates recurring values of the waveform.5) 0 1−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Examples of alternating waveforms The effective (or RMS) value of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) denoted as I eff is the current that produces heat in a given resistor R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc . in a periodic current waveform i ( t ) the instantaneous power p ( t ) is p ( t ) = Ri ( t ) 2 (1. An alternating waveform is any periodic time function whose average value over a period is zero.3.3. Others are shown in Figure 1. all sinusoids are alternating waveforms.

However.p dt = -.4. If v ( t ) = V p cos ω t and i ( t ) = I p cos ( ω t + θ ) for example.4.7) where RMS stands for Root Mean Squared.3) with (1. P ave ≠ V ave ⋅ I ave . The symbol of a typical amplifier is a triangle as shown in Figure 1.707I p (1. 1 T 1 T . ( i ave ) implies that the average value of the current must first be found and then the average must be squared.8) and we must remember that (1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−3 . Ave ( i ) ≠ ( i ave ) . v in v out Figure 1. On the other hand.6) Ave ( i ) 2 1 T 2 -. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. Warning 1: In general.2 Amplifiers An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. it follows that P ave = 0 also.8) applies to sinusoidal values only. V ave = 0 and I ave = 0 . the effective value I eff or I RMS value of a current is computed as the square root of the mean (average) of the square of the current.Amplifiers Equating (1. Symbol for electronic amplifier * Please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.i dt I eff = -T 0 ∫ (1. then I RMS = I p ⁄ 2 = 0. Warning 2: In general. Ave ( i ) implies that the current i must first be squared and the average of the squared value is to be computed. that is.5) we obtain or or I RMS = I eff = T 2 2 R .i dt RI eff = --T 0 ∫ 2 1 T 2 . 1.vi dt ≠ 0 P ave = -T 0 T 0 2 2 2 2 ∫ ∫ In introductory electrical engineering books it is shown* that if the peak (maximum) value of a current of a sinusoidal waveform is I p .i dt = T 0 ∫ (1.

An amplifier can be classified as a voltage.3 Decibels The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . P out dB = 10 log --------P in Therefore. it means that the output is 180 ° out−of− phase with the input. 000 60 dB represents a power ratio of 1. 10 dB represents a power ratio of 10 10n dB represents a power ratio of 10 n (1. 1−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. We should remember that a negative voltage or current gain G v or G i indicates that there is a 180 ° phase difference between the input and the output waveforms. A resistive voltage divider* is a typical attenuator. if an op amp has a gain of – 100 (dimensionless number). the output is equal to the input. 000. By definition. voltage and current when these are expressed in dB terms to avoid misinterpretation of gain or loss. or a transmission line has a power loss of 7 dB (or gain – 7 dB ). for a voltage amplifier Output Voltage Voltage Gain = ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or G v = V out ⁄ V in The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly. 1. For instance. Thus. we say that an amplifier has 10 dB power gain.9) It is useful to remember that 20 dB represents a power ratio of 100 30 dB represents a power ratio of 1. 000 * Please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. If the gain (or loss) is 0 dB . The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. current or power amplifier. For this reason we use absolute values of power. For instance. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels (dB).

the magnitude of the output voltage V out of an electric or electronic circuit as a function of radian frequency ω as shown in Figure 1. 4 dB = 3 dB + 1 dB which is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 2 × 1. Likewise. for R = 1 and for v or i = “halved”. that is.5.707 the power is 1 ⁄ 2 .25 = 2. it is down or half − power points .25 3 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 2 7 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 5 From these. 27 dB = 20 dB + 7 dB and this is equivalent to a power ratio of approximately 100 × 5 = 500 .707 and these two points are known as the 3−dB 2 ⁄ 2 = 0.707 Bandwidth ω1 Figure 1. the bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the cutoff frequencies. Since y = log x = 2 log x and P = V ⁄ Z = I ⋅ Z .4 Bandwidth and Frequency Response Like electric filters. At these frequencies. As shown in Figure 1. we can estimate other values.5. V out = 2 2 2 ⁄ 2 = 0. 1 0. Definition of bandwidth ω2 ω V out Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.11) 1.5. For instance.5 . for example. 1 dB represents a power ratio of approximately 1. if we let Z = 1 the dB values for voltage and current ratios become V out dB v = 10 log --------V in and I out dB i = 10 log ------I in 2 2 2 2 V out = 20 log --------V in I out = 20 log ------I in (1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−5 .Bandwidth and Frequency Response Also. amplifiers exhibit a band of frequencies over which the output remains nearly constant. Consider.10) 2 (1. They derive their name from the fact that since power p = v ⁄ R = i ⋅ R .

we can define the bandwidth as the frequency band between half−power points. We may think that low−pass and high−pass filters have also two cutoff frequencies where in the case of the low−pass filter the second cutoff frequency is at ω = 0 while in a high−pass filter it is at ω = ∞. In general form. RC low−pass filter By application of the voltage division expression we obtain 1 ⁄ jωC V out = --------------------------. We recall from the characteristics of electric filters.= ----------------------1 + j ω RC V in (1. the low−pass and high−pass filters have only one cutoff frequency whereas band−pass and band−elimination (band−stop) filters have two.= -------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 V in –1 2 2 1 + ω2R C 1 + ω 2 R C ∠ tan ( ω RC ) V out 1 ---------. Example 1.15) and the phase angle (sometimes called argument and abbreviated as arg) is 1−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 Derive and sketch the magnitude and phase responses of the RC low−pass filter shown in Figure 1.13) or V out –1 1 1 .12) where V out ( ω ) is known as the magnitude response and e j ϕ ( ω ) is known as the phase response.6.V in R + 1 ⁄ jωC V out 1 ---------.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Alternately.∠– tan ( ω RC ) .6. v in R C v out Solution: Figure 1.14) and thus the magnitude is (1. These two responses together constitute the frequency response of a circuit.= -------------------------------2 2 V in 2 1+ω R C (1.= ----------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the output voltage is expressed as V out ( ω ) = V out ( ω ) e jϕ( ω) (1. We also recall also that the output of circuit is dependent upon the frequency when the input is a sinusoidal voltage.

1 ⁄ RC . Then. φ ≅ – tan ( ∞ ) ≅ – 90 –1 ° –1 ° –1 –1 ° The magnitude and phase responses of the RC low−pass filter are shown in Figure 1./pi. RC=1. φ ≅ – tan ( – ∞ ) ≅ 90 as ω → 0 . Magnitude and phase responses for the low−pass filter of Figure 1.phase) * For an introduction to MATLAB.⎟ = – tan ( ω RC ) ϕ = arg ⎜ ---------⎝ V in ⎠ (1.. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−7 . as ω → – ∞ .16). V out ⁄ V in ≅ 1 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC . as ω → 0 . subplot(121).6 We can use MATLAB* to plot the magnitude and phase angle for this low-pass filter using relation (1.. please refer to Appendix A Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V out ⁄ V in = 1 ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0.mag).707 and as ω → ∞ . w=1:10:100000. xf=1. semilogx(w. V out ⁄ V in ≅ 0 To sketch the phase response.13) expressed in MATLAB script below and plot the magnitude and phase angle in semilog scale.. subplot(122).7./(1+j.7. φ ≅ – tan 1 ≅ – 45 as ω → ∞ .*w. Vout Vin 1 0.*180.. mag=20. phase=angle(xf). we let ω assume the values 0 .707 ω −1/RC 0 −45° 1/RC −90° 90° ϕ 45° 1/RC ω Figure 1. Then. φ ≅ – tan 0 ≅ 0 for ω = 1 ⁄ RC . and ∞ ... we use (1.*RC). semilogx(w.16) To sketch the magnitude.*log10(abs(xf)).Bandwidth and Frequency Response ⎛ V out ⎞ –1 .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .19) represents an equation of a straight line with abscissa log 10 ω . Consider two frequency intervals expressed as ω2 ⎞ u 2 – u 1 = log 10 ω2 – log 10 ω1 = log ⎛ ----⎝ ω1 ⎠ (1.5 Bode Plots The magnitude and phase responses of a circuit are often shown with asymptotic lines as approximations. let us consider a circuit whose gain is given as G ( ω )v = C ⁄ ω k (1.low-pass filter. Taking the common log of (1.18) where C is a constant and k is a non−zero positive integer. 1−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Thus.17) then two common frequency intervals are (1) the octave for which ω 2 = 2 ω 1 and (2) the decade for which ω 2 = 10 ω 1 . RC=1 Phase angle (degrees) -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 -90 0 10 1 2 3 4 5 0 Magnitude (dB) -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 0 10 Phase angle.8. We can choose the slope to be either – 20k dB ⁄ decade or – 6k dB ⁄ octave . if k = 1 . Now.low-pass filter. slope of – 20k . RC=1 10 10 10 10 radian frequency (log scale) 1 2 3 4 10 5 10 10 10 10 radian frequency (log scale) 10 1. and { G ( ω ) v } intercept at 20 log 1010 C = cons tan t .19) We observe that (1. the slope becomes – 20 dB ⁄ decade as illustrated in the plot of Figure 1.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Magnitude .18) and multiplying by 20 we obtain 20 log 10 { G ( ω ) v } = 20 log 10 C – 20k log 10 ω dB { G ( ω )v } = 20 log 10 C – 20k log 10 ω (1.

6 Transfer Function Let us consider the continuous−time.1 1 10 logω 100 −90° −20 dB/decade ϕ(ω) 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−9 . † A linear system consists of linear devices and may include independent and dependent voltage and current sources. For details.Transfer Function G ( ω )V 0 dB −20 slope = −20 dB/decade −40 1 10 100 Figure 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.8. * A continuous−time signal is a function that is defined over a continuous range of time.* linear. the slope will be – 40 dB ⁄ decade . refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. Plot of relation (1.9.9. We can now approximate the magnitude and phase responses of the low−pass filter of Example 1. any line parallel to this slope will represent a drop of 20 dB ⁄ decade . ‡ A time−invariant system is a linear system in which the parameters do not vary with time.18) is changed to 2 . We observe also that if the exponent k in (1. Magnitude and phase responses for the low−pass filter of Figure 1.10.† and time−invariant‡ system of Figure 1.1 1 10 100 logω Figure 1. dB 0 −10 −45° −20 −30 0. 1. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.19) for k = 1 log10ω Then.6.1 with asymptotic lines as shown in Figure 1.

The input−output relationship can be described by the differential equation of d d d .11.v ( t ) + … + b 0 v out ( t ) = b m -------v ( t ) + b m – 1 --------------m out m – 1 out m – 2 out dt dt dt d d d .V in ( s ) V out ( s ) = --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------m m–1 m–2 D(s) ( bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b0 ) n n–1 n–2 where N ( s ) and D ( s ) are the numerator and denominator polynomials respectively.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals v in ( t ) Continuous – time .20) For practically all electric networks. * The Laplace transform and its applications to electric circuit analysis is discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II.v ( t ) + a n – 1 -------------. The transfer function G ( s ) is defined as V out ( s ) N(s) = ----------G ( s ) = -----------------D(s) V in ( s ) (1. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1.2 Derive the transfer function G ( s ) of the network in Figure 1.v ( t ) + … + a 0 v in ( t ) a n -----n in n – 1 in n – 2 in dt dt dt n n–1 n–2 m m–1 m–2 (1. Taking the Laplace transform* of both sides of (1.20) we obtain ( bm s + bm – 1 s n m m–1 + bm – 2 s m–2 n–2 + … + b 0 ) V out ( s ) = + … + a 0 ) V in ( s ) ( an s + an – 1 s n–1 + an – 2s Solving for V out ( s ) we obtain ( an s + an – 1 s + an – 2 s + … + a0 ) N(s) .v ( t ) + b m – 2 --------------. linear.v ( t ) + a n – 2 -------------. 1−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.10.21) Example 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Input−output block diagram for linear. time−invariant continuous−time system We will assume that initially no energy is stored in the system. m ≥ n and the integer m denotes the order of the system. and timeinvariant system v out ( t ) Figure 1.V in ( s ) = ----------.

Network for Example 1.5s + − + 1⁄s 1 V out ( s ) − − Figure 1.* The transfer function G ( s ) exists only in the s – domain † and thus we redraw the circuit in the s – domain as shown in Figure 1.12.= ---------s+1 1⁄s+1 and by application of the voltage division expression 1 ⁄ (s + 1) -V (s) V out ( s ) = --------------------------------------0.Poles and Zeros L + v in ( t ) − 0. s = σ + j ω .. parallel combination of the capacitor and resistor yields 1 1⁄s×1 ----------------. will be referred to as the s – domain .5s + 1 ⁄ ( s + 1 ) in or V out ( s ) 2 G ( s ) = -----------------= ---------------------2 V in ( s ) s +s+2 1. Circuit of Example 1. the complex frequency.22) * For brevity. we will denote the time domain as t – domain † Henceforth.e. we can readily obtain the transfer function with application of the voltage division expression.7 Poles and Zeros Let (s) F(s) = N ----------D(s) (1.2 in the s – domain For relatively simple circuits such as that of Figure 1.2 Solution: The given circuit is in the t – domain . + V in ( s ) 0.12.11. i. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−11 .5 H C + − 1F + R 1 Ω v out ( t ) − Figure 1.12. Thus. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

We can predict the stability of a system from its impulse response† h ( t ) .e. In this case. A system is unstable if the impulse response h ( t ) reaches infinity after a certain time as shown in Figure 1. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5− 1.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------n n–1 n–2 D(s) + an – 2 s + … + a1 s + a0 an s + an – 1 s m m–1 m–2 (1. repeated.15. to do this.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals where N ( s ) and D ( s ) are polynomials and thus (1. n are real numbers and.2) unity. complex conjugates..14. * The zeros and poles can be distinct (different from one another).= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D(s) a1 a0 n an – 1 n – 1 an – 2 n – 2 -s -s . for the present discussion. m < n . 3. in most engineering applications we are interested in the nature of the poles. Fourth Edition. If m ≥ n . …. For details refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .22) can be expressed as bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b1 s + b0 N(s) F ( s ) = ----------. a system is said to be stable if a finite input produces a finite output. and are found by letting N ( s ) = 0 in (1. It is very convenient to make the coefficient a n of s in (12.23) The coefficients a k and b k for k = 0. we rewrite it as m m–1 m–2 1---( bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b1 s + b0 ) a N(s) n F ( s ) = ----------. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. A system is stable if the impulse response h ( t ) goes to zero after some time as shown in Figure 1. 1−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. i.s + ---s + ----------+ ----------+ … + ---an an an an n (1. The roots of the denominator are called the poles* of F ( s ) and are found by letting D ( s ) = 0 . of a combination of these. 1. we have assumed that the highest power of N ( s ) is less than the highest power of D ( s ) .13. F ( s ) is an improper rational function. 2. 1. A system is marginally stable if the impulse response h ( t ) reaches a certain non−zero value but never goes to zero as shown in Figure 1. † For a detailed discussion on the impulse response. F ( s ) is a proper rational function. However.24). In terms of the impulse response.8 Stability In general. 2. 1.24) The roots of the numerator are called the zeros of F ( s ) .

Characteristics of an unstable system We can plot the poles and zeros of a transfer function G ( s ) on the complex frequency plane of the complex variable s = σ + j ω . A system is stable only when all poles lie on the left−hand half− plane.15.Stability Voltage Time Figure 1. However.13. It is marginally stable when one or more poles lie on the j ω axis. Characteristics of a stable system Figure 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−13 . Characteristics of a marginally stable system Figure 1. and unstable when one or more poles lie on the right−hand half−plane.14. the location of the zeros in the s – plane is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

For example. equ1=solve('s^2+2*s+5−0'). With this function..'eqnN') function to find the roots of the quadratic factors.. the freq u e n c y r a n g e a n d n u m b e r o f p o i n t s a r e c h o s e n a u t o m a t i c a l l y.w) function to plot the magnitude of this transfer function. to generate plots for 100 logarithmically evenly spaced points for the frequency interval 10 –1 ≤ ω ≤ 10 r ⁄ s . * An introduction to MATLAB is included as Appendix A. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals immaterial. Example 1. we use the command logspace(first_exponent.w) function displays both magnitude and phase. is this system stable? b.w) uses the user−supplied vector w of frequencies. number_of_values).{wmin.. Solution: a.w) function. we use the statement logspace(−1.3 The transfer function of a system is 3 ( s – 1 ) ( s + 2s + 5 ) G ( s ) = -------------------------------------------------2 ( s + 2 ) ( s + 6s + 25 ) 2 a.100). syms s. 2 The bode(sys. If we want to display the magnitude only.'eqn2'.wmax}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between wmin and wmax (in radians/second) and the function bode(sys. that is.16. MATLAB requires that we express the numerator and denominator of G ( s ) as polynomials of s in descending powers. and tf creates a transfer function. T h e f u n c t i o n bode(sys.. the nature of the zeros do not determine the stability of the system. we can use the bodemag(sys. use the MATLAB bode(sys. We can use the MATLAB* function bode(sys) to draw the Bode plot of a Linear Time Invariant (LTI) System where sys = tf(num. To generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors. in radians/second.last_exponent.den) creates a continuous−time transfer function sys with numerator num and denominator den.2. equ2=solve('s^2+6*s+25−0') equ1 = [-1+2*i] equ2 = [-3+4*i] [-1-2*i] [-3-4*i] The zeros and poles of G ( s ) are shown in Figure 1. at which the Bode response is to be evaluated. 1−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Let us use the MATLAB solve('eqn1'.

d=expand((s+2)*(s^2+6*s+25)) n = s^3+s^2+3*s-5 d = s^3+8*s^2+37*s+50 and thus 3 ( s + s + 3s – 5 ) G ( s ) = -------------------------------------------------3 2 ( s + 8s + 37s + 50 ) 3 2 For this example we are interested in the magnitude only so we will use the script num=3*[1 1 3 −5]. grid The magnitude plot is shown in Figure 1. b. den=[1 8 37 50]. The location of the zeros.3 From Figure 1. n=expand((s−1)*(s^2+2*s+5)). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. We use the MATLAB expand(s) symbolic function to express the numerator and denominator of G ( s ) in polynomial form syms s..2. w=logspace(0. is immaterial. denoted as . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−15 . bodemag(sys.w).Stability – 3 + j4 – 1 + j2 –2 –1 –j 2 –3 –j 4 1 Figure 1.. denoted as .100).. lie on the left−hand half−plane and thus the system is stable.den). Poles and zeros of the transfer function of Example 1.16 we observe that all poles.16. sys=tf(num.17.

80 60 40 20 0 dB – 20 dB ⁄ decade Hz 4 10 3 10 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 Figure 1. Asymptotic magnitude response for Example 1.18 from which we obtain the data shown on the table below.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Bode Diagram 10 5 Magnitude (dB) 0 -5 -10 0 10 10 1 10 2 Figure 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . a DC gain of 80 dB . 1 MHz .3 Example 1.18. attenuation of – 20 dB per decade. and 100 MHz .4 It is known that a voltage amplifier has a frequency response of a low−pass filter.4 1−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Determine the gain (in dB ) at the frequencies 1 KHz . 10 MHz . 100KHz . Solution: Using the given data we construct the asymptotic magnitude response shown in Figure 1. Bode plot for Example 1. and the 3 dB cutoff frequency occurs at 10 KHz .17. 10 KHz .

use MATLAB to plot the magnitude of A v for the range 10 ≤ ω ≤ 10 .5 Solution: The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−17 .19. i out v in R out R in A voc v in v out A voc = --------- v out v in i out = 0 Figure 1.21.20. find the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s . Rs vs 1 KΩ R out 3 8 + − 2 cos ω t mV v in R in C + 100 Ω A v + − voc in R load 5 KΩ − 10 K Ω v load 0. From the plot. this text. Circuit model for voltage amplifier where A voc denotes the open circuit voltage gain The ideal characteristics for the circuit of Figure 1.1 nF A voc = 20 Figure 1. * Readers who have a copy of Circuit Analysis I.20.9 Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Amplifiers are often represented by equivalent circuits* also known as circuit models. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. The equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier is shown in Figure 1. are encouraged to review Chapter 4 on equivalent circuits of operational amplifiers. Refer also to Chapter 5.19. estimate the 3 dB cutoff frequency. Amplifier circuit for Example 1.19 are R in → ∞ and R out → 0 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 For the voltage amplifier of Figure 1.Voltage Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Frequency Gain (dB) 1 KHz 80 10 KHz 77 100 KHz 60 1 MHz 40 10 MHz 20 100 MHz 0 1. Example 1. Then.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .25) Also.59 MHz 7 1−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. sys=tf(num.25) into (1..20 The parallel combination of the 10 resistor and 10 ⁄ s capacitor yields 4 10 10 ⁄ s 10 = ------------------------------Z ( s ) = 10 || 10 ⁄ s = ----------------------------------4 10 4 10 10 + 10 ⁄ s 10 s + 10 14 14 4 10 and by the voltage division expression 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 .26) we obtain 19. 10 5 × 10 .1000).1 × 10 14 (1.61V in ( s ) V load ( s ) = ------------------------------2 3 3 in 5.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 10 VS ( s ) 3 10 4 2 + − V in ( s ) + − 10 10 10 + ⁄ s 20V in ( s ) − 5 × 10 3 V load ( s ) Figure 1.26) By substitution of (1. den=[10^7 1.61*10^14].V ( s ) = 19. The s – domain circuit of Figure 1. w=logspace(3. grid The plot is shown in Figure 1.V S ( s ) V in ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------3 14 4 10 7 14 10 s + 1.= ----------------------------------------G v ( s ) = -------------------7 14 VS ( s ) 10 s + 1..1*10^14].w).27) and with MATLAB num=[0 19.61 × 10 .22 and we observe that the cutoff frequency occurs at about 22 dB where f C ≈ 10 ⁄ 2 π ≈ 1.61 × 10 V load ( s ) = ----------------------------------------V (s) 7 14 S 10 s + 1.20V in ( s ) = --------------------.den).V S ( s ) = ----------------------------------------.1 × 10 10 + 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 14 4 10 14 (1.. bodemag(sys.1 × 10 10 + 5 × 10 3 5 (1.8.1 × 10 14 V load ( s ) 19.21.

Circuit model for current amplifier where A isc denotes the short circuit current gain The ideal characteristics for the circuit of Figure 1.23.23 are R in → 0 and R out → ∞ .10 Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit The equivalent circuit of a current amplifier is shown in Figure 1.5 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Bode plot for the voltage amplifier of Example 1. i in v in R in i out i out R out v out A isc = ------i in v out = 0 A isc i in Figure 1.23.22.Current Amplifier Equivalent Circuit Bode Diagram 30 25 Magnitude (dB) 20 15 10 5 3 10 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 Figure 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−19 .

derive an expression for the overall current gain A i = i load ⁄ i s . Two more circuit models are the transresistance and transconductance equivalent circuits and there are introduced in Exercises 1. out -A i i load = ----------------------------R out + R load isc in R (1.6 Solution: Using the current division expression we obtain s -i i in = ------------------R s + R in s R (1. 1−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.28) into (1.24.29) yields out S . i in Rs R in i out i load R out V load is A isc i in R load Figure 1.= ----------------------------A i = ---------R out + R load R S + R in isc is In Sections 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5 respectively.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Example 1.10 we presented the voltage and current amplifier equivalent circuits also known as circuit models.6 For the current amplifier of Figure 1.30) or R out RS i load .A --------------------i i load = ----------------------------R out + R load isc R S + R in s R R (1.-------------------A .4 and 1. Current amplifier for Example 1.24.28) Also.29) Substitution of (1.9 and 1.

• If the peak (maximum) value of a current of a sinusoidal waveform is I p .Summary 1. current or power amplifier. electric or magnetic field strength. then I RMS = I p ⁄ ( 2 ) = 0. telephony. that is. It represents a fluctuating electric quantity. The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of the output to the input. • The effective (or RMS) value of a periodic current waveform i ( t ) denoted as I eff is the current that produces heat in a given resistor R at the same average rate as a direct (constant) current I dc and it is found from the expression I RMS = I eff = 1 T 2 -. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−21 . • The average value of a waveform f ( t ) in the interval a ≤ t ≤ b is defined as f ( t ) dt b a Area .= ----------------------= ---------------b–a Period a f ( t ) ave ∫ b • A periodic time function satisfies the expression f ( t ) = f ( t + nT ) for all time t and for all integers n . such as voltage. • An alternating waveform is any periodic time function whose average value over a period is zero. or any message transmitted or received in telegraphy. A resistive voltage divider is a typical attenuator. • An electronic (or electric) circuit which produces an output that is smaller than the input is called an attenuator. The constant T is the period and it is the smallest value of time which separates recurring values of the waveform. • An amplifier can be classified as a voltage. for a voltage amplifier Voltage Voltage Gain = Output ---------------------------------------Input Voltage or Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.i dt = T 0 ∫ Ave ( i ) 2 where RMS stands for Root Mean Squared.707I p • An amplifier is an electronic circuit which increases the magnitude of the input signal. radio.11 Summary • A signal is any waveform that serves as a means of communication. image. television. or radar. Thus. the effective value I eff or I RMS value of a current is computed as the square root of the mean (average) of the square of the current. current. sound.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the output voltage is expressed as V out ( ω ) = V out ( ω ) e jϕ(ω) 2 ⁄ 2 = 0.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals G v = V out ⁄ V in The current gain G i and power gain G p are defined similarly. At these frequencies. voltage or current) can be expressed in decibels (dB). • Two frequencies ω 1 and ω 2 are said to be separated by an octave if ω 2 = 2 ω 1 and separated by a decade if ω 2 = 10 ω 1 . dB = 10 log P out ⁄ P in The dB values for voltage and current ratios are dB v = 20 log V out ⁄ V in dB i = 20 log I out ⁄ I in • The bandwidth is BW = ω 2 – ω 1 where ω 1 and ω 2 are the cutoff frequencies. We may think that low−pass and high−pass filters have also two cutoff frequencies where in the case of the low−pass filter the second cutoff frequency is at ω = 0 while in a high−pass filter it is at ω = ∞ . These two responses together constitute the frequency response of a circuit. • We also recall also that the output of circuit is dependent upon the frequency when the input is a sinusoidal voltage. In general form.707 and these two points are known as the 3−dB down or half− where V out ( ω ) is referred to as the magnitude response and e j ϕ ( ω ) is referred to as the phase response. • The transfer function of a system is defined as V out ( s ) N(s) = ----------G ( s ) = -----------------D(s) V in ( s ) 1−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • The ratio of any two values of the same quantity (power. • The low−pass and high−pass filters have only one cutoff frequency whereas band−pass and band−stop filters have two. V out = power points. By definition. • The magnitude and phase responses of a circuit are often shown with asymptotic lines as approximations and these are referred to as Bode plots.

the current amplifier. and are found by letting N ( s ) = 0 . The common types are the voltage amplifier. The function bode(sys.w) function displays both magnitude and phase. the transresistance amplifier.V in ( s ) = ----------. or repeated. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−23 .= --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------D(s) a1 a0 n an – 1 n – 1 an – 2 n – 2 -s -s . To generate logarithmically spaced frequency vectors. The roots of the denominator are called the poles of F ( s ) and are found by letting D(s) = 0 . and tf creates a transfer function.s + ---s + ----------+ ----------+ … + ---an an an an where m < n . • The zeros and poles can be real and distinct. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • A system is said to be stable if a finite input produces a finite output. However. A system is stable only when all poles lie on the left− hand half−plane.Summary where the numerator N ( s ) and denominator D ( s ) are as shown in the expression ( an s + an – 1 s + an – 2 s + … + a0 ) N(s) V out ( s ) = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. the roots of the numerator are called the zeros of F ( s ) . • We can use the MATLAB function bode(sys) to draw the Bode plot of a system where sys = tf(num. the frequency range and number of points are chosen automatically. number_of_values).w) uses the user−supplied vector w of frequencies. the location of the zeros in the s – plane is immaterial. • Stability can easily be determined from the transfer function G ( s ) on the complex frequency plane of the complex variable s = σ + j ω .( bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b1 s + b0 ) a N(s) n F ( s ) = ----------. or combinations of real and complex conjugates. It is marginally stable when one or more poles lie on the j ω axis. The bode(sys. However. we can use the bodemag(sys.V in ( s ) m m–1 m–2 D(s) ( bm s + bm – 1 s + bm – 2 s + … + b0 ) n n–1 n–2 • In the expression m m–1 m–2 1 ---. If we want to display the magnitude only. With this function. • Amplifiers are often represented by equivalent circuits also known as circuit models. we use the command logspace(first_exponent.w) function. or complex conjugates. in most engineering applications we are interested in the nature of the poles. at which the Bode response is to be evaluated.wmax}) draws the Bode plot for frequencies between wmin and wmax (in radians/second) and the function bode(sys. in radians/second. We can predict the stability of a system from its impulse response h ( t ) .last_exponent.{wmin. and the transconductance amplifier. and unstable when one or more poles lie on the right−hand half−plane.den) creates a continuous−time transfer function sys with numerator num and denominator den.

Then. Derive the transfer function G ( s ) for the network shown below. 4.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1. L 0. Derive the transfer function of this system given that G ( ∞ ) = 10 . the circuit is as shown below. A system has poles at – 4 . The circuit model shown below is known as a transresistance amplifier and the ideal characteristics for this amplifier are R in → 0 and R out → 0 . 3 8 1−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 nF 100 Ω + + − 2 cos ω t mV v in − + − Rm im R load 5 KΩ + v load − Find the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s if R m = 100 Ω .5 H + v in ( t ) − + C − 1F R + 1 Ω v out ( t ) − 3. 2. use MATLAB to plot the magnitude of A v for the range 10 ≤ ω ≤ 10 . – 3 + j2 . estimate the 3 dB cutoff frequency. RS vS 1 KΩ i in R out R in C 10 K Ω 0.12 Exercises 1. Following the procedure of Example 1. and – 3 – j2 . derive and sketch the magnitude and phase responses for an RC high−pass filter.1. – 2 – j . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and zeros at – 1 . From the plot. – 2 + j . i in v in R in R out i out v out out R in = --------- v R in i in i in i out = 0 With a voltage source v s in series with resistance R s connected on the input side and a load resistance R load connected to the output.

8. the circuit is as shown below. Hint: Use the procedure in Example 1. 7. For the high-pass filter circuit in Exercise 6 above 1 show that the output across the resistor at low frequencies. For the low-pass filter circuit in Example 1 show that the output across the capacitor at high frequencies.. the voltage across the capacitor is the integral of the input voltage. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.e. The circuit model shown below is known as a transconductance amplifier and the ideal characteristics for this amplifier are R in → ∞ and R out → ∞. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−25 . the voltage across the resistor is the derivative of the input voltage.. Derive the transfer function b. approximates a differentiator. C R a. The circuit shown below is an R-C high-pass filter. that is.Exercises 5. for ω » 1 ⁄ RC . Use MATLAB to plot the magnitude and phase angle for this high-pass filter. for ω « 1 ⁄ RC . that is. i. i out v in R in R out v out G m = ------- i out v in v out = 0 G m v in With a voltage source v s in series with resistance R s connected on the input side and a load resistance R load connected to the output. i. i out vS RS v in R in G m v in R out R load v load Derive an expression for the overall voltage gain A v = v load ⁄ v s 6. approximates an integrator.e.

Refer to the solutions as a last resort and rework those problems at a later date. You should follow this practice with all end−of−chapter exercises in this book. It is recommended that first you go through and solve those you feel that you know. For your solutions that you are uncertain. review the chapter. make an honest effort to solve these exercises without first looking at the solutions that follow. and try again. look over your procedures for inconsistencies and computational errors. for your benefit.13 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises Dear Reader: The remaining pages on this chapter contain solutions to all end−of−chapter exercises. You must. 1−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1.

θ = – atan 1 = – 45 ° θ = – atan ( – 1 ) = 45 ° Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.^2). Thus. i. θ ≅ – atan 0 ≅ 0 ° For ω = 1 ⁄ RC . This is shown on the plot below where.02:100.= -------------------------------------. For ω = – 1 ⁄ RC .707 G(jω) ≅ 1 We will use the MATLAB script below to plot G ( j ω ) versus radian frequency ω . ω = 1 ⁄ RC . for convenience..e. Thus. R -V V out = --------------------------R + 1 ⁄ j ω C in or 2 2 2 V out ω RC ( j + ω RC ) j ω RC . G(jω) ≅ 0 For ω = 1 ⁄ RC . w=0:0. and ω → ∞ .= j ω RC + ω R C ---------------------------------------./(w.∠ atan ( 1 ⁄ ( ω RC ) ) = ω ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 2 2 2 2 2 1+ω R C 1 + 1 ⁄ (ω R C ) (1) The magnitude of (1) is 1 . magGs=1. by evaluating (3) at ω = 0 . as ω → 0 . is θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } = atan ( 1 ⁄ ω RC ) (3) We can obtain a quick sketch for the magnitude G ( j ω ) versus ω by evaluating (2) at ω = 0 . ω = – 1 ⁄ RC . and ω → ∞ ./sqrt(1+1. θ = arg { G ( j ω ) } versus ω . As ω → 0 . grid We can also obtain a quick sketch for the phase angle.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 = 0.*RC). we let RC = 1 .magGs).(2) G ( j ω ) = -------------------------------------------2 2 2 1 + 1 ⁄ (ω R C ) and the phase angle or argument.= ----------------------G ( j ω ) = ---------2 2 2 2 2 2 V in 1 + j ω RC 1+ω R C 1+ω R C 2 2 2 1 ) = -------------------------------------------RC 1 + ω R C ∠ atan ( 1 ⁄ ( ω RC ) . ω = 1 ⁄ RC . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−27 . RC=1. and as ω → ∞ . semilogx(w. ω → – ∞ .

RC=1. θ = – atan ( – ∞ ) = 90 ° and as ω → ∞ . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2 0.6 0.5 0. we let RC = 1 .argGs).8 Magnitude of Vout/Vin 0.4 0./(w. plot(w.*180. w=−8:0.*RC)). grid 100 Phase angle in degrees 50 0 -50 -100 -8 -6 -4 -2 0 2 4 Frequency in rad/sec (linear scale) 6 8 1−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 0 -2 10 10 -1 Half-power point 10 10 Frequency in rad/sec (log scale) 0 1 10 2 As ω → – ∞ . θ = – atan ( ∞ ) = – 90 ° We will use the MATLAB script below to plot the phase angle θ versus radian frequency ω .02:8.7 0.3 0. for convenience. This is shown on the plot below where. argGs=atan(1./pi.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1 0.9 0.

The transfer function has the form K [ s – ( – 1 ) ] [ s – ( – 3 + j2 ) ] [ s – ( – 3 – j2 ) ] G ( s ) = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------[ s – ( –4 ) ] [ s – ( – 2 + j ) ] [ s – ( – 2 – j ) ] K ( s + 1 ) ( s + 6s + 13 ) K ( s + 7s + 19s + 13 ) = -----------------------------------------------------.= -------------------------------------------------------3 2 2 s + 8s + 21s + 20 ( s + 4 ) ( s + 4s + 5 ) num=10*[1 7 19 13]. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−29 . It is given that G ( ∞ ) = 10 . den=[1 8 21 20].= ------------s -----------------------2 s⁄2+1⁄s s +2 and by application of the voltage division expression we obtain 1 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 2.grid 3 2 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. G ( s ) ≈ K . We draw the s – domain equivalent shown below.5s + − 1 + V out ( s ) − 1⁄s Parallel combination of the inductor and capacitor yields s ⁄ 2 ⋅ 1 ⁄ s.100).den.w). bode(num.2.= ------------------------------------------------------2 3 2 ( s + 4 ) ( s + 4s + 5 ) s + 8s + 21s + 20 2 3 2 To determine the value of the constant K we divide all terms of G ( s ) by s3 and we obtain ( 1 + 7 ⁄ s + 19 ⁄ s + 13 ⁄ s ) G(s) = K --------------------------------------------------------------------2 3 1 + 8 ⁄ s + 21 ⁄ s + 20 ⁄ s 2 3 and as s → ∞ .V in ( s ) V out ( s ) = --------------------------------2 s ⁄ (s + 2) + 1 2 V out ( s ) s +2 G ( s ) = -----------------= ---------------------2 V in ( s ) s +s+2 3. + V in ( s ) − 0. w=logspace(0. then K = 10 and the final form of the transfer function is 10 ( s + 7s + 19s + 13 ) 10 ( s + 1 ) ( s + 6s + 13 ) G ( s ) = --------------------------------------------------------.

V S ( s ) = ----------------------------------------V in ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------3 14 4 10 14 S 7 10 + 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 s + 1. I in ( s ) 10 2 VS ( s ) + − 10 3 + 10 4 + + − 10 10 V in ( s ) + − ⁄ s 100I in ( s ) − V load ( s ) 5 × 10 3 − The parallel combination of the 10 resistor and 10 ⁄ s capacitor yields Z( s) = 4 10 10 ⁄ s 10 = -----------------------------10 || 10 ⁄ s = ---------------------------------4 10 4 10 10 + 10 ⁄ s 10 s + 10 14 14 4 10 and by the voltage division expression 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) 10 -V (s) .1 × 10 14 4 10 14 Also.100I in ( s ) = --------------------V load ( s ) = ------------------------------I ( s ) = 98I in ( s ) (1) 2 3 3 in 10 + 5 × 10 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown below.5 19 18.5 18 15 Phase (deg) 10 5 0 0 10 10 1 10 2 Frequency (rad/sec) 4.1 × 10 3 5 where 1−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals Bode Diagram 20 Magnitude (dB) 19. 5 × 10 5 × 10 .

1 × 10 ) 10 ⁄ ( 10 s + 10 ) and by substitution into (1) we obtain 98 VS( s ) V load ( s ) = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 10 14 7 ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1.1*10^24]. bodemag(sys.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 14 7 14 V in ( s ) VS ( s ) 10 V S ( s ) ⁄ ( 10 s + 1. w=logspace(5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing..w). grid we obtain the Bode plot below.2 × 10 s + 1.1 × 10 or and with the MATLAB script below..= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------4 10 7 14 VS ( s ) ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1.11.1 × 10 ) Then. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−31 .= --------------------------------------------------------------------------14 4 10 4 10 7 14 Z(s) ( 10 s + 10 ) ( 10 s + 1.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------11 2 18 24 VS ( s ) 10 s + 1.1000).den). sys=tf(num.2*10^18 1.= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------I in ( s ) = --------------. Bode Diagram -440 -460 -480 -500 Magnitude (dB) -520 -540 -560 -580 -600 -620 -640 5 10 6 7 8 9 10 11 10 10 10 10 10 10 Frequency (rad/sec) This plot shows a high attenuation of the source voltage v s and thus the transresistance circuit model should not be used as a voltage amplifier. V load ( s ) 98 G v ( s ) = -------------------.1 × 10 ) . den=[10^11 1. num=[0 0 98].1 × 10 ) V load ( s ) 98 G v ( s ) = -------------------..

semilogx(w. phase=angle(xf).v (1) v in = -------------------R S + R in S Also.. semilogx(w./pi.*RC).mag).= ⎜ -------------------A v = ----------vS ⎝ R S + R in ⎠ ⎝ R out + R load ⎠ 6. i out vS RS v in R in G m v in R out R load v load By the voltage division expression R in .G v (2) v load = -----------------------------R out + R load m in Substitution of (1) into (2) yields R out R load R in ../(1+j.*w.*log10(abs(xf))... Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .*180.⎟ ⎜ -----------------------------. C R Application of the voltage division expression yields R -V V out = --------------------------R + 1 ⁄ j ω C in or V out j ω RC G ( j ω ) = ---------. mag=20.⎟ Gm . RC=1.. subplot(121). xf=(j.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 5.= ----------------------V in 1 + j ω RC w=1:10:100000.. subplot(122).*RC).phase) 1−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.G m --------------------v v load = -----------------------------R out + R load R S + R in S v load ⎛ R in ⎞ ⎛ R out R load ⎞ .*w. R out R load . .

v in i ≈ -----R 1 t .i dt v out = v C = --C 0 ∫ 1 t .5 -2 -2. i. 1 ⁄ sC . v in R i C v out v in i = --------------------------R + 1 ⁄ jωC and for ω » 1 ⁄ RC or R » 1 ⁄ ω C Also. please refer to Appendix B Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises Magnitude .5 0 10 Phase angle (degrees) 1 2 3 4 5 Phase angle .high-pass filter RC=1 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 10 10 10 10 Radian frequency (log scale) 10 0 0 10 10 10 10 10 Radian frequency (log scale) 1 2 3 4 10 5 7.5 -1 Magnitude (dB) -1.e. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−33 . Thus.v dt v out ≈ ------RC 0 in ∫ We can illustrate this with a Simulink* model as follows: The transfer function of the low-pass filter above is readily derived from the voltage division expression..V ( s ) in V ( s ) out = ----------------------R + 1 ⁄ sC from which * For an introduction to Simulink.5 -3 -3.high-pass filter RC=1 0 -0.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the Scope block displays the input and output waveforms below. 8. C i R v in i = --------------------------R + 1 ⁄ jωC and for ω « 1 ⁄ RC or R « 1 ⁄ ω C 1−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ------------------1 G ( s ) = -----------------= ----------------------V ( s ) in R + 1 ⁄ sC RCs + 1 and for RC = 1 . we create the Simulink model shown below.Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals V ( s ) out 1 ⁄ sC . 1 G ( s ) = ---------s+1 Next. After the execution command is issued.

i v in ≈ ---------------≈ vC 1 ⁄ jωC dv C dv C .= ------------------RCs + 1 RCs + 1 V ( s ) in and for RC = 1 .e. R . s G ( s ) = ---------s+1 Next. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 1−35 . Thus.R = RC -------v out = iR = C -------dt dt dv in v out ≈ RC --------dt We can illustrate this with a Simulink model as follows: The transfer function of the high-pass filter above is readily derived from the voltage division expression. After the execution command is issued.. we create the Simulink model shown below. the Scope block displays the input and output waveforms below. i.V ( s ) in V ( s ) out = ----------------------R + 1 ⁄ sC from which V ( s ) out RCs 1 G ( s ) = -----------------= ------------------. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises v in i ≈ ---------------1 ⁄ jωC or Also.

Chapter 1 Basic Electronic Concepts and Signals 1−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

its characteristics.1 shows a partial silicon crystal structure in a two−dimensional plane where we observe that atoms combine to form an octet of valence electrons by sharing electrons.. Zener diodes. and others. The N−type and P−type semiconductors are discussed and majority and minority carriers are defined. The electron and hole movement is explained and illustrated in simple terms.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes T his chapter begins with an introduction to semiconductor electronics. Silicon has four valence electrons* and Figure 2. electron electron sharing Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−1 . this combination is referred to as covalent bonding.e. The chapter concludes with the introduction of other types of diodes. and applications are discussed. tunnel diodes. 2. i. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 Electrons and Holes We recall from the Periodic Table of Elements that silicon is classified as a semiconductor and it is widely used in the fabrication of modern technology electronic devices. The junction diode.1. Partial silicon crystal structure * Valence electrons are those on the outer orbit.

free electron hole Figure 2.3. Free electron and hole movement at random Figure 2.2. the free electron movement and the hole movement.3 shows that a hole exists in position 1. Accordingly. in a silicon crystal that has been thermally agitated we have two types of current movement. The other electrons which stay in the valence orbit are called bound electrons.3. Next. the hole in position 2−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes Thermal (heat) energy can dislodge (remove) an electron from the valence orbit of the silicon atom and when this occurs. that free electron becomes once again a bound electron and this action is called recombination. Let us now suppose that the bound electron in position 2 is attracted by the hole in position 1. Figure 2.2 shows a free electron that has escaped from the valence orbit and the hole that has been created. free electron 1 2 hole 3 Figure 2. A new hole has now been created in position 2 and thus we say that the hole has moved from position 1 to position 2. the dislodged electron becomes a free electron and thus a vacancy (empty) space is created and it is referred to as a hole. in a crystal of pure silicon that has been thermally agitated there is an equal number of free electrons and holes. Then. The movement of holes can be best illustrated with the arrangement in Figure 2. Free electron and the created hole in a partial silicon crystal When a free electron approaches a hole it is attracted and “captured” by that hole. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Therefore.

4. We should also remember that in both N−type and P−type materials. N−type and P−type semiconductors * Atoms with five valence electrons are often referred to as pentavalent atoms and atoms with three valence electrons are referred to as trivalent atoms. if we connect a voltage source as shown in Figure 2. and gallium. The free electron and hole movement is a random process. current flow in the external circuit consists of electrons moving out of the negative terminal of the battery and into the positive terminal of the battery.4. Free electron and hole movement when an external voltage is applied We should keep in mind that holes are just vacancies and not positive charges although they move the same way as positive charges.5. are added to melted silicon. or atoms with three valence electrons such as boron. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Electrons and Holes 2 may attract the bound electron from position 3 and the hole now appears in position 3. This continued process is called hole movement and it is opposite to the free electron movement. The newly formed compound then can be either an N−type semiconductor or a P−type semiconductor depending on the impurity atoms that were added as shown in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−3 . on the other hand. However. arsenic. and antimony. f ree electron movement hole movement f ree electron hole Figure 2.5. the hole and free electron movement takes place in an orderly fashion. The silicon is first melted to break down its original crystal structure and then impurity atoms are added. Doping is a process where impurity atoms* which are atoms with five valence electrons such as phosphorous. Si free electron Si hole Si As Si Si = Silicon As = Arsenic Ga = Gallium Si Ga Si Si N – type semiconductor Si P – type semiconductor Figure 2. only exists within the material itself. aluminum. Hole flow.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . This is because the donor atoms in the N material were left with positive charges (the protons outnumbered the electrons) after the free electrons became available by covalent bonding.7.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes An N−type semiconductor has more free electrons than holes and for this reason the free electrons are considered to be the majority carriers and the holes the minority carriers. the P−type material is also electrically neutral because the excess of holes is exactly balanced by the number of free electrons. By the same reasoning.7. A P N Physical Structure B Depletion Region A P N B Symbol Figure 2. We should remember that although the N−type material has an excess of free electrons. This does not happen. it is still electrically neutral.2 The Junction Diode A junction diode is formed when a piece of P−type material and a piece of N−type material are joined together as shown in Figure 2. The depletion region is shown in more detail in Figure 2. Conversely. for every free electron in the N material there is a corresponding positively charged atom to balance it and the N material has a net charge of zero.6. 2. Instead the electrons in the N material diffuse (move or spread out) across the junction into the P material and fill some 2−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. a P−type semiconductor has more holes than free electrons and thus the holes are the majority carriers and the free electrons are the minority carriers. all the holes and electrons would pair up. The PN junction barrier formation We would think that if we join the N and P materials together by one of the processes mentioned earlier. Therefore. Formation of a junction diode and its symbol Junction Hole Free E lectron Negative Ion Positive Ion Depletion Region Electrostatic Field Figure 2.6 where the area between the P−type and N−type materials is referred to as the depletion region.

8. This process. The diffusion of electrons and holes across the junction will continue until the magnitude of the electrostatic field is increased to the point where the electrons and holes no longer have enough energy to overcome it. Only the carriers in the immediate vicinity of the junction are affected. a forward−biased PN junction is formed. and are repelled by the negative and positive ions respectively. the holes in the P material diffuse across the junction into the N material and are filled by N material electrons. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. it is known as the depletion region. An electrostatic field. the movement of carriers across the junction ceases. represented by a small battery in Figure 2−7.8. P N Figure 2.The Junction Diode of the holes. there is a layer of positively charged ions. ideally no current will flows through the diode. At the same time. The action just described occurs almost instantly when the junction is formed. At this point equilibrium is established and. Reverse−biased junction diode When a junction diode is reverse−biased. the electrostatic field created by the positive and negative ions in the depletion region is called a barrier. For this reason. On the N side of the junction. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−5 . If we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the P−type material and the minus (−) side to the N−type as shown in Figure 2.9. they make up a layer of fixed charges on the two sides of the junction as shown in Figure 2−7. Thus. for all practical purposes. reduces the number of free electrons and holes in the vicinity of the junction. a reverse−biased PN junction is formed. while the loss of a hole from the P material created a negative ion in that material.9. Forward−biased junction diode When a junction diode is forward−biased. called junction recombination. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow on the diode symbol. is established across the junction between the oppositely charged ions. P N Figure 2. there is a layer of negatively charged ions. or lack of free electrons and holes in this area. The carriers throughout the remainder of the N and P material are relatively undisturbed and remain in a balanced condition. Because there is a depletion. If we reverse the voltage source terminals as shown in Figure 2. These ions are fixed in place in the crystal lattice structure and cannot move. The loss of an electron from the N−type material created a positive ion in the N material. on the P side of the junction.

10. q is charge of an electron. These designations and the notations for the voltage V D across the diode and the current I D through the diode are shown in Figure 2.10 where the direction of the current I D through the diode is the direction of the conventional* current flow. coulomb . and when v D < 0 . iD vD Figure 2. that is. ideally i D → 0 . VD Anode ID Cathode Figure 2. However. I r is the reverse current.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes The P−type side of the junction diode is also referred to as the anode and the N−type side as the cathode.10. Ideal i D – v D characteristics of a junction diode With reference to Figure 2. ideally i D → ∞ .1) where i D and v D are as shown in Figure 2. the actual i D – v D relationship in a forward−biased junction diode is the non- linear relation iD = Ir [ e ( qv D ⁄ nkT ) – 1] (2. the coefficient n varies from 1 to 2 depending on the current level and the nature or the recombination near the junction.6 × 10 * It is immaterial whether we use the electron current flow or the conventional current flow. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . k = Boltzmann' s constant .11 shows the ideal i D – v D characteristics of a junction diode. The equations for the voltage− current relationships are the same as proved in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. – 19 2−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.11. ISBN 978−0−9709511− 2−0. that is. Voltage and current designations for a junction diode Figure 2. the current which would flow through the diode if the polarity of v D is reversed. q = 1. that is.11 we see that when v D > 0 .

*VT))−1).. n=1. ylabel('Diode current iD.5 mA . Thus.12.1 0.1) into one variable V T known as thermal voltage where V T = kT ⁄ q (2.8 0. volts').005]). o T = 273 + temperature in C . the current through the diode is i D ≈ 0.The Junction Diode k = 1.. title('iD−vD characteristics for a forward−biased junction diode'). amps T=27 deg C 3 2 1 0 0 0.3) – 19 = kT ⁄ q = 1. The curve of Figure 2.9 1 Figure 2. iD=iR. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow of the diode as long as the voltage drop v D across the diode is about 0. a very small current will flow Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing..4 0.2) – 1] and by substitution into (1). iR=10^(−15).7 Diode voltage vD. xlabel('Diode voltage vD.4) We will use the MATLAB script below to plot the instantaneous current i D versus the instantaneous voltage v D for the interval 0 ≤ v D ≤ 10 v .. VT=26*10^(−3).. axis([0 1 0 0. amps')..38 × 10 – 23 joule ⁄ Kelvin .iD)..2 0. When a junction diode is reverse−biased. for T = 300 ° K we obtain VT 300 ° K iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) (2. and T in (2.001: 1.7 V . k .12 shows that in a junction diode made with silicon and an impurity. vD=0: 0../(n. as shown in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−7 .6 × 10 ≈ 26mV (2.38 × 10 – 23 × 300 ⁄ 1.6 0. that is. Voltage−current characteristics of a forward−biased junction diode. plot(vD.3 0. and temperature at 27 ° C .5 0.13.*(exp(vD. It is convenient to combine q . grid 5 x 10 -3 iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode n=1 4 Diode current iD.65 volt or greater. volts 0. with n = 1 .. We also observe that at v D = 0. and T is the absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin.

2−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The N side of a typical junction diode has a black band as shown in Figure 2. and if these ratings are exceeded. The maximum peak current that can be permitted to flow in the forward direction in the form of recurring pulses is referred to as the peak forward current. We will discuss transistors in Chapter 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . watts) by the manufacturer. If. The voltage−current characteristics of a reverse biased junction diode are shown in Figure 2. The maximum amount of average current that can be permitted to flow in the forward direction is referred to as the maximum average forward current and it is specified at a special temperature.13. i VZ Avalanche Region 0 v Figure 2. The maximum current permitted to flow in the forward direction in the form of nonrecurring pulses is referred to as the maximum surge current. and 3 a tetrode which has three junctions).14.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes and if the applied voltage exceeds a certain value the diode will reach its avalanche or Zener region. If this rating is exceeded. All of the above ratings are subject to change with temperature variations. Current should not equal this value for more than a few milliseconds. the ratings must be decreased. to large 250−ampere diodes used in high−power circuits. the operating temperature is above that stated for the ratings. There are many types of diodes varying in size from the size of a pinhead used in subminiature circuitry. and YYYY is an identification number. 1N4148 is a semiconductor diode and 2N3904 is a transistor. The reverse biased region of a junction diode Commercially available diodes are provided with a given rating (volts. Zener diodes are discussed on the next section. For instance. for example.13 where V Z is referred to as the Zener diode voltage. the diode will burn−out in either the forward−biased or the reverse−biased direction. usually 25 ° C . A typical diode is identified as XNYYYY where X denotes the number of semiconductor junctions (1 for diodes. N identifies the device as a semiconductor. The maximum reverse−bias voltage that may be applied to a diode without causing junction breakdown is referred to as the Peak Reverse Voltage (PRV) and it is the most important rating. structure breakdown can occur. 2 for transistors.

15. Example 2.3 Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non−Linear Devices As we’ve seen the junction diode i – v characteristics are non−linear and thus we cannot derive the voltage−current relationships with Ohm’s law.15. However.14. refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non−Linear Devices A Symbol B A Orientation B Figure 2. Diode symbol and orientation Diodes are used in various applications where it is desired to have electric current flow in one direction but to be blocked in the opposite direction as shown in Figure 2. and all the other devices are linear. we can apply Thevenin’s theorem to reduce the circuit to a Thevenin equivalent in series with the non−linear element. In the circuit of Figure 2.5 – 0. * For a thorough discussion on Thevenin’s equivalent circuits. The procedure is illustrated with the following example.7 = 0.1 For the circuit of Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−9 . If a circuit contains only one non−linear device. no current flows. and thus V out = 0 . 2. Then. and thus V out = 1.5 – V D = 1. so current flows. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. VD R 1.15(b) the diode is reverse−biased. the i – v characteristics of the diode D are shown in Figure 2. such as a diode.8 V . Diodes in DC Circuits In the circuit of Figure 2.16. We wish to find the voltage v D across the diode and the current i D through this diode using a graphical solution.15(a) the diode is forward − biased.5 V ID V out 1. we can analyze the circuit using a graphical solution.17 where V TH and R TH represent the Thevenin* equivalent voltage and resistance respectively of another circuit that has been reduced to its Thevenin equivalent.5 V ID = 0 V out = 0 R ( a ) Forward – biased diode ( b ) Reverse – biased diode Figure 2. we will see later that for small signals (voltages or currents) these circuits can be represented by linear equivalent circuit models.

7 Diode voltage vD.4 0.1 0. amps T=27 deg C 3 2 1 0 0 0. This line is referred to as a load line. 2−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. then i D = 0 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . We obtain the straight line shown in Figure 2.1 Solution: The current i D through the diode is also the current through the resistor. Then.17.2 0.1 5 x 10 -3 iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode n=1 4 Diode current iD.16.9 1 Figure 2.5) We observe that (2.5) is an equation of a straight line and two points of this straight line can be obtained by first letting v D = 0 .8 0.v + --i D = – --R D R (2. Circuit for Example 2.3 0. volts 0.18 which is plotted on the same graph as the given diode i – v characteristics.6 0.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes R TH V TH + − 1V 1 KΩ + D vD − iD Figure 2.5 0. Voltage−current characteristics of the diode of Example 2. by KVL vR + vD = 1 V Ri D = – v D + 1 1 1 .

4 0. Check: Since this is a series circuit.Graphical Analysis of Circuits with Non−Linear Devices 1 0.1 0 0 0. Therefore.7 0. volts 0. Quite often.1 0.68 = 1 V The relation of (2.1 The intersection of the non−linear curve and the load line yields the voltage and the current of the diode where we find that v D ≈ 0.6 0.9 1 x 10 -3 iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode Figure 2.4 0. Then.6) or iD ( v ⁄ nV ) ---.32 mA = 0.7 Diode voltage vD.5 0.6 0.8 Diode current iD.32 mA also. the above relation reduces to iD = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) (2.5 0.3) as iD + Ir = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) and since i D » I r . To do that we rewrite (2.32 V . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−11 .3) gives us the current when the voltage is known.2 0.9 0.3 0. by KVL v R + v D = 0.= e D T Ir Taking the natural logarithm of both sides we obtain Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.18.32 mA .3 0.32 + 0. we want to find the voltage when the current is known. amps 0.2 0. i R = 0. the voltage drop v R across the resistor is v R = 1 K Ω × 0.8 0.68V and i D ≈ 0. Curves for determining voltage and current in the diode of Example 2.

7) may also be written as v D = 2.4343 log 10 e and thus (2.7) Recalling that we obtain log b x log ax = ------------log ba log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) ln ( i D ⁄ I r ) = log e( i D ⁄ I r ) = -----------------------------.= -----------------------------0.2 Derive an expression for the voltage change Δ v = V 2 – V 1 corresponding to a current change Δ i = I2 – I1 .= 2.≈ ----------------------.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes iD v D ⁄ nV T = ln ---Ir v D = nV T ln ( i D ⁄ I r ) (2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Solution: From (2.= e D2 D1 V ⁄ nV I D1 I e D1 T r Taking the natural log of both sides we obtain 2−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.8) Example 2.3) iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) – 1] iD + Ir = Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) and since i D » I r iD ≈ Ir e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) Let and By division we obtain I D1 ≈ I r e I D2 ≈ I r e V ⁄ nV V D1 ⁄ nV T V D2 ⁄ nV T D2 T I D2 I r e ( V – V ) ⁄ nV T ------.3 log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) .3nV T log 10 ( i D ⁄ I r ) (2.

4 0. amps 0.Piecewise Linear Approximations I D2 ( V – V ) ⁄ nV T 1 .19. 2.15 ) ( 52 – 27 )° C ( 1.2 0. Straight lines for forward−biased diode characteristics approximations Using the approximation with the straight lines shown in Figure 2.3 Experiments have shown that the reverse current I r increases by about 15% per 1 ° C rise.004 0.20.7 Diode voltage vD.4 Piecewise Linear Approximations The analysis of electronic circuits that contain diodes is greatly simplified with the use of diode models where we approximate the diode forward−biased characteristics with two straight lines as shown in Figure 2. we can now represent a typical junction diode with the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 2.19.15 ) 25 ≈ 3.8 0. Compute I r at 52 ° C .003 0. = 10 – 14 = 10 – 14 ( 1 + 0.009 0.002 0.6 0.19. volts 0.1 0. and it is known that for a certain diode I r = 10 Solution: Ir 52 ° C – 14 A at 27 ° C . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 0. 0.( V D2 – V D1 ) ln ------= ln ( e D2 D1 ) = --------nV I D1 T Δ v = V D2 – V D1 = nV T ln ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) = 2.008 Diode current iD.006 0.9 1 Slope=1/rD iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−13 .01 0.9) Example 2.3nV T log 10 ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) (2.3 0.007 0.005 0.3 × 10 – 13 A This represents about 97% increase in reverse current when the temperature rises from 27 ° C to 52 ° C .001 0 0 0.

4 In the circuit of Figure 2.65 V slope = 1 ⁄ r D Figure 2. the horizontal solid line in Figure 2.21. for each branch we have combined the diode voltage V D = 0. Circuit and piecewise linear i – v characteristics for Example 2. and the reciprocal of the slope of the line in Figure 2.20(b).20(b). the diode represents an ideal diode whose i – v characteristics are shown in Figure 2. Find the voltage V out . and r D = 1 ⁄ slope = 50 × 10 –3 A ⁄ V = 20 Ω . Representation of a practical diode by its piecewise linear equivalent In Figure 2.19 represents the small voltage source V D in Figure 2. Also. i ( ma ) 2 KΩ 2 KΩ 1V 2V 3V V out slope = 50 × 10 0.23 we have replaced the diodes by their piecewise linear equivalents and have combined the two parallel resistors. rD VD 0V 0. The components of a practical junction diode Example 2.20(b).22(b).4 Solution: In Figure 2. 2−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes VD + − ID ( b ) Piecewise linear equivalent A + rD B ID A B ( a ) Practical diode Figure 2.7 V –3 A⁄V v (V) (a) (b) Figure 2. these representations are also illustrated in Figure 2.22(a) the diodes are identical and the piecewise linear i – v characteristics are shown in Figure 2.21.22.21.7 V with the applied voltages. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . For convenience.20.19 is represented by the resistance r D shown in Figure 2.

3 ≈ 1.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ – 50 mA I 2 ≈ ( 1.3 V 20 Ω 1.3 – 1.3 mA I1 + I2 + I3 ≠ I4 We see that the current I 1 cannot be negative.3 – 1.3 ⁄ 1000 = 1.3 V I3 I4 1 KΩ V out Figure 2.+ ----------------------.3 – 1.× 1. the current I 2 is zero.3 V I 1 ≈ ( 0.3 V I2 20 Ω 2. Therefore. Also.= ----------20 20 1000 20 15 – 50V out + 65 – 50V out + 115 – 50V out – V out ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.8 ≤ n ≤ 2.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ 0 I 3 = ( 2. we must conclude that only the diode on the right side conducts and by the voltage division expression .3 V V out = ----------------------1000 20 + 1000 2.3 – V out 1. Piecewise linear equivalent circuit for Example 2.= 0 1000 151 V out = 195 Check: V out = 195 ⁄ 151 = 1.5 Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes When used with AC circuits of low frequencies.3 – V out 2. By Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL) I1 + I2 + I3 = I4 V out 0. usually with 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−15 .+ -----------------------.3 – V out -----------------------. that is.3 ) ⁄ 20 ≈ 50 mA I 4 = 1.4 Let us follow the procedure below to find out if we can arrive to a valid answer.Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes I1 20 Ω 0. diodes. it cannot flow on the opposite direction of the one shown.23.0 are biased to Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.29 ≈ 1.

Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes operate at some point in the neighborhood of the relatively linear region of the i – v characteristics where 0. A bias point denoted as Q whose coordinates are Q ( V D. Junction diode biased at point Q and changes in i D corresponding to changes in v D Figure 2.8 V .10) and with an AC voltage v D ( t ) superimposed the sum v T ( t ) of the DC and AC voltages is vT ( t ) = VD + vD ( t ) (2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .24. I D ) is shown in Figure 2.65 ≤ v D ≤ 0. iD ( t ) Q t vD ( t ) t Figure 2. The current I D produced by the bias DC voltage V D is ID = Ir e V D ⁄ nV T (2.24 shows how changes in v D ( t ) result in changes in i D ( t ) .24 for a junction diode with n = 2 .11) 2−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. We can derive an expression that relates v D ( t ) and i D ( t ) in a junction diode.

11) is iT ( t ) = ID + iD ( t ) = Ir e ( V D + v D ) ⁄ nV T = Ir e V D ⁄ nV T v D ⁄ nV T e and in analogy with (2. the current through the diode is I D = 1 mA when V D = 0. and it is known that n = 2 .x + … + ---------------f ( x ) = f ( 0 ) + f ′ ( 0 ) x + ------------n! 2! (n) (2.14) is denoted as g D and is referred to as incremental conductance.12) using the relation f (0) n f ′′ ( 0 ) 2 -x .10) iD ( t ) = ID e v D ⁄ nV T (2. Its reciprocal nV T ⁄ I D is denoted as r D is called incremental resistance.5 Solution: Replacing the diode with the piecewise linear equivalent we obtain the circuit of Figure 2.12) If v D ⁄ nV T ≤ 0. Find the DC voltage V out and the AC voltage v out at 27 ° C where V T = 26 mV .13) and the first two terms of the series yield ID -v (t) i D ( t ) ≈ I D + --------nV T D (2.14) is a small−signal approximation and should be used only when v D ⁄ nVT ≤ 0.5 In the circuit of Figure 2. * For a detailed discussion on Taylor and Maclaurin’s series refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Excel.25.1 .26.1 we can use Maclaurin’s series* expansion on (2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−17 . Circuit for Example 2. ISBN 978−1−934404−03−4.Low Frequency AC Circuits with Junction Diodes The total diode current i T ( t ) = I D + i D ( t ) corresponding to the total voltage in (2.7 V .25. Example 2. The ratio I D ⁄ nV T in (2.14) We must remember that the approximation in (2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R 5mV AC 5 KΩ v out 5V DC Figure 2.

However.6 VDC + 60 μ VAC * Generally.86 × 10 Then. by suppressing (shorting out) the AC voltage source to find V out .86 × 0. by linear interpolation. Therefore –3 rD 60. We fist consider the DC voltage source acting alone.86mA 3 5 × 10 and since we are told that I D v = 0.5 Ω r D = --------. the superposition principle applies only to linear circuits.⋅ 5mV = -----------------------------------= 60 μ VAC v D peak = -------------R + rD 5000 + 60.5 v T out = V out + v out = 0. V out = 0.6 VDC With the AC voltage source acting alone the value of the incremental resistance r D is the reciprocal of (2. With the DC voltage source acting alone and with the assumption that r D « 5 K Ω . the current I D is 5 – 0.7 = 0.= 60.5 × 5 × 10 .7 I D = ---------------. The piecewise linear equivalent of the circuit in Example 2. it is also applicable for this example since it is applied to a piecewise linear equivalent circuit.14) and thus –3 nV T 2 × 26 × 10 .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes R 5mV AC 5 KΩ 5V DC iD rD v T out Figure 2. we consider the AC voltage source acting alone by suppressing (shorting out) the DC voltage source to find v out . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .7V = 1mA . that is.= ------------------------------–3 ID 0.26.6 V Therefore. 2−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The total output voltage will be the sum of these two.5 We apply the superposition principle* for this example. Then.= 0. V D actual = 0. v T out = V out + v out .

27 is a half−wave rectifier. if the maximum value of v in is 10 V volts. The waveform in Figure 2.7 = 9. and thus v out = 0 V .28 displays the half−rectification waveform shown in Figure 2. For a brief introduction to Simulink please refer to Appendix B in this text. The diode is reverse − biased during the negative half− cycle from π to 2 π so no current flows.5 0 ‐0.29.27(b).27(c) can be simulated* with the Saturation block in the model in Figure 2.5 π 2π R v in iD v out 1 0 .28. 1. the maximum value of v out will be v out = 10 – 0. Simulink model for creating half−rectification waveform with a saturation block The Scope block in Figure 2.5 ‐1 ‐1.5 vD 1 .5 π 2π (a) (b) (c) Figure 2. For instance.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−19 .3 V .27. Figure 2. Second Edition.5 0 ‐ 0 .6 Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits Diodes are also used in AC circuits where it is desired to convert AC voltages to DC voltages. * This and other simple Simulink models presented in this text could be parts of a large model.5 1 0. ISBN 978−1−934404−09−6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and for a complete coverage refer to Introduction to Simulink with Engineering Applications. the diode is forward−biased during the positive half−cycle from 0 to π of the input voltage v in and so current flows through the diode and resistor where it develops an output voltage drop v out = v in – v D . Half−wave rectifier circuit In the half−wave rectifier circuit of Figure 2.28. The circuit of Figure 2.

ISBN 978− 0−9709511−2−0. we insert a junction diode is series as shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes Figure 2. and we need to find the value of R V so that the * For a detailed discussion on electronic instruments refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. The input is an AC voltage with a value of 63 volts peak−to−peak. Typical voltmeter circuit Because the available input voltage is AC and we want to read DC (average) values. and an external resistor R whose value must be found.30. Assume that the diode is ideal.31. a voltmeter is a modified milliammeter where an external resistor R V is connected in series with the milliammeter as shown in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .6 Design a DC voltmeter* that will have a 10 volt full−scale using a milliammeter with 1 milliampere full−scale and internal resistance 20 Ω . Solution: Typically. Half−rectification waveform displayed by the Scope block in Figure 2.30 where I = current through circuit R M = internal resis tan ce of milliameter R V = external resistor in series with RM V M = voltmeter full scale reading IM + mA RM VM RV − RV = Voltmeter internal resistance VM= Voltmeter range Figure 2.28 Example 2.29. a junction diode. 2−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−21 .× 10 3 20 + R V = --------π R V = 10 K Ω Of course. Voltmeter for Example 2. * For a detailed discussion on transformers. Figure 2. IM mA + RM 20 Ω VM RV = ? 1 mA − Figure 2.31.5 . and so on and can use any AC waveform with different peak−to−peak values.5 ( – cos t ) 0 20 + R V 0 Area 31. and Figure 2. we can label our voltmeter for any value such as 50 V .= --------------------------------.* a junction diode. and a load resistor.5 0 .= ----------------------------------------. 100 V .π -----------------I p sin t dt sin t dt π 31. Therefore. refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.5 .32(b) shown the waveforms of the input voltage v in and the load voltage v load . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.32(a) shows a half−wave rectifier circuit consisting of a transformer.5 .6 Since the diode does not conduct during the negative half cycle.= ---------------------------.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits meter will read 1 mA full scale but it is now being labeled as 10 V DC. 31.5 = -----------------I peak = I p = --------------------20 + R V RM + RV and 31.= 10 –3 --------------------------( 20 + R V )π 31. it follows that Vp – p ⁄ 2 31. ISBN 978−0− 9709511−5−1.= --------------------------I ave = ---------------Period 2π 2π ( 20 + R V ) 2 π ( 20 + R V )π ∫ 2π ∫ For full−scale reading we want I ave = 1 mA .

Half−wave rectifier circuit and input and output waveforms When using diodes in rectifier circuits we must calculate: a.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes + + v in − (a) vD + vs − − iD + v load − v in v load (b) R load Figure 2. then PIV = V p but in practice we must use diodes whose reverse−biased breakdown voltages 70% or greater than the value of V p . the maximum current that the diode will allow without being damaged. an Abs block.32. a Dead Zone block.7 V .33. and b. Δ v = v in – v out θ Figure 2.33* as follows. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the diode begins conducting sometime after the input voltage shown by the dotted curve rises to about 0. Waveforms for the derivation of conduction angle θ for a half−wave rectifier * These waveforms can be created in a Simulink model with a Sine Wave block. If the applied voltage is v S = V p sin ω t . We derive the angle by which the solid curve lags the dotted curve with reference to Figure 2. and displayed in a Scope block. The Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) that the diode can withstand without reaching the reverse− biased breakdown region.32(b). As shown in Figure 2. 2−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

for simplicity.16) (π – θ) – θ = (π – 2θ ) We can also find the average value of the waveform of v out . We begin with the definition of the average value.34 shows a full−wave bridge rectifier circuit with input the sinusoid v in ( t ) = A sin ω t as shown in Figure 2. the angle θ is small and thus cos θ ≈ 1 and ( π – 2 θ ) ≈ π .Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits From Figure 2.( – V p cos φ – Δ v φ ) ( V p sin φ – Δ v ) dφ = ----2π π–θ φ=θ 11V out ( ave ) = ----[ – V p cos ( π – θ ) – Δ v ( π – θ ) + V p cos θ + Δ v θ ] = ----[ 2V p cos θ – ( π – 2 θ )Δ v ] 2π 2π Generally. v in = V p sin x . Therefore. 1 Area .17) Figure 2.15) We also observe that the conduction terminates at the angle ( π – θ ) and therefore the entire conduction angle is (2. and at x = θ .35. Full−wave rectifier circuit Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.33 we observe that conduction begins at Δ v = v in – v out corresponding to angle θ . A + v in ( t ) − D C − R + B + v out ( t ) − Figure 2.34. that is. v in = Δ v and thus Δ v = V p sin θ or θ = sin –1Δ v ⁄ V p (2. The input waveform is a sinusoid of the form v in = V p sin ω t or.– -----V out ( ave ) ≈ ----π 2 (2. and the output of that circuit is v out ( t ) = A sin ω t as shown in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−23 .36. the last relation above reduces to Vp Δ v .= ----V out ( ave ) = ---------------2 π Period ∫θ (π – θ) 1 .

the output is zero for an angle 2 θ = 2 sin ( 2 Δ v ⁄ v in ) centered –1 –1 around the zero crossing points. and thus v out is the same for both half−cycles as shown in the output waveform of Figure 2. it goes through the resistor from Point B to Point C.36.37 shows the input and output waveforms of the full−wave bridge rectifier on the same graph. Output waveform for the circuit of Figure 2.35. and through Point D returns to the negative terminal of the voltage source. Also. 2 Δ v = v in – v out θ 2θ Figure 2.34 we see that during the positive half cycle conventional current flows from the voltage source to Point A.34 From Figure 2.33 for the half−wave rectifier. Input and output waveforms for the full−wave bridge rectifier of Figure 2. Input waveform for the circuit in Figure 2.37. it goes through the resistor from Point B to Point C. We observe that during both the positive and negative half−cycles the current enters the right terminal of the resistor. current flows from Point D to Point B.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes A v in 0 π 0 2π –A Figure 2. Accordingly. and through Point A returns to the upper (now negative) terminal of the voltage source. then to Point B.34 FF 2−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v out lags v in by the angle θ = sin ( 2 Δ v ⁄ v in ) . Figure 2. During the negative half cycle the lower terminal of the voltage source becomes the positive terminal.34 A v out π 2π 0 0 Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . It is to be noted that the difference in amplitude between v in and v out is denoted as 2 Δ v because in a full−wave bridge rectifier circuit there are two diodes in the conduction path instead of one as shown in Figure 2.36.

These voltages can be smoothed−out with the use of electric filters as illustrated with the following example.38(a) shows a full−wave rectifier with a center−tapped transformer secondary winding and Figure 2.39 The output voltages v out from the half and full wave rectifiers are often called pulsating DC voltages. Figure 2.38(b) shows the input and output waveforms.39. Figure 2.39 displays the half−rectification waveform shown in Figure 2.40. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−25 . Simulink model for creating full−rectification waveform with an Abs block The Scope block in Figure 2.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits Figure 2.40. Full−rectification waveform displayed by the Scope block in Figure 2.38.39. Full−wave rectifier with centered tapped secondary winding The waveform in Figure 2.36 can be simulated with the Saturation block in the model in Figure 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. vD + + + vin − + − − + − − (b) vS − (a) v load vin v load vin v D + Figure 2.

+ ----------------.– -----.18) where A is the amplitude and this waveform appears across the resistor R of the full−wave rectifier in Figure 2. + V in − − R Z1 + + VR − j5 ω n 10 ⁄ j ω n 5 + Z2 V load 2 × 10 3 − Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .41 where the inductor and capacitor form a filter to smooth out the pulsating DC.----------------v R ( t ) = 2A -----.41.7 For simplicity.7 It is shown* in Fourier Analysis textbooks that the trigonometric Fourier series for the waveform of a full−wave rectifier with even symmetry is given by ⎧ cos 2 ω t cos 4 ω t ⎫ 4A .42.+ …⎬ π ⎨ π 3 15 ⎩ ⎭ (2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes Example 2. + v in ( t ) − − R L + + vR ( t ) − 5H + C R load 2 KΩ 10 μ F v load − Figure 2.7 Compute and sketch the voltage v load assuming that v in ( t ) = 120 V RMS operating at the fundamental frequency f = 60 Hz . Solution: We replace the given circuit by its phasor equivalent as shown in Figure 2. Circuit for Example 2.42 where the inductive reactance is X L = j ω n L and the capacitive reactance is X C = 1 ⁄ j ω n C . Phasor equivalent circuit for Example 2. we let Z 1 = j5 ω n * Please refer to Chapter 7 of Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. ISBN 978−1− 934404−11−9 2−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

VR = ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 3 8 ( j5 ω n ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 × j ω n ) + ( 2 × 10 ) 8 8 5 3 (2.VR = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 3 8 ( j5 × 754 ) 10 ( + 2 × 10 × j754 ) + ( 2 × 10 ) n=2 8 We will use MATLAB to find the magnitude and phase angle of the bracketed expression above.20) and so for n = 0 .-----v R ( t ) = -----π 15 π ⎩ 3 ⎭ (2.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits and 8 2 × 10 × 10 ⁄ j ω n 2 × 10 Z 2 = -------------------------------------------.+ ----------------.19) V load Z2 -V = ----------------Z1 + Z2 R n=2 ( 2 × 10 ) .VR V load = ----------------8 5 3 Z1 + Z2 j5 ω n + ( 2 × 10 ) ⁄ ( 10 + 2 × 10 × j ω n ) ( 2 × 10 ) . 2. 2 ω = 2 × 2 π f = 4 × π × 60 = 754 r ⁄ s and from (2.. and 4 and using superposition we will add these three terms. from (2.V R = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−27 ..⎨ ----------------.21) For n = 2 .cos 754t v R ( t ) n = 2 = – 4A 3π and in the phasor ( j ω ) domain VR n=2 4A = – -----.20) -----. angle(bracket1)*180/pi Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. We were given that ⎧ cos 2 ω t cos 4 ω t ⎫ 2A – 4A .19) We will now compute the components of V load for n = 0.∠0 ° 3π Then. abs(bracket1).+ …⎬ . V load n=0 2A = V R = -----π (2. v R ( t ) n = 0 = 2A -----π and since for this DC case the inductor is just a short and the capacitor an open.= ---------------------------------------------3 5 5 3 2 × 10 + 10 ⁄ j ω n 10 + 2 × 10 × j ω n 3 5 By the voltage division expression Z2 ( 2 × 10 ) ⁄ ( 10 + 2 × 10 × j ω n ) .. bracket1=(2*10^8)/((j*5*754)*(10^5+2*10^3*j*754)+2*10^8).

19) V load Z2 .24) and in the time domain 2−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .23) we obtain V load = V load + V load + V load n=0 n=2 n=4 = A ( 2 ⁄ π – 0.0154A ∠– 176.0682 Therefore.∠0 °⎞ = – 0. from (2.089 ∠– 178.. V load Z2 -V = ----------------Z1 + Z2 R n=2 4A = ( 0.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes ans = 0.0364 ∠– 176.22).0841 Therefore.0154 ∠– 176. 508 r ⁄ s and from (2.1 ° ) × ⎛ – -------. angle(bracket2)*180/pi ans = 0.00076A ∠– 178.. 4 ω = 4 × 2 π f = 8 × π × 60 = 1.∠0 ° 15 π Then.1 ° ⎝ 3π ⎠ (2. (2.1 ° ⎝ 15 π ⎠ (2.0089 ans = -178.0364 ans = -176.1 ° ) × ⎛ – -----.. bracket2=(2*10^8)/((j*5*1508)*(10^5+2*10^3*j*1508)+2*10^8).1 ° – 0.VR = -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------5 3 8 ( + 2 × 10 × j1508 ) + ( 2 × 10 ) ( j5 × 1508 ) 10 n=4 8 We will again use MATLAB to find the magnitude and phase angle of the bracketed expression above.21).VR = ----------------Z n=4 1 + Z2 ( 2 × 10 ) .cos 1508t v R ( t ) n = 4 = – -------15 π and in the phasor ( j ω ) domain VR n=4 4A = – -------.00076 ∠– 178. V load Z2 -V = ----------------Z1 + Z2 R n=4 4A = ( 0. and (2.∠0 °⎞ = – 0.22) n=2 For n = 4 . abs(bracket2).1 ° ) (2.20) 4A .23) n=4 Combining (2.

/180). plot(t.. axis([0 2000 0 20]).42 The waveform in Figure 2./pi−0..*377.*cos(2. title('Filtered output voltage for Example 2.vL).7 Load voltage (vL) 15 10 5 0 0 500 1000 Time (sec) 1500 2000 Figure 2. xlabel('Time (sec)').1 ) ) (2.0154 cos ( 2 ω t – 176.. hold on. ylabel('Load voltage (vL)').*pi. t=0: 1: 2000.43. plot(t. Voltage across the 2 K Ω resistor in Figure 2..00076.*cos(4. vL=20..*(2./180)). 20 Filtered output voltage for Example 2. −0..*t−178.25) This is the filtered output voltage across the 2 K Ω resistor.7'). grid The plot is shown in Figure 2.*t−176.1.Junction Diode Applications in AC Circuits v load ( t ) = A ( 2 ⁄ π – 0.*pi.1 ° ) – 0..0154.00076 cos ( 4 ω t – 178. The value A = 20 must be entered at the MATLAB command prompt. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−29 .1.5 V about the average (DC) value.*377.0154)). Let us plot (2.43 can be simulated with the Simulink model in Figure 2.43 and we observe that the ripple is approximately ± 0. axis([0 2000 0 20]).44.(40/pi−0.. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.25) using MATLAB with A = 20 and ω = 377 .

However.44.44 2.42 Figure 2. when v in starts decreasing.7 Peak Rectifier Circuits The circuit of Figure 2. Figure 2.46(a) is referred to as peak rectifier. the diode becomes reverse−biased and the voltage across the capacitor remains constant since there is no path to discharge.45. We have assumed that the diode is ideal and thus as v in is applied and reaches its positive peak value. Full−rectification waveform displayed by the Scope block in Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes Figure 2. the voltage v out across the capacitor assumes the same value. 2−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.46(b) shows the input v in and output v out waveforms and we observe that the value of v out is approximately equal to the peak of the input sinewave v in . Simulink model for the circuit in Figure 2.

RC » T . Peak rectifier used as an AC to DC converter From the waveforms of Figure 2.Peak Rectifier Circuits + v out v in (b) v in (a) v − out Figure 2.47(b).26) Next. from Figure 2. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. assuming that the diode is ideal and that the time constant τ = RC is much greater than the discharge interval. V pp ( ripple ) iD + v in (a) − R v out iR iC + C − v in = V p sin ω t t v out T ( period ) (b) Figure 2. Peak rectifier circuit The peak rectifier circuit shown in Figure 2.46(a) will behave like an AC to DC converter if we add a resistor across the capacitor as shown in Figure 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−31 . Then.28) * Please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. the voltage across the resistor−capacitor combination will be as shown in Figure 2. Also.47.47(b) we see that the average output voltage V out ( ave ) when the diode conducts is 1 .V ( ripple ) V out ( ave ) = V p – -2 pp (2. We recall from basic circuit theory* that in an simple RC circuit the capacitor voltage v C discharges as the decaying exponential v C = v out = V p e – ( t ⁄ RC ) (2.47(b) se see that peak−to−peak ripple voltage V pp ( ripple ) can be made sufficiently small by choosing the time constant τ = RC much larger that the period T .46. we need to find an expression for V pp ( ripple ) when the diode does not conduct. that is.27) – ( t ⁄ RC ) or v out = V p – V pp ( ripple ) = V p e (2.47(a).

6 V and so v out = v in .28) by recalling that e –x x x = 1 – x + ---.7 V . we can express (2. Therefore.29) and from (2. Clipper circuits are used in applications where it is necessary to limit the input to another circuit so that the latter would not be damaged.48 shows a clipper circuit and its input−output characteristics where the diode does not conduct for v in < 0.7 V v out R + vin − + v − out vin Figure 2.48. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 2−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 V and thus v out ≈ 0.7 V Figure 2. The diode conducts for v in ≥ 0.6 V but it conducts for v in ≤ 0. we can simplify (2. resistors. Figure 2.8 Clipper Circuits Clipper (or limiter) circuits consist of diodes.28) as V pp ( ripple ) = V p – V p e – ( t ⁄ RC ) ≈1–x T ⎞⎞ ) = V p ⎛ 1 – 1 – ⎛ – ------⎝ ⎝ RC ⎠ ⎠ = Vp ( 1 – e – ( t ⁄ RC ) or V pp ( ripple ) = V p ------RC T (2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes and since we want RC » T .49 shows a clipper circuit and its input−output characteristics where the diode does not conduct for v in > – 0. Circuit where v out = v in when diode does not conduct and v out ≈ 0.– ----+… 2! 3! e –x 2 3 and for small x . The input−output characteristics of clipper circuits are typically those of the forward−biased and reverse−biased diode characteristics except that the output is clipped to a a certain level.7 V .7 V and thus v out ≈ – 0.29) we observe that for V pp ( ripple ) to be small. and sometimes DC sources to clip or limit the output to a certain level.7 V when v in ≥ 0. 0. we must make RC » T 2.

VA = V B with the polarities shown. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−33 .7 ≤ v in ≤ 0. one or the other diode conducts.7 V + vin − vin Figure 2. all three resistors have the same value.7 V VA R v out − − + v in − VA + + − v out − v in Figure 2.49 and both diodes are not conducting when – 0. Circuit where v out = v in if diode does not conduct and v out ≈ VA + 0.52.7 V if it conducts Example 2.8 In the circuit of Figure 2. This circuit is often referred to as a hard limiter.7 V outside this interval Occasionally.51.50 shows a clipper circuit with two diodes in parallel with opposite polarities.51.Clipper Circuits R v out + v out − − – 0. Circuit where v out = v in if diode does not conduct and v out ≈ – 0.7 V vin Figure 2. This can be accomplished by placing a DC source in series with the diode as shown in Figure 2. Outside this interval.7 .7 V − v out + vin − + v out − − – 0. it is desirable to raise the limit level to a value other than v out ≈ ± 0.50. This circuit is effectively a combination of the clipper circuits shown in Figures 2.7 and for this interval v out = v in .7 V . Circuit where v out = v in when – 0. Derive expressions for and sketch the v out – v in characteristics.7 V if v in ≤ – 0.49. VA + 0.48 and 2. and r D « R . R 0.7 V Figure 2. the diodes are identical with v D = 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 ≤ v in ≤ 0.7 and v out ≈ ± 0.

**Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
**

R

+ v in −

+

D1 VA

+

R

D2 VB

−

− v + out

R

I D1

I D2

−

Figure 2.52. Circuit for Example 2.8

**Solution: Diode D 1 conducts when v in > VA and under this condition diode D 2 does not conduct. Then,
**

v in – ( VA + v D ) v in – VA – 0.7 I D1 = ------------------------------------ = -------------------------------R+R 2R

(2.30)

and

( v in – VA – 0.7 ) - = 0.5 ( v in + VA + 0.7 ) v out1 = 0.7 + VA + RI D1 = 0.7 + VA + R ------------------------------------2R

(2.31)

Diode D 2 conducts when v in < – V B and under this condition diode D 1 does not conduct. Then, in accordance with the passive sign convention* we obtain

v in – ( V B – v D ) v in – V B + 0.7 I D2 = – ------------------------------------ = – --------------------------------R+R 2R

(2.32)

and

v in – V B + 0.7 ⎞ - = 0.5 ( v in – V B – 0.7 ) v out2 = – 0.7 – V B – R I D1 = – 0.7 – V B – R ⎛ – --------------------------------⎝ ⎠ 2R

(2.33)

**For range – V B < v in < V A , v out = v in , and the v out – v in characteristics are shown in Figure 2.53.
**

v out v out1 − v in − – v out2 Figure 2.53. The v out – v in characteristics for the circuit of Example 2.8 * Please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications, ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.

2−34

**DC Restorer Circuits 2.9 DC Restorer Circuits
**

A DC restorer (or clamped capacitor) is a circuit that can restore a DC voltage to a desired DC level. The circuit of Figure 2.54 is a DC restorer and its operation can be best illustrated with the following example. Example 2.9 In the circuit of Figure 2.54, the input v in is as shown in Figure 2.55. Compute and sketch the waveform for the output v out .

− + −

C

+ iD

+ v out −

v in

**Figure 2.54. DC Restorer circuit
**

5

v in ( V )

t

–5

Figure 2.55. Input waveform for the circuit of Example 2.9

Solution: From the circuit of Figure 2.54 we observe that the diode conducts only when v in < 0 and thus the capacitor charges to the negative peak of the input which for this example is – 5 V , and the capacitor voltage is v C = 5 V with polarity as shown in Figure 2.54. We observe that there is no path for the capacitor to discharge and therefore v C = 5 V always. Since v out = v in + v C , when

v in = – 5 V , v out = – 5 + 5 = 0 and the output has shifted upwards to zero volts as shown in Figure 2.56. When the input voltage is positive, v in = 5 V , and v out = 5 + 5 = 10 V . The waveform

for the output voltage is as shown in Figure 2.56.

2−35

**Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
**

10

v out ( V )

t

Figure 2.56. Output waveform for the circuit of Example 2.9

**2.10 Voltage Doubler Circuits
**

The circuit of Figure 2.57 is referred to as a voltage doubler.

+ −

C1 D1

+ + D2 v D1 − C v out = – 2 v in

2

v in = V p sin ω t

−

Figure 2.57. A voltage doubler circuit

With reference to the circuits of Figures 2.46 and 2.54, we observe that the circuit of Figure 2.57 is a combination of a DC restorer circuit consisting of the capacitor C 1 and diode D 1 and a peak rectifier consisting of C 2 and diode D 2 . During the positive half−cycle of the input waveform diode D 1 conducts, the peak value V p of the input v in appears across the capacitor C 1 of and thus v D1 = 0 . During the negative half−cycle of the input waveform diode D 2 conducts, capacitor C 2 is being charged to a voltage which is the sum of v in and v C1 and thus the output voltage is v out = v in + v C1 = – V p sin ω t – V p sin ω t = – 2 V p sin ω t = – 2v in as shown in Figure 2.58.

v out

0

t

–Vp – 2V p Figure 2.58. Output waveform for the voltage doubler circuit of Figure 2.57

2−36

**Diode Applications in Amplitude Modulation (AM) Detection Circuits
**

Voltage triplers and voltage quadruplers can also be formed by adding more diodes and capacitor to a voltage doubler.

**2.11 Diode Applications in Amplitude Modulation (AM) Detection Circuits
**

Junction diodes are also used in AM radio signals to remove the lower envelope of a modulated signal. A typical AM Envelope Detector circuit is shown in Figure 2.59. It is beyond the scope of this text to describe the operation of this circuit; it is described in electronic communications systems books. Our intent is to show the application of the junction diode in such circuits.

+ v in −

C1 R1

C2 R2

+ v out −

Figure 2.59. Typical AM Envelope Detector circuit

The operation of an AM audio frequency signal is shown in Figure 2.60 where the magnitude of v m ( t ) is always less than V C ; hence the envelope of the modulated wave never drops to zero. The waveform of the envelope of the modulated signal is the same as the waveform of the modulating signal v m ( t ) . Thus if the information in the modulated carrier is to be preserved, the waveform of the envelope must be preserved. The information can be recovered by recovering the waveform of the envelope; the peak rectifier circuit is used for this purpose. The peak rectifier is also known as diode detector, and in this application it is frequently called an envelope detector. v m . The diode removes the lower envelope and the upper envelope. In the circuit of Figure 2.59 capacitor C 2 and resistor R 2 form a high−pass filter that removes the carrier frequency.

vm ( t )

Modulating signal Carrier Envelope

vC ( t )

t

t

Figure 2.60. Input and output signals for the circuit of Figure 2.59

**2.12 Diode Applications in Frequency Modulation (FM) Detection Circuits
**

Figure 2.61 shows how junction diodes can be used in FM circuits. This circuit is known as the

2−37

**Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
**

Foster−Seely discriminator and it is used to remove the carrier, which varies in accordance with the input audio frequency, and produce the audio frequency at its output.

Audio Frequency Frequency modulated carrier

Figure 2.61. Foster−Seely discriminator circuit

2.13 Zener Diodes

By special manufacturing processes the reverse voltage breakdown of a diode can be made almost vertical as shown on the i – v characteristics curve of Figure 2.62.

i

VZ 0

v

Figure 2.62. Zener diode operating region

These diodes are called Zener diodes and they are designed to operate in the breakdown region. The Zener diode is always connected as a reverse−biased diode and its voltage rating V Z and the maximum power it can absorb are given by the manufacturer. The Zener diode symbol is shown in Figure 2.63.

+ IZ −

VZ

Figure 2.63. Symbol for a Zener diode

Zener diodes from small voltage ratings of 5 volts to large voltage ratings of 250 volts are commercially available and we can calculate the maximum current that a Zener diode can withstand from its voltage and power ratings. For instance, a 2 watt, 25 volt Zener diode can withstand a maximum current of 80 milliamperes.

2−38

Zener Diodes

One important application of the Zener diode is in voltage regulation. A voltage regulator is a circuit or device that holds an output voltage constant during output load variations. Example 2.10 below illustrates how a Zener diode accomplishes this. Example 2.10 For the circuits (a) and (b) in Figure 2.64 it is required that the output voltage v out remains constant at 25 volts regardless of the value variations of the load resistor R L . Calculate the output voltage v out for both circuits and then show how a 25 volt Zener diode can be used with these circuits to keep the output voltage constant at 25 volts.

RS 20 K Ω VS R load1 v out1 − 40 V 20 K Ω − RS VS

+

+

+ −

20 K Ω R load2 40 V

+

(a) Figure 2.64. Circuits for Example 2.10

v out2 − 60 K Ω (b)

Solution: For the circuit of Figure 2.64(a) the output voltage v out1 is found by application of the voltage division expression. Thus,

20 K Ω load1 - V = ------------------------------------- 40 V = 20 V v out1 = --------------------------20 K Ω + 20 K Ω RS + R load1 S R

**Likewise, for the circuit of Figure 2.64(b) the output voltage v out2 is
**

60 K Ω L - V = ------------------------------------- 40 V = 30 V v out2 = --------------------------20 K Ω + 60 K Ω RS + R load2 S R

These calculations show that as the load R load varies from 20 K Ω to 60 K Ω the output voltage varies from 20 volts to 30 volts and this variation indicates a poor voltage regulation. To improve the regulation we connect a 25 volt Zener diode in parallel with the load as shown in Figure 2.65 and the output voltages v out1 and v out2 will be the same, that is, 25 volts.

2−39

**Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
**

RS VS RS

+

20 K Ω R load1 − 40 V 20 K Ω

+

IZ

+

V Z = 25 V VS

−

20 K Ω R load2 − 40 V 60 K Ω

+

IZ

−

V Z = 25 V

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.65. Circuits for Example 2.10 with Zener diodes to improve regulation

In Example 2.10 above we did not take into consideration the manufacturer’s specifications. Example 2.11 below is a more realistic example and shows that a Zener diode may or may not conduct depending on the value of the load resistor. The Zener diode model is very similar to the junction diode model and it is shown in Figure 2.66(a). Of course, the Zener diode is operating at a different region where V Z0 and r Z are as shown in Figure 2.66(b).

VZ0

i

0 Slope = 1 ⁄ r Z

v

+

VZ

IZ

rZ

+ − VZ0

VZ = VZ0 + rZ IZ

− (a)

(b)

Figure 2.66. The Zener diode model and the definitions of V Z0 and r Z

Thus, V Z0 is v −axis intercept of the straight line with slope 1 ⁄ r Z and r Z = Δ v ⁄ Δ i . Like the incremental resistance r D of a junction diode, the incremental resistance r Z of a Zener diode is typically about 20 Ω and it is specified by the manufacturer. Example 2.11 For the circuit of Figure 2.67, the manufacturer’s datasheet for the Zener diode shows that V Z = 10 V when I Z = 6 mA . The datasheet provides also the i – v characteristics but the value of V Z0 is not given. The current I ZBD in Figure 2.68 represents the current where the Zener diode begins entering the breakdown region.

2−40

Zener Diodes

RS VS

+ − 24 V

1 KΩ IZ

+

VZ R load

+ −

V load

−

**Figure 2.67. Circuit for Example 2.11
**

VZ0 0

i

v

Δi Slope = ------ = 0.04 Δv

I ZBD = 0.3 mA

Figure 2.68. Graph for Example 2.11

Compute: a. The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is disconnected. b. The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is connected and adjusted to 1 K Ω . c. The output voltage V load if the load resistor R load is connected and adjusted to 200 Ω . d. The minimum value of the load resistor R load for which the Zener diode will be conducting in the breakdown region. Solution: a. From Figure 2.66(a),

VZ = VZ0 + rZ IZ

(2.34)

and replacing the Zener diode by its equivalent we obtain the circuit shown in Figure 2.69 where the slope is

1 ⁄ r Z = Δ i ⁄ Δ v = 0.04 r Z = Δ v ⁄ Δ i = 1 ⁄ 0.04 = 25 Ω

2−41

**Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
**

RS

+

VS

1 KΩ 24 V

+ V − Z0 rZ IZ

+ V load −

−

Figure 2.69. Zener diode replaced by its equivalent circuit and the load is disconnected

From (2.34), and

VZ0 = VZ – rZ IZ = 10 – 25 × 6 × 10

–3

= 8.5 V

VS – VZ0 24 – 8.5 - = 15.2 mA - = ----------------------IZ = ------------------RS + rZ 1000 + 25

Thus b.

v out = VZ0 + rZ IZ = 8.5 + 25 × 15.2 × 10

–3

= 8.8 V

**When the load resistor is connected and adjusted to 1 K Ω the circuit is as shown in Figure 2.70.
**

RS

+

VS

1 KΩ

VZ0

−

24 V

IZ

+ I load − R load rZ 1 KΩ

+ V load −

Figure 2.70. Circuit of Example 2.11 with load resistor connected and adjusted to 1 K Ω

We will assume that the Zener diode still operates well within the breakdown region so that the addition of the load resistor does not change the output voltage significantly. Then,

V load 8.8 I load ≈ ------------- = ------- = 8.8 mA 3 R load 10

**This means that the Zener diode current I Z will be reduced to
**

IZ ' = 15.2 – 8.8 = 6.4mA

and thus the output voltage will be

2−42

Zener Diodes

V load = VZ0 + rZ I Z ' = 8.5 + 25 × 6.4 × 10

–3

= 8.5 V

**The percent change in output voltage is
**

8.5 – 8.8 - × 100 = – 3.53 % change = -------------------8.5

**c. When the load resistor is connected and adjusted to 200 Ω the circuit is as shown in Figure 2.71.
**

RS

VS

+ −

1 KΩ 24 V

VZ0

+ − rZ

+ I load

R load

V load −

IZ

200 Ω

Figure 2.71. Circuit of Example 2.11 with load resistor connected and adjusted to 200 Ω

We will again assume that the Zener diode still operates well within the breakdown region so that the addition of the load resistor does not change the output voltage significantly. Then,

V load 8.8 - = -------- = 44 mA I load ≈ -----------R load 200

But this is almost three times higher than the current of IZ = 15.2 mA found in (a). Therefore, we conclude that the Zener diode does not conduct and, with the Zener diode branch being an open circuit, by the voltage division expression we obtain

R load 200 - V S = -------------------------V load = -----------------------× 24 = 4 V 1000 + 200 R S + R load

and since this voltage is less than 10 V the Zener diode does not conduct. d. From the graph of Figure 2.68 it is reasonable to assume that when I ZBD = 0.3 mA , then

V ZBD ≈ 9.7 V . Then, the current I RS through the resistor which would allow the Zener diode

**to conduct will be
**

V S – V ZBD 24 – 9.7 I RS = -------------------------= ------------------ = 14.3 mA 3 RS 10

This is the total current supplied by the V S source and since I ZBD = 0.3 mA , the current

2−43

**Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
**

through the load resistor, whose value is to be determined, will be

I load = I RS – I ZBD = 14.3 – 0.3 = 14 mA

Therefore,

V ZBD 9.7 - = 693 Ω R load = ------------= ---------------------–3 I load 14 × 10

Zener diodes can also be used as limiters. Figure 2.72 shows how a single Zener diode can be used to limit one side of a sinusoidal waveform to V Z while limiting the other side to approximately zero.

v in +

VZ

+ v out −

VZ

v out

v in −

– 0.7 V

Figure 2.72. Zener limiter with one Zener diode

Figure 2.73 shows a circuit with two opposing Zener diodes limiting the input waveform to V Z on both polarities.

v in + v in − + v out − v out

– VZ

VZ

Figure 2.73. Zener limiter with two opposing Zener diodes

2−44

**The Schottky Diode 2.14 The Schottky Diode
**

A Schottky diode is a junction of a lightly doped n −type semiconductor with a metal electrode as shown in Figure 2.74(a). Figure 2.74(b) shows the Schottky diode symbol.

metal n – type electrode material

(a)

(b)

Figure 2.74. The components of a Schottky diode and its symbol

The junction of a doped semiconductor − usually n −type − with a special metal electrode can produce a very fast switching diode which is mainly used in high (up to 5 MHz) frequency circuits or high speed digital circuits. When the diode is forward−biased, the electrons move from the n −type material to the metal and give up their energy quickly. Since there are no minority carriers (holes) the conduction stops quickly and changes to reverse−bias. Schottky diodes find wide application as rectifiers for high frequency signals and also are used in the design of galliun arsenide circuits. The forward voltage drop of a conducting Schottky diode is typically 0.3 to 0.5 volt compared to the 0.6 to 0.8 found in silicon junction diodes.

**2.15 The Tunnel Diode
**

The conventional junction diode uses semiconductor materials that are lightly doped with one impurity atom for ten−million semiconductor atoms. This low doping level results in a relatively wide depletion region. Conduction occurs in the normal junction diode only if the voltage applied to it is large enough to overcome the potential barrier of the junction. In 1958, Leo Esaki, a Japanese scientist, discovered that if a semiconductor junction diode is heavily doped with impurities, it will have a region of negative resistance. This type of diode is known as tunnel diode. In a tunnel diode the semiconductor materials used in forming a junction are doped to the extent of one−thousand impurity atoms for ten−million semiconductor atoms. This heavy doping produces an extremely narrow depletion zone similar to that in the Zener diode. Also because of the heavy doping, a tunnel diode exhibits an unusual current−voltage characteristic curve as compared with that of an ordinary junction diode. The characteristic curve for a tunnel diode and its symbol are shown in Figure 2.75. From Figure 2.75 we see that the current increases to a peak value with a small applied forward bias voltage (point 1 to 2), then the current decreases with an increasing forward bias to a minimum current (point 2 to 3), and it starts increasing again with further increases in the bias voltage point 3 to 4.)

2−45

**Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes
**

i

2 4

3 1

v Figure 2.75. Tunnel diode characteristics and symbol

The portion of the characteristic curve between points 2 and 3 is the region of negative resistance and an explanation of why a tunnel diode has a region of negative resistance is best understood by using energy levels discussed in semiconductor physics texts. The negative resistance characteristic makes the tunnel diode useful in oscillators and microwave amplifiers. The unijunction transistor, discussed in Chapter 4, has similar oscillator characteristics. A typical tunnel diode oscillator is shown in Figure 2.76.

R1 R2 Tunnel

diode

+

DC bias

+

R3 L C

v out

i DC bias point v

v out −

−

Figure 2.76. Tunnel diode oscillator circuit

Because the negative resistance region of the tunnel diode is its most important characteristic, it is desirable that the so−called peak−to−valley ratio I P ⁄ V P must be quite high. Typical values of

I P ⁄ V P are 3.5 for silicon, 6 for germanium, and 15 for gallium arsenide (GaAs), and the corre-

sponding values of V P are 65, 55, and 150 mV respectively. For this reason, silicon is not used in the manufacturing of tunnel diodes. The voltage at which the current begins to rise again is denoted as V V and typical values for silicon, germanium, and GaAs are 420, 350, and 500 mV respectively. A variation of the tunnel diode is the backward diode that is used as a rectifier in which “forward” (p side negative) direction occurs without the usual voltage offset of a conventional junction diode. The “reverse” direction corresponds to the conventional forward direction so that the “reverse” breakdown voltage is typically 0.65 V . The backward diode is also used in circuits with small amplitude waveforms.

2−46

6 V or V TD + 20i = 0. and when V TD ≈ 0.6 0.77. i ≈ 25 mA .77 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.78. i ≈ 4 mA .The Tunnel Diode Example 2.4 0.6 0. Graphical solution for the determination of the current i for the circuit of Figure 2.4 0. Then.29 V . Circuit and tunnel diode i – v characteristics for Example 2. and a resistor are connected in series as shown in Figure 2.52 V .3 0.2 0.6 ⁄ 20 = 30 mA .1 0.78.2 0.6 V 20 Ω 30 20 10 0 v (V) i ( mA ) 0.3 0.7 Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−47 .11 V .12 A DC voltage source.77. i = 0.6 and when V TD = 0 .1 0. V TD + V R = 0. We observe that when V TD ≈ 0. a tunnel diode whose i – v characteristics are as shown.35) reduces to V TD = 0.35) When i = 0 .5 0. Find the current i 40 i 0. i ≈ 16 mA .12 Solution: Let the voltage across the tunnel diode be V TD and the voltage across the resistor be V R .7 Figure 2. i ( mA ) 30 20 10 0 v (V) 0. (2.5 0. and with these values we draw the load line shown in Figure 2. when V TD ≈ 0.6 V (2.

R + + vin − VC L v out − Figure 2. in the order of picofarads. The LED is designated by a standard diode symbol with two arrows pointing away from the cathode as shown in Figure 2. with the PN junction functioning like the dielectric and plates of a common capacitor. The first of these. Symbol for varactor A varactor diode uses a PN junction in reverse bias and has a structure such that the capacitance of the diode varies with the reverse voltage. Figure 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 2. the symbol for a varactor is as shown in Figure 2. depending upon the material used to make the diode. or away from them. if they produce light. Symbol for LED 2−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.80. Typical capacitance values are small. or varicap. if they use light. produces visible light.16 The Varactor The varactor.81 where the arrows indicate light leaving the diode. Presently. short−life incandescent light bulbs used to indicate on/off conditions on instrument panels.79. varactors are replacing the old variable capacitor tuning circuits as in television tuners. A light−emitting diode. A voltage controlled capacitance is useful in tuning applications. or amber.17 Optoelectronic Devices Optoelectronic devices either produce light or use light in their operation. when forward biased. For this reason.79. was developed to replace the fragile. Figure 2. The light may be red.81. A varactor tuner circuit 2. Figure 2.80 shows a typical varactor tuning circuit where the DC control voltage V C changes the capacitance of the varactor to form a resonant circuit. green. The circuit symbols for all optoelectronic devices have arrows pointing either toward them. the light−emitting diode (LED). is a diode that behaves like a variable capacitor.

When a negative voltage is applied to the proper cathodes. Basically.82 the anodes are internally connected. LEDs arranged for seven segment display In Figure 2. which produces light. For example. over 100. and as displays for pocket calculators where they form seven−segment displays. the manufacturer’s number should be checked. For this reason. one must ensure the replacement display is the same type as the faulty display. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−49 . if negative voltage is applied to all cathodes the number 8 is produced. However. etc. the photodiode is a light−controlled variable resistor. LEDs are used widely as “power on” indicators of digital voltmeters. Since both types look alike. as shown in Figure 2.82. and if a negative voltage is changed and applied to all cathodes except LED b and e the number 5 is displayed.Optoelectronic Devices The LED operating voltage is small.82. the photodiode receives light and converts it to electrical signals. internal resistance decreases and current flow increases. in which all cathodes are at the same potential. In total darkness. a f g e d c b Figure 2. Laser diodes are LEDs specifically designed to produce coherent light with a narrow bandwidth and are suitable for CD players and optical communications. Another optoelectronic device in common use today is the photodiode.6 volts forward bias and generally about 10 milliamperes. frequency counters. When replacing LED displays. Unlike the LED. about 1. The life expectancy of the LED is very long. it has a relatively high resistance and therefore conducts little current. a number is formed.000 hours of operation. The photodiode is operated with reverse−bias and conducts current in direct proportion to the intensity of the light Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Seven−segment displays are also available in common−cathode form. when the PN junction is exposed to an external light source.

with current capacity determined by its size.84. other ratios are also available. Photocells are used in various types of control and timing circuits as. solar cells may be connected in series or parallel to produce higher voltages and currents. Symbol for solar cell 2−50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Photodiodes respond quickly to changes in light intensity. A phototransistor is another optoelectronic device that conducts current when exposed to light. Symbol for photocell A solar cell is another device that converts light energy into electrical energy. However. The symbol for a photodiode is shown in Figure 2.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes source. The symbol for a photocell is shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. Like the photodiode.84. and for this reason are extremely useful in digital applications such as photographic light meters and optical scanning equipment. a typical light−to−dark resistance ratio for a photocell is 1: 1000. for example. The device is finding widespread application in communications satellites and solar−powered homes. shown with its schematic symbol in Figure 2.83. Figure 2. This means that its resistance could range from 1000 ohms in the light to 1000 kilohms in the dark. Symbol for photodiode Switching the light source on or off changes the conduction level of the photodiode and varying the light intensity controls the amount of conduction.45 V volt across its terminals.85.83 where the arrows pointing toward the diode indicate that light is required for operation of the device. As with batteries.85. and so forth. or from 2000 ohms in the light to 2000 kilohms in the dark. the photocell is a light−controlled variable resistor. We will discuss phototransistor in the next chapter. A solar cell acts much like a battery when exposed to light and produces about 0. An older device that uses light in a way similar to the photodiode is the photoconductive cell. The symbol for a solar cell is shown in Figure 2.84. Figure 2. the automatic street light controllers in most cities. Of course. or photocell.

The latter name is derived from the fact that it provides isolation between the input and output. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. An optical coupler Isolation between the input and output is desirable because it reduces electromagnetic interference. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−51 .86 shows an optical coupler. Their most important application is in fiber optic communications links.Optoelectronic Devices Figure 2. It consists of an LED and a photodiode and each of these devices are isolated from each other. also referred to as an optoisolator.86. LED Photodiode Figure 2.

When a junction diode is forward−biased. A free electron is one which has escaped from its valence orbit and the vacancy it has created is called a hole. • The P−type side of the junction diode is also referred to as the anode and the N−type side as the cathode. q is charge of an electron.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 2. T = 273 + temperature in C .6 × 10 coulomb . • A reverse−biased PN junction is formed if we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the N−type material and the minus (−) side to the P−type. • The electrostatic field created by the positive and negative ions in the depletion region is called a barrier. that is. the coefficient n varies from 1 to 2 depending on the current level and the nature or the recombination near the junction. conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow on the diode symbol. • A P−type semiconductor has more holes than free electrons and thus the holes are the majority carriers and the free electrons are the minority carriers. that is. and gallium. k = Boltzmann' s constant . that is. • Doping is a process where impurity atoms which are atoms with five valence electrons such as phosphorous. aluminum. • A forward−biased PN junction is formed if we attach a voltage source to a junction diode with the plus (+) side of the voltage source connected to the P−type material and the minus (−) side to the N−type. • An N−type semiconductor has more free electrons than holes and for this reason the free electrons are considered to be the majority carriers and the holes the minority carriers. and T is the o absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin. q = 1.18 Summary • In a crystal of pure silicon that has been thermally agitated there is an equal number of free electrons and holes. I r is the reverse current. and antimony. • The i D – v D relationship in a forward−biased junction diode is the nonlinear relation iD = Ir [ e ( qv D ⁄ nkT ) – 1] where i D is the current through the diode. It is conve- 2−52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. k = 1. the current which would flow through the diode if the polarity of v D is reversed. v D is the voltage drop across the diode. that is. are added to melted silicon. or atoms with three valence electrons such as boron. The area between the P−type and N−type materials is referred to as the depletion region. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . • A junction diode is formed when a piece of P−type material and a piece of N−type material are joined together. arsenic.38 × 10 – 23 – 19 joule ⁄ Kelvin .

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • When a junction diode is reverse−biased. • The ratio I D ⁄ nV T . diodes.8 ≤ n ≤ 2. denoted as g D . • Junction diodes are extensively used in half−wave and full−wave rectifiers to convert AC voltages to pulsating DC voltages.0 are biased to operate at some point in the neighborhood of the relatively linear region of the i – v characteristics where 0. the current through the diode is i D ≈ 1 mA .65 ≤ v D ≤ 0.1 .8 V . is called incremental resistance. watts) by the manufacturer. is referred to as incremental conductance and its reciprocal nV T ⁄ I D . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−53 . conventional current will flow in the direction of the arrow of the diode as long as the voltage drop v D across the diode is about 0.65 volt or greater. a very small current will flow and if the applied voltage exceeds a certain value the diode will reach its avalanche or Zener region. • The maximum reverse−bias voltage that may be applied to a diode without causing junction breakdown is referred to as the Peak Reverse Voltage (PRV) and it is the most important rating. In a typical junction diode at v D = 0. • The analysis of electronic circuits containing diodes can be performed by graphical methods but it is greatly simplified with the use of diode models where we approximate the diode forward−biased characteristics with two straight lines representing the piecewise linear equivalent circuit. denoted as r D . usually with 1. • When used with AC circuits of low frequencies. V T ≈ 26mV • In a junction diode made with silicon and an impurity. A filter is used at the output to obtain a relatively constant output with a small ripple. the diode will burn−out in either the forward−biased or the reverse− biased direction.Summary nient to combine q .7 V . The current i D ( t ) can be found from the relation ID -v (t) i D ( t ) ≈ I D + --------nV T D provided that v D ⁄ nVT ≤ 0. and if these ratings are exceeded. k . Commercially available diodes are provided with a given rating (volts. A bias point. denoted as Q . is established at the intersection of a load line and the linear region. and T into one variable V T known as thermal voltage where V T = kT ⁄ q and thus iD = Ir [ e ( v D ⁄ nV T ) – 1] and at T = 300 ° K .

A voltage controlled capacitance is useful in tuning applications. The negative resistance characteristic makes the tunnel diode useful in oscillators and microwave amplifiers. It is used as a rectifier and in circuits with small amplitude waveforms.5 volt compared to the 0. In its basic form is a series circuit with a voltage source. during the negative half−cycle. is a diode that behaves like a variable capacitor. the peak rectifier circuit will behave like an AC to DC converter. a capacitor. and the output is the voltage across the diode. and a diode. and an AC voltage source where the output voltage across the capacitor is approximately equal to the peak value of the input AC voltage. • A voltage doubler circuit is a combination of a DC restorer and a peak rectifier. it will have a region of negative resistance. If a resistor R is placed in parallel with the capacitor C and their values are chosen such that the time constant τ = RC is much greater than the discharge interval. or during both the positive and negative half−cycles of the input voltage. • Zener diodes are designed to operate in the reverse voltage breakdown (avalanche) region.8 found in silicon junction diodes. Their most important application is in voltage regulation. with the PN junction functioning like the dielectric and plates of a common capacitor. a diode. A Zener diode is always connected as a reverse−biased diode and its voltage rating V Z and the maximum power it can absorb are given by the manufacturer. • A tunnel diode is one which is heavily doped with impurities. • The backward diode is a variation of the tunnel diode.6 to 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The junction of a doped semiconductor − usually n −type − with a special metal electrode can produce a very fast switching diode which is mainly used in high (up to 5 MHz) frequency circuits or high speed digital circuits. • A Schottky diode is a junction of a lightly doped n −type semiconductor with a metal electrode. or varicap.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes • A peak rectifier circuit is a simple series circuit with a capacitor. and sometimes DC sources to clip or limit the output to a certain level. A varactor diode uses a PN junction in reverse bias and has a structure such that the capacitance of the diode varies with the reverse voltage.3 to 0. • A DC restorer (or clamped capacitor) is a circuit that can restore a DC voltage to a desired DC level. Clipper circuits are used in applications where it is necessary to limit the input to another circuit so that the latter would not be damaged. resistors. • Clipper (or limiter) circuits consist of diodes. • Zener diodes can also be used as limiters and limiting can occur during the positive half−cycle of the input voltage. • A varactor. The forward voltage drop of a conducting Schottky diode is typically 0. Schottky diodes find wide application as rectifiers for high frequency signals and also are used in the design of galliun arsenide (GaAs) circuits. Voltage triplers and voltage quadruplers are also possible with additional diodes and capacitors. Typical 2−54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

for example. • A photodiode is another optoelectronic device which receives light and converts it to electrical signals. • A photocell is an older device that uses light in a way similar to the photodiode. • A solar cell is another device that converts light energy into electrical energy. Solar cells find widespread application in communications satellites and solar−powered homes.000 hours of operation. green.Summary capacitance values are small. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The light may be red. For this reason. • Laser diodes are LEDs specifically designed to produce coherent light with a narrow bandwidth and are suitable for CD players and optical communications. Isolation between the input and output is desirable because it reduces electromagnetic interference. depending upon the material used to make the diode. Photocells are used in various types of control and timing circuits as. • Optoelectronic devices either produce light or use light in their operation. sometimes referred to as an optoisolator. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−55 . when forward biased. Their most important application is in fiber optic communications links. The life expectancy of the LED is very long. over 100. Varactors have now replaced the old variable capacitor tuning circuits as in television tuners. frequency counters. LEDs are used widely as “power on” indicators of digital voltmeters. produces visible light. etc. • An optical coupler. the automatic street light controllers in most cities. solar cells may be connected in series or parallel to produce higher voltages and currents. and as displays for pocket calculators where they form seven−segment displays. • A Light−Emitting Diode (LED) is an optoelectronic device that. consists of an LED and a photodiode and each of these devices are isolated from each other. or amber. A solar cell acts much like a battery when exposed to light and as with batteries. Photodiodes respond quickly to changes in light intensity. in the order of picofarads. and for this reason are extremely useful in digital applications such as photographic light meters and optical scanning equipment.

In the circuit below.19 Exercises 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Also. Hint: Start with the approximate relation iD ≈ Ir e v D ⁄ nV T . form the ratio V D2 ⁄ V D1 corresponding to the ratio I D2 ⁄ I D1 .5 V at 20 ° C . and the reverse current I r increases by about 15% per 1 ° C rise. 2−56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. At what temperature will I r double in value? What A to 10 – 15 A at 27 ° C . the current I r is almost constant. 2. Suggest an experiment that will enable one to compute the numerical value of n . 4. V R at 0 ° C b. Make any reasonable assumptions.3nV T . Assuming that v » V T we can show that i D ≈ – I r and for this reason I r is often referred to as the saturation current and whereas in the forward−biased region I r has a typical value of 10 biased region is 10 –9 – 14 – 13 A at 50 ° C . VS Ir 500 KΩ VR Find: a. Compare your answer with that of Example 2.4. When a junction diode operates at the reverse−bias region v < 0 and before avalanche occurs. Show that for a decade (factor 10) change in current i D of a forward−biased junction diode the voltage v D changes by a factor of 2. and it is known that V R = 0. For the circuit below. the reverse current doubles for every 10 ° C rise in temperature.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 2. find the value of V out assuming that all three diodes are ideal. a typical value in the reverse− A . the applied voltage V S is not sufficient to drive the diode into the avalanche region. It is known that for a certain diode I r = 10 conclusion can we draw from the result? 5. 3. and plot in semi- log scale. Plot the i – v characteristics of a forward−biased junction diode with n = 2 at 27 ° C . V R at 40 ° C 6.

b. V out = 2.92 allows a current I D = 1 mA when V D = 0. Assuming that n = 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−57 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.8 V .Exercises 1 KΩ 1V 2V 3V i ( ma ) V out 0 v (V) 7. R = 1 KΩ V S = 12 V ± 10% V out Vs = 12V = 2. It is known that a junction diode with n = 1. Compute the value of R so that V out = 3 V .1 V per decade change of current. It is also known that the voltage across each diode changes by 0.8 V 9. Derive the equation of the straight line tangent at I D = 1 mA and the point where this straight line crosses the v D axis. The percent change in V out when V S changes by ± 10 % .65 .5 and T = 27 ° C find: a.5 mA . For the circuit shown below.7 V at T = 27 ° C . the diodes are identical and it is known that at V D = 0. The percent change in V out when a load resistor V load = 2 K Ω is connected across the four diodes. R = ? V S = 12 V V out = 3 V 8. the diodes are identical and when V S = 12 V exactly. For the circuit shown below. I D = 0.

7 V . For the full−wave bridge rectifier shown below it is given that v in ( peak ) = 17 V .7 V and the diode resistance r D « R load . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the conduction angle d. Find: a. the minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) 2−58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Find: a. For the half−wave rectifier circuit below. the angle θ by which v load lags the transformer secondary voltage v in c. the average value of v load c. the transformer is a step−down 10:1 transformer and the primary voltage v s = 120 RMS . the average value of v load e. the diode peak current I peak b. the minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) iD + vs − + v in − + vD − R load 5 KΩ v load + v load − v in conduction angle (a) (b) 11.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 10. and the diode resistance r D « R . R = 200 Ω . v D = 0. the diode peak current I peak b. The diode voltage v D = 0.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−59 . and r Z = 30 Ω . The nominal value of a Zener diode is V Z = 12 V at I Z = 10 mA . find the value of the capacitor so that the peak−to−peak ripple will be 1 volt . Find V Z if I Z = 20 mA c. R + C v in 20 K Ω v in = 177 sin 377t − v out 13. Compute and sketch the waveform for the output v out .Exercises + v in ( t ) − − R v out ( t ) + + v out ( t ) − v in ( t ) 12. a. C + v in + − − iD 5 v in ( V ) t + v out − –5 14. For the peak rectifier shown below. Find V Z if I Z = 5 mA b. Find V Z0 of the Zener diode model Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A circuit and its input waveform are shown below.

V P = 50 mV . the peak voltage. i ( mA ) IP IV VP VV VF v ( mV ) Shown below is a resistor R . V V = 350 mV . Tunnel diode R 16. Determine the approximate operating point that yields the maximum power. referred to as a tunnel resistor. A tunnel diode has the idealized piecewise linear characteristics shown below where the valley current.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 15. and the peak forward voltage have the values I V = 1 mA . I P = 10 mA . and V F = 500 mV respectively. What should the value of the resistor be to absorb maximum power from the solar cell? Light i (mA) 40 v R 20 v (mV) 200 400 2−60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the valley voltage. The terminal voltage characteristics are shown in Figure (b) below. the peak current. A typical solar cell for converting the energy of sunlight into electrical energy in the form of heat is shown in the Figure (a) below. Determine the value of this resistor so that this parallel circuit will exhibit no negative resistance region. a. placed in parallel with the tunnel diode. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . What is the value of the maximum power output? b.

*10.4 0..20 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. title('iD−vD characteristics for a forward−biased junction diode').*26. y=2..3. xlabel('Diode voltage vD. semilogx(x. grid x 10 -7 2.3nV T log 10( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) For convenience. ⁄e V D1 ⁄ nV T I D2 ⁄ I D1 = e V D2 ⁄ nV T = e ( V D2 – V D1 ) ⁄ nV T or V D2 – V D1 = nV T ln ( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) = 2. title('Plot for Exercise 2'). Let I D1 = I r e V D1 ⁄ nV T and I D2 = I r e V D2 ⁄ nV T . vD=0: 0..5 0 iD-vD characteristics for a forward-biased junction diode..*1..*VT))−1). ylabel('Diode current iD..6 Diode voltage vD.. the diode begins to conduct at approximately 7. iR=10^(−15). Then.*(exp(vD.5 1 0. VT=26*10^(−3). we let V D2 – V D1 = y and I D2 ⁄ I D1 = x and we use the following MATLAB script to plot y = 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−61 . iD=iR. n=2 at 27 deg C 0 0. grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.../(n. ylabel('y=VD2−VD1').*log10(x). n=2. volts'). 2. plot(vD..Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 2.y). volts 0.^(−3).iD).5 Diode current iD.8 V ..3nV T log 10x on semilog scale.. amps'). xlabel('x=ID2/ID1').01: 1.2 0. x=1: 10: 10^6.8 1 We observe that when n = 2 . amps 2 1.

4. We assume that the voltmeter internal resistance is very high and thus all current produced by V s flows through the diode. for bet- ter accuracy. 1 K Ω resistor.15 ) 1.3nVT log 10( I D2 ⁄ I D1 ) to find n .15 ) ( 1. say I D2. a DC ammeter A and the diode D whose value of n is to be found. we can adjust V S to obtain the values of several pairs. 10 – 13 ( 1 + 0. V D2 I D1.15 ) ------------------. V D1 and and use the relation V D2 – V D1 = 2.15 ) = 2 × ( 1.15 ( x – 50 ) = 2 × 10 – 13 ( x – 50 ) x = 2 ( 1.15 ) x 50 = 2.167 × 10 3 2−62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. plot these on semilog paper and find the best straight line that fits these values.2 0.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 0.1 0 0 10 10 2 10 x=ID2/ID1 4 10 6 3. A 1 KΩ D Vs VD ID V We can now adjust the variable power supply V S to obtain two pairs i – v .3 y=VD2-VD1 0. connected as shown below.4 Plot for Exercise 2 0. However. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . a DC voltmeter V .= 2 50 ( 1. This can be done with a variable power supply V S .

336 x = 3. At 20 ° C .15 ) = log 10 ( 2. a physical impossibility.15 = 54.15 ) = log 10 ( 2.336 ⁄ log 101.5 V = ------------------.15 ) = x log 10 ( 1.5 × 0.167 × 10 ) x log 10( 1.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises log 10 ( 1.4. V out = 3 V and stays at this value because diodes D 1 and D 2 . after being connected to the circuit.336 + 3 = 3.96 ° C ≈ 55 ° C x 3 Therefore.167 ) + 3 log 10 ( 10 ) = 0. and b. Then. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−63 . are reverse−biased. D1 1V D2 2V D3 3V 1 KΩ V out i ( ma ) 0 v (V) The value of V out = 3 V is unrealistic when compared with the realistic value which we found in Example 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we can conclude that the reverse current I r doubles for every 5 ° C rise in temperature.25 μ A –6 0 °C = 0. We assume that diode D 3 and the resistor are connected first. This is because we’ve assumed ideal diodes. 5. and VR VR Ir Ir 40 ° C = 2 × 2 × 1 μA = 4 μA –6 40 ° C = 4 × 10 × 500 × 10 = 2V 3 0 °C = 0.25 × 10 × 500 × 10 = 0. Ir 20 ° C 0. we have: a.= 1 μA 500 K Ω and since the reverse current doubles for every 10 ° C rise in temperature.125 V 3 6.5 × 1 μ A = 0.

8 V V s – V out 12 – 2. a.75 – 0.2 × 10 –3 and for ± 10 % or ± 1.5 × 26 × 10 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . for the output voltage to be V out = 3 V .× 100 = ± 59.8 .7mV Δ V out = ----------------------1000 + 17 Therefore.2 V change we find that 17 Ω .0167 V 2. a n d s i n c e t h e c h a n g e i s Δ V D = 0.= -----------------I D = ---------------------. the voltage drop a c r o s s e a c h d i o d e m u s t b e 3 V ⁄ 4 = 0.= ------------------. V s – V out 12 – 3 R = ---------------------.5 × 10 = 5 mA .8 . Then.8 2−64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6 % % Δ V out = ----------------------------2. Thus.2 mA R 10 3 The incremental resistance r D per diode is found from r D = nV T ⁄ I D with n = 1.= 9.8 K Ω –3 ID 5 × 10 8.8167 – 2. for all four diodes 4 × 1. R = ? V s = 12 V V out = 3 V Since the diodes are identical.= 1. R = 1 KΩ V s = 12 V ± 10% V out Vs = 12V = 2. and V' out = 2.65 = 0.8 ± 0.75 V .= 16.5 . the current is 0.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 7.= 17 Ω 4r D = --------------------------------------------–3 9.1 V .

= 1.8 V and thus the current through this load will be 2.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises b.8 mV 9. The 2 K Ω load when connected across the four diodes will have a voltage of 2.013 and thus the equation of the straight line becomes i D = 0.92 × 26 × 10 –3 and by substitution into (1) above i D = 0.02v D – 0.02v D + b (2) Next.013 (3) Now. by substitution into (2) we obtain 10 –3 = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−65 .= --------------------------------------.02 × 0.= --------.4 mA × 17 Ω = – 23. i D = 1 mA .7 From analytic geometry.= 0. Then.7 V .4 mA I load = ------------2 KΩ Therefore.65 V . from (3) above we find that the v D axis intercept is 0 = 0.013 or v D = 0. the current through the four diodes decreases by 1. we find the i D intercept using the given data that when v D = 0. i D ( mA ) 1 vD ( V ) 0.02 m = ---r D nV T 1.7 + b from which b = – 0.8 V . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For this exercise the equation of the straight line is i D = mv D + b (1) where –3 ID 10 1 . the equation of a straight line in an x – y plane is y = mx + b where m is the slope and b is the y intercept.02vD – 0.4 mA and the decrease in voltage across all four diodes will be Δ V out = – 1.

17) V p Δ v 17 0.– -----V load ( ave ) ≈ ----2 π 2 π e.= -----------------.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 10.= ----. From (2.28 ° d.7 V .15). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) is PIV = V p = 17 V but for practical purposes we should choose the value of 1. Then.36 ° = 175.= 5. From (2.– -----. The conduction angle is π – 2 θ = 180 ° – 2 × 2.7 × PIV = 1.7 ⁄ 17 = 2.36 ° c.7 I peak = -----------------. the secondary voltage is 12 V RMS or v in = 12 2 peak = 17 V peak . iD + vs − + v in − + vD + R load v load − 5 KΩ v load − v in conduction angle (a) (b) a. Then.= 3. θ = sin –1Δ v ⁄ V p where Δ v = V p – V out = v D = 0. It is given that the transformer is a step down type with ratio 10:1 . v in – v D I peak = -----------------------r D + R load and since r D « R load v in – v D 17 – 0. therefore. θ = sin –10.06 V .26 mA 3 R load 5 × 10 b.7 .7 × 17 ≈ 30 V 2−66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

= -π Period ∫θ (π – θ) 1 . The diode peak current I peak is v in – 2v D I peak = ---------------------rD + R and since r D « R b.3 V but for practical purposes we should choose the value of about 30 V .[ 2V p cos θ – 2 Δ v ( π – 2 θ ) ] = -π Generally. + v in ( t ) − − R v out ( t ) + + v out ( t ) − v in ( t ) a.7 = 16.= 78 mA I peak ≈ ---------------------R 200 We start with the definition of the average value. 1 Area V out ( ave ) = ---------------.7 = 9.( – V p cos φ – 2 Δ v φ ) ( V p sin φ – 2 Δ v ) dφ = -π π–θ φ=θ or 1 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−67 .7 . Therefore. that is.– 2 Δ v = -------------.= 17 ---------------------------.– 2 × 0. The minimum theoretical Peak Inverse Voltage (PIV) is PIV = V p – v D = 17 – 0. v in – 2v D – 2 × 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the angle θ is small and thus cos θ ≈ 1 and ( π – 2 θ ) ≈ π .[ – V p cos ( π – θ ) – 2 Δ v ( π – θ ) + V p cos θ + 2 Δ v θ ] V out ( ave ) = -π 1 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 11. the last relation above reduces to 2V p 2 × 17 V out ( ave ) ≈ --------.42 V π π c.

ω = 377 r ⁄ s or f = ω ⁄ 2 π = 377 ⁄ 2 π = 60 Hz . The waveform for the output voltage is as shown below. and the capacitor voltage is v C = 5 V with polarity shown.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes 12.= 177 ⋅ ----------------------------------------3 V pp ( ripple ) ⋅ R ⋅ 60 1 × 20 × 10 × 60 13. v out ( V ) t – 10 14.29). v in = – 5 V . When the input voltage is negative.85 V 2−68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and T = 1 ⁄ f = 1 ⁄ 60 . Since v out = v in – v C . By definition r Z = Δ V Z ⁄ Δ I Z or Δ V Z = r Z Δ I Z . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . when v in = 5 V . Rearranging (2. v out = 5 – 5 = 0 and the output has shifted upwards to zero volts as shown below. VZ I Z = 5mA –3 = VZ I Z = 10mA – r Z Δ I Z = 12 – 30 × ( 10 – 5 ) × 10 = 11.= 148 μ F C = V p ⋅ -----------------------------------------------. C + v in + − − iD 5 v in ( V ) t + v out − –5 From the circuit above we observe that the diode conducts only when v in > 0 and thus the capacitor charges to the positive peak of the input which for this example is 5 V . we obtain 1 T . Then. R + C v in 20 K Ω v in = 177 sin 377t − v out Here. and v out = – 5 – 5 = – 10 V . a.

03 Ω (1) dv where i D and v are as shown in the circuit below. From (2. VZ I Z = 20mA = VZ I Z = 10mA – r Z Δ I Z = 12 – 30 × ( 10 – 20 ) × 10 –3 = 12. i ( mA ) IP IV VP VV VF v ( mV ) Tunnel diode R For the region of negative resistance the slope m is Δi 1 – 10 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−69 .7 V 15.= -------------------Δv 350 – 50 and thus di D –1 ------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises b. we must have Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= – 0.= – 0.3 V c.34) VZ = VZ0 + rZ IZ where VZ and IZ are the nominal values.03 m = -----. v i iD iR R To eliminate the negative resistance region. Then VZ0 = VZ – rZ IZ = 12 – 30 × 10 × 10 –3 = 11.

≥ – ( – 0.i2). m=−0.33. Let us plot the total current i versus the voltage v with the values R 1 ≈ 33. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= ------.1:349.v.(3) R dv 1 --.≥ 0 (2) dv for all values of v . For a positive slope greater than zero we should choose a resistor with a smaller value.33 Ω . We will use the following MATLAB script for the plots.id.33 Ω and R 2 = 25 Ω .v.5.03 ) R and thus the maximum value of the resistor should be R ≈ 33. id=m*v+b. the slope of the total current i versus the voltage v across the parallel circuit will be zero.Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes di ----. grid and upon execution of this script we obtain the plot shown below.i1. 15 i for R=25 Ohms 10 i (mA) i for R=33. v=51:0.. R2=25..+ --dv dv R di D 1 --. i1=id+v/R1.. i2=id+v/R2. Since i = iD + iR = iD + v ⁄ R it follows that and (2) above will be satisfied if From (1) and (3) di D 1 di ----. With this value. R1=33.03. b=11.≥ – ------. plot(v.33 Ohms 5 i without resistor 0 50 100 150 200 v (mV) 250 300 350 2−70 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

By inspection. The value of R that will receive maximum power is v⎞ 400 = -------. Light i (mA) 40 Q v R 20 v (mV) 200 400 a. the operating point that will yield maximum power is denoted as Q where P max = 400 × 40 = 16 mw b.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 16.= 10 Ω R = ⎛ -⎝ i ⎠ max 40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 2−71 .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 2 Introduction to Semiconductor Electronics − Diodes NOTES: 2−72 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

1. The NPN and PNP transistors are defined and their application as amplifiers is well illustrated with numerous examples. and Figure 3.2 shows several possible configurations and most integrated circuits employ transistors to operate as diodes.1. 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors T his is a long chapter devoted to bipolar junction transistors. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−1 . Can a transistor be used just as a diode? The answer is yes. The three terminals of a transistor. an NPN transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the P−type material at the center. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. whereas a PNP transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the N−type material at the center. and the Ebers−Moll model is discussed in detail. N P P N P N N P N P N P N P E Emitter B Base C C Collector E Emitter B Base C C Collector B B E NPN Transistor formation and symbol E PNP Transistor formation and symbol Figure 3.1. are identified as the emitter. The small and large signal equivalent circuits along with the h−parameter and T−equivalent circuits are presented. NPN and PNP transistor construction and symbols As shown in Figure 3. and the collector. whether it is an NPN or PNP transistor. the base.1 Introduction Transistors are three terminal devices that can be formed with the combination of two separate PN junction materials into one block as shown in Figure 3.

the transistor inverts (changes) an input of 5 V to an output of 0 V when it behaves like a closed switch as in Figure 3. 3−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Transistors configured as diodes Transistors are used either as amplifiers or more commonly as electronic switches.3. most transistors are made of silicon. and lower power consumption. about six times faster than silicon. The transistor will act as an open switch when the voltage V BE is less than 0. being a deadly poison. The disadvantages of GaAs over silicon is that arsenic. Briefly. it requires special handling since it is extremely brittle. GaAs is much more expensive than silicon and it is usually used only in superfast computers.4. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) technology has been under development for several years and its advantage over silicon is its speed. We will discuss these topics on the next section. For these reasons. and it inverts an input of 0 V to an output of 5 V when it behaves like an open switch as in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .7 V but no greater than 5 V to avoid possible damage. a typical NPN transistor will act as a closed switch when the voltage V BE between its base and emitter terminals is greater than 0. NPN transistor as electronic closed switch − inverts 5 V to 0 V Like junction diodes.3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors N P N P N P E Cathode B Anode E Anode B Cathode N P N P N P B Anode C Cathode B Cathode C Anode Figure 3. that is. in addition. V CC RC V in = 5V V CC RC = 5V = V BE = 5 V V in B C V out E = V CE = 0 V Figure 3.3 shows an NPN transistor used as an electronic switch to perform the operation of inversion.2. requires very special manufacturing processes and.6 V . Figure 3.

denoted as i B .4.* the collecElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. it is said to be operating in the active mode. and for V CC about 10 V to 12 V .3 The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier When a transistor is used as an amplifier.5. Typical values for V BB are about 1 V or less.2 NPN Transistor Operation For proper operation.5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−3 . the base current. The difference in these bias voltages is necessary to cause current flow from the collector to the emitter in an NPN transistor and from the emitter to collector in a PNP transistor. NPN transistor as electronic open switch − inverts 0 V to 5 V 3. Biased NPN and PNP Transistors for proper operation The bias voltage sources are V BB for the base voltage and V CC for the collector voltage. 3. there are three currents.NPN Transistor Operation V CC RC V in = 5V V CC RC C = 5V = V BE = 0 V V in B C V out E = V CE = 5 V E Figure 3. Since a transistor is a 3−terminal device. the NPN and PNP transistors must be biased as shown in Figure 3. IC Collector N Base IB V BB P Emitter N IE NPN Transistor V CC IB V BB Collector P Base N Emitter P IE IC V CC PNP Transistor Figure 3.

NPN or PNP. that i D = I r [ e the collector current is iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T – 12 – 15 ( v D ⁄ nV T ) (3. Please refer to Section 3.6) Another important parameter in transistors is the common−base current gain denoted as α and it * It is customary to denote instantaneous voltages and currents with lower case letters and the bias voltages and currents with upper case letters. 3−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. equation (2. A very useful parameter in transistors is the common−emitter gain β .1) and (3. a constant whose value typically ranges from 75 to 300.5) (3.1) – 1 ] . C C iB B iC E iE iC iE B iB E PNP Transistor NPN Transistor Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and the emitter current. and emitter currents in a transistor For any transistor.3) (3.5 and 3. where I r is the reverse (saturation) current. The base. Its value is specified by the manufacturer.3) we obtain β+1 -i i E = i B + i C = i C ⁄ β + i C = ----------β C and with (3.6.19.4) (3.2) A to 10 A as in junction diodes. denoted as i E . and (3.6.I r e BE T i E = ----------β (3.3). denoted as i C . In a transistor. The base current i B is much smaller than the collector current i C and these two currents are related in terms of the constant β as iB = iC ⁄ β and with (3. typically 10 v BE is the base−to−emitter voltage. n ≈ 1 . and V T ≈ 26 mV at T = 300 ° K .2) v ⁄V β+1 . They are shown in Figures 3.2) we obtain v BE ⁄ V T iB = ( Ir ⁄ β ) e From (3. collector.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors tor current. the three currents are related as iB + iC = iE We recall from Chapter 2.

Thus.11) (3.I r e BE T i E = -α (3.9) and we can express β in terms of α by rearranging (3.7) v ⁄V 1 . α β = ----------1–α (3.995. di C α = ------di E di C β = ------di B di E γ = ------di B and their relationships are β α = ----------β+1 Example 3.7) iC = α iE Also.14) (3. Solution: For α = 0.12) (3.992 and for α = 0. Find the β range corresponding to this α range.8) (3. from (3.7).992 (3. α β = ----------1–α γ = β+1 (3.992 to 0.995 .10) Another lesser known ratio is the common−collector current gain ratio denoted as γ and it is defined as the ratio of the change in the emitter current to the change in the base current.7) it is obvious that α < 1 and from (3. Then.7) (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−5 .= --------------------0.10) yields α .5) and (3.1 A transistor manufacturer produces transistors whose α values vary from 0.= 124 β = ----------1–α 1 – 0.992 .6) and (3.13) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier is related to β as β α = ----------β+1 From(3.

ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.15). I r = 2 × 10 – 14 .995 124 ≤ β ≤ 199 3. i B = 5 μ A .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors α .992 ≤ α ≤ 0.7. let us draw an equivalent circuit using relations (3.10). To illustrate. β .= --------------------0. and the operating temperature.1) which are repeated here for convenience.3). Example 3.1) through (3.995 Therefore.995 .15) (3. we can find the other parameters for the circuit model in Figure 3. The collector bias voltage V CC (not * Dependent sources are discussed in detail in Chapters 1 through 4. (3.7. and (3. (3.16).2 For a given NPN transistor.= 199 β = ----------1–α 1 – 0. NPN transistor equivalent circuit model for relations (3. 3−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.4). i B .17) iB v BE iC ( Ir ⁄ β ) e v BE ⁄ V T iC = β iB E iE Figure 3. Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and (3.1 Equivalent Circuit Models − NPN Transistors We can draw various equivalent circuit models with dependent voltage and current sources* for NPN transistors using the relations (3.17) If we know I r . for the range the corresponding β range is 0. iB = ( Ir ⁄ β ) e v BE ⁄ V T (3. Find the numerical values of the parameters shown in Figure 3.7.3.16) iC = β iB iE = iB + iC = ( Ir ⁄ β ) e B v BE ⁄ V T + β iB C (3. and T = 27 ° C . β = 200 .

03 ) ≈ 0.1.15). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−7 . –3 3.17) For easy reference we summarize the current−voltage relationships for both NPN and PNP transistors in the active mode in Table 3.15).16). and (3. and (3. PNP transistor equivalent circuit model for relations (3.2 Equivalent Circuit Models − PNP Transistors Relations (3.. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.61 + 23.= 5 × 10 10 = 5 -----------------– 16 10 10 –6 v BE ⁄ V T = ln ( 5 × 10 ) v BE = V T ( ln 5 + 10 ln 10 ) = 26 × 10 ( 1. E iE ( Ir ⁄ β ) e v EB ⁄ V T v EB iC = β iB iC C B iB Figure 3.e.15). Solution: – 14 Ir × 10 . (3. i.= 2 -------------------β 200 We find v BE from (3. 5 × 10 e v BE ⁄ V T –6 v BE ⁄ V T = 10 – 16 v BE ⁄ V T e × 10 .8.17) apply also to PNP transistor equivalent circuits except that v BE needs to be replaced by v EB as shown in Figure 3.8.16).The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier shown) is 10V .3.= 10 –16 -.64 V The collector bias voltage V CC is used for proper transistor operation and its value is not required for the above calculations. (3. iB = ( Ir ⁄ β ) e Then.

I C = 1.1 are very useful in establishing voltage and current levels at various points on an NPN or PNP transistor.e T iE = ⎛ ⎝ α⎠ v EB iC = Ir e v BE -------VT I r ⎞ -------I r ⎞ -------V V -.9.e T iE = ⎛ ⎝α⎠ ⎝β⎠ iC = Ir e v EB -------VT iB = iC ⁄ β iB = iE ⁄ ( β + 1 ) iB = ( 1 – α ) iE iC = β iB iC = α iE VT iB = iC ⁄ α iB = iC ⁄ β iB = ( 1 – α ) iE iC = β iB iC = α iE VT iB = iC ⁄ α iE = ( β + 1 ) iB iE = ( β + 1 ) iB iB = iE ⁄ ( β + 1 ) = 26 mV at T = 27 ° C = 26 mV at T = 27 ° C v BE = V T [ ln ( β ) – ln ( I r ) + ln ( i B ) ] v BE = V T [ ln ( β ) – ln ( I r ) + ln ( i B ) ] The relations in Table 3.9.= ---iE β+1 I r ⎞ -------V -.1 NPN and PNP transistor current−voltage characteristics NPN Transistor PNP Transistor iC β α = ----------.3 − Computations for R C * As stated earlier. our circuit is as shown in Figure 3. Example 3.= ---iB 1–α iE = iB + iC v BE iC β α = ----------.7 V .6 mA C VC E IE RE 12 V V EE = 4V B IB Figure 3. Find the values of the resistors given that when V BE = 0. 3−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ---iE β+1 v EB iC α β = ----------. The circuit operates at T = 27 ° C .e T i B = ⎛ -.= ---iB 1–α iE = iB + iC I r ⎞ -------V -. and lower case letters for instantaneous values. Transistor circuit for Example 3. we use upper case letters for DC (constant) values. one connected between the collector and V CC and the other between the emitter and V EE .2 mA .3 An NPN transistor with β = 150 is to operate in the common (grounded) base configuration.e T iB = ⎛ ⎝β ⎠ v BE iC α β = ----------.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors TABLE 3.6 mA and the collector voltage V C at 4 V . Solution: Since the transistor is to operate at the common base configuration. A DC power supply at V S = ± 12 V is available and with two external resistors. we want to keep the collector current I C * at 1. IC RC V CC 12 V = 1. after connecting the resistors and the bias voltages. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

= -------------------= e 0.6 mA -----------------.6 mA . V BE = V B – V E V ⁄V and since the base is grounded. RC IC V CC C E RE IE = 1.2 mA Ir e 1. V B = 0 .7 V .The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier Application of Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL) on the collector side of the circuit with I C = 1. and Then.⎞ = ( V BE – 0.708 V 12 V V EE Figure 3.993 = 1.6 . We find V BE from the ratio I r e BE T ( V BE – 0.708 Next.6 mA VC 12 V = 4V IB VE B = – 0.2 mA and we need to find V BE at I C = 1.7 ) ⁄ V T ln ⎛ -----⎝ 1. Transistor circuit for Example 3.6 × 10 We are given that for V BE = 0.708 as shown in Figure 3.7 ) ⁄ V T 1.7 + 26 × 10 ln ⎛ -----⎝ 1. by KVL IC = α IE IE = IC ⁄ α α = β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) = 150 ⁄ 151 = 0.993 I E = I C ⁄ α = ( 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−9 .= ----------------------= --------------------.1 or and since β = 150 .7 ⁄ V T 1.61 mA Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and V E = – V BE = – 0.10. I C = 1.3 − Computations for R E From Table 3.2 ⎠ = 0.6 mA and V C = 4 V yields RC IC RC + V C = V CC V CC – V C 12 – 4 .10.6 –3 -⎞ V BE = 0.6 mA ) ⁄ 0.2 ⎠ 1.= 5 KΩ –3 IC 1.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . at T = 27 ° C the emitter to base voltage v BE = 0. 3−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 – 0. Circuit for Example 3.3 Effect of Temperature on the i C − v BE Characteristics As with diodes. the base−emitter voltage v BE decreases approximately 2 mV for each 1 ° C rise in temperature when the emitter current i E remains constant.046 = 0. the change in V E is Δ V E = ( 50 – 27 ) ° C × ( – 2 mV ⁄ 1 ° C ) = – 46 mV and at T = 50 ° C . v EB = V E and since this voltage decreases by 2 mV for each 1 ° C temperature rise. VE = 0.= 7 KΩ –3 IE 1. Find the changes in emitter voltage V E and collector voltage V C if the temperature rises to T = 50 ° C .= – R E = --------------------------------------------------------.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors – V E + R E I E = V EE V EE + V E ( – 12 ) – 0.7 V and the emitter current I E is held constant at all temperature changes.61 × 10 3. the voltage V C remains unchanged.11. Example 3.4 Solution: Since the base is grounded.4 For the PNP transistor circuit in Figure 3.3. RC = 5 KΩ C IC VC E RE IE = 10 K Ω V CC 12 V B IB VB VE V EE Figure 3.11.654 V There is no change in the collector voltage V C because the emitter current I E is held constant.708 . and since I C = α I E .

4 Collector Output Resistance − Early Voltage From basic circuit analysis theory. V CC RC C B E VC Figure 3. This voltage drop subtracts from the supply voltage V CC and the larger the voltage drop.18) vBE = cons tan t V IC A r out = ----- (3.12. This voltage drop subtracts from the supply voltage V CC and the smaller the voltage drop.12. let us illustrate a transistor in the common−emitter mode with the resistive circuit shown in Figure 3.3. Representing a transistor as a resistive circuit with a potentiometer When the potentiometer resistance is decreased (the wiper moves upwards) the current through the collector resistor R C increases and the voltage drop across R C increases. Conversely. when the potentiometer resistance is increased (the wiper moves downwards) the current through the collector resistor R C decreases and the voltage drop across R C decreases. we recall that a current source has a parallel resistance attached to it and it is referred to as output resistance. We supply current to the base of the transistor and current appears at its collector. the larger the voltage V C at the collector. Ideally. We recall also that a resistor serves as a current limiter and it develops a voltage drop when current flows through it.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier 3. This output resistance looking into the collector is defined as ∂ v CE r out = ----------∂ iC or (3. the smaller the voltage V C at the collector. Before we consider the next example. most integrated circuits use transistors as loads instead of resistors R C . However. and when active loads (transistors) are used. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−11 . and I C is the DC collector current. this resistance should be infinite and we can connect any passive load to the current source. This resistance is in the order of 100 K Ω or greater. The current into the base of the transistor is in the order of a few microamps while the current at the collector is in the order of a few milElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A transistor is a current−in. current−out device. we should consider the finite output resistance that is in parallel with the collector.19) where V A is the Early voltage supplied by the manufacturer.

8 3−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13 will help us understand the transistor operation in the common−emitter mode.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors liamps. A further increase in the supply voltage v S has no effect on v BE which remains fairly constant at 0.= -----. But when the base−to−emitter voltage is v BE ≈ 0. Transistor operation in the common−emitter mode For the circuit of Figure 3.5 The datasheet for the NPN transistor in Figure 3. The base to emitter voltage V BE is held constant at 0. and consequently the collector voltage v C increases. Find the values of I C as V CE varies from 1 V to 10 V and plot I C versus V CE .13. a small current flows into the base.8 mA . As v S decreases. V CC RC C vC iC EE iB vS vS RB B vC v BE i Figure 3.7 V . the collector current I C = 0. VA 80 r out = -----.7 V . no current flows into the base.13.= 100 K Ω IC 0.65 . and for this reason the output voltage v C appears as 180 ° out−of−phase with the input (supply) voltage v S .7 V and when V CC is adjusted so that V CE = 1 V . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . for the base−to−emitter voltage interval 0 ≤ v BE ≤ 0.19) are applicable here. The transistor circuit and the waveforms shown in Figure 3. but the base current continues to increase causing an increase in the collector current i C . less current flows into the base and the collector current decreases also causing the voltage drop across the resistor R C to decrease. Thus.18) and (3. This. Example 3.14 indicates that the Early voltage is V A = 80 . Do you expect a linear relationship between I C and V CE ? Solution: Relations (3. in turn causes the voltage drop across the resistor R C to increase and thus the collector voltage v C decreases.

vCE=1: 10.80e-004 9 9.5 Δ v CE –5 Δ i C = ----------.00e-005 8. ylabel('iC (A)').30e-004 4 4.3)...The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier RC IB VS RB B C IC E V CE V CC V BE and Figure 3..90e-004 10 1.iC'). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.00e-005 8. r0=vA/iC1. grid.. disp('vCE delta iC new iC'). vA=80./r0)'. iC(:.8*10^(−3). iC(:.iC(:..1)=vCE'... iC=zeros(10. Circuit for Example 3.10e-004 2 2. The plot is shown in Figure 3.00e-005 8.0f \t %2.00e-004 Generally..00e-004 9. fprintf('%2.3)).00e-005 8. It is almost linear when a transistor operates in the active region.. and non−linear when it operates in the cutoff and saturation regions.20e-004 3 3. the i C versus v CE relation is non−linear..00e-005 8.3)=(iC1+vCE..00e-005 8. title('iC vs vCE for Example 3. xlabel('vCE (V)').2 shows the three modes of operation in a bipolar transistor and the forward or reverse−biasing of the emitter−base and collector−base junctions.00e-005 8..00e-005 8. plot(vCE./r0)'..40e-004 5 5.60e-004 7 7. fprintf(' \n').14..70e-004 8 8. The MATLAB script below performs all computations and plots I C versus V CE .. Table 3.00e-005 8.15.= 10 Δ v CE r out This expression shows that there is a linear relationship between I C and V CE .5') vCE delta iC new iC ------------------------1 1.50e-004 6 6.2e \t %2.. iC(:.. disp('-------------------------'). iC1=0.2e\n'. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−13 .2)=(vCE..

= 0. 3−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6 8.2 Region of operation for bipolar transistors Region of Operation Emitter−Base junction Collector−base junction Active Saturation Cutoff Forward Forward Reverse Reverse Forward Reverse Example 3.992 β+1 121 It is given that β = 120 . Solution: From the given circuit. Then.7 = 4.= 120 α = -----------------. or cutoff mode.2 8 x 10 -4 iC vs vCE for Example 3. I E .8 iC (A) 8.72 mA I E = -----.3 . by observation V E = V B – V BE = 5 – 0. Find V E .7 .6 For the circuit in Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 9.4 8. saturation. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V C .= 1. and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active.5 × 10 β . Plot for Example 3. I C .5 TABLE 3.5 1 2 3 4 5 6 vCE (V) 7 8 9 10 Figure 3.16.= --------------------3 RE 2.15. β = 120 and V BE = 0.3 V and VE 4.2 9 8.

17. we have V E = V EB = 0. V C .5 K Ω VE and Then.and β = 150 . R E = 5 K Ω .71 × 10 × 4 × 10 = 3.71 mA = 0.992 × 1. Example 3. I E . It is not because V C < V B and thus we conclude that with the given values the transistor is in saturation mode. Find V E .7 V and V EE – V E 12 – 0. Figure 3. I C .71 mA I B = 1. With V EE = 12 V it is reasonable to assume that the emitter−base junction is forward−biased and since the base is grounded. and I B . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−15 .7 For a PNP transistor circuit with the base grounded.16.6 I C = α I E = 0.72 = 1.7 .01 mA = 10 μ A Finally. Is the circuit operating in the active mode? Solution: The circuit is as shown in Figure 3. we find the collector voltage V C as V C = V CC – I C R C = 10 – 1.16 V We observe that the transistor is an NPN type and for the active mode operation the base−collector junction PN must be reverse−biased. V CC = – 12 V .72 mA – 1. R C = 3 K Ω .The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier 4 KΩ 10 V IC VC E RC RB VS B IB C V CC V BE VB = 5V IE RE 2.3 mA I E = --------------------3 RE 5 × 10 –3 3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ----------------= 2. Circuit for Example 3. it is given that V EE = 12 V .

it is known that β = 120 . I C . The base current is I B = I E – I C = 2.= 150 α = -----------------. Is the transistor operating in the active mode? Solution: To simplify the part of the circuit to the left of the base.28 mA –3 V C = R C I C – V CC = 3 × 10 × 2. we find that R2 30 12 = 4 V V TH = V xy = -----------------V = ----------------60 + 30 R1 + R2 S –3 –3 = 20 μ A 3−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. I E .18.3 × 10 3 –3 = 2. the collector−base junction is reverse−biased and the PNP transistor is in the active mode.16 V With this value of V C . V B . we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x and y as shown in Figure 3. Find I B .7 β .8 For the circuit in Figure 3.3 × 10 – 2.19.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors RE V EBE B IB 5 KΩ IE V EE VE 12 V IC VC C 3 KΩ V CC 12 V RC With β = 150 Then.993 × 2. and Figure 3.28 × 10 – 12 = – 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . PNP transistor for Example 3.28 × 10 Example 3. V C . and V E . and denoting the Thevenin equivalent voltage and resistance as V TH and R TH respectively.993 β+1 151 I C = α I E = 0.= 0.17.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3 3 3−17 .20. Application of Thevenin’s theorem to the circuit of Example 3.The Bipolar Junction Transistor as an Amplifier RC 8 KΩ IC VC IE RE 5 KΩ C R1 60 K Ω 30 K Ω 12 V IB B V BE R2 VB E 12 V V CC VS VE Figure 3. The circuit in Figure 3.= 20 K Ω R1 + R2 60 + 30 The circuit in Figure 3.18 is thus reduced to that in Figure 3. Circuit for Example 3.18 after application of Thevenin’s theorem Application of KVL around the left part of the circuit of Figure 3. 8 KΩ IC V CC RC C R TH I B B V TH 4V 20 K Ω VC V BE I E E VB RE VE 5 KΩ 12 V Figure 3.8 and R1 × R2 60 × 30 R TH = -----------------= ----------------.18.7 + ( 5 × 10 ) I E = 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.20.20 yields R TH I B + V BE + R E I E = V TH ( 20 × 10 ) I B + 0.19.8 R1 60 K Ω VS 12 V R2 30 K Ω x V TH R TH 20 K Ω x y 4V y Figure 3.

1.7 + 3.66 × 10 –3 4I B + I E = ---------------3 5 × 10 From Table 3.28 × 10 3 –3 –6 = 0.2 V V B = V BE + V E = 0.639 × 10 = 3.639 mA –3 V E = R E I E = 5 × 10 × 0. for convenience. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .7 V .93 V Since this is an NPN transistor and V C > V B .= 0. Then. 3. 3−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.66 × 10 I B = 5.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. For this reason we use resistors in the order of kilohms to form voltage dividers with desired values. In addition to eliminating the battery.4 Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing In our previous discussion. This is because conventional batteries are not available for 0.66 × 10 125I B = 0.9 V I C = I E – I B = 0. and Also.2 = 3.28 × 10 3 = 0. However. some of these biasing methods compensate for slight variations in transistor characteristics and changes in transistor conduction resulting from temperature irregularities. and –6 –3 –3 A = 5.634 mA –3 V C = V CC – R C I C = 12 – 8 × 10 × 0. a separate voltage source V BE has been used to provide the necessary forward−bias voltage and another voltage source V CC to establish a suitable collector voltage V C where V C = V CC – R C I C .3 .634 × 10 = 6.28 × 10 and Next.639 × 10 – 5. the base−collector PN junction is reverse−biased and thus the transistor is in active mode. I E = ( β + 1 ) I B .28 μ A –6 I E = ( β + 1 ) I B = 121 × 5. 4I B + ( β + 1 ) I B = 0. it is not practical to use a separate emitter−base bias voltage V BE .

Since the current in the base circuit is very small (a few hundred microamperes) and the forward resistance of the transistor is low. As the input signal goes positive. This permits the collector voltage V C to change with an input signal. + RB R C V CC− C VC E V CC VC 0V v out + Vp 0 C − B – Vp v in = Vp sin ω t Figure 3. Conventional current flows from V CC through R B to the base then to the grounded emitter. The basic NPN transistor amplifier biased with a resistive network With the transistor properly biased. Without R C in the circuit. The DC quiescent point is the DC bias point Q with coordinates ( V BE. only a few tenths of a volt of positive bias will be felt on the base of the transistor. this is enough voltage on the base. These DC voltages and currents that exist in the circuit before the application of a signal are known as quiescent voltages and currents (the quiescent state of the circuit). This prevents DC in the circuitry on the left of the coupling capacitor from affecting the bias on the transistor. The coupling capacitor C is used to pass the ac input signal and block the dc voltage from the preceding circuit. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−19 . However. throughout the entire circuit. We will discuss the Q point in detail in a later section. which in turn allows the transistor to amplify voltage. the voltage on the collector would always be equal to V CC . The coupling capacitor also blocks the bias of the transistor from reaching the input signal source. It is introduced into the circuit by the coupling capacitor and is applied between the base and emitter.21. I B ) . the voltage across the base−emitter junction becomes more posiElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The collector resistor R C is placed in the circuit to keep the full effect of the collector supply voltage off the collector. The input to the amplifier is a sine wave that varies a few millivolts above and below zero. along with ground on the emitter and the large positive voltage on the collector to properly bias the transistor. with or without an input signal. The direct current flowing through the circuit develops more than just base bias.Transistor Amplifier Circuit Biasing Figure 3. it also develops the collector voltage V C as it flows from V CC through resistor R C and. direct current flows continuously.21 shows the basic NPN transistor amplifier where resistor R B provides the necessary forward bias for the emitter−base junction. as we can see on the output graph. the output signal starts at the V C level and either increases or decreases.

RC C VC E V CC RB − + V CC VC 0V v out + Vp 0 C − B – Vp v in = V p sin ω t Figure 3. As we already know. the PNP base voltage is slightly negative with respect to ground. the voltage across R C decreases. Since the voltage across R C and the voltage across the transistor (collector to emitter) must add up to V CC . which reduces the current through the transistor. With an increase in collector current. but has the same sine wave characteristics.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors tive. we can see that the output of the amplifier is an exact reproduction of the input except for the reversal in polarity and the increased amplitude (a few millivolts as compared to a few volts). it opposes the forward bias of the transistor.22. During the negative alternation of the input. By examining both input and output signals for one complete alternation of the input. With a negative V CC . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the primary difference between the NPN and PNP amplifier is the polarity of the source voltage V CC . is a negative alternation of voltage that is larger than the input. Figure 3.22 shows the basic PNP transistor amplifier. which results in a decrease in both collector and emitter currents. the input signal opposes the forward bias. This action cancels some of the negative voltage across the emitter−base junction. the output voltage from the amplifier. more voltage is developed across R C . This action decreases base current. the output for the negative alternation of the input is a positive alternation of voltage that is larger than the input but has the same sine wave characteristics. an increase in voltage across R C results in an equal decrease in voltage across the transistor. taken at the collector of the transistor with respect to the emitter. which causes base current to increase at the same rate as that of the input sine wave. Collector and emitter currents also increase but much more than the base current. The basic PNP transistor amplifier When the PNP input signal goes positive. This in effect increases forward bias. Therefore. Therefore. and the voltage 3−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. which provides the necessary forward bias condition between the emitter and base. The decrease in current through R C decreases its voltage drop and causes the voltage across the transistor to rise along with the output voltage. Therefore.

To bias a transistor properly. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the voltage across the transistor decreases or goes in a positive direction. During the negative alternation of the input signal. Thus.8 we can simplify the circuit in Figure 3. Therefore. In summary. which has the same characteristics as the input except that it has been amplified and the polarity is reversed.23. the input signals in the preceding circuits were amplified because the small change in base current caused a large change in collector current.21 and 3. This action results in a positive output voltage. NPN Transistor with fixed bias Following the procedure of Example 3.24.23 shows another configuration of an NPN transistor with fixed bias. or ICs. Even though with modern technology transistors are components (parts) of integrated circuits.Fixed Bias across the transistor increases. and consequently. Also.23 with the use of Thevenin’s theorem to the circuit in Figure 3. some are used as single devices.22 is known as fixed bias. the Q point must be chosen so that it will allow maximum signal swing from positive to negative values. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−21 . V CC + − R1 RC C B R2 E RE Figure 3. the voltage across R C increases. the voltage on the collector V C goes in a negative direction toward V CC . the transistor current increases because the input voltage aids the forward bias. one must establish a constant DC current in the emitter so that it will not be very sensitive to temperature variations and large variations in the value of β among transistors of the same type. but it is opposite in polarity and has a much larger amplitude. the output is a negative alternation of voltage that varies at the same rate as the sine wave input.5 Fixed Bias The biasing method used in the transistor circuits in Figures 3. And. Figure 3. 3. voltage amplification was achieved. by placing resistor R C in series with the collector. Since V CC is negative.

21) It was stated earlier that it is imperative to keep variations in temperature and changes in β values to a minimum and this can be achieved by making the emitter current I E fairly constant. The circuit in Figure 3. let us now derive an expression for I E . From Figure 3.22) From expression (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . R B must be small and since R B = R 1 R 2 ⁄ ( R 1 + R 2 ) .7 and R E » R B ⁄ ( β + 1 ) .1 Then. Therefore.23 after application of Thevenin’s theorem With reference to Figures 3. or 1 -⎞ I I B = ⎛ ----------⎝β+1⎠ E 1 -⎞ ----------RB ⎛ ⎝ β + 1 ⎠ I E + V BE + R E I E = V BB V BB – V BE V BB – 0. Accordingly.20) (3.7 I E = ---------------------------------------.= ---------------------------------------RE + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 ) RE + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 ) (3.24 with application of KVL we obtain R B I B + V BE + R E I E = V BB and from Table 3.24.24 we obtain the following relations: R2 V BB = -----------------V R 1 + R 2 CC R1 R2 R B = -----------------R1 + R2 (3. Designers recommend that the sum of R 1 and R 2 is 3−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC + − RC C IB B V BE RE IE IC + V BB RB − E Figure 3.22) we see that the emitter current I E will be fairly constant if V BB » 0. we should use small resistance values for R 1 and R 2 .23 and 3.

But the base voltage being determined by the voltage division provided by resistors R 1 and R 2 will remain relatively constant and according to KVL.26 β = 120 . and the product R C I C each be close to one−third of the value of V CC . the base − to − emitter voltage V BE will decrease.5I E .25 for convenience. and the product R C I C each be close to one−third of the value of V CC . the current I R through resistors R 1 and R 2 is I R = 0. And since IC = Ir e V BE ⁄ V T . It is also recommended that V BB . we can determine the appropriate values of the four resistors for proper biasing by letting the values of V BB . RC C IR IB R2 B RB B IB V BE RE E IE V CC + − RC C V CC + − R1 ≈0 E RE IE + V BB − Figure 3. To understand how this is done. we will denote the sum of R 1 and R 2 as R eq . the I E current. NPN transistor with fixed bias Circuit designers maintain that if we specify the V CC voltage. this is a contradiction to our original assumption (increase in I E ) and thus we say that the emitter resistor R E provides a negative feedback action. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−23 . let us assume that the emitter current I E increases. Obviously. and the value of β . It is often said that the emitter resistor R E provides a negative feedback action which stabilizes the bias current. In this case. and assuming that the base current is negligible.23 which is repeated as Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For convenience.25.9 For the transistor circuit of Figure 3. the voltages R E I E and V E will also increase. Let us consider the transistor circuit in Figure 3. V CB or V CB . Example 3. Find the values of the four resistors for appropriate fixed biasing.Fixed Bias such that the current through them (assuming that the base current is zero) is about half of the emitter current I E . V CB or V CB . both the collector current I C and emitter current I E will decrease.

since I B ≈ 0 by KVL V BE + R E I E = V BB 3−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.9 and its Thevenin equivalent As stated above.27.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC + − R1 RC 15 V C B R2 E RE IE Solution: Figure 3. 1 .26. The Thevenin equivalent is shown just to indicate the value of V BB which will be used in the calculations.5I E . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . RC C IR IB R2 B RB B IB V BE RE E IE V CC + − 15 V R1 RC C IC V CC + − V CC ≈0 E RE IE + V BB − Figure 3.V CC = 1 -.27. the current I R through resistors R 1 and R 2 is I R = 0.9 The given circuit and its Thevenin equivalent are shown in Figure 3. V CB or V CB . The transistor circuit in Example 3.15 = 5 V V BB = -3 3 and with reference to the Thevenin equivalent circuit above. it is suggested that the values of V BB . Then. and the product R C I C each be close to one−third of the value of V CC . Transistor circuit for Example 3. and assuming that the base current is negligible.

5 × 10 To find R eq = ( R 1 + R 2 ) we use the Thevenin equivalent voltage expression. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R2 R2 R2 .= ----------------------R eq = ( R 1 + R 2 ) = --------–3 IR 0.= --------------------------------.= -----------------------.= 1 ------------------.3 K Ω –3 IE 1 × 10 Also.Self−Bias V BB – V BE 5 – 0.= ----------.= -----------300 K Ω 15 V 3 and thus and R 2 = 100 K Ω R 1 = 300 K Ω – R 2 = 300 K Ω – 100 K Ω = 200 K Ω 1 -V R C I C = -3 CC or ( 1 ⁄ 3 ) V CC ( 1 ⁄ 3 ) V CC ( 1 ⁄ 3 ) V CC 5 R C = -----------------------.28. the collector current will increase. as shown in Figure 3. R eq I R = ( R 1 + R 2 ) I R = V CC V CC V CC 15 . This reaction to temperature is undesirable because it affects amplifier gain (the number of times of amplification) and could result in distortion. as we will see later in this chapter. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−25 .= ---------------------------------------------------= 4.= 4.7 R E = ------------------------. This increase in current also causes the DC quiescent point to move away from its desired position (level).15 V V CC = -----------------15 V = ------------------V TH = V BB = 5 V = -----------------R1 + R2 R1 + R2 300 K Ω R2 5 V. If the temperature of the transistor rises for any reason (due to a rise in ambient temperature or due to current flow through it).= -----------------.6 Self−Bias The fixed bias arrangement discussed in the previous section is thermally unstable.5I E 0.= 300 K Ω . A better method of biasing.96 K Ω –3 IC α IE ( β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) ) IE ( 120 ⁄ 121 ) × 1 × 10 We will find the value of R C from the relation 3. that is. known as self− bias is obtained by inserting the bias resistor directly between the base and collector.

we should choose the 3−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.10 For the transistor circuit in Figure 3.23) we see that to maintain the emitter current I E fairly constant.28. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Now. Example 3. feedback voltage can be fed from the collector to the base to develop forward bias.28. The decrease in base current will oppose the original increase in collector current and tend to stabilize it. (3. R C I E + R B I B + V BE = V CC 1 R C I E + R B ----------I + V BE = V CC β+1 E V CC – V BE I E = ---------------------------------------RC + RB ⁄ ( β + 1 ) collector and base resistors such that R B ⁄ ( β + 1 ) « R C . From Figure 3. NPN transistor amplifier with self−bias By tying the collector to the base in this manner. the collector voltage V C will fall because of the increase of voltage produced across the collector resistor R L . This drop in V C will be fed back to the base and will result in a decrease in the base current.23) From (3.29 β = 120 and we want the collector voltage to vary in accordance with V C = 3 sin ω t V + V BE and I E = 1 mA .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC IB C RC IB RB B E + IC = IE IC IE Figure 3. if an increase of temperature causes an increase in collector current. The exact opposite effect is produced when the collector current decreases. Find the values of R C and R B to meet these specifications.

by inspection 3 R B = ---------------------------------------------= 363 K Ω –3 1 × 10 × ( 1 ⁄ 121 ) V C = V CC – R C I E V CC – V C 15 – 3.7 V C = R B I B + V BE = R B ⎛ ----------⎝ β + 1⎠ E or Also.= 11.10 We assign current directions as shown in Figure 3.Self−Bias 15 V V CC RC RB B C E Solution: Figure 3. Transistor circuit for Example 3.29. Circuit for Example 3.= -----------------R C = ---------------------.30. RC IB RB B E C IB 15 V V CC + IC = IE IC IE Figure 3. 1 -⎞ I + 0.7 = 3 sin ω t + 0.10 with assigned current directions By inspection. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−27 .7 = 3 + 0.3 K Ω –3 IE 1 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 .30.

hence degrading the SNR (signal to noise ratio). • Limited output voltage. but this gain cannot normally be infinite so may not be large enough for a given purpose. The two extreme values of the variable resistor are R tr = ∞ (open circuit) and R tr = 0 (short circuit). there is always a finite limit to the output signal size. 3−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. We denote this variable resistor. Figure 3. limits the accuracy of any measurement or communication. There are four classes of amplifier operations. The power supply voltages are +V CC and – V EE and thus the output voltage v out will be limited to the range – V EE < v out < +V CC From our earlier discussion we can think of the transistor as a variable resistor between the collector resistor R C and emitter resistor R E . These conditions are shown in Figures 3. This.31(b) and 3. • Noise.. i. They are Class A. the transistor. in turn. This also reduces the accuracy of measurements and communications. • Distortion. The most important that we need to be concerned about when choosing and using them are: • Limited bandwidth. Let us first discuss the limits to signal size. It may be desirable to have the transistor conducting for only a portion of the input signal.31(c). This is why we often use multiple amplifiers or stages to achieve a desired overall gain. For each amplifier there is an upper frequency beyond which it finds it impossible to amplify signals. Class AB. Class B.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3.31(a) shows a simple amplifier being used to drive output signals into a resistive load. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and Class C. and power levels. we should remember that every amplifier has some unavoidable limitations on its performance. The portion of the input for which there is an output determines the class of operation of the amplifier. The actual signal pattern will be altered due non−linearities in the amplifier. This is not always the case with all types of amplifiers.e. A given amplifier cannot output signals above a particular level. Before discussing the different classes of amplifiers.7 Amplifier Classes and Operation In the previous discussions we assumed that for every portion of the input signal there was an output from the amplifier. current. All electronic devices tend to add some random noise to the signals passing through them. as R tr and its value depends on the input voltage v in . • Finite gain. A given amplifier may have a high gain.

R TH RC V CC RE I V EE V TH V TH R load v out Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. that is.31(b) yields the maximum voltage across the load resistor.32. that is.1 R load (3. we redraw the circuit as shown in Figure 3. Simple amplifier with resistive load (c) Application of the voltage division expression for the circuit in Figure 3.Amplifier Classes and Operation RC C B E RE V EE R load V CC V CC V CC RC C RC C B R tr v out B R tr = ∞ E RE R load v out = 0 E RE R load v out V EE V EE (a) (b) Figure 3. therefore. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−29 .31(c) where the load resistor is disconnected. For convenience. we want the power delivered to the load resistor to be maximum.31. From Figure 3. we choose R C to be one−tenth of the value of R load . we must make the collector resistor R C much smaller than the load resistor R load .24) and the corresponding maximum current is V CC i out ( max ) = -----------------------R C + R load (3. R C = 0.32. Thevenin equivalent for the circuit in Figure 3.31(c). R C « R load to maximize the current through the load resistor.⋅ V CC v out ( max ) = ------------------------ R R C + R load (3.26) Next. that is. by application of Thevenin’s theorem for the circuit of Figure 3.25) Obviously.32. load .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC + V EE I = -----------------------RC + RE V TH R E V CC – R C V EE = V CC – R C I = -------------------------------------RC + RE RC RE R TH = ------------------RC + RE (3.1 R load .29) and thus load . or R E = 0. and the emitter resistor when v out = 0 V and the amplifier is on.01R load (3.28) (3. the transistor. RC C V CC v in B E RE R load v out V EE Figure 3.29) we see that for v out ( min ) to be close to – V EE . the Thevenin resistance R TH shown in (3.V TH v out ( min ) = --------------------------- R R TH + R load From (3.33.11 Let us suppose that the circuit of Figure 3. so let us make R E one−tenth of R C .11 3−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. that is. Circuit for Example 3.28) and (3.33 is to be used as the output stage of an audio system whose load resistance is R load = 8 Ω and the supply voltages are V CC = +24V and V EE = – 24V . R E = 0.30) Example 3. We already have minimized R C to be R C = 0. Taken into account the recommendations discussed above for sizing the emitter and collector resistors. find the power absorbed by the combination of the collector resistor.1R C .27) (3.29) should be minimized.

44 Kw . Class B. the transistor. please refer to Figure 3. In a PNP transistor.35 is an example of a Class A amplifier.8 = 30 A . Biasing an amplifier in this manner places the DC operating point between cutoff and saturation and allows collector current to flow during the complete cycle (360 degrees) of the input signal. and Class C amplifiers We should remember that the circuits presented in our subsequent discussion are only the output stages of an amplifier to provide the necessary drive to the load. 3. This current is referred to a quiescent current and it is defined as the current in the amplifier when the output voltage is zero. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−31 . and sound systems. Since there is no current through the load. Saturation occurs when the base becomes so negative with respect to the emitter that changes in the signal are not reflected in collector−current flow. This is indeed a very large amount of power and thus this amplifier is obviously very inefficient. The output stages of Class A amplifiers carry a fairly large current. there is no current through the load resistor and since R C I C + v out = 24 V . this current will flow through the transistor and the emitter resistor and into the negative power supply. Thus. Class A Class B Class AB Class C Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. for example. Class AB.1 Class A Amplifier Operation Class A amplifiers are biased so that variations in input signal polarities occur within the limits of cutoff and saturation.7. I C = 24 ⁄ 0. the power absorbed by the combination of the collector resistor R C . Although the output from this amplifier is 180 degrees out−of−phase with the input.1 × 8 = 0. Figure 3.8 Ω and v out = 0 V . For a comparison of output signals for the different amplifier classes of operation. and the emitter resistor R E will be 30 × ( 24 + 24 ) = 1440 w = 1. radar. the output current still flows for the complete duration of the input. This condition is known as cutoff. the amplifier will be drawing 30 A from the positive power supply.34. Class A amplifiers are used as amplifiers in radio. thus providing an output which is a replica of the input. holes will be repelled at the PN junction and no current can flow in the collector circuit. that is. Output signals for Class A. if the base becomes positive with respect to the emitter.Amplifier Classes and Operation Solution: With R C = 0.34 during the following discussion.1R load = 0.

RC C VC E VC 0V V CC RB − + V CC v out + Vp 0 C − B – Vp v in = V p sin ω t Figure 3. Typical Class A amplifier R E1 i1 i load v in2 + − V EE v in1 + R load v out − R E2 i2 − + V EE Figure 3.11 we learned that the arrangement of the circuit in Figure 3. * The expression push−pull (or double ended) derives its name from the fact that one of the two transistors pushes (sources) current into the load during the positive cycle while the other pulls (sinks) current from the load during the negative cycle. Push−Pull Output stage for a Class A amplifier From the circuit in Figure 3.36.35. However. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .36. to one−half the maximum current drawn by the load.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors In Example 3. denoted as I Q . it is evident that we can control the currents i 1 and i 2 by varying the input voltages v in1 and v in2 .33 is very inefficient. Then. a Class A amplifier can be made more efficient if we employ a push−pull* arrangement as shown in Figure 3. It is convenient to set the quiescent current. Then. 3−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.36. we can adjust the currents i 1 and i 2 to be equal and opposite.

and R load = 8 Ω .5 = 36 w and the total power absorbed by the circuit is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−33 . the load current is within the range – 2I Q ≤ i load ≤ 2I Q .12 In the circuit in Figure 3. Compute the power absorbed by the circuit if we want to apply up to 24 V to the 8 Ω load. each transistor will absorb V i load ( max ) = 24 ----------.= 3A 8Ω A IQ = 3 -------. R E1 i1 i load v in2 + 24 V − V EE v in1 R load + 8Ω v out − R E2 24 V i2 − + V EE Figure 3. + V EE = 24 V .32) The currents i 1 and i 2 in each transistor vary from 0 to 2I Q .37.31) (3.12 Solution: The maximum load current is and the quiescent current is Then. Example 3. therefore.5 A 2 P = 24 × 1.Amplifier Classes and Operation i load i 1 = I Q + --------2 and i load i 2 = I Q – --------2 (3.37. Circuit for Example 3.= 1. – V EE = – 24 V .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .38. the upper transistor conducts and the lower transistor is cutoff. 3. + V − CC I bias R C1 v D1 v in v D2 + v BE1 − v1 R E1 i load R E2 R load + v EB2 + − I bias R C2 v2 i1 − v out − + V CC Figure 3. we find that v 1 = v in for v in > 0 (3. This consists also of a push−pull arrangement but the bases (inputs) are tied by two diodes. and since v BE1 = v D1 . The current in the diodes is supplied by two current sources denoted as I bias .7. Then.2 Class B Amplifier Operation The circuit in Figure 3. then the input to the base of the lower transistor is v in – v D2 and the voltage at the emitter terminal of the lower transistor is v 2 = v EB2 + v in – v D2 . Output stage in a typical Class B amplifier When v in goes positive.38 shows the output stage of a Class B amplifier. we find that 3−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and since v EB2 = v D2 . the upper transistor is cutoff and the lower transistor conducts.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors P total = 2 × 36 = 72 w This is not very efficient. but it is much more efficient than the circuit in the previous example.33) When v in goes negative. the input to the base of the upper transistor is v in + v D1 and the voltage at the emitter terminal of the upper transistor is v 1 = v in + v D1 – v BE1 .

v 1 = 0 .Amplifier Classes and Operation v 2 = v in for v in < 0 From (3.= ----R E1 + R E2 2R E R E (3. 3. However.39. it appears that this arrangement has perfect efficiency. and the current and the output of both transistors including the quiescent currents I bias will be zero also.36) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. assuming that R E1 = R E2 . This distortion is due to the non−linearities in transistor devices where the output does not vary linearly with the input. this ideal condition is never achieved because no two diodes or two transistors are exactly identical. and v 2 = 0 also.40. Then. and since v BE1 = v D1 = v D2 .35) (3.40(a) the voltage v 1 at the upper transistor is v 1 = v in + v D1 + v D2 – v BE1 .39. Accordingly. is v1 – v2 2v D v D . Crossover distortion in Class B amplifier The efficiency of a typical Class B amplifier varies between 65 to 75 percent. Class AB amplifiers combine the advantages of Class A and Class B amplifiers while they minimize the problems associated with them.= --------I bias = ----------------------. Crossover distortion v in v out Figure 3. when v in = 0 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−35 .37) (3. and the power absorbed by the circuit will be zero.7.34) Therefore. we have v 1 – v 2 = 2v D and the quiescent current. Two possible arrangements for the output stage of a typical Class AB amplifier are shown in Figure 3. we find that v 1 = v in + v D and similarly for the lower transistor v 2 = v in – v D .33) and (3. they produce crossover distortion.3 Class AB Amplifier Operation We’ve seen that Class A amplifiers are very inefficient. There exists a range where both transistors are cutoff when the input signal changes polarity and this results in crossover distortion as shown in Figure 3. In Figure 3. and Class B amplifiers although are efficient. when v in = 0 .34) we conclude that v 1 = v 2 = v in (3.

⋅ R load = -------2 RE 2 (3.5 V .39) For maximum power. Two possible arrangements for the output stage in a typical Class AB amplifier For small output signals that require currents in the range – 2 I bias < i load < 2 I bias both transistors will conduct and will behave as Class A amplifier. 3−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. so let R E = 0. For sinusoidal signals into the load R load .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V CC I bias + − R C1 I bias V CC + − v in v D1 v D2 v D3 v D4 + v BE1 − v 1 A R1 R adj R2 B + + v BE1 − v1 i load R E1 i load + R load v out − R E1 v AB R E2 − v EB2 + − v2 i1 v in R E2 v2 v EB2 + i 1 − R load− v out + I bias R C2 I bias (a) − V + CC − V + CC (b) Figure 3.38) and the output power will be P load 2v D . and let R load = 8 Ω and v D = 0.40(a) acts like a Class B amplifier and hence the name Class AB amplifier. while the other will be cutoff. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Then. But for larger signals. one transistor will conduct and supply the current required by the load. the RMS voltage will be D .40. In other words. we should make R E as small as possible. for large signals the circuit of Figure 3.5 Ω .⋅ R load v out ( RMS ) = ------------ 2v RE (3.

However.41.40(b). The adjustable resistor R adj is set to a position to yield the desired value of the quiescent current I bias . + − − v in Load v BE − iC + iL + iC Figure 3. The load can be thought of as an antenna. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications + iL L V CC C 3−37 . the voltage v AB can be adjusted to any desired value by selecting appropriate values for resistors R 1 and R 2 .41.4 Class C Amplifier Operation Class C amplifiers have high efficiency and find wide applications in continuous wave (CW) laser and radar applications. Output stage in a typical Class C amplifier In Class C amplifier operation. the total power absorbed will be P total = 24 × 1 + 20 = 44 w For the circuit in Figure 3. complete current is not allowed to flow at any one time thus avoiding much of the inefficiency of the Class A amplifier. Class AB amplifiers are the most commonly used amplifier designs due to their attractive combination of good efficiency and high−quality output (low distortion and high linearity close to but not equal to Class A amplifiers). 3. we have seen that the Class AB amplifier maintains current flow at all times so that the output devices can begin operation nearly instantly without the crossover distortion in Class B amplifiers. Class AB designs are about 50 percent efficient (half of the power supply is power is turned into output to drive speakers) compared to Class A designs at 20 percent efficiency.7. However.41 behaves as a open−closed switch.Amplifier Classes and Operation P load 2v D 0. A typical Class C output stage is shown in Figure 3.⋅ R load = --------= -------× 8 = 20 w 2 0. During the positive half−cycle the transistor behaves like a closed switch. current i L flows through the inductor and creates a magnetic field. From the above discussion.5. in frequency modulation (FM). Class C amplifiers cannot be used with amplitude modulation (AM) because of the high distortion.25 RE 2 If we let V CC = 24 V and I bias = 1 A . and at the same time the capacitor discharges and thus the two currents i C + i L flow through the emitter to the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the transistor in Figure 3. and phase and pulse amplification.

v BE + --------(3. Other classes of amplifiers such as Class D. the interested reader may find information on the Internet. This equation can be expressed as V BB 1 i B = – -----. 3−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.40) are shown in Figure 3. This equation and the curve of equation (3. and others have been developed by some manufacturers. We will use the circuit in Figure 3. Circuit showing the variables used in the graphs in Figures 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .44 We start with a plot of i B versus v BE to determine the point where the curve iB = ( Ir ⁄ β ) e and the equation of the straight line intersect V BB – v BE i B = -----------------------RB (3.43 and 3.42) as the equation of a straight line of the form y = mx + b with slope – 1 ⁄ R B . RC RB iC + − V CC v in V BB i B v BE + − + v CE − − + iE Figure 3.42) RB RB We recognize (3.42.41) was obtained with the AC source v in shorted out.8 Graphical Analysis The operation of a simple transistor circuit can also be described graphically.40) The equation of (3. For more information on these.41) v BE ⁄ nV T (3. Class E. During the negative half−cycle the transistor behaves like an open switch.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ground.42 for our graphical analysis. the magnetic field in the inductor collapses and the current i L will flow through the capacitor and the load.43. 3. These are for special applications and will not be discussed in this text.

*exp(vBE.43) v CE = V CC – R C i C V CC -------RC iC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C i Bn … i B4 i B3 iB = IB i B2 i B1 V CE V CC IC Q v CE Figure 3. we refer to the family of curves of the collector current i C versus collector−emitter voltage v CE for different values of i B as shown in Figure 3. title('iB−vBE characteristics for the circuit of Figure 3./(n. plot(vBE.Graphical Analysis 1 x 10 -6 iB-vBE characteristics for the circuit of Figure 3. volts'). VT=27*10^(−3).iB).44. grid From Figure 3. amps V BB ⁄ R B Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B ( V BE. vBE=0: 0. n=1./beta). Family of curves for different values of i B Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. amps').4 0.01: 1.43 we obtain the values of V BE and I B on the v BE and i B axes respectively. I B ) IB V BE V BB 0.2 0 0 0.2 0.6 0.43. beta = 100.40). iB=(iR..44. iR=10^(−15).. Plot showing the intersection of Equations (3.. xlabel('Base−Emitter voltage vBE. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−39 .42').4 0. axis([0 1 0 10^(−6)]). volts Figure 3.42 0. ylabel('Base current iB.*VT)).8 1 Base-Emitter voltage vBE. Next.40) and (3..6 0. where the straight line with slope –1 ⁄ R C is derived from the relation (3.8 Base current iB.42) We used the following MATLAB script to plot the curve of equation (3......

and iC . The input voltage v in is superimposed on the DC bias voltage V BB . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . v CE . * We observe that (3. the input voltage v i is a sinusoidal waveform. the value of the collector resistor R C must be chosen such that the load line is neither a nearly horizontal nor a nearly vertical line.40) describes an equation of a straight line of the form y = mx + b where the slope is m = – 1 ⁄ RC and the ordinate axis intercept is b = VCC ⁄ RC .43) for i C we obtain 1 v +V CC * i C = – -------------R C CE R C (3. RC RB iC + − V CC v in V BB i B v BE + − + v CE − − + iE Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Solving (3. and the curve i B = I B intersect at point Q whose coordinates are the DC bias values V CE and I C . this straight line.13 Solution: Let v in = V p sin ω t .45. sketch the waveforms for v BE . commonly known as load line.46. i B .44. Circuit for Example 3. Example 3. 3−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Using the i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves shown in Figure 3.44) As shown in Figure 3. We draw three parallel lines with slope – 1 ⁄ R B .47. Obviously.45. and the third at v in = – V p as shown in Figure 3. the second at v in = V p .13 For the circuit in Figure 3. one corresponding to input v in = 0 .

Graphical Analysis iB iC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B V CC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C V BB RB -------- -------RC … IB Q v BE V BE V BB IC Q iB = IB V CE V CC v CE Figure 3. i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves for Example 3. Graphical representation of v BE and i B when the input voltage v in is a sinusoid Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−41 .46.47. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13 iB V BB -------RB Slope = – 1 ⁄ R B IB Q iB v BE V BE v BE V BB v in Figure 3.48 is the graphical representation of v CE and i C when the input voltage v in is a sinusoid.

9 Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier In our subsequent discussion we will denote time−varying quantities with lower case letters and lower case subscripts.46) where I C and V CE are the average values i c and v ce are time−varying components whose average value is zero. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .48.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iC V CC Slope = – 1 ⁄ R C -------RC … iC iB = IB IC Q V CE V CC v CE v CE Figure 3. Graphical representation of v CE and i C when the input voltage v in is a sinusoid 3.49. We will use lower case letters with upper case subscripts for the sum of the instantaneous and average values. The collector current and the collector−to−emitter voltage can be expressed as iC = IC + ic (3. Let us consider the circuit of Figure 3. 3−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. We will represent average (DC) values with upper case letters and upper case subscripts.45) and v CE = V CE + v ce (3.

hence the average power absorbed by the load is P LOAD = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c ) ave = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c RMS ) The power absorbed by the transistor at each instant is p C = v CE i C = ( V CC – R LOAD i C ) i C = V CC i C – R LOAD i C = p CC – p LOAD Therefore. the average power absorbed by the transistor is P C = P CC – P LOAD (3.49) The term 2R LOAD I C i c is zero since 2R LOAD I C is constant and the average of i c is zero.48) and if there is negligible or no distortion.52) 2 2 2 2 2 (3. the average power drawn from the collector supply is P CC = V CC I C (3.51) i dt ⎞ ⁄ T and thus if the value of the integral is zero. the average is also * By definition Average = Area ⁄ Period = ⎛ ⎝ ∫0 ⎠ zero.Power Relations in the Basic Transistor Amplifier RC RB iC + − V CC v in V BB i B v BE + − + v CE − − + iE Figure 3. T Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−43 . Circuit for the derivation of power relations The power drawn from the collector supply at each instant is p CC = V CC i C = V CC I C + V CC i c (3. The power absorbed by the load at each instant is P LOAD = R LOAD i C = R LOAD ( I C + i c ) = R LOAD I C + 2R LOAD I C i c + R LOAD i c 2 2 2 2 (3. the average value of the term V CC i c is zero.* Therefore.49.50) (3.47) Since V CC is constant and i c has zero average value. the current I C and power P CC are both independent of the signal amplitude.

the equivalent circuit in Figure 3.1 α ----------.54) α 1 i C = ---------------i + ---------------I ( 1 – α ) B ( 1 – α ) CO β (3.53) (3. By KCL.= 1–α (3.50.10 Piecewise−Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier The circuit shown in Figure 3. i C = α i E + I CO and since i E = i C + i B i C = α ( i C + i B ) + I CO i C – α i C = α i B + I CO ( 1 – α ) i C = α i B + I CO or From Table 3.50 may be redrawn as shown in Figure 3.51.55) i C = β i B + ( β + 1 ) I CO Thus. I CO is the current into the reverse−biased collector with i E = 0 .55) Also. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . I CO B iB iC α iE iE C E Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. (3.50 is a model to represent the transistor where the two ideal diodes are included to remind us of the two PN junctions in the transistor.56) 3−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A transistor model In Figure 3.50. α ----------1–α +1 = β+1 1.= β+1 --------1–α and by substitution into (3.

for r e are between 10 Ω to 25 Ω . voltage polarities. is included to account for the small voltage drop in the base of the transistor.52. An alternative transistor model. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−45 .52 where for silicon type of transistors V D ≈ 0. The transistor models shown in Figures 3.53 can be analyzed by piece−wise linear methods with the aid of the transistor model in Figure 3. and r c is very high. The model in Figure 3.Piecewise−Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier ( β + 1 ) I CO B iB β iB iC C iE E Figure 3.58) i E = cons tan t (3. in excess of 1 M Ω . It applies also to PNP transistors provided that the diodes. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 V and r b . referred to as the base spreading resistance. A more accurate model for the transistor Analogous to the base resistance r b are the emitter diffusion resistance defined as ∂ vE r e = -------∂ iE and the collector resistance ∂ vC r c = -------∂ iC (3. An improved transistor model is shown in Figure 3. The transistor amplifier in Figure 3.51.52.57) i C = cons tan t Typical values for r b are between 50 Ω to 250 Ω . and current directions are reversed.50 and 3.51 are essentially ideal models.52 is for an NPN transistors. ( β + 1 ) I CO B rb iB iE E β iB iC C VD Figure 3.

iC iS RS + CC = ------- B R1 − β iB IB DE E iC DC C RC V CC I CS Emitter diode open circuited iS V RC v CE Collector diode short circuited vS V1 + − iE (a) is = –IB (b) CS i S = ----. B iB β iB iC C iE E Figure 3.54. we neglect the small effects of r b .52 where r b . Piecewise linear model for the circuit in figure 3.53 and its current transfer characteristics The current transfer characteristics are constructed by determining the points at which the diodes change from the conducting to the non−conducting state.52 and thus the model is now as shown in Figure 3.54. The piece−wise linear model in Figure 3. and ( β + 1 ) I CO in Figure 3.54.53. and ( β + 1 ) I CO are neglected When the transistor in the amplifier in Figure 3.55. Let us now suppose that the source current i s reaches a value that causes the reverse voltage across the collector diode D C to become zero and the emitter diode D E is conducting and allows 3−46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iB RS R1 + iS + v BE + v CE − − + RC V CC − vS V1 − Figure 3.– IB β I Figure 3. V D . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V D .55(a). we obtain the circuit shown in Figure 3. Basic transistor amplifier to be analyzed by piece−wise linear methods For convenience.53 is replaced by the piece−wise linear model in Figure 3. The current I CS represents the collector saturation current.

with the base terminal at ground potential and i B = 0 . the collect−to−emitter voltage v CE . r b = 75 Ω . there is no voltage drop across either diode. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The transistor parameters are β = 100 . all three terminals of the transistor are at ground potential.59) Next. Find the values of the load voltage v load . When this occurs. and the base terminal is at ground potential. let us now suppose that the source current i S becomes negative and reaches a value that causes the collector diode D C to become reverse−biased and the current in the emitter diode D E to reach a zero value. (3. (3.61) (3. When this occurs.– IB R1 β V I V I (3.14 A DC power supply with a transistor regulator is shown in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−47 . CC CS = -----i B = --------β RC β 1 CS i S = i B – ----= -----.= β i B = I CS V RC or and since the base is grounded.59) reduces to iS = –IB Example 3. V BE = 0.7 V and the current I CO into the reverse−biased collector is negligible. and the power P C absorbed by the transistor. This condition establishes the left−hand break on the transfer characteristics and its value is determined as follows: iB = –iC = –β iB Therefore. For β ≠ – 1 . this equation is satisfied only if i B = 0 . This condition establishes the right−hand break on the transfer characteristics and its value is determined as follows: The collector current under the conditions stated above is CC i C = -------. and the current in the collector diode D C is zero.Piecewise−Linear Analysis of the Transistor Amplifier a current i E to flow through it. The resistor R 1 provides a suitable current to sustain the breakdown condition of the Zener diode.60) But this equation is true only if β = – 1 .56. Any change in supply voltage causes a compensating change in the voltage drop across the transistor from collector to emitter and the load voltage v load is thereby held constant in spite of changes in the input voltage or load resistance R load . there is no current in either diode.

the collector −base junction will no longer be reverse−biased.4mA .4 = 240 mA and the collector−to−emitter voltage is 3−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .4 × 10 –3 = 24. The piece−wise linear model for the transistor in Figure 3.57.3 .57. The collector current is i C = β i B = 100 × 2. when this occurs. r b i B + V BE + R load i E = V Z V Z – V BE = r b i B + ( β + 1 ) R load i B V Z – V BE 25 – 0.= 2. the breakdown state will not be sustained in the Zener diode.= ----------------------------------i B = ---------------------------------------75 + 101 × 100 10175 r b + ( β + 1 ) R load v load = ( β + 1 ) R load i B = 101 × 100 × 2.14 Solution: We replace the transistor with its piece−wise linear model as shown in Figure 3. However.55 From Figure 3.56. and the voltage regulation action of the transistor will fail.24V We observe that the load voltage is independent of the supply voltage of 35 V . if the supply voltage falls below the Zener voltage of 25 V .57.= -------------24. Also. This occurs because the collector can be represented as an ideal current source β i B .7 V β iB + − iE 75 Ω = ( β + 1 ) iB v load R1 VZ rb 35 V − i BR load + − + − = 25 V 100 Ω Figure 3.7 . DC power supply for Example 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors R1 + − R load + 100 Ω − v load C VZ VC = 35 V = 25 V Figure 3. iC + V BE = 0.

the base−to−emitter voltage cannot be neglected when only the increments of voltage and currents is considered.65) is a dimensionless current ratio denoted as β . the resulting increment in v BE can be expressed as ∂ v BE ∂ v BE di B + ----------dv Δ v BE ≈ dv BE = ----------(3. it is often necessary to account for the small effects of variations in collector voltage on both the input and output circuits.64) is expressed as v be = r n i b + μ v ce (3. Also. and that in the second term is a dimensionless voltage ratio denoted as μ . (3. and that in the second term has the dimensions of conductance and it is denoted as g o . For these reasons the incremental model for the transistor provides a better approximation than the piece−wise linear approximation. However. Then.76 V The power absorbed by the transistor is P C = v CE i C = 10.65) The partial derivative in the first term of (3. the small voltage drop between base and emitter is small in comparison with the bias voltage and thus can be neglected. when calculating increments of current and voltage.24 = 10. Then. It is also convenient to denote these derivatives in lower case letters with lower case subscripts. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−49 . v CE ) (3.Incremental Linear Models v CE = Supply Voltage – Load Voltage = 35 – 24.76 × 0. the partial derivative in the first term of (3. The base−to−emitter voltage v BE and the collector current i C are functions of the base current i B and collector−to−emitter voltage v CE . v CE ) and i C = f ( i B.58 w 3.24 = 2.62) (3.66) Likewise.64) has the dimensions of resistance and it is denoted as r n . v BE = f ( i B.65) is expressed as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.63) If i B and v CE are changed in small increments. In other words.11 Incremental Linear Models In our discussion on piece−wise linear models on the preceding section.64) ∂ iB ∂ v CE CE and the increment in i C can be written as ∂ iC ∂ iC Δ i C ≈ di C = ------di B + ----------dv ∂ iB ∂ v CE CE (3. (3.

The hybrid incremental model for the transistor with μ v ce = 0 3−50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. ib ic B v be rn μ v ce E β ib ie go v ce C Figure 3. and since the value of μ is a very small number. B v be i b rn β ib E i c v ce go C ie Figure 3. Typical values for the parameters of relations (3. β = 100 . and the current amplification factor β is related to the output characteristics caused by a change in i B .58 known as the hybrid incremental network model for the transistor.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors i c = β i b + g o v ce (3. The hybrid incremental model for a transistor in the common−emitter configuration The input resistance r n is the slope of the input voltage and current characteristics and it accounts for the voltage drop across the base−emitter junction.66) and (3. The voltage amplification factor μ is related to the input characteristics caused by a change in v CE . and g o = 2 × 10 –5 –4 –1 Ω .67) are r n = 2 K Ω .66) and (3. It is referred to as hybrid model because of the mixed set of voltages and currents as indicated by the expressions of (3.67) along with i e = i b + i c suggest the circuit shown in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .67) The relations of (3. μ = 5 × 10 .59.59.66) and (3. and thus the model reduces to that shown in Figure 3. the voltage source μ v ce in Figure 3. Likewise.67).58 can be replaced by a short circuit. the output conductance g o is the slope of the output current and voltage characteristics.58.

Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the voltage of the μ v ce is proportional to the current flowing through the source. B C ib rn is Rs ic μ v ce E β ib ie go R load v ce Figure 3. B C ib rn is Rs ic R load – μβ R eq E β ib go R eq v ce Figure 3. v ce = – R eq β i b and μ v ce = – μ R eq β i b (3.61.68) (3. Then. Transistor incremental model with external devices Now.Incremental Linear Models The transistor hybrid parameters* provide us with a means to evaluate voltages.60 with the voltage source μ v ce replaced by the resistance – μβ R eq The negative resistance – μβ R eq is always much smaller than r n and thus the net input resistance to the transistor is always positive. and assuming that the base current i b is unaffected by this assumption. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−51 .69) Hence.60 which is an incremental model for the transistor amplifier in Figure 3.60 can be redrawn as shown in Figure 3. and power in devices that are connected externally to the transistor. Therefore. * The h−equivalent transistor circuits are discussed in Section 3. for example. we let R eq represent the parallel combination r o = 1 ⁄ g o and R load . The circuit in Figure 3. consider the circuit of Figure 3.61. the negative resistance – μβ R eq can be replaced by a short circuit.53. and from this fact we can replace the voltage source with a resistance – μβ R eq . currents. the voltages and currents in the collector side of the circuit are not affected. and thus the transistor incremental model in Figure 3. Let us.15.60.

70) The parameters r n . β = h 21 = h fe . These designations along with the additional notations v be = v 1 . ISBN 978−0−9709511−5-1. μ .71) (3. the sub- * For a detailed discussion of the z . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors The current amplification A c is defined as Ac = ic ⁄ is where R1 1 -i . and i c = i 2 .( – R load i c ) + β ---------------i c = g o v ce + β i b = --R1 + rn s ro R load R1 .72) (3.i c = β ----------------i i c + ----------ro R1 + rn s R1 load ⎞ ⎛1 + R -i ----------.67) as follows: v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 or v 1 = h ie i 1 + h re v 2 i 2 = h fe i 1 + h oe v 2 (3.i c = β ---------------⎝ ⎠ R1 + rn s ro R1 o + R load ⎞ ⎛r ---------------------. β . v ce = v 2 . and g parameters refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. y . μ = h 12 = h re . and g o = h 22 = h oe . and g o are normally denoted by the h (hybrid) parameters* as r n = h 11 = h ie .= -------------------------------------------------( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) is ( r o + R load ) ⁄ r o ( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) and thus the current amplification A c is ro ic R1 = --------------------β --------------------------A c = --( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) is (3.66)and (3.= --------------------------------------.73) the subscript i denotes the input impedance with the output short−circuited. h .i c = β ----------------i ⎝ ⎠ ro R1 + rn s ro ic β ( R1 ⁄ ( R1 + rn ) ) β R1 ro R1 = --------------------β ----------------------------.73) In (3. provide a symmetrical form for the relations of (3. 3−52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. i b = i 1 .

62 it is known that r n = h 11 = 2 K Ω . The second subscript e indicates that the parameters apply for the transistor operating in the common−emitter mode. and a set with the subscript c replacing the letter e denotes the hybrid parameters for a transistor operating in the common−collector mode. i load is Rs R1 2V 10 K Ω + − + –4 –5 Ω .15 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the subscript o denotes the output admittance with the input terminals open−circuited.3 lists the h−parameter equations for the three bipolar transistor configurations. Table 3.62. μ = h 12 = 5 × 10 .3 h−parameter equations for transistors Common−Base Common−Emitter Common−Collector Parameter h 11 h 12 h 21 h 22 Example 3.Incremental Linear Models script r denotes the reverse transfer voltage ratio with the input terminals open−circuited. Please refer to the last section in this chapter.15 h ib h rb h fb h ob h ie ≈ h 11 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h re ≈ h 11 h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) – h 12 h fe ≈ – h 21 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h oe ≈ h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h ic ≈ h 11 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h rc ≈ 1 h fc ≈ – 1 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) h oc ≈ h 22 ⁄ ( 1 + h 21 ) For the amplifier circuit in Figure 3. β = h 21 = 100 . and g o = h 22 = 2 × 10 A c = i load ⁄ i s . Transistor amplifier for Example 3. the subscript f denotes the forward transfer current ratio with the output short circuited. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−53 . A similar set of symbols with the subscript b replacing the subscript e denotes the hybrid parameters for a transistor operating in the common−base mode. Values for the hybrid parameters at a typical quiescent operating point for the common−emitter mode are provided by the transistor manufacturers. Find the small signal current amplification –1 v CE RC 2 KΩ + − − 16 V V CC vs Solution: The incremental model of this transistor amplifier is shown in Figure 3.63 where Figure 3. TABLE 3.

63.65 Ω = 0.= 10 ----.923 K Ω 3 1 ⁄ g o + R load 52 × 10 ib B Rs R1 i load rn C R load 10 K Ω is – μβ R eq E β ib go 2 KΩ R eq v ce Figure 3.= --------------------β --------------------------( R 1 + r n ) ( r o + R load ) 12 52 is –4 3 3. The incremental model for the transistor circuit in Figure 3. the transconductance g m is the slope at point Q on the i C versus v BE characteristics at i C = I C as shown in Figure 3.2) 3−54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The current gain A c can be found from the relation (3. ro i load R1 .= 80 A c = --------.× 100 × 50 ----. Then. Thus. and defined as di C g m = ----------dv BE (3.12 Transconductance Another useful parameter used in small signal analysis at high frequencies is the transconductance. This relation is derived as follows: From (3. denoted as g m . An approximate value for the transconductance at room temperature is g m ≈ 40I C . we denote time−varying quantities with lower case letters and lower case subscripts. it can be neglected.71). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .293 × 10 = 64.74) iC = IC and as a reminder.62 and thus the magnitude of the equivalent resistance reflected into the input part of the circuit is μβ R eq = 5 × 10 × 100 × 1.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3 3 ( 1 ⁄ g o ) R load 50 × 10 × 2 × 10 R eq = -----------------------------= ------------------------------------------= 1.64.06465 K Ω and since this is much smaller than r n = h 11 = 2 K Ω .

a transistor can be viewed as an amplifier with a transconductance of 40 millimhos for each milliampere of collector current.65(a) and 3. The transconductance g m defined By substitution of (3.vBE ⁄ VT e = I r -----VT iC IC Q Slope = V BE ic gm v BE v BE Figure 3.13 High−Frequency Models for Transistors The incremental models presented in the previous section do not take into consideration the high−frequency effects in the transistor.76) iC = IC 1.High−Frequency Models for Transistors iC = Ir e and with (3. Therefore.77) (3.74) di C g m = ----------dv BE v BE ⁄ V T (3.65(b) are alternate forms for representing a transistor. Figures 3.64. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−55 . 3.78) V g m ≈ 40i C and thus we see that the transconductance is proportional to the collector current i C .75) (3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.75) into (3.76) we obtain gm = iC ⁄ VT and with V T = 26 × 10 –3 (3.

65(a) the input impedance r n is separated into two parts. denoted as r' b .80) (3.81) and thus the model in Figure 3. when i C is in milliamps. and in general.82) (3.65(a) can also be represented as that in Figure 3. r be = ( 25 β ) ⁄ i C (3.= ---------β r be = ----gm 40i C (3. From (3.84) The incremental models we have discussed thus far are valid only for frequencies of about 2 MHz or less. Thus..65(a) and thus v' be i b = -------r be βv' = g m v' be * β i b = ----r be be (3.76) or g m = β ⁄ r be β. Figure 3. For higher frequencies. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . it follows that ---------* Since i c = β i b = β ---------r be v ' be = gm v CE = cons tan t v ce = 0 3−56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. denoted as r be . r be = 25 β Ω .83) Thus.66 shows a model for the transistor at high frequencies referred to as hybrid− π model.79) (3. r n = r' b + r be From Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors B ib r' b r be v be v' be β ib E (a) ic ro v ce C B ib v be r' b r be v' be g m v' be E ic ro v ce C ie ie (b) Figure 3. is a nonlinear resistance and accounts for the voltage drop v' be across the emitter junction. the effects of junction capacitances must be taken into account. Alternate forms for the transistor model In Figure 3. v ' be i di c = ------------dv ' be c . when i C = 1 ma . one part.65(b). the other part.65. accounts for the ohmic base spreading resistance.

r be Z be = --------------------------r be j ω C 1 + 1 and denoting the phasor* quantities with bolded capical letters. With the output short−circuited. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−57 . we obtain r be -I V ' be = Z be I b = --------------------------r be j ω C 1 + 1 b and g m r be -I I c = g m V ' be = --------------------------r be j ω C 1 + 1 b (3. Impedances and admittances are complex quantities but not phasors. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the equivalent impedance is r be × 1 ⁄ j ω ( C 1 + C 2 ) r be Z be = r be || 1 ⁄ j ω ( C 1 + C 2 ) = j ω ( C 1 + C 2 ) = -----------------------------------------------. C 1 is typically 100 times as large as C 2 and it can be neglected. At low frequencies the capacitors act as open circuits and thus do not affect the transistor performance. however. ISBN 978-0-9709511-2-0.86) (3. This reduction in v' be causes in turn a reduction in the strength of the controlled source g m v' be and a reduction in the collector current i c . The hybrid− π model for the transistor at high frequencies The capacitor C 1 represents the capacitance that exists across the forward−biased emitter junction while the capacitor C 2 represents a much smaller capacitance that exists across the reverse− biased collector junction. For a detailed discussion. Then.66.= -------------------------------------------r be + 1 ⁄ j ω ( C 1 + C 2 ) r be j ω ( C 1 + C 2 ) + 1 However. At high frequencies. refer to Circuit Analysis I.High−Frequency Models for Transistors B ib v be r' b v' be 1 + − C2 ic ro r be C1 + v ce C − g m v' be E ie Figure 3. capacitor C 2 is in parallel with C 1 between Node 1 and ground.85) * Phasors are rotating vectors and are used to represent voltages and currents in complex form. We can derive some useful relations by determining the short−circuit collector current i c when a sinusoidal input current is applied between the base and emitter terminals. the capacitors present a relatively low impedance and thereby reduce the amplitude of the signal voltage v' be .

it is customary to represent C 1 as C e .90) as β = ( ω ⁄ ωβ ) + 1 2 2 (3. The coefficient of I b in (3.89) (3. The frequency at which the current amplification is unity. at the frequency ω = ω β .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Using the relation of (3.88) Therefore. that is. therefore. For this reason. we obtain ω T ≈ βω β fT ≈ β fβ (3.92) is referred to as the current gain−bandwidth product for the transistor and 3−58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.91) the term ( ω ⁄ ω β ) is much larger than unity and ω » ω β . a typical value for β is 100 .Ib I c = ---------------------------------2 ( ω ⁄ ωβ ) + 1 (3.86) must be a dimensionless constant. Also. therefore the quantity 1 ⁄ r be C 1 has the dimensions of frequency. the amplitude of the collector current decreases and approaches zero at very high frequencies. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . ω β serves as a useful measure of the band of frequencies over which the short−circuit current amplification remains reasonably constant and nearly equal to its low−frequency value. Thus. in (3. if the amplitude of the input current is held constant as the frequency is increased.87) we obtain β -I I c = ------------------------j ω ⁄ ωβ + 1 b and the magnitute of the collector current is β .88) into (3.87) Thus. and it is helpful to define a new symbol ω β as 1 ω β ≡ -----------r be C e By substitution of (3. the frequency at which I c = I b . ω β is referred to as the β cutoff frequency. is found from (3. Letting ω = ω T .82) we obtain β -I I c = --------------------------r be j ω C 1 + 1 b (3. the magnitude of the collector current I c is reduced to 1 ⁄ 2 times its low−frequency value.92) The relation of (3.90) (3.91) As we know.

* The figure of merit is useful in comparing different devices for their overall performance.16 The specifications for a certain transistor state that β = 100 . and (3. From (3.= 2. the base−emitter capacitance C e c.92) gm ω T = ----Ce gm f T = -----------2 π Ce (3.= 8 2 π fT 2 π × 2 × 10 c.= 200 f β = -----------------------β 100 and this indicates that at this frequency the current amplification is still large. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−59 . the β cutoff frequency Solution: a. and the collector current is i C = 1 mA . the transconductance g m b.High−Frequency Models for Transistors it is an important figure of merit* for a transistor.66. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.78) g m ≈ 40i C = 40 millimhos b.88). (3.94) or Example 3. find: a.= 2 MHz .82).93) (3. the current gain−bandwidth product is f T = 200 MHz . Using the hybrid− π model of Figure 3. From (3. from (3. Also.83) d. From (3.94) –3 gm 40 × 10 ----------------------------≈ 32 pF C e = ---------. From (3. the base−emitter resistance r be d.92) β100 r be = ----= --------------------.5 K Ω –3 gm 40 × 10 6 fT × 10 .

α 1 i B1 α 2 i B2 i T = i C1 + i C2 = α 1 i E1 + α 2 i E2 = α 1 i B2 + α 2 i E2 = -------------.100) and by substitution into (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .67.103) (3.67 shows two transistors in a common collector configuration known as the Darlington connection.100) 3−60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.104) i B1 = ( 1 – α 1 ) i B2 (3. The Darlington connection The combined α T and β T are evaluated as follows: i E1 = i B2 = i C1 + i B1 i C1 = α 1 i E1 = α 1 i B2 i B2 = α 1 i B2 + i B1 i B1 i B2 = -------------1 – α1 Also.99) (3.= α 1 i B2 + -------------1 – α1 1 – α2 1 – α2 Also.95) (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 3. i E2 = i C2 + i B2 = α 2 i E2 + i B2 i B2 i E2 = -------------1 – α2 Then.+ -------------1 – α1 1 – α2 From (3.101) (3.+ -------------. The circuit has high input impedance and low output impedance.103) i B2 = ( 1 – α 2 ) i E2 (3. i B1 α1 β1 i C1 iT i C2 α2 β2 i E1 = i B2 i E2 Figure 3.98) and by substitution into (3.96) (3.101) α 2 i B2 α 1 ( 1 – α 1 ) i B2 α 2 i B2 i T = -------------------------------.102) (3.98) (3.97) (3.14 The Darlington Connection Figure 3. from (3.

105) by i E2 we obtain iT α T = ----.= ---(3.15.= α1 ( 1 – α2 ) + α2 = α1 + α2 – α1 α2 (3. ie v eb E B ic ib C ie v cb v eb re μ v cb (b) ic g0 v cb α ie (a) Figure 3. 3. output resistance.106) i E2 From Table 3.68 shows the common−base configuration of an NPN transistor. voltage gain. since β 1 « β 1 β 2 βT ≈ β1 + β1 β2 βT ≈ β1 β2 (3. α T = i T ⁄ i E2 and dividing (3.= α 1 ( 1 – α 2 ) i E2 + -------------------------------1 – α1 1 – α2 1 – α2 = ( α 1 ( 1 – α 2 ) i E2 + α 2 i E2 ) Let the overall α value be denoted as α T .Transistor Networks α 1 ( 1 – α 1 ) i B2 α 2 i B2 α 2 ( 1 – α 2 ) i E2 i T = -------------------------------.107) 1–α iB (3. then. Common−base transistor circuit and its equivalent Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.+ -------------.1 The h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Base Transistor Figure 3.104).107) iT α1 α2 α 1 ( 1 – α 2 ) i E2 + α 2 i E2 α1 ( 1 – α2 ) + α2 = --------------------------------------------------.= ------------------+ --------------------------------------β T = -----.105).102).= --------------------------------------i B1 ( 1 – α 1 ) ( 1 – α 2 ) i E2 ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) α1 α2 α2 α1 α1 1 ------------------= ------------------+ ------------------. iC α β = ----------.68.------------------= ------------------+ ----------------------------= β1 + ( β1 β2 ) ⁄ α1 ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α2 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ( 1 – α1 ) ⁄ α1 ( 1 – α2 ) and since α ≈ 1 Also. (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−61 .105) and with (3. and common collector transistor circuits by their h−equivalent and T−equivalent circuits. and current gain.109) 3.15 Transistor Networks In this section we will represent the common−base. and we will derive the equations for input resistance.1. (3.108) (3. common−emitter. and (3.

69.68 and (3.111) we obtain iC = IC e Normally. by substitution into (3.112) into (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors From the equivalent circuit in Figure 3. v be « V T and we recall that x x. the input resistance h ib = r e has a small value.112) v BE ⁄ V T by substitution of (3.110) v BE ⁄ V T ( v BE + v be ) ⁄ V T = Ir e ⋅e v be ⁄ V T (3.98 h ob = 6 × 10 –6 Ω –1 As indicated above.69. se observe that h ib = r e h ob = g o h fb = α h rb = μ Typical values for the h−parameter equivalent circuit for the common−base transistor are: h ib = 30 Ω h rb = 5 × 10 –4 h fb = 0. This can be shown as follows: From (3. typically in the 25 to 35 Ω . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2) iC = Ir e or iC = IC + ic = Ir e and since IC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T (3. h ib h rb v cb h fb i e h ob v eb v cb Figure 3.114) 3−62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.113) we obtain v be ⎞ IC -v .68(b) we can draw the h−parameter equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3.69).+ x e = 1 + x + -------+x ----+… 2! 3! 4! 2 3 4 v be ⁄ V T (3.113) Retaining only the first two terms of this series.111) (3. The h−parameter equivalent circuit for common−base transistor From Figures 3.= I C + -----i C = I C ⎛ 1 + -----⎝ V T be VT ⎠ (3.

70.119) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. With these observations.71. Circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common base−transistor amplifier The conductance h ob = g o is in the order of 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−63 .Transistor Networks and the signal component of i C is Also. h rb = μ = 5 × 10 and the volt- age source h rb v cb can also be neglected (short circuit).5 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r o = 2 M Ω .= --------------R s + h ib Rs + re (3.v be = ------v = ---------i e = --α VT V T be α v be VT r e = -----.70.116) For V T = 26 mV and I E = 1 mA . and a load resistor R C at the output as shown in Figure 3. the circuit of Figure 3. Simplified circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common base transistor From Figure 3.71. and thus IC -v i c = -----V T be ic IC IE . v out = – R C h fb i e = – R C α i e and –vs –vs i e = ----------------. it can be neglected (open circuit).70 is simplified to that in Figure 3.= -----ie IE r in = r e = 26 Ω the input.118) (3. we connect a voltage source v s with its internal resistance R s at v eb v out Figure 3. Rs vs h ib h rb v cb ie h fb i e h ob v cb RC (3.117) To find the overall voltage gain. (3. i in R s vs h ib = r e ie h fb i e = α i e i out RC v out Figure 3. Also.115) (3.71. and since it is –4 much larger than R C .

β = 120 . R S = 2 K Ω .119) into (3. and R C = 5 K Ω . The current gain A i is i out –α ie A i = ------.992 × 5 × 10 = ----------------------------------------= 2. i E = 1 mA . and input and output resistances.= ---------.17 An NPN transistor is connected in a common − base configuration with V T = 26 mV .122) Example 3. 3−64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Find the voltage and current gains. the voltage gain depends on the values of R s and R C .121) and the output resistance R out is (3.72 shows the common−base T−equivalent circuit.45 A V = --------------3 Rs + re ( 2 + 0.= 0.= --------------vs Rs + re and since α ≈ 1 and r e ≈ 26 Ω .= α i in –ie R out = R C (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors Substitution of (3.026 ) × 10 A i = α = 0. Figure 3.992 R i = r e = 26 Ω Ro = RC = 5 K Ω 3.2 The T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Base Transistor Transistor equivalent circuits can also be expressed as T−equivalent circuits.= 120 α = -----------------.15.118) and division by v s yields the overall voltage gain A v as v out α RC A v = -------.992 β+1 121 h ib = r e = V T ⁄ i E = 26 mV ⁄ 1 mA = 26 Ω 3 α RC 0. Solution: β .120) (3.

126) 3.15. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−65 .73 shows the common−emitter configuration of an NPN transistor.Transistor Networks ie Rs α ie rb ib rc ic RL re vs Figure 3.3 The h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Emitter Transistor Figure 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.125) (3.123) (3.978 r c = 1. T−equivalent model for the common−base transistor Typical numerical values for the 2N525 transistor are as follows: α = 0.124) (3.67 M Ω r e = 12.72.5 Ω r b = 840 Ω and since re « rc rb « rc RL < rc and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T−equivalent model for the common−base transistor are: Input resis tan ce = r in = r e + r b ( 1 – α ) re + rb ( 1 – α ) + RS Output resis tan ce = r out = r e ⋅ -------------------------------------------re + rb + RS α RL Voltage gain = A v = -------------------------------re + rb ( 1 – α ) Current gain = A i = α (3.

3−66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .73(b) is shown in Figure 3.5 K Ω h re = 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors B ic ib B v be C v be r n μ v ce ib A ic β ib ie (b) C v ce ib rn A ic β ib g0 v ce C E ie v ce re E (a) (c) Figure 3. for simplicity and compactness. and a load resistor R L connected on the right side. The h−parameter equivalent circuit for common−emitter transistor Typical values for the h−parameter equivalent circuit for the common−emitter transistor are: h ie = 1. it can be neglected. Using the circuit in Figure 3.4 × 10 and the dependent voltage source μ v ce can also be neglected. h re = μ = 3.73. is same as in Figure 3. and input and output resistances.73(c). The h−parameter equivalent circuit in Figure 3.74 where h ie = r n ib v be h ie h re v ce h fe i b h oe h oe = g 0 h fe = β ic v ce h re = μ Figure 3.74. and since it is –4 much larger than a typical R C resistance.74 with a signal source v S and its internal resistance R S connected on the left side. Common−emitter transistor circuit and its equivalent The equivalent circuit in Figure 3.4 × 10 –4 h fe = 80 h oe = 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 Figure 3. Also.58 with the addition of the emitter resistor re .73(b). Therefore. we can represent the circuit of Figure 3.75 we can compute the exact voltage and current gains.75 shows the h−parameter equivalent circuit in Figure 3. The conductance g 0 is in the order of 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r 0 = 40 K Ω .73(b) as that in Figure 3.

we can use the simplified circuit in Figure 3. h re = μ = 3.76.128) The resistor R E is referred to as the emitter degeneration resistance because it causes negative feedback.127) (3.= ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) ib ib ib ib or and since β » 1 r in = ( r e + R E ) ( β + 1 ) r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) (3.4 × 10 and the voltage source h re v ce can also be neglected. Circuit for exact computation in voltage and current gains and input and output resistances As stated above. Also. –4 and since it is much larger than R C it can be neglected. That is.* B RS ib re ie β ib ic RC C vS v be E RE v ce Figure 3.76 where an additional resistor R E is connected in series with the emitter resistor r e to increase the input resistance.Transistor Networks RS v be h ie h re v ce h fe i e h oe vS v ce R L v out Figure 3. and R' S represents the series combination of R S and r n . The simplified common−emitter transistor equivalent circuit From the equivalent circuit in Figure 3.= ----------------------------------------= -------------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−67 .75. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. r n « r e + RE . v be ( re + RE ) ie ( re + RE ) ( ib + ic ) ( re + RE ) ( ib + β ib ) r in = -----.76. we connect a voltage source v S with its internal resistance R S at the input. the conductance h oe = g o is in the order of 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 or r o = 40 K Ω .= ------------------------. if the collector current i c increases. the emitter current i e will also increase since * Typically. and a load resistor R C at the output as shown in Figure 3.73(c). to compute the input and output resistances and overall voltage and current gains to a fairly accurate values. Therefore.

(3. But a decrease in the voltage drop across the resistor r e means a decrease in the emitter current i e and consequently a decrease in the collector current i c .= -------A V = -------vb vS vS v out = v ce = – β i b R C (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the voltage drop across the resistor R E will rise and the voltage drop across the resistor r e will decrease to maintain the voltage v be relatively constant.133) and (3.= -------vb vS ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) + RS vS –( β + 1 ) RC –β RC A V = ---------------------------------------------------≈ ------------------------------------( β + 1 ) ( re + RE ) + RS β ( re + RE ) + RS and the minus (−) sign indicates that the output is 180 ° out−of−phase with the input.130) (3.129) (3.⋅ ---.135) 3−68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⋅ ---------------------------------------------------A V = -------.131) and (3.130) yields v out v b ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) v out –β RC .131) Substitution of (3.128) indicates that the input resistance r in can be controlled by choosing an appropriate value for the external resistor R E . r out = R C The overall voltage gain is From Figure 3.132) v out v b v out .= --------------------------------------vb ( re + RE ) ( 1 + β ) ib ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) Also.132) v out –β ib RC –β RC -------.76 and vb = ( re + RE ) ie = ( re + RE ) ( ib + ic ) = ( re + RE ) ( ib + β ib ) = ( re + RE ) ( 1 + β ) ib From (3.= --------------------------------------.134) into (3. From Figure 3.76 we observe that the output resistance is the collector resistance R C .133) (3. that is. Then.134) (3. Relation (3. and with (3.= ------------------------------------------.⋅ ---.127) r in -v v b = ----------------r in + R s S r in ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) vb ---.= -----------------= ---------------------------------------------------vS r in + R S ( re + RE ) ( β + 1 ) + RS (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors i c = α i e and any increase in the base current i b will be negligible.

= – 20. Solution: a.12 K Ω r out = R C = 5 K Ω 3 –β RC – 120 × 5 × 10 A V ≈ ------------------------------------= ---------------------------------------------------------.128) and from (3.12 K Ω (3. Find the voltage and current gains.2 A V ≈ ------------------. Find the voltage and current gains.129) r out = R C = 5 K Ω The voltage and current gains are found from (3.Transistor Networks From (3. i E = 1 mA . The current gain is i out –β ib A i = ------. a. From (3. R S = 2 K Ω .116) h ie = r e = V T ⁄ i E = 26 mV ⁄ 1 mA = 26 Ω From (3. A i = – β = – 120 r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 0 ) = 3.= -------------------------------------------β r e + R s 120 × 26 + 2 × 10 3 and the current gain is b.134) we observe that the introduction of the external resistor R E results in reduction of the overall gain.18 An NPN transistor is connected in a common − emitter configuration with V T = 26 mV . and input and output resistances if R E = 0 .135) and (3. β = 120 .= – 117. the voltage gain is 3 –β RC – 120 × 5 × 10 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−69 .= ---------. and input and output resistances if R E = 200 Ω .= –β ib ib Example 3.136). b.6 β ( r e + R E ) + R s 120 ( 26 + 200 ) + 2 × 10 3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and R C = 5 K Ω . Thus. c. Find the maximum value of the applied signal v S so that v be or v b under the conditions of (a) and (b) will not exceed 5 mV .136) r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 200 ) = 27. with R E = 0 .

β ib rc ie ic C RL B RS ib rb re E vS v be Figure 3.v be = 27. we assume that re « rc rb « rc 3−70 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.77. Without R E . the voltage gain has decreased by 82.4 mV r in 27. T−equivalent model for the common−emitter transistor As with the T-equivalent model for the common-base transistor. 3.2 mV 3.12 ------------------v S ( max ) = ----------------× 5 mV = 8.12 K Ω r in -v v be = ----------------r in + R s S r in + R s +2 . the maximum value of the applied signal v S decreases by 51.5% . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .8% . c.12 r in With R E .12 ---------------------v S ( max ) = ----------------× 5 mV = 5.5% in input resistance.4 The T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Emitter Transistor Figure 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors A i = – β = – 120 We observe that whereas the addition of R E has increased the input resistance by 88.77 shows the common−emitter T−equivalent circuit. Then.15.12 We observe that for an increase of 88.12 K Ω r in + R s +2 .v be = 3.4% . r in ≈ β ( r e + R E ) = 120 ( 26 + 200 ) = 27. and r in ≈ β r e = 120 × 26 = 3.

5 The h−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Collector Transistor Figure 3.Transistor Networks RL < rc and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T−equivalent model for the common−emitter transistor are: re Input resis tan ce = r in = r b + -----------1–α α rc + RS Output resis tan ce = r out = r c ( 1 – α ) + r e ⋅ -------------------------re + rb + RS –α RL Voltage gain = A v = -------------------------------re + rb ( 1 – α ) Current gain = A i = – β (3. Common−collector or emitter−follower transistor circuit and its equivalent From the equivalent circuit in Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−71 . The emitter−follower is useful in applications where a high−resistance source is to be connected to a low−resistance load.138) (3.79 where h ic = r e h oc = g o h fc = β h rc = μ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V CC RC C B ic ie RL B ib re go E β ib ie RL ic C ib v in = v b vb v out E v ec RE (a) (b) Figure 3.78 shows the common−collector or emitter−follower configuration of an NPN transistor.140) 3.137) (3.139) (3.15.78(b) we can draw the h−parameter equivalent circuit shown in Figure 3.78.

we connect a voltage source v s with its internal resistance R s at the input. Circuit for the computation of voltage gain in a common−collector transistor amplifier To find the input and output resistances and overall voltage and current gains.79 with a signal source v s and its internal resistance R S connected on the left side.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors ib v bc h ic h rc v ec h fc i b h oc ic v ec Figure 3.80 shows the h−parameter equivalent circuit in Figure 3. and the circuit is as shown in Figure 3.80.81. and a load resistor R L connected on the right side.5 K Ω h rc = 1 h fc = – 45 h oc = 27 × 10 –6 Ω –1 Figure 3. 3−72 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The simplified common−collector transistor amplifier equivalent circuit From the equivalent circuit in Figure 3.79.78(b). RS vS v bc h ic h rc v ec h fc i b v ec h oc RL v out Figure 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . ib B C ic β ib RS re ie E vb i out vS r0 v out R L Figure 3.81. we denote the conductance h oc = g o with its reciprocal r o in the circuit in Figure 3. The h−parameter equivalent circuit for common−collector transistor Typical values for the h−parameter equivalent circuit for the common−collector transistor are: h ic = 1.81.

and we will connect a test voltage source v x across the emitter to ground terminals.* RS ( 1 – α ) ie B ib re E ie β ib ix vx C r0 Figure 3. since r o » R L and r e « R L r in ≈ β R L (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−73 .82 where the current i b is shown as ( 1 – α ) i e . that is. that is.= -------------------------------------------------ib ib ib ( r e + r o || R L ) ( i b + β i b ) = -----------------------------------------------------= ( r e + r o || R L ) ( β + 1 ) ib and since β » 1 r in ≈ ( r e + r o || β R L ) Also. –RS ( 1 – α ) ie = re ie + vx vx = –RS ( 1 – α ) ie – re ie * See Table 3.1 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.141) Relation (3.= ---------------------------------. Equivalent circuit for the computation of the output resistance From Figure 3. across the resistor r o and we will find the output resistance from the relation of the equivalent circuit derive it from the relation r out = v x ⁄ i x as shown in Figure 3.82 we obverse that the voltage drop across R S is equal to the sum of the voltage drops across r e and r 0 .Transistor Networks vb ( r e + r o || R L ) i e ( r e + r o || R L ) ( i b + i c ) r in = ---.142) indicates that the input resistance r in can be controlled by choosing an appropriate value for the load resistor R L . The output resistance r out cannot be determined by inspection.142) (3. therefore we will remove the load resistor R L and the voltage source v S .82.

144) yields vx vx i x = ---.= -----------------.≈ --------------------R S + r in R S + β R L vS r o || R L -⋅v v out = -------------------------r e + r o || R L b (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . or r0 ( ie + ix ) = vx vx i x = ----–i r0 e Substitution of (3.+ r e ≈ r o || ---.= ------.144) (3. The voltage gain is v out v b v out .145) β+1 β ro + RS ⁄ β and obviously the output resistance is quite low.143) into (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors vx – ---.141).= --1 1 ---. r in v b = -----------------.= -------A v = -------vb vS vS where from Figure 3.= RS ( 1 – α ) + re ie –vx i e = --------------------------------RS ( 1 – α ) + re Also.v S R S + r in r in β RL vb ---.81 and relation (3.+ --------------------------------r0 RS ( 1 – α ) + re and division of both sides by v x yields ix 1 . Then.146) (3.+ --------------------------------vx r out ro RS ( 1 – α ) + re The last relation above reminds us of the formula for the combination of two parallel resistors.⋅ ---. RS RS ro ⋅ RS ⁄ β .= ----------------------r out = r o || R S ( 1 – α ) + r e = r o || ----------(3.143) 3−74 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

145) 3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.83 shows the equivalent circuit of a typical emitter−follower and it is given that β = 80 .Transistor Networks r o || R L v out RL .83.= -------------------------r e + r o || R L r e + R L vb and thus v out v b β RL v out RL β R2 L ---------------------------------------------⋅ = ----------------------------------------------------A v = -------.19 Figure 3.≈ ---------------A i = ------. (3.= --------------------ro + RL ro + RL ib Ai ≈ β Example 3.19 Solution: From (3.149) ib 10 Ω E 30 K Ω C re vb vS β ib i c i out ie RL 2 KΩ r0 v out Figure 3. RS 5 KΩ B Since r o » R L .148) (3. The current gain is i out A i = ------ib where by the current division expression ro ro i out = ---------------.≈ ----------------------.⋅ ( β + 1 ) i b ro + RL ro + RL and thus β ro i out ( β + 1 ) ro . Emitter−follower transistor amplifier equivalent circuit for Example 3.147) Relation (3.= ⋅ ≈ vb vS re + RL RS + β RL ( re + RL ) ⋅ ( RS + β RL ) vS (3.142) r in ≈ β R L = 80 × 2 × 10 = 160 K Ω From (3.⋅ i e = ---------------.148) reveals that the voltage gain of the emitter−follower is less than unity. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−75 . Find the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains.

151) (3.⋅ ---.84 shows the common−collector T−equivalent circuit.141) where β » 1 .152) v out v b ro β ( re + ro ) v out . the input resistance as given by (3.= 0. With this resistor disconnected. (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .≈ ----------------------------------R S + r in R S + β ( r e + r o ) vS Also. the voltage gain with the load resistor disconnected is Av RL → ∞ (3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors r o ⋅ R S ⁄ β 30 × 10 3 × 5 × 10 3 ⁄ 80 r out ≈ ----------------------= ----------------------------------------------------.= -------vb vS re + ro RS + β ( re + ro ) vS (3. 3−76 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.149) A i ≈ β ≈ 80 RL → ∞ RL → ∞ β ro = -------------------RS + β ro 3 (3.998 3 3 5 × 10 + 80 × 30 × 10 3.153) and since r e « r o this relation reduces to Av With the given values Av and from (3.148) 6 β R2 80 × 4 × 10 L A v ≈ ----------------------------------------------------.= -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.= -----------------.4 Ω r o + R S ⁄ β 30 × 10 3 + 5 × 10 3 ⁄ 80 From (3.147) becomes v out ro -------.6 The T−Equivalent Circuit for the Common−Collector Transistor Amplifier Figure 3.15.150) (3.146) becomes r in β ( re + ro ) vb ---.154) 80 × 30 × 10 = ------------------------------------------------------.= 0.965 ( r e + R L ) ⋅ ( R S + β R L ) ( 10 + 2 × 10 3 ) ( 5 × 10 3 + 80 × 2 × 10 3 ) This is the voltage gain with a load resistor connected to the circuit.= 62.= -------------vb re + ro Then.⋅ ----------------------------------= -------.= -------------. is reduced to r in ≈ β ( r e + r o ) and (3.

input and output resistances.4 Phase. The conditions Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. a transistor can be in a cutoff.16 Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions As mentioned earlier. or saturation region.156) (3. TABLE 3. we assume that re « rc rb « rc RL < rc and with these assumptions the input and output resistances and voltage and current gains for the T−equivalent model for the common−collector transistor amplifier are: L Input resis tan ce = r in = ----------1–α R (3.158) Output resis tan ce = r out = r e + ( r b + R S ) ( 1 – α ) Voltage gain = Av ≈ 1 Current gain = A i ≈ β Table 3. active.4 summarizes the three possible transistor amplifier configurations.84. T−equivalent model for the common−collector transistor amplifier As with the T-equivalent models for the common-base and common-emitter transistors. and voltage and current gains for transistor amplifiers Common−Base Common−Emitter Common Collector Input/Output Phase 0° 180 ° 0° Input Resistance r in Output Resistance r out Voltage Gain A v Current Gain A i Low Equal to R C Depends on ratio R C ⁄ R S Close to unity Moderate High High High High Low Close to unity Large 3.157) (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−77 .155) (3.Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions ib RS ie re rc β ib RL rb ic vS v out Figure 3.

the transistor will be in the saturation mode which is discussed in the next subsection.85.85. RC iC v CE + + − V CC iB + vS − RB v BE + − iE − Figure 3. we will have v S – V BE v S – 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the collector−base junction will be reverse−biased. We will refer to it in our subsequent discussion to define the cutoff. iB = 0 iE = 0 iC = 0 v CE = V CC 3. and saturation regions. the emitter−base junction will be reverse−biased and since V CC is positive. Transistor circuit for defining the regions of operation 3.1 Cutoff Region If v S is such that v BE < 0. and the transistor will be in the cutoff mode. the emitter−base junction will be forward−biased and since V CC is positive. Then.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors are shown in Table 3. Region of Operation Active Saturation Cutoff Emitter−Base junction Forward Forward Reverse Collector−base junction Reverse Forward Reverse Let us consider the transistor circuit in Figure 3.16. 3.2 Active Region If v S is such that v BE ≥ 0. and transistor will be in the active mode.16.7 V .7 V . active.16.= -----------------i B = -------------------RB RB iC = β iB v C = V CC – R C i C v CB = v C – v BE and if v CB ≥ 0. if v CB < 0.7 V . we can find the maximum current the collector can have while in the active mode.7 V . and we can then determine 3−78 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. However. Then.3 Saturation Region The saturation region is reached by supplying a base current larger than I CM ⁄ β where I CM is the maximum current the collector will deliver while in the active mode.6 V . the collector−base junction will also be reverse−biased.7 . Thus. if v BE = 0.2 and are repeated below for convenience. the transistor will be in the active mode.

7 I CM = -----------------------= ---------------------RC RC and if I BM is the base current corresponding to the collector current I CM . there will be a corresponding increase in I CM and since v C = V CC – R C I C . the maximum current I CM the collector can have while in the active mode can be found from the relation R C I CM + v BE = V CC or V CC – v BE V CC – 0. In this case β is referred to as the current gain at saturation and it is denoted as β sat .162) 3−79 . Find v E . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.163) (3. the collector−base junction will become forward−biased and if it reaches a value of 0.6 V . and whereas β = di C ⁄ di B in the active mode.85. the collector to emitter voltage is denoted as v CE sat and its value is approximately 0. any further increase in the base current will result in a very small increase in the collector current.20 For the transistor circuit in Figure 3.159) We can also find the maximum value of the applied signal voltage v S that will keep the transistor in the active mode from the relation v S max = R B I BM + 0.86 it is known that it is in the active mode and β > 50 .161) If we increase the base current above I BM . it follows that I BM = I CM ⁄ β (3.2 V and the corresponding collector current i C sat is found from the relation V CC – v CE sat i C sat = -----------------------------RC Example 3.Transistor Cutoff and Saturation Regions whether the transistor is in the active mode or the saturation mode. v C .7 (3.160) (3.2 V . v C will decrease and if it falls below the value of v BE . that is. we can see that this relation does not hold when the transistor is in the saturation mode. When a transistor is deeply into saturation. v CE sat ≈ 0. i E . i C . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications (3. With reference to the circuit in Figure 3. and i B .

53 This value also indicates that the transistor is deeply into saturation. We now can find the value of β at saturation.3 × 10 3 –3 = 0. Circuit for Example 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . or saturation region. it is safe to assume that it operates either in the active or saturation region.5 i C = --------------------.5 V and since this value is much less that v B = 8 V .53 mA and this is indeed a very large base current.43 mA i E = ----.= 2.90 = 1. but since v B = 8 V .3 V vE 7. iC β sat = --. we obtain v E = v B – v BE = 8 – 0.5 V V CC – v C 12 – 7.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors RC 5 KΩ + iB vS + − C B + + iC − 12 V vC vE + + − RB v B v BE − E 8 V RE − 3 KΩ iE − Solution: Figure 3. active.90 --------. let us assume that i C ≈ 2. we conclude that the transistor is deeply into saturation.= -----------------.7 = 7.3 .= 0.3 = 7. Then. in saturation v C = v CE sat + v E = 0. 3−80 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Assuming active mode of operation.20 We do not know whether the transistor operates in the cutoff.86. in active mode of operation v C = V CC – R C i C = 12 – 5 × 10 × 2.3 mA Then.90 mA 3 3 5 × 10 5 × 10 and i B = i E – i C = 2.59 iB 1.= ---------------3 RE 3 × 10 and since i C ≈ α i E .= 0.43 – 0.2 + 7.= 0.

closed−form expression for the collector. The Ebers−Moll bipolar transistor model expresses each of the terminal currents in terms of a forward component I F . R = ------------------β F. R β F. that is. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.17 The Ebers−Moll Transistor Model The Ebers−Moll model of the bipolar transistor provides a simple.164) These current gains are related to one another by β F.164). and a reverse component I R . It is valid in all regions of operation of the bipolar transistor. R (3.The Ebers−Moll Transistor Model 3. In this case. IE = IC + IB (3. the terminal currents can be expressed as IR I C = I F – ----αR IF I E = -----–I αR R IF I I E = ---. the terminal currents are given by IC = IF IF I E = ----αF IF I B = ---βF (3. and emitter currents of a bipolar transistor in terms of the terminal voltages.167) Figure 3. then I F » I R and the bipolar transistor is said to be in the forward−active mode of operation. base. Let α F denote the current amplification in the normal operation ( V BE = forward – biased and V CB = reverse – biased ) and α R denote the inverted operation ( V BE = reverse – biased and V CB = forward – biased ) common−base current gains of the bipolar transistor.165) By substituting these relationships into (3. which only depends on the base−to−collector voltage. and β F and β R denote the normal and inverted operations respectively of the common−emitter gains. transitioning between them smoothly. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−81 . R + 1 α F. Then. we can show that the Ebers−Moll model satisfies Kirchhoff’s current law.+ --βF β (3. which only depends on the base−to−emitter voltage. R α F.87 shows how an NPN and a PNP transistors are biased.166) If the emitter−base junction is forward biased and the collector−base junction is reverse biased. R = ------------------1 – α F.

we can express the terminal currents in terms of one another as IE = –βR IB = αR IC IC = –( βR + 1 ) IB = IE ⁄ αR (3. Then for the NPN bipolar transistor biased as shown in Figure 3.= ( βF + 1 ) IB αF IC IE I B = ---. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .167). we should ensure that V EB > 4V T and V C ≤ V B . I C .169).87.168) If the collector−base junction is forward biased.169) By using (3.170) If both junctions are forward biased simultaneously. we should ensure that V BE > 4V T and V C ≥ V B .166) and (3. and the emitter−base junction is reverse biased. Biased bipolar transistors showing the direction of conventional current flow To bias an NPN bipolar transistor into the forward − active region.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors C B VB + − + IC − VC − + C B IB VB IC − + VC IB VE E − + IE IE E + VE − NPN Transistor PNP Transistor Figure 3. is given by IF = IS ( e V BE ⁄ V T ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT – 1 ) = IS ( e – 1) (3. To bias a PNP bipolar transistor into the forward−active region.172) 3−82 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Let I S be the saturation current and V T the thermal voltage. then I R » I F and the transistor is said to be in the reverse−active mode of operation in which the collector and emitters effectively reverse their roles. I F . I E . In this case.166) and (3.171) Likewise. By using (3. In this case the terminal currents are given by IC = –IR ⁄ αR IE = –IR IB = IR ⁄ βR (3.= -------------βF βF + 1 (3. I C . we can express the terminal currents in terms of one another as IC = βF IB = αF IE IC I E = ----. and I B are positive and are flowing in the directions indicated. and I B are positive and are flowing in the directions indicated. I E . the transistor is said to be in saturation.87. the reverse current component I R is IR = IS ( e V BC ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT – 1) (3. In this case. the forward current component.

172) reduces to IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT -(e I E ≈ ----) αF I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT -(e I B ≈ ---) βF (3.173) can be expressed as IS IS IS IS I E ≈ ---I B ≈ – ---.86.177) βR βF βF βR For the PNP transistor shown in Figure 3.164) we express the terminal currents in terms of the terminal voltages as IC = IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT I S ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT -(e – 1 ) – ----– 1) αR (3.174) If V BC > 4V T and V E > V B .– ----I C ≈ ----(3.178) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. is given by IF = IS ( e V EB ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( V E – V EB ) ⁄ V T – 1) (3. the transistor is deeply into the cutoff region and (3.173) reduces to I S ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT I C ≈ – -----(e ) αR IE ≈ –IS ( e ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT ) I S ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT -(e I B ≈ ----) βR (3. the transistor is deeply saturated and (3.175) If V BE > 4V T and V BC > 4V T . the forward current component.The Ebers−Moll Transistor Model By substitution of (3. the transistor is biased deeply into the reverse−active region and (3.171) and (3.176) I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT (V – V ) ⁄ V -(e ) – IS ( e B C T ) I E ≈ ----αF I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT I S ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT -(e -(e ) + ----) I B ≈ ---βF βR If V BE < – 4 V T and V BC < – 4 V T . the transistor is biased deeply into the forward−active region and (3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−83 .173) can be expressed as IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT I S ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT -(e ) – ----) αR (3.173) I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT (V – V ) ⁄ V -(e I E = ----– 1 ) – IS ( e B C T – 1 ) αR I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT I S ( VB – VC ) ⁄ VT -(e -(e I B = ---– 1 ) – ----– 1) βF βR If V BE > 4V T and V C ≥ V B . I F .172) into (3.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .179) From the Ebers−Moll model equations we can derive relationships for small signal parameters.= –⎛ ⎝ ∂ VE ⎠ ⎜ ⎝ V . From (3.181) Next. we will find the incremental resistance seen looking into the base terminal of an NPN transistor with the emitter voltage held fixed.182) we obtain this incremental emitter resistance by differentiating – I E with respect to V E .---) r b = --------. I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT -(e ) I E ≈ ----αF (3. From (3. First.= ⎝ --------= -----⎜ VT βF ⎟ ∂ VB ⎠ ∂ IB ⎝ ⎠ IB or VT r b = -----IB ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (3. that is. which yields –1 ⎛ I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ⎞ ∂ I B ⎞ –1 1 ∂ VB ⎛ ⎜ ⎟ -(e .⎞ = – ⎜ ⎛ – -----) ⎟⎟ r e = --------------.174). I S ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT -(e I B ≈ ---) βF (3.180) we obtain this incremental base resistance by differentiating I B with respect to V B . is given by IR = IS ( e V CB ⁄ V T – 1 ) = IS ( e ( VC – VB ) ⁄ VT – 1) (3.⎠ ⎜ αF ⎟ ∂ ( –IE ) T ⎝ ⎠⎠ ⎝ IE or re = VT ⁄ IE (3. we shall define the incremental transconductance gain of the NPN transistor as the partial derivative of the collector current with respect to the base voltage. which yields ⎛ ⎞ –1 –1 I ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ⎞ ∂ I ∂ VE ⎛ S E 1 ⎞ -----(e --------.174) IC ≈ IS ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (3. I R .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors and the reverse current component. we shall compute the incremental resistance seen looking into the emitter terminal with the base voltage held constant.174). From (3.184) we can obtain this incremental transconductance gain as 3−84 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. that is.183) Now.

Schottky Diode Clamp ∂ IC 1. The specifications usually cover the items listed below.185) or Using the relations ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩ (3..= -------------gm βF + 1 αF βF .I ( e ( VB – VE ) ⁄ VT ) g m = --------.= -----⋅ S VT ∂ VB IC IC g m = -----VT IC = βF IB = αF IE IC I E = ----. e.19 Transistor Specifications Transistors are available in a variety of shapes and sizes. NPN Silicon Epitaxial Planar Transistor for switching and amplifier applications. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.18 Schottky Diode Clamp In the saturation region. weight.88.188) 3. 1. and the values given are typical. the collector−base diode is forward−biased.186) (3.88. each with its own unique characteristics.g.= -------------βF βF + 1 (3. and packaging options. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−85 . The Schottky diode alleviates this problem if connected between the base and the collector as shown in Figure 3. NPN and PNP transistors with Schottky diodes 3. it takes a considerably long time to drive the transistor out of saturation. the current between the base and the collector is carried by the Schottky diode.187) we can also express these small−signal parameters in terms of one another as βF . Schottky diode C Schottky diode C B E NPN Transistor B E PNP Transistor Figure 3. Features. Therefore.= ( βF + 1 ) IB αF IC IE I B = ---. case..= ----g m = ---rb re (3. when a transistor is in the saturation region. e. Due to the large diffusion capacitance.= ( βF + 1 ) re r b = ----gm rb αF r e = ----. The Schottky diode has the property that it turns on at a lower voltage than the PN junction.g. and mechanical data.

3. and storage times. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .g. power dissipation at room temperature. I C = 1 mA . rise. I C = 10 mA . max 8 × 10 f = 100 MHz h fe (Small signal current gain): min 100 . thermal resistance. max 10 K Ω at V CE = 1 V . fall.5 × 10 . saturation voltages. collector−emitter. breakdown voltages. I C = 1 mA . delay. I C = 10 mA h ie (Input impedance): min 1 K Ω . Maximum Ratings and Thermal Characteristics... typical 300 at V CE = 1 V . max 40 μΩ f = 1 KHz fT (Gain−Bandwidth product): 300 MHz at V CE = 20 V . e. collector current. at V CE = 10 V . I C = 10 mA h re (Voltage feedback ratio): min 0. 3−86 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. some of the electrical characteristics for the 2N3904 NPN are listed as follows: h FE (DC current gain): min 100 . f = 100 MHz –1 –1 –4 –4 atV CE = 10 V . I C = 1 mA . For example. collector−base. max 400 at V CE = 10 V .g. noise figure. etc.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 2. f = 1 KHz h oe (Output admittance): min 1 μΩ . Electrical Characteristics. and emitter base voltages. cutoff currents. etc. e.

• A very useful parameter in transistors is the common−emitter gain β . the three currents are related as iB + iC = iE • In a transistor the collector current is defined as iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T where I r is the reverse (saturation) current. being a deadly poison. a constant whose value ranges from 75 to 300. v BE is the base−to−emitter voltage. are identified as the emitter. • For any transistor. Its value is specified by the manufacturer. the base. whereas a PNP transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the N−type material at the center. about six times faster than silicon. • The three terminals of a transistor. • Transistors are used either as amplifiers or as electronic switches. The base current i B is much smaller than the collector current i C and these two currents are related in terms of the constant β as iB = iC ⁄ β • Another important parameter in transistors is the common−base current gain denoted as α and relates the collector and emitter currents as iC = α iE • The parameters α and β are related as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) technology has been under development for several years and its advantage over silicon is its speed. the base current. • Since a transistor is a 3−terminal device. and the emitter current. the collector current. • An NPN transistor is formed with two PN junctions with the P−type material at the center. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−87 . and lower power consumption. requires very special manufacturing processes. and the collector. denoted as i E . whether it is an NPN or PNP transistor. most transistors are made of silicon. denoted as i B . and V T ≈ 26 mV at T = 300 ° K . • Like junction diodes.20 Summary • Transistors are three terminal devices that can be formed with the combination of two separate PN junction materials into one block.Summary 3. typically 10 – 12 A to 10 – 15 A as in junction diodes. NPN or PNP. there are three currents. The disadvantages of GaAs over silicon is that arsenic. denoted as i C .

• The average power drawn from the collector supply is P CC = V CC I C 3−88 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Class C amplifiers have the highest efficiency and are used for radio frequency amplification in transmitters. • Two common methods of biasing a transistor are the fixed bias method and the self−bias method. Class B. Class B amplifiers are used in amplifiers requiring high power output. • In a transistor. the efficiency in a Class B amplifier is higher than that of a Class AB amplifier. Class AB amplifiers are normally used as push−pull amplifiers to alleviate the crossover distortion of Class B amplifiers. • Class C amplifiers are biased so that the collector current flows for less than one−half cycle of the input signal. • Class B amplifiers are biased so that the collector current is cutoff during one−half of the input signal. Class A amplifiers are used for audio and frequency amplification. the base−emitter voltage v BE decreases approximately 2 mV for each 1 ° C rise in temperature when the emitter current i E remains constant.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors β α = ----------β+1 α β = ----------1–α • As with diodes. • The operation of a simple transistor circuit can also be described graphically using i B versus v BE and i C versus v CE curves. • There are four classes of amplifier operations: Class A. Therefore. and Class C. Class AB. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . In a Class A amplifier the efficiency is very low. and I C is the DC collector current. • Class AB amplifiers are biased so that the collector current is cutoff for a portion of one cycle of the input and so the efficiency is higher than that of a Class A amplifier. the output resistance looking into the collector is defined as ∂ v CE r out = ----------∂ iC VA = -----IC v BE = cons tan t where V A is the Early voltage supplied by the manufacturer. • Class A amplifiers operate entirely in the active region and thus the output if a faithful reproduction of the input signal with some amplification.

μ . and g o = h 22 = h oe. and the current amplification factor β is related to the output characteristics caused by a change in i B . and power in devices that are connected externally to the transistor. • In the incremental model for the transistor the input resistance r n is the slope of the input voltage and current characteristics and it accounts for the voltage drop across the base−emitter junction. denoted as g m . These designations along with the additional notations v be = v 1 . and g o are normally denoted by the h (hybrid) parameters as r n = h 11 = h ie . β = h 21 = h fe . • Transistor hybrid parameters provide us with a means to evaluate voltages. Likewise. The parameters r n . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • The incremental model for the transistor provides a better approximation than the piece−wise linear approximation. β .Summary • The average power absorbed by the load is P LOAD = R LOAD I C + R LOAD ( i c RMS ) • The average power absorbed by the transistor is P C = P CC – P L • The piecewise−linear analysis is a practical method of analyzing transistor amplifiers. currents. provide a symmetrical form for the relations of (3. and i c = i 2 .63) as follows: v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 • In the incremental model for the transistor the current amplification A c is defined as ic A c = -is • The transconductance. i b = i 1 . μ = h 12 = h re . and defined as di C g m = ----------dv BE iC = -----VT 2 2 iC = IC An approximate value for the transconductance at room temperature is g m ≈ 40I C . the output conductance g o is the slope of the output current and voltage characteristics. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−89 . v ce = v 2 . The voltage amplification factor μ is related to the input characteristics caused by a change in v CE .62)and (3.

It is valid in all regions of operation of the bipolar transistor. common−emitter. • The Ebers−Moll model of the bipolar transistor provides a simple. and the capacitance C e that exists across the forward−biased emitter junction. 3−90 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. is an important figure of merit for a transistor and it can be found from the relations gm ω T ≈ βω β = ----Ce • The Darlington connection consists of two transistors with a common collector point and exhibits a high input impedance and low output impedance. base. For higher frequencies. Therefore. the current between the base and the collector is carried by the Schottky diode. the effects of junction capacitances must be taken into account. when a transistor is in the saturation region. The combined α T and β T are αT = α1 + α2 – α1 α2 and βT ≈ β1 + β1 β2 • The common−base. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the β cutoff frequency. • The Schottky diode has the property that it turns on at a lower voltage than the PN junction. Accordingly. transitioning between them smoothly. denoted as ω T . β r be = 25 -------iC • The current gain−bandwidth product. closed−form expression for the collector. denoted as ω β . and emitter currents of a bipolar transistor in terms of the terminal voltages. and common collector transistor circuits can also be represented by their h−equivalent and T−equivalent circuits. is defined as 1 ω β ≡ ----------r be C e • If i C is in milliamps.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors • The high−frequency models for transistors take into consideration the nonlinear resistance r be that accounts for the voltage drop across the emitter junction.

and V C . I B . and i B = 12 μ A at temperature T = 27 ° C .21 Exercises 1. The circuit operates at T = 27 ° C . For the NPN transistor circuit below.7 V . RC = 6 KΩ IC C E RE = 8 KΩ IE V CC VC B 10 V IB VE 10 V V EE 4. the emitter current i E = 1.7 V . It is known that in a NPN transistor. β . Find α .2 mA at temperature T = 27 ° C . 2.72 V and β = 115 . Find β . RC = 5 KΩ IC C E RE IE = 10 K Ω V CC 12 V VC VB B VE RB IB 12 V V EE 5. and V C . when the base−to−emitter voltage v BE = 0. 3. it is known that V E = – 0.7 V . when the base−to−emitter voltage v BE = 0. For the PNP transistor circuit below. I C .1 mA b.2 ≤ i C ≤ 5 mA . α .2 mA . and Ir . Find the range of changes in v BE at this temperature for the range 0. The circuit operates at T = 27 ° C . Find the output resistance r out for a bipolar junction transistor whose Early voltage is V A = 75 V and the DC collector current is a. Find I E . It is known that in a NPN transistor. V E = 2 V and V EB = 0. I C = 0. the collector current i C = 1. I C = 5 mA Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Exercises 3. it is known that R B = 130 K Ω . I C = 1 mA c. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−91 .

or cutoff mode. Hint: The collector −base junction will still be reverse−biased if we make V B = V C . For the circuit below. saturation.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 6. or cutoff mode. R E = 3 K Ω . β = 110 . V B = 3. and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active. 3−92 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Hint: The base − to − emitter junction of an NPN transistor is considered to be reverse − biased if VB = VE = 0 RC 5 KΩ 10 V V CC IB B V BE VE IC E VC 3 KΩ RE IE 8. I B . and determine whether this circuit with the indicated values operates in the active. β = 150 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V C . I C . For the circuit below. Find the highest voltage to which the base can be set so that the transistor will be in the active mode. RC C RB B IB V BE VB E IC IE RE VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC VS VE 7. saturation. Find I E . V E . V C . and β = 110 . For the circuit below. I E .7 V . Find V E . I B . I C .

V B = 3.3 V . For a PNP transistor circuit with β = 120 . I E = 0. Are both the transistors operating in the active mode? What is the total power absorbed by this circuit? R E2 E2 V EB2 B2 5 KΩ I E2 C2 I C2 R C2 8 KΩ 12 V V CC R C1 R1 60 K Ω C1 8 KΩ I B2 10 μ A V E2 B1 I B1 30 KΩ V BE1 E1 V E1 I C1 V B2 V C2 V C1 V B1 R2 I E1 R E1 5 KΩ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V CC = 11. it is known that β = 120 for both transistors. For an NPN transistor circuit β = 100 . V EE = 12 V .Exercises RC C B IB VS RB VB VE V BE E IE RE 3 KΩ IC VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC 9. and R E = 3 K Ω . V CC = – 12 V . For the circuit below.5 V and with the reverse− biased collector − base junction set at V CB = 1. V B = 0 V . and V CB = – 3 V . what should the values of R C and R E be so that the transistor operates at the active mode? 12. What should the values of R C and R E be to achieve this value? 10. Find all indicated voltages and currents. V B = 0 V . V EE = 12 V . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−93 .8 V we want the collector current to be I C = 0. what would the largest value of R C be so that the transistor operates at the active mode? 11. For a PNP transistor circuit with β = 150 .8 mA . V CC = – 12 V .8 mA .

b. 7. Sketch a family of these curves for i B = 2.5. β = 70 and the output volt−ampere characteristic curves are approximately horizontal lines. c. 5. For the PNP transistor circuit below. and 10 μ A . 3−94 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 14. − RC 15 V iC iS RS + V CC R1 − vS 15 V + V BB RE a. and indicate the current and the voltage at which the load line intersects the axes. Find the values of R 1 and R C required to locate the quiescent operating point Q at i C = 1 mA and v EC = 5 V .5. Find the quiescent collector current I C and collector−to−emitter voltage V CE . β = 100 and the output volt−ampere characteristic curves are approximately horizontal lines. Determine graphically and plot i C versus i S for – 15 < i S < 15 μ A . For the NPN transistor circuit below. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . RC 2 KΩ 20 V + V − CC iC iS RS R 1 2 MΩ 5 KΩ vS RE + V BB 10 V − a.0. Construct a load line.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 13.

i c = 5 mA .Exercises b. Find the values of R B and R C required for a quiescent point Q at i C = 1 mA and v CE = 5 V . For the transistor circuit below. and r o = 100 K Ω .5 K Ω . 16. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−95 . β = 100 . a. B ib v be r' b r be v' be ro g m v' be E ic v ce C ie a. and r o = 30 K Ω . and r o = 30 K Ω . i c = 1 mA . i C = 1 mA and the hybrid parameters are r n = 2. Find the current amplification A c . draw an incremental model. If the input signal is a sinusoidal current. Sketch the load line on the i C versus v EC coordinates. approximately what is the greatest amplitude that the signal i s can have without waveform distortion at the output? 15. Repeat part (a) for β = 60 . and indicate the quiescent point on this line. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. r' b = 50 Ω . r' b = 50 Ω . it is known that β = 80 . μ = 2 × 10 . For the transistor model shown below. Using the hybrid representation for the transistor. b. It is not necessary to draw the collector characteristics. Show the current and voltage at which the load line intersects the axes. c. RC 20 V + − –4 V CC is Rs + RB V BB RE vs 20 V − b. Find the transconductance g m and the base−emitter resistance r be . c.

2 K Ω h 12 = 2 × 10 h 21 = 50 –4 v1 − v2 − h 22 = 50 × 10 –6 Ω –1 3−96 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Determine whether the PNP transistor shown below is operating in the cutoff. The equations describing the h parameters can be used to represent the network shown below. active. i1 + i2 + + − h 11 h 12 v 2 h 22 h 21 i 1 h 11 = 1. or saturation region RC RB 10 K Ω C B VB E RE 10 V 2 KΩ + − 5 KΩ 10 V − + V CC V EE 18. This network is a transistor equivalent circuit for the common−emitter configuration and the h parameters given are typical values for such a circuit. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and a 5 K Ω load is connected at the output (right side). Compute the voltage and current gains for this network if a voltage source of v 1 = cos ω t mV in series with 800 Ω is connected at the input (left side).Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 17.

792 ) = 0.= 0.1) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 × 10 –3⎠ = v BE – 0.2 mA .7 ⁄ V T (2) BE T iC e ----------------------= --------------–3 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 3.7 + V T ln ⎛ ----------------------⎝ 1.7 + 26 × 10 and with i C = 5 mA .7 + 26 × 10 × 1.7 + 26 × 10 –3 × ( – 1.737 V 2. from (3). From (3.737 V ⎝ 1. v BE = 0.2) iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T (1) and as we know from Chapter 2 at T = 27 ° C .427 = 0.2 × 10 ) = ( v BE – 0.7 + 26 × 10 –3 ln ⎛ ----------------------.2 × 10 –3⎠ iC -----------------------⎞ V T ln ⎛ ⎝ 1. for 0.7 ) ⁄ V T – 3 ( v BE – 0.653 V ln ⎛ ----------------------⎝ 1.7 + 26 × 10 –3 –3 0.2 × 10 e – 3 ( v BE – 0.7 ) ⁄ V T –3 –3 ln ( i C ) – ln ( 1. v BE = 0.7 BE iC iC -⎞ = 0. From the given data 1.2 × 10 e ln ( i C ) = ln ( 1.22 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. From (3. V T = 26 mV . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−97 .2 × 10 ⎞ .2 × 10 –3⎠ ⎝ 1.2 × 10 –3⎠ –3 Therefore.2 × 10 e v ⁄V i C = 1.(3) = 0. the v BE range is 0.2 ≤ i C ≤ 5 mA .7 ) ⁄ V T iC -⎞ = ( v BE – 0.2 × 10 –3 With i C = 0.653 ≤ v BE ≤ 0.2 × 10 –3⎠ –3 5 × 10 -⎞ –3 ln ⎛ ----------------------= 0.2 × 10 Division of (1) by (2) yields –3 = Ir e 0.7 ⁄ V T 1.7 ) ⁄ V T ln ⎛ ----------------------⎝ 1.7 ) ⁄ V T ) = ln ( 1.2 × 10 ) + ( v BE – 0.

92 11 0.1.16 mA I E = --------------------3 RE 8 × 10 From Table 3. RC = 6 KΩ IC C E VE RE = 8 KΩ IE 10 V V EE V CC VC B 10 V IB – 0.15 × 10 –3 = 1.3).= 10 --------------------.1 V 3−98 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.188 mA ⁄ 12 μ A = 99 From (3. we obtain VC = V CC – R C I C = 10 – 6 × 10 × 1.= 1. iB = iC ⁄ β β = i C ⁄ i B = 1.012 × 10 From (3. I B = I E ⁄ ( β + 1 ) and with β = 115 we find that –5 mA I B = 1.7 ⁄ ( 26 × 10 ) e 4. α = β ⁄ ( β + 1 ) = 99 ⁄ ( 99 + 1 ) = 0.16 × 10 – 10 –3 –5 = 1.16 --------------------.188 × 10 .15 mA By application of KVL on the collector (left) side of the circuit above.7).15 × 10 3 –3 = 3.= 1. iC = Ir e v BE ⁄ V T –3 –3 = 1.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors iB + iC = iE i C = i E – i B = 1.188 × 10 = I r = --------------= ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2.= 1.72 V – V E + R E I E = V EE V EE + V E – 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .72 .188 × 10 –3 = 1.2).911 × 10 e e 3.2 × 10 – 0.42 × 10 A –3 v BE ⁄ V T 26.= 10 A = 10 μ A 115 + 1 I C = I E – I B = 1.188 × 10 .99 From (3.188 mA –3 –3 –3 iC – 15 1.

= ------------------.01 3 –3 V C = R C I C – 12 = 5 × 10 × 0. and V B = V E – V BE = 2 – 0.= 0.1.3 V . and I C .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 4. a.= 5 K Ω = -----------------–3 5 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. VA r out = -----IC 75 .99 --------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−99 . R E I E + V E = 12 V 12 – 2 I E = ---------------.= 99 IB 0.= 1 mA 10 K Ω VB 1. I B .99 × 10 – 12 = – 7. we need to find I E . VA r out = -----IC VA r out = -----IC I C = 1 mA c.99 mA IC α = ----= 0.99 --------.99 IE 1 β IC = ----= 0.01 mA RB 130 K Ω I C = I E – I B = 1 – 0. V C = R C I C – 12 .= 0.05 V 5.1 mA b. Therefore.= 75 K Ω = --------–3 10 I C = 0. RC RE IE V VC VB B E 2V IB 130 RB K Ω 12 V V EE = 5 KΩ IC C E = 10 K Ω V CC 12 V From Table 3.7 = 1. β = I C ⁄ I B . α = I C ⁄ I E .= 750 K Ω = --------–4 10 75 . I C = 5 mA 75 .3 V I B = -----.01 = 0. and from the circuit above.

Then.= 110 α = -----------------. β .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 6. Since V C > V B .= 0.991 = 9 μ A 3−100 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 = 3 V and VE 3 .7 – 0.991 × 10 3 –3 = 7.= -----------------I E = -----–3 RE 3 × 10 It is given that β = 110 . the transistor is indeed operating in the active mode and our assumption that the base−emitter junction is forward−biased. V E = V B – V BE = 3. I B = I E – I C = 1 – 0. RC C RB B IB IC IE RE 3 KΩ VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC VS V BE VB E 3.7 V VE Since V B = 3. Finally.991 × 1 = 0. is correct. Then.05V This is an NPN transistor and the collector (N) to base (P) must be reverse−biased for the transistor to operate in the active mode.991 mA The collector voltage is V C = V CC – R C I C = 12 – 5 × 10 × 0.991 β+1 111 and I C = α I E = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= 1 mA .7 V it is reasonable to assume that the base−emitter junction is forward− biased and thus V BE = 0.7 V .

Since β = 110 . RC C B IB VS RB VB VE V BE E IE RE 3 KΩ IC VC 5 KΩ 12 V V CC The transistor will be in the active mode for V B > 0. a n d VE = 0 .991 β+1 111 and V B = V BE + V E = V BE + R E I E V B – 0. IB = 0 .7V and for V B ≤ V C . the emitter−base junction does not conduct.= 110 α = -----------------. V BE = 0 . 8. V B = 0 .7 V B – V BE I E = ---------------------. RC 5 KΩ V CC 10 V IB B V BE VE IC E VC 3 KΩ RE IE Since the base is grounded. Under those conditions the transistor behaves like an open switch and thus it is operating in the cutoff mode.= ------------------3 RE 3 × 10 Then.= 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−101 . T h e c o l l e c t o r c u r r e n t IC i s a l s o z e r o b e c a u s e I C = I E – I B = 0 and thus V C = V CC – R C I C = 10V . β .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. IE = 0 .

8 × 10 β .5 = 5.3 V (2) 11.991 ------------------= 12 – 5 × 0.84 -----------.652 ( V B – 0.8 V VE 2.81 mA V E = V B – V BE = 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .7 I C = α I E = 0.= 3.= 7.652V B = 10.= 100 α = -----------------.99 = 0.3 – 5.652 3−102 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. then.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors V B – 0.8 .09 V 2.991 ------------------3 3 × 10 V B – 0.5 K Ω –3 0.81 × 10 –3 V B = 10.7 V B – 0.7 = 2.7 ) = 12 2. V C = V CC – R C I C = 11.991 3 3 3 × 10 = 1.7 3 ------------------V C = V CC – R C I C = V B = 5 × 10 × 0.7 ) V B – 0.7 V B – 0.84 or 9.3 R C = ----------------------.8 ⁄ 0.5 – 0.7 ) ) V B + 1.991 3 3 3 × 10 = ( 12 – 1.652 ( V B – 0.= 0.8 + 3. The emitter voltage is and thus V C = V CB + V B = 1.991 ------------------= 5 × 0.= -------------------------–3 IE 0.7 3 ------------------V B = 12 – 5 × 10 × 0.8 × 10 R C (1) Also From (1) and (2) With β = 100 .652 ( V B – 0.3 – 0.5 K Ω R E = -----.= 4.99 β+1 101 I E = I C ⁄ α = 0.

77 mA (3) I E = 12 3 3 × 10 12 R C = -------.992 × 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−103 .= 3. V C = R C I C – V CC = R C α I E – 12 ≈ 0 or where and from V E = V EB = 0. Then.= -------.= 3. RE IB B VC RC V CC C IC 3 KΩ 12 V V EB E 5 KΩ 12 V V EE IE VE A PNP transistor will still be in the active mode if V C = V B .7 = V EE – R E I E = 12 – R E I E we obtain – 0.(1) α IE β 120 α = ----------.77 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For this exercise the base is grounded so V B = 0 and we can let V C ≈ 0 also.7 -----------------.21 K Ω –3 α IE 0.992 (2) β+1 121 By substitution of (2) and (3) into (1) we obtain 12 = ---------------------------------------------12 R C = -------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 10.= 0.

and Then. since then.7 V R E I E + V E = V EE = 12 V 12 – 0.7 . V C = V CB = – 3 V V E = V EB = 0.795 mA I C = α I E = ----------β+1 E V C + R C I C = – V CC – ( – 12 ) – 3 .= 11.= 14 K Ω R E = ----------------------–3 0.993 × 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .795 × 10 3−104 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3 K Ω R C = ----------------------------–3 0. RE V EB E IE 12 V V EE IB B VE VC C RC 12 V IC V CC Since the base is grounded.8 × 10 Also. or β I = 0.8 = 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 11.

8 where we applied Thevenin’s theorem. R E2 E2 V EB2 B2 5 KΩ I E2 C2 V C2 I C2 R C2 8 KΩ 12 V V CC R C1 R1 60 K Ω C1 8 KΩ I B2 10 μ A I C1 V E2 B1 I B1 30 KΩ V B2 V C1 V BE1 E1 I E1 V E1 R E1 5 KΩ V B1 R2 The left part in the circuit above is the same as that in Example 3. Therefore the given circuit is redrawn as shown below.66 10 3 5 × 10 3 3 From Table 3. 8 KΩ R C1 C1 R TH V TH 4V 20 K Ω B1 I B1 I' C1 10 μ A I C1 V C1 5 KΩ E2 I E2 C2 I C2 R C2 8 KΩ V E2 V CC R E2 V I B2EB2 B2 V C2 12 V V BE1 E1 V B2 V B1 I E1 V E1 R E1 5 KΩ Application of KVL around the left part of the circuit yields R TH I B1 + V BE1 + R E1 I E1 = V TH ( 20 × 10 ) I B1 + 0.7 + ( 5 × 10 ) I E1 = 4 –3 3. Then.1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−105 .3 = 4I B1 + I E1 = ---------------× 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. I E = ( β + 1 ) I B .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 12.

28 μ A –6 I E1 = ( β + 1 ) I B1 = 121 × 5.28 × 10 –3 –6 = 0. β I C2 = α I E2 = ----------I = 0.09 = 7.835 mA β+1 E and V C2 = R C2 I C2 = 8 × 10 × 0.2 V V B1 = V BE1 + V E1 = 0.614 mA V C1 = V CC – R C1 I' C1 = 12 – 8 × 10 × 0. Then. The emitter voltage V E2 of the PNP transistor is V E2 = V EB2 + V C1 = 0.9 V I C1 = I E1 – I B1 = 0.66 × 10 125I B1 = 0.634 mA – 10 μ A = 0.639 × 10 – 5.7 + 7.11 V Then. and Also.842 = 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .634 mA I' C1 = I C1 – I B2 = 0.614 × 10 3 –3 = 7.= 0.79 – 6. and –6 –3 –3 A = 5.09 V Since this is an NPN transistor and V C1 > V B1 .992 × 0.68 = 1.842 mA 3 R E2 5 × 10 It is given that β = 120 .2 = 3. the base−collector PN junction is reverse− biased and thus the transistor is in active mode.28 × 10 and Then.79 I E2 = -----------------------= --------------------.79 V and the emitter current I E2 is V CC – V E2 12 – 7.639 mA –3 V E1 = R E1 I E1 = 5 × 10 × 0.7 + 3.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 4I B1 + ( β + 1 ) I B1 = 0.835 × 10 3 –3 = 6. Then. 3−106 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.68 V To find V B2 we observe that V EC2 = V E2 – V C2 = 7.28 × 10 3 = 0.66 × 10 I B1 = 5.639 × 10 = 3.

5. The total power absorbed by this circuit is P = V CC I T = V CC ( I B1 + I' C1 + I E2 ) = 12 ( 5.00 mA and these are shown on the plot below.09 V As expected. and 10 μ A . 0.25. i C = β i B = 100i B and for i B = 2.7 = 0.41 + 6.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises V BC2 = V EC2 – V EB2 = 1.68 = 7.28 μ A + 0.5. 1.0 μ A i B = 2.25 i C ( mA ) i B = 10 μ A i B = 7.50 0.75.75 0. we obtain i C = 0.5 μ A 5 10 15 20 v CE ( V ) The load line is obtained from the relation v CE + R C i C = V CC = 20 V Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and 1.50.11 – 0.41 V and V B2 = V BC2 + V C2 = 0. 7. RC 2 KΩ 20 V + V − CC iC iS RS R 1 2 MΩ 5 KΩ vS RE + V BB 10 V − a.614 mA + 0. With β = 100 . this is the same value as that of V C1 as it can be seen from the circuit above.5 mw 13.842 mA ) = 17. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−107 .5 μ A Q i B = 5.00 0. 5. This is an PNP transistor and since V C2 < V B2 the base−collector junction is reverse−biased and the PNP transistor is also in the active mode.0. 0.

I B = 10 V ⁄ 2 M Ω = 5 μ A . and when v CE = 0 . v CE = 20 V . the Q point is the intersection of the load line and the line i B = I B . is ( μA ) i C ( mA ) −15 0 −10 0 −5 0 0 5 5 10 10 10 15 10 The plot below shows the current transfer characteristics i C ( mA ) 10 5 is ( μ A ) – 15 – 10 –5 5 10 15 3−108 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. for the range – 15 < i s < 15 μ A . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Thus with reference to the circuit above and i s = 0 . c.5 mA and V CE = 10 V . i C = V CC ⁄ R C = 20 ⁄ 20 K Ω = 1 mA .Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors When i C = 0 . we obtain the corresponding collector current values as shown on the table below. b. As shown above. The load line then intercepts the v CE axis at 20 V and the i C axis at 1 mA . and the Q point is as shown above and we observe that I C = 0. V BB i B = I B + i s = --------.+ is = 5 + is R1 and iC = β iB = β ( 5 + is ) Then.

1 m = --------------------------= -------------v EC2 – v EC1 15 – 5 The i C intercept. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−109 .50 1.50 5 10 15 Q b.00 0. denoted as i CQ .= 10 K Ω –3 10 and with β = 70 R1 –3 V BB 15 = 15 × 70 = --------.05 M Ω –3 IB I C ⁄ 70 10 i C ( mA ) 1.= -----------------------------. v EC ( V ) The slope of the load line is i C2 – i C1 0 – 1.= 1. is found from the straight line equation i C = mv EC + i CQ or i CQ = i C – mv EC Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= – 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 14. RC − 15 V iC iS RS + V CC R1 − vS 15 V + V BB RE v EC + R C i C = V CC 5 + 10 R C = 15 –5 R C = 15 -------------. a.

= -----------------------s s 6 R1 1.78). B ib v be r' b r be v' be ro g m v' be E ic v ce C ie –3 a. From (3.5 ⁄ 70 = 21.1 ) × 5 = 1.3 μ A + i i B = I B + i s = --------.= -------80.3 = 7.05 × 10 we obtain i s = i B – I B = 21.5 mA .= 1.+ i = 14.83) β.= 400 Ω r be = ----gm 200 b.5 mA c.4 – 14.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors and with i C = 1 mA and v CE = 5 i CQ = 1 – ( – 0.5 K Ω gm 40 –3 = 200 millimhos = 40 millimhos 3−110 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. From the plot of part (b) we see that when v EC = 0 (short circuit) the collector current is i C = 1.4 μ A . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and V BB 15 .= 60 r be = --------. g m ≈ 40i c = 40 × 5 × 10 and from (3.1 μ A 15. g m ≈ 40i c = 40 × 10 and β. and since i B = i C ⁄ β = 1.

15 × 10 6 5 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 K Ω iB 100 i B iC R eq C RC 15 KΩ 100 KΩ is Rs – μβ R eq – 26 Ω β ib E ro v CE c.= 2 M Ω .0025 × 10 1.= 15 K Ω –3 iC 10 I B = I C ⁄ β = 10 ⁄ 100 = 10 μ A V BB 20 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 16. B RB 2 MΩ –3 rn 2.63 is applicable here and it is shown below with the given parameters and the values obtained in part (a). RC 20 V + − V CC is Rs + RB V BB RE vs a. The incremental model circuit in Figure 3.67) ro ic RB .β --------------------A c = --= --------------------( RB + rn ) ( ro + RC ) is or 2 × 10 10 A c = -----------------------------× 100 × -----------------------≈ 87 6 5 2.= --------R B = --------–5 IB 10 b. 20 V − R C i C + v CE = V CC V CC – v CE 20 – 5 R C = -----------------------= -------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−111 . From (3.

65 – 0.= -------------------------------.5 + 10 I C sat = -------------------------.7 V IB VB VB = -----. VE IE = 10 – ( 2 K Ω ) I E 10 – V E 10 – ( 0. I E ≈ 4. In this case.1 mA (3) 5 KΩ 5 KΩ and with I E = I B + I C and (1). V CE sat ≈ 0.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors 17.= 0.5V B mA (2) 2 KΩ 2 KΩ where the numerical value of V B in the last expression above is in mA .7 + V B Also.2 = V B + 0. but since we’ve assumed that the transistor is in the active mode. and (3).1V B mA (1) 10 KΩ RB V E = V EB + V B = 0.= ------------. and thus V C = V E – V CE sat = 0. Then. its value should be just a few microamps. RC IB RB 10 K Ω C B VB IE 10 V E 5 KΩ IC VC VE RE 2 KΩ V EE 10 V − + V CC + − Let us assume that the transistor is in the active mode.= 0.2 V .65 mA and this value implies that the transistor operates in the saturation mode. Therefore. V EB = 0.7 + V B – 0.7 + V B ) = ----------------. we obtain 3−112 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 V The collector current is V C – ( – 10 ) V B + 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= ------------------------------------= 4. (2).2V B + 2.

196 IB v 1 = h 11 i 1 + h 12 v 2 (1) i 2 = h 21 i 1 + h 22 v 2 (2) With the voltage source v 1 = cos ω t mV in series with 800 Ω connected at the input and a 5 K Ω load connected at the output the network is as shown below.2e A \t'.= 1.1V B + 0.= 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 3−113 . Then 2.2V B + 2. A=[2*10^3 2*10^(−4).196 mA 10 K Ω I C sat = 0.96 V V B = --------1. X=A\B.55 .= -----------≈ 15. fprintf('i1 = %5.5 β sat = ---------0.1 Solving for V B . fprintf('v2 = %5.03. 800 Ω 1200 Ω 18.65 – V B = 0.1 ≈ 3..2V B + 2..03 mA Also. fprintf(' \n').2e V'. I C sat 3.96 I B = ------------.3 1. B=[10^(−3) 0]'. 50 250*10^(−6)]. We recall that + v1 1 ∠0 ° mV –4 i1 i2 + − + 5000 Ω 50 i 1 50 v2 − − 2 × 10 v 2 × 10 –6 Ω –1 The network above is described by the equations ( 800 + 1200 ) i 1 + 2 × 10 v 2 = 10 –4 –3 –v2 –6 50i 1 + 50 × 10 v 2 = i 2 = ----------5000 or 2 × 10 i 1 + 2 × 10 v 2 = 10 50i 1 + 250 × 10 v 2 = 0 We write the two equations above in matrix form and use MATLAB for the solution.X(2)) –6 3 –4 –3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 4.X(1))..

3 0.4 μ A The voltage gain is v2 – 102 mV G V = ---. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= – 172.2 × 10 × 0. –6 –6 –3 3 –6 –4 –3 v2 = -1. we use (1) and (2) to find the new values of v 1 and i 2 = 1.= -----------------------.592 m i 2 = 50 × 0.592 mV v1 and the minus (−) sign indicates that the output voltage in 180 ° out−of−phase with the input.4 -------------------i1 0.51 × 10 + 2 × 10 × ( – 102 × 10 ) = 0.51 μ A and the output current is in phase with the input current. i 1 = 0.51 μ A (3) v 2 = – 102 mV (4) Next.02e-001 V 3−114 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 3 Bipolar Junction Transistors i1 = 5.51 × 10 × 50 × 10 × ( – 102 × 10 ) = 20.10e-007 A Therefore. The current gain is i2 μ A = 40 G I = --= 20.

Like the old vacuum triode. and diacs. In this way the current in the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. These characteristics are similar to those for the junction transistor except that the parameter for this family is the input voltage rather than the input current. In this section we will discuss the JFET and we will discuss the MOSFET in the next section. the FET is a voltage−controlled device. 4. are called gates. the silicon controlled rectifier (SCR). thus the width of the channel changes. which are usually connected together externally. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−1 . the silicon controlled switch (SCS). Other PNPN devices.1(a) shows the basic JFET amplifier configuration and the output volt−ampere characteristics are shown in Fig. and the triac are introduced with some of their applications.1 The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) The Field−Effect Transistor (FET) is another semiconductor device. the two regions of P material. and applications. If the voltage applied to the gates is changed. The Junction FET (JFET) is the earlier type and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) is now the most popular type.1. P−N junctions exist between the P and N materials. the width of the transition region at the junction changes. characteristics. the four−layer diode. and the electrons carrying the current i D in the N material are forced to flow through the channel between the two gates. The chapter includes also a brief discussion on unijunction transistors. and the upper terminal is called the drain. Pictorial representation and output volt−ampere characteristics for a typical JFET The lower terminal in the N material is called the source.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices T his chapter begins with a discussion of Field Effect Transistors (FETs). 4. A potential barrier exists across the junctions.1(b). resulting in a change in the resistance between source and drain. and in normal operation the voltage applied to the gates biases these junctions in the reverse direction. + N iG iD 15 vD RL V DD Rs vs vG 12 9 6 3 10 (a) 20 i D ( mA ) vG = 0 vG = –1 vG = –2 vG = –3 vG = –4 (b) vD ( V ) + P P − − Figure 4. Figure 4.

can be made very large. Thus. 5 to 10 volts. and if the bias is about 0. with transconductances in the range of 1 to 5 millimhos. 4−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and it is known as bipolar transistor. PN junction and depletion region of a typical PN junction The width of the depletion region depends on the applied bias. let us review the depletion region which we discussed in Chapter 2. This high input resistance results from the fact that the input voltage v G biases the junctions in the reverse direction and consequently is required to deliver only the small leakage current across the junctions. is sufficient to reduce the channel width to zero and to cut off the flow of current in the output circuit. the forward biasing causes the depletion region to decrease resulting in a low resistance at the junction and a relatively large current across it. from 1 to 100 megohms. and only a small current flows between the terminals. JFETs have been made with input resistances exceeding 1 megohm. To better understand the JFET operation. the free electrons move towards the right side while the holes move towards the left side causing the depletion region to widen.2. Junction P N Hole Free E lectron Negative Ion Positive Ion Depletion Region Figure 4. Forward−biasing. where a voltage source is connected with the plus (+) on the P side and the minus (−) on the N side. the free electrons will cross the junction and join with the holes. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A small potential applied to the gates. makes the depletion region narrower by repelling the holes and free electrons toward the junction.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices output circuit is controlled by the gate voltage. and with the ability to provide a voltage amplification of about 10 at frequencies up to 10 MHz . The current in a JFET is carried only by majority carriers and for this reason the FET is also known as unipolar transistor. One of the most attractive features of the JFET is the fact that the input resistance.65 V . Figure 4. measured between gate and source.2 shows a PN junction and the depletion region when no bias is applied. If a reverse−biasing is applied. where a voltage source is connected with the plus (+) on the N side and the minus (−) on the P side. A high resistance between the terminals is developed. in contrast to the ordinary transistor in which both majority and minority carriers participate in the conduction process. There are many circuits in which a high input resistance is required. and the ordinary junction transistor is not suitable for such applications.

01 mA . no current flows through the channel. Let us assume that under those conditions the drain−to−source current through the channel is I DS = 10 mA .The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) The cross−sectional area of a typical JFET channel can be controlled by variations in the voltage applied to the gate. and we assume that under those conditions the drain − to − source current through the channel is I DS = 0. we conclude that the drain−to−source resistance R DS is now R DS = 10 V ⁄ 0. Let us assume that under those conditions the drain−to−source current through the channel is I DS = 0. when V GG = V P . This reverse−bias condition cause the depletion region to expand even more and that reduces further the effective cross−sectional area of the channel.1 mA . Drain ( D ) N Gate ( G ) V GG P P + − V DD − + Depletion region Source ( S ) Figure 4.3.3. let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = 0 . and therefore.01 mA or R DS = 1 M Ω . let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = – 2 V . let us adjust the voltage source at the gate so that V GG = – 4 V .Thus. and maintain the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V . we conclude that the drain−to−source resistance R DS is R DS = V DD ⁄ I DS = 10 V ⁄ 10 mA or R DS = 1 K Ω .1 mA or R DS = 100 K Ω . This reverse−bias condition cause the depletion region to expand and that reduces the effective cross−sectional area of the channel.3. Now. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−3 . The voltage at the gate which causes the drain−to−source resistance R DS to become infinite. we observe that the drain − to− source resistance R DS can be controlled by the voltage applied at the gate. and maintain the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V .Therefore. the gate is grounded. Next. This is illustrated in Figure 4. we conclude that the drain − to − source resistance R DS is now R DS = 10 V ⁄ 0. In other words. and set the voltage at the drain to V DD = 10 V . that is. JFET operation with adjustable gate bias In Figure 4.Therefore. is referred to as the pinch−off voltage and it is denoted as V P . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

∂ i DS g m = ----------∂ v GS (4. we described the operation of an N−channel JFET.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices In our discussion above. A P−channel JFET operates similarly except that the voltage polarities are reversed as shown in Figure 4. In other words. N−Channel and P−Channel JFETs Like in bipolar transistors.1 4−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 shows several values of the current i DS corresponding to the voltage v GS .5.4.1) v DS = cons tan t Example 4. D N G P P + D D G G P N − D + P G S N – Channel JFET S S S P – Channel JFET Figure 4. RD D G 1 KΩ + 15 V − V DD v in − + v out − i DS S + Figure 4. one important parameter in FETs is its transconductance g m defined as the ratio of the change in current i DS to the change of voltage v GS which produced it.5 shows a common−source N−channel JFET amplifier circuit and Table 4. Common−source N−channel JFET amplifier for Example 4.4 which also shows the symbols for each.1 Figure 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

Circuit for the solution of Example 4.0:0.8 V .1 Current i DS versus voltage v GS for Example 4...polcurve). % Computes the polynomial for vGS axis values plot(vGSaxis..2) but we do not know all values of i DS for the interval 0 ≤ i DS ≤ 35 mA . % Plots the fourth degree polynomial xlabel('vGS (volts)'). title('Plot for Example 4. grid The generated plot is shown in Figure 4.....1 v GS ( V ) i DS ( mA ) 0 35 –1 20 –2 8 –3 2 –4 0 a.. iDS=[0 2 8 20 35].6. Find the transconductance using the results of (a) and (b). ylabel('iDS (milliamps)').1 curve=polyfit(vGS. RD D G 1 KΩ 15 V + − V DD v in = v GS − + v out − i DS S + From Figure 4. % Fits the data to a polynomial of fourth degree vGSaxis=−4.. vGS=[−4 −3 −2 −1 0]. b. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7. Solution: a. % Creates horizontal (vGS) axis polcurve=polyval(curve.The Junction Field Effect Transistor (JFET) TABLE 3. Therefore. Plot i DS versus v GS and indicate how the transconductance can be calculated from this plot. e. Find the output voltage v out if the input signal is v in = – 2. Figure 4.. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−5 ... let us use the following MATLAB script to plot a suitable curve for this interval. Is this an inverting or a non−inverting amplifier? d.1:0.1').4 V .. Find the output voltage v out if the input signal is v in = – 1.4). % These are the data in Table 4.0.. c..vGSaxis).1 v out = V DD – R D i DS (4.6.iDS.

MATLAB generated plot for Example 4.5 -3 -2. Another less frequently name for the MOSFET is Insulated−Gate FET or IGFET. 4. v out v GS = – 1.4 V . 4−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 -2 -1.2 The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) The most popular type of a FET is the Metal−Oxide−Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor or MOSFET.1 From the plot of Figure 4.5) The plot in Figure 4.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 35 30 25 iDS (milliamps) 20 15 10 5 0 -5 -4 -3.7. e.8 ) Δ v GS d.= -----------------------------------.8 V 3 = V DD – R D i DS = 15 – 10 × 10 × 10 –3 = 5V (4.4 V = V DD – R D i DS = 15 – 10 × 5 × 10 3 –3 = 10 V (4.7 shows the slope of g m and it is calculated as in (4.4 – ( – 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . i DS ≈ 10 mA . –3 Δ i DS –1 ( 5 – 10 ) × 10 g m = -----------.3) b.5 0 Plot for Example 4.7 we see that for v in = v GS = – 1. i DS ≈ 5 mA . v out v GS = – 2.0083 Ω – 2.7 we see that for v in = v GS = – 2. Therefore.8 V .5). From the plot of Figure 4. we conclude that the given JFET circuit is an inverting amplifier. (4.= 0. The results of (a) and (b) indicate that an increase in the input voltage results in a decrease of the output voltage. Therefore.1 Figure 4.5 vGS (volts) -1 -0. Therefore.4) c.

one can be formed by applying positive voltage V G and attracting electrons to a thin surface layer. A MOSFET can be constructed that will operate in either mode depending upon what type of bias is applied. A negative gate voltage will then drive electrons out of the channel. if no channel exists with V G = 0 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−7 . This is termed depletion−mode operation. An n conducting channel may be formed and exist with the gate voltage V G = 0 .8. The complementary p −channel MOSFET or PMOS FET is similar but opposite in polarity.9. The enhancement mode MOSFET has a lightly doped channel and uses forward bias to enhance the current carriers in the channel.8. Metal Source ( S ) Gate ( G ) w OX Drain ( D ) n+ Channel L p – type substrate n+ Substrate ( B ) Figure 4. The symbols for the four basic variations of the MOSFET are shown in Figure 4.8 shows a cross section and the symbol for an n −channel MOSFET or NMOS FET device. Conversely. indicated by n + . heavily doped N−type regions. Cross section of an n−channel MOSFET In Figure 4. are diffused into a P−type substrate or base.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) Figure 4.9. The JFET also operates in this manner. thus allowing a greater range of input signals. increasing the resistance from source to drain. MOSFET types and symbols Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. D B G S n – channel G S p – channel D D B G D B B G Depletion MOSFET S S p – channel n – channel Enhancement MOSFET Figure 4. This is termed enhancement−mode operation.

Typical values for V T are 2 to 4 volts for high voltage devices with thicker gate oxides. In terms of this.8.6) where L is the channel length as shown in Figure 4.( v – V T ) v DS – -i D = ------------Lw OX GS 2 DS for v DS ≤ v GS – V T (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and typical values of k n are around 20 μ A ⁄ V .( v GS – V T ) v DS – 1 -.8.6) is expressed as W 2 . i D S ( mA ) 2.0 1. 4−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4. Then (4.2.v DS i D = k n ---L 2 for v DS ≤ vGS – V T 2 (4. Current−voltage characteristics for typical MOSFET The voltage at which the channel is closed is known as the pinch−off voltage V P . It is convenient to represent the quantity εμ ⁄ w OX as k n *. ε is its dielectric constant.5 1. The values for the channel length and width depend on the voltage v GS and typical values are 2 μ m ≤ L ≤ 10 μ m and 100 μ m ≤ W ≤ 100 μ m .5 2.1 The N−Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode Figure 4.7) * The subscript n is used here as a reminder that relation (4.10 shows the drain−to−source current i DS versus the drain−to−source voltage v DS for different values of gate−to−source voltage v GS . W is the width of the structure perpendicular to the paper in Figure 4.0 0.7) applies to n−channel MOSFETs. the drain current i D in a MOSFET can be written approximately as εμ W 1 2 -v . w OX is the oxide thickness.10. and the minimum voltage required to form a conducting channel between the drain and source is referred to as the threshold voltage and it is denoted as V T . and 1 to 2 volts for lower voltage devices with thinner gate oxides. and μ is the mobility of carriers in the channel.5 0 5 10 vGS = 5 V vG S = 4 V vG S = 3 V vG S = 2 V vG S = 1 V vD S ( V ) Figure 4.

in that range of v DS the MOSFET behaves as a linear resistor. and since i D is inversely proportional to the channel length.( v GS – V T ) 2 i D = -2 L for v DS ≥ v GS – V T † (4. Likewise.⋅ kn W ---.10 and 4. The drain current i D is not exactly independent of the drain−to−source voltage v DS . Figures 4. and its value can be found from v DS L . relation (4.⋅ kn W ---. usually denoted as r DS .The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) where v DS ≤ v GS – V T defines the so−called quadratic or triode region*.= -------------------------------------r DS ≡ -------iD k n W ( v GS – V T ) (4. and 1 . The saturation region starts where for any further increases in v DS there is no increase in the drain current i D .9) Thus. given by i D = -2 L Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Triode and saturation regions for an enhancement type NMOS where v GS > V T As shown in Figure 4. It increases with increasing v DS due to the so−called channel width modulation caused by reduction of the effective channel length.05 ≤ v DS ≤ 0.11. It † is also referred to as the quadratic region. i D increases with v DS and thus (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−9 .[ ( v GS – V T ) v DS ] i D ≈ k n ---L for v DS ≤ v GS – V T (4.( v GS – V T )2 ( 1 + λ v DS ) where λ is a small quantity.7) can be written as W .01 .8) where v DS ≥ v GS – V T defines the so−called saturation or pentode region .11. i D S ( mA ) Triode region Saturation region v DS ≥ v GS – V T v DS ≤ v GS – V T v DS = v GS – V T 0 vD S ( V ) Figure 4. say 0.8) is an approximation to the exact drain current i D 1 . the MOSFET is said to be in the cutoff region.11 reveal that for small values of v DS .15 V . The quadratic (triode) and saturation regions are as shown in Figure 4.11. the triode region starts as a linear function where the drain−to−source resistance r DS is linear but it changes to a curve because the resistance changes with changes in the drain−to−source voltage v DS .10) * This name is carried over from the old days of the vacuum tube triode whose characteristics are as shown in Figure 4. typically 0. When v GS < V T .11. the saturation region is sometimes referred to as the pentode region.

xlabel('vDS in V').*W. represents an n – channel MOSFET and we observe that.63 2.^(−3). rD2 = 10. W=60*10^(−6). we conclude that in the saturation mode the n – channel MOSFET behaves as an ideal current source whose value is as in (4. iD2=rD2*vDS..5−VT)).26 2. disp('vGS (Volts) rD (KOhms)').5. VT=1.. vDS.2f \n'.0.31 3..iD1.2.1f %10.5. rD5 = 10.09 3.^(−3). vDS. iD1=rD1*vDS.0 4.01:100)*10^(-2)..*(3.rD4. V T = 1 V as v GS varies in the interval 1. vDS.*L.iD2.5−VT))./(kn..rD1.5.iD5). 2 Assume that k n .^(−3).8) which is repeated below for convenience..*L.. Solution: The MATLAB script for Example 4.% Kilohm values rD3 = 10.12./(kn.5 ≤ v GS ≤ 3..5 V .*L. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .11) Therefore.*W. ylabel('iD in mA').*W. 1..3.rD2.( v – VT )2 i D = -2 n L GS for v DS ≥ v GS – V T (4. title('Linear region for typical MOSFET').^(−3).*(2.*W.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices Example 4.0. in saturation. iD4=rD4*vDS./(kn.2 Compute and plot the values of r DS for an NMOS device where k n = 18 μ A ⁄ V .*L. MATLAB displays the following: vGS (Volts) rD (KOhms) ------------------------1.*(1. 4−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing./(kn. L = 5 μ m ..iD4. Relation (4.5 V in steps of 0. rD4 = 10.. plot(vDS.11).2.rD5) vDS=(0:0. kn=18*10^(−6). W = 60 μ m ....5 3.2 is given below. L . vDS..0 2.*W.iD3.5−VT))..rD3.*(2−VT)). grid When this program is executed.*(3−VT)). rD1 = 10. % Display vGS and rD values disp('-------------------------').5 1.⋅ k ---.. iD3=rD3*vDS.*L.5 9. fprintf('%6. fprintf(' \n'). and W do not change significantly in this interval.85 The plot is shown in Figure 4..3. the drain current i D is independent of the drain voltage v DS 1 W .^(−3). iD5=rD5*vDS. L=5*10^(−6)./(kn.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−11 .( V – V T ) v gs i d = k n ---L GS Letting id i d2 – i d1 ∂ id . and subscripts in lower case represent just the small signal parameters.6 vDS in V 0.5 V 8 iD in mA 6 4 V GS = 3.12. the MOSFET transconductance is defined as ∂ iD g m = ----------∂ v GS (4.⋅ kn W ---. Thus.The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) 10 Linear region for typical MOSFET V GS = 3.( V – V T ) v gs + -.0 V V GS = 1. Plot for Example 4.0 V V GS = 2.12) v DS = cons tan t In other words. the transconductance is a measure of the sensitivity of drain current to changes in gate−to−source bias.12) we obtain Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. subscripts in upper case represent the sum of the quiescent and small signal parameters.⋅ k ----v .( V GS + v gs – V T ) = 1 -.⋅ kn W ---.= -------------------------∂ v gs v gs v gs2 – v gs1 and substituting the last expression above into (4. v GS = V GS + v gs and (4. As indicated in the previous chapter.2 0.[ ( V GS – V T ) + v gs ] i D = -2 L 2 L 2 W W 1 W 2 1 .⋅ k ---= -L GS 2 n L gs 2 n L GS For small signals.2 In analogy with the transconductance in bipolar junction transistors.5 V V GS = 2.8 1 2 0 Figure 4. transconductance is defined in terms of the second term of the above expression and thus W .= ---------------.11) can be expressed as 2 2 1 .4 0.( V – V T ) + k n ---.5 V 0 0.

2.( V – VT ) g m = ------= k n ---L GS v gs The output conductance is defined as ∂ iD g o = ----------∂ v DS (4.15) v GS = cons tan t At saturation the slope of (4.14) or id W . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . If.13(a) and one that operates in both the depletion and enhancement modes are shown in Figure 4.( v – V T – v DS ) g o = ----------.15) is g o ( sat ) = 0 (4. the drain current i D is zero although v DS may still be present. we can apply a sufficiently negative v GS to deplete the implanted channel.2 The N−Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode As we’ve learned. The negative value of v GS that causes the channel to be entirely depleted is the threshold voltage V T of the n – channel MOSFET and obviously has a negative value.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices k n ( W ⁄ L ) ( V GS – V T ) v gs id g m = ------= -----------------------------------------------------------v gs v gs (4.= k n ---L GS ∂ v DS (4.7) for the triode region W 1 2 .17) 4. in the enhancement mode we apply a positive voltage v GS and as this value increases. and this mode of operation is referred to as the depletion mode. Typical values of drain current i D versus the gate−to−source voltage v GS characteristics for an n – channel MOSFET that operates in the enhancement mode only are shown in Figure 4. the channel conductivity increases until we reach saturation.( v GS – V T ) v DS – --v i D = k n ---L 2 DS Therefore the output conductance is found by differentiation of the last expression above as ∂ iD W . a MOSFET can also be fabricated with an implanted channel so that drain current i D will flow if we apply a voltage v DS even though the voltage v GS is zero. At this threshold negative voltage V T . however we want to decrease the channel conductivity. However.13) (4.13(b).16) From (4. 4−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) i D ( mA ) 30 25 20 15 10 5 –3 –2 –1 0 1 2 Enhancement mode ( a ) Enhancement mode only v GS ( V ) Depletion mode Enhancement mode i D ( mA ) 30 25 20 15 I DSS 10 5 –3 0 2 1 –1 –2 ( b ) Depletion – Enhancement mode v GS ( V ) Figure 4. I DSS is the value of the drain current in saturation with v GS = 0 .3 mA ⁄ V .3 It is known that for a depletion−type n – channel MOSFET. Figure 4.14 shows typical i D vs vDS characteristics for a depletion−type n – channel MOSFET.13(b). 2 a. and V T = – 3 V . k n = 0. Example 4. L = 10 μ m . Typical n – channel MOSFET i D vs v GS characteristics As noted in Figure 4. At what value should the voltage v DS be set so that this device will be operating in the saturation region when v G S = 2 V ? Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−13 .13. W = 100 μ m .

**Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
**

i D ( mA ) 27 24 21 18 15 12 9 6 3 1 2 3 4 5 v DS < v G S – V T v DS > v G S – V T vG S = 2 V v DS = v G S – V T vG S = 1 V vG S = 0 V vG S = –1 V vGS = –2 V vG S = –3 V vG S = –4 V 6 vD S ( V )

vG S = –5

Figure 4.14. Typical i D vs v DS characteristics for a depletion−type n – channel MOSFET

b. What would the drain current i D be if the voltage v DS is set to its minimum value to keep the device in the saturation region? Solution: a. The dotted curve of the i D vs vDS characteristics of Figure 4.14 separates the saturation region from the triode region. Therefore, the voltage v DS should be such that

v DS ≥ v GS – V T ≥ 2 – ( – 3 ) ≥ 5 V

**b. Relation (4.11) indicates that at saturation the current iD is independent of the voltage v DS . Therefore,
**

1 -⋅k W ---- ( v – VT )2 = 1 -- ⋅ 0.3 ⋅ 100 -------- [ 2 – ( – 3 ) ] 2 = 37.5 mA i D = -2 n L GS 2 10

**4.2.3 The P−Channel MOSFET in the Enhancement Mode
**

For the p – channel MOSFET the threshold voltage V T is negative and the drain−to−source voltage v DS must also be negative or the source−to−drain voltage v SD must be positive. Therefore, to create a channel we must have v GS ≤ V T and v DS < 0 , or v SD > 0 . In a p – channel MOSFET device operating in triode mode the drain current i D is found from

4−14

**The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
**

W - ( v GS – V T ) v DS – 1 --v 2 i D = k p ---L 2 DS for ( v DS ≥ v GS – V T )

(4.18)

**and if the device operates in the saturation mode, the drain current i D is found from
**

1 -⋅k W ---- ( v – VT ) 2 i D = -2 p L GS for v DS ≤ v GS – V T *

(4.19)

The constant k p in relations (4.18) and (4.19) is analogous to k n for the n – channel MOSFET and typical values of k p are around 10 μ A ⁄ V . Example 4.4 I t i s k n o w n t h a t f o r a n e n h a n c e m e n t − t y p e p – channel M O S F E T , k p = 8 mA ⁄ V ,

W = 100 μ m , L = 10 μ m , and V T = – 1.5 V . If v G = 0 , and v S = 5 V , compute the drain cur2 2

rent i D if: a. v D = 4 V b. v D = 1.5 V c. v D = 0 V d. v D = – 5 V Solution: As stated above, to create a channel v GS must be equal or less than V T , and v DS must be negative and using the conditions specified in (4.18) and (4.19) we will determine whether the device is in the triode or saturation mode. For convenience, we list the following conditions:

v GS = v G – v S v GS < V T v DS = v D – v S

* As with the n−channel MOSFET, the drain current i D is not exactly independent of the drain−to−source voltage v DS . It increases with increasing v DS due to the so−called channel width modulation caused by reduction of the effective channel length, and since i D is inversely proportional to the channel length, i D increases with v DS and thus (4.18) is an approxi1 - ⋅ kn W ---- ( v GS – V T ) 2 ( 1 + λ v DS ) where v GS , v DS , V T , and λ are all mation to the exact drain current i D given by i D = --

negative.

2

L

4−15

**Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
**

v DS > v GS – V T

a.

v GS = v G – v S = 0 – 5 = – 5 V v GS < V T ⇒ – 5 < – 1.5 v DS = v D – v S = 4 – 5 = – 1 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) = – 3.5 V v DS > v GS – V T ⇒ – 1 > – 3.5

**and we conclude that the device operates in the triode mode. Then, with (4.17) we obtain
**

W - ( v GS – V T ) v DS – 1 -- v 2 = 8 × 10 ----- × [ ( – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ) × ( – 1 ) ] – 0.5 × ( – 1 ) 2 = 0.24 mA i D = k p ---L 2 DS 1

b.

v DS = v D – v S = 1.5 – 5 = – 3.5 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) = – 3.5 V v DS = v GS – V T = – 3.5 V

and we conclude that the device operates at the point where the triode mode ends and the saturation region begins. Then, with (4.19) we obtain

1 -⋅k W ---- ( v – V T ) 2 = 0.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ] 2 = 0.49 mA i D = -2 p L GS

c.

v DS = v D – v S = 0 – 5 = – 5 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) = – 3.5 V v DS < v GS – V T ⇒ – 5 < 3.5

**and we conclude that the device operates well in the saturation region.Then, with (4.19) we obtain
**

1 -⋅k W ---- ( v – V T ) 2 = 0.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ] 2 = 0.49 mA i D = -2 p L GS

d.

v DS = v D – v S = – 5 – 5 = – 10 V v GS – V T = – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) = – 3.5 V

4−16

**The Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET)
**

v DS < v GS – V T ⇒ – 10 < 3.5

**and we conclude that the device operates deeply in the saturation region.Then, with (4.19) we obtain
**

1 - ⋅ kp W ---- ( v GS – V T ) 2 = 0.5 × 8 × 10 [ – 5 – ( – 1.5 ) ] 2 = 0.49 mA i D = -2 L

**4.2.4 The P−Channel MOSFET in the Depletion Mode
**

Depletion type p – channel MOSFETs operate similarly to depletion type n – channel MOSFETs except that the polarities of all voltages are reversed and the current i D flows from source to drain. Figure 4. 16 shows typical i D vs vDS characteristics for a depletion−type p – channel MOSFET.

4.2.5 Voltage Gain

The voltage gain in a MOSFET device is defined as the ratio of the small signal quantities v d to

v gs . We will derive it with the aid of the MOSFET in Figure 4.15.

iD

RD

+

−

D B S

V DD

+

vD −

G

v GS

+

−

Figure 4.15. Circuit for the derivation of the voltage gain

Figure 4.15 shows that the substrate is connected to the source; this is a common practice with MOSFET devices. From Figure 4.15,

v D = V DD – R D i D iD = ID + id v D = V DD – R D ( I D + i d )

4−17

**Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
**

i D ( mA )

Enhancement mode

30 25 20 15 10 5 v GS ( V )

–3

–2

–1

0

1

2

( a ) Enhancement mode only

Depletion mode

Enhancement mode

i D ( mA ) 30 25 20 15 I DSS 10 5

–3 0 2 1 –1 –2 ( b ) Depletion – Enhancement mode

v GS ( V )

Figure 4.16. Typical i D vs v DS characteristics for a depletion−type n – channel MOSFET V DD = V D + R D i D v D = V DD – R D ( I D + i d ) = V D + R D i D – R D ( I D + i d ) = V D – R D i d

and

vd = –RD id

From relation (4.14)

id g m = ------v gs i d = g m v gs

4−18

**Complementary MOS (CMOS)
**

v d = – R D i d = – R D g m v gs

**Then, the voltage gain A v is
**

A v = v d ⁄ v gs = – R D g m

(4.20)

and the minus (−) sign indicates 180 ° phase reversal. Relation (4.20) reveals that high gains can be achieved with increased drain resistance R D . However, external resistors are not used in IC MOSFETS because they require large areas and their tolerance may cause some undesirable effects. Instead, constant current sources are used, and the most commonly used current sources are the so−called current mirrors. A typical current mirror is shown in Figure 4.17.

RD D B S G G

V DD

i1

D B S

i2

v GS

Figure 4.17. Typical circuit of a current mirror

A current mirror is essentially an adjustable current regulator. In the circuit of Figure 4.17, both MOSFETs share the same voltage v GS and the ratio of the currents i 1 and i 2 is directly related to the ratio of the geometry of the transistors, that is,

i1 ( W ⁄ L )1 --- = ------------------i2 ( W ⁄ L )2

and if the two MOSFETs have the same geometry, then i 1 = i 2 , and hence the name current mirror. A similar current mirror circuit can be implemented with bipolar transistor. MOSFET devices can be used as amplifiers provided that they operate in the saturation region. However, the CMOS devices, discussed on the next section, are the most common amplifiers in the FET technology.

**4.3 Complementary MOS (CMOS)
**

Complementary MOS or CMOS technology combines one NMOS device and one PMOS device into a single device referred to as CMOS. These devices are used extensively in both analog and digital circuits, and integrated circuits.

4−19

**Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
**

In CMOS devices only one of its components is on at any given time, that is, either the NMOS device is on and the PMOS device is off, or vice versa. Thus, CMOS chips require less power than chips using just one type of a MOSFET, and unlike bipolar transistors, a CMOS has almost no static power dissipation. This makes CMOS devices particularly attractive for use in battery− powered devices, such as portable computers. Personal computers also contain a small amount of battery−powered CMOS memory to hold the date, time, and system setup parameters. In this section we will briefly discuss the three types of CMOS amplifiers, and in subsequent chapters we will see how CMOS devices are used as logic inverters and gates.

**4.3.1 The CMOS Common−Source Amplifier
**

Figure 4.18 shows how a CMOS device is configured as a common−source amplifier where the upper two MOSFETS serve as a current mirror to perform the function of a resistor.

V SS S B D S B

G

G

i2 i1 v in

D

v out

B S

Figure 4.18. Typical CMOS common−source amplifier

A typical common−source CMOS amplifier can provide gains of 20 to 100 , and the output is 180 ° out−of−phase with the input. It exhibits both high input and high output resistances.

**4.3.2 The CMOS Common−Gate Amplifier
**

Figure 4.19 shows how a CMOS device is configured as a common−gate amplifier. The DC voltage V DC at the gate provides a bias voltage but the AC signal is zero and this is the reason that the circuit is referred to as CMOS common−gate amplifier. A typical common−source CMOS amplifier can provide gains of 20 to 100 , and the output is in−phase with the input. It exhibits a low input resistance, and a high output resistance.

**4.3.3 The CMOS Common−Drain (Source Follower) Amplifier
**

A typical common−drain (source follower) CMOS amplifier is shown in Figure 4.20. Its voltage

4−20

**The Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET)
**

gain is less than unity, and the output is in−phase with the input. It exhibits a low output resistance, and thus it can be used as a buffer amplifier. It is referred to as common−drain amplifier because there is no signal at the drain of the upper MOSFET device; the voltage V DD just provides a bias. It is also referred to as source follower because the lower right MOSFET device acts as a load for the upper MOSFET device.

V SS S B D D G S B

G

v out

V DC v in

**Figure 4.19. Typical CMOS common−gate amplifier
**

D B

V DD

v in

i2 S

D

D B S

i1

G G

v out

B S

V SS

Figure 4.20. Typical common−drain (source follower) amplifier

**4.4 The Metal Semiconductor FET (MESFET)
**

The Metal−Semiconductor−Field−Effect−Transistor (MESFET) consists of a conducting channel positioned between a source and drain contact region. The carrier flow from source to drain is controlled by a Schottky metal gate. The control of the channel is obtained by varying the depletion layer width underneath the metal contact which modulates the thickness of the conducting channel and thereby the current. MESFETs use GaAs (gallium arsenide) technology. Only Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

4−21

**Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
**

n – channel MESFETS are available, because holes have a slower mobility.

The main advantage of the MESFET is the higher mobility − also referred to as surface mobility − of the carriers in the channel as compared to the silicon−type MOSFETs. The higher mobility results in a higher current, transconductance and transit frequency of the device. However, the presence of the Schottky metal gate limits the forward bias voltage on the gate to the turn−on voltage of the Schottky diode. This turn−on voltage is typically 0.7 V for GaAs Schottky diodes. The threshold voltage therefore must be lower than this turn−on voltage. As a result it is more difficult to fabricate circuits containing a large number of enhancement−mode MESFET. The higher transit frequency of the MESFET makes it particularly of interest for microwave circuits. While the advantage of the MESFET provides a superior microwave amplifier or circuit, the limitation by the diode turn−on is easily tolerated. Typically depletion−mode devices are used since they provide a larger current and larger transconductance and the circuits contain only a few transistors, so that threshold control is not a limiting factor. The buried channel also yields a better noise performance as trapping and release of carriers into and from surface states and defects is eliminated. The use of GaAs rather than silicon MESFETs provides two more significant advantages: first of all the room temperature mobility is more than 5 times larger, while the saturation velocity is about twice that in silicon, and second it is possible to fabricate semi−insulating (SI) GaAs substrates which eliminates the problem of absorbing microwave power in the substrate due to free carrier absorption.

**4.5 The Unijunction Transistor
**

The unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three−terminal, single−junction device which exhibits negative resistance and switching characteristics totally unlike those of conventional bipolar transistors. As shown in Figure 4.21, the UJT consists of a bar of n−type silicon having ohmic contacts designated Base 1 ( B 1 ) and Base 2 ( B 2 ) on either side of a single PN junction designated as the emitter.

B2 Emitter Base 1 p n Structure E

iE

i B2

Base 2

E B1 B1 Symbol Equivalent Circuit B2

Figure 4.21. Unijunction transistor structure, symbol, and equivalent circuit

4−22

The Diac

In operation, a positive voltage is applied to B 2 and B 1 is placed at ground potential. The

B 2 – E – B 1 junctions then act like a voltage divider which reverse−biases the emitter junction.

An external voltage having a potential higher than this reverse bias will forward−bias the emitter and inject holes into the silicon bar which move toward B 1 . The emitter− B 1 resistance then decreases, and this, in turn, causes the emitter voltage to decrease as the emitter current increases, and a negative resistance characteristic is obtained as shown in Figure 4.22.

Figure 4.22. UJT emitter characteristics curve with important parameters (Courtesy of General Electric)

On the emitter characteristics curve of Figure 4.22, the points of interest are the peak point, and the valley point. The region to the left of the peak point is called the cutoff region, and in this region the emitter is reverse biased and only a small leakage current flows. The region between the peak point and the valley point is referred to as the negative resistance region. The region to the right of the valley point is the saturation region and as we can see, the resistance in this region is positive. Device 2N2646 is a popular UJT and can be used for the design of pulse and sawtooth generators, analog−to−digital converters, relay time delay circuits, and frequency dividers. Other UJT devices, referred to as programmable UJTs, can have their parameters set by external components such as resistors and capacitors. Device 2N6027 is known as a programmable UJT.

4.6 The Diac

The diac is a two−terminal, transistor−like component which exhibits bistable switching for either polarity of a suitably high applied voltage. As shown in Figure 4.23, the diac closely resembles a PNP transistor without an external base terminal.

4−23

**Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
**

i 21

1

i 12 N P

2

1

i i 21

IS VS IS VS

P

v

i 12

Structure 2 Symbol Characteristics

Figure 4.23. Diac structure, symbol, and characteristics

Normally, the diac does not conduct (except for a small leakage current) until the breakover voltage V S is reached, typically 20 to 40 volts. At that point the diac goes into avalanche conduction also at that point the device exhibits a negative resistance characteristic, and the voltage drop across the diac snaps back, typically about 5 volts, creating a breakover current I S in the order of 50 to 200 μ A sufficient to trigger a triac or SCR. The negative−resistance characteristic of the diac makes it useful for very simple relaxation oscillators* and pulse generators, but its major application is in conjunction with a triac, to be discussed in Section 4.8, to produce ac phase−control circuits useful for motor−speed control, light dimming, and other AC power−control functions.

**4.7 The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
**

The silicon controlled rectifier, usually referred to as an SCR, is one of the family of semiconductors that includes transistors and diodes. Another name for the SCR is thyristor†. It is similar to a diode with an additional terminal that is used to turn it on. Once turned on, the SCR will remain on as long as current flows through it. If the current falls to zero, the SCR behaves like an open switch. This device is much larger in size than a transistor or a MOSFET and it is designed to operate at higher voltages and currents, typically 1, 000 V or higher, and 100 A or higher The SCR is a four−layer semiconducting device, with each layer consisting of an alternately N or P−type material, for example N−P−N−P. The main terminals, labelled anode and cathode, are across the full four layers, and the control terminal, called the gate, is attached to one of the middle layers as shown in Figure 4.24.

* Relaxation oscillators. are circuits that generate non−sinusoidal waveforms such as pulse and sawtooth generators. † An earlier gas filled tube device called a Thyratron provided a similar electronic switching capability, where a small control voltage could switch a large current.

4−24

**The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR)
**

Anode Anode Anode Anode

P N

Gate

P N

Gate

N P N

Gate Cathode

Gate Cathode

P N

P

Cathode

Cathode

Figure 4.24. Parts of an SCR, the two−transistor equivalent circuit, and its symbol

SCRs are mainly used where high currents and voltages are involved, and are often used to control alternating currents, where the change of sign of the current causes the device to automatically switch off. Like a diode, an SCR conducts only in one direction. A similar 5−layer device, called a triac, to be discussed on the next section, conducts current in both directions. Modern SCRs can switch large amounts of power (up to megawatts). In the realm of very high power applications, they are still the primary choice. However, in low and medium power (from few tens of watts to few tens of kilowatts) they have almost been replaced by other devices with superior switching characteristics like MOSFETs. While an SCR is that is it not a fully controllable switch in the sense that triggering current direction need to be reversed to switch it off, a newer device, the gate turn−off SCR (GTO) can be turned on and off with a signal applied to the gate. The turn−on signal is a small positive voltage and the turn−off is a negative small signal. GTOs are used for the output stages of medium−voltage, high horsepower, variable frequency drives. In high−frequency applications, SCRs are poor candidates due to large switching times arising out of bipolar conduction. MOSFETs, on the other hand, has much faster switching capability because of its unipolar conduction (only majority carriers carry the current). Figure 4.25 shows the volt−ampere characteristics of a typical SCR.

+I i

PIV

+V

v

Figure 4.25. The voltage−current characteristics of a typical SCR

4−25

**Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices
**

As shown in Figure 4.25, when the forward bias voltage from anode to cathode reaches a value indicated as + V , and a positive signal is applied to the gate, the device reverts to a low impedance and current flows from the anode to cathode. The dotted line shows the interval of the voltages from anode to cathode in which the SCR will be conducting after the trigger signal has been removed. The current must be limited by the load to the value + I , or the SCR will be damaged. When the forward bias from anode to cathode is reduced to zero or becomes negative, the SCR becomes a non−conductive device and the signal at the gate, even if present, will not change the non−conductive state of the device. If the negative bias exceeds the peak−inverse voltage indicated as PIV , the SCR will be damaged. It is recommended that the PIV value should be at least three times the RMS value of the applied voltage. Figure 4.26 shows sinusoidal waveform applied to the gate of an SCR where during the positive half cycle the SCR is triggered at 45 ° after the sinewave starts from zero and increases in the positive direction.

θ = 45 °

θ Conduction angle

Firing angle

Figure 4.26. SCR gate control

As shown in Figure 4.26, the number of degrees from the beginning of the cycle until the SCR is gated to the on condition is referred to as the firing angle, and the number of degrees that the SCR remains conducting is known as the conduction angle. For accurate SCR gating, the firing circuit must be synchronized with the AC line voltage being applied anode−to−cathode across the device. Without synchronization, the SCR firing would be random in nature and the system response will be erratic. Also, when the firing angle is greater than zero, the voltage applied to the load is no longer sinusoidal. This presents no problem in the case of motor loads, but for radio and television an interference is created and usually the manufacturer of the SCR equipment will include an electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter to rectify the problem. In closed−loop systems, such as motor control, an Error Detector Circuit computes the required firing angle based on the system setpoint and the actual system output. The firing circuit is able to sense the start of the cycle, and, based on an input from the Error Detector, delay the firing pulse until the proper time in the cycle to provide the desired output voltage. An analogy of a firing circuit would be an automobile distributor which advances or retards the spark plug firing based on the action of the vacuum advance mechanism. In analog control systems the error detector circuit is usually an integrated circuit operational

4−26

has a very high one−cycle surge rating. are also a serious concern with semiconductor devices. Another consideration is SCR protection. the device will carry from eight to ten time its continuous current rating for a period of one electrical cycle.27 is switched to the on (conducting) state by applying a positive triggering pulse at v in and with the SCR on. which may exceed the device PIV rating. R3 R4 S VS C vC R1 v in R2 Figure 4. like a conventional diode. current−limiting.1 The SCR as an Electronic Switch The SCR circuit of Figure 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−27 . thereby protecting the SCR from damage due to short circuits. there is there is a very small voltage drop from anode to cathode. and generate the required firing angle to hold the system in a balanced state. such as the GE Metal−Oxide−Varistor (MOV). High voltage capacitors are also often employed as a means of absorbing these destructive spikes and provide a degree of electrical noise suppression as well. rectifier fuses recommended by the manufacturer be employed. the anode of the SCR becomes negative with respect to the cathode. Current limiting fuses are designed to sense a fault in a quarter−cycle and clear the fault in one−half of a cycle. 4. It is extremely important that the proper high− speed. A switching circuit using an SCR The SCR in the circuit of Figure 4. Even though the SCR is an analog device.27. many new control systems now use a microprocessor based. digital. the anode to cathode voltage must be zero or negative. The SCR. The capacitor then charges to voltage v C and this voltage is approximately equal to V S . and when this occurs. are extremely effective in absorbing these short−term transients.7. Surge suppressors. we observe that the positive side of the capacitor is connected to the ground. measure feedback and compare it with the setpoint. Switching spikes and transients. The SCR will be turned off by closing the switch S .27 shows a possible arrangement for switching the SCR to the off position. one should never substitute with another type fuse.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) amplifier which takes reference and system feedback inputs and computes the amount of error (difference) between the actual output voltage and the desired setpoint value. firing circuit to sense the AC line zero−crossing. Since the capacitor voltage cannot change instantly. The Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Typically. We recall that to switch the SCR to the off position.

27. 4. for repetitive operation at fast rates the switch S in Figure 4. The capacitor now charges with the opposite polarity.27. with the aid of the capacitor this action turns the SCR on the right Off.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices anode current no longer flows. As with the circuit of Figure 4. with the aid of the capacitor this action turns the conducting SCR off.28. Thus a train of positive pulses applied simultaneously to the gates of the SCRs causes them to switch on and off alternately. They are used in oscilloscopes to provide the sweep voltage for horizontal deflection.29. Sawtooth generators have many important engineering applications. and the SCR is turned Off. and they are used in circuits for the measurement of the time interval between the occurrence of two events. Again. + C I v out + vC S v out T t Figure 4. + VS R3 C R4 vC R1 R2 + R5 R6 v in1 v in2 Figure 4.28 a positive triggering pulse applied at v in1 turns the SCR on the left On.7.27 can be replaced by another controlled rectifier as shown in Figure 4. this action is equivalent to closing the switch in Figure 4. Figure 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and it switches the SCR on the left off. SCR circuit for repetitive operation at fast rates If a train of positive pulses is applied simultaneously at v in1 and v in2 they have no effect on the rectifier that is conducting.29 shows an ideal sawtooth generator.2 The SCR in the Generation of Sawtooth Waveforms Another important application for SCRs is in circuits for the generation of sawtooth waveforms. but they turn the nonconducting SCR on.28. Then a subsequent positive pulse applied at v in2 turns the SCR on the right On. An ideal sawtooth generator and its output waveform 4−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Obviously. and another positive pulse applied at v in1 turns the SCR on the left On. in Figure 4.

the successive peaks in the waveform are not of the same amplitude. since a true current source is not used. * We recall that v C = ∫ I dt = It ( ramp ) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.* At a certain instant the switch is closed momentarily. Waveforms for the circuit of Figure 4. VS Vf Vx v out V = Vf – V x t I C max Tc Td iC Figure 4. the amplitude of each peak is directly proportional to the duration of that particular switching interval. If the switching is not periodic.30. and R 3 is a resistance that limits the rectifier current to a safe value when the capacitor is discharging. If the closing of the switch is periodic. A practical sawtooth generator using an SCR as a switch In the circuit of Figure 4. a periodic sawtooth waveform of voltage appears at v out .30 the SCR performs the function of the switch in the ideal generator of Figure 4.29.30. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−29 .31 is not exactly linear. i + R3 R1 vC R2 iC C R4 VS + + v out v in Figure 4.29.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) When the switch S is open. and the capacitor discharges through the switch. the output voltage shown in Figure 4. and the capacitor begins to charge again. the current source delivers a constant current to the capacitor. and as a result the voltage across the capacitor increases linearly with time as shown in Figure 4.31. A practical sawtooth generator is shown in Figure 4. The switch is reopened immediately. however. Resistor R 4 is a large resistor in the order of 1 M Ω and this with the voltage source VS approximate the current source in the ideal sawtooth generator.30 The voltage v in is the control voltage for the rectifier.

During the charging interval T c .31.31. the amplitude and frequency. the capacitor charges with a current from the DC supply voltage V S that is almost constant. the equation for the output voltage v out during that interval has the form v out = V S + Ae ( –t ⁄ R 4 C ) * (4. referred to as the extinction voltage. choosing t = 0 at the beginning of the charging interval. and the capacitance C . For a practical circuit triggering pulses of voltage can be applied at v in to control the firing of the SCR and thereby synchronize the sawtooth with an external signal. hence letting t = 0 in (4. the discharging current. of the sawtooth wave can be adjusted by adjusting v in . ISBN 978−0− 9709511−2−0. The duration of the charging interval T c is determined by the firing voltage Vf . the SCR fires and discharges the capacitor rapidly.21) When t = 0 . 4−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.22) * For an introduction to transient analysis. C . When the capacitor is discharged to the critical voltage V x . The duration of the discharging interval T d depends on the amplitude of the sawtooth voltage. The waveforms of voltage and current are shown in Figure 4. All applications for the sawtooth generator require a highly linear sawtooth waveform and a short discharge time. Thus. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and the cycle repeats itself. the capacitor current i C . the discharging current should be as large as possible. known as firing voltage. the SCR is switched off. which is highly desired. Since the firing voltage depends on the control voltage v in .21) A = Vx – VS ( –t ⁄ R4 C ) v out = V S – ( V S – V x ) e (4. For rapid discharging. When the capacitor voltage reaches the critical value Vf . v out has its minimum value V x as shown in Figure 4. and the circuit is a simple series connection of R 4 . the SCR switches off. and V S .21) we obtain v out = V S + A = V x or and by substitution into (4. Thus. and the capacitance C . the current must be limited to a value that is safe for the SCR. the extinction voltage V x . for good performance the SCR should have a high current rating and short switching times. refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices When the SCR is switched off. however. and the capacitor voltage rises exponentially with time. These two quantities can be related in a very simple way to the important parameters of the circuit.

– … = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------.26) Since we want the output voltage v out to be a linear function of time.23) (4. we let ( V S – V x ) = V' S (4.29) It now follows from (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−31 .+… .+ -v out = V' S + V x – V' S 1 – ---------⎝ R 4C ⎠ R 4C 2 R 4C 2⎝ R 4C ⎠ (4.26) should be sufficiently small.30 that the amplitude of the sawtooth wave is Tc V = V f – V x = V' S ⋅ ---------R C 4 (4.V' S ⎛ ---------Δ v out = -⎝ 2 R 4C ⎠ (4. is smaller than Tc 2 1 .31) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.22) V S = V' S + V x v out = V' S + V x – V' S e ( –t ⁄ R4 C ) (4.22) defines the output voltage v out during the charging interval T c . t v out = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------R 4C (4. Next. our sawtooth generator must be designed so that the second term on the right side of (4.24) Then and by substitution into (4.V' S ⎛ ---------.25) can now be expanded in a power series to obtain the following more useful expression: 1 1⎛ t ⎞ 2 t t ⎞2 t . the magnitude of the error at any instant is smaller than 1 t ⎞2 . Then.26) is a converging alternating series.30) and the error at the end of the charging interval.28) At the end of the charging interval t = T c the output voltage is Tc v out = V f = V x + V' S ⋅ ---------R C 4 (4.30).– -.29) and Figure 4. Thus.25) The exponential factor in (4.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Relation (4.27) The right−band side of (4.V' S ⎛ ----------⎞ Δ v out = -⎝ R 4C ⎠ 2 (4. hence the error in truncating the series at any point is smaller than the first term in the part out off. which is the amount by which the actual amplitude is less than the amplitude given by (4.---------.

With a fixed slope.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices Solving (4. this voltage is infinite. In more sophisticated designs the effect of a very large supply voltage.34) and when a train of triggering pulses is applied at v in . as in Figure 4.= ------------2V' S V 2R 4 C Relation (4. T c is determined by the interval between the pulses. One method of simulating a large supply voltage is illustrated in Example 4. Good linearity is often obtained by the direct expedient of using a large supply voltage or by generating a sawtooth wave of small amplitude.35) The duration of the discharging interval T d can be determined from this relation. in order to have good linearity it is necessary to have an effective supply voltage much larger than the required amplitude of the sawtooth.30). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .29 held constant. V is a measure of the time interval T c .28. When the capacitor is charged from an ideal current source.30) for T c ⁄ ( R 4 C ) and substituting the result into (4. often thousands of volts.5 at the end of this section.= ----------. and the capacitor discharges exponentially through the SCR at a rate determined by the resistance R 3 in Figure 4. the effective supply voltage is the open−circuit voltage of the source.32) (4.30) and (4. V S and V' S must be chosen so that the fractional error given by (4. is simulated by the use of additional circuitry in which amplifiers are frequently used.33) is sufficiently small.32) Tc Δ v out V ------------. V T c = R 4 C ------V' S (4.33) reveals that the fractional error depends only on the relative sizes of the sawtooth amplitude and the effective DC supply voltage. giving zero error. During the discharging interval the voltage across the capacitor changes by the amount Qf – Q x V = Vf – V x = -----------------C (4. and the slope of the sawtooth determines the length of the charging period. In designing a sawtooth generator. At the end of the charging interval the SCR switches on. From Equation (4.29.33) From (4. The time constant R 4 C can then be chosen to produce the desired slope to the sawtooth. To simplify the 4−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the firing voltage V f and the sawtooth amplitude V are also constant. and the slope of the sawtooth determines the amplitude V . With the control voltage v in in Figure 4.31) we obtain 1V .------Δ v out = -2 V' S 2 (4.

40) where I C is the charging current for the capacitor.37) (4. (4. and the charge removed from the capacitor during this interval is T d I C max ⁄ 2 .The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) calculation we will approximate the discharging current pulse.36) as T d I max V ≈ -----------------2C (4.36) Also.33) can be written as T d I C max V ≈ ---------------------2C (4.30 will affect the operation of the circuit. and I max is the peak discharging current through the SCR.38) by (4. we can express (4.37) can be expressed as Td 2I C ----.39) or Division of (4. shown in Figure 4. with a pulse that decreases linearly with time from the peak value I C max to zero. To provide a relatively short discharge time.= ----------Tc I max (4. Figure 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−33 . and since the voltage drop across R 4 during the charging interval is approximately V' S . With this approximation the average value of the current during the discharging interval is I C max ⁄ 2 . since the capacitor current I C max is approximately equal to the current I max through the SCR. the peak SCR current must be much greater than the capacitor charging current. Thus (4.38) (4. Any load that is connected across the output terminals of the sawtooth generator in Figure 4. and any leakage resistance that develops across the capacitor has a similar effect.30.= -----------------Tc R 4 I max For good linearity we must have V « V' S .34) yields 2CV T d = ----------I max Td 2V' S ----. and V' S ⁄ R 4 is very nearly the charging current I C for the capacitor.32(a) shows a sawtooth generator with a load resistor R L connected across the output terminals. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

and hence on the linearity. A sawtooth generator with resistive load and its Thevenin equivalent To simplify the circuit of Figure 4. Accordingly. It is quite possible in such cases for the effective voltage V TH to be less than the firing voltage V f . but a very special circuit configuration must be used to provide the required high input resistance. and no sawtooth wave is generated. 4−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. for the SCR. we apply Thevenin’s theorem at points x – y and we obtain the circuit of Figure 4.41) and R 4 RL R TH = ------------------R 4 + RL (4. it becomes necessary to make R L greater than 1 M Ω . the output from the sawtooth generator must be connected to a very high impedance device such as a MOSFET.⋅ VS R 4 + RL (4. Therefore. then the rectifier never fires. The presence of R L affects the effective DC supply voltage.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices i R3 SCR Circuit x iC R4 + C vC + VS RL y + v out (a) i R3 SCR Circuit + iC C + vC R TH + V TH (b) Figure 4.32(a). is especially severe. The output can also be delivered to a bipolar junction transistor.32. A load resistor of about 100 K Ω would reduce the effective supply voltage and will increase the fractional error by a factor of more than 10 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .42) It is then evident that the addition of the load resistor R L affects both the slope and the linearity of the sawtooth waveform.32(b) where RL V TH = ------------------.

thus the rectifier is switched off. Figure 4.5 In order to examine the circuits of Figure 4.33(a). the transisElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−35 . The potential at the gate terminal of the rectifier is fixed by R 2 and R 3 . thus a reverse bias is applied to the gate. Circuits for Example 4. During the charging interval the SCR conducts no current. and its cathode is at a potential of 20 volts . At this point the gate.33 in more detail. 20 V 1 mA VS R1 C S v out (a) 20 V 1 mA VS R1 C R4 R2 R3 v out (b) Figure 4. provided the current drawn by the collector of the transistor is less than the holding current for the SCR. We want to design the circuit to produce a 1 KHz sawtooth wave having a fractional error smaller than 1 per cent.33. If V S is much larger than the small emitter−to−base voltage drop. and it can be omitted from the circuit. The capacitor is charged through a transistor in order to approximate a current source supply. and it is less than 20 volts . it is helpful first to simplify and rearrange the circuit.33(b) shows how an SCR can be used as the discharge switch for the capacitor.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) Example 4.5 A sawtooth generator is shown in Figure 4. As the capacitor charges through the transistor from the 20 −volt supply.33(b) discharged there is no voltage across the SCR. Solution: With the capacitor in Figure 4. but the SCR remains switched off until the cathode potential drops below the gate potential. and the SCR switches off.to−cathode voltage becomes positive and the SCR switches on. The cycle then repeats itself periodically. The SCR can be assumed ideal with a maximum permissible current rating of 100 mA . the potential at the cathode of the SCR drops. The capacitor then discharges almost to zero volts.

43) (4. The resistance rC in this model is the collector resistance of the transistor.46) 4−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The resulting equivalent circuit is shown in Figure 4. relation (4. Thus taking typical values of α = 0. Thus when i E is known. and the collector resistance has an important effect. 20 V C C vC vC v out rC 20 V rC v out α iE rC i E = 1 mA VS R1 E α iE B (a) (b) Figure 4. the current source and its shunt resistance can be converted to an equivalent voltage source with a series resistance. and the emitter current i E is 1 ma.33 In most circuits the collector resistance is in parallel with a much smaller load resistance and it can be neglected. it is noted that because of the short circuit between base and ground.34(b) shows that by charging the capacitor through the transistor an effective supply voltage of V' S = 20 + α i E r C – V x (4.34(b).44) and for our example. the emitter circuit can be ignored.34. the emitter circuit affects the collector circuit only through the action of the controlled source α i E . however.34(a).45) yields V' S = 20 + 980 = 1000 V (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the effective supply voltage is V' S = V S – V x (4. is a negligible fraction of a volt. From relation (4. and B are the transistor terminals.98 and r C = 1 M Ω . And finally. this is not the case in the circuit of Figure 4. V S = 20 + α i E r C The equivalent circuit of Figure 4.45) is obtained.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices tor can be represented to a very good approximation by the model shown in Figure 4. As the next step in the simplification of the circuit. Piecewise−linear and equivalent circuits for the sawtooth generator of Figure 4.23).34(a) where E . The extinction voltage V x . C .

34) or T c = 0.The Silicon Controlled Rectifier (SCR) For a fractional error of 1 per cent in the amplitude of the sawtooth.= ----------Tc I max (4. from (4.1 (4.00098 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.33) yields Δ v out V ------------.40) Td 2I C ----. Td ⎞ ⎛ 1 .⎟ = -f Tc ⎠ ⎝ (4.= 0.49) For a sawtooth frequency of 1 KHz . however.0655 μ F C = ----6 R4 V 15 10 (4.48) and thus V = 20 V Thus.⋅ 1000 ----------.53) and thus Finally.= -----15 R 4 = ---------.51) we obtain 1 ⎞ . to avoid possible non linearities in the transistor characteristics at low voltages and to allow for possible variations in the supply voltage.01 = ----------V 2V' S (4.51) With I C ≈ α i E = 1 mA . the values of resistors R 2 and R 3 should be chosen to make the gate−terminal potential about 5 volts when the SCR is switched off.54) where R 4 = r C = 1 M Ω is as shown in Figure 4.-----------------------. relation (4. Accordingly.= 1. the value of resistor R 4 should be V .50) From (4.00098 sec V T c = R 4 C ------V' S T c V' S .= 150 Ω I max 0.52) (4.= 0. To limit the SCR current to the maximum safe value of 100 ma.= 0.001 T c ⎛ 1 + 2 -------⎝ 100 ⎠ (4.02T c = 0.= 0.50) and (4. I max = 100 mA and using (4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−37 .47) (4. in principle the amplitude of the sawtooth output can be as large as the DC supply voltage.34(b). a value of 15 volts might be chosen for V .001 sec T c + T d = T c ⎜ 1 + ----.

and output of these two devices.8 The Triac The triac is a device capable of switching on for either polarity of an applied voltage. Triac symbol Figure 4. As can be seen in Figure 4. Triac R1 RL R2 SCR R1 AC Power Supply D R2 RL v out AC Power Supply v out Figure 4.36.36 shows an SCR circuit and a triac circuit for comparison.37 shows a comparison of the waveforms at the input. Comparison of SCR and Triac circuits 4−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.35.35. gate. 1 i 21 i 12 2 Figure 4. A triac is essentially two SCRs connected back to back with a common gate and common terminals where each terminal is the anode of one SCR and the cathode of another.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the triac has a single gate lead and is therefore the AC equivalent of the SCR. The diode D in the SCR circuit ensures a positive trigger voltage. Figure 4.

37. This voltage will cause one of the transistors to turn on.The Shockley Diode SCR Input voltage Triac Gate trigger level Gate voltage Output voltage Figure 4. Comparison of SCR and Triac waveforms The triac exhibits voltage−current characteristics similar to those of the SCR.38. AC light dimmers. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Anode Anode Anode P N P N Cathode P N P N P N Cathode Cathode Figure 4.9 The Shockley Diode* The Shockley diode or four−layer diode. Parts of a Shockley diode. or PNPN diode. the two−layer metal−semiconductor device known for its high switching speed. We discussed the Schottky diode in Chapter 2.38. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−39 . * The Shockley diode should not be confused with the Schottky diode. which then turns the other transistor on. and its symbol A Shockley diode can be to turned on by applying sufficient voltage between anode and cathode. Applications for triacs include AC motor−speed control. and general AC power−control applications. 4. the two−transistor equivalent circuit. is a four−layer sandwich of P−N−P−N semiconductor material very similar to the SCR but without a gate as shown in Figure 4.

There are a few special terms applied to Shockley diodes and all other thyristor devices built upon the Shockley diode foundation. the applied voltage must be increased until breakover is attained. Capacitors. the Shockley diode tends to stay on once it's turned on. The voltage rise limit of a Shockley diode is referred to as the critical rate of voltage rise and it is provided by the manufacturer. In other words. the term breakover is used instead because the end result is a pair of transistors in mutual saturation rather than destruction as would be the case with a normal transistor. at which point one of the transistors will cutoff. which tends to keep the door closed once it has been pushed shut. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . as we recall. There is no in−between or active mode in its operation: it is a purely on or off device. and can be minimized by filtering high−frequency (fast voltage rises) from the diode with series inductors and/or parallel resistor−capacitor networks. The word latch is reminiscent of a door lock mechanism. First is the term used to describe its on state: latched. If the applied voltage across a Shockley diode rises at too fast a rate. silicon unilateral switch (SUS). those tiny capacitances will draw enough current during that time to activate the transistor pair. The term firing refers to the initiation of a latched state. 4. turning them both on. silicon bilateral switch (SBS). The SUS is an SCR with an anode gate instead of the usual cathode gate and a self−contained low−voltage avalanche diode between the gate and cathode. this form of latching is undesirable. A latched Shockley diode is reset back into its nonconducting state by reducing current through it until low−current dropout occurs. and light−emitting four−layer diodes. It should be noted that Shockley diodes may be fired in a way other than breakover: excessive voltage rise. The SBS is two SUS devices arranged in inverse−parallel to permit bidirectional switching. This is when the applied voltage across the diode increases at a high rate of change. LASCRs exhibit very−high gain and permit relatively large amounts of current to be controlled by a relatively weak optical signal. 4−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices ultimately latching both transistors on where they will tend to remain. oppose changes in voltage by drawing or supplying current. The two transistors can be turned off again by reducing the applied voltage to a much lower point where there is too small current to maintain transistor bias. This is able to cause latching (turning on) of the diode due to inherent junction capacitances within the transistors. which then halts base current through the other transistor. The light−activated silicon controlled switch (LASCS) is an LASCR with both anode and cathode gate terminals. The LASCR is a conventional SCR installed in a housing having a transparent window or collection lens. and stay off once it's turned off. or dv ⁄ dt . Usually. In order to obtain a Shockley diode to latch. as are all thyristors.10 Other PNPN Devices Other PNPN devices include the light−activated SCR (LASCR). Operation of the LASCR is similar to that of a conventional SCR except an optical signal replaces the gate electrical signal. Despite the fact that this action is best described in terms of transistor breakdown. sealing both transistors in the off state as they were before any voltage was applied at all.

The switches represent bistable two−terminal switches and hopefully their sizes can be made much smaller than the three−terminal transistor.40(b). First.The Future of Transistors Light−emitting four−layer diodes are gallium−arsenide devices which emit recombination radiation when they are switched on. The silicon controlled switch (SCS) is very similar to the SCR but all four regions are accessible to the external circuit.39.39. Parts of an SCS. A particularly interesting device of this kind is the PNPN injection laser. a logic 1 is placed on the line by closing Switch S 1 . with the addition of a second gate lead. These devices are unique in that exceptionally simple optical pulse sources can be fabricated since the source is also the switching element. As shown in Figure 4. we can actively turn the SCS off without the need to reduce the applied voltage or current. The SCS has two advantages over the SCR and the Shockley diode.39. as shown in Figure 4. A simplified latch is shown in Figure 4. Anode Anode Anode Gate 1 G1 P N Gate 2 Gate 1 P N P N P Gate 2 P N Cathode G2 Cathode Cathode N Figure 4. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. as op amps are the most versatile amplifier devices. Thus the SCS has an anode. 2005. and it is reproduced from the Journal of Applied Physics. an anode gate.40. they can be biased so as to completely cancel the rate effect we described with the four−layer diode.40(a). Recently. Second. the two−transistor equivalent circuit. Hewlett−Packard announced a successful simulation of a latch that may eventually replace the transistor in digital circuits. But transistors are extensively as switching devices also known as latches. since we can now control both end junctions. 4.11 The Future of Transistors Presently. because both gate regions are accessible. and a cathode gate. a cathode. a transistor is barely used as an amplifier. we can place a logic 0 on the line by closing Switch S 0 as shown in Figure 4. and its symbol As shown in Figure 4. the basic construction of the SCS is the same as for the SCR. Likewise. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−41 .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A simplified arrangement of a latch as a possible replacement for the transistor 4−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices V1 S1 Line S0 (a) V0 (b) V0 Logic 1 Line S0 V1 S1 Logic 0 Figure 4.40.

the transconductance is a measure of the sensitivity of drain current to changes in gate−to−source bias.( v GS – V T ) v DS – --v i D = k n ---L 2 DS for v DS ≤ v GS – V T and in the saturation region from the expression Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • N−channel FETs are the most common.12 Summary • The Field−Effect Transistor (FET) is another semiconductor device. the three regions of operation are the cutoff. and 1 to 2 volts for lower voltage devices with thinner gate oxides. The substrate is normally connected to the source and thus a FET is essentially a three−terminal device. Typical values for V T are 2 to 4 volts for high voltage devices with thicker gate oxides. measured between gate and source. thus allowing a greater range of input signals.The Junction FET (JFET) is the earlier type and the Metal Oxide Semiconductor FET (MOSFET) is now the most popular type. the voltage at which the channel is closed is known as the pinch−off voltage V P . • In a MOSFET. and the saturation or pentode. and the minimum voltage required to form a conducting channel between the drain and source is referred to as the threshold voltage and it is denoted as V T . v GS < V T and no drain current flows. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−43 . In the quadratic region the drain current is determined from the expression W 1 2 . In the cutoff mode.Summary 4. the quadratic or triode. The JFET also operates in this manner. gate and substrate. P−channel FETs operate similarly except that the voltage polarities are reversed. can be made very large. The FET is a voltage− controlled device. In other words. A MOSFET can be constructed that will operate in either mode depending upon what type of bias is applied. source. from 1 to 100 megohms. • A MOSFET is said to operate in the depletion mode when a negative voltage is applied at the gate. • One important parameter in FETs is its transconductance g m defined as the ratio of the change in current i DS to the change of voltage v GS which produced it. A FET has four terminals. drain. ∂ i DS g m = ----------∂ v GS v DS = cons tan t In other words. • In a MOSFET. • One of the most attractive features of the FET is the fact that the input resistance. A MOSFET is said to operate in the enhancement mode if a positive voltage is applied at the gate.

• Complementary MOS or CMOS technology combines one NMOS device and one PMOS device into a single device referred to as CMOS. The carrier flow from source to drain is controlled by a Schottky metal gate. and for W ⁄ L about 10 . • In high density integrated circuits. transconductance is defined as id W . and oxide thickness.( v – VT )2 i D = -2 n L GS for v DS ≥ v GS – V T where k n is a constant depending on electron mobility. • For small signals. • In CMOS devices only one of its components is on at any given time. that is. common−gate amplifier. The control of the channel is obtained by varying the depletion layer width underneath the metal contact which modulates the thick- 4−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. a CMOS has almost no static power dissipation. and capacitance for n−channel MOSFETs. CMOS chips require less power than chips using just one type of a MOSFET. These devices are used extensively in both analog and digital circuits. The ratio W ⁄ L denotes the ratio of the channel width W to channel length L . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .( V – VT ) = k n ---g m = ------L GS v gs 2 2 • The output conductance is defined as ∂ iD g o = ----------∂ v DS v GS = cons tan t • The voltage gain A v in a MOSFET device is defined as vd A v = ------= –RD gm v gs and the minus (−) sign indicates 180 ° phase reversal. CMOS devices are the most common amplifiers in the FET technology. permittivity. Thus. and common−drain or source follower. or vice versa. and unlike bipolar transistors. • The Metal−Semiconductor−Field−Effect−Transistor (MESFET) consists of a conducting channel positioned between a source and drain contact region. for k p . around 10 μ A ⁄ V . and integrated circuits. Typical values of k n are around 20 μ A ⁄ V . Also. • A CMOS device can be configured as a common−source amplifier.⋅ k ---. either the NMOS device is on and the PMOS device is off. For p−channel MOSFETs this parameter is denoted as k p .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 1 W . current mirrors are normally used in lieu of resistors.

light dimming. analog−to−digital converters. Once turned on. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • The Shockley diode. (not to be confused with the Schottky diode). can have their parameters set by external components such as resistors and capacitors. If the current falls to zero. The main terminals. • The silicon controlled switch (SCS) is very similar to the SCR but all four regions are accessible to the external circuit. with each layer consisting of an alternately N or P−type material. • The triac is a device capable of switching on for either polarity of an applied voltage. Only n – channel MESFETS are available because holes have a slower mobility. • The unijunction transistor (UJT) is a three−terminal. It is similar to a diode with an additional terminal that is used to turn it on. • The diac is a two−terminal. the SCR will remain on as long as current flows through it. referred to as programmable UJTs. is a four−layer sandwich of P−N−P−N semiconductor material very similar to the SCR but without a gate. It is the AC equivalent of the SCR. transistor−like component which exhibits bistable switching for either polarity of a suitably high applied voltage. the SCR behaves like an open switch. Another name for the SCR is thyristor. or PNPN diode. and other ac power−control functions. for example N−P−N−P. is attached to one of the middle layers. • The silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) is a four−layer semiconducting device. The diac closely resembles a PNP transistor without an external base terminal. labelled anode and cathode. or four−layer diode. called the gate. Its major application is in conjunction with a triac to produce AC phase−control circuits useful for motor−speed control. Other UJT devices. UJTs can be used for the design of pulse and sawtooth generators. relay time delay circuits. and the control terminal. are across the full four layers. single−junction device which exhibits negative resistance and switching characteristics totally unlike those of conventional bipolar transistors. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−45 . and frequency dividers.Summary ness of the conducting channel and thereby the current MESFETs use GaAs (gallium arsenide) technology.

Compute the value of r DS for an NMOS device where k = 18 μ A ⁄ V . show that A V = – g m R D . Compute the output conductance g o if V DS = 0 V 5. W = 10 μ m . 2 3. that is. the SCR is used to control the power delivered to the 50 Ω load by the sinusoidal source. L = 5 μ m . and V T = – 2 V . An enhancement−type p – channel –6 –6 MOSFET with k p = 10 × 10 . and V T = 1 V .13 Exercises 1. An n – channel MOSFET with k n = 50 × 10 . a. Compute the transconductance g m c. the gate supply V GG is adjustable. As shown. and v GS = 4 V . L = 1 μ m . is biased with v G = 0 V and v S = 5 V .Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4. V T = 2 V . is biased with v GS = 3 V and v DS = 5 V . Over what range may the conduction angle of the SCR be continuously varied? b. prove that the voltage gain A V depends only on the transconductance g m and the value of the drain resistor R D . In the circuit below. + D G V DD v out + v+ in S 2. L = 1 μ m . Draw an equivalent circuit that represents the n – channel MOSFET in the saturation mode. 4. Compute the output conductance g o if V DS = 2 V d. W = 60 μ m . Over what range may the load DC current be continuously varied if the frequency is 60 Hz ? 4−46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. What is the highest voltage of v D that will keep the device in saturation? 6. For the JFET amplifier circuit below. Compute the drain current i D b. a. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . W = 10 μ m .

If the anode potential of the SCR must remain negative for 10 μ s to ensure that the SCR switches to the non−conducting state. what is the minimum value of the capacitor C that should be used? V DC R3 1 KΩ R1 10 K Ω R2 100 sin ω t 20 K Ω C S 50 V R4 50 K Ω Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The circuit below is in steady state with the switch open and the SCR is in the conducting state. The voltage drop across the SCR is 1 V while it is conducting. What are the initial and final values of the voltage across the capacitor with the polarities shown? b. and it is assumed that the SCR switches instantly to the non−conducting state and remains non−conducting thereafter.Exercises R load 50 Ω RG V GG 100 sin ω t 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−47 . The switch is then closed at t = 0 . a.

G iD D v GS S 1 W -.10). Then.( 3 – 1 ) 2 = 1 mA i D = -2 n L GS 2 1 b. Thus.(3 – 1) = 1 mΩ g m = k n ---L 1 c.= 2. In the saturation mode the n – channel MOSFET behaves as an ideal current source whose value is as in (4. – 6 10 1 W 1 . the voltage gain is 2.= ----------------------------------.( v – V T ) 2 = -. 4−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.11) and it can be represented by the equivalent circuit shown below.( v GS – V T ) 2 v DS = cons tan t 2 L 4. From (4.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 4.= --------------------------------------------------------------------.⋅ 50 × 10 ⋅ ----. By definition g m = di DS ⁄ dv GS = di DS ⁄ dv in (1) and since it follows that and with (1) Thus.14 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. a.11).13). the device is in saturation and the drain current i D is found from (4. –6 –1 W . The output conductance g m is found from (4.= –gm RD A v = -----------dv in –6 v DS 5 × 10 L . Then.( v GS – V T ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ 10 ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . v out = V DD – R D i DS dvout = – R D di DS dv out = – g m R D dv in dv out .⋅ k ---.16). The transconductance g m is found from (4. Since v DS > v GS – V T ⇒ 5 > 3 – 1 .3 K Ω r DS ≡ -------–6 –6 iD kW ( v GS – V T ) 18 × 10 × 60 × 10 ( 4 – 2 ) 3.⋅ k n ---.

I DC = 2 ⁄ π = 0. – 6 10 –1 W . For this exercise.318 A If SCR never fires.14 we observe that for v DS ≥ v GS – V T the slope is zero. v GS = v G – v S = 0 – ( – 5 ) = 5 V v DS = v D – v S = v D – ( – 5 ) = v D + 5 v D + 5 = v GS – V T = 5 – ( – 2 ) = 7 vD = 2 V 6. d.( vGS – V T – v DS ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ ----g o = k n ---1 L This result is not surprising. 1 100 sin ω t V GG 0. The device will be in saturation as long as v DS ≤ v GS – V T .( v – V T – v DS ) = 50 × 10 ⋅ ----g o = k n ---1 L GS 5. Then.637 A If α = π ⁄ 2 . b. With reference to Figure 4.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises – 6 10 W -(3 – 1 – 2) = 0 . the device is in the triode region since v DS < v GS – V T ⇒ 0 < 3 – 1 .(3 – 1 – 0) = 1 mΩ . The load DC current I DC is the average value for the interval 0 ≤ α ≤ π ⁄ 2 and its value is determined by the integral I DC π 1 π 100 sin ω t 1 --------------------------d( ω t ) = ( – cos ω t ) = 50 2π α π α ∫ If α = 0 . I DC = 0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 α firing angle 0 1 2 3 π 2π ωt -1 4 5 6 7 a. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 4−49 . I DC = 1 ⁄ π = 0. The SCR will fire for the interval 0 ≤ ω t ≤ π ⁄ 2 or not at all depending on the value of V GG .5 0 -0. If V DS = 0 V .

Using the general formula for the capacitor voltage. until the voltage across the capacitor reaches the value of 0 V . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the voltage drop across the SCR is 1 V and the voltage drop across the capacitor is 49 V with the polarity as shown.= ------------------------------------------C = ------------------------– 0. We want the SCR anode to remain negative for 10 μ s . Just before the switch closes.683 ln ( 50 ⁄ 99 ) 4−50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the SCR will be Off. the capacitor voltage will be – 49 V as shown in the figure below.Chapter 4 Field Effect Transistors and PNPN Devices 7. The capacitor voltage cannot change instantaneously so immediately after the switch is closed. we must have or v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V initial ) e 0 = 50 – [ 50 – ( – 49 ) ] e e – t ⁄ ( RC ) – t ⁄ ( RC ) – t ⁄ ( RC ) = 50 ⁄ 99 – t ⁄ ( R 3 C ) = ln ( 50 ⁄ 99 ) –6 3 –t ⁄ R3 ( – 10 × 10 ) ⁄ 10 . that is. R3 50 V 1 KΩ R4 C V DC 50 K Ω The capacitor voltage will eventually charge to 50 V with respect to the ground and thus it will undergo a change from – 49 V (initial value) to +50 V (final value). V DC 50 V R3 1 KΩ R1 10 K Ω R2 100 sin ω t 20 K Ω R4 C S 50 K Ω a.= 14. b.64 nF .

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers T his chapter begins with an introduction to operational amplifiers (op amps). and do not reveal any other useful information for the op amp’s circuit analysis. differentiation. single ended output amplifier. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. These terminals are not shown in op amp circuits since they just provide power.2 An Overview of the Op Amp The op amp has the following important characteristics: 1. Its symbol and pinouts are shown in Figure 5. multiplication. It can also be used as a comparator and electronic filter. Symbol and pinouts for operational amplifier As shown above the op amp has two inputs but only one output. integration. It is also the basic block in analog computer design. 5. and analog−to−digital conversion or vice versa. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−1 . analysis of circuits in the inverting and non−inverting configurations. For this reason it is referred to as differential input. Typically. This figure also shows terminals V + and V − . − V+ 7 6 4 V− 2 3 + Figure 5. is the most versatile electronic amplifier. 5. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. and analog computers.1. We will discuss the ideal op amp. and gain and bandwidth on circuit performance. characteristics.1 The Operational Amplifier The operational amplifier or simply op amp.1. Figure 5. These are the voltage sources required to power up the op amp. We will also introduce some circuits consisting of op amps and non−linear devices. and applications. V + is +15 volts and V − is −15 volts.2 shows the internal construction of the popular 741 op amp. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. It derives it name from the fact that it is capable of performing many mathematical operations such as addition.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .e. integration etc.. i. Figure 5. Very good stability 6.3.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4.1) 5−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3 The Op Amp in the Inverting Mode An op amp is said to be connected in the inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the inverting (−) input through an external resistor R in whose value along with the feedback resistor R f determine the op amp’s gain. The non−inverting (+) input is grounded through an external resistor R as shown in Figure 5. addition.2. capacitors. is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. the voltage gain G v is v out Rf G v = --------. and so on. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5.3.= – ------v in R in (5. Operation to be performed. diodes. The 741 op amp (Courtesy National Semiconductor) 5. For the circuit of Figure 5.

should not be interpreted as open circuits.1 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For AC (sinusoidal) signals. the output will be 180 ° out−of−phase with the input.3. R in R f 120 K Ω + v in 20 K Ω − − + + v out − Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5.1 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−3 . Therefore. given that v in = 1 mV .3. For example.4. Note 2: The input voltage v in and the output voltage v out as indicated in the circuit of Figure 5. The minus (−) sign in the gain ratio – R f ⁄ R in implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. the output will be −5 volts AC or 5 volts AC with 180 ° out−of−phase with the input. the output will be −100 volts DC. if the input is 1 volt AC and the op amp gain is 5. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. these designations imply that an input voltage of any waveform may be applied at the input terminals and the corresponding output voltage appears at the output terminals. Thus. hence the name inverting amplifier. Example 5. if the input is +1 volt DC and the op amp gain is 100. As shown in the relation of (5. Circuit of inverting op amp Note 1: In the inverting mode.4.1). So its presence or absence in an op amp circuit is immaterial. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be negative (−) and vice versa. the resistor R connected between the non−inverting (+) input and ground serves only as a current limiting device. the gain for this op amp configuration is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the input.The Op Amp in the Inverting Mode R in + v in − R − + Rf + v out − Figure 5. and thus it does not influence the op amp’s gain.

R in 20 K Ω R f 120 K Ω + v in − − + + v out − Figure 5. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes.5.= – 120 -------------------R in 20 K Ω and since the output voltage is or G v = v out ⁄ v in v out = G v v in = – 6 × 1 v out = – 6 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5.6.1 Example 5.6. Circuit for Example 5. given that v in = sin t mV . 1 0 t v in = 1 mV mV v out = – 6 mV -6 Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Solution: This is an inverting amplifier and thus the voltage gain G v is Rf K Ω = –6 G v = – ------.2 5−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.5.

the resistor R will represent the internal resistance of the applied voltage v in when this voltage is applied at the non−inverting input.= –6 G v = – ------. the voltage gain G v is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. that is.8.8. Rf 120 K Ω .4 The Op Amp in the Non−Inverting Mode An op amp is said to be connected in the non−inverting mode when an input signal is connected to the non−inverting (+) input through an external resistor R which serves as a current limiter. v in = sin t v out = – 6 sin t mV 0 t Figure 5.7.2 5. R in Rf − + R + v in − + v out − Figure 5. and the inverting (−) input is grounded through an external resistor R in as shown in Figure 5.7. Circuit of non−inverting op amp For the circuit of Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−5 . Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5.8. In our subsequent discussion.= – ------------------20 K Ω R in and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = – 6 × sin t = – 6 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5.The Op Amp in the Non−Inverting Mode Solution: This is the same circuit as that of the previous example except that the input is a sine wave with unity amplitude and the voltage gain G v is the same as before.

5−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R in 20 K Ω Rf 120 K Ω − + + v out − + v in − R Figure 5.2) As indicated by the relation of (5. when the input signal is positive (+) the output will be also positive and if the input is negative. hence. the output will be 10 V AC and in−phase with the input.= 1 + ------v in R in (5.10. if the input is +1 mV DC and the op amp gain is 75 . the output will be also negative.= 1 + 120 -------------------v in R in 20 K Ω and thus v out = G v v in = 7 × 1 mV = 7 mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5. the output will be +75 mV DC . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the gain for the non−inverting op amp configuration is 1 + R f ⁄ R in and therefore.2).5 V AC and the op amp gain is G v = 1 + 19 K Ω ⁄ 1 K Ω = 20 . given that v in = 1 mV . Circuit for Example 5. For example.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Rf v out G v = --------. in the non−inverting mode the op amp output signal has the same polarity as the input signal. For AC signals the output will be in−phase with the input.9.9.3 Solution: The voltage gain G v is Rf v out KΩ = 1 + 6 = 7 G v = --------. Example 5. For example. Thus.3 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non−inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.= 1 + ------. if the input is 0. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. the name non−inverting amplifier.

10. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−7 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v out Rf KΩ = 1 + 6 = 7 G v = --------.11.4 Compute the voltage gain G v and then the output voltage v out for the non−inverting op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.12.= 1 + ------.= 1 + 120 -------------------v in R in 20 K Ω and the output voltage is v out = G v v in = 7 × sin t = 7 sin t mV The voltages v in and v out are plotted as shown in Figure 5. the voltage gain G v is the same as before.3 Example 5. Plot v in and v out as mV versus time on the same set of axes. given that v in = sin t mV . Circuit for Example 5. R in 20 K Ω Rf 120 K Ω − + + v out − + v in − R Figure 5.4 Solution: This is the same circuit as in the previous example except that the input is a sinusoid.11. that is.The Op Amp in the Non−Inverting Mode 7 mV v out = 7 mV v in = 1 mV 1 0 t Figure 5. Therefore.

Circuit of unity gain op amp For the circuit of Figure 5. 5. the op amp circuit of Figure 5.8. if the input voltage is 5 mV DC the output will also be 5 mV DC .5 Active Filters An active filter is an electronic circuit consisting of an amplifier and other devices such as resistors and capacitors.13. Operational amplifiers are used extensively as active filters. Input and output waveforms for the circuit of Example 5. capacitors and inductors. An op amp low−pass filter 5−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 1 v in and thus v out = v in For this reason.13.13. An application is presented in Example 5. − v in − + R + v+ out − Figure 5.4 Quite often an op amp is connected as shown in Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and if the input voltage is 2 mV AC . and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies above this cutoff frequency. the voltage gain G v is v out G v = --------.12. The unity gain op amp is used to provide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 8 mV 4 2 0 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0 6 v out = 7 sin t t v in = sin4t 2 6 8 10 12 14 Figure 5. a passive filter is a circuit which consists of passive devices such as resistors. For example. A low−pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies below a critical (cutoff) frequency denoted as ω C . the output will also be 2 mV AC .13 it is called unity gain amplifier. In contrast.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−9 .15(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.15.Active Filters is shown in Figure 5. A high−pass filter transmits (passes) all frequencies above a critical (cutoff) frequency ω c .14. the straight vertical and horizontal lines represent the ideal (unrealizable) and the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) low−pass filter characteristics. and as mentioned before. this is the half−power or the – 3 dB point. An op amp high−pass filter is shown in Figure 5. 1 R2 R1 Low – pass filter frequency response Ideal R in C2 3⁄2 vin C1 vout (a) v out ⁄ v in Half – power point Realizable 0 ωC Radian frequency (log scale) ω (b) Figure 5. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output−to−input voltage v out ⁄ v in .15(b).707 × Gv .14(b).14(a) and its amplitude frequency response in Figure 5. High – pass filter frequency response 1 3⁄2 Half – power point Ideal Realizable vin R1 C3 vout v out ⁄ v in C1 C2 R2 (a) 0 Radian frequency (log scale) ωC ω (b) Figure 5. that is. An active low−pass filter and its amplitude frequency response In Figure 5. falls to 0. and attenuates (blocks) all frequencies below the cutoff frequency. the gain G v .14(b). An active high−pass filter and its amplitude frequency response In Figure 5.15(b).

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .16(b). falls to 0.17(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5. C1 C2 R2 R3 vin R1 vout (a) 11 0 3⁄2 8 Half – power points v out ⁄ v in 6 4 2 Realizable Ideal 0 0 1 0 2 ω 11 0 ω2 3 1 0 4 ω Radian frequency (log scale) (b) Figure 5. An op amp band−pass filter and its frequency response are shown below. i. where the maximum value of G v which is unity. The vertical scale represents the magnitude of the ratio of output−to−input voltage v out ⁄ v in . where the maximum value of G v which is unity. The cutoff frequency ω c is the frequency at which the maximum value of v out ⁄ v in which is unity. A band−pass filter transmits (passes) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . An op amp band−pass filter is shown in Figure 5.. An op amp band−stop filter is shown in Figure 5. the half−power or the – 3 dB point. while it transmits (passes) all frequencies outside this band. that is. falls to 0. A band−elimination or band−stop or band−rejection filter attenuates (rejects) the band (range) of frequencies between the critical (cutoff) frequencies denoted as ω 1 and ω 2 . while it attenuates (blocks) all frequencies outside this band. the gain G v . falls to 0.16.707 × G v .16(a) and its frequency response in Figure 5.707 × G v .707 × Gv .17(b). An active band−pass filter and its amplitude frequency response 5−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers the smooth curve represents the practical (realizable) high−pass filter characteristics.e.

Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems. For simplicity.6 Analysis of Op Amp Circuits The procedure for analyzing an op amp circuit (finding voltages. For circuits containing op amps. The currents into both input terminals are zero b. That is. for all practical purposes. in any op−amp: a. we can apply Ohm’s law.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R3 C1 C2 vin vout R1 R2 C3 (a) 1 3⁄2 Ideal Half – power points Realizable v out ⁄ v in 0 ω1 ω2 Radian frequency (log scale) ω (b) Figure 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we will assume that the reference (ground) is the common terminal of the two power supplies. KCL and KVL. An active band−elimination filter and its amplitude frequency response 5. superposition. In this section we will provide several examples to illustrate the analysis of op amp circuits without being concerned about its internal operation. the terminals of the power supplies will not be shown. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−11 . When analyzing an op amp circuit. we must remember that. The voltage difference between the input terminals of an op amp is zero c.17. currents and power) is the same as for the other circuits which we have studied thus far. this will be discussed in a later section.

19 with the virtual ground being the same as the circuit ground. the (−) input is said to be at virtual ground. Also.18. since the (+) input terminal is grounded and there is no voltage drop between the (−) and (+) terminals.= – ------v in R in (5.3) Proof: No current flows through the (−) input terminal of the op amp. therefore the current i which flows through resistor R in flows also through resistor R f .5 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.3) below. 5−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Circuit for deriving the gain of an inverting op amp Rf v out G v = --------. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (5.= – ------v in R in The input and output parts of the circuit are shown in Figure 5. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . R in i i R Rf + v in − − + v out − + Figure 5.18. v out = – R f i where and thus or v in i = ------R in f -v v out = – ------R in in R Rf v out G v = --------.18 is called inverting op amp. From the circuit of Figure 5.

Circuit of non−inverting op amp Rf v out G v = --------.22. This is the equivalent circuit of the inverting op amp and the dependent source is a Voltage Controlled Voltage Source (VCVS). Equivalent circuit for the inverting op amp Example 5.4) below.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits + v in − R in + − i i − Rf + v out − + Figure 5.= 1 + ------v in R in (5. Input and output parts for the inverting op amp These two circuits are normally drawn with the output as a dependent source as shown in Figure 5.20.19. * For a definition of dependent sources please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.20. ISBN 978−0− 9709511−2−0.4) Proof: Let the voltages at the (−) and (+) terminals be denoted as v 1 and v 2 respectively as shown in Figure 5.21. Prove that the voltage gain G v is as given in (5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−13 .* + v in − R in − v v out + ------R in in Rf + − Figure 5. and draw its equivalent circuit showing the output as a dependent source.6 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.21 is called non−inverting op amp. R in Rf − v in − + + v out − + Figure 5.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .4) By application of KCL at v 1 i1 + i2 = 0 or v 1 v 1 – v out ------.+ ----. v 1 – v 2 = 0 or v 1 = v 2 = v in .= 0 Rf R in (5.= 1 + ------G v = --------v in R in (5.23 shows the equivalent circuit of Figure 5.22. + + v in − + ⎛ 1 + ------.= 0 Rf R in v out 1 1 ⎛ ------.5) then can be written as v in v in – v out ------.5) There is no potential difference between the (−) and (+) terminals.+ ---------------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers + R in − Rf i2 v1 v in v 2 − − i1 + + v out − + Figure 5.⎞ v in = --------⎝R ⎠ Rf in R f Rearranging. Equivalent circuit for the non−inverting op amp 5−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.23. we obtain Rf v out .22. The dependent source of this equivalent circuit is also a VCVS.⎞ v ⎝ ⎠ in − R in Rf v out − Figure 5.6) Figure 5. therefore. Non−inverting op amp circuit for derivation of (5. Relation (5.+ -------------------.

7) and thus Proof: v out = v in With R in open and R f shorted. − + v in − + v out − + Figure 5.25: a.24. compute the voltage v load across the load R load Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the non−inverting amplifier of the previous example reduces to the circuit of Figure 5. Example 5. letting R f → 0 . With the load R load disconnected. then v out = v in . the gain reduces to G v = 1 and for this reason this circuit is called unity gain amplifier or voltage follower. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−15 . prove that the voltage gain G v is v out G v = --------.6.7 If.= 1 + ------v in R in Then. compute the open circuit voltage v ab b. It is also called buffer amplifier because it can be used to “buffer” (isolate) one circuit from another when one “loads” the other as we will see on the next example.24. Circuit of Figure 5.= 1 v in (5. in the non−inverting op amp circuit of Example 5. We will obtain the same result if we consider the non−inverting op amp gain Rf v out G v = --------. we replace R in with an open circuit ( R in → ∞ ) and R f with a short circuit ( R f → 0 ).8 For the circuit of Figure 5.22 with R in open and R f shorted The voltage difference between the (+) and (−) terminals is zero.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Example 5. With the load connected.

the circuit now is as shown in Figure 5.26.× 12 = 3.27.25. Circuit for Example 5.27. With the load R load reconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . we observe that the load R load “loads down” the load voltage from 5 V to 3. Circuit for Example 5. 7 KΩ a × b × v in − 12 V + 5 KΩ R load 5 KΩ Figure 5.26. 5 K Ω || 5 K Ω .8 a. With the load R load disconnected the circuit is as shown in Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5. 7 KΩ a × b × v in − 12 V + 5 KΩ R load 5 KΩ Figure 5. 5−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.28.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers c.× 12 = 5 V v ab = ---------------------------------7 KΩ + 5 KΩ b. Then.16 V v load = ------------------------------------------------------7 K Ω + 5 K Ω || 5 K Ω Here.8 with the load disconnected The voltage across terminals a and b is 5 KΩ .8 with the load reconnected c.16 V and this voltage may not be sufficient for proper operation of the load. With the insertion of the buffer amplifier between points a and b and the load. Insert a buffer amplifier between a and b and compute the new voltage v load across the same load R load 7 KΩ a × b × v in − 12 V + 5 KΩ R load 5 KΩ Solution: Figure 5.

we can apply the principle of superposition to derive this relation. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−17 .+ --------⎠ R R in 1 in 2 (5. we obtain v in 1 v in 2 v out --------.8) R in 1 R in 2 − Rf + v in 1 − + + R v out + − v in 2 − Proof: Figure 5. we observe that the voltage across the load is 5 V as desired. v out = – R f ⎛ ⎝ v in 1 v in 2 ⎞ --------. Circuit for Example 5.+ --------.9 The op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. Then. We also observe that the (+) input is grounded.29 is called summing circuit or summer because the output is the summation of the weighted inputs. Example 5.+ --------.8 with the insertion of a buffer op amp From the circuit of Figure 5.9) and solving for v out we obtain (5.8).29. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and thus the voltage at the (−) terminal is at “virtual ground”.28. Prove that for this circuit.28. Alternately.= 0 R in 1 R in 2 Rf (5. by application of KCL at the (−) terminal. Two−input summing op amp circuit We recall that the voltage across the (−) and (+) terminals is zero.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits − 7 KΩ a × 5V + R load 5 KΩ + v load = v ab = 5 V − v in − 12 V + 5 KΩ × b Figure 5.

R in 1 Rf 1 MΩ v in 1 − 1 mV R in 2 + 10 K Ω R 20 K Ω in 3 − + 30 K Ω v out − + v in 2 − 4 mV v in 3 − 10 mV + + Solution: Figure 5. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5. v out 2 be the output due to v in 2 acting alone. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Example 5.31.31. Then by superposition.10) First.11) Next. 5−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Circuit for Example 5.30. with v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 and v in 3 shorted. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 (5. and v out 3 be the output due to v in 3 acting alone. Circuit for Example 5. with v in 2 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 3 shorted.10 Let v out 1 be the output due to v in 1 acting alone. R in 1 Rf 1 MΩ v in 1 + − 10 K Ω 1 mV R in 2 20 K Ω R in 3 − + 30 K Ω v out 1 − + Figure 5.32.10 with v in 1 acting alone We recognize this as an inverting amplifier whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 M Ω ⁄ 10 K Ω = 100 and thus v out 1 = ( 100 ) ( – 1 mV ) = – 100 mV (5.10 Compute the output voltage v out for the amplifier circuit shown in Figure 5.30.

4 mV = 242.4 mV v ( + ) = --------------------------R in 2 + R in 3 50 K Ω and thus v out 2 = 101 × 2. R in 2 20 K Ω + R in 3 30 K Ω − To v ( + ) v in 2 − 4 mV + Figure 5.10 with v in 2 acting alone + The circuit of Figure 5.4 mV (5. with v in 3 acting alone and v in 1 and v in 2 shorted. the circuit becomes as shown in Figure 5.32.12) Finally. R in 3 30 K Ω .35.× 4 mV = 2. The circuit of Figure 5.34.33.× v in 2 = ---------------. Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 2 acting alone Then.34 is also a non−inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 M Ω ⁄ 10 K Ω = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 5.33.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits R in 1 10 K Ω R in 2 Rf 1 MΩ − R in 3 + 30 K Ω v out 2 − + 20 K Ω v in 2 − 4 mV Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−19 .32 as a non−inverting op amp whose voltage gain G v is G v = 1 + 1 M Ω ⁄ 10 K Ω = 101 and the voltage at the plus (+) input is computed from the voltage divider circuit shown in Figure 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

11 For the circuit shown in Figure 5.36. R 3 .11 5−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R1 Rf v in − + − R2 R3 + + v out − Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers R in 1 10 K Ω Rf 1 MΩ − R in 2 20 K Ω + R in 3 30 K Ω v out 3 − + v in 3 − 10 mV Figure 5. v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 = – 100 + 242. and R f .13). Voltage divider circuit for the computation of v ( + ) with v in 3 acting alone From Figure 5.36.4 mV Example 5. Circuit for Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .35.× 10 mV = 4 mV .35. (5. from (5.34. and thus R in 2 20 K Ω .× v in 2 = ---------------v ( + ) = --------------------------50 K Ω R in 2 + R in 3 v out 3 = 101 × 4 mV = 404 mV Therefore.11). derive an expression for the voltage gain G v in terms of the external resistors R 1 .12) and (5. R 2 .10 with v in 3 acting alone R in 2 20 K Ω R in 3 + + 30 K Ω To v ( + ) v in 3 − + − 10 mV Figure 5. Circuit for Example 5.4 + 404 = 546.

Application of KCL for the circuit of Example 5. we rewrite (5.15) we obtain R f v in + R 1 v out R 3 v in ----------------------------------.Analysis of Op Amp Circuits Solution: We apply KCL at nodes v 1 and v 2 as shown in Figure 5.37.14) as (5.11 At node v 1 : v 1 – v in v 1 – v out ----------------.+ -------------------.13) At node v 2 : or v 2 – v in v 2 ----------------.14) and since v 2 = v 1 .37. R1 v1 v2 R3 v in − + − Rf R2 + + v out − Figure 5.15) Equating the right sides of (5.+ ----.+ --------⎝R Rf ⎠ Rf R1 1 R f v in + R 1 v out R1 + Rf ⎞ ⎛ ----------------v = ----------------------------------⎝ R1 R ⎠ 1 R1 Rf f or R f v in + R 1 v out v 1 = -----------------------------------R1 + Rf (5.= 0 Rf R1 v in v out 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ ----.13) and (5.+ ---. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−21 .= -----------------R2 + R3 R1 + Rf or in .( R1 + Rf ) R f v in + R 1 v out = ------------------ R3 v R2 + R3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 0 R3 R2 R 3 v in v 2 = -----------------R2 + R3 R 3 v in v 1 = -----------------R2 + R3 (5.v 1 = -----.

we must make the input resistance R in as high as possible. Of course. that is. vs R in = ---is (5. we want i s to be as small as possible. R in = v s ⁄ i s and since no current flows into the minus (−) terminal of the op amp and this terminal is at virtual ground. we obtain v out R 3 ( R 1 + R f ) R f --------. Example 5. it follows that is = vs ⁄ R1 5−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 Input and Output Resistances The input and output resistances are very important parameters in amplifier circuits. accordingly.38.17) Therefore.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Dividing both sides of the above relation by R 1 v in and rearranging. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . in an op amp circuit the input resistance provides a measure of the current i s which the amplifier draws from the voltage source v s .12 Solution: By definition.12 Compute the input resistance R in of the inverting op amp amplifier shown in Figure 5.– ----v in R 1 ( R 2 + R 3 ) R 1 and after simplification R1 R3 – R2 Rf v out . Circuit for Example 5.16) 5.38 in terms of R 1 and R f . R1 Rf + vs − is − + v out − + Figure 5.= -----------------------------G v = --------R1 ( R2 + R3 ) v in (5. The input resistance R in of a circuit is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit.= -----------------------------.

desirable to make R 1 as high as possible. Example 5. not the source voltage v S . we apply a test (hypothet- ical) current i X as shown in Figure 5.18) It is therefore.39. that is. Rf 100 K Ω + v in − − + v out − + Solution: Figure 5. if we make R 1 very high such as 10 M Ω . Fortunately. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Therefore.Input and Output Resistances From the above relations we observe that R in = R 1 (5.40. for a large gain. a large gain can be achieved with the circuit of Exercise 8 at the end of this chapter. say 100 .= 0 ix ix By definition. Circuit for Example 5. Circuit for Example 5.13 In the circuit of Figure 5. v in is the voltage at the minus (−) terminal. v in 0 R in = -----. Obvi- ously.13 with a test current source We observe that v in is zero (virtual ground).13 Compute the input resistance R in of the op amp circuit shown in Figure 5. there is no current i S drawn by the op amp. the output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current. the value of the feedback resistor R f should be 1 G Ω . this is an impractical value. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−23 . However. and we treat v in as the source voltage.39. In this case. Therefore. v in Rf 100 K Ω iX − + + v out − Figure 5.40.39.= --.

v load = v OC . Example 5.14 The output voltage of an op amp decreases by 10% when a 5 K Ω load is connected at the output terminals. v load = G v v in and with (5.41.14 With no load connected at the output terminals.× G v v in v load = -----------------------------R out + R load v load 5 KΩ ----------.21) Therefore.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers v oc R out = ------i sc (5.22) From (5.= 0. Solution: Consider the output portion of the op amp shown in Figure 5. we observe that v out = v oc = G v v in (5. Partial circuit for Example 5.20) and (5.21) and from (5.× v out v load = -----------------------------R out + R load (5. − R out + v out − + Figure 5. It is desirable to have an op amp with very low output resistance as illustrated by the following example.9 = ------------------------------v OC R out + 5 K Ω R out = 555 Ω (5. The output resistance provides a measure of the change in output voltage when a load which is connected at the output terminals draws current from the circuit.20). 5−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.22) we observe that as R out → 0 .19) The output resistance R out is not the same as the load resistance. the load voltage v load is R load . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and solving for R out we obtain R load .41.20) With a load R load connected at the output terminals. Compute the output resistance R out .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−25 . At higher frequencies. Negative feedback has the tendency to oppose (subtract from) the input signal.42. Gain 3 dB point 10 5 10 10 4 3 Unity Gain frequency 10 2 10 1 1 f ( Hz ) 10 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 Figure 5. it greatly increases the stability of the circuit. We observe that the frequency response curve shows that the Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.46 the unity gain frequency is 1 MHz . Typical op amp open−loop frequency response curve (log scales) The frequency−response curve of Figure 5. the open−loop configuration is not practical because the very high gain amplifies also electrical noise and other unwanted signals. The operation. The unity gain frequency is the frequency at which the gain is unity. operational amplifiers operate in the closed−loop configurations. the gain is much lower and decreases quite rapidly as frequency increases as shown in Figure 5.Op Amp Open Loop Gain 5.42 where both frequency and gain are in logarithmic scales. closed−loop or open−loop. In Figure 5. As an amplifier.8 Op Amp Open Loop Gain Operational amplifiers can operate either a closed−loop or an open−loop configuration. is determined by whether or not feedback is used. Operational amplifiers are used with negative (degenerative) feedback. with feedback. Although the negative feedback reduces the gain of the operational amplifier. The gain of any amplifier varies with frequency. Without feedback the operational amplifier has an open−loop configuration. The specification sheets for operational amplifiers state the open−loop at DC or 0 Hz . All circuits that we considered in the previous sections of this chapter operate in the closed loop configuration. the negative feedback causes the inverting and non−inverting inputs to the operational amplifier will be kept at the same potential. This open−loop configuration is practical only when the operational amplifier is used as a comparator − a circuit which compares two input signals or compares an input signal to some fixed level of voltage. and creates poor stability.42 shows that the bandwidth is only 10 Hz with this configuration. Also. that is. Accordingly.

the unity gain frequency.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers gain falls off with frequency at the rate of – 20 dB ⁄ decade . for any op amp Gain × Bandwidth = Unity Gain Frequency (5. We observe that the half−power point of this curve is slightly above 10 KHz .. the 3 dB bandwidth as BW 3 dB .9 Op Amp Closed Loop Gain An ideal op amp is shown in Figure 5. we can express (5.42 reveals also the gain− bandwidth product is constant at any point of the curve. i.44. and the norator for the output.24) The use of negative feedback increases the bandwidth of an operational amplifier circuit but decreases the gain so that the gain times bandwidth product is always equal to the unity gain frequency of the op amp. no voltage or current. Figure 5.000 for the operational amplifier without feedback). Of course. Gain 3 dB point ( open loop ) 10 5 10 10 4 3 dB point ( closed loop ) Unity Gain frequency 3 10 2 10 1 1 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 f ( Hz ) Figure 5. The frequency−response curve shown in Figure 5. an ideal op amp does not exist but the outstanding characteristics of the op amp allow us to treat it as an ideal device. and the unity gain frequency as f ug . Closed−loop frequency response for a gain of 100 5..43 is for a circuit in which negative feedback has been used to decrease the circuit gain to 100 (from 100.e. i.43.23) as A ol ⋅ BW 3 dB = f ug (5.23) Denoting the open−loop gain as A ol .e. 5−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . any voltage or current. that is. Thus. and this product is equal to 1 MHz . An exact equivalent of the ideal op amp is referred to an a nullor consists of two new elements − the nullator for the input.

v out is negative. However.e. the output voltage v out is positive and when v 1 > v 2 . Example 5. resistors and capacitors should be chosen for a closed−loop gain of about one− tenth to one−twentieth of the open loop gain at a given frequency. i. Assume that the input impedance is infinite and the output impedance is zero.. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−27 . the coefficients on the denominator of the transfer function must all be positive. we call the lower terminal v 2 the non−inverting input and the upper terminal v 1 the inverting input. A o l = 200.15 For stability. for the popular 741 device. The external devices. R − v in − + + C1 C2 R1 Rf v out + − Solution: Figure 5. the op amp rejects any signals at its inputs that are exactly the same. In other words.15 Figure 5. Accordingly. Circuit for Example 5. v out = 0 and we call this condition common−mode rejection. To Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.45. if v 2 = v 1 . 000 . The ideal op amp From Figure 5.Op Amp Closed Loop Gain The open−loop gain A o l of an op amp is very high.45 shows a circuit that can be used as a high−pass filter. We want to find the range of the open−loop gain A o l for which the system is stable. v1 v in = v 2 – v 1 v2 R in R out Ideal Conditions v out R in = ∞ R out = 0 Ao l ( v2 – v1 ) v out = A ol v in Figure 5.44 v out = A o l ( v 2 – v 1 ) (5.25) We observe that when v 2 > v 1 .44. This will ensure that the op amp will operate in a stable condition and without distortion.

or V out = A o l ( V 2 – V 3 ) = A o l ( V 2 – 0 ) = A o l V 2 V 2 = V out ⁄ A o l Substitution of (5. equating right sides.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers derive the transfer function.31) and (5.26) At Node V 2 .27) and since there is no voltage drop across resistor R .30) into (5. 2 s C 2 ( V 2 – V 1 ) + ----- V R1 (5. 5−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.30) Also. V3 = 0 (5.33) For stability.33) must be positive.28) (5.32) for V 1 . R V1 V3 V2 R1 Rf − v in − + + 1 ⁄ s C1 1 ⁄ s C2 v out − + Figure 5. The s – domain equivalent circuit of Figure 5. we transform the given circuit into its s – domain equivalent as shown in Figure 5.29) (5.+ s C2 ( V1 – V2 ) = 0 Rf (5.26) and (5.49 Application of KCL at Node V 1 yields V 1 – V out s C 1 ( V 1 – V in ) + ---------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .46. that is.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 V in [ R 1 R f C 1 C 2 ] s + [ R 1 C 2 ( 1 – A ol ) + R f C 1 + R f C 2 ] s + 1 V out 2 (5.27) yields V 1 – V out .31) (5.+ s C 2 ( V 1 – V out ⁄ A o l ) = 0 s C 1 ( V 1 – V in ) + ---------------------Rf V out ⁄ A o l s C 2 ( V out ⁄ A o l – V 1 ) + ---------------------R1 (5.32) Solving (5.46. the coefficient of s in the denominator of (5. we obtain the transfer function Ao l [ R1 Rf C1 C2 ] s G ( s ) = ---------. and rearranging.

a test current i x at the inverting input produces an output voltage v out whose value is v out = v in – R f i x . 101 5. and transconductance i out ⁄ v in .13.+ -----------A o l < 1 + ----R1 R1 C2 Let R f = 100 K Ω .47 is the same as that of Figure 5. the circuit for Example 5.36) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Another term used with amplifiers is the transresistance gain R m = v out ⁄ i in . the transresistance R m of the circuit of Figure 5. and since v in = 0 .47 is known as a transresistance amplifier. current gain i out ⁄ i in . The simple op amp circuit shown in Figure 5.01 μ F .35) or Rf Rf C1 .48 shows the circuit model of the transresistance amplifier which was introduced in Exercise 4 in Chapter 1. and C 2 = 0. As in Example 5.= –Rf i i in x (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−29 .13. Figure 5.47 is v out v out R m = --------.34) becomes 10 10 × 10 A o l < 1 + ------.34) (5.Transresistance Amplifier R1 C2 ( 1 – Ao l ) + Rf C1 + Rf C2 > 0 (5.10 Transresistance Amplifier In our previous chapters we introduced voltage gain v out ⁄ v in .= --------. C 1 = 1 μ F . R 1 = 1 K Ω . Rf + v in − − + v out − + Figure 5.47.39. Transresistance amplifier The circuit of Figure 5.+ -----------------------3 3 –8 10 × 10 10 5 5 –6 or A ol < 10. where we found that R in = 0 . With these values (5.

differentiators. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .37) where Z f ( s ) and Z 1 ( s ) are as shown in Figure 5. the closed loop transfer function G ( s ) is V out ( s ) Zf ( s ) G ( s ) = ----------------. I(s) V in ( s ) Z 1 ( s ) − Zf ( s ) + − + V out ( s ) − + Figure 5.51. for the inverting input mode. and in the j ω – domain as Z ( j ω ) . the external devices in the op amp circuits were resistors. and for convenience we denote the series devices as Z 1 ( s ) and the parallel devices as Y f ( s ) . Thus.48.50. The circuit then is as shown in Figure 5. it is also convenient to denote devices in parallel as Y ( s ) or Y ( j ω ) .49. 5. and active filters contain capacitors in addition to resistors.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers i in R out i out v out R m = --------- v out i in i out = 0 v in R in R m i in Figure 5.= – -----------V in ( s ) Z1 ( s ) (5. Solution: To derive the transfer function.11 Closed Loop Transfer Function In all of the previous sections of this chapter. several other circuits such as integrators. The s – domain inverting amplifier Example 5.49. However. we first convert the given circuit to its s – domain equivalent. In this case it is convenient to denote devices in series as an impedance in the s – domain as Z ( s ) . 5−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.16 Derive the closed−loop transfer function for the circuit of Figure 5. Transresistance circuit model and the minus (−) sign indicates that them output voltage v out and the test current i x are 180 ° out−of−phase with each other. Likewise.

= ----------------------Z f ( s ) = -----------Yf ( s ) 1 + s Cf Rf (5.37).51. the voltage across the capacitor is 1 v C = --C ∫–∞iC dt t (5.12 The Op Amp Integrator The op amp circuit of Figure 5.The Op Amp Integrator Rf Cf + v in − R1 − C1 + + v out − Figure 5.50 From Figure 5.16 Yf ( s ) Z1 ( s ) Rf + V in ( s ) − R1 1 ⁄ s C1 1 ⁄ s Cf − + V out ( s ) − + Figure 5.40) From (5.38).50.= ---Y f ( s ) = ---.40) s C1 Rf Rf ⁄ ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) V out ( s ) Zf ( s ) = – ------------= – ----------------------------------------.= – --------------------------------------------------------G ( s ) = -----------------( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ⁄ s C1 ( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ( s Cf Rf + 1 ) Z1 ( s ) V in ( s ) (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−31 .+ s Cf = ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) ⁄ Rf Rf 1 ⁄ s Cf Rf Rf 1 .42) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.39) (5. For the integrator circuit of Figure 5.51.52.38) (5.41) 5.52 is known as the Miller integrator.+ -------------. Circuit for Example 5. Z1 ( s ) = R1 + 1 ⁄ s C1 = ( s C1 R1 + 1 ) ⁄ s C1 1 1 1 . and (5. The s – domain equivalent circuit of Figure 5. (5.

42) as 1 v C = --C ∫0 i C d t + V 0 t (5.17 5−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Find and sketch the output voltage assuming that the initial condition is zero.17 The input voltage to the amplifier in Figure 5. the output voltage v out is the negative of the capacitor voltage v C . since we rewrite (5. Circuit and input waveform for Example 5. that is. we can express (5. V 0 = 0 . C 1 μF 2 v in ( V ) R1 v in 1 M Ω v out (b) (a) 3 t (s) Figure 5. v out = – v C .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers i v in R1 iC = i C v out Figure 5. the voltage across the capacitor is V 0 . and thus 1 v out = – --C Also.46) v in i C = i = -----1 v out = – --------R1 C ∫0 vin dt – V0 t Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .52.53.53(a) is as shown in Figure 5. The Miller integrator and assuming the initial condition that at t = 0 .45) (5.44) as ∫0 i C d t – V 0 R1 t (5.53(b).43) Since the inverting input is at virtual ground. that is.44) (5.

46) 1 v out = – --------R1 C ∫0 vin dt – V0 ∫ 0 2 dt = – 2 t 0 = – 6 3 3 t and with R 1 C = 10 × 10 6 –6 = 1 and V 0 = 0 . Now.54.55(a).The Op Amp Integrator Solution: From (5. Then. v in ( V ) u0 ( t ) v out ( V ) t (s) (a) t (s) (b) Figure 5.54 indicates that after the capacitor charges to 6 V . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the integral above reduces to v out = – ∫0 vin dt t = – This result shows that the output voltage v out decreases linearly from zero to – 6 V in the time interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 3 s and remains constant at – 6 V for t > 3 s thereafter as shown in Figure 5.53 when the input is the unit step function * For a detailed discussion on the unit step function refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. ideally the output would be a negative ramp towards minus infinity as shown in Figure 5. The output voltage of the circuit in Figure 5.55(b). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−33 . Fourth Edition. ISBN 978−1−9734404−11−9.55.54. v out ( V ) 3 t (s) –6 Figure 5. it behaves like an open circuit and effectively the negative feedback is an open circuit.57(a) is the unit step function u 0 ( t ) * as shown in Figure 5.53 The output voltage waveform in Figure 5. Output waveform for the integrator circuit in Figure 5. let us suppose that the input to the op amp integrator circuit of Figure 5.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Circuit and input waveform for Example 5.17 except that a 5 M Ω feedback resistor has been added and the capacitor value was changed to 0. and in this case the circuit behaves like a low− pass filter as shown in Exercise 13 at the end of this chapter. typically ± 15 V depending on the polarity of the input DC signal. This problem can be rectified if we place a feedback resistor R f in parallel with the capacitor.56(a) is as shown in Figure 5.18 The input voltage to the amplifier in Figure 5. This feedback resistor should be at least as large as the input resistance R 1 .05 ) = – 10 ( 0.47) where v in –2 .R f = ------------. Example 5. The output voltage for this time interval is v out = – v C = – 10 ( 1 – e –( 1 ⁄ R f C ) t ) and at t = 3 s v out t=3 s = – 10 ( 1 – e –3 ⁄ 1 ) = – 10 ( 1 – 0.2 μ F to simplify the computations.56. Rf R1 C i 5 MΩ 0. that is.2 μ F 2 v in ( V ) v in 1 MΩ v out (a) (b) 3 t (s) Figure 5. Find and sketch the output voltage for the interval 0 ≤ t ≤ 10 s assuming that the initial condition is zero.95 ) = – 9. Since it is stated that the initial condition is zero. V 0 = 0 .5 V 5−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.× 5 M Ω = – 10V V ∞ = – i R f = – -----1 MΩ R1 for 0 ≤ t ≤ 3 s . the output voltage saturates at the power supply voltage of the op amp.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers In reality.56(b). the capacitor charges in accordance with the relation vC = V∞ ( 1 – e – ( 1 ⁄ Rf C ) t ) (5.18 Solution: This is the same circuit and input voltage waveform as in Example 5.

Output waveform for the circuit of Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−35 .54 × 10 –5 = – 45. v out ( V ) 3 10 t (s) – 9.58.4 μ V The output waveform is shown in Figure 5. Basic differentiator circuit We observe that the right side of the capacitor is virtually grounded and therefore the current through the capacitor is dv in dv C . the addition of the feedback resistor makes the circuit of Figure 5.13 The Op Amp Differentiator The op amp can also be configured to perform differentiation.58. 5. The basic differentiator circuit is shown in Figure 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 Figure 5.57. v out = – R f i C dv in v out = – R f C --------dt (5.48) and we observe that the output voltage v out is the derivative of the input voltage v in .18 As we can see from Figure 5.57.The Op Amp Differentiator At t = 10 s v out t = 10 s = v out t=3 s ×e – ( 1 ⁄ RC ) t = – 10e – 10 ⁄ 1 = – 10 × 4. C iC − Rf + v in − iC + v out + − Figure 5.56 somewhat less than an ideal integrator.= C --------i C = C -------dt dt Also.57.

minus the initial value of f ( t ) at t = 0 − .19 The time constant τ of the differentiator circuit of Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The circuit of Figure 5. Example 5.* Thus. the capacitive reactance X C decreases and the ratio of the feedback resistance R f to the capacitive reactance increases causing a gain increase without bounds. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .59 is τ = 1 ms .= 1 MΩ 10 b.59. Differentiator circuit for Example 5. We could connect a resistor is series with the capacitor but the circuit then becomes a non−ideal differentiator. refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.⇔ sV C ( s ) – v C ( 0 − ) dt * For all Laplace transform properties.= --------R f = --. what should the value of that resistor be? t = 0 C 1 nF Rf − + v in − + − vC ( t ) − + + v out − Solution: a. Find the value of the feedback resistor R f b.19 –3 τ = R f C = 10 τ C 10 –3 –9 s . and v C ( 0 ) = 0 a. Derive the transfer function V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) c. Differentiation in the time domain corresponds to multiplication by s in the complex frequency domain. If a resistor is added in series with the capacitor to limit the high frequency gain to 100 .58 is not a practical differentiator because as the frequency increases. Find the magnitude and phase at f = 1 KHz d. dv C -------. ISBN 978−0−9709511− 5−1. and with C = 10 –9 Figure 5. 5−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

R 1 = 10 K Ω .= ω Rf C V in θ = – 90 ° V out ---------V in = 2 π × 10 × 10 × 10 f = 1 KHz 3 6 –9 = 2 π × 10 × 10 3 –3 = 2π and the phase angle is – 90 ° at all frequencies. d. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−37 . the capacitor behaves as a short circuit and so with the addition of a resistor R 1 in series with the capacitor.60 shows the basic inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit. for a gain of 100 .14 Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits The circuit of Figure 5.= –j ω Rf C V in ( j ω ) V out ---------.48) V out ( s ) = – sR f CV in ( s ) − or V out ( s ) -----------------= – sR f C V in ( s ) c. As f → ∞ .Summing and Averaging Op Amp Circuits and since v C ( 0 ) = 0 . from (5. the closed loop voltage gain G v is Gv = –Rf ⁄ R1 and with R f = 1 M Ω .60. 5. Basic inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v in 1 + − R1 i1 R2 i i v in 2 + − i2 RN − Rf + − + v in N iN v out + − Figure 5. With s = j ω . the transfer function can be expressed in magnitude and phase form as V out ( j ω ) --------------------.

The circuit of Figure 5.* The circuit of Figure 5. R 2. v in N and their series resistances R 1. ….v + ----.60 can be used to find the negative sum of any number of input voltages. if R1 = R2 = … = RN = R the relation of (5. the total current is i = i1 + i2 + … + iN where Also Then. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0 5−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. …. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . v in 2 ⁄ R 2. that is.60 can also be used to find the average value of all input voltages. R N can be replaced by current sources whose values are v in 1 ⁄ R 1. * For voltage source with series resistance to current source with parallel resistance transformation please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.49) reduces to . relation (5. ….49) If all input resistances are equal. v in 2. The ratio R f ⁄ R is selected such that the sum of the input voltages is divided by the number of input voltages applied at the inverting input of the op amp.60. In Figure 5.v + … + ------v ⎞ v out = – R f i = – R f ( i 1 + i 2 + … + i N ) = – ⎛ ----⎝ R 1 in 1 R 2 in 2 R N in N⎠ R R R (5. The circuit of Figure 5.62.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers In the circuit of 5.61 shows the basic non−inverting summing and non−inverting averaging op amp circuit.51) and this indicates that the circuit of Figure 5.61 can now be represented as in Figure 5.49) reduces further to v out = – ( v in 1 + v in 2 + … + v in N ) (5. R N .( v + v in 2 + … + v in N ) v out = – ---R in 1 Rf (5. R 2.50) If R f = R .61 the voltage sources v in 1. v in N ⁄ R N and their parallel resistances R 1. …. v in 1 i 1 = --------R1 v in 2 i 2 = --------R2 … v in N i N = ---------RN v out = – R f i = – R f ( i 1 + i 2 + … + i N ) f f f .

Rf v in 1 + R1 R2 − − v in 2 + + R3 v out + − − Figure 5.63 is a differential input op amp.61.+ 1 ⎞ V 2 = ⎛ ---.52) 5.62. Equivalent circuit for the circuit of Figure 5.Differential Input Op Amp Rf R v in 1 + R1 R2 RN − + v in 2 v out + − − + − v in N + − Figure 5.+ 1 ⎞ ( R eq I eq ) v out = ⎛ ---⎝R ⎠ ⎝ R ⎠ (5.63. the voltage V 2 at the non−inverting input is V 2 = R eq I eq and thus the output voltage is Rf Rf .15 Differential Input Op Amp The circuit of Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−39 .61 In the circuit of Figure 5. Basic non−inverting summing and averaging op amp circuit R V2 Rf − + R eq v out + − Figure 5. Differential input op amp Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.62.

64. with the input voltage v in 1 grounded and v in 2 acting alone.v in 1 v out 1 = – ----R1 Rf (5. we denote the voltage at the non−inverting input as v 2 .65. We will apply the superposition principle to derive an expression for the output voltage v out . the circuit of Figure 5.65 is a non−inverting amplifier and thus 5−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The circuit of Figure 5.63 reduces to that of Figure 5.65 and as indicated. by the voltage division expression.54) The circuit of Figure 5.64 is an inverting amplifier and thus .63 with v in 1 acting alone The circuit of Figure 5.67 with v in 2 acting alone Then. The circuit of Figure 5. Differential input op amps are used in instrumentation circuits.53) Next.63. R1 Rf − v2 R3 + v in 2 R2 + v out 2 + − − Figure 5.63 reduces to that of Figure 5. R1 Rf v in 1 + − − + R2 R3 v out 1 + − Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The differential input configuration allows input signals to be applied simultaneously to both input terminals and produce an output of the difference between the input signals as shown in Figure 5. R3 -v v 2 = -----------------R 2 + R 3 in 2 (5. the circuit of Figure 5. With the input voltage v in 1 acting alone and v in 2 grounded. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .64.

= ------------------------R1 R2 ⁄ R3 + 1 Rf R2 ⎛ ----. (5. Rf Rf Rf Rf R3 + R1 R3 R3 .57) above reduces to Rf Rf ⁄ R1 + 1 ----.54).+ 1 ⎞ v2 ⎝ R1 ⎠ (5.58) * The common mode rejection is normally expressed in dB.v in 1 + ⎛ ----. It is highly desirable that the differential input op amp of Figure 5.v + ⎛ ------------------------v out = – ----R 1 in 1 ⎝ R 2 ⁄ R 3 + 1 ⎠ in 2 (5. CMR ( dB ) = 20 log ( A v ⁄ Acm ) = 20 log CMRR .55) Then.= ---------CMRR = ----------------------------------------------------Common mode gain A cm (5. relation (5. Ideally. this is referred to as common−mode rejection. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.56).Differential Input Op Amp Rf v out 2 = ⎛ ----. A cm is zero but in reality is finite and much smaller than unity. from (5.⎞v .+ 1 ⎞ Rf ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝R ⎠ 3 -R R f + R 1 = R f + ----R f 3 2 -R R 1 = ----R f 3 R2 R and thus for optimum CMMR Rf R3 ----. that is.57) where the differential gain A d is the gain with the input signals applied differentially. when v in 2 = v in 1 and v out = 0 . that is.v in 2 ⎞ = – ----. and (5.56) To be useful. that is.= ----R1 R2 (5. We also want a non−zero output when v in 2 ≠ v in 1 . and as we now know. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−41 . a differential input amplifier must have a high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) defined as Ad * Differential gain .+ 1 ⎞ ⎛ -----------------v out = v out 1 + v out 2 = – ----⎠ ⎝ R 1 R 2 + R 1 R 3 ⎠ in 2 ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝ R2 + R3 R1 R1 or Rf Rf ⁄ R1 + 1 -⎞v .v in 1 + ⎛ ------------------------------. A cm = V cm out ⁄ V cm in . and common mode gain is the ratio of the output common−mode voltage V cm out to the input common−mode voltage V cm in . If the common−mode rejection condition is achieved.63 produces an output voltage v out = 0 when v in 2 = v in 1 .55).+ 1⎞ R 1 = ⎛ ----.

we must make the feedback resistor R f as large as possible and the resistance R 1 as small as possible. Then R 3 = R f and with these simplifications the circuit of Figure 5. we will derive the input resistance for the differential input op amp circuit of Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers By substitution of (5. Rf v in 2 – v in 1 i + R1 − − + R1 Rf v out + − Figure 5.66.58) we let R 2 = R 1 .63.59) reveals that for a large differential gain.56) we obtain f v out = ----( v in 2 – v in 1 ) R R1 (5. Differential input op amp for derivation of the input resistance Application of KVL around the input circuit starting at the minus (−) input terminal and going counterclockwise.62). by definition and from (5.60 and (5.67.62) Also.61) v in 2 – v in 1 R in = ------------------------i R in = 2R 1 Relation (5.59) Next. 5−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.58) into (5. 5. we obtain R 1 i + R 1 i – ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) = 0 v in 2 – v in 1 = 2R 1 i (5. For convenience in (5.63 is as shown in Figure 5.16 Instrumentation Amplifiers High input resistance differential input amplifiers are suitable for use in differential measurement applications and the associated circuits are referred to as instrumentation amplifiers such as that shown in Figure 5.66. But with small R 1 the input impedance will also become small as we can see from (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .61) (5. and observing that there is a virtual short between the inverting and non− inverting inputs.60) (5.

( v – v2 ) ⎝ R ⎠ 1 1 (5.67 we have made the assumption that there is no current flowing at the inputs of amplifiers A 1 and A 2 and thus the same current flows through the resistive R 2 – R 1 – R 2 network. Thus. High input resistance differential input op amp for use with instrumentation circuits In the circuit of Figure 5.Instrumentation Amplifiers + − v1 + − A1 vo 1 R2 R3 R4 v1 – v2 I R1 − + R2 R3 A3 v out + − − + − v2 + A2 R4 vo 2 Figure 5.63) We also have made the assumption that there is no voltage difference between the amplifiers A 1 and A 2 input terminals. vo 1 – v1 v1 – v2 v2 – v1 I = -----------------.59) as Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.( v – v2 ) + vo 2 ⎝ R1 ⎠ ⎝ R ⎠ 1 1 2R 2⎞ v o 1 – v o 2 = ⎛ 1 + -------.= ---------------= ---------------R R2 R2 1 (5.64) (5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−43 .65) 2R 2⎞ .67.( v – v1 ) v o 2 – v o 1 = ⎛ 1 + -------⎝ R ⎠ 2 1 To find the output v out of amplifier A 3 we express (5.63) the above relation can be expressed as v1 – v2 2R 2⎞ v o 1 = ( R 1 + 2R 2 ) ⎛ ----------------⎞ + v o 2 = ⎛ 1 + -------. The output voltage v o 1 of amplifier A 1 is v o 1 = R 2 I + R 1 I + R 2 I + v o 2 = ( R 1 + 2R 2 ) I + v o 2 and with the second term on the right side of (5.

65) R4 2 R2 . op amp manufacturers recommend that the resistor R 1 be replaced with a fixed value resistor in series with a variable resistor.66) Therefore. as shown in Figure 5.67) To make the overall gain of the circuit of Figure 5. the differential gain is R4 2 R2 v out . the output voltage with respect to ground can be 100 × ± 6 × 10 –3 = ± 0. the slider on the potentiometer is connected to the negative power supply.⎛ -------v out = ----. The interested reader may refer to Exercise 16 at the end of this chapter.68.2. Offset nulling terminals of the 741 op amp 6 According to the 741 op amp specifications. while the variable resistor (a potentiometer) can be adjusted for different gains.67 variable while maintaining CMRR capability. The offset null connections (pins 1 and 5) provide a simple way to balance out the internal variations and zero out the output offset which might be apparent with zero input voltage. The fixed resistor will ensure that the maximum gain is limited. 2 3 5 1 − V Figure 5. 5.+ 1⎞ ( v 2 – v 1 ) ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 (5.+ 1⎞ ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 ( v2 – v1 ) (5. It is used simply by connecting a trimmer potentiometer between pins 1 and 5.17 Offset Nulling Figure 5. the maximum input offset voltage is ± 6 mv and assuming that the closed loop gain is 100. we must set the input voltage to zero and use the offset null potentiometer to set the output voltage precisely to zero.68.⎛ -------A d = -------------------. Page 5−2. As shown.= ----.6 V and this value can be either positive or negative even though the input signal is zero volts. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4 . To adjust for zero offset. 5−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.( vo 2 – vo 1 ) v out = ----- R R3 and with (5. shows that pins 1 and 5 in the 741 op amp are identified as offset null.

Typically. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Other types of op amps like the 748 op amp. and C 3 . we can alter the frequency response as shown in Figure 5. that is. Typical op amp with externally connected capacitors for frequency compensation 100 90 80 Open-loop gain (dB) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 3 10 10 4 No compensation With compensation 10 10 Frequency (Hz) 5 6 10 7 10 8 Figure 5. Frequency responses with and without external frequency compensation 5. C 2 . Therefore.19 Slew Rate There is a limit to the rate at which the output voltage of an op amp can change. Figure 5.69. manufacturers specify a new parameter referred to as the slew rate. Figure 5. By definition. the slew rate (SR) is the maximum rate of change of an output voltage produced in response to a large input step function and it is normally expressed in volts per microsecond.External Frequency Compensation 5.70. the compensating components alter the open loop gain characteristics so that the roll−off is about 20 dB ⁄ decade over a wide range of frequencies.70. With the appropriate selection of capacitors C 1 .69 shows a typical op−amp with external frequency compensation where 3 external capacitors can be used as frequency compensating components. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−45 .18 External Frequency Compensation General purpose op amps like the 741 op amp. are without internal frequency compensation and require external connection of frequency compensating components to the op amp. are normally internally frequency compensated so that they will be stable with all values of resistive feedback.

zener diodes. Figure 5. A ol ⋅ BW 3 dB = f ug . Typical slew rates range from 0.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers dv out Slew Rate = SR = -----------dt max (5. and f ug is the unity gain frequency as defined in (5.69) where V f is the final value of the output voltage as shown in Figure 5. and the waveform at the output of this op amp.71 shows a step function of amplitude 10 V applied to the input of a unity gain op amp.71.71 will not be produced if the input voltage is smaller than that specified by the manufacturer. bipolar tran- 5−46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. In most op amps the slew rate is set by the charging rate of the frequency compensating capacitor and the output voltage is v out = V f ( 1 – e – ω ug t ) (5.68) Of course. relation (5. ω ug = 2 π f ug .1 V ⁄ μ s to 100 V ⁄ μ s . the slew rate will be a rising exponential such as the rising voltage across a capacitor. Vf v out t Δ t = 1 ⁄ ω ug Figure 5. i.e. The resultant slew rate when a step function is applied to a unity gain op amp The linearly rising slew rate shown in Figure 5. There are many circuits that can be formed with op amps and non−linear devices such as junction diodes.68) is the slope of the output voltage under maximum rate of change conditions. Plot for expression v out = V f ( 1 – e – ω ug t ) 5.24). In this case.. and most internally compensated op amps have slew rates in the order of 1 V ⁄ μ s .72. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .71.20 Circuits with Op Amps and Non−Linear Devices Op amps are often used in circuits with non−linear devices. v in ( V ) 10 − v out ( V ) Slew rate = Slope +v − in t + R v out − + 10 t Figure 5.

Thus. its value is limited to the value V Z + V F where V F is the voltage drop across the forward−biased Zener diode and it is typically 1 about 0.7 V . and R f = 100 K Ω .73 shows a positive and negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics. 2 D1 D2 VZ + VF 1 v out + − R1 v in Rf − + v out + Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 v in – ( V Z2 + V F ) − Figure 5. when the output voltage is positive. its value is limited to the value –( VZ + VF ) . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. In the voltage limiting circuit of Figure 5.73. the output peaks on positive half−cycles are limited to V Z + V F = 6. The minus sign simply implies inversion. v in = 0.7 = 7 V 1 and the output peaks on negative half−cycles are limited to * The gain is always expressed as a positive quantity. Figure 5.7 V . v in = 3 cos ( 1000 t + π ⁄ 6 ) Solution: Since this is an inverting amplifier. Likewise.73 the Zener diodes D 1 and D 2 limit the peak−to−peak value of the output voltage. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−47 . R 1 = 5 K Ω .6 cos 100 t c.3 + 0. its gain is R f ⁄ R 1 = 100 ⁄ 5 = 20 * and since we are interested in peak values. A positive and negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Example 5. V Z = V Z = 6. V F = 0. when the output voltage is positive. and MOSFETs.20 In the circuit of Figure 5. In this section we will introduce just a few. the frequencies and phase angles are immaterial for this example. v in = 0.73.Circuits with Op Amps and Non−Linear Devices sistors. 1 2 Describe the output waveforms when a.3 sin 10 t b. With the given values.3 V .

7 ) = – 7 V 2 a. c. 5−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 ) v in = – 20 × ( ± 0. the output peak voltage is clipped to v out ( peak ) = − +7 V .74. With v in = ± 0. However.3 + 0. v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 ) v in = – 20 × ( ± 0. With v in = ± 3 V peak. With v in = ± 0.3 ) = − +6 V This value is lower than ± 7 V and neither Zener diode conducts. Figure 5. − 60 V v out ( peak ) = ( – R f ⁄ R 1 ) v in = – 20 × ( ± 3 ) = + This is indeed a very large voltage for the output of an op amp and even without the Zener diodes. D1 D2 v out VZ + VF 1 v in + − R1 − Rf + v out + − Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 v in Figure 5. A positive voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Figure 5.6 ) = − + 12 V and this would be the output peak voltage if the Zener diodes were not present. the op amp would saturate. the negative half− cycles are not clipped unless the op amp is driven into negative saturation. v out cannot rise above the voltage level V Z + V F because the Zener 1 diode enters the Zener (avalanche) region and the output is clipped. As shown by the transfer characteristics.74 shows a positive voltage limiter and its transfer characteristics where both the Zener diode and the junction diode limit the positive half−cycle of the output voltage.3 V peak.6 V peak.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers – ( V Z + V F ) = – ( 6. b. Therefore. Since they are.75 shows a negative voltage limiter and its transfer characteristics. But with the Zener diodes present. v out ( peak ) = − +7 V . the output voltage is an unclipped sinusoid.

Circuits with Op Amps and Non−Linear Devices D1 D2 v out + v in R1 − Rf − + v out + − v in Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 –( VZ2 + VF ) Figure 5. and during the negative half−cycles of the output voltage is limited by the Zener diode forward voltage drop V F .76 shows a limiter where only a single Zener diode is used.77 shows another limiter where only a single Zener diode is used.76.76. D v out R1 Rf + v in − VZ v out 1 − + + − Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 v in –VF Figure 5. the output is limited by the Zener diode during the positive half− cycles of the output voltage. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−49 . A half−wave rectifier with limited positive output and its transfer characteristics In the circuit of Figure 5. This circuit is often referred to as a half−wave rectifier with limited positive output. Figure 5. D v out VF v out + v in R1 − Rf + − –VZ Slope = – R f ⁄ R 1 − + v in Figure 5. A half−wave rectifier with limited negative output and its transfer characteristics Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A negative voltage limiter circuit and its transfer characteristics Figure 5.75.77.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .22 Wien Bridge Oscillator The circuit shown in Figure 5. sawtooth−wave generators.77is often referred to as a half−wave rectifier with limited negative output. Wien bridge oscillators.77. and during the positive half−cycles of the output voltage is limited by the Zener diode forward voltage drop V F .78.78. A differential input op amp without feedback used as a comparator As shown in Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers The circuit of Figure 5.78 shows a differential input amplifier without feedback used as a comparator. v out = +V CC if v ref > v in .79 is known as Wien bridge oscillator.21 Comparators A comparator is a circuit that senses changes in a varying signal and produces an output when a threshold value is reached. Twin−T oscillators. the digital−to− analog converter. * We will revisit the Wien bridge oscillator in Chapter 8. Op amp applications are limitless. and multivibrators. 5−50 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the output is limited by the Zener diode during the negative half−cycles of the output voltage. +V CC v out +V CC 6 v ref > v in + v in 2 7 4 – V CC − + v ref 3 v out + − v ref < v in v ref − – V CC Figure 5. In the circuit of Figure 5. sample and hold circuits. that is. and the analog−to−digital converter in the next sections. Figure 5. This circuit produces a sinusoidal output. and v out = – V CC if v ref < v in . triangular−wave generators. an op amp is used without feedback. square−wave generators. variable frequency signal generators. and the Schmitt trigger and multivibrators in Chapter 7. the op amp is used in the open loop configuration. Schmitt trigger. As a comparator. It will suffice to say that other applications include zero−crossing detectors also known as sine−wave to square− wave converters. 5. Comparators are used extensively in analog−to−digital conversion as we will see in a subsequent section. It is beyond the scope of this text to describe all. We will discuss the Wien bridge oscillator*. The switching time from – V CC to +V CC is limited by the slew rate of the op amp. 5.

79.Wien Bridge Oscillator V R1 C1 C2 R2 10 KΩ D1 D2 V out 50 K Ω Figure 5. The input signal to the non−inverting input is in phase with the output V of the op amp at the particular frequency 1 f 0 = -------------2 π RC (5.70). The Wien bridge oscillator Figure 5. It also amplifies the signal with two negative feedback resistors.79 shows that the Wien bridge oscillator uses two RC networks connected to the non− inverting input of the op amp to form a frequency selective feedback circuit and this causes oscillations to occur. The feedback signal at the non−inverting input of the op amp leads the output V of the op amp at frequencies below f 0 and lags V at frequencies above f 0 . 1 1 . What values of R 2 . The values of capacitors C 1 . and C 2 must also be equal. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−51 .21 For the oscillator circuit in Figure 5.70) provided that and R = R1 = R2 C = C1 = C2 The Wien bridge oscillator requires precision resistors and capacitors for reliable operation. Example 5.= -----------------------------f 0 = 1 KHz = -------------5 2 π RC 2 π × 10 × C Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and C 2 are required to obtain a frequency of approximately 1 KHz ? Solution: The value of resistor R 2 must be 100 K Ω . C 1 . The diodes prevent excessive feedback amplitude.79 R 1 = 100 K Ω . The amount of negative feedback to the inverting input of the op amp and amplitude can be adjusted with the 50 K Ω potentiometer. From (5.

80. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .81 V D = 0 . V 100 K Ω 15.81. V B = 0 . This two−level scheme works well with the binary number system. digital systems* recognize only two levels of voltage referred to as HIGH and LOW signals or as logical 1 and logical 0.21 5.9 μ F 10 KΩ D1 D2 V out 50 K Ω Figure 5.= 15.9 μ F C = C 1 = C 2 = ----------------------------------5 3 2 π × 10 × 10 and the circuit is as shown in Figure 5. * Refer also to Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs. that is. 5−52 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. VN VD VC VB VA 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V Figure 5. and V A = 1 . switches A and C are HIGH (5 volts) and switches B and D are LOW (0 volts).80.9 μ F 100 K Ω 15.1. 1 . ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8. The first 16 binary numbers representing all possible combinations of the four switches with voltage settings V A (least significant position) through V D (most significant position). Circuit for Example 5.81. V C = 1 . and their decimal equivalents are shown in Table 5. Digital circuit represented by SPDT switches In Figure 5.23 Digital−to−Analog Converters As we will see in Chapter 6.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Also. It is customary to indicate the HIGH (logical 1)and LOW (logical 0) by Single−Pole−Double−Throw (SPDT) switches that can be set to a positive non−zero voltage like 5 volts for HIGH and zero volts or ground for LOW as shown in Figure 5.

an analog equivalent voltage of 1010 must be double the analog voltage representing 0101. The DAC with binary−weighted resistors shown in Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−53 .81 and binary and decimal equivalents Voltage Level VD LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH VC LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH LOW LOW LOW LOW HIGH HIGH HIGH HIGH VB LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH LOW LOW HIGH HIGH VA LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH LOW HIGH A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Binary Equivalent B C D 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Decimal Equivalent 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 A digital−to−analog (D/A or DAC) converter is used to convert a binary output from a digital system to an equivalent analog voltage.Digital−to−Analog Converters TABLE 5. the analog device should have 16 possible values.71) The proof is left as an exercise at the end of this chapter.82. since the binary number 1010 (decimal 10) is twice the value of the binary number 0101 (decimal 5). Digital−to−analog converter using binary−weighted resistors We can prove that the equivalent analog voltage V analog shown in Figure 5. R----R --8 VD VC R --4 VB R --2 VA V analog R 2 VN n Figure 5.82 shows a DAC with binary−weighted resistors. Figure 5. For example.82 is obtained from the relation V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D + … V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… (5.82 has the disadvantage that it Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 Voltage levels for the circuit of Figure 5. If there are 16 combinations of the voltages V D through V A .

5−54 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.83 is obtained from the relation V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D + … V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 (5. R and 2R. 2R 2R VA VB R 2R VC R 2R R 2R VD V analog Figure 5.83. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Fill−in the right−most column with your answers. but only two sets of precision resistance values.85 shows a four−bit DAC where all four switches are set at the ground level. a non−inverting op amp could be used with a positive value of V ref .22 Figure 5.84 shows a four−bit R−2R ladder network and an op−amp connected to form a DAC.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers requires a large number of precision resistors. Typical R−2R DAC circuit Example 5. The proof is left as an exercise at the end of this chapter.72) where n is the number of digital inputs. Find the analog voltage value at the output of the unity gain amplifier for each of the sets of the switch positions shown in Table 5.83. Alternately. Figure 5. requires more resistors. known as R−2R ladder network.84. The op amp shown is an inverting amplifier and in this case the reference voltage V ref should be negative so that the amplifier output will be positive.2. Rf 2R V analog 2R 2R R 2R R 2R R V ref Figure 5. Digital−to−analog converter using the R−2R ladder network We can prove that the equivalent analog voltage V analog shown in Figure 5. The DAC of Figure 5.

5 V n 4 2 2 V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D 1 × 8 + 2 × 0 + 4 × 0 + 8 × 8 V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------.= 1.= ------------------------------------------------------------------.2 Switch positions for Example 5.= 2. d.5 V n 4 2 2 V A + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D 1 × 0 + 2 × 8 + 4 × 0 + 8 × 0 V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------. and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.22 TABLE 5.0 V n 4 2 2 4 Based on these results.= 4.= ------------------------------------------------------------------.= ------------------------------------------------------------------.= ------------------------------------------------------------------V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------. V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D 1 × 8 + 2 × 8 + 4 × 8 + 8 × 8 .72): a.85.5 V n 4 2 2 V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D 1 × 8 + 2 × 0 + 4 × 8 + 8 × 0 V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------. From (5.= 7. DAC circuit for Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−55 . we can now fill−in the right−most column with the values we obtained.22 (a) (b) (c) (d) A2 1 1 1 0 0 B2 1 0 0 1 1 C2 1 0 1 0 2 D2 1 1 0 0 3 Solution: This is a 4−bit DAC and thus we have 2 = 16 distinct binary values from 0000 to 1111 corresponding to decimals 0 through 15 respectively.Digital−to−Analog Converters 20 K Ω 10 K Ω 20 K Ω D ( lsb ) 10 K Ω 20 K Ω C 10 K Ω 20 K Ω B 20 K Ω A ( msb ) 0 1 0 V analog 1 0 1 0 1 8 VDC Figure 5. c. b.

and the Delta−Sigma algorithmic 5−56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Output vs. the principle of the previously discussed digital−to−analog or D/A converter or simply DAC can be reversed to perform analog−to−digital A/D conversion.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers we can plot the output versus inputs of the R−2R network for the voltage levels 0 V and 4 V as shown in Figure 5.87.5 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 V in ( V ) Figure 5.86. usually referred to as ADC.0 2. Placing an impedance−matching device (the op amp in this case) at the output of the resistive network is called buffering the output of the network. inputs for an R−2R network with levels 0 to 4 volts A typical DAC must include an op amp to match the resistive network to a low−resistance load and to provide gain also.86. the successive approximation converter. R1 Rf V analog 2R VD 2R 2R VA R 2R VB R 2R VC R Figure 5.0 0. the dual−slope converter.0 1. Figure 5.87 shows an R−2R type DAC with buffered output and gain. Op amp placed between the resistive network and output for buffering and gain 5.0 3. In such cases.5 1.24 Analog−to−Digital Converters Often an analog voltage must be converted to a digital equivalent. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V out ( V ) 4. such as the flash converter. There are different types of analog−to−digital converters. such as in a digital voltmeter.5 3.5 2.

com/vol_4/chpt_13/9.3. a practical ADC would require a circuit with many more comparators and a suitable line encoder. A typical circuit for a flash type ADC The truth table of the 8−to−3 line encoder is shown in Table 5.2 V.5 V V x = V y Previous Value Vx > Vy Ai = 0 Vx < Vy Ai = 1 For Example.88 shows a typical flash type ADC consists of a resistive network. if Analog Input = 5. the interested reader may refer to http://www.allaboutcircuits. and an 8− to−3 line encoder. 5.5 V A6 A5 A4 A3 A2 A1 A0 B2 8 – to – 3 Line Encoder Vx Vy Ai 6V Inputs Output B1 B0 4. * For a detailed discussion of line encoders please refer to Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs. then A0 = A1 = A2 = A3 = 1 and A4 = A5 = A6 = A7 = A8 = 0 0 V Analog Input Figure 5.Analog−to−Digital Converters converter.5 V Comparator 9V 7. Obviously. We will not discuss the latter.1 The Flash Analog−to−Digital Converter Figure 5. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.88.html.5 V 3V 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−57 . We begin our discussion with the flash converter because of its simplicity.* The flash ADC is so named because of its high conversion speed. comparators.24. ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8. 12 VDC Supply 12 V A8 A7 Overflow 10.

ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers TABLE 5.0 V 9.5 to less than 3. A typical circuit for a successive approximation ADC The up−down counter* has a digital output that increases with each clock pulse when the count− up line is HIGH and the count−down line is LOW.88 Analog Input Less than 0 V 0 to less than 1.0 V 3. refer to Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs. Conversely.5 to less than 6.2 The Successive Approximation Analog−to−Digital Converter Figure 5.5 to less than 9.3 Truth table for the 8−to−3 line encoder of Figure 7. Op amp A 2 is a compar* For a detailed discussion on up−down counters. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5 V 10.5 V 4.0 to less than 7.5 V 7.0 to less than 10.5 to 12 V Greater than 12 V † Underflow ‡ Overflow A8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 A7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 A6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 A5 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 A4 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 A3 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 A2 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 A0 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 B2 x 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 x B1 x 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 x B0 x† 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 x‡ 5.24.89 shows a typical successive approximation type ADC.5 V 1.0 to less than 4. it counts down with each clock pulse when its count−up line is LOW and its count−down line is HIGH. 5−58 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.89. A1 X V analog Count – up command Up – Down Counter Inverter Line amplifier Clock Count – down command A2 Figure 5.0 V 6.

If V analog exceeds the voltage of the resistive network. the up−down counter counts digitally up or down. depending on whether the output of A 2 is HIGH or LOW.It has the advantage of providing a straightforward approach to converting a low bandwidth analog signal into its digital representation. when the output of A 2 is LOW (negatively saturated). and the up−down counter counts down. bringing the voltages at the input of the comparator in line with each other. and the Zener diodes are selected to clip the comparator’s output to levels compatible with the up−down counter. and the up−down counter counts up. As shown in Figure 5.90(a) where an unknown input DC voltage v in is integrated and the value is compared with a known reference value v ref .90(b). In a typical ADC of this type. The line amplifiers are required just in case the maximum value of V analog exceeds the level of output voltages of the up−down counter. to the analog input V analog . Likewise. Because this system has feedback which keeps the voltage output of the resistive network approximately equal to the analog input voltage V analog . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.24. 5. its output goes LOW when its inverting input I becomes slightly more positive than its non−inverting input. a downward staircase is present at point X. bringing the resistive network’s output voltage up. Thus.3 The Dual−Slope Analog−to−Digital Converter The dual−slope ADC is designed with an integrating dual−slope architecture. the output of the counter is fed to a circuit to provide a digital readout. this ADC is also known as the feedback−type ADC. The junction diodes prevent excessive differential inputs to the comparator. the count−up line is also HIGH. Op amp A 1 is a Miller integrator and we recall that charging a capacitor with a constant current produces a linear voltage across it.Analog−to−Digital Converters ator and its output goes HIGH when its inverting input becomes slightly more negative than its non−inverting input. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−59 . When its output is HIGH (positively saturated). The simplest form of an integrating ADC uses a single − slope architecture as shown in Figure 5. When the up−down counter is counting up. But if V analog is less than the resistive network’s output voltage the output of A 2 goes LOW. in steps. the count−up line is LOW also. an upward staircase voltage appears at point X. the time it takes for the integrator to cause the comparator to change state is proportional to the input voltage v in . the output of A 2 goes HIGH.The output voltage of the resistive network is applied to the non −inverting input of A 1 and subsequently to inverting input of A 2 and it is compared with the analog input voltage V analog which is the voltage to be digitized. When the counter is counting downward. Op amp A 1 serves as a voltage follower and it buffers the DAC resistive network. respectively. In this way the output of the up−down counter is always a digital equivalent of the analog input V analog . Conversely.

91(a) Switch S 1 is used to discharge the capacitor before the start of the conversion cycle and thus v int = 0 .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers v ref v int v ref (a) Figure 5. the circuitry of the this ADC translates a voltage level into a time measurement which can be counted with the binary counter. These errors will change the conversion results and make measurement repeatability difficult to attain. the dual−slope integrating architecture is used. To overcome these sensitivities. Thus. S1 v max v in v ref R S2 C v int v out (a) Figure 5.91 shows a typical dual−slope ADC. The binary counter counts the pulses from a fixed clock frequency f C and the counting is proportional to time T 1 . and aging. The single−slope converter of Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A constant current whose value is I N = v in ⁄ R charges the capacitor for a reference time T 1 as shown in Figure 5. An ADC with dual−slope architecture T1 T2 t (b) In the circuit of Figure 5.90. At the end of time T 1 the binary counter is reset to zero and Switch S 2 is placed to the v ref position where v ref has a negative value. Figure 5. The current into the integrator reverses direction and its value is 5−60 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The output voltage v out is fed to a logic circuit which initiates counting in a binary counter.90(a) is not practical because it is subject to errors caused by variation of the timing components R and C.91(b). The conversion cycle begins with opening Switch S 1 and placing Switch S 2 to the v in position.91. temperature. An ADC with single−slope architecture v out t int t v int C v in R (b) The output voltage v out is fed to a logic circuit which initiates counting in a binary counter.

we do not know intermediate values. v ( mV ) 4.0 3. for instance. the comparator initiates a signal to stop the binary counter. Quantization Error. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and n 1 ⁄ T 1 = n 2 ⁄ T 2 . v = 2. Let n 1 be the counter reading at the end of T 1 and n 2 be the counter reading at the end of T 2 . we do not know what the amplitude of the voltage at t = 1. The intervals on the time and voltage axes are equally spaced but need not be the same.Quantization.5 1. The voltage v int at the output of the integrator decreases linearly during time T 2 as shown in Figure 5. An analog voltage quantized in time and amplitude From Figure 5. The subdivision is referred to as quantization. there will always be a small number that will fall between the time intervals. and Resolution I REF = v ref ⁄ R . Of course. Accuracy. The major advantage of the dual− slope architecture ADC over the single−slope architecture ADC is that the entire cycle of the conversion is insensitive to errors since any error introduced by the components R and C during time T 1 will be cancelled out during time T 2 . 5.91(b) and when this voltage reaches zero volts. Figure 5.0 t (μs) 0 v ( mV ) (a) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 t ( μs ) (b) Figure 5. v = 1. Since v max ⁄ T 1 = v in ⁄ ( RC ) . v max ⁄ T 2 = v ref ⁄ ( RC ) .0 mv . at t = 2 μ s . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−61 .92. Subdividing the time axis into a finite number of intervals is known as sampling.5 2.6 μ s . To express this signal to a digital form we must subdivide both time and amplitude (for instance volts) into a number of equally spaced intervals. we could quantize the time axis in smaller intervals but no matter how small the intervals are. We assumed that the analog signal is continuous in both time and amplitude.92(b) we see that at t = 1 μ s .73) and this expression indicates that the content of the counter at the end of the conversion procedure is directly proportional to the voltage v in to be digitized.5 mv . and so on. Quantization Error.25 Quantization. Accuracy. But with the quantization we chose. it follows that ⎛ v in ⎞ -⎟ n 2 = n 1 ⎜ -------⎝ v ref ⎠ (5.92 shows how an analog voltage is quantized in both time and amplitude. and Resolution In the previous section we’ve learned how to convert an analog signal to its digital equivalent.5 4.

every ADC suffers from a quantization error no matter how small. Thus. The linearity of an ADC or DAC is a measure of accuracy and it is an indication of how close the converter’s output is to the ideal input−output transfer characteristics. Accuracy and resolution have different meaning. Example 5. Fourth Edition. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . This minimum frequency is known as the Nyquist rate. must be sampled at least twice the frequency of the highest frequency component of the signal. Solution: The LSD represents increments of 16 ⁄ 2 = 16 ⁄ 256 = 1 ⁄ 16 so the LSD is 1 ⁄ 16 . With an accuracy of ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the LSD. usually measured in terms of inaccuracy but expressed as accuracy. The difference between an exact analog value and the closest discrete value after sampling is known as quantization error. this ADC produces a digital output that represents the analog input within ± 1 ⁄ 32 = 31.92(a) from its digital equivalent of Figure 5.3 mV . The answer to this question is provided by the well known sampling theorem which states that to faithfully reproduce an analog signal from it digital equivalent. or at most twelve bits of digital output provides adequate resolution. to reproduce exactly a 10 KHz sinusoid. And how do we know the highest frequency component of a signal? The answer is from Fourier* series. this theoretical value cannot be achieved. Resolution is the smallest change in the parameter being measured that causes a detectable change in the output of the instrument. Another term used in ADCs and DACs is resolution. * For a thorough discussion on Fourier series and the Fourier transform. before conversion to a digital. The output of an ADC is accurate to within ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the least significant bit (LSD). the analog signal. ten. Accuracy is the degree with which an instrument measures a variable in terms of an accepted standard value or true value. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.92(b). 8 5−62 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. often expressed as a percentage of full−scale range. it is a theoretical value and because of electronic equipment limitations and component imperfections. an eight. theoretically. In practice.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers We may wonder what sampling rate one must choose to faithfully (exactly) reproduce an analog signal such as that of Figure 5. A general rule is to sample at five to ten times the highest frequency of the analog signal. the Nyquist rate is not sufficient. Typically. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9.23 What is the accuracy of an 8−bit ADC if the converter encodes an analog voltage between 0 and +15 volts. we must sample it at least at 20 KHz rate and in this case the Nyquist rate is 20 KHz. Obviously.

1 mV .74) where a 1 . Multiplication by a coefficient greater than unity can be performed with an op amp with feedback. say 0.25 Using two op amps and resistors. The two additions can be performed by summing op amps. a 2 .75) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. In an analog computer the numbers representing the variables are voltages. It is convenient to express the given equations as c1 b1 -y x = ---. it is the value with only one decimal place which can be measured and possibly recorded against other voltage records as the voltmeter is not able to detect any smaller step size in voltage changes. 5. c 1 . By comparison. Solution: We observe that the arithmetic operations involved in (5. We will not discuss analog computers in this section. the accuracy of.– ---a1 a1 c2 a2 -x y = ---.26 Op Amps in Analog Computers Present day analog computers are build with op amps. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−63 . a voltmeter is said to have a resolution may be 0. we can use a voltage divider. b 1 .– ---b2 b2 (5.2 mV refers to the degree to which this value may differ from the true value. We will simply present two simple examples to illustrate how op amps are used in analog computation. and c 2 are constant coefficients. b 2 . In other words. and if the coefficient is less than unity. This means that this value is the step size of the voltmeter’s measuring capability. Example 5. design an analog computer that will solve the equations a1 x + b1 y = c1 a2 x + b2 y = c2 (5.Op Amps in Analog Computers For example. Example 5.74) are addition and multiplication by constant coefficients.24 How many clock cycles would we need to obtain a 10−bit resolution with a dual−slope ADC? Solution: The integration time T 1 would require 2 10 = 1024 clock cycles and also another 2 10 10 = 1024 clock cycles for integration time T 2 for a maximum conversion of 2 × 2 = 2048 clock cycles.

the output of op amp A 1 is a voltage representing the unknown x and the output of op amp A 2 is a voltage representing the unknown y .93. As shown in Figure 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .94(a).93.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers and these equations can be solved using two summing amplifiers as shown in Figure 5. Analog computer for the solution of two simultaneous equations with two unknowns In Figure 5. The fraction b 1 ⁄ a 1 of y is obtained from the potentiometer R adj4 and this is summed in op amp A 1 with the fraction – c 1 ⁄ a 1 obtained from potentiometer R adj1 and voltage source V S1 .94. and denoting the initial condition as V 0 . An integrator circuit that provides these means is shown in Figure 5. This procedure can be extended to the solution of simultaneous equations with more than two unknowns. we need to discuss a practical integrator circuit that provides some means of setting a desired initial value at the beginning of the integration cycle. The voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously. Initially.93 the scaling factors chosen must ensure that the voltages representing the unknowns do not exceed the output capability of the op amps. and thus 5−64 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the integrator sets the initial condition with the switches as shown in Figure 5. V S1 R adj1 R 1 R2 R f1 A1 –c1 ⁄ a1 x R adj3 ( a2 ⁄ b2 ) x R3 V S2 R adj2 R f2 A2 –c2 ⁄ b2 R4 y R adj4 ( b1 ⁄ a1 ) y Figure 5.93. Before we consider the next example for a circuit to solve a simple differential equation. A similar summation is obtained by amplifier A 2 . It is also necessary to provide means to stop the integrator at any time. and for the integrator output to remain constant at the value it has reached at that time.

capacitors.76) VS VS S1 C S1 C v in R in S2 ( a ) Set Initial Condition Mode v out v in R in S2 ( b ) Compute Mode v out VS R1 R2 S1 C v in R in S2 ( c ) Hold Mode v out Figure 5.78) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Example 5. resistors. and switches design an analog computer that will solve the simple differential equation dv C 1 -i -------.= --CC dt (5. Integrator circuit mode control When switched to the compute mode.94. We observe that the switches in the hold mode are positioned as in the set initial condition mode.Op Amps in Analog Computers R2 v out ( t = 0 ) = – -----V R1 0 R1 R2 R1 R2 (5.26 Using one op amp.77) The integrator is then switched to the hold mode and remains constant at the value reached at the end of the compute mode. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−65 . the circuit integrates the input voltage and the value of the output voltage is 1 v out = v out ( t = 0 ) – ----------R C in ∫0 vin dt t (5.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Solution: The given differential equation can be solved with the circuit of Figure 5. a voltage representing the value of dv C ⁄ dt is applied to the integrator and the output of the integrator will be a voltage representing i C . 5−66 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.95.26 Initially.95. Integrator circuit for Example 5. dv C is the voltage across the capacitor and i C is the current through the capacitor and the initial condition is v C ( t ) = V 0 . VS V0 S1 R in S2 C R1 R2 –0 iC 1 ---i CC Figure 5.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers where C is a constant representing the value of a capacitor. Then. the output is multiplied by 1 ⁄ C and fed back to the input.

• The gain of any amplifier varies with frequency. Very high input impedance (resistance) 2. R in = v S ⁄ i S . R out = v OC ⁄ i SC . • Op amps are also used as active filters. with feedback. • The gain of an inverting op amp is the ratio – R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input. At higher frequencies. diodes. capacitors.. Frequency response from DC to frequencies in the MHz range 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−67 . • In a unity gain op amp the output is the same as the input. • The gain of an non−inverting op amp is 1 + R f ⁄ R in where R f is the feedback resistor which allows portion of the output to be fed back to the minus (−) input which is grounded through the R in resistor. that is. The minus (−) sign implies that the output signal has opposite polarity from that of the input signal. A unity gain op amp is used to pro- vide a very high resistance between a voltage source and the load connected to it.27 Summary • The operational amplifier (op amp) is the most versatile amplifier and its main features are: 1. is the frequency at which the gain is unity. integration etc. The output signal has the same polarity from that of the input signal. Very low output impedance (resistance) 3. Capable of producing a very large gain that can be set to any value by connection of external resistors of appropriate values 4. • The unity gain frequency. that is. Operation to be performed. closed−loop or open−loop. • The gain−bandwidth product is an important op amp parameter and is related to the unity gain Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • Operational amplifiers can operate either a closed−loop or an open−loop configuration. i. • The input resistance R in is defined as the ratio of the applied voltage v S to the current i S drawn by the circuit. Very good stability 6. • The output resistance R out is the ratio of the open circuit voltage to the short circuit current. that is. The specification sheets for operational amplifiers state the open−loop at DC or 0 Hz . is done externally with proper selection of passive devices such as resistors. and so on.e. the gain is much lower and decreases as frequency increases at the rate of – 20 dB ⁄ decade . The operation. is determined by whether or not feedback is used. Most operational amplifiers operate in the closed−loop configurations.Summary 5. addition.

• The slew rate (SR) is defined as the maximum rate of change of an output voltage produced in 5−68 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. A cm = V cm out ⁄ V cm in . • High input resistance differential input amplifiers are suitable for use in differential measure- ment applications and the associated circuits are referred to as instrumentation amplifiers. A cm is zero but in reality is finite and much smaller than unity. a summing amplifier in the non−inverting mode produces the positive sum of any number of input voltages. • Common−mode rejection refers to the condition that if the inputs to the op amp are exactly the same. In other words. • The output voltage of an op amp differentiator is the first derivative of the input voltage.e. if v in2 = v in1 . Likewise. • The output voltage of an op amp integrator is the integral of the input voltage.. then v out = 0 . Ideally. • The use of negative feedback increases the bandwidth of an operational amplifier circuit but decreases the gain so that the gain times bandwidth product is always equal to the unity gain frequency of the op amp. A differential input amplifier must have a high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) defined as Ad Differential gain CMRR = ----------------------------------------------------. • The transresistance gain is defined as the ratio v out ⁄ i in . • General purpose op amps are normally internally frequency compensated so that they will be stable with all values of resistive feedback. • A summing amplifier in the inverting mode produces the negative sum of any number of input voltages. and common mode gain is the ratio of the output common−mode voltage V cm out to the input common−mode voltage V cm in . i. • The closed loop transfer function G ( s ) is defined as G ( s ) = V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) and in the invert- ing input mode G ( s ) = – Z f ( s ) ⁄ Z 1 ( s ) . the op amp rejects any signals at its inputs that are the same.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers frequency as Gain × Bandwidth = Unity Gain Frequency . Other types of op amps are without internal frequency compensation and require external connection of frequency compensating components to the op amp.= --------Common mode gain A cm where the differential gain A v is the gain with the input signals applied differentially. Typically. • A differential input op amp allows input signals to be applied simultaneously to both input ter- minals and produce an output of the difference between the input signals. the compensating components alter the open loop gain characteristics so that the roll−off is about 20 dB ⁄ decade over a wide range of frequencies. that is. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

• A DAC formed with an R−2R ladder network. the analog signal. because of electronic equipment limitations and component imperfections. the analog device should have 16 possible values. We have introduced the positive and negative voltage limiters. • An analog−to−digital converter (A/D converter or ADC) converts an analog signal to its binary equivalent. Popular types of ADCs are the flash converter. the op amp is used in the open loop configuration. Placing an impedance−matching device (the op amp in this case) at the out- put of the resistive network is called buffering the output of the network. This oscillator uses two RC networks connected to the non−inverting input of the op amp to form a frequency selective feedback cir- cuit and this causes oscillations to occur. The Nyquist rate is not sufficient. As a comparator. The difference between an exact analog value and the closest discrete value after sampling is known as quantization error. but only two sets of pre- cision resistance values.Summary response to a large input step function and it is normally expressed in volts per microsecond. This minimum frequency is known as the Nyquist rate. that is. dv out SlewRate = SR = -----------dt max • Op amps can also be used in circuits with non−linear devices. • Quantization is the process where an analog signal is subdivided into small discrete time and amplitude intervals. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−69 . an op amp is used without feedback. It also amplifies the signal with two negative feedback resistors. before conversion to a digital. requires more resistors. must be sampled at least twice the frequency of the highest frequency component of the signal. • A comparator is a circuit that senses changes in a varying signal and produces an output when a threshold value is reached. If there are 16 combinations of the voltages V D through V A . A general rule is to sample at five to ten times the highest frequency of the analog signal. • A DAC must include an op amp to match the resistive network to a low−resistance load and to provide gain also. • The sampling theorem states that to faithfully reproduce an analog signal from it digital equiv- Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the dual−slope. this theoretical value cannot be achieved. Subdividing the time axis into a finite number of intervals is known as sampling. half−wave rectifier with limited positive or negative output. that is. R and 2R. • A DAC with binary−weighted resistors has the disadvantage that it requires a large number of precision resistors. • A Wien bridge oscillator produces a sinusoidal output. • A digital−to−analog converter (D/A converter or DAC) is used to convert a binary output from a digital system to an equivalent analog voltage. the successive approximation. alent.

ten. an eight. • Resolution is the smallest change in the parameter being measured that causes a detectable change in the output of the instrument.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers • The linearity of an ADC or DAC is a measure of accuracy and it is an indication of how close the converter’s output is to the ideal input−output transfer characteristics. In an analog computer the numbers representing the variables are voltages. Typically. or at most twelve bits of digital output provides adequate resolution. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 5−70 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. • Accuracy is the degree with which an instrument measures a variable in terms of an accepted standard value or true value. • Present day analog computers are build with op amps. The output of an ADC is accurate to within ± 1 ⁄ 2 of the least significant bit (LSD).

R in 1 R in 2 R in 3 Rf − + v in 1 + − + v out − + v in 2 − v in 3 + − Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R in 1 . and v in 3 respectively. v in 1 3 KΩ + − 27 K Ω 10 K Ω + v ou t1 90 K Ω − + − 10 mV + − v out 2 − + 2. − 4 KΩ + + − 3 KΩ 6 KΩ 5 KΩ i 5K Ω 60 mV 3. and R in 3 represent the internal resistances of the input voltages v in 1 . their internal resistances.28 Exercises 1. Derive an expression for v out in terms of the input voltage sources. and the feedback resistance R f . v in 2 .Exercises 5. For the circuit below compute v out 2 . R in 2 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−71 . For the circuit below compute i 5K Ω . For the circuit below.

R1 Rf + v in − − v in v out − + + R1 + + (a) − (b) + − ----. compute the value of R load so that it will receive maximum power.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4. For the circuit (c). 10 K Ω 50 K Ω − + − 40 mV 20 K Ω + 40 K Ω v out − + 5. The op−amp circuit (a) below can be represented by its equivalent circuit (b). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 84 K Ω 100 K Ω 12 K Ω 4 KΩ 5 KΩ 72 mV − + v 5K Ω − + + − 20 K Ω v out − + 5−72 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.v in v out R1 Rf − + 2 KΩ 20 K Ω v − in − 5 KΩ + (c) + 15 K Ω R load v out − 6. For the circuit below compute v 5K Ω using Thevenin’s theorem. For the circuit below compute v out .

Find v in 2 if v in 1 = 2 mV and v out = – 5 V c.R + R ⎛ R 4 G v = --------. 000 . Plot the frequency response for open−loop gain versus frequency curve and the closed−loop frequency response for a gain of 10 . Find v out if v in 1 = 2 mV and v in 2 = – 3 mV Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For the circuit below show that the gain is given by v out 1. 10. 000 and the unity gain frequency is 1 MHz . The specifications for the popular 741 op amp state that the open−loop gain is 200.+ 1⎞ 4 2 ⎝ ----⎠ v in R3 R1 R3 R2 + v in R1 R4 − + + v out 9. v in 1 v in 2 v out a.= – ----. For the circuit below compute the gain G v = v out ⁄ v in . For the op amp shown below the open−loop gain is 100.Exercises 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−73 . R2 40 K Ω R4 50 K Ω 50 K Ω 40 K Ω + v in − R1 200 K Ω R5 R3 + + v out − 8. Find v in 1 if v in 2 = 3 mV and v out = 5 V b.

For the op amp circuit below. Derive an expression for the DC gain c. compute the values of R f and C f such that the circuit will have a DC gain of 40 dB and 1 KHz 3 dB frequency e. Assume infinite input impedance and zero output impedance. the output voltage v out i in 10 K Ω + v in 1 mA − − + + v out − 13. the transresistance R m b. Derive the closed−loop transfer function b. Determine whether the op amp circuit below is stable or unstable. Derive an expression for the 3 dB frequency d. Compute the frequency at which the gain is 0 dB f. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The phase angle at the frequency where the gain is 0 dB 5−74 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. For the op amp circuit below: Rf R1 + v in − − + Cf + v out − a. If R 1 = 1 K Ω .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 11. find: a. + v in 1 + v out v in 2 + + Rf 100 K Ω 10 μ F C 12.

Exercises 14. Suggest a nulling circuit other than that in Exercise 16 for: a. As stated earlier in Section 5.67 variable. R1 R fix R var Choose appropriate values for the fixed value resistor R fix and the variable resistor R var so that the overall voltage gain can vary from 10 to 100 .16. Select appropriate values for resistors R f . to make the overall gain of the circuit of Figure 5. and R 2 to meet these specifications. For the op amp integrator circuit below the time constant is τ = 100 μ s . we replace resistor R 1 with a fixed value resistor R fix in series with a variable resistor R var as shown below. Cf R1 v in 10 K Ω v out a. − v in 1 + R1 R2 if Rf − + − v in 2 + v out + − 16. Find the value of the capacitor C f b. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−75 . a non−inverting mode op amp Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. an inverting mode op amp b. 17. For the circuit below. Find the frequency at which the magnitude of the gain is unity 15. R 1 . it is required that the current i f should not exceed 1 mA . Find the magnitude and phase angle of the gain at f = 1 KHz c. and the output voltage should be such that v out = – ( 4v in 1 + 3v in 2 ) ≤ 12 V .

derive the transfer function G v ( s ) = V out ( s ) ⁄ V in ( s ) and the magnitude and phase of G v ( j ω ) = V out ( j ω ) ⁄ V in ( j ω ) at unity gain. The circuit below is referred to as a differential input integrator. Derive an expression for V out ( s ) in terms of the input voltages and the circuit constants. For the circuit below. R V in 1 ( s ) + − V in 2 ( s ) + R C − C V out ( s ) + + − − 21. R ----R --8 VD VC R --4 VB R --2 VA V analog R 2 VN n Prove that V A + 2V B + 4VC + 8V D + … V analog = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… 5−76 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R1 Rf v in 1 + − − v in 2 + + R2 R3 v out + − − 19. The figure below shows a digital−to−analog converter with binary−weighted resistors. The resistors and capacitors are of equal value. R1 Rf v in + − − + C R2 v out + − 20. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Find appropriate values for all external resistors so that the differential input op amp circuit below will have an input resistance R in = 50 K Ω and voltage gain G v = 40 .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 18.

For the op amp circuit shown below. derive an expression for the output voltage v out in terms of the input voltage v in and the circuit constants. The figure below shows a digital−to−analog converter with known as R−2R ladder network. Design an analog computer circuit to perform the following integration. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−77 . derive an expression for the output voltage v out in terms of the input voltage v in . 24. v out = – ∫0 ( vin 1 + 2vin 2 + 10vin 3 ) dt t Assume ideal op amp action and that the integrating capacitor has a value of 1 μ F . 2R 2R VA VB R 2R VC R 2R VD R 2R V analog Prove that VA + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … Vanalog = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------n 2 where n is the number of digital inputs.5 μ F 1 MΩ v in v out Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 23. C R2 L v in R1 v out 26. For the op amp circuit shown below. 1 M Ω 0. Design an op amp circuit with input v in and output v out = – 5v in – 3dv in ⁄ dt 25.Exercises 22.

We assign v 1 .29 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1.⎞ × ( – 90 ) = – 0. v load .= ---------------i 5K Ω = -----------. − 4 KΩ + + − + 3 KΩ 6 KΩ − v1 v load + − R load 5 KΩ i 5K Ω 60 mV 3 K Ω || 6 K Ω = 2 K Ω and by the voltage division expression 2 KΩ . we obtain v load = v 1 = 20 mV Then –3 v load –6 20 × 10 20 mV .= ---------------------.× 60 mV = 20 mV v 1 = ---------------------------------4 KΩ + 2 KΩ and since this is a unity gain amplifier. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and R load as shown below.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 5. 27 K Ω 10 K Ω + v ou − t1 + 90 K Ω v in 1 3 KΩ + − − + − 10 mV v in 2 + − v out 2 − + v out1 = – ( 27 ⁄ 3 ) × 10 = – 90 mV and thus v in2 = v out1 = – 90 mV Then ----.= 4 × 10 A = 4 μ A 3 5 KΩ R load 5 × 10 5−78 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.9 V v out2 = ⎛ 1 + 90 ⎝ 10 ⎠ 2.

Also.( – v in 3 ) R in 3 Then.– ---------. ⎛ v in 3 v in 2 v in 1 ⎞ v out = R f ⎜ ---------– ---------. R in 1 R in 2 R in 3 − + Rf v in 1 + − + v out − + v in 2 − v in 3 + − By superposition v out = v out 1 + v out 2 + v out 3 where v out 1 v in2 = 0 v in3 = 0 Rf -v = – --------R in1 in 1 We observe that the minus (−) input is a virtual ground and thus there is no current flow in R in1 and R in2 .⎟ ⎝ R in 3 R in 2 R in 1 ⎠ 4.v – -------------------v = 4 × 10 3 1 3 out 50 × 10 50 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v out 2 v in1 = 0 v in3 = 0 Rf = – ---------.v in 2 R in 2 and v out 3 v in1 = 0 v in2 = 0 Rf = – ---------. At the minus (−) terminal v 1 – 40 mV v 1 – v out ---------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−79 .+ -------------------.= 0 10 K Ω 50 K Ω 1 6 –6 ------------------. We assign voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 3.

using MATLAB: R1=10000. and R load resistors to the equivalent circuit as shown below. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Rf=50000. Vin=40*10^(−3).– v out = 4 × 10 × 50 × 10 3 50 × 10 –3 3 3 v out = – 40 mV Check with (5.– ------------------------------------. By Thevenin’s theorem. Vout=(R1*R3−R2*Rf)*Vin/(R1*(R2+R3)) Vout = -0.+ ---------------. 15 K Ω . R3=40000.= 0 20 K Ω 40 K Ω 3 –6 -------------------v = 2 × 10 3 2 40 × 10 80 × 10 v 2 = ---------------------3 –3 Since v 2 = v 1 we equate the nodal equations and we obtain 1 6 80 × 10 ⎞ –6 .0400 5. 15 K Ω v TH = v OC = v ab = ------------------------------------( – 10v in ) 5 K Ω + 15 K Ω 5−80 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⎛ ----------------------v = 4 × 10 3⎝ 3 out ⎠ 3 50 × 10 50 × 10 –3 Multiplication by 50 × 10 yields –6 3 2 × 80 × 10 × 50 × 10 ---------------------------------------------------------.16).Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 50 K Ω 10 K Ω v1 v2 − + − 40 mV 20 K Ω + 40 K Ω v out − + At the plus (+) terminal v 2 – 40 mV v2 ---------------------------. Page 5-22. R2=20000. We attach the 5 K Ω .

75 K Ω –3 – 2 × 10 v in and the Thevenin equivalent circuit is shown below.= 3. for maximum power transfer we must have R load = R TH = 3.5v in R TH = -----------------------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 5 KΩ 15 K Ω v in − + 2 KΩ + 10v in − × a b × R load or v TH = – 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−81 . R TH − v TH 3.75 K Ω Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5v in Because the circuit contains a dependent source.75 K Ω R load + Therefore. we must compute the Thevenin resistance using the relation R TH = v TH ⁄ i SC where i SC is found from the circuit below. 5 KΩ + − 10v in × a b × i SC 15 K Ω We observe that the short circuit shorts out the 15 K Ω and thus – 10v in –3 = –2 × 10 v in i SC = ---------------5 KΩ Then – 7.

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 6. When this is done there is no current in the 4 K Ω resistor and the circuit simplifies to the one shown below.v . 12 K Ω 84 K Ω 4 KΩ 72 mV a× 5 KΩ + − + b× v 5K Ω − 6v 5K Ω − + To find the Thevenin equivalent at points a and b we disconnect the 5 K Ω resistor. 12 K Ω 72 mV − ×+ a 84 K Ω + i v ab b − × + − 6v 5K Ω By KVL or Also ( 12 K Ω + 84 K Ω ) i + 6v 5K Ω = 72 mV 72 mV – 6v 5K Ω i = --------------------------------------------( 12 K Ω + 84 K Ω ) 72 mV – 6v 5K Ω⎞ v TH = v ab = v 5K Ω = 72 mV – ( 12 K Ω ) i = 72 mV – 12 K Ω ⎛ -------------------------------------⎝ ⎠ 96 K Ω 3 -v v TH = 72 mV – 9 mV + -4 5K Ω or 5−82 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The given circuit is a non−inverting op amp whose equivalent circuit is shown below. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . + v in − + + − Rf ⎛ 1 + ------⎞v ⎝ R ⎠ in in v out − For this circuit v in = v 5K Ω and the output is Rf ⎞ ⎛ 100 ⎞ .⎟ v 5K Ω = ⎛ 1 + -------= 6v 5K Ω v out = ⎜ 1 + ------⎝ 20 ⎠ 5K Ω R in ⎠ ⎝ Attaching the external resistors to the equivalent circuit above we obtain the circuit below.

× 6 μ A = -------29 10. 12 K Ω 4 KΩ 12 K Ω 4 KΩ + − 72 mV a i SC (a) 84 K Ω b 6 μA 84 K Ω a i SC b (b) 12 K Ω || 84 K Ω = 10. and by the current division expression 126 10. v OC 252 R TH = -------.= -----------------126 ⁄ 29 i SC and the Thevenin equivalent circuit with the 5 K Ω resistor is shown below.5 K Ω + 4 K Ω Therefore.5 K Ω .5 K Ω Now.= 58 K Ω . R TH 12 K Ω a + v 5K Ω − v TH 252 mV + − 5 KΩ b Finally. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−83 . by the voltage division expression 5 .μA i SC = i ab = -----------------------------------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 3 -v v 5K Ω – -= 63 mV 4 5K Ω and thus v TH = v ab = v 5K Ω = 252 mV The Thevenin resistance is found from R TH = v OC ⁄ i SC where i SC is computed with the terminals a and b shorted making v 5K Ω = 0 and the circuit is as shown in Figure (a) below. We also perform voltage−source to current−source transformation and we obtain the circuit shown in Figure (b) below.× 252 = 20 mV v 5K Ω = -------------58 + 5 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

= – ----37 v in 5−84 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 7.+ -------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .+ ---------------200 K Ω 40 K Ω 50 K Ω 50 K Ω v out v in 1 1 + 1 + ---------------1 ⎛ ------------------+ ---------------. R2 40 K Ω R4 50 K Ω 50 K Ω 40 K Ω + v in − R1 v1 R3 v2 + + v out − 200 K Ω R5 Node 1 at v 1 : or v 1 – v in v 1 – v out v 1 – 0 v1 ------------------.⎞ v 1 = ------------------.= 0 .+ ---------------. We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 2 = 0 (virtual ground).( v + 5v out ) (1) v 1 = ----14 in Node 2 at v 2 : or Equating the right sides we obtain 0 – v 1 0 – v out ---------------.---------------+ ---------------⎝ 200 K Ω 40 K Ω 50 K Ω 50 K Ω ⎠ 200 K Ω 40 K Ω Multiplication of each term by 200 K Ω and simplification yields 1 .= 0 50 K Ω 40 K Ω 5 -v v 1 = – -(2) 4 out 15 -----v ( v + 5v out ) = – -14 in 4 out or 37 1-----v v = – ----28 out 14 in Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we obtain v out 2 G v = --------.+ -----------------.

We assign node voltages v 1 and v 2 as shown below and we write node equations observing that v 1 = 0 (virtual ground).= 0 R3 R2 R4 v out 1 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ----.+ ----.+ ------------.+ -------------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 8.+ ----.= – ----.v (1) v 2 = – ----R 1 in v 2 – 0 v 2 v 2 – v out ------------.+ 1⎞ ⎝ ⎠ R1 v in R3 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.+ ----.R 4 + R 2 ⎛ ----. v2 R2 R3 R4 + v in R1 v1 − + + v out Node 1 at v 1 : 0 – v in 0 – v 2 --------------.v 2 = --------⎝R R3 R4 ⎠ R4 2 1 -v v 2 = -----------------------------------------------(2) R 4 ⁄ R 2 + R 4 ⁄ R 3 + 1 out Solving for v 2 we obtain Node 2 at v 2 : Equating the right sides we obtain R3 1 -----------------------------------------------.v out = – -----v R 1 in R5 ⁄ R3 + R5 ⁄ R4 + 1 Simplifying and dividing both sides by v in we obtain v out R4 1 G v = --------.= 0 R2 R1 R2 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−85 .

= 2 × 10 + ------. v out –3 5 . = –1 V 5−86 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.95 mV 5 Aol 10 v out = A o l ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) = 10 ( – 30 – 20 ) × 10 5 –6 b. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .25). v out = A o l ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) .= 2. Page 5−27. Then. Gain 3 dB point ( open loop ) 10 5 10 4 3 dB point ( closed loop ) 10 3 Unity Gain frequency 10 2 10 1 f ( Hz ) 1 10 100 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10. c. 000 .95 mV v in 1 = v in 2 – --------5 Ao l 10 v out –3 –5 v in 2 = v in 1 + --------. a.= 3 × 10 – ------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 9. and we are given that A o l = 100.= 1. v in 1 v in 2 v out From (5.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−87 .V = – A o l V in 1 ⎝ s + 1 ⎠ out –Ao l ( s + 1 ) V out . i in 10 K Ω + v in 1 mA − − + + v out − This circuit is the same as that of Figure 5. where we found that R m = – R f . Page 5-29. The s – domain equivalent circuit is shown below.= --------------------------G ( s ) = ---------s + 1 – Ao l V in 1 The pole of G ( s ) is located at s = – ( 1 – A ol ) = A ol – 1 and it is positive for A o l > 1 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 11.– V in 1 ⎞ ⎝s+1 ⎠ Aol ⎞ ⎛ 1 – ---------.47.= 0 5 5 10 10 V out = ( s + 1 ) V in 2 V out V in 2 = ---------s+1 and by substitution into (1) V out V out = A o l ⎛ ---------. Therefore.25). Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 12. By KCL v out = A o l ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) (1) sV in 2 V in 2 – V out ------------+ --------------------------. + v in 1 + v out v in 2 + + Rf 100 K Ω 5 10 ⁄ s C From (5. the circuit is unstable since the pole is located on the right half−plane. Page 5−27.

= – -----------. Yf ( s ) Rf R m = – 10 K Ω v out . The DC gain is defined at the point where the frequency is zero.⋅ --------------------------G ( s ) = – ----R1 s + 1 ⁄ Cf Rf and we recognize this as the transfer function of a low−pass filter whose cutoff 3 dB fre- 5−88 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Then.= – 10 K Ω R m = --------i in v out = R m i in = ( – 10 K Ω ) ( 1 mA ) = – 10 V Z1 ( s ) + V in ( s ) − R1 1 ⁄ s Cf − + V out ( s ) + − a.+ s Cf = ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) ⁄ Rf Rf 1 ⁄ s Cf Rf Rf 1 . The s – domain circuit is shown below.= – -------------------------------------= – ----------------------------------(1) G ( s ) = ----------------R1 V in ( s ) R1 ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) Z1 ( s ) b.= – ----R1 V in c.+ -------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . s = 0 . or 13. b.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers Then.= ---Y f ( s ) = ---. a.= ----------------------Z f ( s ) = ------------Yf ( s ) 1 + s Cf Rf V out ( s ) Rf ⁄ ( 1 + s Cf Rf ) Rf Zf ( s ) . (1) above reduces to Rf V out Gain DC = ---------. that is. We rewrite the transfer function of (1) above as Rf 1 . Z1 ( s ) = R1 1 1 1 .

= 1. f3dB=1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−89 .= ----------------------------------------------------------------------G ( j ω ) = ---------. Also.*180.01:10).theta).1:0. Then. R f ⁄ R 1 = 100 and with R 1 = 1 K Ω . V out 1 1 1 .= ----------------------. The script expresses the frequency normalized to the 3 dB frequency where f 3 dB = 1 KHz . theta=−atan(f. Therefore. f 40 dB = 1 KHz . ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. f 0 dB = 100 × f 40 dB = 100 × 1000 = 100 KHz f. since 1 f 3 dB = -----------------2 π Rf Cf for f 3 dB = 1 KHz and R f = 100 K Ω .= ----------------------------------. V out ---------V in dB scale 1 f 3 dB = -----------------2 π Rf Cf log scale – 20 dB ⁄ decade Pass band Stop band d.∠– atan ( ω RC ) . we find that R f = 100 K Ω .= -------------------------------2 2 2 1 + j ω RC V in 2 2 2 1+ω R C ( 1 + ω R C ) ∠ atan ( ω RC ) The MATLAB script below plots the phase angle θ = – atan ( ω RC ) as a function of frequency ω with RC = 1 ./f3dB).Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises quency is f 3 dB = 1 ⁄ 2 π C f R f and falls of at the rate of 20 dB ⁄ decade as shown below. f=(0. the 3 dB frequency can be determined by proper selection of the feedback resistor and feedback capacitor. we find that 1 1 C f = -----------------------. 40 dB represents a ratio of 100 . grid * Please refer to Chapter 7 in Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. Therefore. And since at 40 dB . semilogx(f.59 nF 5 3 2 π R f f 3 dB 2 π × 10 × 10 e. The sketch above shows that the gain drops at the rate of 20 dB ⁄ decade and thus the drop of the gain from 40 dB to 0 dB represents two decades./pi. It is shown in Circuit Analysis texts* that for an RC low−pass filter. the normalized phase angle can be expressed as θ n = – atan ( f ⁄ f 3 dB ) .

14. The s−domain equivalent circuit is shown below. and thus ⁄ 10 = 0.I ( s ) = – ------. the phase at 100 KHz is – 90 ° and because this is an inverting amplifier. τ = R 1 C f = 10 C f = τ ⁄ R 1 = 10 –4 –4 s . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -1 10 Degrees 10 Normalized frequency f/f3dB (log scale) 0 10 1 The plot above shows that the f 3 dB = 1 KHz frequency occurs at θ = – 45 ° and the asymptotic (straight) line indicates that it drops at the rate of 45 ° ⁄ ( decade ) . 1 V in ( s ) 1 1 . we must add – 180 ° so the total phase shift is – 270 ° or +90 ° .I C ( s ) = – ------. Therefore.01 μ F 4 b. The time constant is the product of R 1 and C f . that is. IC ( s ) 1 ⁄ s C f I(s) V in ( s ) R 1 = 10 K Ω V out ( s ) a.--------------V out ( s ) = – ------s Cf R1 s Cf s Cf V out ( s ) 1 -----------------= – -------------V in ( s ) sR 1 C f 5−90 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

= – ------4 j ω R1 Cf V in ( j ω ) jω j ω 10 4 V out 10 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 8 4 V out ( j ω ) 1 10 10 --------------------.= – -----------------.(1) ---------. From (1) above we observe that the gain will be unity when ω = 10 r ⁄ s or 10 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−91 .= – -------------.6 KHz f = ------2π 4 4 15.49).= --------.= ------ω V in θ = 180 ° – 90 ° = 90 ° V out ---------V in 10 = -------------------≈ 1. − v in 1 + R1 R2 if i Rf − + − From (5.= 12 K Ω v 12 if 10 –3 and with this value (1) above becomes Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Page 5−38. v in 2 + v out + − f f f -v ⎞ v + ----v + … + -----v out = – ⎛ ----⎝ R 1 in 1 R 2 in 2 R N in N ⎠ R R R and with only two inputs it reduces to f f v out = – ⎛ ----v + ----v ⎞ (1) ⎝ R 1 in 1 R 2 in 2 ⎠ R R Since the magnitude of v out must 12 V or less and the feedback current i f must be limited to 1 mA .≈ 1. there must be out R f = -----------.59 3 2 π × 10 4 f = 1 KHz θ = 90 ° c.

R4 2 R2 v out . 100 for our case. 10 for our case.v in 1 + ---------------.= ----A d = ----------------------------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 12 K Ω 12 K Ω . 2R2 A d min = ----------------------. that is. 16. 2 R2 + 1 = 100 (1) A d max = --------R fix For minimum gain. Page 5−44. For convenience. in other words. Then. R var = 100 K Ω . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . R var = 0 .⎛ -------.5 R fix = 0 R 2 – 4. Then.5 R fix = 4.+ 1 = 10 (2) 5 R fix + 10 Rearranging (1) and (2) for simultaneous solution. the condition v out = – ( 4v in 1 + 3v in 2 ) can be satisfied if we choose R 1 = 3 K Ω and R4 = 4 K Ω . we obtain R 2 – 49. R1 R fix R var The overall voltage gain can be found from relation (5. we can make R 4 = R 3 and the above relation reduces to 2 R2 A d = --------------------------+1 R fix + R var Let us choose a 100 K Ω potentiometer for R var . the potentiometer must be set for zero resistance.+ 1⎞ ⎠ R3 ⎝ R1 ( v in 2 – v in 1 ) so we need to replace R 1 with R fix + R var . For maximum gain.5 × 10 5 and the solution yields R 2 = 495 K Ω ≈ 500 K Ω and R fix = 10 K Ω 5−92 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the potentiometer must be set for full resistance. in other words.v in 2⎞ (2) v out = – ⎛ ---------------⎝ R1 ⎠ R2 Then.67).

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 17. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and for R 1 = R 2 = 25 K Ω and G v = 40 .62). Since for the circuit above we want R in = 50 K Ω . 18. 10 K Ω Pot +V R1 R2 –V v in Rf v out In both circuits of (a) and (b) above. R1 v in R2 –V 10 K Ω Pot +V Rf v out b. Page 5−42. v in 1 + R1 − Rf − v in 2 + + R2 R3 v out + − − From (5. then R 1 = R 2 = 25 K Ω . then R 3 = R f . R in = 2R 1 but this relation holds only if R 2 = R 1 . The circuit above will perform as a differential input op amp if f 3 ----= ----- R R R1 R2 and if we make R 2 = R 1 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−93 . we must make R 1 + R 2 = 50 K Ω . we must make R 3 = R f = 1 M Ω . a. and if R 2 = R 1 . the potentiometer can be adjusted to provide the value and polarity of the DC input voltage required to null the output to zero volts.

= --------------------------------.⎛ ⎛ 1 – ------------------------.– ------------------------.⎛ ------------------------. V out ( s ) = V 1 – R f I ( s ) V in ( s ) R2 1 ⁄ sC -⎞ ⎛ ------------------------.⎛ ------------------------I ( s ) = --------------.⎞ = --------------. R1 I(s) 1 ⁄ sC V1 V2 R2 I(s) R f + V in ( s ) − − + V out ( s ) + − By the voltage division expression 2 -V (s) V 2 = ------------------------1 ⁄ sC + R 2 in R and since it follows that V1 = V2 2 -V (s) V 1 = ------------------------1 ⁄ sC + R 2 in R This is a differential input amplifier and the current I ( s ) is V in ( s ) – V 1 I ( s ) = --------------------------R1 V in ( s ) R2 R2 1.⎞ I ( s ) = ----V in ( s ) – ------------------------⎝ ⎠ R1 ⎝ R 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 1 ⁄ sC + R ⎠ 1 2 V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R V in ( s ) R2 1 ⁄ sC ⎞ 2 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The s – domain circuit is shown below.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 19.= -----------------------------------= ------------------------.⎛ ------------------------R 1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ⎠ R 1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ⎠ Next.– ----G v ( s ) = -----------------V in ( s ) 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 R 1 ⎝ 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ⎠ R 1 ( 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 ) sC R 2 – R f ⁄ R 1 R 2 – R f ⁄ sC R 1 s – Rf ⁄ C R1 R2 V out ( s ) G v ( s ) = -----------------= --------------------------------.= ---------------------------------V in ( s ) R 2 + 1 ⁄ sC s + 1 ⁄ C R2 sC R 2 + 1 5−94 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.V in ( s )⎞ = --------------.V in ( s ) – R f --------------V out ( s ) = ------------------------⎝ R 1 ⁄ sC + R 2 1 ⁄ sC + R 2⎠ 1 Rf R 1 R 2 – R f ⁄ sC V out ( s ) R2 1 ⁄ sC ⎞ .

and in Exercise 14 we found that Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 20. this circuit is referred to as first order all−pass filter.= ------------------------------------G v ( j ω ) = --------------------j ω + 1 ⁄ C R2 V in ( j ω ) and for unity gain there must be R f = R 1 .= ----------------------------.= --------------------------------------------------------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−95 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises Now. V out ( j ω ) --------------------. we obtain j ω – Rf ⁄ C R1 R2 V out ( j ω ) . letting s = j ω . With V in 1 ( s ) acting alone and V in 2 ( s ) = 0 . Then. the circuit reduces to that shown below.= 1 ∠–2 tan ( ω C R 2 ) G v ( j ω ) = --------------------V in ( j ω ) j ω + 1 ⁄ C R2 2 2 2 ω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 ∠ tan ( ω C R 2 ) Therefore.52. Page 5−32. Because of this phase shift. R V in 1 ( s ) + − C V out 1 ( s ) − + R + C − The circuit above is essentially a Miller integrator like that shown in Figure 5. 2 2 2 V out ( j ω ) j ω – 1 ⁄ C R 2 ω + 1 ⁄ C R 2 ∠ tan ( – ω C R 2 ) –1 . The phase angle is θ = 180 ° – ∠– 2 tan ( ω C R 2 ) –1 where the angle of 180 ° is due to the fact that the feedback resistor is connected to the inverting input. this circuit is also referred to as a phase shifter. R V in 1 ( s ) + − V in 2 ( s ) + R C − C V out ( s ) + + − − We will apply the superposition principle.= 1 V in ( j ω ) and because the magnitude is independent of frequency.

R V in 2 ( s ) + R C VC − C V out 2 ( s ) + + − − By the voltage division expression 1 ⁄ sC V (s) V C = ---------------------R + 1 ⁄ sC in 2 and since this is a non−inverting amplifier.+ ---------.V ( s ) (2) V out 2 ( s ) = --------sC R in 2 From (1) and (2) 1 .V C = ⎛ 1 + -----------⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ R R R + 1 ⁄ sC ⎠ in 2 1 -⎞ 1 -⎞ sC R + 1 1 ⎞ ⎛ ------------------.+ ---------.( V ( s ) – V in 1 ( s ) ) V out ( s ) = V out 1 ( s ) + V out 2 ( s ) = --------sC R in 2 21. 1 ⁄ sC ⎞ 1 ⁄ sC ⎞ 1 ⁄ sC ⎞ ⎛ ---------------------.+ ---------.Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers V out ( s ) 1 ----------------. with V in 2 ( s ) acting alone and V in 1 ( s ) = 0 .⎞ ⎛ ------------------V in 2 ( s ) = ⎛ ------------------V (s) V out 2 ( s ) = ⎛ 1 + --------⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ sC R sC R + 1 ⎠ in 2 sC R sC R + 1 1 .+ … = --I T = -----R A R R⁄2 R⁄4 R⁄8 5−96 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the given circuit reduces to that shown below.V (s) V out 2 ( s ) = ⎛ 1 + -----------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= – -----------sR 1 C V in ( s ) 1 sRC Therefore. for the circuit above .V in 1 ( s ) V out 1 ( s ) = – ---------- (1) Next. R ----- 2 VN n R --8 VD VC R --4 VB R --2 VA V analog R VC VD VA VB 1 .( V + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … ) .

2.+ -----------------.= 0 R 2R R + 2R Simplifying and collecting like terms we obtain 4V 1 – 2V 2 = V A – 2 V 1 + 5V 2 – 2V 3 = V B – 6 V 2 + 11V 3 = 3V C + 2V D By Cramer’s rule* * For a review of matrices and determinants please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Excel.= 0 -----. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.( V + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … ) V analog = R eq I T = -----------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… R A VA + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D + … Vanalog = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… 22.+ -----------------.= 0 R 2R R V3 – V2 V3 – VC V3 – VD -----------------. and 3.----------------R R⁄2 R⁄4 R⁄8 R eq or R R eq = -----------------------------------------1+2+4+8+… R 1 .+ ------------------2R R 2R V2 – V1 V2 – VB V2 – V3 -----------------.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1 1 1 = 1 + 1 + ----------+… .⋅ --. ISBN 978−1− 934404−03−4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−97 . V1 V1 – VA V1 – V2 . 1 2R V1 2R VA VB R V2 2R VC 2 R V3 3 R 2R VD 2R V analog We write nodal equations at Nodes 1.+ ------------------.+ ------------------.+ -----------.+ ------------------.

Reset v in 1 v in 2 v in 3 1 MΩ 500 K Ω 100 K Ω 1 μF v out 5−98 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v out = – 4 n ∫0 ( vin 1 + 2vin 2 + 10vin 3 ) dt t This integration can be performed by a summing integrator such as that shown below where the factor 1 ⁄ RC was chosen to form the coefficients of v in 1 .( V + 2V B + 4V C + 8V D ) = ----16 A where 16 = 2 = 2 . V3 – VD --V --V + 1 .Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 4 –2 –2 5 VA VB 0 – 6 ( 3V C + 2V D ) 1 .( 12V A + 24V B + 48V C + 32V D ) . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .⋅ 2R + V D = 2 V analog = ------------------3 3 3 D R + 2R and 2 11 . and v in 3 in the given expression.= -------V 3 = ---------------------------------------------------------128 4 –2 0 –2 5 –2 0 – 6 11 or 1V 3 = ----( 3V A + 6V B + 12V C + 8V D ) 32 By the voltage division expression. v in 2 .⋅ -----V V analog = -( 3V A + 6V B + 12V C + 8V D ) + -3 32 3 D 1 . 23.

(3) ---. and (3) d v in⎞ dv in L dv in ⎛ R2 . C R2 L i v in R1 i v out dv in v in .+ C --------dt R1 di .v in – R f C --------dt R1 Since we want v out = – 5v in – 3dv in ⁄ dt .= ----2 R 1 dt dt dt 2 and from (1). C i v in R1 i Rf v out dv in v in . we choose R f = 5R 1 and R f C = 3 25.---------⎟ v out = – ⎜ ----2 dt R 1 dt ⎝ R1 dt ⎠ 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.(1) i = -----.(2) v out = – R 2 i – L ---dt Differentiating (1) with respect to t we obtain d v in dv in 1.+ C -----------.v in + R 2 C --------.+ ----.(1) i = -----. (2).+ C --------dt R1 v out = – R f i (2) Substitution of (1) into (2) yields dv in Rf v out = – ----.+ LC -----------.--------di .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 24. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 5−99 .

Chapter 5 Operational Amplifiers 26. 1 MΩ R1 0.5 μ F C i i Rf v in 1 MΩ v out v in i = -----.+ 2v in ⎞ ⎝ ⎠ dt dt 5−100 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .i dt (2) v out = – R f i – --C ∫ Substitution of (1) into (2) yields Rf 1 .v in dt = – v in – 2 v in dt .= – ⎛ --------.(1) R1 1 .v in – --------v out = – ----R R1 1C ∫ ∫ Alternately. dv in dv out -----------.

6. an uncomplemented variable represents a logical 1 . and when that variable is complemented.1. and the transistor−transistor logic (TTL). and Exclusive NOR (XNOR). ANDing. Typical voltage signal for a digital computer * For this and the remaining chapters it is assumed that the reader has prior knowledge of the binary. they only understand voltage signals such as that shown in Figure 6. The symbols for these gates are shown in Figure 6. also referred to as the true condition.2.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits T his chapter begins with an introduction to electronic logic gates and their function in terms of Boolean expressions and truth tables. the octal. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−1 . emitter−coupled logic (ECL). The basic logic gates are the inverter or NOT gate. it is strongly recommended that a good book like our Digital Circuit Analysis and Design. Positive and negative logic are defined. and hexadecimal number systems. true. 5 volt level 0 volt ( ground ) level Figure 6. Of course. complements of numbers. CMOS. logical 0 . NOR. or false.2. are derivatives of the basic AND and OR gates and will be discussed later in this chapter. it follows that A = 0 (false). Earlier logic families are presented in the exercises section. and BiCMOS logic families are discussed. also referred to as the false condition.1 The Basic Logic Gates* Electronic logic gates are used extensively in digital systems and are manufactured as integrated circuits (IC’s). the fundamentals of Boolean algebra. and ORing operations respectively. Thus. it represents a logical 0 . ISBN 0−9744239−6−3 is reviewed. digital computers do not understand logical 1 . and the OR gate.1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The three basic logic gates Four other logic gates. and truth tables. if A = 1 (true). known as NAND. Exclusive OR (XOR). Inverter AND gate OR gate Figure 6. binary codes. If not. and these perform the complementation. 6. the AND gate.2 Positive and Negative Logic Generally.

2. TABLE 6.0 Low voltage (Volts DC) 0. and the truth table is shown in Table 6. and the latter as negative logic. Figure 6. Typical values are shown in Table 6. Positive and negative logic defined We will discuss the three common IC logic families in subsequent sections. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . or logical 0 to H and logical 1 to L.3. High (H) and Low (L) assignments in a voltage waveform With the H and L assignments as shown in Figure 6.3 The Inverter The symbol for the inverter (NOT gate) is shown in Figure 6.5. H L Figure 6.1.4. Thus. A A Figure 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits With reference to the voltage waveform of Figure 6.75 0 6. The former convention is known as positive logic. and Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor ( CMOS ) logic. Emitter−Coupled Logic ( ECL ).2 −1. Symbol for the inverter 6−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2.1 Typical values of High and Low voltage levels for three IC families IC Family TTL ECL CMOS High voltage (Volts DC) 5.5.0 to 15.0 −0. log ical 1 L positive log ic (a) log ical 0 H L log ical 0 log ical 1 negative log ic (b) H Figure 6. For our present discussion it will suffice to list the High and Low voltage levels for the Transistor−Transistor Logic ( TTL or T 2 L ).4(a) represents positive logic and Figure 6. integrated circuit manufacturers assign the letter H (High) to the 5 volt level and the letter L (Low) to the ground level as shown in Figure 6.3. the logic circuitry designer has the option of assigning a logical 1 to H and logical 0 to L.4(b) represents negative logic.3.9 5.

2 The truth table for the inverter Input L H Output H L With positive logic. A typical value for this parameter is – 1.2 V . diode D 1 is included to clamp the input voltage to less than – 1. The SN7404 Hex Inverter IC One important parameter is the input clamp voltage denoted as V IK and this refers to the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals without damaging the IC.4 The truth table for the inverter when negative logic is assumed Input 1 0 Output 0 1 Figure 6.6 shows the TTL SN7404 Hex Inverter IC where SN identifies the packaging and Hex implies that there are 6 inverters within the IC. We recall from Chapter 2 that a practical diode. TABLE 6. TABLE 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−3 . may be represented as an ideal diode in series with a 0.The Inverter TABLE 6. To insure that this value is not exceeded.7.2 V with respect to the ground. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the truth table for the inverter is written as shown in Table 6.3.3 The truth table for the inverter when positive logic is assumed Input 0 1 Output 1 0 With negative logic. the truth table for the inverter is written as shown in Table 6.7 V source and a small resistance as shown in Figure 6. Vcc A6 Y6 A5 12 11 Y5 A4 10 9 Y4 8 1A 1Y 2A 2Y 3A 3Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 6A 6Y 5A 5Y 4A 4Y 14 13 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 A1 Y1 A2 Y2 A3 Y3 GND Figure 6. when forward−biased.4.6.

This is because if transistors T 2 and T 3 were 6−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Practical and ideal diode representation The data sheets provided by the manufacturer list several parameters and we will discuss the most important later in this chapter.7.9. With this input.8 functions as follows: We assume that the input voltage is the output of a previous stage and it is Low at V in = 0. The inverter circuit of Figure 6. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF.4 V and under this condition.2 + 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Figure 6. Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter Note: Unless otherwise noted.2 = 0.8.8 shows the internal details of the TTL IC 7404 inverter.2 V with respect to the ground as shown in Figure 6. transistor T 1 is ON and the voltage V 1 at the collector of transistor T 1 is V 1 = V CE sat + V in = 0.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T4 T1 Input A D2 Output Y T2 D1 T3 1 ΚΩ + - Figure 6.7 Practical diode vD ( V ) Ideal diode vD 0.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits i D ( mA ) slope = R 0.7 V R Figure 6. +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1 . henceforth Low will mean a nominal 0 V input or output signal and High will mean a nominal 5 V input or output signal.

this voltage is not sufficient to turn transistor T 4 ON because for transistor T 4 to be ON there should be V 2 = V BE T4 + V D2 + V out = 0.9 V .2 + 0. is sufficient to turn it ON.7 + 0.9. the current I that flows through the 1.2 V D2 Output Y D1 OFF T3 1 ΚΩ + V out = 4. Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter for Low−to−High inversion Next.0 – 0.4 V . However. +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1 . the base−emitter junction of transistor T 1 is reverse− biased.2 – 0. The current that flows through the base collector junction of transistor T 1 is sufficient to turn transistor T 2 ON and this causes transistor T 3 to turn ON also. Accordingly. With this input. V out = 0. Then.6 V .6 K Ω resistor and then into the base of transistor T 4 .7 = 4.7 + 0.7 = 1. we conclude that transistor T 4 is OFF. The voltage V 2 at the collector of transistor T 2 is V 2 = V CE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. with the input High the circuit is as shown in Figure 6. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF.1 V and thus the output is High and the inversion operation has been performed. transistor T 1 is said to be operating at the inverse active mode. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−5 . Under these conditions.2 V Input A T1 I OFF V1 T2 T4 ON V CE sat 0.10 and the circuit functions as follows: We assume that the input voltage is the output of a previous stage and it is High at V in = 5. V out = V CC – V CE T4 – V D2 = 5.7 + 0.The Inverter both ON. current flows from V CC through the 4 K Ω resistor and thus the base−collector junction is forward−biased. we accept the fact that with the input Low. Therefore. and thus the output is Low and the inversion operation has been performed. the voltage V 1 would have to be V 1 = V BE T2 + V BE T3 = 0.0 V with respect to the ground.7 = 0.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω ON V in = 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. However.2 = 1.2 V .1 V - Figure 6.

Circuit of the SN7404 Inverter for High−to−Low inversion It should be noted that it is the diode D 2 that prevents transistor T 4 from being ON. and the truth table is shown in Table 6.9 – 0.7 V which is just sufficient to turn T 4 ON.0 V Input A T1 T4 OFF ON T2 Acts as diode 0. 6−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. if D 2 were not being there. Figure 6.2 = 0. Table 6. T 4 would be also ON since there would be V BE T4 = 0.2 V 0. 6.6.7 V - Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the truth table for a 3−input AND gate is written as shown in Table 6.4 The AND Gate The symbol for a 3−input AND gate is shown in Figure 6.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω V2 V in = 5.11.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1 .11. A B C D Figure 6.6 shows that the output of an AND gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 1 .2 V D2 Output Y D1 ON T3 1 ΚΩ + V out = 0.5.10.12 shows the TTL SN7408 Quad 2−input AND gate where Quad implies that there are 4 AND gates within the IC. 3−input AND gate symbol With positive logic.

6 Truth table of 3−input AND gate when positive logic is used A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6. We will defer the analysis of this circuit and the reason for deferring the discussion after we introduce the NAND gate.13 shows the internal details of a two−input TTL AND gate.5 Truth table for 3−input AND gate A L L L L H H H H Inputs B L L H H L L H H C L H L H L H L H Output D L L L L L L L H TABLE 6. The SN7408 Quad 2−input AND gate Figure 6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.12. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−7 .The AND Gate TABLE 6.

Symbol for 3−input OR gate TABLE 6.7. 6−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Figure 6.7 Truth table for 3−input OR gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Table 6. A B C D Figure 6.14.7 shows that the output of an OR gate is logical 1 (true) whenever one or more of its inputs are logical 1 .5 The OR Gate The symbol for a 3−input OR gate is shown in Figure 6.14.13. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Circuit for the SN7408 Quad 2−input AND gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) 6.

Circuit for the SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) 6.16 shows the internal details of the TTL SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate.The NAND Gate Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−9 . 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6. The SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate Figure 6. We will defer the circuit operation until we first describe the NOR gate operation in a subsequent section.8.17. Figure 6.15 shows the TTL SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 OR gates within the IC. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6 The NAND Gate The symbol for a 3−input NAND gate is shown in Figure 6.15.16. We will not describe the functioning of the SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate at this time. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6.

The SN7400 Quad 2−input NAND gate Figure 6.18.17. therefore.18 shows the TTL SN7400 Quad 2−input NAND gate where Quad implies that there are 4 NAND gates within the IC.8 shows that the output of an NAND gate is logical 0 (false) only when all inputs are logical 1 .19.8 Truth table for 3−input NAND gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 Table 6. 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6. they are fabricated as a single device with 2 emitters but only one collector and one base as shown in Figure 6. Symbol for 3−input NAND gate TABLE 6.19 shows the internal details of the IC SN7400 NAND gate where transistor T 1 is equivalent to two identical NPN transistors with their bases and collectors tied together.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits A B C D Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 6−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Figure 6.

7 = 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. when transistor T 3 is ON transistor T 4 is OFF and vice versa. this circuit is practically the same as that of the inverter circuit of Figure 6. with the exception of two inputs for the 2−input NAND gate.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T4 T1 T2 Input A Input B D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 + Output Y - Figure 6. Under any of these three conditions.2 + 0.7 = 4. Circuit for the TTL SN7400 Quad 2−input NAND gate We observe that.19. This arrangement is referred to as totem−pole configuration. that is.7 + 0.8 where transistor T 4 is stacked on top of transistor T 3 and the operation is complementary. The 2− input TTL NAND gate circuit of Figure 6.2 = 0.1 V and thus the output is High and this satisfies the 2−input NAND gate operation.4 V and thus transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF.The NAND Gate +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1. the voltage V 1 would have to be V 1 = V BE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. This is because if transistors T 2 and T 3 were both ON.4 V .2 V with respect to the ground as shown in Figure 6. we accept the fact that under any of these three conditions. The current I that flows through the 1. transistors T 2 and T 3 are both OFF. transistor T 1 is ON and the voltage V 1 at the collector of transistor T 1 is V 1 = V CE sat + V in = 0.6 K Ω resistor and then into the base of transistor T 4 is sufficient to turn it ON. Then. However. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−11 .19 functions as follows: Let us assume that either Input A or B or both are Low at V in = 0.20. V out = V CC – V CE T4 – V D2 = 5.0 – 0. Accordingly.2 – 0.

7 = 0. V OUT = 0. However. It should be noted that it is the diode D 3 that prevents transistor T 4 from being ON. t r a n s i s t o r T 4 i s O F F . T 4 would be also ON since there would be V BE T4 = 0. The current that flows through the base collector junction of transistor T 1 is sufficient to turn transistor T 2 ON and this causes transistor T 3 to turn ON also.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1.21 and the circuit functions as follows: With V in = 5. this voltage is not sufficient to turn transistor T 4 ON because for transistor T 4 to be ON the voltage V 2 should have the value V 2 = V BE T4 + V D2 + V out = 0.9 V .2 + 0. and this satisfies the 2−input NAND gate operation.20.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T4 ON ON T 1 V in = 0. In other words.2 = 1. Circuit of the SN7400 2−input NAND gate when either Input A of B or both are Low Next.2 V Input A Input B I OFF V1 V CE sat 0.1 V - Figure 6.7 + 0.2 = 0. T h e r e f o r e .0 V at both inputs.2 V T2 D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 OFF + Output Y V out = 4. The voltage V 2 at the collector of transistor T 2 is V 2 = V CE T2 + V BE T3 = 0. with both inputs High the circuit is as shown in Figure 6.6 V .2 V . the base−emitter junction of transistor T 1 is reverse−biased. transistor T 1 is operating at the inverse active mode. current flows from V CC through the 4 K Ω resistor and thus the base−collector junction is forward−biased.7 + 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .7 V which is 6−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. if D 3 were not being there.9 – 0.

22.2 V Acts as diode D3 D2 D1 1 ΚΩ T3 ON + Output Y V out = 0. diodes D 1 and D 2 are included in the circuit of the 2−input NAND gate to clamp the input voltage to less than – 1. A B AB AB Y Figure 6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7 V OFF Figure 6.The NAND Gate just sufficient to turn T 4 ON.2 V .13.2 V 0.22. we observe that this circuit essentially consists of a NAND gate followed by an inverter as shown in Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−13 .21. The components of a 2−input AND gate We mentioned earlier that one of the parameters specified by the manufacturer is the input clamp voltage denoted as V IK and this refers to the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals without damaging the IC.2 V with respect to the ground. referring back to the AND gate circuit of Figure 6.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T4 T1 V2 ON T2 V in = 5. A typical value for this parameter is – 1.0 V Input A Input B 0. To insure that this value is not exceeded. +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 1. Circuit of the SN7400 2−input NAND gate when both inputs are High Now.

Symbol for 3−input NOR gate TABLE 6.23.9.24 shows the TTL SN7402 Quad 2−input NOR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 NOR gates within the IC.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 6. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6. The TTL SN7402 Quad 2−input NOR gate Figure 6.7 The NOR Gate The symbol for a 3−input NOR gate is shown in Figure 6. 6−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .24.23.25 shows the internal details of the TTL IC SN7402 NOR gate.9 shows that the output of an NOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 0 (false). A B C D Figure 6. 1A 1Y 1A 1B 2Y 2A 2B GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4Y 4B 4A 3Y 3B 3A 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6.9 Truth table for 3−input NOR gate with positive logic A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 Inputs B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 C 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Output D 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 6.

but not both. and thus transistors T 3 and T 4 are OFF. The symbol for the XOR gate is shown in Figure 6. is logical 1 . However.6 Κ Ω 130 Ω T5 T2 T4 D1 D2 1 ΚΩ T6 Input B + Output Y - Figure 6. We observe that the output of an XOR gate is logical 1 (true) when only one of the inputs.0 – 0. transistor T 1 will be ON and transistor T 3 will be OFF. and thus V out = 0.2 – 0. If Input A is Low and Input B is High.2 V also. that is. transistor T 5 is ON and therefore. and a voltage drop across the 1 K Ω resistor will be developed and it will be sufficient to turn transistor T 6 ON. V out = V CC – V CE T5 – V D5 = 5.2 V . If Input A is High and Input B is Low or both inputs are High. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6. Circuit for the TTL SN7402 Quad 2−input NOR gate The TTL 2−input NOR gate circuit of Figure 6. we find that V out = 0.25.8 The Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates The exclusive−OR (XOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. transistors T 1 and T 2 are both ON. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−15 .2 V with respect to the ground.26.7 = 4.1 V . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. But transistor T 2 will behave as a junction diode turning transistor T 4 ON.25 functions as follows: When both inputs are Low at 0. The voltages at the base of transistors T 3 and T 4 are the same as the collector voltages of transistors s T 1 and T 2 .2 V . 0.10. 6.The Exclusive OR (XOR) and Exclusive NOR (XNOR) Gates +Vcc 4 ΚΩ 4 ΚΩ T1 Input A T3 D3 1 .

The TTL SN7486 Quad XOR gate Figure 6.29.10 Truth table for 2−input XOR gate Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C 0 1 1 0 Figure 6. The symbol for the XNOR gate is shown in Figure 6.28 shows the internal details of the TTL IC SN7486 XOR gate. that is. For this reason.26.27. Symbol for the XOR gate with positive logic TABLE 6. 6−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Table 6. The exclusive−NOR (XNOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. and the truth table with positive logic is shown in Table 6.11.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits A B C Figure 6. 1A 1A 1B 1Y 2A 2B 2Y GND 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Vcc 4B 4A 4Y 3B 3A 3Y 1B 2A 2B 3A 3B 4A 4B 1Y 2Y 3Y 4Y Figure 6.11 shows that the output of a XNOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when the inputs are the same. the XNOR gate is also known as equivalence gate.27 shows the TTL SN7486 Quad XOR gate where Quad implies that there are 4 XOR gates within the IC. We can also implement the XNOR function using the TTL SN7486 IC with negative logic. There is no IC XNOR gate in the TTL family but one can be formed with an XOR gate (SN7486) followed by an inverter (SN7404). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . both logical 0 or both logical 1 .

Generally. Sourcing Current. When this is the case. and Sinking Current Typical of all outputs VCC Equivalent of each input VCC 4 KΩ 130 Ω Input Output Figure 6.Fan−In. A buffer of this type has a fan−out of 25 to 30. a typical TTL gate has a fan−out of 10. Thus.29. Fan−Out. Symbol for 2−input XNOR gate TABLE 6. Fan−Out. a device called a buffer can be used between the TTL gate and the multiple devices it must drive. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−17 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.28. TTL gates can feed up to 10 other digital gates or devices. Thus. Sourcing Current. a 3−input NAND gate has a fan−in of 3. In some digital systems.11 Truth table for 2−input XNOR gate with positive logic Inputs A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 Output C 1 0 0 1 6. TTL Unit Load. Circuit for the SN7486 XOR gate A B C Figure 6.9 Fan−In. TTL Unit Load. it is necessary for a single TTL logic gate to drive more than 10 other gates or devices. Fan−out is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed. and Sinking Current The fan−in of a gate is the number of its inputs. An inverter (NOT gate) can serve this function in most digital circuits if complementation is also required.

The advantage of the open−collector configuration over the totem−pole configuration is that the outputs of two or more open−collector TTL gates can be tied together to realize the AND function as shown in Figure 6.31(a) is often referred to as active pull−up since when transistor T 1 is ON. A driver gate* is said to be sourcing current when it’s output is a logic 1 as shown in Figure 6.31(b).31(a).30 is an example of passive pull−up where the resistor pulls−up the output voltage towards V CC .32. A driver gate is sinking current when it’s output is a logic 0 as shown in Figure 6. like all other transistors. for a fan−out of 10 which is typical for TTL gates.33.6 mA when output is in Low state (6. a resistor. and when the output in Low state there is a current of 0 × 1. there is a current of 10 × 40 μ A = 0.e. i.4 mA .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits A unit load for TTL logic gates is defined as 1 Unit Load = ⎨ ⎧ 40 μ A when output is in High state ⎩ 1. The arrangement in Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The passive pull−up arrangement is often used with open collector TTL devices such as the one shown in Figure 6..1) Thus. Figure 6. A passive pull−up circuit. and the word “passive” is used to indicate that the pull−up device used is passive. 6−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The word “active” is used here to indicate that transistor T 1 .6 mA = 16 mA . when the output is in High state. it pulls the output up towards V CC . is an active device. +Vcc R OFF T Figure 6.30. * A driver gate is a gate whose output serves as an input to another gate referred to as a unit load. Sourcing and sinking currents refer to the current flow in TTL circuits. We often hear the expressions “passive pull−up” and “active pull−up”.

6 Κ Ω D1 D2 T3 1 ΚΩ + Output Y - Figure 6.4 mA ( 10 unit loads ) D I sin k = 16 mA ( 10 unit loads ) T2 T2 V OH = 2.4 V I sin k (b) Figure 6. and Sinking Current +Vcc +Vcc T1 T1 D I source = 0. Current sourcing and current sinking (a) +Vcc 4 ΚΩ T1 T2 Input A Input B X (open collector point) 1.32. TTL Unit Load. Sourcing Current. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−19 .Fan−In.31. Fan−Out. Open−collector TTL configuration Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.4 V V OL = 0.

33. Wired AND connection To see why the outputs of two or more totem pole TTL gates should not be tied together for wired AND operation. With the collectors of transistors T 2 and T 4 as shown. Item 1 in the table is self−explanatory. Therefore.34. the current I can be as high as 55 mA which most likely will damage transistors T 1 and T 4 . and we have already discussed Item 2. 6−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.10 Data Sheets Table 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Wired AND X Y Figure 6.12 lists some important parameters listed in the data sheets provided by the manufacturer with typical values for a TTL 2−input NAND gate. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . we will continue with Items 3 through 13. +Vcc 130 Ω T1 ON +Vcc 130 Ω T3 OFF T2 OFF T4 ON I Figure 6. Improper wired AND connection 6. The reader is cautioned that these values are provided just for instructional purposes. the manufacturer’s latest data sheet should always be used since the values change from time to time. SN7400. For actual values. because per manufacturer’s specifications these transistors can sink only 16 mA . let us consider the arrangement shown in Figure 6.34.

V IH = 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−21 .5 V V CC = Max .0 V . R L = 400 Ω Time − High to Low C L = 15 pF Level t PHL 13 Propagation Delay V CC = 5. V IL = 0.8 V . V IN = 0. I OL = 16 mA V CC = Max . R L = 400 Ω Time − Low to High C L = 15 pF Level t PLH 11 22 ns 3.4 40 1 – 1.35. V IN = 0 V .6 15 V V 6 7 V μA mA mA mA mA mA ns 8 9 Output Short Circuit V CC = Max .12 Typical parameters for TTL logic circuits provided by IC manufacturers Parameter 1 2 3 4 5 Supply voltage V CC T A = 25 ° C Input clamp voltage V CC = Min .5 V V CC = Max . I IN = – 12 mA Conditions Min Typical Max 4.4 0.35. T A = 25 ° C . The low level input voltage V IL . V OUT = 0 Current I OS 10 Low Level Supply Current I CCL 11 High Level Supply Current I CCH V CC = Max . V IN = 5.0 V . V IN = 4.4 V V CC = Max .75 5. T A = 25 ° C . V IN = 0 12 Propagation Delay V CC = 5.4 0. V IN = 2. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0 0.4 mA V CC = Min . also referred to as logical 1 input voltage is the minimum input voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 1 input as shown in Figure 6. I OH = – 0.4 V 2.00 5. T A = 25 ° C .6 – 18 2.4 3. 4. The high level input voltage V IH .2 0.8 2.8 7 – 55 4.5 Units V V V V IK High Level Input Voltage V IH Low Level Input Voltage V IL High Level Output Voltage V OH Low Level Output Voltage V OL High Level Input Current I IH Low Level Input Current I IL V CC = Min V CC = Min V CC = Min .Data Sheets TABLE 6.0 V .4 1. also referred to as logical 0 input voltage is the maximum input voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 0 input as shown in Figure 6.25 – 1.

Part of a typical NAND gate showing current sinking 6−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0 V V IL Maximum log ical 0 input Figure 6. The low level output voltage V OL . also referred to as logical 0 output voltage is the maximum output voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 0 output when a current of 16 mA .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits V CC = 5.0 V V IH Minimum log ical 1 input 5. representing a fan−out of 10 .8 V Logical 0 input region 0.36. +Vcc 130 Ω T1 Output = 0.36. Valid logical 1 and valid logical 0 input regions for a typical IC gate 5. The high level output voltage V OH . is sinked by transistor T 2 as indicated in Figure 6.0 V Excluded region Neither log ical 1 nor log ical 0 0.35. 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .0 V Logical 1 input region 2.4 V T2 I sin k = 16 mA Figure 6. also referred to as logical 1 output voltage is the minimum output voltage level that the IC device will recognize as a valid logical 1 output.

8 mA . When transistor T 1 is ON.6 mA ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ 10gates ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎭ Figure 6.37. the resistor will act as a current limiter to limit the current in the range 18 mA to 55 mA . and the single gate on the left “sinks” (accepts) – 1. when the input voltage is 5. 8.Data Sheets 7. V CC must furnish twice the amount of current specified in the data sheet. For a 2−input NAND gate. the resistor provides short circuit protection. An illustration of the input current I IL for a 2−input NAND gate 9.6 mA each. If two outputs are at logical 0 . the maximum value of the sum of the currents I IH furnished by the input lines should not be greater than 1 mA for ten unit loads. the maximum value of the sum of the currents I IH furnished by the input lines should not be greater than 40 μ A for ten unit loads.6 × 10 = – 16 mA . that is. Thus. transistor T 2 is OFF.6 mA 1.4 V .37 where for a logical 0 input voltage the ten gates at the right side “source” (supply) – 1.38. 10. The data sheet specifies an output short circuit current of 55 mA maximum.a. VCC 16 mA 1.4 = 8. The output short−circuit current I OS is the output current when the output is shorted to ground as shown in Figure 6.6 mA 1.6 mA where the minus sign indicates the direction of the current flow as shown in Figure 6. The Low Level Supply Current I CCL is the current that the voltage supply V CC must furnish when only one of the four TTL 2−input NAND gates within the IC SN7400 has its output at logical 0 . When the input voltage is low at 0. when the input voltage is 2. 2 × 4. and the output voltage is grounded. the maximum value of the current I IL should not exceed – 1.5 V . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−23 .4 V . For a 2−input NAND gate.b. 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

V out2 < V out1 and thus the differential output is positive. then I C2 > I C1 .38. If V B2 < V B1 . a. V out2 > V out1 and thus the differential output is negative.6 = 3.2 mA . 12. assume that transistors T 1 and T 2 are identical. 6. c.11 Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) Let us consider the differential circuit shown in Figure 6. V out2 = V out1 and thus the differential output is zero. 6−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .39. Then. b. 13. and that R C1 = R C2 . then I C2 < I C1 . then I C2 = I C1 . A typical value is 11 ns . The propagation delay time t PLH is the time required for a logical 0 Input A or logical 0 Input B to appear as logical 1 at Output Y. V CC must furnish twice the amount of current specified in the data sheet. A typical value is 7 ns . If V B2 = V B1 . that is. The High Level Supply Current I CCH is the current that the voltage supply V CC must furnish when only one of the four 2−input NAND gates within the IC SN7400 has its output at logical 1 . R C2 I C2 < R C1 I C1 . R C2 I C2 > R C1 I C1 . If two outputs are at logical 1 . R C2 I C2 = R C1 I C1 . If V B2 > V B1 . The definition of the output short−circuit current 11. 2 × 1.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits +Vcc 130 Ω T1 I short circuit T2 Figure 6. The propagation delay time t PHL is the time required for a logical 1 Input A or logical 1 Input B to appear as logical 0 at Output Y.

1 Find the differential voltage gain for the circuit in Figure 6.= 1.4 – 0.6 mA I E ≈ -----------------------RE 8 KΩ Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.39.1 Solution: The base−to−emitter resistance is small compared to the external resistor R E and thus V EE – V BE 13.6 .40. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−25 . Differential circuit for Example 6.4 V Figure 6. +Vcc RC1 1 KΩ IC1 RC2 1 KΩ IC2 VOUT1 VOUT2 T1 VB1 T2 VB2 Differential Output RE = 8 KΩ IE − + VEE = 13.= ----------------------.Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) +Vcc RC1 RC2 IC1 IC2 VOUT1 VOUT2 Differential Output T1 VB1=v s T2 VB2=− v s IE RE − + VEE Figure 6.40. Basic differential circuit Example 6.

032 and from Chapter 3. Thus.032 = 32 A v = ----------v BE The differential circuit of Figure 6.8 × 10 –3 = 0.41. relation (3.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE VIN = − 0.39 forms the basis for the emitter−coupled logic (ECL) electronic gates. relation (3. in ECL the transistors always operate in the active region so they can change state 6−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.9 V (High) or VIN = − 1.= R C1 g m = 10 × 0. Then. Basic ECL circuit In contrast to TTL where the transistors are either cut off or saturated.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits and this current divides equally between transistors T 1 and T 2 assuming that they are identical.74) di C g m = ---------dv BE iC = IC or and thus The small signal voltage gain is i C = g m v BE v out1 = R C1 I C1 = R C1 g m v BE v out 1 3 .75 V (Low) − + VEE = 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .41.78).8 mA From Chapter 3. I C2 = I C1 = I E ⁄ 2 = 1. RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω VOUT1 IC2 VOUT2 T2 VREF = − 1.32 V T1 VIN VBE2 = 0 .2 V Figure 6. g m = 40 × 0. at room temperature g m = 40I C where I C is in milliamps. The basic ECL circuit is shown in Figure 6.6 ⁄ 2 = 0. depending on the state of the circuit.

.e.1 mA I C2 ≈ I E = ----------------------------.92 – ( – 5. V out 1 and V out 2 are complements of each other.32 – 0.42.2 ) = 4. with V in = – 0. we obtain V out 1 = – 1.03 V 3 Therefore. Next. with V in = – 1.03 V and V out 2 = 0 V .03 V .e. The output voltage levels are not the same as input voltage levels. transistor T 1 does not conduct and V out 1 is essentially connected to the ground. i. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. logical 0 . and this power is converted to energy in the form of unwanted heat. The emitter current I E is almost constant since the base−to−emitter resistance is much smaller than the emitter resistor R E and this current flows through either transistor T 2 or transistor T 2 depending on the value of V in while V REF is held constant at – 1. i.2 ) . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−27 .41 the resistor values are approximate and for proper operation they must be very precise. the output levels can be made comparable to the input levels by attaching two emitter followers to the outputs as shown in Figure 6. Therefore all current flows through transistor T 1 and the collector current of this transistor is V E – ( – V EE ) – 1.75 V (logical 0 ).9 V and the outputs are 0 V and – 1. In the circuit of Figure 6. We observe that with V BE2 = 0. we obtain V out 1 = 0 V and V out 2 = – 1.75 V (logical 0 ). Because V E = – 1. let V in = – 0.9 V .. transistor T 1 conducts hard.1 mA I C1 ≈ I E = ----------------------------.92 V .92 V . logical 1 .= 4.1 × 10 = – 1. The propagation time for this arrangement is less than a nanosecond. and transistor T 2 is OFF. 2. We observe that: 1.75 V as logical 0 (Low). However. the input levels are – 1.9 V (logical 1 ). there is a disadvantage and this is that the transistors are continually drawing current. that is.9 V is established as logical 1 (High) and V in = – 1.75 V .92 V .= ----------------------------------RE 800 and V out 2 = – R C2 I C2 = – 250 × 4. Because V E = – 1. which means the circuits require high power.= ----------------------------------800 RE and V out 1 = – R C2 I C2 = – 250 × 4.1 × 10 = – 1.32 V with respect to the ground. we must first find the current I C2 .6 = – 1. Also. V BE2 + V E = V REF and thus V E = – 1. To find V out 2 when V in = – 1. and V out 2 is essentially connected to the ground. However.Emitter Coupled Logic (ECL) very rapidly. the transistor T 2 is barely turned ON or barely turned OFF and this allows a very rapid change of state from ON to OFF or vice versa.03 V 3 Therefore.75 V and – 0. The condition V in = – 0.6 V . Let us now assume that V in = – 1.03 V .92 – ( – 5. We observe that V E – ( – V EE ) – 1.

We recall that a MOSFET is a 4−terminal device but normally the substrate is connected to the source thus making it a 3−terminal device.75 ns and power consumption of 40 mW .42.7 5 V − Emitter follower VOUT2 100 Ω −2 V Figure 6.43 shows a typical 2−input ECL gate and. Henceforth. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the MOSFET will be 6−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.32 V 100 Ω −2 V VIN = − 0. the outputs at the emitter−followers are V out 1 = V' out 1 – V BE = – 1.7 5 V Emitter follower T1 VIN VBE2 = 0 . the latter having a propagation delay time of 0.12 NMOS Logic Gates We discussed MOSFETs in Chapter 4 but.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE T2 V'OUT2 − VOUT1 VREF = − 1.78 V ( log ical 0 ) and V out 2 = V' out 2 – V BE = 0.9 V (High) or VIN = − 1.03 – 0. The symbol for a 2−input ECL gate is shown in Figure 6. let us review the basic construction and their operation.2 V + 0 . the resistor values are approximate. Two types of ECL gates are the ECL 10K and ECL 100K.75 V ( log ical 1 ) Figure 6. The complete ECL circuit With the emitter−followers connected at the outputs V' out 1 and V' out 2 of the basic differential circuit and recalling that in the emitter−follower configuration the output voltage is essentially the same as the input. for convenience.44.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω IC2 V'OUT1 + 0 .75 V (Low) − + VEE = 5. as before. It should also be noted that ECL is not a new technology.45 = – 0.00 – 0. Motorola introduced the MECL series in the 1980’s.75 = – 1. 6.

as shown in Figure 6. Condition under which an NMOS device behaves as an open switch Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. D G V GS + _ S S S N V DD D 10 10 D Ω or Open switch V GS < V T Figure 6.43.46.32 V − + VEE = 5. RC1 250 Ω RC2 IC1 250 Ω IC2 Emitter follower Emitter follower A+B A+B A T1 B T2 VBE2 = 0 . when V GS < V T . behaves like an open switch.46. Symbol for ECL gate D B G S n – channel S G D N G S p – channel D B G S D P Figure 6.45. Designations for n− and p−channel MOSFETS An n−channel MOSFET or simply NMOS device.NMOS Logic Gates shown as a 3−terminal block as in Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−29 .5 V and it is referred to as the threshold voltage.45. where V T = 1.44. Typical 2−input ECL gate A B A+B A+B Figure 6.2 V Figure 6.6 V VE RE = 800 Ω IE T3 VREF = − 1.

Condition under which a PMOS device behaves as a closed switch For convenience. when V GS > V T . Condition under which an NMOS device behaves as a closed switch A p−channel MOSFET or simply PMOS device.49.49. behaves like an open switch.47. 6−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.47. Condition under which a PMOS device behaves as an open switch An PMOS device behaves like a closed switch.48. when V GS < V T . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . when V GS > V T . as shown in Figure 6.5 V is the threshold voltage. D G V GS + _ S S S N V DD D 10 Ω 3 D or Closed switch V GS > V T Figure 6. D G V GS + _ S S S V DD D 10 Ω 3 D P or Closed switch V GS < V T Figure 6. we will represent these with resistor symbols with a typical value of 100 K Ω . where V T = 1. in our subsequent discussion we will the state of an NMOS or PMOS device ON or OFF (closed or open switch) by a low resistance ( 1 K Ω ) or a very high resistance ( 10 10 Ω ) respectively. D G V GS + _ S S S V DD D 10 10 D Ω P or Open switch V GS > V T Figure 6. as shown in Figure 6. as shown in Figure 6.48.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits An NMOS device behaves like a closed switch. since in integrated circuits resistors are being replaced by NMOS or PMOS devices because these devices require much less space than physical resistors. We will denote these as N L or P L where the subscript L stands for load. Also.

the NMOS device N is ON.13. The truth table for positive logic is shown in Table 6.50 where with V IN = 0 V (logical 0 ).12. Typical NMOS inverter and again the inversion operation is performed. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and the output is RX 10 -V V out = ------------------= -------------------× 5 ≈ 0.05 V 3 5 R X + R D DD 10 + 10 V DD = 5 V RD D + V in _ G N S + V out _ + V in _ G S V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V RD 10 Ω 3 5 3 or G S D N D NL + V out _ RX 10 Ω + V out _ or 10 10 Ω Figure 6. the NMOS device N is OFF. and the output is RX 10 -V V out = ------------------= ---------------------×5≈5 V 10 5 R X + R D DD 10 + 10 10 Thus. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−31 .2 The NMOS NAND Gate A 2−input NMOS NAND gate is shown in Figure 6. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.NMOS Logic Gates 6. 6. N L = R D = 10 5 Ω .13 Truth table for NMOS inverter V in 0 1 V out 1 0 A PMOS inverter has a similar arrangement where the NMOS devices are replaced by PMOS devices. N L = R D = 10 5 Ω . With V in = 5 V (logical 1 ). the inversion operation has been performed.1 The NMOS Inverter A typical NMOS inverter is shown in Figure 6.51.50.14. By application of the voltage division expression as with the NMOS inverter. TABLE 6.12. R X = 10 3 Ω . R X = 10 10 Ω .

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .13 CMOS Logic Gates CMOS logic uses both NMOS and PMOS devices to form logic functions.12. CMOS technology is the dominant semiconductor technology for the manufacturing of microprocessors. Unlike NMOS or bipolar circuits. a CMOS circuit has almost no static power dissipation.51. By application of the voltage division expression as with the NMOS NAND gate.52. memories and application specific integrated circuits.14 Truth table for 2−input NMOS NAND gate A B V out 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 0 6.3 The NMOS NOR Gate A 2−input NMOS NOR gate is shown in Figure 6. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6. The main advantage of CMOS over NMOS and bipolar technology is the much smaller power dissipation. Power is only dissipated in case the circuit actually switches.15. This allows to integrate many more CMOS gates on an IC than in NMOS or bipolar technology. resulting in much better performance. 2−input NMOS NAND gate TABLE 6. 6.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits V DD = 5 V D G NL S D + A _ G N S D + B _ G S N _ V out + 10 Ω 3 V DD = 5 V RD 10 Ω + 5 or 10 3 10 Ω V out 10 Ω or 10 10 Ω _ Figure 6. 6−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

device N is OFF.52.53.53 with V in = 0 V (logical 0 ). device P is ON. and the output is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13. 2−input NMOS NOR gate TABLE 6.1 The CMOS Inverter A typical CMOS inverter is shown in Figure 6.CMOS Logic Gates V DD = 5 V D G NL S D + VA _ G N S + VB _ G D N S + V out _ 10 Ω 3 V DD = 5 V 10 Ω + 10 Ω 3 5 or 10 or 10 V out Ω _ 10 Ω 10 Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−33 .15 Truth table for 2−input NMOS NOR gate A B V out 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 6. Typical CMOS inverter In Figure 6. V DD = 5 V S G D + V in _ D G N S + 10 V out _ V in = 0 V 10 V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V 10 P 10 Ω + Ω V out ≈ 5 V _ 3 10 Ω + or 10 Ω 3 V out ≈ 0 V _ V in = 5 V Figure 6.53.

device P is OFF. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6.16 Truth table for CMOS inverter V in 0 1 V out 1 0 6. By application of the voltage division expression as with the CMOS inverter.13.17.54.54. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and the output is RX 10 -V -×5≈0 V V out = ------------------= ---------------------3 10 R X + R D DD 10 + 10 3 and again the inversion operation is performed. device N is ON.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 10 10 = ---------------------×5≈5 V V out = ---------------------V 10 3 DD 10 3 10 + 10 10 + 10 10 10 and the inversion operation has been performed. The truth table for positive logic is shown in Table 6. V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V S G G S 10 Ω 10 10 Ω 3 P D D P D + or 10 3 or 3 10 Ω 10 Ω + V out _ 10 Ω + VA _ + VB _ G S D or 10 N V out N S 10 10 Ω Ω 10 3 G or 10 Ω _ Figure 6.2 The CMOS NAND Gate A 2−input CMOS NAND gate is shown in Figure 6. TABLE 6.16. 2−input CMOS NAND gate 6−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. With V in = 5 V (logical 1 ).

and Data Buses In certain applications.18 Truth table for 2−input CMOS NOR gate VA 0 0 1 1 VB 0 1 0 1 V out 1 0 0 0 6. and Data Buses TABLE 6.13. we find that for positive logic the truth table is as shown in Table 6. By application of the voltage division expression as with the CMOS inverter.18.56. Tri−State Devices.17 Truth table for 2−input CMOS NAND gate VA 0 0 1 1 VB 0 1 0 1 V out 1 1 1 0 6.Buffers. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. S + VA G D S + VB G D + D G S D G S V DD = 5 V V DD = 5 V 10 Ω 3 P or 10 3 10 Ω P 10 Ω or 10 10 Ω 10 Ω 3 + 10 Ω V out 10 10 3 N N or Ω or 10 V out 10 Ω Figure 6. A buffer or line driver is normally used to change (amplify) the voltage level at the output of a logic circuit as shown in Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−35 . the output of a logic circuit needs to be buffered.14 Buffers. 2−input CMOS NOR gate TABLE 6. Tri−State Devices.55.3 The CMOS NOR Gate A 2−input CMOS NOR gate is shown in Figure 6.55.

57 and its truth table is shown in Table 6. Circuit for the IC SN7407/SN7417 buffer (Courtesy of Texas Instruments) The circuits for the SN7407/SN7417 are completely compatible with most TTL families. A B Figure 6. Symbol for a buffer gate TABLE 6.58. Typical power dissipation is 145 mW .56. and the SN7417 has minimum breakdown voltages of 15 V.57. which simplifies design.19 Truth table for buffer amplifier with positive logic A 0 1 B 0 1 The TTL ICs SN7407 and SN7417 are a hex buffers meaning that each contains 6 buffers featuring high−voltage. Figure 6. Inputs are diode clamped to minimize transmission−line effects. The SN7407 has minimum breakdown voltages of 30 V.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Logic Circuit A Buffer ( Line Driver ) B Figure 6. The maximum sink current is 40 mA for both the SN7407 and SN7417.58 shows the circuits for these ICs.19. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Figure 6. and average propagation delay time is 14 ns . Voltage amplification with the use of a buffer The symbol of a buffer gate is shown in Figure 6. and also are characterized for use as buffers for driving TTL inputs. open−collector outputs for interfacing with high−level circuits (such as CMOS) or for driving high−current loads (such as lamps or relays). 6−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

an open circuit.21 is the truth table for that device. and the SN7440 dual−four input positive−NAND buffers.60 shows the symbol for the TTL SN74366 hex tri−state inverting buffer. Symbol for the SN74366 hex tri−state inverting buffer TABLE 6. and Table 6. G A SN74125 B G A SN74126 B Figure 6. and Data Buses Other examples of buffered gates are the TTL SN7406/SN7416 Hex Inverter buffers with open− collector high−voltage outputs.59.60.20 Truth table for the SN74125 3−state buffer A B G 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 High Z High Z Figure 6. Symbols for the TTL SN74125 and SN74126 devices The output of the SN74125 device is disabled when G is High. logic 1.Buffers. TABLE 6. Some other ICs are tri−stated buffers or gates. Figure 6. logic 0. and High−Z (high impedance). The output of these devices can assume three states. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−37 .59 shows the symbols for ICs SN74125 and SN74126 quad bus buffers with 3−state outputs. and the output of the SN74126 is disabled when G is Low. Tri−State Devices. the SN7428 quad 2−input positive−nor buffers. that is. The truth table for the SN74125 device is shown in Table 6.21 Truth table for the TTL SN74125 3−state buffer A B G 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 High Z High Z Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. G A B Figure 6.20.

62. the CMOS transmission gate can be used for both analog and digital signals and the only requirement is that the signal does not exceed the power supply voltages. Symbol for the CMOS transmission gate A data bus is a group transmission paths such as groups of wires used as a common path to interconnect several devices. the resistance between V IN and V OUT is very low and the signal is transmitted without degradation. With this arrangement.63 where the control line C A → B directs the data flow from left to right and C B → A from right to left. If they are OFF. When Control = 1 the switch is closed. If they are ON. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The CMOS transmission gate As shown in Figure 6. A data bus. and V out = High Z .61 where the control input serves as an open or closed switch. Control G D N S V in D G P S V out Figure 6.61.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits Another tri−state device is the CMOS transmission gate shown in Figure 6. one in which data can flow in one direction only.62 shows the symbol for the CMOS transmission gate. both NMOS and PMOS can be switched ON of OFF at the same time rather than alternately. or bidirectional where data can flow in either direction where each direction can be controlled by tri−state devices as shown in Figure 6. or simply a bus can be unidirectional. Also. that is. there is no path from the input to the output. both the NMOS and PMOS devices are OFF. Thus. when Control = 0 the switch is open. the CMOS transmission gate circuit consists of one NMOS and one PMOS connected in parallel and controlled by inverted gate voltages. C VIN VOUT C Figure 6. both the NMOS and PMOS devices are ON. Figure 6. 6−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.61. and V out = V in .

Since speed and low−power consumption are the most desirable characteristics. just about all of these devices have been replaced with newer devices even though the ICs that we described are still in use by experimenters and laboratory work in colleges and universities. Bipolar NPN transistor with Schottky diode and its representation as Schottky transistor To achieve low−power consumption. the Low−power Schottky 2−input NAND gate is identified as SN74LS00 whose internal construction is shown in Figure 6.15 Present and Future Technologies The IC devices that we described in previous sections of this chapter have been around for over forty years.63. the resistances are considerably higher in the upgraded versions of the TTL family and the ICs are identified with the LS designation which stands for Low− power Schottky device. Thus. In Chapter 3.64. Typical bidirectional bus 6.64.Present and Future Technologies A1 B1 A2 B2 An Bn CA → B CB → A Figure 6. we saw how the addition of a Schottky diode can be used to prevent transistor saturation as shown in Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−39 . Schottky diode B E C Schottky transistor B E C Figure 6. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.65.

5 V B V BE = 0.19 with SN74LS00 2−input NAND gate shown in Figure 6. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2) From Figure 6.65. This is because transistor T 5 never goes into saturation as it is explained below. by application of (6. Schottky transistor terminal voltages We observe that these values satisfy KVL since V BC + V CE – V BE = 0 (6. have been replaced by Schottky transistors.65.66.3 V E Figure 6. V BC = 0.65.66. we find that 6−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the conventional diodes have been replaced by Schottky diodes. Internal construction of the SN74LS00 2−input NAND gate (Courtesy Texas Instruments) A comparison of the SN7400 2−input NAND gate shown in Figure 6. and all transistors except T 5 . reveals that in the latter all resistances are higher. Let us consider the terminal voltages of the Schottky transistor shown in Figure 6.2) and noting that V CB = – V BC .8 V C V CE = 0.Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits T4 T5 Figure 6.

We will not discuss the BiCMOS technology in detail.Present and Future Technologies V CET5 = V BCT5 + V BET5 = V CET4 + V BET5 = 0. the NMOS device and transistor T 2 are OFF while the PMOS device and transistor T 1 are ON. Basically. As we know. the PMOS device and transistor T 1 are OFF while the NMOS device and transistor T 2 are ON. and this combination results in low−power logic gates.8 = 1. whereas CMOS technology offers high input resistance. a BiCMOS is a two−stage amplifier that uses a CMOS device in the first stage and a bipolar transistor in the second stage. This inverter functions as follows: V DD = 5 V S G D + V in _ G S P T1 D N T2 + V out _ Figure 6. and low output resistance. bipolar transistors offer high speed.8 V . This device can be used with both analog and digital signals.67. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V out = V DD – V CET1 ≈ 5 – 0. high gain. A more recent advancement in TTL technology is the Advanced Low−power Schottky denoted as SN74ALSXX. and the power consumption is about 1 mW compared to about 10 mW for the standard TTL. Then.1 V and therefore we conclude that transistor T 5 never enters the saturation region. Basic BiCMOS inverter circuit. The propagation delay time is about 4 ns compared to about 11 ns for the standard TTL. We will only show the BiCMOS inverter and the BiCMOS 2−input NAND gate. The BiCMOS inverter circuit is shown in Figure 6. Another recent technology is the BiCMOS. a 2−input NAND gate in this technology is indicated as SN74ALS00. When V in = 0 V .67. When V in = 5 V .2 = 4. V out = V CET2 ≈ 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−41 .3 + 0. It combines bipolar and CMOS to give the best balance between available output current and power consumption. Thus.2 V . Then.

**Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
**

The BiCMOS 2−input NAND gate has the same arrangement as the 2−input CMOS NAND gate with the addition of two NPN transistors at the outputs of the NMOS and PMOS devices as shown in Figure 6.68.

V DD = 5 V

G

S P D

G

S P D T1

R D + V _ A + VB _ G N S D N S R T2 _ V out +

G

Figure 6.68. The basic BiCMOS NAND gate

As we mentioned in Chapter 3, gallium arsenide (GaAs) is the fastest technology with propagation delay times about 20 ps and even though prices for these devices have fallen considerably during the last few years, the cost is still very high in comparison with other IC families. Undoubtedly, faster and with lower power consumption devices will emerge in the future. The interested reader is urged to check occasionally the Internet for new products developed by Texas Instruments, Motorola, National Semiconductor, Fairchild, and other IC manufacturers for new products.

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Summary 6.16 Summary

• Electronic logic gates are used extensively in digital systems and are manufactured as integrated circuits (IC’s). The basic logic gates are the inverter or NOT gate, the AND gate, and the OR gate, and these perform the complementation, ANDing, and ORing operations respectively. • Four other logic gates, known as NAND, NOR, Exclusive OR (XOR), and Exclusive NOR (XNOR), are derivatives of the basic AND and OR gates. However, AND and OR gates consist of NAND and NOR gates respectively, followed by an Inverter. • Generally, an uncomplemented variable represents a logical 1 , also referred to as the true condition, and when that variable is complemented, it represents a logical 0 , also referred to as the false condition. Thus, if A = 1 (true), it follows that A = 0 (false). • Integrated circuit manufacturers assign the letter H (High) to the 5 volt level and the letter L (Low) to the ground level. With the H and L assignments, the logic circuitry designer has the option of assigning a logical 1 to H and logical 0 to L, or logical 0 to H and logical 1 to L. The former convention is known as positive logic, and the latter as negative logic. • The Inverter performs the complementation operation. Thus if the input is A the output will be A and vice versa. The TTL SN7404 Hex Inverter is a popular transistor−transistor logic (TTL) IC device. All SN74 series devices are TTL devices. The newer SN74ALS04 device is faster and consumes less power. ALS stands for Advanced Low power Schottky transistor. • The output of an AND gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 1 . The earlier TTL SN7408 Quad 2−input AND gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS08 device. • The output of an OR gate is logical 1 (true) whenever one or more of its inputs are logical 1 . The earlier SN7432 Quad 2−input OR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS32 device. • The output of an NAND gate is logical 0 (false) only when all inputs are logical 1 . The earlier SN7400 Quad 2−input NAND gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS00 device. • The input clamp voltage denoted as V IK is the maximum negative voltage that may be applied at the input terminals of a typical TTL gate without damaging the IC. To insure that this value is not exceeded, diodes are included at the inputs of gates. • The output of an NOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when all inputs are logical 0 (false). The SN7402 Quad 2−input NOR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS02 device. • The exclusive−OR (XOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. The output of an exclusive−OR gate is logical 1 (true) when only one of the inputs, but not both, is logical 1 . The SN7486 XOR gate has been superseded with the SN74ALS86 device. • The exclusive−NOR (XNOR) logic gate has two inputs and one output. The output of a XNOR gate is logical 1 (true) only when the inputs are the same, that is, both logical 0 or Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

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**Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
**

both logical 1 . For this reason, the XNOR gate is also known as equivalence gate. There is no IC XNOR gate in the TTL family but one can be formed with an XOR gate (SN7486) followed by an inverter (SN7404). We can also implement the XNOR function using the SN7486 IC with negative logic. • The fan−in of a gate is the number of its inputs. Thus, a 3−input NAND gate has a fan−in of 3. • Fan−out is a term that defines the maximum number of digital inputs that the output of a single logic gate can feed. Generally, TTL gates can feed up to 10 other digital gates or devices. Thus, a typical TTL gate has a fan−out of 10. • A buffer can be used when it becomes necessary for a single TTL logic gate to drive more than 10 other gates or devices. A typical buffer has a fan−out of 25 to 30. An inverter (NOT gate) can serve this function in most digital circuits if complementation is also required. • For TTL logic gates, one unit load is defined as 40 μ A when the output is in High state, and 1.6 mA when the output is in Low state. • Passive pull−up refers to the condition where a resistor pulls−up the output voltage towards V CC . • Active pull−up refers to the condition where a transistor rather than a resistor is used to pull− up the output voltage towards V CC . • Sourcing and sinking currents refer to the current flow in TTL circuits. A driver gate is said to be sourcing current when it’s output is High. A driver gate is sinking current when it’s output is Low. • Totem−pole configuration refers to the arrangement where at the output stage of a TTL gate one transistor is stacked on top of another and their operation is complementary, that is, when one transistor is ON the other transistor is OFF. • Some TTL logic gates are designed with the collector of transistor at the output stage unconnected and are referred to as open collector TTL devices. The advantage of the open−collector configuration over the totem−pole configuration is that the outputs of two or more open− collector TTL gates can be tied together to realize the AND function. This arrangement is referred to as wired−AND operation. The passive pull−up arrangement is often used with open collector TTL devices. • Totem pole TTL gates should not be tied together for wired AND operation. • The data sheets provided by IC device manufacturers contain very important parameters that designers must take into consideration. • Besides the TTL, the emitter−coupled logic (ECL) is another logic family employing bipolar transistors, and with the exception of gallium arsenide technology, is the fastest logic family.

6−44

Summary

• In contrast to TTL where the transistors are either cut off or saturated, depending on the state of the circuit, in ECL the transistors always operate in the active region so they can change state very rapidly. The basic ECL circuit is essentially a differential amplifier. • The ECL gate provides two outputs, one which implements the OR function, and the other implements the NOR function. • Two types of ECL gates are the ECL 10K and ECL 100K, the latter having a propagation delay time of 0.75 ns and power consumption of 40 mW . It should also be noted that ECL is not a new technology; Motorola introduced the MECL series in the 1980’s. • The earlier NMOS and PMOS logic gates have now been superseded by CMOS logic gates. CMOS logic uses both NMOS and PMOS devices to form logic functions. CMOS technology is the dominant semiconductor technology for the manufacturing of microprocessors, memories and application specific integrated circuits. The main advantage of CMOS over NMOS and bipolar technology is the much smaller power dissipation. • A buffer or line driver is normally used to change (amplify) the voltage level at the output of a logic circuit. • Some other ICs are tri−stated buffers or gates. The output of these devices can assume three states, logic 0, logic 1, and High−Z (high impedance). • The CMOS transmission gate is another tri−state device where the control input serves as an open or closed switch. • A data bus is a group transmission paths such as groups of wires used as a common path to interconnect several devices. A data bus, or simply a bus can be unidirectional, that is, one in which data can flow in one direction only, or bidirectional where data can flow in either direction where each direction can be controlled by tri−state devices. • A more recent advancement in TTL technology is the Advanced Low−power Schottky denoted as ALS. Thus, a 2−input NAND gate in this technology is indicated as SN74ALS00. The propagation delay time is about 4 ns compared to about 11 ns for the standard TTL, and the power consumption is about 1 mW compared to about 10 mW for the standard TTL. • The BiCMOS technology combines bipolar and CMOS to give the best balance between available output current and power consumption. Bipolar transistors offer high speed, high gain, and low output resistance, whereas CMOS technology offers high input resistance, and this combination results in low−power logic gates. Basically, a BiCMOS is a two−stage amplifier that uses a CMOS device in the first stage and a bipolar transistor in the second stage. This device can be used with both analog and digital signals. • Gallium arsenide (GaAs) still remains the fastest technology with propagation delay times about 20 ps and even though prices for these devices have fallen considerably during the last few years, the cost is still very high in comparison with other IC families.

6−45

**Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits 6.17 Exercises
**

1. The circuit below is known as Resistor Logic (RL) gate.

1 KΩ V1 V2 1 KΩ 1 KΩ V out

a. Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. b. State the conditions under which this circuit can be classified as an AND gate. c. State the conditions under which this circuit can be classified as an OR gate. d. State some of the deficiencies of this circuit when used as a logic gate. 2. The circuit below is known as Diode Logic (DL) gate.

V1 V2 15 K Ω 5V

V out

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 3 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 3. The circuit below is another form of a Diode Logic (DL) gate.

V1 V2 1 KΩ V out

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent?

6−46

Exercises

4. The circuit below is a 3−input Resistor−Transistor Logic (RTL) gate.

750 Ω T1 750 Ω T2 750 Ω T3 1 KΩ V out 5V

V1

V2

V3

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 5. For the circuit below find V out 1 and V out 2 when each of V 1 through V 4 assumes the values of

0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground.

750 Ω

V3

T3

V4 V1 V2 750 Ω T1 T2 1 KΩ V out 1 5V

750 Ω

T4

1 KΩ

V out 2

750 Ω

5V

6. For the circuit of Exercise 5, derive an expression for V out 1 High level when the driving gate has a fan−out of 2. Hint: Start with an equivalent circuit. 7. The circuit below is a 3−input Diode−Transistor Logic (DTL) gate.

6−47

**Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
**

V CC = 5 V

R1 D1 V1 V2 V3 D2 D3

2 KΩ D4 D5 R3

R2

2 KΩ V out

20 K Ω

Write the truth table for the input combinations of 0 V and 5 V with respect to the ground. Which type of logic gate does this circuit represent? 8. It is known that the inverter circuit shown below has the value h FE = 30 minimum. Calculate the levels of the output voltage v out when the levels of the input voltage v in are 0 and 12 volts. You may first assume that v out ( sat ) = 0 V to obtain approximate values and then assume that v out ( sat ) = 0.2 V for exact values.

V CC = 12 V RC R1 2.2 K Ω

v out

R2

v in 15 K Ω

100 KΩ

V BB = – 12 V

6−48

**Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 6.18 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises
**

1.

1 KΩ V1 V2 1 KΩ 1 KΩ V out

**a. With V 1 = V 2 = 0 V , V out = 0 V . With V 1 = 0 V , and V 2 = 5 V , R 1 is in parallel with
**

R3

**and by the voltage division expression
**

V out t

R 1 || R 3 0.5 K Ω - ⋅ V 2 = -----------------------------------= ---------------------------⋅ 5 V = 1.67 V || 1 K Ω + 0.5 K Ω R2 + R1 R3

V1 = 0 V

**With V 1 = 5 V , and V 2 = 0 V , R 2 is in parallel with R 3 and by the voltage division expression
**

V out

V2 = 0 V

R 2 || R 3 0.5 K Ω - ⋅ 5 V = 1.67 V - ⋅ V 1 = -----------------------------------= ---------------------------1 K Ω + 0.5 K Ω R 1 + R 2 || R 3

**With V 1 = V 2 = 5 V , we apply the principle of superposition and we find that
**

V out

V1 = V2 = 5 V

= V out

V1 = 0 V

+ V out

V2 = 0 V

= 1.67 + 1.67 = 3.34 V

**With these values we construct the truth table below.
**

V1

0V 0V 5V 5V

V2

0V 5V 0V 5V

V out

0V 1.67 V 1.67 V 3.34 V

b. This circuit can be classified as an AND gate if V out ≥ 3.34 V c. This circuit can be classified as an OR gate if V out ≥ 1.67 V d. This circuit is not practical for use as a logic gate because if more than two inputs exist, more different output levels result. Moreover, there is no compatibility between the input and output levels. With the above arrangement for instance, with V 1 = V 2 = 5 V the output is V out = 3.34 V and if this output becomes the input of another gate shown below as Gate 3, the outputs drop to 2.72 V as shown in parentheses. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

6−49

**Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
**

5V 5V 5V 5V 1 3.34 V (2.72 V) 3 2 3.34 V (2.72 V) 2.23 V (1.81 V)

2.

V1 V2 15 K Ω 5V

V out

Both diodes are forward−biased for any combination of the inputs since the value of V CC is greater than 3 V and can be represented as in the circuit below.

0.7 V V1 V2

0.7 V

15 K Ω 5V V CC

V out

By inspection, when V 1 = V 2 = 0 V , or V 1 = 0 V and V 2 = 3 V , or V 1 = 3 V and V 2 = 0 V , the output is V out = 0.7 V . When V 1 = V 2 = 3 V , the output is V out = 3.7 V and thus the truth table is as shown below.

V1

0V 0V 3V 3V

V2

0V 3V 0V 3V

V out

0.7 V 0.7 V 0.7 V 3.7 V

The truth table indicates that this circuit could be used as an AND gate.

6−50

**Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises
**

3.

V1 V2 1 KΩ V out

**By inspection, when V 1 = V 2 = 0 V , the output is V out = 0 V . When V 1 = 0 V and
**

V 2 = 5 V , or V 1 = 5 V and V 2 = 0 V , or V 1 = V 2 = 5 V , one or both diodes conduct and

**the output is V out = 5.0 – 0.7 = 4.3 V and thus the truth table is as shown below.
**

V1

0V 0V 5V 5V

V2

0V 5V 0V 5V

V out

0V 4.3 V 4.3 V 4.3 V

**The truth table indicates that this circuit could be used as an OR gate. 4.
**

750 Ω T1 750 Ω T2 750 Ω T3 1 KΩ V out 5V

V1

V2

V3

By inspection, when V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = 0 V , none of the three transistors conduct and thus V out = 5 V . When one or more of the input voltages is 5 V one or more of the transistors will saturate and the output will be V out = 0.2 V ≈ 0 V . The truth table is as shown below and thus this circuit behaves as a 3−input NOR gate.

6−51

Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits

Inputs

Output

V1

0V 0V 0V 0V 5V 5V 5V 5V

V2

0V 0V 5V 5V 0V 0V 5V 5V

V3

0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V

V out

5V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V 0V

5.

V3 750 Ω T3

V4 V1 V2 750 Ω T1 T2 1 KΩ V out 1 5V

750 Ω

T4

1 KΩ

V out 2

750 Ω

5V

This circuit is a 2−input NOR gate with fan−out of 1. We recall that fan−out is the number of gate inputs that can be driven by a single gate output. Thus, in the circuit above the output of the first 2−input NOR gate drives (is connected to) one of the inputs of the second 2−input NOR gate. By inspection, when V 1 = 0 V and V 2 = 5 V , or V 1 = 5 V and V 2 = 0 V , or V 1 = V 2 = 5 V , one of both transistors T 1 and T 2 conduct and thus V out 1 = 0.2 V ≈ 0 V . When V 3 = 0 V and V out 1 = 0 V , V out 2 = 5 V . Next, let us examine the case where V 1 = V 2 = 5 V . Under this condition V out1 < 5 V because current flows through the 750 Ω at the base of transistor T 4 which now conducts, and and V BET4 = 0.7 V . We can now find that current from the equivalent circuit below.

6−52

**Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises
**

750 Ω

1 KΩ 5V I

0.7 V

5 – 0.7 - = ----------4.3 - = 2.46 mA I = -------------------------1000 + 750 1750

**The actual value of V out 1 is 5 V minus the voltage drop across the 1 K Ω resistor. Thus,
**

V out 1 = 5 – 10 × 2.46 × 10

3 –3

= 2.54 V

We see then that by connecting one input of a gate to the output of another gate causes the high level to decrease from its open circuit value of 5 V to the value of 2.54 V . 6. For a fan−out of 2, the equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure (a) below and its Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure (b).

1 KΩ 5V

750 Ω 0.7 V (a)

750 Ω 0.7 V

1 KΩ 5V I (b)

750 ⁄ 2 Ω 0.7 V

From Figure (b)

4.3 5 – 0.7 - = --------------------------------I = --------------------------------1000 + 750 ⁄ 2 1000 + 750 ⁄ 2

and

1000 - 4.3 = 1.87 V V out 1 = 5 – --------------------------------1000 + 750 ⁄ 2

The equivalent circuit of Figure (a) can be extended to the situation where there are N gates driven by one output of a gate, that is a fan−out of N, by replacing the resistance 750 ⁄ 2 by 750 ⁄ N . Then,

1000 - 4.3 V out 1 = 5 – --------------------------------1000 + 750 ⁄ N

6−53

**Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
**

Note: RTL is no longer used as a logic family. It is one of the earlier families employed years ago with a maximum fan−out of 5 and fan−in of 4. 7.

V CC = 5 V

R1 D1 V1 V2 V3 D2 D3

2 KΩ D4 D5 R3

R2

2 KΩ V out

20 K Ω

With one or more of the inputs V 1 , V 2 , or V 3 at 0 V , the given circuit becomes as shown below where the 0.2 V is assumed to be the output of a previous logic gate with logical 0 .

V CC = 5 V

R1 0.7 V 0.2 V VA

2 KΩ D4 D5 R3 VB

R2

2 KΩ V out = 5 V

20 K Ω

With V A = 0.2 V + 0.7 V = 0.9 V , the transistor is OFF. For the transistor to be ON, the voltage V A with respect to the ground would have to be

V A = V D4 + V D5 + V BE = 0.7 + 0.7 + 0.7 = 2.1 V

above ground. Therefore, V out = 5 V . Next, we will consider the case where all three inputs are high, that is, V 1 = V 2 = V 3 = 5 V . In this case, the three input diodes D 1 , D 2 , and D 3 are reverse−biased and thus do not con-

6−54

when at least one of the input voltages is Low.7 V R3 20 K Ω I To determine the output voltage V out we need to find out whether the transistor is ON or OFF. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 6−55 .2 V .2 V 0.5 V when added to 0. by KVL R 1 I – 0. The two diodes D 4 and D 5 in series are both necessary for the following reason: If only one diode were used.2 + 0.2 V and thus the transistor will be OFF.9 V VD R3 VB From the circuit above.7 V – 0. However. But this would not be a good design since any small noise voltage such as 0. Let us assume that it is OFF.7 = 0.7 )V B = V BE = R 3 I = 20 K Ω × ------------------------------------= 3.5 = 0.7 V and this would turn the transistor ON.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises duct. the voltages V A and V B would be as shown below. diodes D 4 and D 5 are forward−biased and the equivalent circuit is as shown below.27 V 2 K Ω + 20 K Ω This voltage is more than sufficient to turn the transistor on and thus V out = 0.9 – 0. Then. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 V would result to 0. V BE = V B = V B – V B = 0. VA 0.7 V + R 3 I = V CC = 5 V 5 – ( 0. V CC = 5 V R1 2 KΩ VB R2 2 KΩ V out = 0.7 + 0.7 V 0.

V CC = 12 V 2. DTL is no longer used as a logic family. 6−56 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 K Ω VB 15 K Ω 100 KΩ V BB = – 12 V v out = 12 V By the voltage division expression 15 K Ω . v out = 12 V and the inversion operation has been performed.57 V V B = V BE = ------------------------------------------100 K Ω + 15 K Ω and this voltage will certainly keep the transistor at cutoff. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . for v in = 0 V .Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits The truth table for this 3−input DTL gate is shown below and we see that it behaves like a 3− input NAND gate. It is one of the earlier families employed years ago with power consumption of about 10 mW and propagation delay time of approximately 30 ns . Therefore. 8. Inputs Output V1 0V 0V 0V 0V 5V 5V 5V 5V V2 0V 0V 5V 5V 0V 0V 5V 5V V3 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V 0V 5V V out 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 5V 0V Note: Like the RTL.⋅ ( – 12 V ) = – 1. With v in = 0 V the circuit is as shown below.

**Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises
**

With v in = 12 V the circuit is as shown below. First let us assume that v out ( sat ) = 0 V to obtain approximate values and verify the assumption that the transistor is indeed in saturation.

V CC = 12 V 2.2 K Ω IC I1 IB 100 KΩ

VB

v out ( sat ) = 0 V

v in = 12 V

15 KΩ I2

V BB = – 12 V

**Let the minimum base current for saturation be denoted as I B ( min ) . Then, I B ( min ) = I C ⁄ h FE where
**

12 V I C = ---------------- = 5.45 mA 2.2 K Ω

and thus

IC mA = 5.45 --------------------- = 0.182 mA I B ( min ) = ------h FE 30

**The actual base current can be found from the circuit above. We find that
**

12 V - = 0.80 mA I 1 = ---------------15 K Ω 12 V I 2 = ------------------- = 0.12 mA 100 K Ω

and

I B = I 1 – I 2 = 0.80 – 0.12 = 0.68 mA

Since this value is considerably larger than I B ( min ) , we accept the fact that the transistor is in saturation. Next, we assume that v out ( sat ) = 0.2 V to obtain more exact values. The circuit then is as shown below, and since the transistor is in saturation, there must be

v BE ( sat ) = 0.7 V

and with these values,

6−57

**Chapter 6 Integrated Circuits
**

12 V – 0.2 I C = ------------------------ = 5.1 mA 2.2 K Ω

IC 5.1 mA = ------------------ = 0.17 mA I B ( min ) = ------30 h FE V – 0.7 V I 1 = 12 ------------------------------- = 0.75 mA 15 K Ω V – ( – 12 V ) = 0.13 mA I 2 = 0.7 --------------------------------------100 K Ω

and

I B = I 1 – I 2 = 0.75 – 0.13 = 0.62 mA

We observe that the more exact computations do not differ significantly from those obtained by assuming that the transistor in saturation is essentially a short circuit. Therefore, when v in = 12 V , v out ( sat ) = 0.2 V and again the inversion operation is performed.

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Chapter 7

Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators

T

his chapter is an introduction to several pulsed circuits and waveform generators also known as relaxation oscillators. These circuits are part of a family of circuits that include differentiators, integrators, clipping and clamping circuits, pulse−timing and delay circuits, logic circuits, and switching circuits. In this chapter we discuss the three types of multivibrators, the 555 Timer, and the Schmitt trigger. Sinusoidal oscillators are discussed in Chapter 10.

**7.1 Astable (Free−Running) Multivibrators
**

An astable or free−running multivibrator, shown in Figure 7.1, is essentially a digital clock which has two momentarily stable states which alternate continuously thus producing square pulses as shown in Figure 7.2. We have assumed that all devices in the circuit of Figure 7.1 are identical.

V CC RC Output 1 C Q1 C Q2 RB RB RC Output 2

**Figure 7.1. Astable multivibrator
**

Output 1

Output 2

Figure 7.2. Output waveforms of the astable multivibrator

Let us now consider Output 1 and assume that the time ON T 1 and time OFF T 2 are equal and the period is T as shown in Figure 7.3.

7−1

**Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
**

Output 1 T1 T T2

Figure 7.3. Waveform showing period T and times ON and OFF for the multivibrator circuit of Figure 7.1

**If in Figure 7.3 T 1 = T 2 , the pulse repetition frequency f is given by
**

1 1 1 1 - = ----------------- = ------------------------------- = --------------------------------f = -T1 + T2 0.69 × R B × C T ln 2 × R B × C

where R B and C are as shown in Figure 7.1.

**7.2 The 555 Timer
**

The 555 Timer circuit is a widely used IC for generating waveforms. A simplified diagram is shown in Figure 7.4.

V CC R Threshold R Trigger R Disch arg e 2 ⁄ 3 V CC

+

Comparator 1 R Q S Q Output

1 ⁄ 3 V CC

+

Comparator 2

Figure 7.4. Simplified circuit for the 555 Timer

We observe that this IC includes a resistive voltage divider consisting of three identical resistors and this divider sets the voltage at the plus (+) input of the lower comparator at 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and at plus (+) input of the upper comparator at 2 ⁄ 3 V CC . The outputs of the comparators determine

7−2

**Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
**

the state of the SR flip−flop whose output is either Q or Q . Thus, if Q is High (Set state), Q is Low, and if Q is Low, Q will be High (Reset state) or vice versa. The SR flip−flop is Set when a High level is applied to the S input, and it is Reset when a High level is applied to the R input. Accordingly, the flip−flop is Set or Reset depending on the outputs of the two comparators, and these outputs are determined by the inputs Threshold at the plus (+) input of Comparator 1, and Trigger at the minus (−) input of Comparator 2. The output of the 555 Timer is the Q output of the SR flip−flop and when it is Low, Q will be High, and if the input Discharge is High, the transistor will be saturated and it will provide a path to the ground.

**7.3 Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
**

A useful application of the 555 Timer is as an astable multivibrator. From our previous discussion, we recall that the astable multivibrator is a pulse generator producing waveforms such as that shown in Figure 7.5.

T1 T

T2

Figure 7.5. Typical waveform for an astable multivibrator

**For the waveform of Figure 7.5,
**

Period = T = T 1 + T 2 1 Pulse Repetition Frequency = f = -T T1 Duty Cycle = ----T

Figure 7.6 shows an astable multivibrator employing a 555 Timer. We will see that with this circuit the duty cycle will always be greater than 0.5 as shown in Figure 7.7. For the circuit of Figure 7.6 let us first assume that the capacitor is uncharged and the SR flip−flop is Set. In this case the output is High and the transistor is does not conduct. The capacitor then will charge towards V CC through the resistors R A and R B . When the capacitor reaches the value v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC the output of Comparator 2 goes Low and the SR flip−flop remains Set.

7−3

**Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
**

V CC

RA R RB

2 ⁄ 3 V CC

+

R

Comparator 1 R Q S Q

T1 T 2

vC C

1 ⁄ 3 V CC

Output

+

Comparator 2 R

**Figure 7.6. Implementation of an astable multivibrator with a 555 Timer v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC
**

T1 T2

Output waveform

Figure 7.7. Input and output waveforms for the astable multivibrator of Figure 7.6

When the capacitor reaches the value v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC , the output of Comparator 1 goes High and resets the SR flip−flop and thus the output Q goes Low, Q goes High, the transistor becomes saturated, its collector voltage becomes almost zero, and since it appears at the common node of resistors R A and R B , the capacitor begins to discharge through resistor R B and the collector of the transistor. The capacitor voltage v C decreases exponentially with time constant t d = R B C

7−4

**Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
**

and when it reaches the value v C = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC , the output of Comparator 2 goes High and Sets the SR flip−flop. The output Q goes High, Q goes Low, the transistor is turned OFF, the capacitor begins to charge through the series combination of resistors R A and R B , and its voltage rises exponentially with time constant t r = ( R A + R B ) C and when it reaches the value v C = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC it resets the flip−flop and the cycle is repeated. We are interested in the pulse repetition frequency f = 1 ⁄ T and the duty cycle T 1 ⁄ T where T = T 1 + T 2 and the desired values are dependent on appropriate values of resistors R A and R B and the capacitor C . As we know, the capacitor voltage as a function of time is given by

v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in ) e

– t ⁄ R eq C

(7.1)

where V ∞ is the final value and V in is the initial value of the voltage across the capacitor. For the charging interval T 1 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.8.

V CC RA

RB

vC ( t )

C

Figure 7.8. Circuit for the charging interval

**For this interval, V ∞ = V CC , V in = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC , and R eq = R A + R B . Then, relation (7.1) becomes
**

v C ( t ) = V CC – ( V CC – 1 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e

–t ⁄ ( R A + RB ) C

= V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e

–t ⁄ ( RA + RB ) C

(7.2)

**At t = T 1 , v C ( t ) = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.2)becomes
**

2 ⁄ 3 V CC = V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e (2 ⁄ 3 )e e

–T1 ⁄ ( RA + RB ) C –T1 ⁄ ( RA + RB ) C

= 1⁄3

–T1 ⁄ ( RA + R B ) C

= 1⁄2

– T 1 ⁄ ( R A + R B ) C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2

or

T 1 = ln 2 ⋅ ( R A + R B ) C = 0.69 ( R A + R B ) C

(7.3)

7−5

**Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
**

For the discharging interval T 2 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.9.

V CC RA RB

vC ( t )

C

Figure 7.9. Circuit for the discharging interval

**For this interval, V ∞ = 0 V , V in = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC , and R eq = R B . Then, relation (7.1) becomes
**

v C ( t ) = 0 – ( 0 – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e

–t ⁄ RB C

= ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e

–t ⁄ R B C

(7.4)

**At t = T 2 , v C ( t ) = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.4)becomes
**

1 ⁄ 3 V CC = ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e (2 ⁄ 3 )e e

–T2 ⁄ RB C –T2 ⁄ RB C

= 1⁄3

–T2 ⁄ RB C

= 1⁄2

– T 2 ⁄ R B C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2

or

T 2 = ln 2 ⋅ ( R A + R B ) C = 0.69R B C

(7.5)

**The period T is the summation of (7.3) and (7.5). Thus,
**

T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.69 ( R A + R B ) C + 0.69R B C = 0.69 ( R A + 2R B ) C

(7.6)

The right side of (7.6) cannot be negative; accordingly, the circuit of Figure 7.9 cannot achieve the condition T 2 > T 1 . Moreover, from (7.3) and (7.5) we observe that T 1 and T 2 cannot be equal. Therefore, with the circuit of Figure 7.9 T 1 will always be greater than T 2 and the duty cycle will always be greater than 0.5 of 50 percent. But we can achieve a duty cycle close to 50 percent if we choose resistor R A to be much smaller than resistor R B . Example 7.1 For the astable multivibrator of Figure 7.10 the capacitor has the value of 10 nF . Determine appropriate values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce a pulse repetition frequency of 200 KHz with a duty cycle of 60%.

7−6

**Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
**

V CC

RA R RB

2 ⁄ 3 V CC

+

R

Comparator 1 R Q

T1 T 2

vC C

1 ⁄ 3 V CC

Output S Q

+

Comparator 2 R

Figure 7.10. Astable multivibrator for Example 7.1

**Solution: The period T = T 1 + T 2 is a function of the capacitor and resistor values as shown in relation (7.6), that is,
**

T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.69 ( R A + 2R B ) C

**The pulse repetition frequency is f = 1 ⁄ T and thus
**

5 1 × 10 - = 1.443 --------------------------f = 10 = -----------------------------------------0.69 ( R A + 2R B ) C R A + 2R B 8

1.443 × 10 = 14.43 K Ω R A + 2R B = --------------------------5 10

8

(7.7)

**The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T and from relations (7.3) and (7.6) we obtain
**

0.69 ( R A + R B ) C RA + RB RA + RB T1 - = ------------------------------------------ = ---------------------- = -----------------------Duty cycle = 0.6 = ---0.69 ( R A + 2R B ) C R A + 2R B 14.43 K Ω T R A + R B = 0.6 × 14.43 = 8.66 K Ω

(7.8)

Subtraction of (7.8) from (7.7) yields Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing, Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications

7−7

**Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
**

R B = 14.43 – 8.66 = 5.77 K Ω

(7.9)

and from (7.8)

R A = 8.66 – 5.77 = 2.89 K Ω

**Figure 7.11 shows an alternate form of an astable multivibrator using the 555 Timer.
**

V CC

RA RB R

2 ⁄ 3 V CC

+ vC C

R

Comparator 1 R Q S Q

T1 T 2

1 ⁄ 3 V CC

Output

+

Comparator 2 R

Figure 7.11. Alternate form of an astable multivibrator with a 555 Timer

With the circuit of Figure 7.11 we can obtain any desired value for the duty cycle as we will see from the relations below. For the charging interval T 1 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.12.

V CC RA

vC ( t )

C

Figure 7.12. Circuit for the charging interval

7−8

**Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
**

For this interval, V ∞ = V CC , V in = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC , and R eq = R A . Then, relation (7.1) becomes

v C ( t ) = V CC – ( V CC – 1 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e

–t ⁄ RA C

= V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e

–t ⁄ RA C

(7.10)

**At t = T 1 , v C ( t ) = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.10) becomes
**

2 ⁄ 3 V CC = V CC – ( 2 ⁄ 3 V CC ) e (2 ⁄ 3 )e e

–t ⁄ RA C –t ⁄ R A C

= 1⁄3

–t ⁄ RA C

= 1⁄2

– T 1 ⁄ R A C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) = ln 1 – ln 2 = 0 – ln 2 T 1 = ln 2 ⋅ R A C = 0.69R A C

(7.11)

**For the discharging interval T 2 the circuit is as shown in figure 7.13.
**

V CC RA

vC ( t )

C RB

Figure 7.13. Circuit for the discharging interval

**For this interval, V ∞ = ( R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) ) V CC , V in = 2 ⁄ 3 V CC , and R eq = R A || R B . Then, relation (7.1) becomes
**

RB ⎞ RB ⎞ – t ⁄ ( R A || R B ) C - V CC – ⎛ ------------------- V CC – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC e v C ( t ) = ⎛ ------------------⎝ RA + RB ⎠ ⎝ RA + RB ⎠

(7.12)

**At t = T 2 , v C ( t ) = 1 ⁄ 3 V CC and relation (7.12)becomes
**

RB ⎞ RB ⎞ – T ⁄ ( R || R ) C - V – ⎛ ------------------- V – 2 ⁄ 3 V CC e 2 A B 1 ⁄ 3 V CC = ⎛ ------------------⎝ R A + R B ⎠ CC ⎝ R A + R B ⎠ CC e

– T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B ) C

R A – 2R B ⎞ [ 1 ⁄ 3 – R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) ] V CC = --------------------------------------------------------------------- = ⎛ ---------------------⎝ ⎠ 2R [ 2 ⁄ 3 – R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) ] V CC A – RB e

–T2 ⁄ RB C

(7.13)

= 1⁄2

7−9

**Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators
**

R A – 2R B ⎞ - = ln ( R A – 2R B ) – ln ( 2R A – R B ) – T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B ) C = ln ⎛ ---------------------⎝ 2R A – R B ⎠ 2R A – R B ⎞ T 2 ⁄ ( R A || R B ) C = ln ( 2R A – R B ) – ln ( R A – 2R B ) = ln ⎛ ---------------------⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠

or

RA ⋅ RB 2R A – R B ⎞ - C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------T 2 = ------------------⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB

(7.14)

However, there is one restriction as we can see from relation (7.13), that is, the term R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) must be less than 1 ⁄ 3 . Therefore, the period T is the summation of (7.11) and (7.14) from which we obtain the relation

2R A – R B ⎞ RA ⋅ RB - C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------T = T 1 + T 2 = 0.69R A C + ------------------⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 2R A – R B ⎞ RA ⋅ RB - ⋅ C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------T = 0.69R A + ------------------⎝ ⎠ R RA + RB A – 2R B

(7.15)

**subject to the condition that R B ⁄ ( R A + R B ) < 1 ⁄ 3 , and this condition can be simplified as shown below.
**

RB ------------------- <1⁄3 RA + RB 3R B < R A + R B 2R B < R A RB < RA ⁄ 2

(7.16)

Example 7.2 Using the astable multivibrator of Figure 7.11 find an appropriate ratio for resistors R A and R B so that the output will be a square waveform, i.e., a waveform with duty cycle at 50 % . Solution: To achieve a duty cycle at 50 % , we must make T 1 = T 2 and this condition will be satisfied if we equate relations (7.11) and (7.14) subject to the constraint of (7.16). Then,

2R A – R B ⎞ RA ⋅ RB - C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------ln 2R A C = ------------------⎝ RA + RB R A – 2R B ⎠

7−10

**Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer
**

2R A – R B ⎞ RB ------------------- ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------- = ln 2 ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB RA + RB ⎞ 2R A – R B ⎞ - = ln ⎛ ---------------------ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ ------------------⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 ⎞ RA + 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ -----⎝ RA ⁄ RB – 2 ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠

**For convenience, we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as
**

2x – 1 ⎞ ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = ln ⎛ -------------⎝ x–2 ⎠

(7.17)

This is a non−linear equation and we could try to solve it with the MATLAB symbolic expression solve(‘eqn’) as

syms x; solve('(x+1)*log(2)=log((2*x−1)/(x−2))')

but this returns the value of – 1 which obviously is meaningless for this example. Therefore, let us plot relation (7.17) with the following MATLAB script to find the x−axis zero crossing.

x=2.1:0.01:2.5; y=(x+1)*log(2)−log((2.*x−1)./(x−2)); plot(x,y);grid

Figure 7.14 indicates that x−axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 2.363 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 50 % , we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value.

0.4 0.2 0 Relation (7.17) -0.2 -0.4 -0.6 -0.8 -1 -1.2 2.1 2.15 2.2 2.25 2.3 2.35 x=RA/RB 2.4 2.45 2.5

Figure 7.14. Plot for finding the ratio RA ⁄ R B to achieve 50 % duty cycle for the circuit of Figure 7.14

7−11

application of KCL at the non−inverting input of the op amp yields v ( + ) – v out v ( + ) -----------------------.69 × 5. then R B = 5.42 nF C = ------------------------------------3 0. Thus.= a --------v out ( R1 + R2 ) (7.15. The value of the capacitor can be found from either expression (7.= --------R1 R2 R2 R1 v ( +) = ---------------------.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators Let us choose R A = 5.11) is simpler. if we require that T 1 = 5 μ s .69 × 5.363 = 2.14) but (7.1 × 10 An unstable multivibrator can also be constructed with an op amp as shown in Figure 7.1 × 10 C –6 3 from which 5 × 10 = 1. An unstable multivibrator using an op amp From the circuit of Figure 7. V ( + ) sat v out t C Rf v(−) v(+) R1 (a) R2 V ( − ) sat v out a V ( + ) sat a V ( − ) sat a V ( + ) sat a V ( − ) sat v(+) (b) t v(−) (c) t (d) Figure 7.1 ⁄ 2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .16 K Ω .1 K Ω . T 1 = 5 × 10 –6 = 0.18) 7−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.+ -------. then.15.11) or (7.15(a).= 0 R2 R1 v out ( R1 + R2 ) v (+ ) -------------------------------.69R A C = 0.

The capacitor C and the feedback resistor R f form a simple RC circuit and when the voltage v ( − ) at the inverting input is at a higher than the voltage v ( + ) at the non−inverting input.20) and (7. and are shown in Figures 7.Astable Multivibrator with the 555 Timer where a is the attenuation factor since it is less than unity. The voltage across the capacitor cannot change instantaneously and rises exponentially as shown in Figure 7.22) (7. the voltage at the non−inverting input is aV ( − ) sat .15(a) we can derive the period of the pulse repetition frequency as follows: From relation (7. Accordingly.= R f C ln --------------------------------------V(+) – aV (+) V(−) ( 1 – a ) sat sat sat Relations (7.21) indicate that if the positive and negative values of the saturation voltage have the same amplitude.19) Substitution of the voltages shown in Figures 7.15(a) and 7.15(d). For the astable multivibrator of the op amp circuit of Figure 7.21) V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat t 2 = R f C ln --------------------------------------.15(c) and 7.20) (7.= R f C ln --------------------------------------t 1 = R f C ln --------------------------------------V(+) – aV(+) V(+) ( 1 – a ) sat sat sat (7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−13 . When the potential difference between the inverting and non−inverting inputs of the op amp approaches the zero value the op amp comes out of saturation and subsequently the positive feedback from the output to the inverting input of the op amp drives the op amp to positive saturation. V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat .1) v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in ) e –t ⁄ Rf C Taking the natural log of both sides and solving for the time t we obtain ( V ∞ – V in ) t = R f C ln -----------------------------(V – v (t)) ∞ C (7.15(b) yields the appropriate expressions for the timing periods as indicated below. then t 1 = t 2 and the period of the pulse repetition becomes +a T = t 1 + t 2 = 2R f C ln 1 ----------1–a (7.18) 2R 1 ⎞ T = t 1 + t 2 = 2R f C ln ⎛ 1 + -------⎝ 2R ⎠ 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the positive and negative saturation values are denoted as aV ( + ) sat and aV ( − ) sat respectively. Assuming that the initially the op amp is in negative saturation.23) and with (7.15(d) and when it reaches the value aV ( + ) sat the output switches back to the negative saturation state. the capacitor charges through R f towards the negative saturation value aV ( − ) sat .

7−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators Example 7. depending upon the circuit parameters which are discussed below.3 For the astable multivibrator circuit of Figure 7. When triggered by an input signal.35 ms = 5 × 10 ln ⎛ --------------⎝ – 25 ⁄ 6 ⎠ 7.3 Solution: From (7.= 50 × 10 × 0.16 compute the timing periods given that C = 0. R 2 = 50 K Ω .18) the attenuation factor is R1 1 10 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and V ( − ) sat = – 5 V . Unstable multivibrator circuit for Example 7. and then returns to its normal state.20) and (7.31 ms = 5 × 10 ln ⎛ -----------⎝ 50 ⁄ 6 ⎠ V ( − ) sat – aV ( + ) sat – 5 – ( 1 ⁄ 6 ) ( 10 )⎞ 4 –6 t 2 = R f C ln --------------------------------------.1 μ F .= 50 × 10 × 0.1 × 10 ln ⎛ -------------------------------------⎝ –5 × ( 1 – 1 ⁄ 6 ) ⎠ V(−) ( 1 – a ) sat – 40 ⁄ 6 ⎞ –2 .21) V ( + ) sat – a V ( − ) sat 10 – ( 1 ⁄ 6 ) ( – 5 ) ⎞ 4 –6 t 1 = R f C ln --------------------------------------.= 2. R f = 50 K Ω . that is.1 × 10 ln ⎛ ------------------------------------⎝ 10 × ( 1 – 1 ⁄ 6 ) ⎠ V(+) ( 1 – a ) sat 65 ⁄ 6 ⎞ –2 .16. changes from 0 to 1 for a short period of time. R 1 = 10 K Ω .= 1.= -.4 Monostable (One−Shot) Multivibrators A monostable or one−shot multivibrator is an electronic circuit with two output states in which only one state is stable. V ( + ) sat = 10 V .= -------------------a = ---------------------6 10 + 500 ( R1 + R2 ) and with (7. v out C Rf v(−) v(+) R1 (a) R2 V ( + ) sat v out V ( − ) sat t (b) Figure 7. This circuit stays in its normal state (usually a logical 0) until a signal is applied to its input. the output reverses states.

the capacitor value is greater than 1 μ F and the resistor value is greater than 10 K Ω and the pulse width period T at the output is determined from the relation T = 0. if R X = 20 K Ω and C X = 5 μ F .33 × R X × C X For instance.18. Typically.18. In Figure 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.18.18. the output pulse width can be varied from 40 ns to 28 s . A 2 . CX Input 5 B A1 4 10 9 RX 14 Q 7 6 V CC Output 74121 A2 3 Figure 7. time period that the output will stay High is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X . Under those conditions. As stated above.Monostable (One−Shot) Multivibrators Figure 7.17 shows a block diagram of a typical monostable and its input and output waveforms. any or all of these three pins may be connected to the input trigger signal. Input B A Q Output Q Output T C D Q Output Input Monostable Multivibrator Figure 7. Block diagram and typical input and output waveforms for a monostable multivibrator We observe that a positive going pulse at the input signal (transition from A to B) which is often referred to as the leading edge of the pulse (the transition from C to D is referred to as the trailing edge of the pulse) makes the 0 output to change state momentarily from state 0 to state 1 for a time period designated as T which is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X as shown in Figure 7. the pulse width will be T = 100 ms . Depending on the desired circuit operation. Also the 74121 is retriggable meaning that the input may be a train of periodic pulses.17. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−15 . With the 74121 device. the 74121 has three trigger inputs: A 1 . the monostable multivibrator will produce the output pulse shown. and B . Device SN74121 is a typical monostable multivibrator circuit and it is shown in Figure 7. The 74121 monostable multivibrator As shown in Figure 7.5 A 1 and A 2 are both active low and the B input is active high.

19. the voltage at the non−inverting input of the op amp is R2 . The use of a monostable multivibrator to block unwanted input pulses A monostable multivibrator can also be constructed with an op amp as shown in Figure 7. At this state.7 V and thus the voltage across the inverting input of the op amp is v ( − ) = 0. resistors R 1 and R 2 are chosen such that R 2 ⁄ R 1 = 10 and thus v ( + ) » v ( − ) . let us assume that a negative going pulse whose amplitude exceeds the voltage v ( + ) .24) Usually. So. the op amp remains in positive saturation.20. D1 C1 Rf v(-) v(+) C2 D2 R1 R3 R2 v out v in Figure 7.20. with the output at negative saturation. the voltage v ( + ) at the non−inverting input will also become negative. It can be used to widen a narrow pulse as shown in Figure 7. But this condition is only tem- 7−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and this is the stable state of the circuit.V ( + ) sat v ( + ) = ----------------R1 + R2 (7. A monostable multivibrator using an op amp In the circuit of Figure 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . This voltage at the non−inverting of the op amp will go momentarily negative and will drive the output of the op amp into negative saturation V ( − )sat . Accordingly.19. hence the name monostable. about 0. while the input pulse is zero. diode D 1 is forward biased and the voltage across the capacitor C 1 is the same as that of diode D 1 . i.. that is. Input Output Figure 7.e. v out = V ( + ) sat . and to block unwanted input pulses as shown in Figure 7.7 V . Next. By the voltage division expression.18.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators The monostable multivibrator is used primarily in pulse shaping applications. the output of the op amp is held at positive saturation.20. v in = 0 .

the output of Comparator 2 will go High. The voltage at the input terminal is sufficiently high to keep the output of Comparator 2 Low. we can form a monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer circuit as shown in Figure 7. Thus.Monostable (One−Shot) Multivibrators porary because diode D 1 is now reverse−biased and allows capacitor C 1 to charge negatively.27) As with astable multivibrators.26) simplifies to the approximate expression t ≈ 0. The expression for the timing period can be derived from relations (7. At this time. if a negative going pulse is applied at the input.1 R f C 1 (7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−17 . and the capacitor will discharge.25) where a is the attenuation factor defined as before as R1 a = ---------------------( R1 + R2 ) Alternately.19) which for the monostable multivibrator is appropriately expressed as ( V ( − ) sat – 0 ) 1 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The output Q will also be Low. Once the capacitor voltage exceeds the threshold voltage of Comparator 1. in the stable state the SR flip−flop will be in the Reset state keeping the transistor in saturation and thus the capacitor voltage will be close to zero volts. relation (7. the multivibrator will be returned to it stable state at zero volts level. and the time t is determined by the time constant of capacitor C 1 and feedback resistor R f .21. Now. the output of this comparator will go High. and also by the ratio R 1 ⁄ R 2 . the flip−flop will be Reset. we may express (7. We see then that the output of the op amp remains at negative saturation V ( − ) sat only long enough for capacitor C 1 to charge to approximately the value of v ( + ) . the flip−flop will be Set and its output Q will go High and output Q will go Low and the transistor will be at cutoff.25) as R1 ⎞ t = R f C 1 ln ⎛ 1 + ----⎝ R ⎠ 2 (7.21.18) or (7. and when v ( − ) becomes slightly more negative v ( + ) . As shown in Figure 7.26) and if we choose R 2 ⁄ R 1 = 10 . the transistor will go in saturation. the capacitor will begin charging through resistor R1 and will rise exponentially towards the supply voltage VCC .= R f C 1 ln ---------t = R f C 1 ln -------------------------------------------1–a ( V ( − ) – aV ( − ) ) sat sat (7. and the output of the op amp is once again driven into positive saturation.

v C ( t ) = V ∞ – ( V ∞ – V in ) e –t ⁄ R1 C and assuming that the negative going pulse is applied at the input at t = 0 when V in = 0 . when charging.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators V CC R1 R2 Comparator 1 C R2 R Q S Q Comparator 2 RB R2 Figure 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . We can find the pulse width T for the time that the monostable multivibrator changes momentarily from its stable state by observing that the capacitor voltage. reaches the threshold voltage at the minus (−) input of Comparator 1. From (7. A monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer circuit.1R 1 C (7.28) 7−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Because the three resistors have the same value. this threshold voltage is 2 ⁄ 3 V CC .1). at t = T the above relation becomes ( 2 ⁄ 3 ) V CC = V CC – V CC e e –T ⁄ R1 C –T ⁄ R1 C = 1⁄3 – T ⁄ R 1 C = ln ( 1 ⁄ 3 ) = ln 1 – ln 3 T ≈ 1.21.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−19 .Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) 7. and the bias voltage V BB are selected so that in one state the base current is adequate to drive one transistor into saturation and in the second state the base−emitter junction must be below cutoff.1 The Fixed−Bias Flip−Flop The fixed−bias circuit shown in Figure 7. Assume that the transistors have a minimum h FE value of 50. J−K.23. The outputs will change only when directed by an input command.5. * The logic diagrams and characteristic tables for the Set−Reset. 7. For this circuit it is assumed that the value of the collector resistance R C is chosen such that the collector current I C ≈ V CC ⁄ R C does not exceed the maximum permissible current. ISBN 978−1−934404−05−8. Example 7. the self− biased flip−flop. † This circuit is also known as Ecless−Jordan configuration Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The triggering signal which is used to induce a transition from one state to another will be discussed later in this section. + V CC RC R1 V C1 T1 R2 R2 T2 R1 RC V C2 – V BB Figure 7.5 Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) Bistable multivibrators.22. Fixed−bias flip−flop circuit We will illustrate the operation of the circuit of Figure 7. The cutoff and saturation characteristics are specified by the manufacturer.22 is one of the earlier types.* are electronic circuits with two stable outputs one of which is the complement of the other. It is also assumed that the values of resistors R 1 and R 2 . and the Schmitt trigger circuit.4 Compute the stable−state currents and voltages for the flip−flop circuit of Figure 7. In this section we will introduce the fixed−bias flip−flop.22† with the following example. and Toggle flip−flops are described in Digital Circuit Analysis and Design with Simulink Modeling and Introduction to CPLDs and FPGAs. Data. or more commonly referred to as flip−flops.

we will initially neglect them and we let V C2 ( sat ) ≈ 0 V and V B2 ( sat ) ≈ 0 V as shown in Figures 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .20(b) respectively.2 K Ω 15 K Ω 15 K Ω V C2 Solution: This circuit consists of two cross−coupled inverter circuits such as that of Exercise 8 in Chapter 6.4.4 Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON. The analysis is facilitated by breaking the given circuit into two parts.20(a) and 7. and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure 7. + 12 V I3 15 K Ω V B2 ≈ 0 V 100 KΩ (b) I B2 I4 ON T2 OFF T1 – 12 V Figure 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators + 12 V 2. Fixed−bias flip−flop circuit for Example 7. Circuits for the computation of the stable states for Example 7.23.57 V V B1 = ------------------------------------------100 K Ω + 15 K Ω and this voltage will certainly keep transistor T 1 at cutoff. Since the saturation voltages are small (about 0.2 K Ω V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ – 12 V T2 2.2 K Ω V C2 ≈ 0 V V C1 T1 OFF Figure 7.2 V ). To verify that with transistor T 1 7−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. + 12 V 2. the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure 7.⋅ ( – 12 V ) = – 1.24(a).24.24(b).2 K Ω I2 V B1 100 KΩ – 12 V (a) 15 K Ω T2 ON I1 I C2 2. By the voltage division expression 15 K Ω .

20(b) as V C1 = 12 – 2. Thus.2 × 10 × I 3 = 12 – 2.12 mA I 4 = ------------------100 K Ω I B2 = I 3 – I 4 = 0.35 mA We observe that the value of I 2 is much less than the value of I 1 and in a practical flip−flop design this may not be the case. I C2 5. we have shown that transistor T 2 is deeply into saturation.2 × 10 × 0. the collector voltage V C1 if found from Figure 7.58 mA and Then. the voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip−flop of this example are summarized in Table 7.24(b).2 K Ω Also.70 × 10 3 3 –3 = 10.45 mA 2. Then. With the assumption that the saturation are zero volts. the minimum base current I B2 is read from the collector characteristics curve for a particular transistor and since no curves were given.10 = 5. The analysis is the same as above where the voltages and currents are interchanged between transistors T 1 and T 2 .Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) beyond cutoff transistor T 2 is in saturation. and V C2 = 10. we will use the given minimum value of h FE .11 mA I B ( min ) = ------50 h FE Let us now compute the value of I B2 from Figure 7.= 0.12 = 0. Since ( I B2 = 0. the value of I B2 exceeds the minimum base current value of I B ( min ) required for saturation. 0 – ( – 12 ) .58 mA ) > ( I B ( min ) = 0.10 mA I 2 = ------------------------------------------15 K Ω + 100 K Ω I C2 = I 1 – I 2 = 5.2 K Ω + 15 K Ω 12 . We find that 12 = 0.= 0.1. Usually.5 V . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.35 mA = --------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−21 .11 mA ) . The second stable state is the one in which transistor T 1 is ON and transistor T 2 is OFF. Finally.for the minimum value of I B2 for saturation. we calculate I C2 by first finding I 1 and I 2 as follows: 12 V I 1 = ---------------. that is.70 mA I 3 = -----------------------------------------2.70 – 0.45 – 0.= 0.= 5.5 V and this value is close to the collector supply voltage of 12 volts.

25. + V CC RC R1 V CN1 T1 R2 R2 T2 RC V CN2 R1 RE Figure 7.4 Parameter I C1 V C1 I C2 V C2 I B1 V B1 I B2 V B2 Value 0 mA 10.1 Voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip−flop of Example 7. is used to provide self−bias and thus the need for a negative power supply is eliminated. Self−bias flip−flop circuit The procedure for calculating the stable states is similar to that for a fixed−bias flip−flop and it is illustrated in Example 7. 7−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.56 V 0.25. In a self−bias flip−flop.2 The Self−Bias Flip−Flop This is also one of the earlier types of flip−flops. as shown in Figure 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators TABLE 7.35 mA 0V 0 mA −1.5.58 mA 0V 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5. a common emitter resistor R E .5 V 5.

Find the minimum value of h FE which will keep the ON transistor in saturation.26 which uses P−N−P identical transistors. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−23 . the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure 7.27.5 Figure 7. We must first compute the voltage V EN1 shown in Figure 7. and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure 7. The circuit of Example 7.27. – V CC – 12 V RC R1 OFF T1 V BE1 V EN1 V BN1 R2 10 K Ω I B2 + I C2 30 K Ω ON I B2 I C2 T2 RE 0.5 Compute the stable−state currents and voltages for the flip−flop circuit in Figure 7.5 K Ω N V CE2 V CN2 V EN2 4 KΩ Figure 7.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) Example 7. Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON.26. Self−bias flip−flop circuit for Example 7. The analysis is facilitated by breaking the given circuit into two parts.5 showing the connections between the base of T 1 and collector of T 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. – V CC – 12 V RC 4 KΩ V CN1 T1 R2 10 K Ω RE V EN1 R1 30 K Ω R2 10 K Ω 500 Ω V EN2 R1 30 K Ω T2 RC 4 KΩ V CN 2 Solution: This circuit consists of two cross−coupled inverter circuits such as that of Exercise 8 in Chapter 6.27.28.

then by replacing the base circuit of T 2 by its equivalent.29.29. and inserting the transistor T 2 between them.27 we observe that V EN2 = V EN1 and from Figure 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators From the circuit of Figure 7.5 showing the connections between the base of T 2 and collector of T 1 where the minus (−) sign indicates that the neutral point (ground) is at a higher potential than the emitter. With transistor T 2 and emitter resistor R E disconnected.29) Figure 7.28.5 7−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. – V CC RC R1 OFF T1 R2 10 K Ω 30 K Ω x RC 4 KΩ 12 V R2 R1 30 K Ω x 10 K Ω R TH1 3.28 V EN2 = – ( I B2 + I C2 ) R E – V CC – 12 V RC 4 KΩ R1 30 K Ω T1 V CN1 V EN1 OFF V BN2 R2 10 KΩ I B2 V EB2 RE 500 Ω N ON T2 V EN2 (7.9 V – 12 V 4 KΩ x y y V CC y Figure 7. Collector circuit for the computation of Thevenin equivalent. combining these two. the Thevenin equivalent is as shown in Figure 7. The circuit of Example 7.64 K Ω V TH1 10. To find the saturation currents I B2 and I C2 we will apply Thevenin’s theorem by first replacing the collector circuit of transistor T 2 by its equivalent. Example 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

73 V V TH2 = V vw = ----------------------------------( R1 + R2 + RC ) ( 30 + 10 + 4 ) ( RC + R1 ) R2 34 × 10 = ----------------.5I C2 = 2.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) From Figure 7.9 Rearranging and simplifying. – V CC RC 4 KΩ R1 30 K Ω T1 OFF RC R1 R TH2 – 12 V R2 10 KΩ v w N 4 K Ω 30 K Ω R2 V CC 10 12 V KΩ v w 7. we obtain 8.= 3.5 ( I B2 + I C2 ) + 0. R TH1 .30.30.73I B2 = 2.23I B2 + 0.9 V .2 + 3.64I C2 = 10.31) Next. Example 7.= 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−25 . V TH2 . We find the values of I B2 and I C2 by application of KVL around the loops indicated in Figure 7.73 V v w Figure 7. Base circuit for the computation of Thevenin equivalent.7 V .73 K Ω V TH2 2.( – 12 ) = – 2.( – V CC ) = ------------------------------V TH1 = V xy = ----------------------------------( 30 + 10 + 4 ) ( R1 + R2 + RC ) ( R1 + R2 ) RC 40 × 4 = -------------.03 0.7 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5I B2 + 4.2 V and V EB ( sat ) = 0. 0.30) (7.64 K Ω R TH1 = ( R 1 + R 2 ) || R C = ------------------------------44 R1 + R2 + RC (7.5 ( I B2 + I C2 ) + 0.73 0.33) The Thevenin equivalent voltages and resistances of V TH1 . combined with transistor T 2 and resistor R E yield the circuit of Figure 7.31.32) (7.5 From Figure 7.14I C2 = 10.7 + 7.( – V CC ) = ------------------------------.31 where have assumed that V EC ( sat ) = 0.73 K Ω R TH2 = ( R C + R 1 ) || R 2 = ------------------------------44 RC + R1 + R2 (7. we replace the base circuit of T 2 by its equivalent as shown in Figure 7.( – 12 ) = – 10. and R TH2 .30 R2 10 .29 ( R1 + R2 ) ( 30 + 10 ) .

0.34) (7.33 ) = +0.28. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .9 V Figure 7.7 V RE 0.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators R TH1 3. From Figure 7.33 V (7.41) From Figure 7. From Figure 7.23 0.7]'.5 4.53 V V BN2 = V BE2 + V EN2 = – 0.95 V 7−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 – 1.V CN2 = ----------------( – 1.03 10.5.2 V 10.33 = – 2.38 V V BN1 = ----------------30 + 10 R1 + R2 V BE1 = V BN1 – V EN1 = – 0.33 = – 1.3f mA \t'.27 and 7. we obtain write and execute the following script which produces the values of the currents I B2 and I C2 .09 I B2 (7. fprintf('IB2=%2.x(2)).27.36) The voltages can now be found from the circuits of Figures 7.5 h FE = -----0.64 K Ω I C2 7.53 V ) = – 0.37) (7.. fprintf(' \n') IB2=0.26 we observe that V EN2 = V EN1 and from relation (7.18) V EN1 = V EN2 = – ( I B2 + I C2 ) R E = – ( 0. I C2 2.3f mA \t'..57 I B2 = 0.090 mA IC2=2.40) (7.5 K Ω V TH1 0.03 V R2 10 . fprintf('IC2=%2.35) With these values.73 V I B2 + I C2 R TH2 0.28. From Figure 7.574 mA Thus.5 = – 1.x(1)).38 – ( 1. The composite Thevenin equivalent circuit of Example 7.38) (7.73 K Ω I B2 V TH2 2.57 = --------. B=[2.27. fprintf(' \n').= 28.7 – 1.31. A=[8. and I C2 = 2.57 ) × 0.09 + 2.39) (7. we now find the value of h FE . x=A\B.14]. and V CN2 = V CE2 + V EN2 = – 0.5 when transistor T 2 is in saturation Using MATLAB with the matrix left division operator..09 (7.

32. Finally. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−27 . Example 7.33 V We observe that the output changes from V CN2 = – 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.53 V to V CN1 = – 10.03 V −1. for simplification is redrawn into two simple resistive networks as shown in Figure 7.24 V CN1a = -----------------30 + 4 R 1 + R C BN2 and from the circuit of Figure 7.4 Parameter Value 0 mA I C1 V CN1 I C2 V CN2 I B1 V BN1 I B2 V BN2 V EN1 = V EN2 −10. R1 V BN2 30 K Ω RC 4 KΩ V CN1a RC V CC 4 K Ω R1 30 K Ω (b) V CN1b – 2.83 V (7.( – 12 ) = – 10.32(a) we find that RC 4 -V = -------------( – 2.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) With this value.53 V 0 mA −1.57 mA −1.42) The stable state values of the circuit of Example 7. Circuits for the computation of V CN1 .5 are summarized in Table 7.V = -------------V CN1b = -----------------4 + 30 R C + R 1 CC Therefore. the PNP transistor is OFF.4 From the circuit of Figure 7.28 which.56 V 0.32.2 Voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip−flop of Example 7.83 V 2.59 V .09 mA −2. V CN1 = V CN1a + V CN1b = – 10.2 TABLE 7.83 V or vice versa.03 ) = – 0. to find the value of V CN1 we apply superposition to the circuit of Figure 7.03 V – 12 V (a) Figure 7.32(b) we find that R1 30 .

5.* + V CC RC V C1 T1 Y1 C1 R1 X1 R2 R2 C1 R1 Y2 X2 T2 RC V C2 – V BB Figure 7.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7. and input capacitor C i constitutes an uncompensated attenuator. a negative pulse is applied at the base of T 2 denoted as point X 2 . and its reciprocal is the maximum frequency at which the flip−flop will respond. in parallel with the coupling resistors R 1 as shown in Figure7. transistor T 2 is ON. please refer to Appendix B. It is always desirable to reduce the transition time and this can be accomplished by inserting small capacitors. Fixed−bias flip−flop circuit including speed−up capacitors The smallest allowable interval between triggers is referred to as the resolving time of the flip−flop. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the maximum frequency f max of operation is given by the relation R1 + R2 1 f max = ----.43) The triggering signal which is usually employed to initiate a transition from one state to the other is either a pulse of short time duration or a step voltage. denoted as point Y 2 will rise rapidly and it is desirable that this rapid rise will be transmitted with minimum delay to the base of T 1 denoted as point X 1 .33. In some applications it is desired to have a change of state occur immediately after the application of an abrupt triggering signal. The collector voltage of T 2 .33 transistor T 1 if OFF. Transistor T 1 has an input capacitance C i and in the absence of the parallel capacitor C 1 . referred to as speed−up capacitors. In practice. the circuit configuration consisting of resistors R 1 and R 2 .33. 7−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= --------------------2τ 2C 1 R 1 R 2 (7. This pulse or step may be used in a man- * For a discussion on compensated attenuators.3 Triggering Signals for Flip−Flops A flip−flop will remain in one of its stable states indefinitely until a triggering signal is applied to make a transition. Let us assume that in the flip−flop circuit of Figure 7. The interval time during which conduction transfers from one transistor to the other is known as the transition time. and to initiate a transition.

A second triggering signal from a separate source must be initiated in a different manner to achieve the reverse direction. + V CC RS RC C1 R1 OFF (a) R2 ON T2 Trigger input C T1 – V BB RC Trigger input – V CC C1 ON T2 R2 RS C T 1 R1 OFF (b) + V BB Figure 7. +V CC RC D3 RC C T D1 T1 OFF (a) ON (b) D2 T2 R2 D3 R2 OFF T1 ON T2 C T D1 D2 – V BB Figure 7. The circuits of Figure 7. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−29 . Methods of symmetrical triggering through diodes at the collectors or the bases of the transistors Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. each successive triggering signal initiates a transition.34. The circuits of Figure 7. A method of triggering unsymmetrically an NPN or a PNP transistor In symmetrical triggering.Bistable Multivibrators (Flip−Flops) ner that will produce either symmetrical or unsymmetrical triggering. In unsymmetrical triggering signal is effective in initiating a transition in only one direction (polarity).35.35 show how a flip−flop may be triggered in a symmetrical manner. regardless of the state in which the flip−flop happens to be.34 show a method of triggering unsymmetrically an NPN and a PNP bipolar transistor.

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7. v in C R1 R3 (a) v in v out v out R2 (b) Figure 7.5.4 Present Technology Bistable Multivibrators The bistable multivibrator (flip−flop) circuits we’ve discussed thus far are the original circuits and were in use in the 1960s.6 The Schmitt Trigger Another bistable multivibrator circuit is the Schmitt trigger shown in Figure 7.36(b) causes the circuit to switch states. The circuit of Figure 7. Schmitt trigger circuit and waveforms for increasing and decreasing input signals The Schmitt trigger circuit and transfer characteristics are similar to the comparator. vs v out V+ v out R1 V+ upper v out R2 V ref vs V+ lower vs (a) (b) (c) Figure 7. Op amp configured as a bistable multivibrator The stable states for the bistable multivibrator of Figure 7. We will briefly discuss a bistable multivibrator with an op amp in this subsection. We have included them in this text because they are the circuits from which present technology bistable multivibrators such as those with CMOS technology and op amps have evolved.37(a). A positive or negative going pulse as shown in Figure 7.37.36(a) are the conditions where the output is at positive or negative saturation. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .36 shows how an op amp can be configured to behave as a bistable multivibrator. It provides an voltage when its input signal v s reaches some predetermined value set at the non−inverting 7−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. 7.36. It assumes either positive or negative saturation by the positive feedback formed by resistors R 2 and R 3 .

the peak−to−peak output voltage of the Schmitt trigger of Figure 7. Then. V+ = V+ upper . These threshold voltages can be found by application of KCL at the non−inverting input of the op amp. and when V out is the maximum negative output voltage. The output of the op amp changes from the positive saturation voltage V out ( max ) to its negative saturation voltage – V out ( max ) and vice versa. Example 7.+ ----.44).44) In (7. the output is positively saturated as long as the input signal v s is less than the upper threshold V+ upper . Normally.The Schmitt Trigger input of the op amp. The threshold voltages V+ upper and V+ lower are determined by the resistors R 1 and R 2 .= -------------------------------------------V+ upper = ---------------------------------------10250 R1 + R2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−31 .+ --------⎝ R1 R2 ⎠ R1 R2 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out R1 + R2 ⎞ ⎛ ----------------.V+ = ---------. As shown in Figure 7.37(b). is compatible with commercially available IC digital devices.+ ----------------------.= 0 R2 R1 V out V ref 1 ⎞ 1 ⎛ ----. Thus.24 V . Find and sketch V+ upper and V+ lower .= 2.6 For the Schmitt trigger circuit of Figure 7. the input signal v s is as shown in Figure 7. The zener voltages are chosen so that the output swing from positive to negative or vice versa. the output drop abruptly to – V out ( max ) and stays there until v S drops below a lower threshold voltage V+ lower .37 is often limited by the use of back−to−back zeners across the output terminal and ground.44) 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 10 × 2 + 250 × 12 . when V out is the maximum positive output voltage. with (7. V+ = V+ lower . If the input signal v s rises slightly above this threshold voltage. Solution: It is given that the Schmitt trigger saturates positively at +12 V .38(a). and the reference voltage V ref .⋅ V+ = ---------------------------------------⎝ R1 ⋅ R2 ⎠ R1 ⋅ R2 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out V+ = ---------------------------------------R1 + R2 (7. V+ – V ref V+ – V out --------------------.38(b).

the output abruptly swings to negative saturation. Waveforms for Example 7.39. – 12 V as shown in Figure 7. when the input signal v S exceeds this value. +12 V . i.e. vs V+ R1 R2 10 K Ω 250 Ω vs ( V ) V out = ± 12 V 4 2 0 4 7 t ( ms ) –2 V ref = 2 V (a) (b) Figure 7. the output drops again to – 12 V as shown in Figure 7.66 V 2.39. Schmitt trigger circuit and input signal waveform for Example 7.6 12 V out ( V ) 4 2 0 vS 2. 7−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.24 V 4 7 t ( ms ) –2 – 12 Figure 7.3 When the output saturates negatively at – 12 V the lower threshold voltage is 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 10 × 2 + 250 × ( – 12 ) .24 V . when the input signal v S drops below this value. the output abruptly swings back to positive saturation.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators That is.39.38.= ---------------------------------------------------V+ lower = ---------------------------------------10250 R1 + R2 That is.= 1.24 V 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .. and when the input signal v S rises again to 2.66 V .. i.e.

• The Schmitt trigger is another bistable multivibrator circuit. • All three types of the multivibrators.. This circuit stays in its normal state until a signal is applied to its input.Summary 7. monostable. • A monostable multivibrator is an electronic circuit with two output states in which only one state is stable. A monostable multivibrator is used primarily in pulse shaping applications and to widen narrow pulses. • A bistable multivibrator. When triggered by an input signal. commonly referred to as flip−flop. and bistable. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. can be constructed with op amps employed as comparators. astable. • The 555 Timer circuit is a widely used IC for generating waveforms. • Both astable and monostable multivibrators can constructed with a 555 timer circuit.7 Summary • An astable multivibrator is essentially a digital clock which has two momentarily stable states which alternate continuously producing square pulses. is an electronic circuits with two stable outputs one of which is the complement of the other. the output reverses states for a short period of time. i. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−33 .e. depending upon the circuit parameters. The outputs will change only when directed by an input command. • IC device SN74121 is a popular monostable multivibrator where the time period that the output will stay High is determined by an external resistor R X and an external capacitor C X .

Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 7. Find the values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce the waveform shown. 7−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Find the values for the resistors R A and R B so that the circuit will produce the waveform shown. For the astable multivibrator below V CC = 5 V and C = 1 nF . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . For the astable multivibrator below V CC = 5 V and C = 1 nF .8 Exercises 1. V CC RA R RB 2 ⁄ 3 V CC + R Comparator 1 T1 T2 vC C 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + R Comparator 2 v (V) 5 t (μs) 0 1 2 3 4 2.

Exercises V CC RA RB R+ 2 ⁄ 3 V CC Comparator 1 T1 T2 vC C R 1 ⁄ 3 V CC R Q S Q Output + R Comparator 2 v (V) 5 t (μs) 0 1 2 3 4 5 3. Repeat Exercise 2 to design a circuit that will produce the following waveform. Design a monostable multivibrator using a 555 timer. v (V) 5 t (μs) 0 1 2 3 4 4. a capacitor with value C = 1 nF and appropriate resistor values to produce an output pulse of 20 μ s duration. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−35 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

2 K Ω V C2 15 K Ω 15 K Ω – 12 V The transistors are identical and the curves supplied by the manufacturer specify that V CE2 ( sat ) = 0. 7−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Assume that the transistors have a minimum h FE value of 50. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 5. the input signal v S is as shown in Figure (b).7 V . For the Schmitt trigger circuit of Figure (a) below. 6. vs V+ R1 40 K Ω R2 10 K Ω 0 –5 (b) π π⁄2 3π ⁄ 2 2π ωt (r ) V out = ± 10 V vs ( V ) 5 V ref = – 1 V (a) Find and sketch V+ upper and V+ lower . The fixed−bias flip−flop circuit below is the same as that of Example 7. Using these voltages.15 V and V BE2 ( sat ) = 0. recalculate the stable−state currents and voltages.4. + 12 V 2.2 K Ω V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ T2 2.

75 = 75 % From relation (7. The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 1 ⁄ 4 = 0.44 K Ω and from (2) R A = 4. v (V) 5 T1 0 1 T T2 2 3 4 5 t (μs) The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 1 + 3 = 4 μ s .= 5.69 × 10 ( R A + 2R B ) –6 –9 4 × 10 .9 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1.77 K Ω T R A + R B = 0.69 ( R A + 2R B ) C R A + 2R B 5.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 7.6) T = 4 × 10 –6 = 0.14) subject to the constraint of (7.33 = 3.6) we obtain 0.69 × 10 The duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T and from relations (7.77 = 4.75 = ----0.33 – 3.69 ( R A + 2R B ) C = 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.44 = 890 Ω 2.77 – 4. v (V) 5 T1 0 1 2 3 T2 4 t (μs) T The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 3 + 1 = 4 μ s and the duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 3 ⁄ 4 = 0.= ---------------------.25 = 25 % .75 × 5. Then. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−37 .11) by 3 and equate it to relation (7.= --------------------Duty cycle = 0.3) and (7.33 K Ω (2) Subtraction of (2) from (1) yields R B = 5.16). To achieve a duty cycle at 25 % .77 K Ω (1) R A + 2R B = -------------------------–9 0. we must make T 2 = 3T 1 and this condition will be satisfied if we multiply relation (7.69 ( R A + R B ) C RA + RB RA + RB T1 = -----------------------------------------.

05 -0. x=2. we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as 2x – 1 -⎞ 3 ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = ln ⎛ -------------⎝ x–2 ⎠ Therefore.2 2.y). we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value but not exactly equal or less than 2.0052 2.15 -0. y=3.⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.= ln ⎛ ---------------------3 ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ ------------------⎝ RB ⎠ ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 ⎞ RA + 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------3 ln 2 ⋅ ⎛ -----⎝ RA ⁄ RB – 2 ⎠ ⎝ RB ⎠ For convenience.0058 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 25 % .006.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators RA ⋅ RB 2R A – R B ⎞ .grid 0.05 0 T2=3T1 -0. let us plot the above relation with the following MATLAB script to find the x−axis zero crossing./(x−2)).C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------3 ln 2R A C = ------------------⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 2R A – R B ⎞ RB ------------------.005:0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .1 -0.005 2.*(x+1)−log((2.006 The plot above indicates that the x−axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 2.0001:2.*x−1).*log(2). The value of the capacitor can be 7−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.0054 2.0058 2. plot(x.0056 x=RA/RB 2.= 3 ln 2 ⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB RA + RB ⎞ 2R A – R B ⎞ .

Then./(x−2)).11) subject to the constraint of (7.= ------⎝ R A – 2R B ⎠ RA + RB 3 RA + RB ⎞ 2R A – R B ⎞ ln 2 ------. 2R A – R B ⎞ RA ⋅ RB .*(x+1)−3.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises found from either expression (7.= ln ⎛ ---------------------⎝ ⎝ ⎠ 3 RB R A – 2R B ⎠ 2R A ⁄ R B – 1 ⎞ ln 2 ⎛ R A ------.⋅ ⎛ ------------------. x=2.y).grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. let us plot above relation with the following MATLAB script to find the x−axis zero crossing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−39 .*log((2.⋅ -----.14) but (7.11) or (7.1 × 10 T2 4 t (μs) The period is T = T 1 + T 2 = 3 + 1 = 4 μ s and the duty cycle is T 1 ⁄ T = 3 ⁄ 4 = 0.C ⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------ln 2 ⋅ R A C = 3 ⋅ ------------------⎝ RA + RB R A – 2R B ⎠ RB 2R A – R B ⎞ ln 2 ------------------.69R A C = 0. we obtain T 1 = 10 –6 = 0. we let x = R A ⁄ R B and the relation above is written as 2x – 1 -⎞ ln 2 ⋅ ( x + 1 ) = 3 ln ⎛ -------------⎝ x–2 ⎠ Therefore. v (V) T 5 T1 0 1 2 3 10 = 284 pF C = ------------------------------------3 0.69 × 5.11) is simpler. y=log(2).1:0.75 = 75 % Here.01:6.1 × 10 C –6 3 3.⋅ ln ⎛ ---------------------.69 × 5.*x−1).1 K Ω . plot(x.14) by 3 and equate it to relation (7.16). we must make T 1 = 3T 2 and this condition will be satisfied if we multiply relation (7. We require that T 1 = 1 μ s and assuming R A = 5.+ 1⎞ = ln ⎛ ----------------------------⎝ ⎝ ⎠ 3 RA ⁄ RB – 2 ⎠ RB For convenience.

1 × 10 –6 7−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 4 4.69 × 5.14) but (7. and as the duty cycle increases. this ratio approaches the value of 11.69R A C = 0. we should choose that the ratio R A ⁄ R B should be close to this value. We will use the monostable multivibrator of Figure 7.1 × 10 C –6 3 3 × 10 = 853 pF C = ------------------------------------3 0. From relation (7.5 x=RA/RB 5 5. 4.2 K Ω R 1 = ----------.1 × 10 Example 7. We require that T 1 = 3 μ s and assuming R A = 5.5 3 3. The value of the capacitor can be found from either expression (7.1C 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 2 0 -2 T1=3T2 -4 -6 -8 -10 2 2. we obtain T 1 = 3 × 10 –6 = 0.21 which is repeated below for convenience.11) is simpler.= ----------------------–9 1.1 K Ω .28).5 6 The plot above indicates that x−axis zero crossing occurs at approximately x = R A ⁄ R B = 4.= 18. resistor R 1 must have the value of 20 × 10 T .69 × 5.2 and Exercises 2 and 3 reveal that as the duty cycle decreases the ratio R A ⁄ R B approaches the value of 2.11) or (7.25 and thus to achieve a duty cycle at 75 % . T ≈ 1.1R 1 C With a capacitor of value C = 1 nF to produce an output pulse of T = 20 μ s duration.

and the second part indicating the connection between the collector of T 1 and the base of T 2 as shown in Figure (b).2 K Ω V C1 T1 100 KΩ 100 KΩ T2 2.2 K Ω V C2 15 K Ω 15 K Ω – 12 V Figure 7. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Fixed−bias flip−flop circuit for Example 7.40.4. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−41 . + 12 V 2.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises V CC R1 R2 Comparator 1 C R2 R Q S Q Comparator 2 RB R2 5. the first part indicating the connections between the base of transistor T 1 and the collector of transistor T 2 as shown in Figure (a).3. As in Example 7. we break the given circuit into two parts.

we calculate I C2 by first finding I 1 and I 2 as follows: V – 0. By the voltage division expression and the superposition principle.2 K Ω 15 K Ω I1 V C1 T1 T1 V B1 100 KΩ – 12 V I2 I C2 V C2 ≈ 0.11 = 5.13 mA I 4 = 0. 100 K Ω 15 K Ω .15 = – 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and 0.15 – ( – 12 ) I 2 = ------------------------------------------.28 mA = --------------------.= 0.2 K Ω + 15 K Ω – ( – 12 ) = 0. 7−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⋅ ( – 12 V ) + ------------------------------------------V B1 = ------------------------------------------100 K Ω + 15 K Ω 100 K Ω + 15 K Ω and this voltage will certainly keep transistor T 1 at cutoff.2 K Ω Then.66 mA 2.11 mA 15 K Ω + 100 K Ω I C2 = I 1 – I 2 = 5.39 – 0.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators +12 V 2. To verify that with transistor T 1 beyond cutoff transistor T 2 is in saturation.= 0.= 0.28 mA I C2 5.11 mA I B ( min ) = ------50 h FE Let us now compute the value of I B2 from Figure (b).7 V 100 KΩ I B2 I4 T2 (a) (b) – 12 V Let us first assume that transistor T 1 is OFF and transistor T 2 is ON. We find that 12 – 0.7 I 3 = -----------------------------------------.7 -------------------------100 K Ω and Then.39 mA 2.15 V T2 ON I3 OFF ON V B2 ≈ 0.⋅ 0.2 K Ω 15 K Ω OFF +12 V 2.15 V I 1 = 12 --------------------------------= 5.43 V .

53 mA ) > ( I B ( min ) = 0.5 V and this value is close to the collector supply voltage of 12 volts.15 V 0 mA I C1 V C1 I C2 V C2 I B1 V B1 I B2 V B2 −1.28 mA 0. the collector voltage V C1 if found from Figure (b) as V C1 = 12 – 2. with the values given the more accurate voltages and currents for a stable state for the flip−flop of this example are summarized in the table below. The second stable state is the one in which transistor T 1 is ON and transistor T 2 is OFF. the value of I B2 exceeds the minimum base current value of I B ( min ) required for saturation. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 7−43 .53 mA Since ( I B2 = 0.5 V .2 × 10 × I 3 = 12 – 2.43 V 0.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises I B2 = I 3 – I 4 = 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.66 × 10 3 3 –3 = 10. The analysis is the same as above where the voltages and currents are interchanged between transistors T 1 and T 2 . Therefore.2 × 10 × 0. Finally.5 V 5.11 mA ) . and V C2 = 10. that is. we have shown that transistor T 2 is deeply into saturation.66 – 0.13 = 0.53 mA 0.1 and those of the table above reveals that the error in assuming that a transistor in saturation behaves as an ideal short circuit is very small and this error can be neglected.7 V A comparison of the values of Table 7. Parameter Value 0 mA 10.

8 V × 10 × ( – 1 ) + 10 × ( – 10 . when the input signal v s exceeds this value.e.. the output abruptly swings to negative saturation.Chapter 7 Pulse Circuits and Waveform Generators 6.= -----------------------------------------------------------V+ upper = ---------------------------------------.2 V 4 R1 + R2 5 × 10 That is.. the output abruptly swings back to positive saturation. i. when the input signal v S drops below this value. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and this cycle repeats. i.= 4 -------------------------------------------------------------------V+ lower = ---------------------------------------4 R1 + R2 5 × 10 That is.= 1.e. V out ( V ) vs V+ R1 V out = ± 10 V 10 5 vS R2 40 K Ω 10 K Ω 0 –5 – 10 1.8 V V ref = – 1 V (a) (b) 4 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out 4 × 10 × ( – 1 ) + 10 × 10 . 4 4 R 1 V ref + R 2 V out ) = –2. – 10 V as shown. +10 V . 7−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2 V – 2.

the Fourier transform. are not harmonically related. frequencies. For these waveforms we attempt to represent the signals as a superposition of sinusoidal components of appropriate amplitudes. and the Laplace transformation please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.1) where V is the DC component of the composite signal. In this case. but it contains no information about the phase angles of the components. 8. 2 ω . ω 3 . Figure 8. not all signals consist of harmonically related components. ω is the fundamental frequency or first harmonic. 3 ω is the third harmonic. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. Unfortunately. and so on. The simplest are sinusoidal with frequencies of 60 Hz or 400 Hz but in most cases we are concerned with a more complicated class of periodic but non−sinusoidal waveforms. referred to as the frequency spectrum of the signal reveals information about the frequencies and amplitude. ω 2 .2) where V is the DC component of the composite signal. The intent is to provide the basic principles of the frequency dependence that is an essential prerequisite for the effective design and utilization of most electronic circuits. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−1 .* Fourier transform. In the case of speech or music. the sinusoidal composition of the sound is continuously changing. and so on. * For a thorough discussion on Fourier series. is the second harmonic. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. very powerful techniques for this purpose are available such as the Fourier series. for instance. and phases.1 Properties of Signal Waveforms In the study of electronic systems we encounter an extremely wide variety of signal waveforms. Fortunately.1. and ω 1 . the composite signal can be approximated by the superposition of a number of sinusoidal components expressed as v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t + θ 3 ) + … (8. and the Laplace transformation.Chapter 8 Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers T his chapter presents certain basic concepts and procedures that are applicable to frequency dependent single−stage and cascaded amplifiers. Periodic signals can be represented as the superposition of sinusoidal components by a Fourier series of the form v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω t + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( 2 ω t + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( 3 ω t + θ 3 ) + … (8.

Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers bn 4A/π 4A/3π 4A/5π 0 1 3 5 4A/7π 7 4A/9π 9 nωt Figure 8. and the fifth harmonic Solution: The instantaneous power is p = v 2 ⁄ R and for simplicity let us assume that R = 1 . Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.2. Waveform that produces the frequency spectrum in Figure 8.sin 3 ω t + -. the fundamental. * Please refer to Chapter 7.4) We recall that the RMS value of a sinusoid is the amplitude of the sinusoid divided by 2 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .sin n ω t n (8.sin 5 ω t + …⎞ = -----.1 The frequency components of the frequency spectrum of Figure 8.1. the fundamental frequency b.1 represents the square waveform shown in Figure 8.1 are as shown in relation (8. Thus. the fundamental and the third harmonic c. The average power P over a period T is 1 P = -T ∫ T 0 1 2 .v2 t v dt = -T T = v 0 2 (8. 4A 1 1 4A ⎛ .2. 8− 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3) What percentage of the average power is absorbed by a. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9.1 Example 8. the third.3) below.sin ω t + -v ( t ) = -----⎝ ⎠ π 5 3 π ∑ n = odd 1 -.* T A 0 π 2π ωt Figure 8. Typical frequency spectrum The frequency spectrum of Figure 8.

but it is delayed in time.+… P 1 + P 3 + P 5 + … = V 1 + V 3 + V 5 + … = ⎛ ---------. and the fifth harmonic components: 8 ⎛ 1 1 ⎞ ---⋅ 1 + -. the power absorbed would be considerably higher if the signal would include a DC component.+ ---------. then the waveform of the output signal is an exact copy of the input waveform.⋅ 1 ⎞ × 100 = 81% ⎝ π2 ⎠ b. It turns out that if an amplifier retards the phase of each sinusoidal component of the signal in direct proportion to the frequency of that component. the third.⋅ -.⎛ ---⋅ 1+1 -.3. Then. Figure 8.+ ----2 ⎝ ⎠ 9 25 π 2 a. the amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the circuit. Typical frequency characteristics of an amplifier As shown in Figure 8.⎞ × 100 = 90% 2 ⎝ ⎠ 9 π c.+ …⎞ = --------1+1 -.⋅ -⎝ 2π 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2π 5 ⎠ ⎝ 2π ⎠ 8A ⎛ 1. and decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−3 . v ( t – T ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 ( t – T ) + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 ( t – T ) + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 ( t – T ) + θ 3 ) + … Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Of course.Properties of Signal Waveforms the average power in the harmonics of relation (8.+ ----× 100 = 93% 2 ⎝ 9 25 ⎠ π This example indicates that most of the power is absorbed by the fundamental frequency and the first two non−zero harmonics. Figure 8. Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency and the third harmonic components: 8. for a good designed amplifier.3 shows a typical curve of amplification versus frequency. the amplification near the lower and near the higher band of frequencies should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the middle of the band.2) with the introduction of a constant time delay T . This can be illustrated by expressing relation (8.⋅ 1⎞ + ⎛ ---------. Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency component: 8 ⎛ ---. Percentage of power absorbed by the fundamental frequency.3. Also.3) is 2 4A 4A 1 ⎞ 2 ⎛ 4A 1 ⎞ 2 2 2 2 .

Equivalent circuits for Example 8. For the remaining of this chapter and Chapter 9. then φ = K ω . and if the amplification is the same for all frequencies. an easy method to begin with the design of amplifiers at low.4(b) are equivalent.4(a) and 8. and the amplifier produces a time delay T = K . In conclusion. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Subsequently.2 Prove that the circuits of Figure 8. Reversing the above process we can see that if an amplifier introduces a phase lag that increases linearly with frequency. the signal is not distorted. Example 8.2 * Frequency response and Bode plots are discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.5) Relation (8. 8− 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1. medium. we will develop procedures for constructing these characteristics.5) reveals that the introduction of a constant delay adds a phase lag φ k to each component. the analysis and design of linear amplifiers is concerned with the characteristics of amplification and phase shift versus frequency. directly proportional to the frequency of that component. and high frequencies is to first define the transfer function G ( s ) gain and the frequencies as the poles of the transfer function and draw the Bode plot using MATLAB.* The results of the following example will be useful in our analysis and development of equivalent circuits. it is merely delayed in time. gm vg v in R1 (a) vg v1 R3 R2 v2 v out R4 v in R1 vg v1 R3 R2 v2 v out gm vg R4 gm vg (b) Figure 8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers Letting φ k = ω k T we obtain v ( t – T ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – φ 1 + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t – φ 2 + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – φ 3 + θ 3 ) + … (8.4.

4(b) are equivalent. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−5 .5(a) at low frequencies is affected by the action of capacitor C 3 .+ --------------.7) are the same and thus the circuits of Figures 8.+ gm vg = 0 R3 R4 (8.4(b) yields v1 v1 – v2 ----. R2 V CC rn v in I 1 IB R1 R3 RA β IB C3 (b) C R2 I2 v in RB R3 (a) C3 rn v in I1 R1 IB rn R2 3 --------------(1 + β) v in I 1 I2 β IB R3 (c) C3 β IB IB R1 ( 1 + β ) R3 (d) R2 β IB I2 Figure 8.= 0 R3 R4 (8.– gm vg = 0 R3 R2 v2 – v1 v2 --------------.7) We observe that equations (8.+ g m v g + ----.2 The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies Figure 8.6) and (8. An incremental model for the amplifier that is valid at low and medium frequencies is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.+ ----. 8.5.The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies Proof: Application of KCL at v 1 and v 2 of Figure 8.5 shows a transistor amplifier and its equivalent circuits that can be used as a low frequency amplifier. Transistor amplifier and equivalent circuits at low frequencies The behavior of the amplifier of Figure 8.4(a) yields v1 v1 – v2 ----.6) Application of KCL at v 1 and v 2 of Figure 8.– g m v g + --------------.4(a) and 8.= 0 R3 R2 v2 v2 – v1 --------------.

It follows that for large. The parameters shown are approximations and this circuit should not be used for precision calculations. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. ( 1 + β ) R3 × 1 ⁄ j ω ( C3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) ) ( 1 + β ) R3 Z eq = --------------------------------------------------------------------------.5(b) can be replaced by an equivalent pair of sources to obtain the equivalent circuit shown in Figure 8. in (8. The current amplification is reduced accordingly. Accordingly.8) (8. For such purposes. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the current gain is AC = I2 ⁄ I1 = β Ib ⁄ I1 (8.9) and R1 -⋅I I b = ------------------------------R 1 + r n + Z eq 1 where Z eq is the parallel combination of resistance ( 1 + β ) R 3 and capacitance C 3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) .⋅ I1 I b = --------------------------------------------------( 1 + β ) R3 R 1 + r n + --------------------------1 + j ω R3 C3 (8. hence at very low frequencies.5(b). they are used primarily for estimating how large C 3 must be for satisfactory performance. most of the signal current flows through R 1 rather than into the base of the transistor.5(d).10) let us define the frequency * The reduction theorem is discussed in Appendix E. the current source β I B in the circuit of Figure 8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers shown in Figure 8. In a typical circuit R 1 may be 5 or 10 kilohms.2. where C 3 acts as an open circuit. Thus. it is good engineering practice to use coarse approximations whenever they contribute a substantial simplification of the problem without destroying the usefulness of the results. uniform amplification. By inspection of the circuit in Figure 8. 8− 6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and ( 1 + β ) R 3 may be 50 or 100 kilohms.= --------------------------( 1 + β ) R3 + 1 ⁄ j ω ( C3 ⁄ ( 1 + β ) ) 1 + j ω R3 C3 R1 . The reduction theorem* is then applied to obtain the simplified equivalent circuit of Figure 8.5(d). As we’ve learned in Example 8.= -------------------------------2 2 2 V in 1+ω R C and the half − power ( 3 dB ) frequency is defined at G ( j ω ) = 1 ⁄ 2 which occurs when ω = 1 ⁄ RC . † Please refer to Chapter 11. C 3 should be chosen to act as a short circuit at all frequencies in the band occupied by the sinusoidal components of the signal.5(c).10) We now recall that the amplitude of a low−pass filter is given by† V out 1 G ( j ω ) = ---------. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9.

it is known that R 1 = 3 K Ω .+ ----1 + ----------------------R1 + rn ω3 (8.16) can be used as a guide in the design of transistor amplifiers for low−frequency responses once the quiescent operating point has been established.13) can be expressed in a more convenient form by defining two new terms as β R1 A m = ---------------R1 + rn (8. Changing the value of C 3 does not change the shape of the ramp in the amplitude characteristic.8) we find that the current gain is given by β Ib 1 + j ω ⁄ ω3 β R1 I2 .3 For the transistor amplifier in Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−7 . and C 3 = 2.5 μ F .15) in (8.10) and multiplying both numerator and denominator by 1 + j ω ⁄ ω 3 . and the second factor on the right side in (8.⋅ -------------------------------------------A C = ------------1 + k 3 1 + j ω ⁄ ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 (8.⋅ --------------------------------------------I b = ---------------R1 + rn ( 1 + β ) R3 j ω . we obtain R1 I1 1 + jω ⁄ ω3 .15) and ( 1 + β ) R3 k 3 = ----------------------R1 + rn Substitution of (8.⋅ --------------------------------------------A C = --. β = 80 .16) Relation (8.13) and factoring 1 + k3 out the denominator yields Am 1 + j ω ⁄ ω3 . it only shifts the ramp parallel to the frequency axis.13) In the medium−frequency range the term ω ⁄ ω 3 is very large.The Transistor Amplifier at Low Frequencies ω3 = 1 ⁄ R3 C3 (8. Relation (8.= ------.14) and (8. The bypass capacitor is then chosen to make the break in the amplitude characteristic at ω = ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 occur at a suitable point below the band of frequencies occupied by the signal. Construct the logarithmic amplitude characteristic for this amplifier in the low− and medium−frequency range.+ ----1 + ----------------------R1 + rn ω3 (8.12) and with (8.11) Factoring R 1 + r n out of the denominator in (8.= ---------------R1 + rn ( 1 + β )R3 jω I1 I1 .5. hence the first factor is the current gain at medium frequencies. Example 8.14) (8. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. r n = 12 K Ω . R 3 = 1 K Ω .13) approaches unity.

Amplitude characteristic for the amplifier of Example 8.3 8− 8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.6.= ---------------------------k 3 = ----------------------3 + 12 R1 + rn and the break frequency for the factor ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 in the denominator of relation (8. ( 1 + β ) R3 ( 1 + 80 ) × 1 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .6 where the frequency is shown in logarithmic scale and the gain is in dB scale.= ----------------------------------------–6 R3 C3 1000 × 2.40).= 5. 30 20 10 0 Gain ( dB ) ( 1 + k3 ) f3 f3 64 Hz 410 Hz 1 10 100 1000 f ( Hz ) Figure 8.4 .= 400 rad/sec ω 3 = ----------. the gain is 25 – 16 = 9 dB .5 × 10 The break frequency ω 3 in (8.= 18 . from DC to the break frequency at 64 Hz .= -------------A m = ---------------R1 + rn 3 + 12 and in decibels A m ( dB ) = 20 log 18 = 20 × 1.8 = 16 dB Therefore. Thus β R1 80 × 3 . that is.4 ) × 64 = 410 Hz The amount by which the amplification at low frequencies is less than its value at medium frequencies is 20 log ( 1 + k 3 ) = 20 × 0.15).4 ) × 400 = 2560 rad/sec or ( 1 + k 3 ) f 3 = ( 1 + 5.≈ 64 Hz f 3 = ----.16) is or ω3 400 . The amplitude characteristic is shown in Figure 8.= -------2π 2π The factor k 3 is found from (8.16) is ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 = ( 1 + 5.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers Solution: The amplification at medium frequencies is given by (8.25 = 25 dB 1 1 .

... 8./w3)). The hybrid− π model for the transistor at high frequencies An incremental model for the transistor amplifier in Figure 8. w3=1.9(a) that is valid at medium and high frequencies is shown in Fig./((1+k3)*(1+j. we introduced the hybrid− π model for a transistor at high frequencies and this model is repeated in Figure 8.7 can be obtained with the following MATLAB script: f=1:10:10^(6). C3=2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−9 .*C3).5.9(b). k3=((1+beta). Gain versus frequency plot for Example 8. B ib v be r' b v' be = v r be C1 + + − C2 ic ro ie v ce C − E gm v Figure 8.8.y). beta=80.*R3)./(R3. R3=1000.*R1).^(−6). semilogx(f.*f.3 The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies In Chapter 3. y=20*log10(abs(Ac)).log scale 2 3 4 10 5 10 6 Figure 8.*w. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R1=3000.3 with MATLAB 8.*(1+j. w=2. grid 26 24 22 20 Gain (dB) 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 0 10 10 1 10 10 10 Frequency (Hz) .The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies A smooth curve shown in Figure 8../((1+k3)..8 for convenience.*pi.*w3))).*10.7./(rn+R1). Am=(beta. rn=12000../(rn+R1).13. Section 3. Ac=(Am.*w.

resistance r' b is typically in the order of 50 to 100 ohms while resistance R 1 is in the order of several kilohms and thus we can eliminate r' b by replacing the portion of the circuit on the left of r be with a Norton equivalent circuit and Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .9(c) shows the circuit after this modification.19) and letting –gm ro R2 A = --------------------( ro + R2 ) 8−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.9(b).17) and for the useful frequency range this current is much smaller than the current g m v . R B .( –gm v ) v out = ---------------ro + R2 (8. Transistor amplifier and equivalent circuits at high frequencies The transistor circuit of Figure 8.9.18) (8. The behavior of this amplifier is affected at high frequencies by the parasitic capacitances C e and C c . these capacitances tend to short−circuit node b' to ground and this results in a significant reduction of the voltage v and the current g m v . where the resistance R 1 represents resistances R A .9(a) is represented by the hybrid− π model of Figure 8. In the circuit of Figure 8.9(b). Therefore. The current I flowing through capacitor C c is given by I = j ω C c ( v – v out ) (8. we find that ro R2 . and the resistance associated with the source I 1 .Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers R2 Ib V CC I1 R1 r' b r be RA v b' Ce I Cc I2 b ro v in RB gm v (b) R2 v out R3 (a) C3 v R1 I1 (c) I Cc Ce I2 R eq v ro R2 r be ( 1 + A ) Cc C eq Ce I2 gm v v out I1 R1 r be ro gm v R2 v out (d) Figure 8. At high frequencies. with the assumption that I « g m v .

29) 1 At medium frequencies ω is small.25) The current gain A c is now found by division of (8.26) (8.27) and (8. we can express (8.28) into (8. we let ro -g R A m = ---------------r o + R 2 m eq and we define the half−power ( 3 dB ) frequency as 1 ω 1 = ----------------R eq C eq (8. and thus A ≈ g m R 2 . this amplifying property of the transistor which increases the apparent value of the collector capacitance is known as the Miller effect.= ---------------r o + R 2 1 + j ω R eq C eq I1 (8.24) (8.22) (8.9(d).⋅ --------------------------------A c = --.9(d).⋅ I 1 ⎟ R eq = ---------------------------------⋅I v = ⎜ ------------------------------------1 + j ω R eq C eq 1 ⎝ R eq + 1 ⁄ j ω C eq ⎠ (8.28) Substitution of (8. Also.26) yields 1 A c = A m -----------------------1 + jω ⁄ ω (8.21) This relation enable us to replace the current I by a capacitor of the value ( 1 + A ) C c as shown in Figure 8. that is.23) (8. Thus. Therefore.20) Typically.27) Next. r o » R 2 . g m R eq ro I2 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−11 . From the circuit of Figure 8. the gain A in (8.20) is in the range of 10 to 1000. and as we know from Appendix C. and the second factor on the right side in Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.22) by (8.17) as I = j ω C c ( v + Av ) = j ω C c ( 1 + A ) v ≈ j ω C c Av (8.The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies we obtain v out = – Av (8. ω « ω 1 .25). ro -g v I 2 = ---------------ro + R2 m C eq = C e + ( 1 + A ) C c r be R 1 R eq = -----------------r be + R 1 1 ⁄ j ω C eq R eq ⎛ ⎞ .

(8.26) is close to unity.24) into (8. the magnitude of the frequency characteristics for the transistor amplifier at medium and high frequencies have the form shown in Figure 8. hence the quantity A m in relation (8.27) is the current gain at medium frequencies. A ( dB ) Am 3 dB ω1 ω ( log scale ) Figure 8. Example 8.11. Obviously.10. Typical logarithmic amplitude characteristics for the transistor amplifier at high frequencies Substitution of (8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers (8.32) or 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 f 1 = f β ⋅ -----------------------------1 + AC c ⁄ C e (8.31) as 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 ω 1 = ω β ⋅ -----------------------------1 + AC c ⁄ C e (8. The useful frequency range for the amplifier is considered to extend up to the half− power frequency given by (8. the half−power point frequency f 1 can be greater or smaller than the β cutoff frequency f β depending on the values of resistor R 1 and the gain A = g m R 2 .31) In Chapter 3 we defined the β cutoff frequency (relation 3.30) can be expressed as 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 1 .30) and since A is much larger than unity.33) provides us the half−power point for the current gain of a transistor at high frequencies.33) Thus.23) and (8.4 The model for a transistor amplifier at high frequencies is shown in Figure 8.28) yields r be + R 1 ω 1 = -------------------------------------------------------[ C e + ( 1 + A ) C c ] r be R 1 (8. 8−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. hence we can express (8. relation (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .26).88) as ω β = 1 ⁄ r be C e . Therefore.10.⋅ -----------------------------ω 1 = -----------r be R 1 1 + AC c ⁄ C e (8.

92). β = 80 . 80 β . R 2 = 1 K Ω .83). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−13 .2 Ω –1 From relation (3.2 C e = ----. Simplified model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8. the half−power frequency f 1 Solution: Since R 1 » r' b and r o » R 2 . Model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8. r o = 50 K Ω . g m = 40I C = 40 × 5 × 10 –3 = 0. the given model circuit can be simplified to that shown in Figure 8.78). r' b = 50 Ω .12. Determine: a.= ----------------------------= 79.12. relation (3.= 400 -------.= 400 Ω r be = -----.6 From Chapter 3. the quiescent collector current is I C = 5 mA . gm 0.11.2 gm fT f β = --. From (3. I2 R2 Cc R1 I1 r be Ce gm v Figure 8. C c = 3 pF .93).6 For this circuit it is known that R 1 = 5 K Ω . and the current gain−bandwidth frequency is f T = 400 MHz .= 5 MHz β 80 This indicates that large current amplification is provided at frequencies up to 5 MHz .The Transistor Amplifier at High Frequencies v b R1 I1 r' b b' r be Ce Cc I2 ro gm v R2 v out Figure 8.6 pF 8 ωT 2 π × 4 × 10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the medium frequency current amplification A m c. the Miller effect ( 1 + A ) C c at high frequencies b. and from (3.= -----0.

= 400 R eq = -----------------3 r be + R 1 5.4 × 10 and the medium frequency current amplification A m is given by (8.= 0. the combined low− and high−frequency characteristics can be displayed on a single set of coordinates as shown in Figure 8. From Figure 8. The half−power frequency f 1 is found from (8. ( 1 + A ) C c = 201 × 3 × 10 – 12 = 603 × 10 – 12 = 603 pF and this indicates that the dominant effect at high frequencies is the Miller effect.27) as ro -g R A m = ---------------r o + R 2 m eq and since r o » R 2 .33). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 1 + r be ⁄ R 1 6 1 + 400 ⁄ 5000 . 3 r be R 1 × 5 × 10.635 MHz f 1 = f β ⋅ -----------------------------.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers a. A m ≈ g m R eq = 0.= 5 × 10 ⋅ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------– 12 – 12 1 + AC c ⁄ C e 1 + 200 × 3 × 10 ⁄ ( 80 × 10 ) 8. The Miller effect is ( 1 + A ) C c where A = g m R 2 = 0.2 × 370 = 74 This value is close to the value of β of the transistor and thus it is near the maximum value that can be obtained by this transistor.13 8−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. c.12.4 Combined Low− and High−Frequency Characteristics The frequency dependence of various amplifier circuits is examined by treating the low−frequency characteristics separately from the high−frequency characteristics. b. Then. However.2 × 1000 = 200 Thus.= 370 Ω ------------------------------.

however. the total amplification is then the product of the amplifications of the individual stages. each stage in a multistage amplifier as a separate part of the overall circuit and to determine the overall properties of the amplifier by combining the results of these separate analyses.13. In some cases cascaded amplifiers are required to amplify signals occupying a wide band of frequencies. they are usually modified in some respects. Combined low− and high−frequency amplitude versus frequency characteristics 8. the results obtained in the previous sections of this chapter are to a large extent directly applicable in the analysis of cascaded amplifiers. Since there are many applications requiring greater signal amplifications than this. hence these amplifiers are referred to as bandpass networks. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−15 .14 shows an RC−coupled transistor amplifier circuit and its high−frequency equivalents. the principal design problem is then to obtain uniform amplification over a sufficiently wide band of frequencies. or design.5 Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers The magnitude of the signal amplification obtainable from single−stage voltage and current amplifiers is limited to a factor of a less than 100 depending on the type of transistor employed. However.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers 40 20 A ( dB ) 0 10 0 10 1 10 2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 f ( log scale ) Figure 8. In most cases. and it requires the use of additional circuit components that affect the behavior of the circuit. it is possible to analyze. Thus. The properties of cascaded amplifiers are usually such that the signal transmission tends to zero at both low and high frequencies. by the networks used to couple the individual stages in cascade. Figure 8. cascading amplifiers in this manner introduces some additional considerations in circuit design. it is common practice to connect a number of stages in cascade so that each stage amplifies the signal in succession. It is also possible to design a particular circuit to amplify signals in a certain frequency range and to exclude of all other signals at other undesirable frequencies. the design problem in these cases is to obtain uniform amplification in the desired band with sufficiently strong discrimination against signals in adjacent bands. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

+ -----G eq 2 = -----.14(a). Transistors can also be direct coupled under certain conditions.+ ----. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . G eq 2 .14.34) 1 R2 1 RA 1 RB 1 r be (8. A high−frequency model for the cascaded transistor stages is shown in Figure 8.14(b) where we have assumed that the base spreading resistance r' be is negligible.+ ----. G eq 1 = -----.35) and 8−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Thus.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 v in RB R3 C3 RB R3 C3 R4 v out (a) v1 G eq 1 I1 I2 v2 CE Cc I3 v3 CE Cc g m v 1 G eq 2 (b) gm v2 G eq 3 v1 I1 G eq 1 R1 I2 v2 I3 v3 CE Cc C1 g m v 1 G eq 2 (c) CE C2 g v m 2 G e q3 Figure 8. Circuit of a cascaded RC−coupled transistor amplifier and its high frequency models In Figure 8. and G eq 3 .+ ----- 1 RA 1 RB 1 r be (8. v 3 . v 2 . The conductances G eq 1 . are the equivalent conductances connected between the three nodes v 1 . capacitor C 4 is referred to as the interstage coupling capacitor and its function is to block the DC component through the RC coupling network.+ -----. and ground.

and the resistor R 1 is negligible in comparison to the reactance of capacitor C 1 . hence the effect of the collector capacitance in this stage can be accounted for by a Miller capacitance as shown in Figure 8.40) In terms of relations (8.42). The value of R 1 depends on the mid−band value of the gain A 1 as defined in (8. However.40).24(c) is preceded by Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.43) shows that at ω = ω 2 .42) and C1 = A1 CC We can also express R 1 in terms of C 1 using (8.9(d).36) The model for the second stage of the amplifier has the same form as the model for a single−stage amplifier shown in Figure 8. A1 = v2 ⁄ v1 (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−17 .37) C2 = ( 1 + A2 ) CC where A2 = v3 ⁄ v2 (8.39).41) (8.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers 1 1 G eq 3 = ----. The first stage is as shown in Figure 8.39) and (8. The Miller capacitance has the value (8. and the process could be repeated for each stage in a cascade of any number of stages. and the half−power frequency for the output circuit of the first stage defined as G eq 2 ω 2 = ------------------------------CE + C2 + CC (8. R 1 is one kilohm or less.14(c) where C 1 is the shunt capacitance that is present in the load of the first stage transistor. hence the Miller effect is slightly different in the first stage.38) Similarly.24(c) were negligible in comparison with the reactance of C 1 .= ------------------------------R 1 = ------------------gm CC ω2 A1 CC (8. R 1 = 1 ⁄ ω 2 C 1 where ω 2 is the half−power frequency for the output circuit of the first stage.9(c). the second stage has the simplified representation shown in Figure 8. then the simplified representation for the first stage would reduce to the same form as that for the second stage. If R 1 is not neglected.14(c). and if the amplifier of Figure 8. the collector capacitance C c . Typically. it is convenient to neglect R 1 at frequencies up to ω 2 . relation (8.+ ----R2 R4 (8. the values of R 1 and C 1 can be found from CE + C2 + CC 1 . Thus.39) The model for the first stage of the amplifier differs from that of the second stage in that its load has a capacitive component as well as a resistive component. When this is done. that is. 1 R 1 = ----------ω2 C1 (8.43) If the resistance R 1 in the circuit of Figure 8.

Compute the overall current gain A c at medium and high frequencies. f T = 100 MHz .⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------A c 1 = --G eq 1 + j ω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) I1 G eq 1 1 + j ω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G eq 1 (8. g m = 40I C = 40 × 4 × 10 –3 = 0. and neglecting R 1 .45) and division of (8. R 3 = 0.3 K Ω .46) (8. from Figure 8. and R 4 = 0.14(c). relation (3.44) by (8. I3 = –gm v2 I 2 = [ G eq 2 + j ω ( C E + C 2 ) ] v 2 (8.5 For the cascaded amplifier circuit of Figure 8. From relation (3.48) yields –gm gm I2 1 = – ---------. and the output resistance r o is very large and it can be neglected.= --------r be = -----0.78). Sketch and dimension the asymptotes for the high−frequency amplitude characteristics. the transistors are identical with R A = 15 K Ω .Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers yet another transistor stage.5 K Ω .49) Example 8. it is practical to neglect R 1 and consider all computations as approximations. R 2 = 2. r' b = 50 Ω .83).= ----------------------------------------------.= – ---------. the representation for each stage in the cascade takes a simple form.47) (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and stage−by−stage analysis is easy.44) (8.= -----------------------------------------------------------.68 K Ω .6 K Ω .48) Also.47) by (8. I2 = –gm v1 I 1 = [ G e q1 + j ω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ] v 1 division of (8.14(c).16 gm 8−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. C C = 4 pF . Then with these approximations.45) yields –gm gm I3 1 A c 2 = --.= 625 Ω . To avoid these complications.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------G eq 2 + j ω ( C E + C 2 ) I2 G eq 2 1 + j ω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G eq 2 (8.15. R B = 3. Solution: From Chapter 3. From Figure 8. and at this operating point β = 100 . The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 4 mA . the Miller effect computations become more and more complicated as more stages are cascaded. the Miller effect in this stage has a still more complicated form. Of course.16 Ω –1 100 β .

= ---------------1 . Cascaded amplifier for Example 8.5 K Ω From (8.+ -----------------1 .4 m Ω –1 G eq 3 = ----R2 R4 2.+ ----1.6 K Ω 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−19 .= 67 –3 G e q3 2.27) ro -g R A m = ---------------r o + R 2 m eq and since r o » R 2 .4 × 10 1 + j ω ( 255 + 272 ) × 10 ⁄ 2.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers V CC RA R2 R2 C 4 R4 RB R3 C3 RB R3 C3 C4 RA v out v in and from (3.6 K Ω From (8.4 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second. we find that 1 A c 2 = – 67 -------------------------1 + j ω ⁄ 4. 1 + ----1. from (8. the current gain of the second stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.= 2.= ----------------------.4 m Ω –1 G eq 2 = -----R A R B r be R 2 15 K Ω 3.= 2.= – ---------. 1.3 K Ω 50 Ω 2.+ -----------------1 .16 A m2 = g m R eq = ---------.= -------------------= 255 pF 8 ωT 2 π × 10 For the second stage of the amplifier.16 C E = -----. Figure 8.= -----------------1 .+ -----1.5 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.36).46).4 × 10 From (8.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 2 = ( 1 + A m2 ) C C = ( 1 + 67 ) 4 = 272 pF From (8.+ ----1.35).2 × 10 2. gm I3 1 .⋅ -----------------------------------------------------A c 2 = --I2 G eq 2 1 + j ω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G eq 2 1 1 0.= – 67 --------------------------------------= – ----------------------.15.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------– 12 –3 –7 –3 1 + j ω 2.+ -----------1 + -----------------1 .5 gm 0.16 .93).

4 m Ω –1 From (8.+ --------------1 G eq 1 = -----= 2 mΩ R A R B r be 15 K Ω 3.⎞ = 5360 ⋅ --------------------------.= ----------------------A m 1 = g m R eq = ---------–3 G eq 2 2. the current gain of the first stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.⎞ ⎛ – 67 --------------------------.16 .= – ---------. –1 1 + ----1.⋅ --------------------------⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 1 + jf ⁄ 0.72 1 + jf ⁄ 0.60 The overall current gain A c is obtained by multiplying A c 1 by A c 2 . From (8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers With the frequency expressed in MHz .3 K Ω 625 Ω gm I2 1 A c 1 = --.⋅ ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------– 12 –3 –7 –3 1 + j ω 2.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 1 = ( 1 + A m 1 ) C C = ( 1 + 67 ) 4 = 272 pF From (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . we obtain 1 A c 2 = – 67 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 0.= – 80 -----------------------------------------= – -----------------.72 For the first stage of the amplifier we found above that G eq 2 = 2.60 1 + jf ⁄ 0.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------1 j ω C + ( E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G eq 1 I1 G eq 1 1 1 0.+ -----1. 1 1 1 1 A c = A c 1 A c 2 = ⎛ – 80 --------------------------.16 .= 67 .8 With the frequency expressed in MHz .4 × 10 From (8. we obtain 1 A c 1 = – 80 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 0.60 1 + jf ⁄ 0. Thus. we find that 1 A c 1 = – 80 -------------------------1 + j ω ⁄ 3.72 8−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ---------------1 .49).+ -----------------1 .34).29) ro -g R A m = ---------------r o + R 2 m eq and since r o » R 2 .66 × 10 2 × 10 1 + j ω ( 255 + 4 + 272 ) × 10 ⁄ 2 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second.

we used the same procedure as in the simplification of Figure 8.16. Asymptotes for the high−frequency characteristics of the amplifier for Example 8. and the slope of each high−frequency asymptote is – 20 dB per decade.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers Figure 8. V CC R2 C4 R2 C4 RB R4 RA RA v out v in RB R3 C3 R3 C3 (a) I1 C4 Ib1 R1 I2 C3 R2 C4 Ib 2 3 ---------------(1 + β) C I3 R2 C4 I4 R4 v in rn R3 rn R1 ( 1 + β ) R3 (b) v out β Ib 1 β Ib 2 Figure 8.5(d). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−21 . RC−coupled amplifier circuit and its model at low frequencies The effect of the coupling capacitor at the output of the amplifier is determined from right side part of Figure 8.17.5 Figure 8.17(b) with the use of the current division expression as follows: 2 -⋅I I 4 = -----------------------------------------R2 + R4 + 1 ⁄ j ω C4 3 R or Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.16 shows a sketch showing the asymptotes for the high−frequency amplitude characteristics where the frequency is shown in a log scale and the gain in dB where A c ( dB ) = 20 log 5360 ≈ 75 . The characteristics of the amplifier are affected at low frequencies by the coupling and bypass capacitors.5(a) to derive the simple equivalent circuit of Figure 8.17 shows a cascaded transistor amplifier circuit and its model that is valid at low and medium frequencies. With r o assumed to be very large. A ( dB ) 80 40 f = 720 KHz f = 600 KHz 0 10 0 – 20 dB ⁄ decade – 40 dB ⁄ decade 10 5 10 6 f ( log scale ) Figure 8.

= ----------------R2 + R4 1 + j ω ⁄ ω4 I3 (8.58) * The minus (−) sign stems from the fact that the current I 3 in Figure 8.= -----------------------------------------R2 + R4 1 + j ω C4 ( R2 + R4 ) I3 R2 + R4 + 1 ⁄ j ω C4 (8.17(b) has a direction opposite to the current I 2 in Figure 8. with C 4 acting as a short circuit we find that Am 1 + j ω ⁄ ω3 .50) Defining the frequency ω 4 as we express (8. Thus. with C 4 acting as a short circuit.53) (8. 8−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.16).52) To simplify the procedure of deriving an expression for the gain I 3 ⁄ I 2 we make use of the fact that the value required for the bypass capacitor C 3 is much larger than the value required for the coupling capacitor C 4 . R1 R2 R' 1 = ----------------R1 + R2 (8.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers j ω C4 ( R2 + R4 ) R2 R2 I4 ⋅ -------------------------------------------. we choose the capacitors so that the low−frequency half−power point is determined by C 3 .⋅ --------------------------------------------* A C = – ------------1 + k 3 1 + j ω ⁄ ( 1 + k3 )ω 3 (8.50) as 1 ω 4 = ---------------------------C4 ( R2 + R4 ) R2 j ω ⁄ ω4 I4 ⋅ --------------------------.54) (8. and the current gain for each stage has the same form as (8.56) where and ω3 = 1 ⁄ R3 C3 β R' 1 A m = ---------------R1 + rn ( 1 + β ) R3 k 3 = ----------------------R' 1 + r n where.5(d). the interstage network has the same form as the amplifier shown in Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5(d). Thus.55) (8.51) (8.57) At very low frequencies C 3 acts as an open circuit and the interstage coupling capacitor C 4 contributes the factor j ω ⁄ ω5 ------------------------1 + j ω ⁄ ω5 (8.= ------------------.17(b). and with this transition. Thus. and with this choice C 4 acts as a short circuit while C 3 is making the transition from a short circuit to an open circuit. R' 1 is the parallel combination of R 1 and R 2 in Figure 8.

( 1 + β ) R 3 is much larger than the other resistors in that group.2 K Ω . the design process begins with the selection of the proper resistor values to establish a suitable quiescent point. Find the values of the resistances in the simplified low−frequency model in Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−23 .62) Normally. Find ω 3 . Example 8. and R 4 = 1 K Ω . r' b = 200 Ω . The break frequency associated with the coupling capacitor C 4 at the output of the amplifier is to occur at 16 Hz . The coupling and bypass capacitors are to be chosen to yield suitable performance at low frequencies. find the required value for the bypass capacitor C 3 . and thus 1 ω 5 ≈ ----------------------------( R1 + R2 ) C4 (8.18.8 K Ω . treating C 4 in the interstage network as a short circuit. a. b.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers where 1 ω 5 = -------------R eq C 4 (8. and the output resistance r o is very large in comparison with R 2 and thus it can be neglected. R eq = R 1 || R 2 + r n + ( 1 + β ) R 3 (8. C 3 is chosen to make the break at ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 occur at a desired point below the band of the high frequencies of the signal. The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 1 mA . R B = 12 K Ω . C 4 is chosen to make the break at ω 5 occur at some frequency below ω 3 where C 3 acts as an open circuit. and. C C = 20 pF . the complete expression for the current gain is Am 1 + j ω ⁄ ω3 j ω ⁄ ω5 .28(b). c. R 3 = 2.60) Usually. Compute the value of C 4 required in the output circuit. R 2 = 6.6 A cascaded transistor amplifier circuit and its model that is valid at low and medium frequencies are shown in Figure 8.⋅ -------------------------------------------. Finally. The highest break frequency associated with the interstage coupling network is to be ( 1 + k 3 ) f 3 = 160 Hz . and the transistor parameters are β = 200 .61) and with the factor contributed by the interstage coupling capacitor C 4 . f T = 8 MHz .59) and R eq is the equivalent resistance when C 4 acts as a short circuit and C 3 as an open circuit. Then. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Thus.⋅ ------------------------A C = – ------------1 + k 3 1 + j ω ⁄ ( 1 + k 3 )ω 3 1 + j ω ⁄ ω 5 (8. The transistors are identical with R A = 56 K Ω .

18. The break frequency associated with the coupling capacitor C 4 in the interstage network. is to be at least as small as ω 3 . and R 4 = 1 K Ω are given.2 K Ω .8 K Ω .9 K Ω .= 9. relation (3. Solution: a. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . R 3 = 2. C 4 = ---------------------------. Cascaded amplifier circuit and its low−frequency equivalent for Example 8.28 μ F 3 ( R 2 + R 4 )ω 4 ( 6. RA RB 56 × 12 . From relation (3. The values of R 2 = 6.51).Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 R4 v out v in RB R3 C3 (a) I1 C4 Ib 1 I2 R2 C4 Ib 2 RB R3 C3 3 ---------------(1 + β) C I3 R2 C4 I4 R4 v in rn R1 R3 C3 rn R1 ( 1 + β ) R3 (b) v out β I b1 β I b2 Figure 8.2 K Ω 1 1 8−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.83).79). denoted as ω 5 in relation (8.87).2 = 442 K Ω From Chapter 3. Treating C 3 as an open circuit.= 1. and from (3. From relation (8.= -----------------------------------------------------------. find the minimum value for C 4 in the interstage network. d.= 5 K Ω r be = -----–3 gm 40 × 10 r n = r' b + r be = 200 Ω + 5 K Ω = 5.= ----------------R 1 = ------------------56 + 12 RA + RA ( 1 + β ) R 3 = ( 1 + 200 ) 2. b.78).6. Also.= --------------------200 .8 + 1 ) × 10 × 2 π × 16 g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 40 m Ω –1 β.

R1/1000). R1 R2 9....2f K \t'.33 Hz f 3 = --------48. With ω 5 = ω 3 = 21 rad/s and with (8.. w3=2*pi*f3.R1prime/1000)..8 R1 + R2 ( 1 + β ) R3 ( 1 + 200 ) × 2.. Acden=(1+k3).. R2=6800.R4/1000). fprintf(' \n'). Am=beta*R1prime/(rn+R1prime). fprintf('R4 = %2. fprintf(' \n').9 + 6... Ic=10^(−3).... fprintf('R1 = %2..2f K \t'. rn=rbprime+rbe../w3)...2f K \t'. Acnum=(Am. fprintf(' \n').. w5=w3..= -------------------R' 1 = ----------------9.57)./w5). fprintf('rbe = %2.2f K \t'..2f K \t'. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.8 ....RB/1000).56).54).0 K Ω ./w5)).= 48.rbprime/1000).*(1+j.. fprintf(' \n'). 160 . fprintf('Ic = %2.. RB=12000..1 or ω 3 = 2 π f 3 = 2 π × 3.. fprintf(' \n').61). fprintf('R3 = %2.= 3. fprintf(' \n').. fprintf('RA = %2.2f K \t'.2f K \t'.Frequency Characteristics of Cascaded Amplifiers c.Ic*1000).R3/1000).= ---------------------------------------------------C 4 = ----------------------------3 ( R 1 + R 2 )ω 5 ( 9.. R1=RA*RB/(RA+RB).. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−25 .. f4=16.RA/1000). Ac=Acnum. fprintf(' \n').*(1+j.*w... 1 1 .. fprintf('rbprime = %2.2 k 3 = ----------------------.= 2. R3=2200. fprintf(' \n').*w3))...2 We are given that ( 1 + k 3 ) f 3 = 160 Hz . fprintf(' \n'). Then.= 4.2f mA \t'.85 μ F .= --------------------------------1 = 21.*w..1 . and from (8. gm=40*Ic.. rbe=beta/gm.2f K \t'.rbe/1000).9 × 6...6 μ F C 3 = ----------3 ω3 R3 21 × 2.R2/1000)..*w. fprintf(' \n')../Acden. fprintf(' \n'). R1prime=R1*R2/(R1+R2). w=1:10:10^5.2f K \t'..33 = 21 rad/s and from (8.0 + 5.. fprintf(' \n').2 × 10 d.. fprintf('R1prime = %2. rbprime=200.*w.8 ) × 10 × 21 The computations for all examples and the end−of−chapter exercises. f3=160/(1+k3). C3=1/(w3*R3). RA=56000.. AcdB=20..rn/1000). fprintf('rn = %2. fprintf('RB = %2. beta=200.. C4d=1/((R1+R2)*w5). C4b=1/((R2+R4)*w4)./((1+k3).9 + 6... w4=2*pi*f4. can be greatly simplified by writing a MATLAB script such as that shown below and plot the overall current gain. From relation (8.2f K \t'. 1 .. fprintf('R2 = %2..*(j..*log10(abs(Ac)). k3=(1+beta)*R3/(R1prime+rn)...*(1+j. R4=1000....= -----------------------------------R' 1 + r n 4.

2f Hz \t'. fprintf('w4 = %2...beta)..30 The plot for the current gain (in dB scale) versus frequency (in log scale) is shown in Figure 8.. ylabel('Current gain (dB scale)').2f rps \t'. fprintf(' \n')..92 f3 = 3. Example 8.20 K rbe = 5...gm*1000).2f Hz \t'..53 rps C4b = 1.... fprintf('C4d = %2. fprintf('C4b = %2.k3). xlabel('Frequency in Hz (log scale)').27 Hz w3 = 20./(2.w3). fprintf(' \n').88 K R1prime = 4. fprintf(' \n')..2f rps \t'..55 rps C4d = 2. title('Low−frequency characteristics for multistage amplifier.80 K R3 = 2.w4)....2f rps \t'. fprintf('f3 = %2...C4d*10^6)..12 microF w5 = 20.2f microF \t'.00 K R2 = 6..92 microF Am = 87... fprintf(' \n')....Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers fprintf('beta = %2.f4). fprintf(' \n').w5). fprintf('C3 = %2.. fprintf(' \n')....00 K RB = 12. grid. fprintf(' \n').. fprintf(' \n').55 rps C3 = 22.. fprintf('gm = %2.. fprintf('w3 = %2.2f microF \t'..03 K rbprime = 0.C4b*10^6). fprintf('f4 = %2.28 microF gm = 40.. fprintf('Am = %2.00 mA beta = 200 f4 = 16.2f \t'..00 K rn = 5.20 K Ic = 1...*pi).20 K R4 = 1.. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .00 mmho k3 = 47.0f \t'.2f mmho \t'. fprintf('w5 = %2..C3*10^6). AcdB)..2f \t'. semilogx(f. fprintf(' \n')..19.00 Hz w4 = 100.Am).2f microF \t'. fprintf(' \n').f3). f=w.8') RA = 56. fprintf('k3 = %2.. fprintf(' \n'). fprintf(' \n'). 8−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.00 K R1 = 9.

5 at low frequencies.20 where the symbols f L and f H define the low− and high−frequency ranges respectively.8 Current gain (dB scale) 10 0 10 10 10 Frequency in Hz (log scale) 1 2 3 10 4 10 5 Figure 8.20. and A m L is as defined in relation (8. At low frequencies the voltage gain A v L is obtained from the relation j ω ⁄ ωL A v L = – A m L ------------------------1 + j ω ⁄ ωL (8. Frequency characteristics for a typical single stage amplifier Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. for the transistor amplifier circuit of Figure 8.6 Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers The asymptotes for the amplitude and phase characteristics for a typical RC−coupled stage amplifier are shown in Figure 8.63) where A m L depends on the circuit parameters. ω L = ω 3 is as defined in relation (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−27 .19. Amplitude of current gain versus frequency for Example 8.11). Example 8.14). For instance.8 8. A ( dB ) 40 20 0 20 dB/decade – 20 dB/decade 90 ° 45 ° 0 fL 1 2 fH f ( Hz ) fL 1 10 1 10 10 10 10 2 3 4 5 10 fH 6 10 7 1 10 10 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 – 45 ° – 90 ° f ( Hz ) (a) (b) Figure 8. and ω L is the low−frequency half−power point.Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers 40 30 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -1 10 Low-frequency characteristics for multistage amplifier.

18. For two stages the bandwidth reduction factor is 0. the overall voltage gain A v is obtained from the relation ( j ω ⁄ ωL ) 2 A v = A m -----------------------------------------------------------------2 2 ( 1 + j ω ⁄ ωL ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ ωH ) 2 (8. and for four stages it is 0.21. and ω H is the high−frequency half−power point. We can obtain the combined low− and high−frequency characteristics for the voltage gain A v by multiplying relation (8. for three stages is 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .64 . and A mH is as defined in relation (8.21. For instance. It can be shown* that the half−power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 (8.43 .65) If two identical stages such as that shown in Figure 8.20 and 8. we observe that the bandwidth between the half−power points decreases as more stages are connected in cascade. The quantity 2 1 ⁄ n – 1 is referred to as the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages in cascade.66) The overall amplitude characteristics for two identical stages in cascade is shown in Figure 8.89) by (8.21.64) where A mH depends on the circuit parameters.9 at high frequencies. Typical overall amplitude characteristics for two identical stages in cascade By comparing the amplitude characteristics of Figures 8.28). are connected in cascade. thus. for the transistor amplifier circuit of Figure 8.67) where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half−power frequency for on stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers At high frequencies the voltage gain A v H is obtained from the relation 1 A v H = – A m H ------------------------1 + j ω ⁄ ωH (8. ω H = ω 1 is as defined in relation (8. * The proof is left as an exercise for the reader at the end of this chapter. A ( dB ) 40 20 0 f ( Hz ) 40 dB/decade – 40 dB/decade fL fH Figure 8. j ω ⁄ ωL A v = A m L A m H -------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + j ω ⁄ ωL ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ ωH ) (8.51 .27). 8−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.90).

A ( dB ) 20 0 40 – 20 – 40 f L1 f L2 f H2 f H1 f ( Hz ) Figure 8. if all the poles and zeros of a rational function are known. However. For all practical electric and electronic circuits.68) and the overall amplitude and phase characteristics are obtained by addition of the constituent characteristics.71) and we can obtain the steady−state voltage gain for any frequency ω by letting s = j ω .71). jω A v ( j ω ) = K ---------------------------------------------------( j ω + j ωL ) ( j ω + j ωH ) The roots of the denominator of an expression for A v ( j ω ) may be purely imaginary such as j ω L = – 100 or complex conjugates such as j ω H = – 3 + j 2 . relation (8.65) is more conveniently expressed in a pole−zero pattern by letting K = –AmL Am H ωH (8. hence s L and s H are poles of the function of (8. The asymptotes for a typical amplitude characteristic are shown in Figure 8.70) Then. voltage and current gains can be expressed as the ratio of two polynomials in the variable s . we are interested on the values that lie on the j ω axis of the complex frequency plane. the function is completely specified except for a constant multiplier. the expression is referred to as a rational function. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−29 . Typical overall amplitude characteristics for two nonidentical stages in cascade Relation (8.71). it is convenient to substitute the symbol s for j ω and after the roots of a quadratic equation in s are found. Replacing j ω with s and defining s L = – ω L . we can let s = j ω . then the voltage gain is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.22. and when the highest power of the denominator is greater than the highest degree of the numerator. The values of s that make a rational function zero are called zeros of the function.22 where the notations 20 and 40 stand for 20 dB/decade and 40 dB/decade respectively. and s H = – ω H . hence s = 0 is a zero of the function of (8. As indicated by the form of (8. the overall voltage gain is given by ( j ω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( j ω ⁄ ω L2 ) A v = A m 1 A m 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + j ω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( 1 + ( j ω ⁄ ω L2 ) ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ ω H1 ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ ω H2 ) (8. if the zeros of a certain voltage gain are – 1 and – 3 .Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers If two non−identical stages are connected in cascade.71).70) is written as s A v ( s ) = K -----------------------------------( s – s L ) ( s – sH ) (8. For example.69) (8. The values of s that make rational functions infinite are called poles of the function. and if the poles are – 2 and – 4 . Therefore.

For steady−state sinusoidal operation. The design is then completed by finding a network configuration and the parameter values that yield the desired pol−zero pattern. The amplification at high frequencies is 40 dB .72) and for steady−state sinusoidal conditions.= K ------------------------A v ( s ) = K -------------------------------2 (s + 2)(s + 4) s + 6s + 8 2 (8.23. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .24.73) Thus if the poles and zeros of a rational function are known. The design of networks to provide a desired frequency characteristic begins with the choice of a pole−zero pattern that yields an approximation to the desired performance. If the constant multiplier is not unity. 8−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.71) As shown in Figure 8. Construct the asymptotes for the logarithmic amplitude characteristic.23. the pole−zero diagram is a set of rectangular coordinates known as the complex plane. the logarithmic amplitude and phase characteristics can be constructed. Example 8. Pole−zero pattern for relation (8. For instance. if it is not positive. Figure 8. it adds a constant number of decibels to the amplitude characteristic.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers s + 4s + 3 (s + 1)(s + 3) . except for the effect of the constant multiplier. The relation between the poles and zeros of the voltage or current gain and the frequency characteristics is displayed in a useful way by the pole−zero diagram.71). Imaginary axis s = jω Real axis sH sL Figure 8.23 shows the pole−zero diagram for the voltage gain of a single−stage amplifier obtained from relation (8. The poles of A v ( s ) which occur when s = s L = – ω L and s = s H = – ω H are represented by crosses on the negative real axis. It is also interesting to note that the poles and zeros of A v ( j ω ) correspond to the break frequencies expressed in radians per second. The zero of A v ( s ) which occurs when s = 0 . ( jω + 1)(jω + 3 ) 3K 1 + jω ⁄ 1)(1 + jω ⁄ 3) -⋅( -----------------------------------------------------= -----A v ( j ω ) = K ---------------------------------------( jω + 2)(jω + 4 ) 8 (1 + jω ⁄ 2)(1 + jω ⁄ 4) (8.7 The pole−zero pattern for the voltage gain of a certain amplifier is shown in Figure 8. and a pole corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade downward. A zero corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade upward in the asymptotic characteristic. the variable s = j ω corresponds to some point on the imaginary axis shown as a filled circle. it adds an angle of 180 ° to the phase shift. is denoted by a circle at the origin of the complex plane.

128.2 dB is shown in Figure 8.25. and 129 respectively.8.7 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the voltage gain is Imaginary axis – 812 – 200 – 128 – 30 Real axis Figure 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−31 . 200.77 ) = 15. the above relation reduces to Av ( j ω ) ω→∞ = K It is given that at high frequencies the voltage gain is 40 dB . Recalling that A dB = 20 log 100 = 40 it follows that K = 100 and ( 1 + j ω ⁄ 30 ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ 200 ) × 30 × 200 ( j ω + 30 ) ( j ω + 200 ) .77 -----------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + j ω ⁄ 128 ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ 812 ) The asymptotes for the logarithmic amplitude characteristic with A v ( dB ) = 20 log ( 5.Overall Characteristics of Multistage Amplifiers Solution: With the given values of the poles and zeros. 32. Pole−zero pattern for Example 8. and 812 are shown in Hz as 4.9 ( j ω + 30 ) ( j ω + 200 ) A v ( j ω ) = K ---------------------------------------------------( j ω + 128 ) ( j ω + 812 ) For very large values of the frequency ω .25 where the radian frequencies 30.24.2 0 f ( Hz ) 4.= 100 -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------A v ( j ω ) = 100 ---------------------------------------------------( 1 + j ω ⁄ 128 ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ 812 ) × 128 × 812 ( j ω + 128 ) ( j ω + 812 ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ 30 ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ 200 ) A v ( j ω ) = 5. Logarithmic amplitude characteristic for Example 8. 20. A ( dB ) 40 15.8 20 32 129 Figure 8.

Equivalent circuit of a typical voltage amplifier The instantaneous input power to this amplifier is v1 p in = ----R1 2 (8.26 is v2 R1 v2 ⁄ RL v2 R1 . The first four are designed to yield the greatest possible current amplification.26.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and in this case the second term on the right side of (8.7 Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers Transistor amplifiers are conveniently characterized as current amplifiers.27.75) The power gain in dB is defined as p out G p = 10 log --------p in (8.8 For the three−stage amplifier shown in Figure 8. and the fifth stage is a power amplifier designed to produce the greatest possible power output. find: 8−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Let us consider the equivalent circuit of a voltage amplifier shown in Figure 8.+ 10 log ----G p = 10 log -------------2 2 v1 RL v1 ⁄ R1 v1 RL 2 2 (8. Denoting the voltage gain as A v we obtain v2 A v = 20 log ---v1 (8. i1 v1 R1 R2 i2 μ v1 v2 RL Figure 8.78) Example 8. the power gain of the circuit of Figure 8.77) is zero.76) Thus.= 20 log ---.74) and the instantaneous output power is v2 p out = ----RL 2 (8.26. A typical transistor radio many employ a cascade of five amplifier stages.77) In communications circuits it is desirable to make RL = R1 .= 10 log ----------.

the overall voltage amplification and overall power gain of each stage in dB Solution: a.= 34 dB v2 v2 1 MΩ .= A v + 10 log 100000 = 80 + 50 = 130 dB 10 Ω Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Amplification and Power Gain in Three or More Cascaded Amplifiers v1 1 M Ω v2 v3 v4 100v 1 1 MΩ 50v 2 50 K Ω 2v 3 10 Ω Figure 8.= 80 dB A v = 20 log ---v1 v1 Overall power gain: MΩ G p = A v + 10 log 1 ------------. Three−stage amplifier for Example 8.= 40 dB v1 v1 MΩ G p 1 = A v 1 + 10 log 1 ------------.= 6 dB v3 v3 50 K Ω .= 20 log ------.8 a.= 20 log ------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−33 . Overall voltage gain: v 4 = 2v 3 = 2 × 50v 2 = 2 × 50 × 100v 1 = 10000v 1 v4 10000v 1 . the voltage amplification and power gain of each stage in dB b.= A v 2 + 10 log 20 = 34 + 13 = 47 dB G p 2 = A v 2 + 10 log ---------------50 K Ω Third stage: v4 2v 3 A v 3 = 20 log ---. First stage: v2 100v 1 A v 1 = 20 log ---.27.= 20 log ---------.= A v 3 + 10 log 5000 = 6 + 37 = 43 dB G p 3 = A v 3 + 10 log ---------------10 Ω b.= A v 1 + 0 = 40 dB 1 MΩ Second stage: v3 50v 2 A v 2 = 20 log ---.= 20 log ------------.

ω 3 . 3 ω is the third harmonic. • Transistor amplifier circuits designed for low frequencies are discussed in Section 8. • For a good designed amplifier. 8−34 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The overall characteristics of multistage amplifiers can be easily approximated and displayed with the use of asymptotes. • The frequency spectrum of a signal reveals information about the frequencies and amplitude. the amplification near the lower and near the higher band of frequencies should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the middle of the band. is the second harmonic. ω is the fundamental frequency or first harmonic. • The amplifying property of the transistor which increases the apparent value of the collector capacitance is known as the Miller effect. then the waveform of the output signal is an exact copy of the input waveform. • The frequency dependence of various amplifier circuits is examined by treating the low−frequency characteristics separately from the high−frequency characteristics.2. and ω 1 . 2 ω . • If an amplifier retards the phase of each sinusoidal component of the signal in direct propor- tion to the frequency of that component. and so on. • Amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the cir- cuit. but it contains no information about the phase angles of the components. the combined low− and high−frequency characteristics can be displayed on a single set of coordinates. are not harmonically related. and so on. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .3. and decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors. we use multistage amplifier circuits. • The behavior of transistor amplifier at low frequencies is affected by the action of the bypass capacitor that is in parallel with the emitter resistor. • To achieve higher gains.8 Summary • Periodic signals can be represented as the superposition of sinusoidal components by a Fourier series of the form v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω t + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( 2 ω t + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( 3 ω t + θ 3 ) + … where V is the DC component of the composite signal. ω 2 . • Transistor amplifier circuits designed for high frequencies are discussed in Section 8. but it is delayed in time. However.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8. • Signals that are not can be approximated by the superposition of a number of sinusoidal com- ponents expressed as v ( t ) = V + V 1 cos ( ω 1 t + θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t + θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t + θ 3 ) + … where V is the DC component of the composite signal.

For example. • The relation between the poles and zeros of the voltage or current gain and the frequency characteristics are displayed in a useful way by the pole−zero diagram.64 . If all the poles and zeros of a rational function are known. for three stages is 0. then the voltage gain is expressed as (s + 1)(s + 3) A v ( s ) = K -------------------------------(s + 2)(s + 4) and for steady−state sinusoidal conditions. • If two non−identical stages are connected in cascade. the expression is referred to as a rational function. and when the highest power of the denominator is greater than the highest degree of the numerator. and the previous stages are used for voltage amplification. the function is completely specified except for a constant multiplier.Summary • The bandwidth between the half−power points decreases as more stages are connected in cascade. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and if the poles are – 2 and – 4 . voltage and current gains can be expressed as the ratio of two polynomials in the variable s .43 . The half−power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half−power frequency for on stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies. The values of s that make a rational function zero are called zeros of the function. For two stages the bandwidth reduction factor is 0. • Some amplifiers require a cascade of three or more applications to achieve higher voltage amplification and power gain. the overall voltage gain is given by ( j ω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( j ω ⁄ ω L2 ) A v = A m 1 A m 2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------( 1 + j ω ⁄ ω L1 ) ( 1 + ( j ω ⁄ ω L2 ) ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ ω H1 ) ( 1 + j ω ⁄ ω H2 ) • For all practical electric and electronic circuits. The quantity 2 1 ⁄ n – 1 is referred to as the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages in cascade. The last stage is used to produce the greatest possible power output. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−35 . if the zeros of a certain voltage gain are – 1 and – 3 . (jω + 1)(jω + 3) A v ( j ω ) = K ---------------------------------------(jω + 2)(jω + 4) • A zero corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade upward in the asymptotic characteristic. and for four stages it is 0.51 . and a pole corresponds to a break of 20 dB/decade downward. the values of s that make rational functions infinite are called poles of the function.

2 K Ω . and the transistor parameters are β = 200 . and the current gain−bandwidth frequency is f T = 200 MHz . The quiescent collector current in each stage is I C = 1 mA . The amplifier circuit is to be designed so that the high−frequency half−power point for the current gain is 3 MHz . I2 R1 I1 Cc r be Ce ro R2 gm v The quiescent collector current is I C = mA and the collector load resistor is R 2 = 1 K Ω . With the value of R 1 found in part (b) what is the mid−band current amplification? 3. the input resistance r n = 500 Ω . R 3 = 1 K Ω . C c = 3 pF . the transistors are identical with R A = 56 K Ω .9 Exercises 1. V CC RA R2 v out v in RB R3 C3 2. and R 4 = 1 K Ω . R 2 = 6. and the Miller effect b. C e .8 K Ω . For the transistor amplifier below. The transistor parameters are β = 50 . r o = 30 K Ω . 8−36 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R B = 12 K Ω . The high−frequency model has the form shown below. r be . R 2 = 2 K Ω . and β = 80 . R 3 = 2. Determine the value of R 1 c. Find the value of capacitor C 3 so that the highest break frequency for the low−frequency model will be 1 KHz . R A = 33 K Ω and R B = 15 K Ω . For the cascaded amplifier circuit below. r' b = 50 Ω . Determine the values of g m . A transistor is used as an amplifier for video signals.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 8. r' b = 200 Ω . a. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

Exercises C C = 20 pF . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−37 . Imaginary axis Imaginary axis – 10 ω 1 (a) –ω1 Real axis – 20 ω 1 (b) –2 ω1 –ω1 Real axis Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. c. The pole−zero patterns for the voltage gain of two transistor amplifiers are shown below. and the output resistance r o is very large in comparison with R 2 and thus it can be neglected. V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB R 4 v out v in RB R3 C3 R3 C3 a. 4. Neglecting the effect of the resistance R 1 in the model circuit above. Find the parameter values of the simplified high−frequency model circuit shown below. Hint: Begin with the assumption that the amplitude of the voltage gain of a one−stage amplifier is given by Av = A = Am ⁄ ( 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) ) 2 5. f T = 8 MHz . v1 I1 R1 G e q1 I2 v2 CE C2 I3 v3 CE Cc C1 gm v1 G e q2 gm v2 G e q3 b. Prove that the half−power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages is given by Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 where B 1 = ω H and ω H is the half−power frequency for one stage amplifier at medium and high frequencies. Sketch and dimension the asymptotes for the high−frequency amplitude characteristics. find the overall current gain A c = I 3 ⁄ I 1 .

Which of the amplifiers in Figures (b) and (c) yields the greatest no−load voltage amplification? d.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers a. This amplifier is to deliver a signal to a loudspeaker whose resistance is 10 Ω . 000 . If the amplifier is connected directly to the loudspeaker. how much power does it deliver to the loudspeaker? b. Use MATLAB to obtain the plot for the amplitude characteristic for the pole−zero pattern of Figure (b) assuming that the function is multiplied by the constant K = 40. 6. A certain stereo amplifier delivers a sinusoidal voltage of 10 mV RMS on open circuit and has an internal resistance of 500 Ω . v1 μ v1 v2 μ v2 (a) v3 μ v3 RL 50 K Ω 10 Ω v1 (b) 50v 1 v1 (c) 1v 1 8−38 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Will both of these amplifiers transmit DC signals? b. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Two types of amplifiers shown in Figures (b) and (c) below are available for the cascade connection. Use the smallest possible number of stages and show how a 1 M Ω potentiometer can be used in the first stage as a volume control. A cascade of amplifier stages similar to that shown in Figure (a) below is to be used to amplify the signal from the stereo amplifier and deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker. Which of these amplifiers can deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker with the smallest input voltage? c. Draw the circuit diagram for a cascade of stages like those in Figures (b) and (c) that will meet the specifications of part (b) above. a.

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 8.35 μ F C 3 = ---------------3 2 π R3 f3 2 π × 10 × 118 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= ---------------------------k 3 = ----------------------10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−39 . ( 1 + β ) R3 ( 1 + 80 ) × 1 .= ------------------R 1 = -----------------33 + 15 RA + RB For this exercise we must find k 3 and f 3 such that ( 1 + k 3 ) f 3 = 1 KHz From (8.≈ 118 Hz f 3 = -------------------( 1 + 7.3 + 0.3 K Ω . and thus.= 1.= 7.5 ) 1 ω 3 = ----------R3 C3 1 f 3 = -----------------2 π R3 C3 1 1 .11) or Then. R2 V CC RA v out v in RB R3 C3 The low−frequency model is shown below where R 1 || ( R A + R B ) rn I1 R1 IB ( 1 + β ) R3 (1 + β) 3 --------------- C I2 R2 β IB where RA RB 33 × 15 .= 10. From (8.15).5 R1 + rn 1000 .= ----------------------------------.10 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1.5 .

The amplitude characteristics are shown below where the frequency is shown in logarithmic scale and the gain is in dB scale.3 = 20 × 1.6 dB Therefore. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .92). I2 R1 I1 Cc r be R eq Ce ro R2 gm v Figure 8.= 1.6 a.04 Ω –1 From relation (3.6 – 18.83). 40 30 20 10 0 1 118 Hz Gain ( dB ) ( 1 + k3 ) f3 f3 1 KHz 10 100 1000 f ( Hz ) 2.25 K Ω r be = -----gm 0.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers The amplification at medium frequencies is given by (8.3 . 8−40 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 76.3 + 0. Thus β R1 80 × 10. From Chapter 3.3 .04 and from (3. Simplified model of the transistor amplifier for Example 8.5 and in decibels A m ( dB ) = 20 log 76.6 dB The amount by which the amplification at low frequencies is less than its value at medium frequencies is 20 log ( 1 + k 3 ) = 20 × 0.93 = 18. from DC to the break frequency at 118 Hz .14).78). g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 0.28. relation (3. β.= --------50 . the gain is 37.6 = 19 dB .= ----------------------A m = --------------R1 + rn 10.88 = 37.

= 30 ----. The medium frequency current amplification A m is given by (8.= 3 ( 1 + 3.93).27) as ro ro R 1 r be × 1250 .= 13. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−41 .8 A m = ---------------eq ro + R2 r o + R 2 R 1 + r be 31 1750 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.33) with f 1 = 3 MHz 1 + 1.8 pF .= 200 f β = --β 50 This indicates that large current amplification is provided at frequencies up to 4 MHz .04 × 500 -------------------------.04 × 1000 = 40 Thus.7 × 3 × 10 ⁄ 31. 6 gm ro R2 0. From (8.7 A = --------------------.19). b.25 × 10 ⁄ R 1 6 6 3 × 10 = 4 × 10 ⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------– 12 – 12 1 + 38.g m -----------------.g m R = ---------------.= -----------------------------------3 ( ro + R2 ) 31 × 10 and by substitution into (8.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises fT -------.04 × 30 × 10 = 38. From (3.04 C e = -----= 31.= ----------------------------8 ωT 2 π × 2 × 10 The Miller effect is ( 1 + A ) C c where A ≈ g m R 2 = 0.= 4 MHz . ( 1 + A ) C c = 41 × 3 × 10 – 12 = 123 × 10 – 12 = 123 pF and this indicates that the dominant effect at high frequencies is the Miller effect.= 10 ---------------R1 R 1 = 500 Ω 3 3 3 c. gm 0.8 × 10 10 ⎞ .25 × ------⎝ R1 ⎠ 5 × 10.× 0.65 ) = 14 4 ⎛ 1 + 1.

= 34. The parameter values of the simplified high−frequency model circuit shown below are as follows: v1 I1 R1 G e q1 I2 v2 CE C2 I3 v3 CE Cc C1 gm v1 G e q2 gm v2 G e q3 From Chapter 3. from (8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . relation (3.04 gm and from (3.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 3.+ ----.= 796 pF C E = -----.= 5 KΩ r be = -----.+ ------------G eq 3 = ----. V CC RA R2 C4 RA R2 C4 RB R 4 v out v in RB R3 C3 R3 C3 a.= 1.8 K Ω 1 K Ω R2 R4 From (8. 200 β .36).= -------------------------.8 A m 2 = g m R eq = ---------–3 G eq 3 1. –1 1 1 1 1 .78).= --------0.27) ro -g R A m = ---------------r o + R 2 m eq and since r o » R 2 .04 .15 × 10 8−42 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. g m = 40I C = 40 × 1 × 10 –3 = 0. gm 0.15 m Ω .04 .04 Ω –1 From relation (3.= -----------------6.83).= ----------------------------6 ωT 2 π × 8 × 10 For the second stage of the amplifier.93). the current gain of the second stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.

45 m Ω –1 From (8. from (8.36 × 10 0.8 ) 20 = 716 pF From (8.49). –1 1 1 1 1 + 1 + ------------1 .= 0.+ ----1.04 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises From (8.46).= – ---------. the current gain of the first stage amplifier at medium frequencies is gm 0.⋅ --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------.30 m Ω .45 × 10 From (8.= -------------------------A m 1 = g m R eq = ---------–3 G eq 2 0.+ ---------------1 .4 For the first stage of the amplifier we found above that G eq 2 = 0.= ---------------1 . gm I3 1 . we find that 1 A c 2 = – 89 -------------------------1 + j ω ⁄ 0.3 With the frequency expressed in KHz .45 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second.---------------G eq 1 = -----.45 × 10 1 + j ω ( 796 + 716 ) × 10 ⁄ 0.+ ------------1 .+ -----.45 m Ω –1 G eq 2 = -----R A R B r be R 2 56 K Ω 12 K Ω 5 K Ω 6.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 1 = ( 1 + A m 1 ) C C = ( 1 + 89 ) 20 = 1800 pF b.= 0.34).= 89 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−43 .8 K Ω From (8.+ ----1.37) the Miller effect capacitance is C 2 = ( 1 + A m 2 ) C C = ( 1 + 34.+ -----------------1 .+ ----. Neglecting R 1 .= ---------------56 K Ω 12 K Ω 5 K Ω R A R B r be From (8.⋅ -----------------------------------------------------A c 2 = --I2 G eq 2 1 + j ω ( C E + C 2 ) ⁄ G eq 2 1 1 0. 1 + ----1.27) ro -g R A m = ---------------r o + R 2 m eq and since r o » R 2 .04 .35). we obtain 1 A c 2 = – 67 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 47.= – 89 -----------------------------------------= – -------------------------– 12 –3 –6 –3 1 + j ω 3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

1 1 1 1 A c = A c 1 A c 2 = ⎛ – 133.30 × 10 and expressing ω in megaradians per second. the frequency in log scale. we find that 1 A c 1 = – 133.3 The sketch below shows the asymptotes for the high−frequency amplitude characteristics with the gain in dB where A c ( dB ) = 20 log 11864 ≈ 82 .⋅ --------------------------⎝ 1 + jf ⁄ 47.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------– 12 –3 –6 –3 1 + j ω 8.115 With the frequency expressed in KHz . and the slope of each high−frequency asymptote is – 20 dB per decade.4 1 + jf ⁄ 18.4 ⎠ ⎝ 1 + jf ⁄ 18.3 KHz 0 10 0 10 4 10 5 f ( log scale ) 4.30 × 10 1 + j ω ( 796 + 20 + 1800 ) × 10 ⁄ 0.04 = – -------------------------= – 133.3 c.⎞ = 11864 ⋅ --------------------------.3 -----------------------------------------. Since the amplitude of the voltage gain of a one−stage amplifier is given by Am A v = A = ----------------------------------2 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) for n identical stages of this type connected in cascade. Thus.Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers gm I2 1 A c 1 = --.= – ---------.3 ⎠ 1 + jf ⁄ 47. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .4 KHz – 20 dB ⁄ decade – 40 dB ⁄ decade f = 18.⎞ ⎛ – 89 --------------------------.⋅ ------------------------------------------------------------------I1 G eq 1 1 + j ω ( C E + C c + C 1 ) ⁄ G eq 1 1 1 0.72 × 10 0. A ( dB ) 80 40 f = 47.3 --------------------------.3 -------------------------------1 + j ω ⁄ 0. we obtain 1 A c 1 = – 133.3 --------------------------1 + jf ⁄ 18. The overall current gain A c is obtained by multiplying A c 1 by A c 2 . the overall amplification will be Am A n = -----------------------------------------2 n ( 1 + ( ω ⁄ ωH ) ) n 8−44 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

jω A V = ----------------------------------------------------( j ω + ω 1 ) ( j ω + 10 ω 1 ) and when ω = 0 (DC condition).. xlabel('Frequency in rad/s (log scale)'). D=(j.. title ('Amplitude characteristic for Exercise 5') Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.^2+2200. this amplifier will transmit DC signals. ylabel('Gain (dB scale)')./D. Therefore.*w)+400000.. since ω H = B 1 . ω1 1 . semilogx(w. b. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−45 . Av=4. The MATLAB script and resulting plot are shown below.. Hence. For the amplifier whose pole−zero pattern is shown in (a). this amplifier will not transmit DC signals. ( j ω + ω1 ) A V = -------------------------------------------------------( j ω + 2 ω 1 ) ( j ω + 20 ω 1 ) and when ω = 0 (DC condition).*(j..*10. AvdB=20.*w+100. For the amplifier whose pole−zero pattern is shown in (b). N=j.*log10(abs(Av)). A V = 0 .*N. w=1:10:100000.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises The half−power frequency for the cascade of n identical stages is the value of ω that will make the denominator of the above expression equal to 2 . Bn = B1 2 1⁄n –1 Imaginary axis 5.AvdB).^4. ω ⎞2 1 + ⎛ ----⎝ B1 ⎠ ω ⎞2 1 + ⎛ ----⎝ B1 ⎠ n n = 2 1⁄n = 2 from which ω = B1 2 1⁄n –1 This value of ω is the half−power bandwidth of the cascade of n identical stages. Therefore. grid...*w). Imaginary axis – 10 ω 1 (a) –ω1 Real axis – 20 ω 1 (b) –2 ω1 –ω1 Real axis a..= ----------A V = ------------------------------( 2 ω 1 ) ( 20 ω 1 ) 40 ω 1 Therefore..

6 μ A i = ----------------510 Ω Thus. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 30 25 20 Gain (dB scale) 15 10 5 0 -5 -10 0 10 Amplitude characteristic for Exercise 5 10 1 10 10 Frequency in rad/s (log scale) 2 3 10 4 10 5 6. If the amplifier is connected directly to the loudspeaker. the total series resistance will be R eq = 500 + 10 = 510 Ω and the current through the loudspeaker will be 10 mV . the power delivered to the loudspeaker will be 8−46 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. v1 μ v1 v2 v3 RL μ v2 (a) μ v3 50 K Ω 10 Ω v1 (b) 50v 1 v1 (c) 1v 1 a.= 19.

the amplifier of Figure (c) will deliver 10 w to the loudspeaker with the smallest input voltage. and V L = 10 V .= 50 mA 10 + 10 and power will be P c = I c R c = ( 50 × 10 ) × 10 = 25 mw 2 –3 2 Therefore.= 34 dB v1 2. Voltage amplification in amplifier of Figure (b) will be 50v 1 A b = 20 log ---------.= 0 dB A c = 20 log ------v1 Therefore.6 × 10 ) × 10 = 3. 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 8−47 . Current in amplifier of Figure (c) will be 1×1 I c = ----------------. 1. Let us assume 1 v input to each of the amplifiers in Figures (b) and (c).84 × 10 2 –6 2 –9 w b. Voltage amplification in amplifier of Figure (c) will be 1v 1 . c.25 mw 2 –3 2 3 2.= 5 mA I b = -------------------------10000 + 10 and power will be P b = I b R b = ( 5 × 10 ) × 10 × 10 = 0. v 4 = 10 + 10 = 20 V . I L = 1 A . Therefore. the amplifier of Figure (b) will produce the greatest voltage amplification. and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises p = i R = ( 19. d. Current in amplifier of Figure (b) will be 50 × 1 . 500 Ω 10 K Ω 10 K Ω 10 Ω 10 Ω RL v2 v3 50v 2 50v 3 v4 v1 1 MΩ 1v 4 For last stage we must have P L = I 2 L R L = 10 w and since R L = 10 Ω .

⋅ 10 mV ≈ 10 mV 1 M Ω + 500 Ω The first and second stages were so chosen as to provide the greatest voltage amplification. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Frequency Characteristics of Single−Stage and Cascaded Amplifiers 1 MΩ v 2 = ---------------------------------. 8−48 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

as between two cities or between a space vehicle and a ground station. usually a sinusoid. A sinusoid has three characteristics that can be modulated. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Applications. and capacitors.Chapter 9 Tuned Amplifiers T his chapter begins with an introduction to tuned amplifiers. The process by which the carrier wave is made to change in accordance with the information signal is called modulation. resistors. automatic pilots. and thus it provides no gain. For small signals. For these higher frequencies it is necessary to use tuned amplifiers with RLC coupling to overcome the effects of parasitic capacitances and to provide a filtering operation in the form of frequency−selective amplification. they are the amplitude. either by wire or wireless.* A passive bandpass filter is constructed with passive devices. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9. active filters with op amps are very popular. electronic instruments. We will examine the properties of various tuned amplifiers that find applications to telecommunications systems employing narrowband modulated signals. is caused to change instant by instant in accordance with the information signal to be transmitted. narrowband signals.e. and a host of similar applications. inductors. When signals must be transmitted over long distances. efficient utilization of the transmission medium requires the use of high−frequency. To generate these signals a high−frequency carrier wave. and our subsequent discussion will be based on these devices. when the signals must be transmitted over long distances. A tuned amplifier is essentially a bandpass filter. In this section we will introduce the properties of various tuned amplifiers that find application in telecommunication systems. i.1 Introduction to Tuned Circuits The amplifiers discussed in previous chapters are sufficient for most applications in which it is not required that the signals be transmitted over long distances. New tools for the analysis and design of tuned amplifiers are developed. Thus they are adequate for audio amplifiers used in public address and home entertainment systems. the frequency. Various systems of this kind operate throughout the frequency spectrum from 10 KHz to about 10 GHz although at the higher end of this range ordinary transistors are not used.. 9. effective use of the transmission medium requires the use of narrowband systems operating at high frequencies. However. and * For a thorough discussion on passive and active filters. Tuned amplifiers can also be designed with bipolar junction transistors and MOSFETs. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−1 . servomechanisms.

and V C is the amplitude of the unmodulated carrier. The information can be recovered by recovering the waveform of the envelope. FM* and PM waves have similar properties.1.1) where ω C is the carrier frequency. If the information. please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Excel. To understand the requirements that must be met by tuned amplifiers it is necessary to examine the nature of these waves and to understand the way in which they are used in telecommunication systems. frequency−modulated (FM). the peak rectifier circuit that we discussed in Chapter 2 is used for this purpose. or modulating. vm ( t ) Modulating signal Carrier Envelope vc ( t ) t t Figure 9. The peak rectifier is also known as diode detector. Signal and carrier wave that is amplitude−modulated by the signal.1) and Figure 9. it is convenient to assume that the modulating signal is a sinusoid expressed as v m ( t ) = V m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) (9. hence the envelope of the modulated wave never drops to zero. the waveform of the envelope must be preserved. wave is a voltage v m ( t ) . To examine the properties of the AM wave further. ISBN 978−1−934404−03−4.1 we observe that the waveform of the envelope of the modulated signal is the same as the waveform of the modulating signal v m ( t ) .1. although they are not discussed specifically.Tuned Amplifiers the phase. From relation (9. 9− 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. then an AM carrier can be expressed as v s ( t ) = [ V c + v m ( t ) ] cos ω C t (9.2) * FM and PM systems are best described by Bessel functions. The waveform of such an AM wave is shown in Figure 9. Thus if the information in the modulated carrier is to be preserved. For an introduction to these functions. The properties of AM waves are developed in the paragraphs that follow. In an AM system the magnitude of v m ( t ) is always less than V C . and in this application it is frequently called an envelope detector. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and they give rise to amplitude−modulated (AM). and phase−modulated (PM) signals.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−3 . The frequency spectrum of a typical sinusoidally modulated AM wave is shown in Figure 9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5) we have assumed that the modulating signal v m ( t ) is sinusoidal and as such. Thus.V cos [ ( ω c + ω m ) t + θ m ] t + --. except that usually the side waves are much closer to the carrier wave than it is possible to show in the diagram.2) into (9.6) Relation (9. it conveys no useful information.3) (9. vs ( t ) vs ( t ) Ideal bandpass filter (a) ωc ω (b) ω Figure 9.5) can be simplified by using the trigonometric identity for the product of two cosines. a carrier wave at the carrier frequency. Frequency spectra of AM waves Figure 9. v m ( t ) is non−sinusoidal but if it is periodic in nature as most physical phenomena are.* and the analysis of an AM system can be performed by the superposition of the effects of each sinusoidal component known as harmonics. it can be expanded in a Fourier series. In (9. and these are referred to as the upper and lower sidebands of the AM wave. and two side waves at frequencies on either side of the carrier frequency.2.2. In most AM waves the carrier frequency is much larger than the highest frequency in the modulating signal.6) reveals that a sinusoidally modulated AM wave is the superposition of three sinusoidal components. Thus.Introduction to Tuned Circuits Substitution of (9. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.2) and (9.3) as m = Vm ⁄ Vc v s ( t ) = V c [ 1 + m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) ] cos ω c t and the quantity m is known as the modulation index in an AM system.5) and letting we express (9. m m . Relation (9. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9.V cos [ ( ω c – ω m ) t – θ m ] v s ( t ) = V c cos ω c t + --2 c 2 c (9. hence. In practice. and it is always less than unity.1) yields v s ( t ) = [ V c + V m cos ( ω m t + θ m ) ] cos ω c t (9. it predictable for all times.4) (9. In the more general case there are many pairs of side waves.2(a) shows the relative amplitudes and frequencies of the carrier and side waves. a typical AM radio station broadcasting speech and music with frequencies up to 5 KHz has a carrier frequency of 1 MHz * For a detailed discussion and applications in Fourier series.

The study of tuned amplifiers in the sections that follow is concerned with the response of the amplifiers to modulated waves and with design techniques for obtaining optimum performance.3. their total bandwidths are small compared to their center frequencies. These signals can be separated by frequency−selective amplification. and the lower−sideband vector rotates clockwise at the same speed. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the idealized gain characteristic for such an amplifier is indicated in Figure 9. If these components are to add up to give the original AM wave. and they have phase angles with respect to the carrier that are equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. If the carrier vector is taken as the reference and is assumed to be stationary.6) shows that a symmetry exists between the upper and lower sidebands of an AM wave. that is. and normally the difference between these frequencies is great enough so that the spectra of the signals are completely separated and occupy different frequency bands. this symmetry must be preserved. A narrowband allows the transmission of many simultaneous telephone conversations on a single pair of conductors in a coaxial cable and for the simultaneous use of space by all radio transmitters. To illustrate what may happen when the symmetry is destroyed. Figure 9. 2 . The sidebands have equal amplitudes. that this result depends on the symmetry between the sidebands.Tuned Amplifiers and a total bandwidth of 10 KHz centered at 1 MHz . The advantage of AM signals is that they are narrowband signals. Optimum performance is concerned with the rejection of adjacent channels as well as with faithful amplification of the desired channel. ωm VC ωm (a) ωm VC (b) ωm (c) Figure 9. Each signal uses a different carrier frequency. However. Phasor representation of an AM wave In Figure 9. and 3 . Figure 9.2(b) shows the frequency spectra of three AM signals indicated as 1 . Amplifiers of this kind are called bandpass amplifiers.3. In this case.2(b). then the upper−sideband vector rotates counterclockwise at ω m rad ⁄ sec . and the amplitude of the total voltage becomes almost constant as indi- 9− 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Tuning a radio receiver is the operation by which the passband of the amplifier is shifted from one place to another in the frequency spectrum. in which each sinusoidal component of the wave is represented by a rotating vector. the sum of the sideband vectors (represented by the dotted line) is at every instant normal to the carrier vector. Relation (9. The significance and importance of this symmetry is illustrated further by the phasor diagrams in Figure 9.3(a) the sum of the two sideband vectors (represented by the dotted line) is at every instant colinear with the carrier vector and it gives a sinusoidal variation in the amplitude of the total voltage.3(b) shows the case in which the sidebands have been shifted 90 ° out−of−phase in phase with respect to the carrier.

and they should provide no phase shift in this band. but our intent here is to illustrate that poorly designed amplifiers can degrade the signal. If the modulating signal is allowed a constant time delay T. the amplification at the ends of the band of frequencies occupied by the signal should not be less than 70 percent of the amplification in the center of the band. System performance can be improved in this respect by transmitting only one of the two sidebands.10) Since T is a constant.7) into (9. and it is badly distorted.2 except that in this case each sideband contains a sinusoidal component corresponding to each sinusoidal component of the modulating signal. amplifiers for AM signals should provide uniform amplification over the band of frequencies occupied by the signal. This fact can be illustrated by considering a modulated signal consisting of the sum of a number of sinusoids of frequencies ω1.3(c) occurs.1) yields 1 .7) becomes v m ( t ) = V 1 cos [ ω 1 ( t – T ) – θ 1 ] + V 2 cos [ ω 2 ( t – T ) – θ 2 ] + V 3 cos [ ω 3 ( t – T ) – θ 3 ] + … (9.10) that imposing a constant time delay on v m ( t ) is equivalent to imposing a lagging phase shift on each sinusoIdal component. then. such that v m ( t ) = V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – θ 1 ) + V 2 cos ( ω 2 t – θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – θ 3 ) + … (9. it follows from (9. each pair of sideband components exhibits the symmetry discussed above. with single−sideband systems the need for coherence between two sidebands is eliminated. ω2.Introduction to Tuned Circuits cated in Figure 9. the signal recovered by an envelope detector at the receiving end is very small.7) Substitution of (9. Just about all radio signals.V cos [ ( ω c – ω 1 ) t – θ 1 ] v s ( t ) = V c cos ω c t + -2 2 1 1 1 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−5 . It also decreases at low frequencies because of the presence of coupling capacitors. … . not necessarily harmonically related. When the condition of Figure 9. proportional to the freElectronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. In a properly designed tuned circuit. Single sideband systems are discussed in communications systems text. are subject to this kind of fading and distortion as a result of the properties of the transmission medium. when transmitted over long distances.V cos [ ( ω c + ω 2 ) t – θ 2 ] + -. The no phase shift requirement stated above can be somewhat controlled by the fact that a linear phase−shift characteristIc produces a pure delay in the envelope waveform without distorting it.3(c) where the dotted vectors represent the vector sum of the carrier and the sidebands. Ideally. ω3.8) The frequency spectrum for this signal is similar to the spectra shown in Figure 9.V cos [ ( ω c – ω 2 ) t – θ 2 ] + … + -2 2 2 2 (9.9) or v m ( t ) = V 1 cos ( ω 1 t – ω 1 T – θ 1 ) + V 2 cos cos ( ω 2 t – ω 2 T – θ 2 ) + V 3 cos ( ω 3 t – ω 3 T – θ 3 ) + … (9. then (9. The amplification decreases at high frequencies as a result of the parasitic capacitances in the tuned amplifier.V 1 cos [ ( ω c + ω 1 ) t – θ 1 ] + 1 -.

A good amplifier for use with modulated signals should have uniform gain in the frequency band occupied by the signal. It can also be shown that a constant phase shift added to the linear phase characteristic produces a delay in the carrier.Tuned Amplifiers quency of that component. φ 2.6) 3 3 6 .11) where φ 1.3 by the same amount and leaves the relations among them unchanged. Thus.V cos [ ( ω C + ω 1 ) t – φ 1 – θ 1 ] + -.4. a constant phase shift rotates all vectors in the diagrams of Figure 9.V cos [ ( ω C – ω 2 ) t + φ 2 + θ 2 ] + … . Solution: From relation (9.8) with the delayed envelope can be expressed as 1 1 . Show the amplitude and frequency for each component of the AM wave. The results obtained in the preceding discussion are useful guides in judging the merits of various tuned amplifiers and in designing these amplifiers for optimum performance.V cos [ ( ω C – ω 1 ) t + φ 1 + θ 1 ] v s ( t ) = V C cos ω C t + -2 1 2 1 1 1 . 9− 6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and it should have a linear phase characteristic in that frequency band. the corresponding AM wave of (9.cos [ ( 2 π × 10 6 – π × 10 3 ) t ] v S ( t ) = 10 cos 2 π × 10 t + -2 2 5 5 . ω 2 T = φ 2 and so on. Thus if we let ω 1 T = φ 1 .2. … are directly proportional to the separation of the side frequency from the carrier frequency.cos [ ( 2 π × 10 6 + π × 2 × 10 3 ) t + θ m ] t + -.cos [ ( 2 π × 10 6 – π × 2 × 10 3 ) t ] + -2 2 and the frequency spectrum is as shown in Figure 9. if an AM signal is transmitted through an amplifier having a linear phase characteristic with a negative slope.V 2 cos [ ( ω C + ω 2 ) t – φ 2 – θ 2 ] + -+ -2 2 2 (9. it can be shown by going through this process in reverse that the result is a pure delay in the envelope. Alternatively. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Example 9.cos [ ( 2 π × 10 6 + π × 10 3 ) t + θ m ] t + -.1 A carrier v C ( t ) = 10 cos 2 π × 10 t 6 is amplitude−modulated with a signal v m ( t ) = 3 cos 1000 π t + 5 cos 2000 π t Sketch a diagram of the frequency spectrum of the amplitude−modulated wave similar to that of Figure 9.

16.24 × 10 (9.1 Example 9.= 77.5 × 10 × ( 810 × 10 ) Q 0P = ω 0 C ⁄ G 5 – 12 2 π f0 C –1 2 π × 8.= 5. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−7 . or Then.= ----I . If a nearby radio station transmits at 740 KHz and both signals picked up by the antenna have the same current amplitude I ( μ A ). Chapter 2. what is the ratio of the voltage at 810 KHz to the voltage at 740 KHz ? Solution: a.= -------------------------I V 810 KHz = --------------------–6 Y 810 KHz Y0 G 5.2 A radio receiver* with a parallel GLC circuit whose inductance is L = 0. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Frequency spectrum for Example 9. b. ω 0 = 1 ⁄ ( LC ) 2 f 0 = 1 ⁄ 4 π 2 LC 1 C = -------------------------------------------------------------------. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1.2 pF –3 3 2 2 4 π 0.2 × 10 G = -------------.2 -2 1 MHz – 1 KHz 1 MHz – 500 Hz 1 MHz 5 3 --. Figure 2. or c. What is the value of conductance G if Q 0P = 75 ? c.5 mH is tuned to a radio station transmitting at 810 KHz resonant frequency.1 × 10 × 77.Introduction to Tuned Circuits 10 5 3 -.4.= --I.= --------------------------------------------------------------------. The resonant frequency is given by ω 0 = 1 ⁄ LC and the quality factor at parallel resonance is given by Q 0P = ω 0 C ⁄ G a.12) * For a block diagram of a typical AM radio receiver and description. What is the value of the capacitor of this circuit at this resonant frequency? b.4 μΩ 75 Q 0P 2 I .2 2 f 1 MHz + 1 KHz 1 MHz + 500 Hz Figure 9.

24 × 10 = -------------------------------= -------------------------. the biasing transistors.2 μΩ I V 740 KHz = -------------------------–6 71.Tuned Amplifiers Also.6 times larger than the voltage developed at f = 740 KHz .+ sC .2 Single−tuned Transistor Amplifier The small signal model for a single−tuned transistor amplifier is shown in Figure 9.14). Y 740 KHz = 71.5.5.13) or Y 740 KHz = ( 5.2 × 10 –1 (9.2 × 10 I ⁄ 5. the voltage developed across the parallel circuit when it is tuned at f = 810 KHz is 13.2 × 10 5.14) –6 –6 V 810 K Hz 71. where Y 740 KHz = I V 740 KHz = --------------------Y 740 KHz G + (ωC – 1 ⁄ (ωL) ) 3 – 12 2 2 (9.16) (9. the input resistance of the transistor.24 × 10 ) + ⎛ 2 π × 740 × 10 × 77. 9.12) and (9.6 ---------------------–6 –6 V 740 KH z I ⁄ 71.= 13.5. The admittance Y ( s ) on the left side of the circuit is 1 1 .+ ----Y ( s ) = ----R 1 sL (9. Small signal tuned transistor amplifier circuit In the circuit of Figure 9.5 × 10 or and Then from (9. The resistance R 1 is in the order of 1 kilohm or less and represents the internal resistance of the current source. I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 Figure 9. and the losses in the inductor. and with this assumption this circuit is good at frequencies up to a few hundred KHz. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . we assume that the parasitic capacitances are negligible.2 × 10 ⎝ –6 2 2 1 – -----------------------------------------------------------------⎞ 3 – 3⎠ 2 π × 740 × 10 × 0.24 × 10 (9.17) and thus I1 ( s ) = Y ( s ) V ( s ) 9− 8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.15) that is.

If they are real. Therefore.17) into (9. we observe that at parallel resonance inductive susceptance* and * The inductive susceptance is defined as B L = 1 ⁄ j ω L and the capacitive susceptance as B C = j ω C Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. (9. and (9. I2 ( s ) = –gm V ( s ) (9. gm s .13).16) and (9. relation (9.18) From (9.Single−tuned Transistor Amplifier Also. the poles of (9.12).71) in Chapter 8. From the parallel network of Figure 9.e. We are also interested in the current gain at the resonant frequency denoted as A c0 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−9 .25) and we find that and s1 = – α + α – ω0 s2 = – α – α – ω0 2 2 2 2 Depending on the values of the circuit parameters.⋅ -------------------------------A c ( s ) = – -----C s2 + 2 α s + ω2 0 (9.22) The quadratic denominator in (9.19) For convenience. i.14) the current gain A c is –gm I2 ( s ) .⋅ -----------------------------------------------------A c ( s ) = – -----2 C s + ( 1 ⁄ RC ) s + 1 ⁄ LC (9.18) can be expressed as the product of two linear factors.15) yields gm s .18) may be either real or complex.19) has the same form as relation (8..⋅ ---------------------------------A c ( s ) = – -----C ( s – s1 ) ( s – s2 ) (9.= -------------------------------------------------A c ( s ) = ---------1 ⁄ R 1 + 1 ⁄ ( sL ) + sC I1 ( s ) or gm s . we define two new symbols as 2 1 ω 0 = ------LC (9.21) and 1 2 α = ------RC Substitution of (9. hence the pole−zero pattern and the frequency characteristics of the tuned amplifier with real poles are the same as those of the RC−coupled amplifier which cannot provide a truly narrow−band characteristic. in our subsequent discussion we will be concerned with circuit parameters which will yield complex poles.23) (9.20) (9.24) (9.5.

and the amplification at resonance so that the half−power bandwidth will be BW = 10 KHz and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz . 1 .27) Example 9.3 The equivalent circuit of single−tuned amplifier is shown in Figure 9. b. I1 R1 v L C R2 gm v I2 Figure 9. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1 9−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Solution: a.Tuned Amplifiers capacitive susceptance cancel each other and the admittance of the parallel R 1 LC circuit reduces to R 1 and thus Ac 0 = I2 ⁄ I1 = –gm R1 (9. Also. For the specified bandwidth it is necessary that 4 1 . Transistor equivalent for the tuned amplifier of Example 9. The quality factor Q 0 * at parallel resonance.26) As in the case of the RC amplifier in Chapter 8. Find the values of L . one above and the other below the resonance frequency and thus the bandwidth between the two half−power frequencies is given by 1BW = 2 α = ------RC (9.2 a. and the half−power frequency is the frequency at which the amplification is A = A c ( max ) ⁄ 2 .6 and has a transconductance g m = 40 m Ω –1 and R 1 = 500 Ω . the half−power frequencies provide a measure of the bandwidth of the circuit. there are two half−power frequencies.= 2 π × 10 BW = --------R1 C and with R 1 = 500 Ω .= 32 nF C = ----------------------------------4 2 π × 10 × 500 * For a detailed discussion on quality factor Q.6. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . C .

= ( 2 π × 10 ) = 39. we can transform values required by the specifications into practical values of the circuit parameters by the use of a transformer. and the transformation ratio is Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.7(a) shows a practical tuned transistor amplifier in which a tapped inductor is used as a step−down autotransformer. the very low value of L causes the inductive reactance at 1 MHz to have a very low value of ω 0 L = 2 π × 10 × 0.5 × 10 ω 0 = ------LC and with C = 32 × 10 –9 .8 μ H 12 –9 39.2. the coefficient of coupling* among the turns is close to unity. Moreover.5 × 10 × 32 × 10 The current gain at the resonant frequency is A c 0 = g m R 1 = 40 × 10 × 500 = 20 –3 b. and a relatively high quality factor Q 0 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−11 . The inductors used in the autotransformer have ferrite cores. 1 L = -----------------------------------------------------. the very low value of R 1 = 500 Ω makes a large value of C necessary to obtain the narrow bandwidth BW = 10 KHz .8 × 10 6 –6 = 5Ω Fortunately. An RFC blocks radio frequencies but passes audio frequencies when both frequencies are applied to the same circuit.7. V CC I1 RA RC I1 ⁄ a v' C L RB vs RP v out RE CE L1 (a) C v s --a2 a2 L v' (b) R' gm v R2 I2 Figure 9. Figure 9.Single−tuned Transistor Amplifier For the specified center frequency 2 6 2 12 1 . Impedance transformation in a tuned transistor amplifier and its model Resistors R A and R B provide the necessary biasing but they also include coils in series with these resistors (not shown) and these coils are known as radio frequency chokes (RFCs).= 0. The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR 1 = 2 π × 10 × 32 × 10 × 500 = 100 6 –9 In Example 9.

N is the number of turns in the coil.28) where L is the total inductance. When the portion of the circuit on the left of the transformer coil in Figure 9. a practical inductor contains some resistance in series with it.7(a). and the capacitance C and the total inductance L are transformed by the factor a 2 .31) (9. the small signal model assumes the form shown in Figure 9. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications.Tuned Amplifiers V1 ----. The resistance R P includes the internal resistance of the source supplying the input signal.= a<1 L N (9. we observe that the current amplification is increased by the transformer action. In Figure 9. L 1 is the inductance portion of the coil below the tap. Let the resistance in series with the coil in the primary be denoted as R P and the resistance in series with the coil in the secondary be denoted as R S .= ----. it assumes the value a 2 R P .7(b) and since a is less than unity. and N 1 is the number of turns in the coil below the tap.7(b) C 1 1 .7(b). and the secondary side is the portion of the coil below the tap.7(a) is transferred to the right side. The resistance R' shown in Figure 9. From Figure 9.= ---------------------------------------------------------A c ( s ) = ----------------2 2 I1 ( s ) ⁄ a 1 ⁄ R' + 1 ⁄ a Ls + Cs ⁄ a * For a detailed discussion on transformers.= Y' ( s ) V' ( s ) a (9.30) (9.32) Also. a2 RP RS R' = ----------------------a2 RP + RS (9.7(b) represents the parallel combination of a 2 R P with R S .+ ---s Y' ( s ) = ---2 R' a Ls a 2 I1 ( s ) ---------. and when it is referred to the secondary. As we know. the primary side of the step−down autotransformer is the total inductance and this represents the primary side of the autotransformer.+ ---------.29) The input signal current is also transformed to I 1 ⁄ a as shown in Figure 9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1 9−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. I 2 ( s ) = – g m V' ( s ) –gm I2 ( s ) . that is.= V L1 N1 ---.

Single−tuned Transistor Amplifier ag m s . b.36) The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR' (9. The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance.⋅ --------------------------------------------------------A c ( s ) = – --------2 2 C s + ( a ⁄ R'C ) s + 1 ⁄ LC (9. the coupling network can be adjusted for maximum amplification. the transformer action leaves the resonant frequency ω 0 unchanged. relation (9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−13 .8.4 I2 a. and R' = 500 Ω . C . Circuit for Example 9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.37) Example 9. maximum amplification is obtained when the value of a is chosen so that a2 RP = RS (9.35) At resonance.33) Therefore.33) reduces to g m R' A co = – ----------a (9. Therefore.4 The equivalent circuit of single−tuned amplifier shown in Figure 9. and the amplification at resonance so that the half−power bandwidth will be BW = 10 KHz and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz . Therefore. the inductive susceptance and capacitive susceptance cancel out and thus the admittance is just R' . Find the values of L .= ----------------------BW = -------RP RS C R'C (9. I1 ⁄ a C ---a2 R2 –1 vs a2 L v' R' g m v' Figure 9.34) The LC combination in Figure 9. but the bandwidth becomes 2 a2 RP + RS a .8 has the transformation ratio a = 1 ⁄ 20 . transconductance g m = 40 m Ω . and this condition occurs when maximum power is delivered to R S .7(a) forms a lossless coupling network and if R P and R S are fixed.

The quality factor Q 0 at parallel resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR' = 2 π × 10 × 80 × 10 6 – 12 × 500 = 100 9.9 where the numbers in parentheses indicate double poles and zeros. When two identical stages like the one shown in Figure 9. the overall current gain is given by the square of relation (9.= ( 2 π × 10 ) = 39.1 Synchronously Tuned Amplifiers The amplitude characteristic for two synchronously tuned amplifiers is the characteristic for one stage but with the amplification squared at each point.5 are cascaded.= 80 pF 4 2 π × 10 × 500 For the specified center frequency 2 6 2 12 1 . 1 ⁄ 400 C = ----------------------------------.= ------------------------------------1 ⁄ 20 a b. they are chosen to act as short circuits in the passband of the amplifier. We have assumed that the Miller effect is negligible. 1 .= 2 π × 10 4 BW = -------R'C and with R' = 500 Ω . The phase characteristic is the characteristic for one stage with the angle multiplied by 2.3 Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers To achieve higher selectivity it is necessary that tuned amplifiers are connected in cascade by means of a coupling capacitor or transformer coupling.= 0. the half−power bandwidth is less than the bandwidth of one stage.23).32 mH L = -------------------------------------------------------12 – 12 39. However. the two stages are said to be synchronously tuned.Tuned Amplifiers Solution: a. The corresponding pole−zero diagram has the form shown in Figure 9. 9−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 × 10 × 80 × 10 The current gain at the resonant frequency is –3 g m R' 40 × 10 × 500 = 400 A c 0 = ----------. For the specified bandwidth it is necessary that a 2 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .3. hence the zero at the origin and the poles s 1 and s 2 each appear twice in the overall current gain. When coupling capacitors are used. 9.5 × 10 ω 0 = ------LC and with C = 80 × 10–12 . In this form.

42) we observe that ω 0 is the hypotenuse of a right triangle. s1 β Im α Im ( s – s1 ) Re ω0 s = jω Re s2 (a) ( s – s2 ) (b) Figure 9.43) (9. and in the complex frequency plane it represents the distance of the poles s 1 and s 2 from the origin as shown in Figure 9. s 2 = – α – j β . s1 = – α + α – ω0 s2 = – α – α – ω0 2 2 2 2 (9.10(a).25). For the typical narrowband amplifier they are very good approximations. we express these as s1 = – α + j α – ω0 s2 = – α – j α – ω0 2 2 2 2 (9. Graphical representation of the relations s 1 = – α + j β .24) and (9.10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−15 .9. we refer back to relations (9.42) (9.41) (9.39) Since we are concerned with complex numbers. that is. They are very useful in the analysis and design of practically all narrowband amplifiers and filters. and β 2 = α 2 – ω2 0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.40) (9.44) and letting we obtain β = α – ω0 s1 = – α + j β s2 = – α – j β 2 2 2 From relation (9. Pole−zero pattern for two synchronously tuned amplifiers in cascade In the study of tuned amplifiers.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers ( 2) ( 2) ( 2) Im Re Figure 9. To understand these approximations.38) (9. two important relations are the narrowband approximations.

51) Also. and thus s1 = – α + j β ≈ – α + j ω0 (9.⋅ ----------------------------.47) can be expressed as gm 1 .10(a) that β ≈ ω 0 .10(b). the poles s 1 and s 2 are extremely close to the imaginary axis. This reduction is very important when more complex circuits are to be analyzed.⋅ ---------------------------. for sinusoidal operation s = j ω and relation (9.45) (9.= – -----. let us consider the sinusoidal operation where s = j ω and as j ω moves along the imaginary axis near the pole s 1 . An amplifier suitable for use with this signal will have a resonant frequency of ω 0 = 200 α and as we can see from Figure 9.49) and by substitution into (9.50) Letting ω – ω 0 = Δω we can express (9. Also.⋅ ------------------. the percentage variations are much smaller and the variations in s and s – s 2 tend to cancel.⋅ -------------------------------A ( j ω ) = – -----2C j ω + α – j ω 0 2C α + j ( ω – ω 0 ) (9.47) shows that in narrowband operation the ratio s ⁄ ( s – s 2 ) can be expressed as the constant 1 ⁄ 2 and that the narrowband approximations reduce the quadratic factor in the denominator to a linear factor. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= – -----A ( s ) = – -----C ( s – s 1 ) 2j ω 0 2C ( s – s 1 ) (9. we obtain the simplified expression gm gm j ω0 1 .⋅ --------------A ( j ω ) = – -----2C j ω – s 1 (9.= – ---------.23.⋅ ---------------.46) and s – s 2 ≈ 2j ω 0 When these approximations are substituted into relation 9. However. we see from Figure 9. since the vector s – s 2 is relatively further away. at resonance the amplification is given by 9−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.⋅ -------------------------A ( j ω ) = – -----2C α + j Δω 2 α C 1 + j Δω ⁄ α (9.50) as gm gm 1 1 .48) gm gm 1 1 . Therefore. the vector s – s 1 gets smaller and experiences large percentage variations.48) and since ω 0 = 200 α .Tuned Amplifiers A typical AM signal has a center frequency that is 100 times the bandwidth of the signal to be transmitted.47) Relation (9. since β ≈ ω 0 . for sinusoidal operation in the passband we obtain the narrowband approximations s = j ω ≈ j ω0 (9. Now.

one above and one below the resonant frequency. The bandwidth between these two half−power frequencies is BW n = 2 Δω = BW 1 2 1⁄n –1 (9. the magnitude of the amplification is 1 n n A 1 = A = A 01 ⋅ ----------------------------------------------n 2 1 + ( 2 Δω ⁄ BW 1 ) (9.52) We also recall that the bandwidth is given by BW = 2 α (9. 1 A ( j ω ) = – A 0 ⋅ --------------------------------------1 + j 2 Q 0 Δω ⁄ ω 0 (9. and for four stages it is 0. i.53) Substitution of (9.64 .57) The half−power frequency for n identical stages connected in cascade occurs when the square of the denominator in (9.= ---------A 0 = A c ( j ω 0 ) = -----2C j β + α – j β 2αC (9.e.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers gm gm 1 .51 . Then. for two stages it is 0.58) from which BW 1 1 ⁄ n . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.54) This relation can also be expressed in terms of the quality factor at resonance. For n stages connected in cascade.55) In terms of the bandwidth (relation9. for three stages it is 0.60) The square root of this expression is the bandwidth reduction factor for n identical stages connected in cascade.54).⋅ -------------------------. BW = ω 0 ⁄ Q 0 .52) and (9. Thus.59) There are two half−power frequencies.53) into (9.51) yields 1 A ( j ω ) = – A 0 ⋅ -----------------------------------1 + j 2 Δω ⁄ BW (9. the magnitude of the amplification for one stage is 1 A 1 = A = A 01 ⋅ ----------------------------------------------2 1 + ( 2 Δω ⁄ BW 1 ) (9.2 –1 Δω = ± ----------2 (9.. at the half−power frequency 2 Δω ⎞ 2 = 2 1 + ⎛ ----------⎝ BW 1 ⎠ (9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−17 .43 .56) where the subscript unity denotes a single stage.57) equals 2.

.12. Solution: The half−power bandwidth of each stage can be determined from relation (9. we will let the following MATLAB script do the calculations for us. the values of R from the relation BW 1 = 1 ⁄ RC and the values of L from ω 2 0 = 1 ⁄ LC .10e+004 Ohms The half−power bandwidth of each stage is 155 KHz and.2e H \t'.11 shows the frequency response of a synchronous tuning for two stages in cascade in comparison to a single stage.2 Stagger−Tuned Amplifiers We can obtain a much better approximation by staggering the tuning of the stages to produce a pole−zero configuration like the one shown in Figure 9. fprintf('BWf = %5.. BW1).. R=1/(BW1*C).. fprintf('R = %5.2e F \t'.3. BWf). BWn=2*pi*10^5.2e Hz \t'.64 and this is confirmed by the ratio 100 KHz ⁄ 155 KHz .. For convenience.. fprintf('BW1 = %5. n=2. MATLAB displays the following results: C = 2.Tuned Amplifiers Example 9.... Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . fprintf(' \n').. 9. C=25*10^(−12). the bandwidth reduction for synchronous tuning of two stages connected in cascade is about 0.. as expected. Determine the values of L and R and the half−power bandwidth for each stage so that the overall half−power bandwidth will be 100 KHz . fprintf('C = %5. BW1= BWn/sqrt(2^(1/n)−1). is larger than the overall half−power bandwidth of 100 KHz .2e rad/sec \t'.. Synchronous tuning for two stages connected in cascade does not provide the best approximation to the ideal bandpass. 9−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. L=1/((2*pi*25*10^6)^2*C).76e+005 rad/sec R = 4.C). As stated above. and the capacitors will have a value of C = 80 pF for each stage.L)..5 Two synchronously tuned stages connected in cascade are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f 0 = 25 MHz .. fprintf(' \n') Upon execution of this script.55e+005 Hz L = 1. R). BWf=BW1/(2*pi).. fprintf(' \n')..60)... fprintf('L = %5.2e Ohms \t'.50e-011 F BWf = 1. Figure 9.62e-006 H BW1 = 9.

The top flatness of the characteristic depends on the spacing between the poles in Figure 9. Consider. We observe that the passband of such stagger−tuned amplifier is wider and flatter than the passband of the synchronously tuned amplifier.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers (dB scale) Ac Single stage response Overall response for two synchronously tuned amplifiers ω0 ω (log scale) Figure 9. and poles s 3 and s 4 are the poles of the other stage. the amplitude characteristic of the stagger−tuned amplifier will be shown in Figure 9. Frequency responses for single stage and two synchronously tuned amplifiers. all four poles lie on a line parallel to the imaginary axis.10(a).20) and (9. 2 1 ω 0 = ------LC (9.62) 1 2 α = ------RC From relation (9. With this arrangement.12(b). and it is under the control of the designer. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−19 .11.62) we observe that if R and C remain constant.21) which are repeated below for convenience.61) (9. the spacing α from the imaginary axis remains constant also.61) we observe that a change in L will result in Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. for example the relations (9. and the pole−zero pattern of Figure 9.12(a).12(a) are the poles one of the stages. Pole−zero pattern and amplitude characteristic for two stagger−tuned amplifiers Poles s 1 and s 2 in Figure 9. From relation (9.12. Im s1 s3 (2) Re Ac (dB scale) Single stage responses s4 s2 ω0 (a) (b) Overall response for two stagger tuned amplifiers ω (log scale) Figure 9.

the poles must move on a path parallel to the imaginary axis. Im s1 2λ λ ρ1 φ s j ωc ρ3 2β s3 (a) α ωc (b) ω Figure 9. given by (9. Hence.64) reveal that the frequency characteristics of the amplifier in the passband are determined by the two poles s 1 and s 3 . can be expressed as 9−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.48).64). Figure 9. and the narrowband approximations have reduced a fourth−degree polynomial in the denominator to a second−degree polynomial. gm 1 . and the poles s 2 and s 4 together with the zeros at the origin contribute the constant 1 ⁄ 4 in the scale factor of that relation. corresponds to a point on the imaginary axis equidistant from s s 1 and s 3 . which is the center frequency of the passband.⋅ --------------A ( j ω ) = – -----2C j ω – s 1 (9.⋅ -----------------------------------------A ( j ω ) = --------------4C 1 C 2 ( j ω – s 1 ) ( j ω – s 3 ) 2 (9. is given by relation (9. The narrowband approximations and relation (9. the current gain of a two stagger−tuned amplifier is gm 1 . We found that the current gain of one stage under sinusoidal conditions and after the narrowband approximations have been applied.13(a) shows an enlarged view of the pole−zero pattern in the vicinity of the poles s 1 and s 3 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the staggering of the poles along the vertical line can be adjusted by adjusting the inductances in the two stages for slightly different values.13. that is. C 1 and C 2 are the capacitances of the first and second stages respectively. and the vectors ρ 1 and ρ 3 correspond to the linear factors j ω – s 1 and j ω – s 3 . s 3 = – α + j β 3 .10(a). β is as shown in Figure 9. Frequency characteristic for two stagger−tuned stages The frequency ω c .64) where s 1 = – α + j β 1 .Tuned Amplifiers a change in ω 0 but since α remains constant. The amplification.63) Therefore.

A = A p sin φ If α is greater than β .72) In general. a circle with center at the middle of the line joining poles s 1 and s 3 that is parallel to the imaginary axis and with radius β .65) As the variable s = j ω moves along the imaginary axis. the semicircle does not intersect the imaginary axis and the amplitude characteristic has only one peak. Therefore.68) and from (9. If α is less than β .65) yields gm sin φ .69) can be expressed as α 2 . The frequencies at which the double peaks occur are denoted as (9.67) sin φ 1 ---------. this circle will intersect the imaginary axis at two points.70).66) a = αβ The area can also be expressed in trigonometric form as 1 .73) ωp = ωc ± λ and since the radius of the semicircle is β . The amplification at the peaks occurs when sin φ = 1 and thus α 2 A p = g m R 1 R 2 ----2β (9.70) where g 2 m R 1 R 2 is the resonant amplification of two stages with synchronous tuning.13(a).71) (9.67) (9.68) into (9. the area of the triangle s 1 s s 3 remains constant and its value is (9. it is located at ω = ω c and it is less than A p . in relation (9. sin φ is the only factor that varies with changes in ω .66) and (9.69) The poles for the two stages have the same real parts.⋅ ---------A = --------------4C 1 C 2 2 αβ 2 (9. as shown by the dotted semicircle in Figure 9.ρ ρ sin φ a = -2 1 3 (9. α = 1 ⁄ 2R 1 C 1 = 1 ⁄ 2R 2 C 2 and thus relation (9.⋅ ---------A = --------------4C 1 C 2 ρ 1 ρ 3 2 (9. it follows that Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.sin φ A = g m R 1 R 2 ----2β (9.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers gm 1. and the amplitude characteristic has two peaks as shown in Figure 9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−21 .13(b).= ---------2 αβ ρ1 ρ3 Substitution of (9.

denoted as A c is A c = A p sin φ c (9.⎞ = 2 ⎛ -.Tuned Amplifiers λ = β –α 2 2 2 (9.79) W = 8λ = 8[β – α ] 2 2 2 (9.78) When the amplifier is adjusted so that α = β .81) * We reserve the notation BW for the 3 – dB bandwidth and we will use W for the triple−point bandwidth.= -. a simpler and in some respects more useful measure of the bandwidth is the so−called triple− point bandwidth shown by the dotted lines in Figure 9. Then. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .74) and (9.= -----------Ac sin φ c (9. the amplification at the center frequency. In this case. the half−power bandwidth has been related in a simple way to the circuit parameters. the semicircle is tangent to the imaginary axis.76) The peak−to−valley ratio for the double−peaked amplitude characteristic is Ap 1 -----. In the case of the overstaggered pair of tuned stages.77). however.80) we obtain 2 2 W β ⎛ -----.79) 2 From relations (9. It is defined as W = 2 2λ * (9.74) The triple−point frequencies ω t are the frequencies outside the double peaks at which the amplification has the same value as at the center frequency are obtained by ωt = ωc ± 2 λ (9. and the amplitude characteristic is maximally flat.80) in terms of the design parameter r = β ⁄ α which is related to the peak−to−valley ratio in relation (9.77) The angle φ c is related to the pole positions by φc β tan ---. Rearranging relation (9.13(b). 9−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and this condition marks the transition from the overstaggered (double peaks) to the understaggered adjustment.75) Let φ c be the value of the angle φ when ω = ω c .⎞ – 1 = 2 ( r2 – 1 ) ⎝ 2α ⎠ ⎝α⎠ (9.= r 2 α (9.80) It is convenient to express relation (9. We are mostly interested on the flat−staggered and the overstaggered cases. In all of the amplifiers studied up to this point. the amplifier is also said to be flat− staggered.

84).⎞ = r 2 + 2r – 1 ⎝ 2α ⎠ 2 (9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−23 . Also. and it follows from relation (9. The corresponding half−power bandwidth in terms of the design parameter r = β ⁄ α can be determined from the geometrical constructions in Figure 9.14.+ -----–1 ⎝ 2α ⎠ ⎝α ⎠ α Letting r = β ⁄ α .⎞ = ⎛ -. and the center of the circle lies a distance β – α to the right of the imaginary axis.14(a) the line segment joining the poles s 1 and s 3 subtends the angle 2 φ = 90 ° . In these cases the half−power frequencies can be taken as the frequencies at which A = A p ⁄ 2 . a comparison of (9.⎞ = 2 β2 – ( β – α )2 ⎝ 2 ⎠ 2 (9.84) Using relation (9.83) or 2 β ⎞2 2 β ⎛ BW --------. direct design procedure for overstaggered stages. Im s1 b Radius = 2β BW --------2 b BW 2β a o 2β s3 (a) a β–α (b) o Figure 9.82) (9.14.14(b) is an enlarged version of the small right triangle oab and by the Pythagorean theorem ⎛ BW --------. the radius of the circle is 2 β .84) with (9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. flat−staggered and overstaggered amplifiers can be designed for a specified half−power bandwidth. we can express (9. The relations derived above provide a simple. the peak amplification is A p .83) as BW ⎛ --------.76) that this condition occurs when φ = 45 ° .81) reveals that the half−power bandwidth and the triple−point bandwidth are nearly equal except for cases of very slight overstaggering. Determination of the half−power frequencies of flat−staggered and overstaggered amplifiers In Figure 9. Figure 9.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers When the amplifier is flat−staggered or overstaggered.

and the third can be chosen as desired to satisfy the other requirement as it was illustrated in the previous examples. and the peak−to−valley ratio A p ⁄ A p .5 5 tan ---. the half−power bandwidth BW .. Thus.77) and (9. The pertinent dimensions are ω p = 10 6 rad/s . α = 1500 rad/s .= r = -----.Tuned Amplifiers The design requirements specify the center frequency ω c .e. and β = 2500 rad/s . i. and the triple−point fre- quencies.5 2 . and the total shunt resistance in each stage is R 1 = R 2 = 0. i.6 A transistorized two−stage stagger−tuned amplifier has a pole−zero pattern like the one shown in Figure 9. the triple−point bandwidth W . Find the peak amplification A p . the triple−point bandwidth W .e. relation (9..13 1 . Then.74) 9−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. W = 2 2 λ where from relation (9.These specifications are sufficient to define the poles of the amplitude gain A .= -.81) gives the required value of α . and hence the circuit parameters. is given by relation (9.77) Ap 1 . and the required value of β is obtained from the relation β = α r . L . the amplifiers are overstaggered. 2 2 α 1. The triple−point bandwidth W . the ratio A p ⁄ A p defines r = β ⁄ α through relations (9. the two of the three parameters R .71).5 3 φ c ⁄ 2 = tan ( 5 ⁄ 3 ) = 59 ° φ c = 118 ° –1 The peak−to−valley ratio A p ⁄ A c is given by relation (9.78) φc β 2. the peak−to−valley ratio A p ⁄ A c . Specifically.78).75 K Ω .13.= ( 40 × 10 –3 ) × ( 0.= 270 A p = g m R 1 R 2 ----2β 5 From relation (9. Solution: The peak amplification A p is found from (9.75 × 10 3 ) × -----. Both transistors have a transconductance of g m = 40 m Ω –1 . and C are determined.= -----------Ac sin φ c sin 118 ° Therefore.= -2 α 1. Example 9.79).= 1.= ----------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

⎞ +2 .44 μ F 3 3 2 α R2 2α R1 3 × 10 × 0..5 × 10 ⎛ -----. Example 9.6. we find that 1 1 1 C 1 = C 2 = -----------.003 × 10 rad/s 6 6 3 ω t 2 = 0.– 1 = 6. except the values of L and C . α = 1500 rad/s and R 1 = R 2 = 0.⎞ = ⎛ ------–1 ⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 2α ⎠ α β ⎞2 2 β 2.5 ) × 10 = 4 × 10 (rad/s) λ = 2 × 10 rad/s W = 2 2 λ = 4 2 × 10 = 5.5 ⎠ α 1.= -----------. Solution: From relation (9. i.83). 2 2 β BW β ⎛ --------.66 × 10 rad/s 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 6 6 2 The half−power bandwidth BW is given by relation (9.+ -----BW = 2 α ⎛ -.– 1 = 2 × 1. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−25 .75 × 10 and Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 – 1.7 The pole locations for a two−stage stagger−tuned amplifier and the values of R 1 and R 2 are as given in Example 9. was well illustrated in Example 9.75 K Ω .e. The following example illustrates the procedure for finding of L and C to meet all design specifications.27) and thus 1 BW = 2 α = ------RC 1 1 2 α = ----------.78 × 10 rad/s ⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 1.= ----------------------------------------------= 0.5 The triple−point frequencies are given by relation (9. ω t = ω c ± 2 λ = 10 ± 2 × 2 × 10 ω t 1 = 1. Thus.Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers λ = β – α = ( 2.+ ----.5 ⎞ 2 5 3 3 .997 × 10 rad/s 6 The procedure for finding all pertinent data.6.75).= ----------R1 C1 R2 C2 With ω c = 10 6 rad/s . Determine the values of L and C required for each stage.

15 shows the normalized amplitude characteristics for two tuned stages under four different adjustments.= 2.Tuned Amplifiers 1 1 .1 . and sin φ c = 1 . For the flat−staggered case β = α .44 × 10 ωt 2 C2 Figure 9. from (9.15.997 × 10 × 0. Thus.85) Letting B fs denote the bandwidth of two stages with flat staggering and BW the 3 – dB bandwidth of one of the stages. from relations (9. Curve 1 is for synchronous tuning.84) we obtain B fs = 2 2BW (9. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .44 × 10 ωt 1 C1 1 1 L 2 = ------------.003 × 10 × 0. and Curve 4 is for overstaggering with A p ⁄ A c = 1.87) 9−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Curve 3 is for flat staggering. Curve 2 is for understaggering with φ c = 70 ° . r = 1 .28 μ H L 1 = ------------. Amplitude characteristics for two tuned stages with different degrees of staggering For the curves in Figure 9. The half−power bandwidths are indicated by the solid dots on these curves.72) we obtain 1 2 -g R R A c = A p = -2 m 1 2 (9.27 μ H 2 2 12 –6 1. α is held constant while β is increased in steps. A -----Ac 1 2 3 4 ωc ω Figure 9.71) and (9.= ---------------------------------------------------------------.= ---------------------------------------------------------------2 12 –6 2 0.15.86) The gain−bandwidth product for the flat−staggered amplifier is given by A c B fs = ( 1 ⁄ 2 ) ( g m R 1 R 2 ) BW 2 (9.= 2.

in accordance with the discussion in Section 9.88) The foregoing discussion of stagger−tuned amplifiers considers only the case in which the poles are staggered along a line parallel to the imaginary axis. the zeros at the origin and the poles in the lower half plane contribute only a constant to the gain in the narrow passband. and. 9.16. By a more extensive treatment* it can be shown that for a maximally flat amplitude characteristic. A 1 3 5 ωc ω Figure 9. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9.3. skewed frequency characteristics result. Thus. the flatter the amplitude characteristic in the passband and the steeper the characteristic at the edges of the band.16.3 Three or More Tuned Amplifiers Connected in Cascade When three or more tuned stages are to be connected in cascade. for narrowband amplifiers the frequency characteristics are determined entirely by the poles lying near the segment of the imaginary axis corresponding to the passband. If the poles do not lie on the same vertical line. the relations encountered are similar in many respects to those encountered in the two−stage case. and five stages are shown in Figure 9. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. * For a detailed discussion on this topic. Then.1. the poles of the signal gain must be uniformly spaced on a semicircle having its center on the imaginary axis. please refer to Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. The more stages cascaded in this way. In particular.64 ( g m R 1 R 2 ) ( BW ) 2 (9. three. for the gain−bandwidth product. The amplitude characteristics for one. and no matter how many stages are cascaded.16. The distribution of poles producing these characteristics is known as the Butterworth configuration. using relation (9. in the usual case. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−27 .Cascaded Tuned Amplifiers For two synchronously tuned stages we denote the bandwidth of two stages as B syn . Maximally flat multistage tuned amplifiers In Figure 9. The center frequency ω c of the passband corresponds to the center of the circle on which the poles lie.60) we obtain A c B syn = A 1 BW 1 2 2 1⁄2 – 1 = 0. the half−power frequencies are the frequencies at which the circle intersects the imaginary axis. this fact may cause distortion of the envelopes of AM signals.

Tuned Amplifiers 9. i. • For synchronously tuned amplifiers the bandwidth between the half−power points is given by BW n = 2 Δω = BW 1 2 1⁄n –1 • The passband of such stagger−tuned amplifier is wider and flatter than the passband of the synchronously tuned amplifier and thus provides a better approximation to the ideal bandpass. They are very useful in the analysis and design of practically all narrowband amplifiers and filters. and thus it provides no gain. inductors. Tuned amplifiers can also be designed with bipolar junction transistors and MOSFETs. A passive bandpass filter is constructed with passive devices. α2 sin φ A = g m R 1 R 2 ----2β • The amplification at resonance for a two stagger−tuned amplifier is given by where g 2 m R 1 R 2 is the resonant amplification of two stages with synchronous tuning. • The analysis and design of tuned amplifiers is greatly facilitated with the small signal models.. and capacitors. resistors. • A radio frequency choke (RFC) blocks radio frequencies but passes audio frequencies when both frequencies are applied to the same circuit. • In the study of tuned amplifiers. • The amplitude characteristic for two synchronously tuned amplifiers is the characteristic for one stage but with the amplification squared at each point. active filters with op amps are very popular.e. • Tuned amplifiers are connected in cascade to achieve higher selectivity. • When two identical stages are cascaded. • For a single stage tuned amplifier the current gain at the resonant frequency is given by Ac0 = I2 ⁄ I1 = gm R1 and the bandwidth BW between the two half−power frequencies is given by BW = 2 α = 1 ⁄ RC • In the design of tuned amplifiers. For small signals. two important relations are the narrowband approximations. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the two stages are said to be synchronously tuned. 9−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.4 Summary • A tuned amplifier is essentially a bandpass filter. we can transform values required by the specifications into practical values of the circuit parameters by the use of a transformer.

the amplifier is also said to be flat−stag- gered.Summary • For stagger−tuned amplifiers. • For an overstaggered pair of tuned stages the triple−point bandwidth is defined as W = 2 2λ and half−power bandwidth BW is given by 2 2 β BW β ⎛ --------. We are mostly interested on the flat−staggered and the overstaggered cases. the frequencies outside the double peaks at which the amplifica- tion has the same value as at the center frequency are obtained by ωt = ωc ± 2 λ • For stagger−tuned amplifiers adjusted so that α = β . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−29 . and this condition marks the transition from the overstaggered (double peaks) to the understaggered adjustment.⎞ +2 .⎞ = ⎛ ------–1 ⎝α ⎠ ⎝ 2α ⎠ α • For uniform amplification over a wide band of frequencies we can cascade 3 or more amplifiers where the distribution of poles produce characteristics is known as the Butterworth configuration. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the frequencies at which the double peaks occur given by ωp = ωc ± λ • For stagger−tuned amplifiers.

For the incremental model of a typical MOSFET tuned circuit below. Determine the values of L and C so that the amplifier will have a resonant frequency of 100 KHz and a half−power bandwidth of 5 KHz .5 K Ω are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f c = 25 MHz ..5 Exercises 1. c. we can show that the resonant frequency. The small−signal model for a single−tuned amplifier is shown below. Find suitable values for circuit parameters so that the half−power bandwidth will be the 10 KHz . the half−power frequency. 4.Tuned Amplifiers 9. 9−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Find the voltage amplification at resonance. i. 3.e.5 K Ω are to designed so that the resonant frequency will be f c = 25 MHz . b. Find the resonant amplification. I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 a. the current gain at the resonant frequency. and the voltage gain at resonance are given by the relations 2 1 ω 0 = ------LC 1 BW = 2 α = --------R1 C Av0 = gm R1 a. b. g m = 5 m Ω –1 V1 R 2 gm V1 R1 L C V2 By a procedure similar to that in Section 9. Determine the current gain A c 0 = I 2 ⁄ I 1 . 2. Two synchronously tuned stages are connected in cascade and the transconductance of both transistors used is g m = 40 m Ω –1 where R 1 = 1 K Ω and R 2 = 1.2. and for this model. Find the resonant amplification. and the passband will be centered at 1 MHz . it is known that g m = 40 m Ω –1 and R 1 = 1 K Ω . Find the quality factor at resonance. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A two−stage flat−staggered tuned amplifier is to designed with two transistors each with transconductance g m = 40 m Ω –1 where R 1 = 1 K Ω and R 2 = 1.

the bandwidth requirement yields Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Then. V1 R 2 gm V1 R1 L C V2 a. we can choose a large value for C to overcome the parasitic capacitances. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 9−31 . 1 1 = 31. The current gain at resonance is A c0 = g m R 1 = 40 m Ω × 1 K Ω = 40 –1 2. For the required bandwidth it is necessary that 1 .14 × 10 × 10 2 The value of L is found from ω 2 0 = 1 ⁄ LC . Thus.= 2 π × 10 4 BW = 2 α = --------R1 C and for the specified center frequency we must have ω 0 = 1 ⁄ LC = ( 2 π × 10 ) 2 6 2 For high gain we can choose a large value for R 1 . Or.6 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1. 1 L = -----------------------------------------------------------. I1 v R1 L C gm v R2 I2 a. or f 0 = 1 ⁄ 2 π LC .8 nF .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 9. Let us assume that the parasitic capacitances are of more concern to us and choose a 200 pF capacitor.14 × 10 BW = 2 α = ------RC and with R 1 = 1 K Ω .= -------------------------------------C = ------------------4 3 BW ⋅ R 1 3.= 80 μ H 5 2 –9 ( 2 π × 10 ) × 31.8 × 10 b.= 2 π × 5000 = 3. The bandwidth in radians per second is 4 1 .

By relation (9.Tuned Amplifiers 10 1 .125 mH 2 2 ω 0 C ( 2 π × 10 6 ) × 200 12 b.= 0.5 × 106 = 30 A c = A p = -2 2 As expected this gain is half of that of Exercise 3 where the circuit was designed with synchronously tuned stages. Therefore. 9−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 80 K Ω 4 BWC 2 π × 10 × 200 12 The value of L to meet the center−frequency requirement is 10 1 .26) the resonant amplification of the first stage is A 1 = g m R 1 . The quality factor at resonance is Q 0 = ω 0 CR 1 = 2 π × 10 × 200 × 10 6 – 12 × 80 × 10 = 100 3 3. The voltage gain at the center−frequency is A v 0 = g m R 1 = 5 × 10 × 80 × 10 = 400 –3 3 c.5 × 10 = 60 2 –3 2 6 4.= -----------------------------------------L = --------. By relation (9.85) 2 1 2 1 . and that of the second stage is A 2 = g m R 2 . the overall gain is A = g m R 1 R 2 = ( 40 × 10 ) × 1 × 1.g m R 1 R 2 = -. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .= ----------------------------------R 1 = ------------.( 40 × 10 –3 ) × 1 × 1.

An oscillator is essentially an amplifier circuit that provides its own input signal. Other types of employ inductors and capacitors for its frequency−determining network. the degree to which the ideal is approached depends on the class of amplifier operation. we will discuss the RC phase−shift and LC oscillator families. Henceforth. unless otherwise specified. Oscillators are classified in accordance with the waveshapes they produce and the circuitry required to produce the desired oscillations. Colpitts. and amplitude stability. and costly to manufacture. amplifier characteristics. triangular. and sawtooth waveforms. The crystal−controlled oscillator provides excellent frequency stability and is used from the middle of the audio range through the radio frequency range.1 Introduction to Oscillators An oscillator may be defined as a class of wave generators that produce sinusoidal. are commonly used for the higher radio frequencies. Sinusoidal oscillators generate signals ranging from low audio frequencies to ultrahigh radio and microwave frequencies. 10. But a practical oscillator cannot meet these criteria. and the crystal−controlled Pierce oscillators. Many low−frequency oscillators use resistors and capacitors to form their frequency−determining networks and are referred to as RC oscillators. a sinusoidal oscillator produces a sine−wave output signal. frequency stability. 10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−1 .2 Sinusoidal Oscillators As the name implies. and we will describe the Armstrong. In this chapter we will be concerned with oscillators that produce sinusoidal waveforms. Subsequently. and in Chapter 7 the family of multivibrators. crystal. These are known as the LC oscillators and use tank circuits*. the term oscillator will mean a sinusoidal oscillator. * The term tank circuit stems from the fact that a network consisting of inductors and capacitors store energy same way as liquids and gases are stored in tanks. In Chapter 5 we introduced the Wien bridge oscillator. An ideal oscillator should produce an output signal with constant amplitude with no variation in frequency.Chapter 10 Sinusoidal Oscillators T his chapter begins with an introduction to sinusoidal oscillators. square. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. in this chapter. Hartley. Non−sinusoidal oscillators are known as relaxation oscillators. These are used in the audio−frequency range. heavy. They are not suitable for use as extremely low−frequency oscillators because the inductors and capacitors would be large in size. A third type of sinusoidal oscillator is the crystal−controlled oscillator.

2).1). In a practical amplifier. and since this network can be constructed with accurate devices such as precision resistors and capacitors.1) where A denotes the open−loop gain of the amplifier.3) is expressed as v out A A f = --------. the open loop gain A is much greater than unity and thus the gain with feedback A f is for all practical purposes equal to ± 1 ⁄ β and this means that A f is effectively dependent on the feedback network.5) and with positive feedback as v out A A f = --------. the gain A f can be designed precisely. and the amplifier is provided with positive feedback From (10.1.1.1. Also. relation (10. v f = β v out (10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and v = v in – v f .4) (10. If v f subtracts from v in . We will briefly discuss positive and negative feedback with reference to the block diagram of a feedback amplifier shown in Figure 10. we obtain the general expression for a feedback loop as v out A . If v f is added to v in .= ---------------v in 1 + βA (10. and 1 ± β A is known as the amount of feedback. then v = v in – v f and the feedback is known as degenerative or negative.= -------------A f = --------1 ±β A v in (10. (10.3) where the quantity β A is known as the loop gain. v out = Av (10.2) where β is known as the feedback factor. Block diagram of a typical feedback amplifier Σ A v out From Figure 10. v in ± v = v ±v in f vf β Figure 10.Sinusoidal Oscillators An oscillator must provide amplification where the amplification of signal power occurs from the input to the output of the oscillator and a portion of the output is fed back to the input to sustain a constant input. then v = v in + v f and the feedback is known as regenerative or positive.= ------------1 –β A v in 10−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. With negative feedback. and the amplifier is provided with negative feedback.

1 . Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. sinusoidal oscillators use positive feedback.75 × 8 = 70 V Actual input voltage v to amplifier is v = v' in – β v' out = 8 – 0.75 .1 × 70 = 1 V and the reduction in gain expressed in dB is 70 A . the introduction of negative feedback has reduced the amplifier gain by 18 dB or we can say that 18 dB of feedback has been applied to the input of the amplifier.25% .10 0. distortion of 10% .0125 = 1.1 × 1 .Sinusoidal Oscillators Practically.= 18. and with feedback is 0.4) the gain with negative feedback is 70 A .75 Af Thus.= 20 log --------8.= ----------A f = ---------------1+7 1 + βA The amount of distortion D without feedback is 10% of the normal input voltage v in of 1 V .06 dB dB = 20 log ----.= ----------D f = ---------------1+7 1 + βA New input voltage v' in with feedback is v' in = v in ( 1 + β A ) = 1 × ( 1 + 7 ) = 8 V The output voltage v out without feedback is v out = Av in = 70 × 1 = 70 V and the output voltage v' out with feedback is v' out = A f v' in = 8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−3 . and normal input voltage of 1 V .1 A certain amplifier has an open−loop gain A of 70 at an angle of zero degrees. Example 10. all amplifiers employ negative feedback.= 8. but as we will see shortly. Solution: For negative feedback β A = 0.= 0.1 × 70 = 7 and in accordance with relation (10. Determine the effects of negative feedback if the feedback factor β is 0.

provides 180 ° phase shift and the three RC sections can be selected that each section will provide 60 ° shift. … 10.6) above is very close to unity and in this case the closed loop A f is very large. if A = 10 we can make β = 1 ⁄ 10 and the condition of relation (10. V out ( s ) A(s) = ---------------------------A f ( s ) = -----------------1 –β ( s ) A ( s ) V in ( s ) (10. 10−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the total phase shift in that oscillator will be 3 × 60 ° + 180 ° = 360 ° and the condition of relation (10.9) can also be satisfied by making the product β A equal to unity. that is.2 the transistor.8) must meet the Barkhausen criterion which states that to provide sinusoidal oscillations the magnitude and phase angle of the term β ( j ω ) A ( j ω ) must be such that β ( j ω0 ) A ( j ω0 ) ≥ 1 (10.10) ∠β ( j ω 0 ) + ∠A ( j ω 0 ) = 2 π n n = 1.6) in the s−domain. Therefore. In our subsequent discussion we will be concerned with regenerative (positive) feedback. 3. being in the common−emitter configuration.10) will be satisfied. Let us again consider relation (10.Sinusoidal Oscillators Example 10. a practical oscillator must oscillate at a predetermined frequency and thus the oscillator must include a frequency−determining device which essentially is a band−pass filter allowing only the desired frequency to pass. In the oscillator circuit of Figure 10. For instance.8) To sustain oscillations at ω = ω 0 the denominator of (10. This oscillator is also known as phase−shift oscillator.= -----------------------------------1 –β ( j ω ) A ( j ω ) V in ( j ω ) (10.7) and letting s = j ω we obtain V out ( j ω ) A(jω) A f ( j ω ) = --------------------.9) and (10. Moreover. it is possible to obtain a finite output with a very small input and this is the principle behind the operation of an oscillator. Let us now assume that at that predetermined frequency the loop gain β A in relation (10.2.= ------------1 –β A v in (10.3 RC Oscillator An amplifier and an RC network can form an oscillator as shown in Figure 10.9) will also be satisfied. 2. Accordingly.5) which is repeated below for convenience. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . we express relation (10. v out A A f = --------. To find the predetermined frequency ω 0 to produce sustained oscillations. The condition of relation (10.6) In an oscillator circuit the positive feedback must be large enough to compensate for circuit losses so that oscillations will be sustained.1 above and Exercise 1 at the end of this chapter illustrate the effects of degenerative (negative) feedback.

every circuit contains some resistance and this resistance causes reduction in the amplitude of the oscillations. Eventually. To sustain oscillations with constant amplitude it is necessary to use regenerative feedback. However.+ --------RL R (10. 10. the loop gain β A is greater than unity and the amplitude of the oscillations will increase.11) where G is the transistor power gain and the values of the resistors and the transistor gain β are such that the following relation is satisfied. Figure 10. For an RC phase−shift oscillator. When the oscillator is powered on.4 LC Oscillators The LC type of oscillators use resonant circuits. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−5 .2.13) where n is the number of RC sections. and the value of the loop gain decreases to unity and constant amplitude oscillations are sustained. for an RC phase−shift oscillator the frequency of oscillation (resonant frequency) can be approximated from the relation 1 ω 0 = --------------RC n (10. the frequency of oscillation is given by 1 ω 0 = --------------------------------------2 C 4RR L + GR (10. Simple form of an RC oscillator The output of the oscillator contains only a single sinusoidal frequency. Variable resistors and capacitors are usually employed to provide tuning in the feedback network for variations in phase shift. a level is reached where the gain of the amplifier decreases. The feedback signal is coupled from the LC tank of the oscillator circuit Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3 shows a block diagram of a typical LC oscillator. the amplifier is biased for Class A operation to minimize distortion of the signal. a resonant circuit stores energy alternately in the inductor and capacitor.LC Oscillators C R R C R C RL Figure 10.2. 29R 4R L β = 23 + --------. The frequency of oscillations is determined by the values of resistance and capacitance in the three sections.12) In general. In an LC oscillator the sinusoidal signal is generated by the action of an inductor and a capacitor. As we know. For the RC oscillator of Figure 10.

L Feedback Amplifier C v out Figure 10. Series and shunt fed Armstrong oscillators * A tickler coil is an inductor that is inductively coupled to the inductor of the LC tank circuit.Sinusoidal Oscillators by using a coil (tickler* or a coil pair) as shown in Figure 10.5 shows two circuits known as Armstrong oscillators.4(b) or by using a capacitor pair in the tank circuit and tap the feedback signal between them as shown in Figure 10.4(a) and 10. 10−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.4(c).5.5 The Armstrong Oscillator Figure 10.4. Feedback signal coupling for LC type oscillators 10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . V CC V CC Figure 10.3. Block diagram of a typical LC oscillator ( a ) Tickler coil ( b ) Coil pair ( c ) Capacitor pair Figure 10.

6 The Hartley Oscillator Figure 10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−7 . that is. In a Colpitts oscillator the feedback is provided through a capacitor pair as shown in Figure 10.The Hartley Oscillator In an Armstrong oscillator.5(b) is referred to as shunt fed tuned collector Armstrong oscillator and it is so−called because the power supply voltage V CC supplied to the transistor is through a path parallel to the tank circuit. The transistor is operating as Class C amplifier.6 shows a simplified version of the Hartley oscillator. For the oscillator circuit of Figure 10. as discussed in Chapter 3.5. the transistor conducts for a short period of time and returns sufficient energy to the tank circuit to ensure a constant amplitude output signal. the feedback is provided through a tickler coil as shown in Figure 10. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. * For a detailed discussion on mutual inductance.4(b).4(a).7 The Colpitts Oscillator Figure 10. 10.14) where M is the mutual inductance* and h ob and h ib are the h−parameters representing the output admittance with open−circuit input and input impedance with short circuit output respectively. L1 M L2 C V CC Figure 10. Figure 10. 10. Class C operation provides the highest efficiency among all amplifier operations. In either of the oscillator circuits of Figure 10.4(c). ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1.7 shows a simplified version of the Colpitts oscillator.6. Simplified circuit for the Hartley oscillator In a Hartley oscillator the feedback is provided through a coil pair as shown in Figure 10. power through V CC is supplied to the transistor and the tank circuit begins to oscillate. please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. As we’ve learned in Chapter 3. Figure 10.5(a) is known as series−fed tuned−collector Armstrong oscillator and it is so−called because the power supply voltage V CC supplied to the transistor is through the tank circuit.6 the frequency of oscillation is 1 ω 0 = ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------2 C ( L 1 + L 2 + 2M ) – ( L 1 L 2 – M ) ( h ob ⁄ h ib ) (10.

However. temperature compensation must be applied to crystal oscillators to improve thermal stability of the crystal oscillator. The frequency stability of crystal−controlled oscillators depends on the quality factor Q. other precision oscillators are constructed with cesium or rubidium. Accordingly.Sinusoidal Oscillators C1 L C2 V CC Figure 10.7 the frequency of oscillation is ω0 = C1 + C2 1 h ob . Besides the quartz crystal oscillators.000. the power obtainable is limited by the heat the crystal will withstand without fracturing. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability. Simplified circuit for the Colpitts oscillator The Colpitts oscillator provides better frequency stability than the Armstrong and Hartley oscillators. The amount of heating is dependent upon the amount of current that can safely pass through a crystal and this current may be in the order of 50 to 200 milliamperes. Moreover. Crystal oscillators are used in applications where frequency accuracy and stability ar of utmost importance such as broadcast transmitters and radar. as discussed in Chapter 3. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1.---------------------.+ ----------LC 1 C 2 C 1 C 2 h ib (10. 10−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. * The quality factor Q is a very important parameter in resonant circuits and it is discussed in detail in Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. the higher the frequency of oscillation. the Colpitts oscillator is easier to tune and thus can be used for a wide range of frequencies. The frequency depends almost entirely on the thickness where the thinner the thickness.000 to 100.8 Crystal Oscillators Crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency determining element is a quartz crystal. 10.* The Q of a crystal may vary from 10.7.15) where h ob and h ib are the h−parameters representing the output admittance with open−circuit input and input impedance with short circuit output respectively. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . For the oscillator circuit of Figure 10.

16) We now recall that in a series resonant circuit the quality factor Q at resonance is ω 0S L Q 0S = ----------R (10.8 in the s – domain is Z ( s ) = 1 ⁄ sC 1 || ( R + sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) (10. Symbol and equivalent circuit for a crystal The impedance of the equivalent circuit of Figure 10. the value of the resistance R in (10.8 where capacitor C 1 represents the electrostatic capacitance between the electrodes of the crystal and in general C1 » C2 . The resonance of the series branch occurs when the imaginary part of the impedance is equal to zero. Thus.16) which can now be expressed as ( sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) Z ( s ) = 1 ⁄ sC 1 || ( sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 ) = ( 1 ⁄ sC 1 ) ⋅ -------------------------------------------------1 ⁄ sC 1 + sL + 1 ⁄ sC 2 or s + 1 ⁄ LC 2 Z ( s ) = ( 1 ⁄ sC 1 ) ⋅ --------------------------------------------------------------2 s + [ ( C 1 + C 2 ) ⁄ ( LC 1 C 2 ) ] 2 (10. Electrode C2 Crystal Electrode C1 L R Figure 10. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.19) We also can prove* that the resonance of the parallel combination occurs when ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 (10.20) * The proof is left as an exercise for the reader at the end of this chapter.18) The denominator of (10.Crystal Oscillators The symbol and the equivalent circuit of a quartz crystal are shown in Figure 10.17) must be very low and thus it can be omitted in relation (10.17) and since the Q of a crystal oscillator is very high.18) is a quadratic and it implies the presence of two resonant frequencies which can be found by inspection of the equivalent circuit of Figure 10.8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−9 . letting s = j ω we obtain Z ( j ω ) = j ω L + 1 ⁄ j ω C 2 = 0 and denoting this frequency as ω 0S we obtain 1 ω 0S = -------------LC 2 (10.10.

02 × 10 –12 2 π LC 1 C 2 c.02 pF . From (10.= ----.9 The Pierce Oscillator The Pierce oscillator is a modified Colpitts oscillator that uses a crystal as a parallel−resonant circuit.033 MHz – 3 – 12 2 π LC 2 2 π 50 × 10 × 0. The parallel resonance ω 0P c. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .----------------f 0P = ----.2 A crystal oscillator has a nominal frequency of oscillation at 5 MHz with Q = 85. and for this reason is often referred to as crystal−controlled Pierce oscillator. From (10. 000 and with reference to the equivalent circuit of Figure 10.= 5. From (10.19) 1 1 --------------------= -------------------------------------------------------------------= 5.= ---------------------------------------3 Q 0S 85 × 10 10. The series resonance ω 0S b.033 × 10 = 372 Ω R = ---------------.02 × 10 b.02 × 10 . C 1 = 2 pF . Find: a.17) ω 0S L 2 π f 0S L . The value of the resistance R Solution: a. Figure 10. Example 10.= ---------------Q 0S = ----------R R or 6 2 π f 0S L 2 π × 5.20) reduces to that of relation (10.19).-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------.058 MHz 2 π 50 × 10 –3 × 2 × 10 –12 × 0. it is known that L = 50 mH . 10−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.20) – 12 1 1 C1 + C2 2.8. C 1 » C 2 and under this condition relation (10. and C 2 = 0.Sinusoidal Oscillators As stated above.9 shows a Pierce oscillator with a PNP transistor as an amplifier in the common−base configuration.

R B . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−11 . Besides the crystal. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.9.The Pierce Oscillator C1 RC CE RE R1 V CC RB CB C2 Output Figure 10. the frequency of oscillation is also determined by the settings of the variable capacitors C E and C B . and R C are used to establish the proper bias conditions. Pierce oscillator with PNP transistor in the common−base configuration In the oscillator circuit of Figure 10. feedback is provided from the collector to the emitter of the transistor through capacitor C 1 and resistors R 1 .9.

Other types of employ inductors and capacitors for its frequency−determining network. 10−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The feedback signal is coupled from the LC tank of the oscillator circuit by using a tickler coil or a coil pair. and sawtooth waveforms. • In an Armstrong oscillator. In this chapter we discussed sinusoidal oscillators. Non−sinusoidal oscillators are known as relaxation oscillators. • In an RC oscillator the frequency of oscillations is determined by the values of resistance and capacitance in the three sections. • An oscillator must provide amplification where the amplification of signal power occurs from the input to the output of the oscillator and a portion of the output is fed back to the input to sustain a constant input. approximated from the relation • In an RC phase−shift oscillator the frequency of oscillation (resonant frequency) can be 1 ω 0 = --------------RC n where n is the number of RC sections.Sinusoidal Oscillators 10. • A third type of sinusoidal oscillator is the crystal−controlled oscillator. These are used in the audio−frequency range. • In an LC oscillator the sinusoidal signal is generated by the action of an inductor and a capac- itor.10 Summary • An oscillator may be defined as a class of wave generators that produce sinusoidal. For an RC phase−shift oscillator. These are known as the LC oscillators and use tank circuits. An oscillator is essentially an amplifier circuit that provides its own input signal. square. are commonly used for the higher radio frequencies. the amplifier is biased for Class A operation to minimize distortion of the signal. Moreover. • Many low−frequency oscillators use resistors and capacitors to form their frequency−determining networks and are referred to as RC oscillators. • In a Hartley oscillator the feedback is provided through a coil pair. The crystal−controlled oscillator provides excellent frequency stability and is used from the middle of the audio range through the radio frequency range. • In an oscillator circuit the positive feedback must be large enough to compensate for circuit losses so that oscillations will be sustained. a practical oscillator must oscillate at a predetermined frequency and thus the oscillator must include a frequency −determining device which essentially is a band−pass filter allowing only the desired frequency to pass. Variable resistors and capacitors are usually employed to provide tuning in the feedback network for variations in phase shift. tri- angular. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . the feedback is provided through a tickler coil. • The output of the oscillator contains only a single sinusoidal frequency.

The frequency depends almost entirely on the thickness where the thinner the thickness. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−13 . The frequency stability of crystal−con- trolled oscillators depends on the quality factor Q. Moreover. However. other precision oscillators are constructed with cesium or rubidium. the power obtainable is limited by the heat the crystal will withstand without fracturing.Summary • In a Colpitts oscillator the feedback is provided through a capacitor pair. • The Colpitts oscillator provides better frequency stability than the Armstrong and Hartley oscillators. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Besides the quartz crystal oscillators. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability. the Colpitts oscillator is easier to tune and thus can be used for a wide range of frequencies. • In crystal oscillators the frequency determining element is a quartz crystal. and for this reason is often referred to as crystal−controlled Pierce oscillator. • Crystal oscillators are used in applications where frequency accuracy and stability ar of utmost importance such as broadcast transmitters and radar. the higher the frequency of oscillation. • The Pierce oscillator is a modified Colpitts oscillator that uses a crystal as a parallel−resonant circuit.

Find the feedback voltage v f f. and v S = 1 V . the open−loop gain is A = 10. 000 . Find an appropriate ratio of R f ⁄ R 1 so that the closed loop gain will be A f = 10 c. Electrode C2 Crystal Electrode C1 L R Prove that ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 10−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. R1 Rf v in vs R2 v out a. The figure below shows a crystal oscillator and its equivalent circuit. Express the amount of feedback in dB d. Find the output voltage v out e. A sinusoidal oscillator consists of an amplifier with gain A = 10 and a bandpass filter whose center frequency is f 0 = 20 KHz . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Derive an expression for the feedback factor β b. Determine the decrease in the closed−loop gain A f if the open−loop gain A decreases by 20% . Determine a. g. The gain of the filter at the frequency ω 0 3.11 Exercises 1. Find the input voltage v in at the non−inverting input.Sinusoidal Oscillators 10. The frequency ω 0 and the gain of the filter to produce sustained oscillations b. For the op amp circuit below. 2.

and by the voltage division expression R1 ⎞ .v v ( − ) = ⎛ ----------------⎝ R + R 1 ⎠ out f R1 β = ----------------Rf + R1 and thus (1) b.12 Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1.0999 × 10 ) = 60 dB 4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The amount of feedback is 1 + β A and in dB Feedback dB = 20 log ( 1 + β A ) = 20 log ( 1 + 0.= --------------R1 ⁄ R1 β 0.01 f ----= 9.= -. The feedback factor β is the portion of the output voltage v out which appears at the inverting input.= 10.01 R1 R c. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−15 .Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 10.0999 (2) β = ---------------4 10 3 With (1) and (2) above RF ⁄ R1 + R1 ⁄ R1 1 1 . R1 Rf v in vs R2 v out a. From relation (10.= 10 = -------------------4 1 + βA 1 + 10 β 4 from which 10 – 1 .0999 1 + R f ⁄ R 1 = 10.4) and with A = 10 4 and A f = 10 we find that A 10 A f = ---------------.01 -------------------------------------.= 0.

975 A' f = ----------------1 + β A' 1 + 0.= --------------------------------------------------------------0. The voltage at the non−inverting input is v in = v s – v f = 1.× 100 = – 0. 000 . A' .0999 × 10 = 0.000 – 0.999 = 0. Then.975 – 10 -----------------------. Gain ω = ω0 = 1 ⁄ 10 = 0. 2.Sinusoidal Oscillators d. v out = A f v s = 10 × 1 = 10 V e. Electrode C2 Crystal Electrode C1 L R This is a parallel circuit and thus the resonant frequency occurs when the imaginary part of the admittance Y is equal to zero.025% 9.26 × 10 r ⁄ s 3 5 b.999 V f. 10−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 3.8 × 10. a.0999 × 0. Therefore.975 where the minus (−) sign implies decrease is percentage. The frequency ω 0 at which sustained oscillations will be produced is the center frequency of the bandpass filter and thus ω 0 = 2 π f 0 = 2 π × 20 × 10 = 1.8 × 10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Let the reduced open loop gain be denoted as A' and the corresponding closed loop gain as A' f . 000 and the percent change is 9.= 9. To sustain constant amplitude oscillations we must have β ( j ω 0 ) A ( j ω 0 ) = 1 and with A = 10 . The feedback voltage v f is v f = β v out = 0.001 V g.

Solutions to End−of−Chapter Exercises 1 .= 0 2 – ω 0 LC 2 + 1 C2 j ω 0 ⎛ C 1 + ----------------------------⎞ = 0 2 ⎝ – ω LC + 1 ⎠ 0 2 C2 C 1 + ---------------------------. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications 10−17 .= 0 2 – ω 0 LC 2 + 1 C2 C 1 = -----------------------2 ω 0 LC 2 – 1 ω 0 LC 1 C 2 – C 1 = C 2 ω 0P = C1 + C2 ----------------LC 1 C 2 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.= 0 Y = j ω 0 C 1 + --------------------------------------j ω0 L + 1 ⁄ j ω0 C2 j ω0 C2 j ω 0 C 1 + ---------------------------.

Sinusoidal Oscillators NOTES: 10−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

and MATLAB functions. From the File menu on the toolbar. notes and file names When we first start MATLAB. To use the Editor/Debugger: 1. These are two outstanding software packages for scientific and engineering computations and are used in educational institutions and in industries including automotive. It is highly recommended that we use the Editor/Debugger to write our program. This takes us to the Editor Window where we can type our script (list of statements) for a new file. we see the prompt >> or EDU>>. comment lines. aerospace. we will use the following conventions: Click: Click the left button of the mouse Courier Font: Screen displays Helvetica Font: User inputs at MATLAB’s command window prompt >> or EDU>>* Helvetica Bold: MATLAB functions Times Bold Italic: Important terms and facts. access to MATLAB’s Editor / Debugger. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−1 . and making plots. we are interested in the command screen which can be selected from the Window drop menu. save it. or open a previously saved file. and return to the command screen to execute the program as explained below. we see various help topics and other information. A.2 Command Window To distinguish the screen displays from the user commands. Impor* EDU>> is the MATLAB prompt in the Student Version Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. When the command screen. MATLAB now waits for a new command from the user. electronics. This prompt is displayed also after execution of a command. finding the roots of a polynomial. Initially. telecommunications. A.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® T his appendix serves as an introduction to the basic MATLAB commands and functions.™ Inc. we choose New and click on M−File. procedures for naming and saving the user generated files. and environmental applications.1 MATLAB® and Simulink® MATLAB and Simulink are products of The MathWorks. Several examples are provided with detailed explanations. MATLAB enables us to solve many advanced numerical problems rapidly and efficiently. We must save our program with a file name which starts with a letter. important terms.

Thus. The command help matlab\iofun will display input/output information. we click on the Close button. All text after the % (percent) symbol is interpreted as a comment line by MATLAB. for example. The command clc clears the screen but MATLAB still remembers all values.q) % performs multiplication of polynomials p and q % The next statement performs partial fraction expansion of p(x) / q(x) are both correct. we must make sure that it is added it to the desired directory in MATLAB’s search path. We can do this periodically to become familiar with them. variables. we type demo and we see the MATLAB Demos menu. it distinguishes between upper− and lower−case letters. we should use the command clear.m. For instance. it is like exiting MATLAB and starting it again. then. we ought to name and save that file as matrices01. In other words. Once the script is written and saved as an m−file. leaving only the >> prompt on the upper left of the screen. t and T are two different letters in MATLAB language. The MATLAB User’s Guide contains numerous help topics. To get help with other MATLAB topics.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® tant! MATLAB is case sensitive. The files that we create are saved with the file name we use and the extension . If we have saved our file in drive a or any other drive. myfile01. we type help matlab\graphics. we may exit the Editor/Debugger window by clicking on Exit Editor/Debugger of the File menu. to get information on graphics. To appreciate MATLAB’s capabilities. 3. We should also use a floppy disk or an external drive to backup our files.m or any other similar name.m.m extension at the >> prompt. it will be understood that each input command is typed after the >> prompt and followed by the <enter> key. Whenever we want to return to the command window. we type quit or exit. When we are done and want to leave MATLAB. conv(p. if we want to clear all previously entered commands. For example. To execute a program. A comment can be typed on the same line as the function or command or as a separate line. that is. Henceforth. we press <enter> and observe the execution and the values obtained from it. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The MATLAB User’s Guide provides more information on this topic. MATLAB then returns to the command window. we use the clc command. variables and equations that we have already used. 2. and equations without exiting. and thus it is ignored during the execution of a program. we type the file name without the . This command erases everything. For instance. But if we want to clear all previous values. It is a good practice to save the script in a file name that is descriptive of our script content. we can type help followed by any topic from the displayed menu. if the script performs some matrix operations. A−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

if the imaginary part is a function. such as 3-4i or 3-4j. or j to denote the imaginary part of a complex number. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−3 .0000 1. For example. and the roots as roots_ p1. that is. p is a row vector containing the polynomial coefficients in descending order. we must use the multiplication sign. We can use either i .0000−4.0000i In the above example. we must type cos(x)*j or j*cos(x) for the imaginary part of the complex number. Example A.Roots of Polynomials One of the most powerful features of MATLAB is the ability to do computations involving complex numbers. the statement z=3−4j displays z = 3. These are the coefficients of the polynomial in descending order. We find the roots of any polynomial with the roots(p) function. a multiplication (*) sign between 4 and j was not necessary because the complex number consists of numerical constants. A.0000 2. However. p1=[1 −10 35 −50 24] % Specify and display the coefficients of p1(x) -50 p1 = 1 -10 35 24 roots_ p1=roots(p1) % Find the roots of p1(x) roots_p1 = 4. a polynomial is expressed as a row vector of the form [ a n a n – 1 … a 2 a 1 a0 ] . or variable such as cos ( x ) . We must include terms whose coefficients are zero.0000 3.1 Find the roots of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) = x – 10x + 35x – 50x + 24 4 3 2 Solution: The roots are found with the following two statements where we have denoted the polynomial as p1.3 Roots of Polynomials In MATLAB.0000 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

complex roots always occur in complex conjugate* pairs. * By definition.3 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are 1.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® We observe that MATLAB displays the polynomial coefficients as a row vector. with the poly(r) function where r is a row vector containing the roots. 2. the conjugate of a complex number A = a + jb is A∗ = a – jb A−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The roots are found with the statements below. The result indicates that this polynomial has three real roots. 3. Compute the coefficients of this polynomial. and two complex roots.5014 2. where we have defined the polynomial as p2.4 Polynomial Construction from Known Roots We can compute the coefficients of a polynomial.2 Find the roots of the polynomial p 2 ( x ) = x – 7x + 16x + 25x + 52 5 4 2 Solution: There is no cube term. Example A.3366 . we must enter zero as its coefficient. and the roots of this polynomial as roots_ p2. therefore. Of course.7428 -1. and the roots as a column vector. p2=[1 −7 0 16 25 52] p2 = 1 -7 0 16 25 52 roots_ p2=roots(p2) roots_p2 = 6.1.3202i A. and 4 .3366 + 1. Example A. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .3202i -0.5711 -0. from a given set of roots.

with the given roots. 4 + j5.0000 -2. – 2.0000+ 5.4 It is known that the roots of a polynomial are – 1. we find the coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. Example A. – 3. and we find the polynomial coefficients with the poly(r) function as shown below. say r3 . with the given roots as elements of this vector. Solution: We form a row vector.0000 Column 5 -4. say r4 . r4=[ −1 −2 −3 4+5j 4−5j ] r4 = Columns 1 through 4 -1.1. then.Polynomial Construction from Known Roots Solution: We first define a row vector. r3=[1 2 3 4] % Specify the roots of the polynomial r3 = 1 2 3 4 poly_r3=poly(r3) % Find the polynomial coefficients poly_r3 = 1 -10 35 -50 24 We observe that these are the coefficients of the polynomial p 1 ( x ) of Example A. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−5 .5.0000. and 4 – j5 .0000 -3.0000i poly_r4 = 1 14 100 340 499 246 Therefore. the polynomial is p 4 ( x ) = x + 14x + 100x + 340x + 499x + 246 5 4 3 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Find the coefficients of this polynomial.0000i poly_r4=poly(r4) -4.

5 Evaluate the polynomial p 5 ( x ) = x – 3x + 5x – 4x + 3x + 2 6 5 3 2 (A. polyder(p) − produces the coefficients of the derivative of a polynomial p. Example A. % These are the coefficients of the given polynomial % The semicolon (. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .x) function evaluates a polynomial p ( x ) at some specified value of the independent variable x .b) function.1) at x = – 3 .b) − multiplies two polynomials a and b [q. −3) % Evaluate p5 at x=−3. no semicolon is used here % because we want the answer to be displayed val_minus3 = 1280 Other MATLAB functions used with polynomials are the following: conv(a.6 Let p 1 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 5 4 2 and p 2 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 4 2 Compute the product p 1 ⋅ p 2 using the conv(a. Example A. % val_minus3=polyval(p5. A−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.) after the right bracket suppresses the % display of the row vector that contains the coefficients of p5.5 Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values The polyval(p.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® A.d) − divides polynomial c by polynomial d and displays the quotient q and remainder r.r]=deconv(c. Solution: p5=[1 −3 0 5 −4 3 2].

q = 0. [q. p2=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12].p2) % The coefficients of p1 % The coefficients of p2 % Multiply p1 by p2 to compute coefficients of the product p1p2 p1p2 = 2 -6 Therefore. -8 34 18 -24 11 -74 – 6x 5 10 -88 9 78 8 166 7 174 6 108 p 1 ⋅ p 2 = 2x – 8x + 34x + 18x – 24x 4 3 2 – 74x – 88x + 78x + 166x + 174x + 108 Example A.d) function. Solution: % It is permissible to write two or more statements in one line separated by semicolons p3=[1 0 −3 0 5 7 9].7 Let p 3 = x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 7 5 3 and p 4 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 6 5 2 Compute the quotient p 3 ⁄ p 4 using the [q.r]=deconv(c.p4) q = 0.r]=deconv(p3. Compute the derivative ----d dx 6 4 2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.p 5 using the polyder(p) function.5 r = 4x – 3x + 3x + 2x + 3 5 4 2 4 -3 0 3 2 3 Example A.8 Let p 5 = 2x – 8x + 4x + 10x + 12 . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−7 .5000 r = 0 Therefore.Evaluation of a Polynomial at Specified Values Solution: p1=[1 −3 0 5 7 9]. p4=[2 −8 0 0 4 10 12]. p1p2=conv(p1.

Commas will display the results whereas semicolons will suppress the display. using the roots(p) function.1.p 5 = 12x 5 – 32x 3 + 4x 2 + 8x + 10 dx A.9961i -1. We can find the roots of the numerator and denominator with the roots(p) function as before.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Solution: p5=[2 0 −8 0 4 10 12]. 0 -32 0 8 10 d ----.0712i -0. roots_num=roots(num).0.4186 . as bn x + bn – 1 x + bn – 2 x + … + b1 x + b0 Num ( x ) = ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------R ( x ) = -------------------m m–1 m–2 Den ( x ) + am – 2 x + … + a1 x + a0 am x + am – 1 x n n–1 n–2 (A. Example A.4186 + 1.3370 . we can write MATLAB statements in one line.1633 A−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. if we separate them by commas or semicolons. roots_den=roots(den) % Do not display num and den coefficients % Display num and den roots roots_num = 2. Solution: num=[1 −3 0 5 7 9].9 Let 5 4 2 p num x – 3x + 5x + 7x + 9 R ( x ) = ----------. den=[1 0 −4 0 2 5 6]. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . that is. As noted in the comment line of Example A.6 Rational Polynomials Rational Polynomials are those which can be expressed in ratio form.0712i -0.7. der_p5=polyder(p5) % The coefficients of p5 % Compute the coefficients of the derivative of p5 der_p5 = 12 Therefore.2) where some of the terms in the numerator and/or denominator may be zero.= -------------------------------------------------------6 4 2 p den x – 4x + 2x + 5x + 6 Express the numerator and denominator in factored form.9961i 2.3370 + 0.

0512 (−0.8372x + 6.0. the negative sum of the roots is equal to the coefficient b of the x term.1633 ) ( x + 0.4922i -0.1633 ) .4186 + j1.6760 – j0.4186 −1.6760+ 0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−9 . 2 2 p num ( x – 4.Rational Polynomials roots_den = 1.9870 ) ( x + 0.3370 – j0.= ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------R ( x ) = ----------2 2 p den ( x – 3.4186 – j1.9961i) ans = 1.9304 -1. the complex roots occur in complex conjugate pairs.0712 ) ( x – 2.9971 (−0. in a quadratic equation of the form x 2 + bx + c = 0 whose roots are x 1 and x 2 .9870i) ans = 1.4922i) ans = 3.0000 As expected.1058 ) ( x + 1.4186 + 1.9870 ) ( x + 1.0.2108−0. we have the factored form p num = ( x – 2.9961 ) ( x + 0. we form the coefficient b by addition of the complex conjugate roots and this is done by inspection.9961 ) and for the denominator.4922 ) ( x – 1. Accordingly.9971 ) ( x + 0. We recall that.2108 .4922 ) ( x + 1.0186 Thus.3370 + j0. that is. then we multiply the complex conjugate roots to obtain the constant term c using MATLAB as follows: (2.2108 – j 0.4922i)*(1.6760 + j0.9870i)*(−0. while the product of the roots is equal to the constant term c .6760−0.9870i 1.0712i) ans = 6.9961i)*(−0.2108 + j0.3370−0.6740x + 1. – ( x 1 + x 2 ) = b .0712 ) ( x + 1. For the numerator.0000 ) We can also express the numerator and denominator of this rational function as a combination of linear and quadratic factors. that is. we have p den = ( x – 1.6760 . x 1 ⋅ x 2 = c .0186 ) ( x + 1.0000 ) ( x + 1.6760 + 0.0712i)*(2.4922i -0.1058 (1.0512 ) ( x + 0.4216x + 1.9870i -1.2108 + 0.3520x + 3.9304 ) ( x + 0.9304 ) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.3370+ 0.2108+ 0.

A R1 R2 C V L Figure A. They are discussed in detail in MATLAB’s Users Manual.7 Using MATLAB to Make Plots Quite often. Example A.q) function is used with numeric expressions only. where x is the horizontal axis (abscissa) and y is the vertical axis (ordinate).8372*x+6. while the amplitude was held constant.1058)*(x+1. and so on.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® We can check this result of Example A.1. our interest is in using the collect(s) function that is used to multiply two or more symbolic expressions to obtain the result in polynomial form. Electric circuit for Example A. Before using a symbolic expression. we find that is the same as the numerator of the given rational expression in polynomial form. that is.9 above with MATLAB’s Symbolic Math Toolbox which is a collection of tools (functions) used in solving symbolic expressions. For the present. We must remember that the conv(p.1633)) ans = x^5-29999/10000*x^4-1323/3125000*x^3+7813277909/ 1562500000*x^2+1750276323053/250000000000*x+4500454743147/ 500000000000 and if we simplify this.10 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. we want to plot a set of ordered pairs.9971)*(x^2+0. we must create one or more symbolic variables such as x.y) command that plots y versus x. We can use the same procedure to verify the denominator. polynomial coefficients. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . This is a very easy task with the MATLAB plot(x. where the radian frequency ω (radians/second) of the applied voltage was varied from 300 to 3000 in steps of 100 radians/second. t.1. For our example. A.10 A−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we use the following script: syms x % Define a symbolic variable and use collect(s) to express numerator in polynomial form collect((x^2−4.6740*x+1. y.

588 67.111 ω (rads/s) 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000 |Z| Ohms 90.938 469. 90.751 120.10 ω (rads/s) 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 |Z| Ohms 39.717 46. as mentioned before..104 97.Using MATLAB to Make Plots The ammeter readings were then recorded for each frequency.088 73.. Also. we simply type w or z. then pressing <enter> to start a new line. or a row vector is too long to fit in one line. The magnitude of the impedance |Z| was computed as Z = V ⁄ A and the data were tabulated on Table A.513 62.481 58.286 44.437 222.603 81.286 44. and continue to enter data.665 140. If a statement. so we will use the English letter w instead.938 469.468.056 1014..240 54.088 73.611 51.182 40. TABLE A.353 103....111..789 71.428 48. that is.122 42. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−11 . and we press Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.603 81. 48.481 58.353 103.339 52.845 Plot the magnitude of the impedance.052 145.432 38. 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 2500 2600 2700 2800 2900 3000].182 436. it can be continued to the next line by typing three or more periods.83 266. The data are entered as follows: w=[300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900.240 54..665 140.717 46..184 97.751 120. if we want to see the values of w or z or both.056.) to suppress the display of numbers that we do not care to see on the screen.122 42. This is illustrated below for the data of w and z. % z=[39. Solution: We cannot type ω (omega) in the MATLAB Command prompt.1 Table for Example A. |Z| versus radian frequency ω .830 266.1.588 67.182 436.589 71.513 62.182 40. Of course.432 38. 1014.845].. we use the semicolon (.611 51.052 145..032 187.032 187..437 222.339 52.

or from the Window pull−down menu. box off: This command removes the box (the solid lines which enclose the plot). that is.y) command. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The command box toggles them.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® <enter>. When this command is executed. MATLAB displays the plot on MATLAB’s graph screen and MATLAB denotes this plot as Figure 1. This plot is shown in Figure A. we select MATLAB Command Window. The default* is off.y) command. We can make the above. For this example. and box on restores the box. A−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we press any key.z).2. The default is on.10 This plot is referred to as the magnitude frequency response of the circuit. To see the graph again. To return to the command window. or any plot. and the y−axis as a linear scale. more presentable with the following commands: grid on: This command adds grid lines to the plot.y) command which is similar to the plot(x. except that the x−axis is represented as a log scale. 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Figure A. Likewise. we use plot(w. The grid off command removes the grid. We can use the semilogx(x. we click on the Window pull−down menu.y) command. we use the plot(x. To plot z (y−axis) versus w (x−axis). except that the y−axis is represented as a * A default is a particular value for a variable that is assigned automatically by an operating system and remains in effect unless canceled or overridden by the operator. The magnitude frequency response is usually represented with the x−axis in a logarithmic scale.y) command is similar to the plot(x.2. changes from off to on or vice versa. and we choose Figure 1. Plot of impedance z versus frequency ω for Example A. The command grid toggles them. title(‘string’): This command adds a line of the text string (label) at the top of the plot. xlabel(‘string’) and ylabel(‘string’) are used to label the x− and y−axis respectively. the semilogy(x.

Throughout this text it will be understood that log is the common (base 10) logarithm. We must remember. please refer to The MathWorks Using MATLAB Graphics documentation. To display the voltage v in a dB scale on the y−axis. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−13 . xlabel('w in rads/sec').z) command title('Magnitude of Impedance vs. however. the function log(x) in MATLAB is the natural logarithm. and the x−axis as a linear scale. If the y−axis represents power. grid. the plot is as shown in Figure A.y) command uses logarithmic scales for both axes. we can add text. ylabel('|Z| in Ohms') After execution of these commands. we add the relation dB=20*log10(v). whereas the common logarithm is expressed as log10(x). For instance. Magnitude of Impedance vs. lines and arrows directly into the graph using the tools provided on the Figure Window. For advanced MATLAB graphics. Then. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Let us now redraw the plot with the above options by adding the following statements: semilogx(w. Modified frequency response plot of Figure A. using * With the latest MATLAB Versions 6 and 7 (Student Editions 13 and 14). Radian Frequency').z). The loglog(x. and the y−axis in dB (decibels).2. and displays a cross−hair that can be moved around with the mouse. the x−axis of the frequency response is more often shown in a logarithmic scale. we can use the command gtext(‘Impedance |Z| versus Frequency’). The command gtext(‘string’)* switches to the current Figure Window.Using MATLAB to Make Plots log scale.z) command with semilogx(w.3. and the logarithm to the base 2 as log2(x). Radian Frequency 1200 1000 800 |Z| in Ohms 600 400 200 0 2 10 10 w in rads/sec 3 10 4 Figure A. and this will place a cross−hair in the Figure window. % Replaces the plot(w. and ln is the natural (base e) logarithm.3.dB). and we replace the semilogx(w. voltage or current.

v=sin(x+4*pi/3).5 sin(x+2*pi/3) sin(x+4*pi/3) 0 -0. number_of_values) This function specifies the number of data points but not the increments between data points. The first line of the script below has the form linspace(first_value. and we press <enter>. and string is the label which we want to place at that location. % turn grid and axes box on text(0.y. 'sin(x+4*pi/3)') These three waveforms are shown on the same plot of Figure A.65.4.02*pi:2*pi or x = (0: 0.65. plot(x. 'sin(x+2*pi/3)'). y=sin(x). 0. % we could have used x=0:0.’string’) is similar to gtext(‘string’).95. The command text(x.x. text(4.u.85.x. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® the mouse. u=sin(x+2*pi/3). It places a label on a plot in some specific location specified by x and y. last_value. 2*pi.5 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Figure A. 60). We will illustrate its use with the following example which plots a 3−phase sinusoidal waveform. 1 sin(x) 0.4. text(2.v). box on.75. Three−phase waveforms A−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we can move the cross−hair to the position where we want our label to begin. 'sin(x)'). 0.y. % The x−axis must be specified for each function grid on. % pi is a built−in function in MATLAB. An alternate function is x=first: increment: last and this specifies the increments between points but not the number of data points.02: 2)*pi instead.65. 0. The script for the 3−phase plot is as follows: x=linspace(0.

. but does not draw any line because no line was selected. they are drawn on two axes. and other options directly from the Figure Window. that is. o x + * s d − : −. we must type plot(x. But with the latest MATLAB versions. y and z. can be added with the plot(x. colors. MATLAB allows us to specify various line types.y. The default line is the solid line. The general format is plot3(x1. The plots we have discussed thus far are two−dimensional. MATLAB has no default color. or line style. TABLE A. we did not specify line styles.y3.y..s1.s) command. there is no default marker. or a combination of these. For additional information we can type help plot in MATLAB’s command screen. and sn are strings specifying color. These. where x.'rs') plots a red square at each data point. However.2 for each additional line in the plot.'m*:') plots a magenta dotted line with a star at each data point.y. and colors for our plots. marker symbol.x3.) where xn.s2.z3. where s is a character string containing one or more characters shown on the three columns of Table A. we can select the line color. plot symbols. yn and zn are vectors or matrices.s3. Also.z2.z) command plots a line in 3−space through the points whose coordinates are the elements of x.. and plot(x.y. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−15 .z1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. y and z are three vectors of the same length.2. and markets used in MATLAB Symbol b g r c m y k w Color blue green red cyan magenta yellow black white Symbol Marker point circle x−mark plus star square diamond triangle down triangle up triangle left triangle right pentagram hexagram Symbol Line Style solid line dotted line dash−dot line dashed line .'rs−').2 Styles. markers.x2. line width. −− ∨ ∧ < > p h For example.y2. and colors.y1. it starts with blue and cycles through the first seven colors listed in Table A. plot(x.y. no markers are drawn unless they are selected.Using MATLAB to Make Plots In our previous examples. MATLAB has also a three−dimensional (three−axes) capability and this is discussed next. These strings are the same as those of the two−dimensional plots. If we want to connect the data points with a solid line. The plot3(x.

y= x. This must be done for each plot. A−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.y. division.y) or plot3(x. These important operations will be explained in Section A.y.11 In a two−dimensional plot. For three−dimensional plots. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 10 5 0 -5 -10 -10 -5 5 0 10 Figure A. grid on and box off are the default states.y.^2−1.5. and dot exponentiation where the multiplication.3) We arbitrarily choose the interval (length) shown on the script below. we can set the limits of the x− and y−axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.’string’) command will place string beginning at the co−ordinate (x.z) on the plot. Three dimensional plot for Example A. It must be placed after the plot(x. in a three−dimensional plot we can set the limits of all three axes with the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax zmin zmax]) command.9. or on the same line without first executing the plot command.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Example A.11 Plot the function Solution: x= −10: 0.*x. % Length of vector x % Length of vector y must be same as x % Vector z is function of both x and y* The three−dimensional plot is shown in Figure A.z. grid z = – 2x + x + 3y – 1 3 2 (A. Likewise. dot division.*y. * This statement uses the so called dot multiplication. plot3(x.y.^3+x+3.z). z= −2. and exponential operators are preceded by a dot. The three−dimensional text(x.5: 10.5.z) commands.

volume (cubic meters)').4) Plot the volume of the cone as r and h vary on the intervals 0 ≤ r ≤ 4 and 0 ≤ h ≤ 6 meters. n ] = size ( Z ) . H.^ 2 . Solution: The volume of the cone is a function of both the radius r and the height h.. h ) The three−dimensional plot is created with the following MATLAB script where. in the second line we have used the dot multiplication. To produce a mesh plot of a function of two variables... The plots of Figure A. 0: 6). We observe that x corresponds to the columns of Z. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−17 . that is. MATLAB can generate very sophisticated three−dimensional plots. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. V = f ( r. xlabel('x−axis..5 and A. Z ( i.* R .y) function that creates the matrix X whose rows are copies of the vector x. % Creates R and H matrices from vectors r and h. V).. radius r (meters)'). zlabel('z−axis. and dot exponentiation. and the matrix Y whose columns are copies of the vector y. In this case.9. as in the previous example.6 are rudimentary./ 3. ylabel('y−axis. V=(pi . altitude h (meters)'). title('Volume of Right Circular Cone').Y]=meshgrid(x. Example A. box on The three−dimensional plot of Figure A.12 The volume V of a right circular cone of radius r and height h is given by 1 2 -πr h V = -3 (A. [R. mesh(R.* H) . say z = f ( x. The MATLAB User’s Manual and the Using MATLAB Graphics Manual contain numerous examples.z) command with two vector arguments..6 shows how the volume of the cone increases as the radius and height are increased. This will be explained in Section A.. dot division. These must be defined as length ( x ) = n and length ( y ) = m where [ m. j ) } . We can generate the matrices X and Y with the [X. y ) .Using MATLAB to Make Plots We can also use the mesh(x. and y corresponds to the rows. y ( i ).H]=meshgrid(0: 4. we must first generate the X and Y matrices that consist of repeated rows and columns over the range of the variables x and y..y.. the vertices of the mesh lines are the triples { x ( j ).

n. This command divides the window into an m × n matrix of plotting areas and chooses the pth area to be active. A−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.p) command following the discussion on multiplication. and exponentiation.p). and exponentiation. These are the matrix multiplication. altitude h (meters) Figure A. division and exponentiation that follows. No spaces or commas are required between the three integers m. division. division.7.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Volume of Right Circular Cone z-axis. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . A. 111 Full Screen 211 212 221 222 212 221 223 211 223 224 222 224 221 223 122 Default 121 122 222 224 121 Figure A. Division.n. The possible combinations are shown in Figure A.7. Volume of a right circular cone. Possible subplot arrangements in MATLAB A.8 Subplots MATLAB can display up to four windows of different plots on the Figure window using the command subplot(m.9 Multiplication. and exponentiation. division. and Exponentiation MATLAB recognizes two types of multiplication. volume (cubic meters) 150 100 50 0 6 4 2 2 0 1 0 x-axis. and the element−by−element multiplication. n and p. They are explained in the following paragraphs. radius r (meters) 4 3 y-axis. We will illustrate the use of the subplot(m.6.

and then transpose it into a column vector. To distinguish between row and column vectors. Thus. consisted of one row and multiple columns. as indicated by the transpose operator (′). We recall that the elements of a row vector are separated by spaces. 3. Here. 3. 6. 1. 6. 11] or as b=[−1 3 6 11]' As shown below. Then.2. the elements of a column vector must be separated by semicolons. Matrix Multiplication (multiplication of row by column vectors) Let A = [ a1 a2 a3 … an ] % Observe the single quotation character (‘) and B = [ b 1 b 2 b 3 … b n ]' be two vectors.5) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and Exponentiation In Section A. b=[−1. MATLAB uses the single quotation character (′) to transpose a vector. is to write it first as a row vector. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−19 . is performed with the matrix multiplication operator (*). the arrays [ a b c … ] . and thus are called row vectors. it is called a column vector.Multiplication. Division. A*B = [ a 1 b 1 + a 2 b 2 + a 3 b 3 + … + a n b n ] = sin gle value (A. 11] b = -1 3 6 11 b=[−1 3 6 11]' b = -1 3 6 11 We will now define Matrix Multiplication and Element−by−Element multiplication. multiplication of the row vector A by the column vector B . MATLAB produces the same display with either format. a column vector can be written either as b=[−1. such a those that contained the coefficients of polynomials. If an array has one column and multiple rows. We observe that A is defined as a row vector whereas B is defined as a column vector. An easier way to construct a column vector.

Here. This operator is defined below. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . Here.*).∗ D = [ c 1 d 1 c2 d2 c3 d3 … cn dn ] (A. Element−by−Element Multiplication (multiplication of a row vector by another row vector) Let C = [ c1 c2 c3 … cn ] and D = [ d1 d2 d3 … dn ] be two row vectors. 2. and warns us that we cannot perform this multiplication using the matrix multiplication operator (*).Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® For example. B=[ −2 6 −3 8 7]'. not a row vector. because we have used the matrix multiplication operator (*) in A*B. MATLAB expects vector B to be a column vector. C. MATLAB displays the following message: ??? Error using ==> * Inner matrix dimensions must agree.6) A−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. multiplication of the row vector C by the row vector D is performed with the dot multiplication operator (. A*B % Observe transpose operator (‘) in B ans = 68 Now. let us suppose that both A and B are row vectors. B=[−2 6 −3 8 7]. A=[1 2 3 4 5]. It recognizes that B is a row vector. we must perform this type of multiplication with a different operator. Thus. Accordingly. A*B % No transpose operator (‘) here When these statements are executed. and we attempt to perform a row−by− row multiplication with the following MATLAB statements. There is no space between the dot and the multiplication symbol. that is. if A = [1 2 3 4 5] and B = [ – 2 6 – 3 8 7 ]' the matrix multiplication A*B produces the single value 68. A∗ B = 1 × ( – 2 ) + 2 × 6 + 3 × ( – 3 ) + 4 × 8 + 5 × 7 = 68 and this is verified with the MATLAB script A=[1 2 3 4 5].

^) are used for element− by−element division and exponentiation.* t) + t .* exp(−4 .01: 5.* sin(2 .) is never required with the plus (+) and minus (−) operators. title('Plot for Example A. plot(t. Note: A dot (. C. as illustrated in Examples A. and Exponentiation This product is another row vector with the same number of elements. are used for matrix division and exponentiation.*D % Vectors C and D must have % same number of elements % We observe that this is a dot multiplication ans = -2 12 -9 32 35 Similarly. let C = [1 2 3 4 5] and D = [ –2 6 –3 8 7 ] Dot multiplication of these two row vectors produce the following result.y). Division. We must remember that no space is allowed between the dot (. As an example.* t) ./ (t+1).* t)−2 . grid. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13') The plot for this example is shown in Figure A.11 and A.∗ D = 1 × ( – 2 ) 2 × 6 3 × ( – 3 ) 4 × 8 5 × 7 = – 2 12 – 9 32 35 Check with MATLAB: C=[1 2 3 4 5]. and exponentiation operators. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−21 .* t) ./) and dot exponentiation (.) and the multiplication.12 above. the division (/) and exponentiation (^) operators. ylabel('y=f(t)').* exp(−3 . C. Example A.8.13 Write the MATLAB script that produces a simple plot for the waveform defined as y = f ( t ) = 3e –4 t 2 cos 5t – 2e –3 t t sin 2t + ---------t+1 (A. xlabel('t').^2 .01 increments y=3 . % Define t−axis in 0. Solution: The MATLAB script for this example is as follows: t=0: 0.7) in the 0 ≤ t ≤ 5 seconds interval.* cos(5 . whereas dot division (.Multiplication. as the elements of C and D . division. D=[−2 6 −3 8 7].

5 t 3 3. Plot for Example A. The following example illustrates the use of the dot multiplication. ymin and ymax. This command must be placed after the plot command and must be repeated for each plot.5 4 4. z = cos 2x. the eps number. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5 5 Figure A. w = sin 2x ⋅ cos 2x. we use the special MATLAB function eps.5 2 2. The command axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) scales the current plot to the values specified by the arguments xmin. A−22 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5 1 1. which is a number approximately equal to 2.2 × 10 – 16 . say as – 3 ≤ t ≤ 3 . There are no commas between these four arguments. division. It will be used with the next example. xmax.13 5 4 3 y=f(t) 2 1 0 -1 0 0.8. MATLAB would have displayed the following message: Warning: Divide by zero. and exponentiation. in this example. defined the time interval starting with a negative value equal to or less than – 1 .13 Had we. and also MATLAB’s capability of displaying up to four windows of different plots. is divided by zero when t = – 1 .14 Plot the functions y = sin 2x. To avoid division by zero. v = sin 2x ⁄ cos 2x in the interval 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 π using 100 data points. This is because the last term (the rational fraction) of the given expression. Use the subplot command to display these functions on four windows on the same graph. Example A.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® Plot for Example A. the axis([xmin xmax ymin ymax]) command.

r) function that produces a plot in polar coordinates. Subplots for the functions of Example A.5 0 0 2 2 4 2 6 0 0 2 2 4 2 6 w=(sinx) *(cosx) v=(sinx) /(cosx) 400 0. where r is the magnitude. axis([0 2*pi 0 0. axis([0 2*pi 0 400]). and Exponentiation Solution: The MATLAB script to produce the four subplots is as follows: x=linspace(0. z=(cos(x). We will introduce the real(z) and imag(z) functions that display the real and imaginary parts of the complex quantity z = x + iy.2*pi. v=y. These subplots are shown in Figure A.^ 2). plot(x. plot(x.3]).^ 2). y=(sinx)2 1 1 z=(cosx)2 0.y). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−23 . subplot(224).1 0 0 0 2 4 6 0 2 4 6 Figure A. % lower right of four subplots title('v=(sinx)^2/(cosx)^2').v). plot(x.% upper left of four subplots plot(x. Division.100). the abs(z).2 200 0.% add eps to avoid division by zero subplot(221). subplot(222). We will also use the polar(theta.* z. % lower left of four subplots title('w=(sinx)^2*(cosx)^2').z). y=(sin(x).9.5 0.w)./ (z+eps).14 The next example illustrates MATLAB’s capabilities with imaginary numbers. % upper right of four subplots title('z=(cosx)^2'). theta Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Multiplication. subplot(223). title('y=(sinx)^2'). axis([0 2*pi 0 1]).9. % Interval with 100 data points w=y. axis([0 2*pi 0 1]). and the angle(z) functions that compute the absolute value (magnitude) and phase angle of the complex quantity z = x + iy = r ∠θ.

. xlabel('radian frequency w').real_part)... b. ylabel('Real part of Z'). Plot the impedance Z versus frequency ω in polar coordinates.1 .10. are denoted as z .. % % The first five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Re{z} real_part=real(z). % Define interval with one radian interval.^ 6 ..15 Consider the electric circuit of Figure A. It also produces a polar plot (part c). plot(w.15 With the given values of resistance.. Electric circuit for Example A.* (0. z=(10+(10 .^ 4 −j . grid A−24 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. the impedance Z ab as a function of the radian frequency ω can be computed from the following expression: 10 – j ( 10 ⁄ ω ) Z ab = Z = 10 + ------------------------------------------------------5 10 + j ( 0.1 H Z ab b Figure A..8) a. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and capacitance.. w=0: 1: 2000.^5. Plot Re { Z } (the real part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® is the angle in radians../ (10 + j . and plots these as two separate graphs (parts a & b)./ (w+eps)) .1 ω – 10 ⁄ ω ) 4 6 (A. a 10 Ω 10 Ω 10 μF 0.10. for simplicity.* 10 ./ (w+eps)))). Example A. and the round(n) function that rounds a number to its nearest integer. c.* w −10. Plot Im { Z } (the imaginary part of the impedance Z) versus frequency ω. inductance. Solution: The MATLAB script below computes the real and imaginary parts of Z ab which.

.11. rndz=round(abs(z)).15 % The next five statements (next two lines) compute and plot Im{z} imag_part=imag(z). and Exponentiation 1200 1000 800 Real part of Z 600 400 200 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. Plot for the imaginary part of the impedance in Example A..Multiplication. polar(theta. theta=angle(z).. grid 600 400 Imaginary part of Z 200 0 -200 -400 -600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 radian frequency w 1400 1600 1800 2000 Figure A. ylabel('Imaginary part of Z')... xlabel('radian frequency w')..12. % Computes the phase angle of impedance Z. grid Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. % Rounds |Z| to read polar plot easier.. Division..imag_part). Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−25 .rndz). plot(w.... Plot for the real part of the impedance in Example A.. % Angle is the first argument ylabel('Polar Plot of Z'). % Computes |Z|.15 % The last six statements (next five lines) below produce the polar plot of z mag=abs(z).

the function file consisting of the two lines below function y = myfunction(x) y=x. and returns that value. the equal sign ( = ).10 Script and Function Files MATLAB recognizes two types of files: script files and function files. and flexible MATLAB is.m. or returns NaN if the search fails.15 Example A. The function name and file name must be the same.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 90 120 1500 60 1000 150 Polar Plot of Z 500 30 180 0 210 330 240 270 300 Figure A.m extension. accurate. fast. make up a script file. We use function files for repetitive tasks. we will use the following MATLAB functions: fzero(f.13. A−26 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.x) − attempts to find a zero of a function of one variable. but the file name must have the extension . where f is a string containing the name of a real−valued function of a single real variable.* x) is a function file and must be saved as myfunction. A function file is a user−defined function using MATLAB. a script file is one which was generated and saved as an m−file with an editor such as the MATLAB’s Editor/Debugger. Polar plot of the impedance in Example A. and the input argument enclosed in parentheses. the script for each of the examples we discussed earlier. Both types are referred to as m−files since both require the .^ 3 + cos(3.15 clearly illustrates how powerful. Generally. Thus. A script file consists of two or more built−in functions such as those we have discussed thus far. followed by the output argument. MATLAB searches for a value near a point where the function f changes sign.m For the next example. A. For example. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The first line of a function file must contain the word function.

such as those in Examples A.5.5 0 0. y=1.5 1 1. 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1. it is MATLAB’s response to an undefined expression such as 0 ⁄ 0 . NaN (Not−a−Number) is not a function. plot(x. Using lims = [xmin xmax ymin ymax] also controls the y−axis limits.2).^ 2 + 0.5 Figure A. We can avoid division by zero using the eps number.01 ( x – 1.5 Solution: We first plot this function to observe the approximate zeros. maxima. and the maximum values of the function 1 1 f ( x ) = --------------------------------------. and minima using the following script.01: 1.^ 2 + 0.9) in the interval – 1.– --------------------------------------.01) −1./ ((x−0.14.5 -1 -0. ∞ ⁄ ∞ .1).04 (A. the minimum.1 and A.16 using the plot command Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−27 .– 10 2 2 ( x – 0.Script and Function Files Important: We must remember that we use roots(p) to find the roots of polynomials only. Example A. which we mentioned earlier./ ((x−1.14.04) −10.1 ) + 0. grid The plot is shown in Figure A. fplot(fcn. Plot for Example A.5: 0.2 ) + 0.lims) − plots the function specified by the string fcn between the x−axis limits specified by lims = [xmin xmax]. The string fcn must be the name of an m−file function or a string with variable x . or inability to produce a result as described on the next paragraph. x=−1.16 Find the zeros.5 ≤ x ≤ 1.y).2.

fprintf('The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= %3.2 and x = 0. approximately.16 using the fplot command We will use the fzero(f.01)−1/((x−1. Plot for Example A.4f'. MATLAB appends the extension . −0. fprintf(' and r2= %3.x) function to compute the roots of f ( x ) in Equation (A. x1). As expected. and the minimum occurs at approximately x = 1. we can use the fplot(fcn. this plot is identical to the plot of Figure A.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® The roots (zeros) of this function appear to be in the neighborhood of x = – 0.14. we choose New. y min = – 34 . Next.3 . we type the script above and we save it as funczero01.3).m function m−file with the following script: function y=funczero01(x) % Finding the zeros of the function shown below y=1/((x−0. [−1.1)^2+0.lims) command to plot f ( x ) as follows: fplot('funczero01'. y max = 90 .5 1 1.y) command as shown in Figure A. approximately.15. 0. x2) A−28 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. x1= fzero('funczero01'.5 0 0.5 1.4f \n'. Now.2 where. from the File drop menu on the Command Window. 100 80 60 40 20 0 -20 -40 -1.m to it.14 which was obtained with the plot(x.04)−10. To save this file.2).15. The maximum occurs at approximately x = 0.5]).5 Figure A.2)^2+0. we define and save f(x) as the funczero01. x2= fzero('funczero01'.5 -1 -0.1 where. The MATLAB script below will accomplish this. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . and when the Editor Window appears. grid This plot is shown in Figure A.9) more precisely.

2)^2+0.6585 + 0. we use the following MATLAB script: syms x ymin zmin.01:1. ymin=1/((x−0.x2) and with this function we could compute both a minimum of some function f ( x ) or a maximum of f ( x ) since a maximum of f ( x ) is equal to a minimum of – f ( x ) . that is.3437i ans = 0.16.01)−1/((x−1.^2+0.01) −1 / ((x−1. For this example we use the diff(x) function which produces the approximate derivative of a function.2012 above is the value of x at which the function y has its minimum value as we observe also in the plot of Figure A.6585 ..04)−10.1919 and r2= 0.15. grid and the plot is shown in Figure A. x=1.1)^2+0. This function is no longer used in MATLAB and thus we will compute the maxima and minima from the derivative of the given function. plot(x. zmin=diff(ymin) zmin = -1/((x-1/10)^2+1/100)^2*(2*x-1/5)+1/((x-6/5)^2+1/25)^2*(2*x-12/5) When the command solve(zmin) is executed. MATLAB displays a very long expression which when copied at the command prompt and executed. This can be visualized by flipping the plot of a function f ( x ) upside−down.ymax). To find the value of y corresponding to this value of x.2) ^ 2 + 0. we substitute it into f ( x ) ./((x−0.x1.04)+10.2012 The real value 1./((x−1. Thus.1) ^ 2 + 0.0. ymin=1 / ((x−0.3788 The earlier MATLAB versions included the function fmin(f.1812 We can find the maximum value from – f ( x ) whose plot is produced with the script x=−1. ymax=−1..^2+0..2).5:0.04) −10 ymin = -34.5.3437i ans = 1. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2012.01)+1. From elementary calculus.Script and Function Files MATLAB displays the following: The roots (zeros) of this function are r1= -0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−29 . produces the following: ans = 0. we recall that the maxima or minima of a function y = f ( x ) can be found by setting the first derivative of a function equal to zero and solving for the independent variable x .1).

3437i ans = 0.16.04)−10).16 Next we compute the first derivative of – f ( x ) and we solve for x to find the value where the maximum of ymax occurs.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® 40 20 0 -20 -40 -60 -80 -100 -1. we execute the following script to obtain the value of ymin .1)^2+0. zmax=diff(ymax) zmax = 1/((x-1/10)^2+1/100)^2*(2*x-1/5)-1/((x-6/5)^2+1/25)^2*(2*x-12/5) solve(zmax) When the command solve(zmax) is executed. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5 0 0.3437i ans = 1.01)−1/((x−1.0. Plot of – f ( x ) for Example A.15 and A. This is accomplished with the MATLAB script below.0999 From the values above we choose x = 0. MATLAB displays a very long expression which when copied at the command prompt and executed.5 -1 -0.6585 .16.5 1 1.2)^2+0. ymax=−(1/((x−0. syms x ymax zmax.5 Figure A.2012 ans = 0.0999 which is consistent with the plots of Figures A.6585 + 0. Accordingly. A−30 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. produces the following: ans = 0.

Same as SHORT. FORMAT RAT Approximation by ratio of small integers. LONG G Best of fixed or floating point format with 15 digits.2000 A. FORMAT BANK Fixed format for dollars and cents.04) −10 ymax = 89. HEX Hexadecimal format.Imaginary parts are ignored. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications A−31 . MATLAB performs all computations with accuracy up to 16 decimal places.Display Formats x=0.0999.3333e+01 Four decimal digits plus exponent short g 33.and blank are printed for positive.333 Better of format short or format short e bank 33. Some examples with different format displays age given below.11 Display Formats MATLAB displays the results on the screen in integer format without decimals if the result is an integer number.33 two decimal digits + only + or .2) ^ 2 + 0.3335 Four decimal digits (default) long 33. The output format can changed with the format command. SHORT E Floating point format with 5 digits. % Using this value find the corresponding value of ymax ymax=1 / ((x−0.1) ^ 2 + 0. The available MATLAB formats can be displayed with the help format command as follows: help format FORMAT Set output format.01) −1 / ((x−1. . The format displayed has nothing to do with the accuracy in the computations.33333333333334 16 digits short e 3. SHORT G Best of fixed or floating point format with 5 digits. FORMAT LOOSE Puts the extra line-feeds back in.or zero are printed Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. or in short floating point format with four decimals if it a fractional number. negative. LONG Scaled fixed point format with 15 digits. FORMAT may be used to switch between different output display formats as follows: FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT FORMAT Default. All computations in MATLAB are done in double precision. + The symbols +. LONG E Floating point format with 15 digits. SHORT Scaled fixed point format with 5 digits. format format format format format format short 33. Spacing: FORMAT COMPACT Suppress extra line-feeds. and zero elements.

as add−ons. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .™ Inc. please refer to Numerical Analysis Using MATLAB and Spreadsheets. the values will be displayed and printed in fixed decimal format. the values will be displayed and printed in scientific notation format.* This outstanding software package consists of many applications known as Toolboxes.Appendix A Introduction to MATLAB® format rat 100/3 rational approximation The disp(X) command displays the array X without printing the array name. If X is a string. the text is displayed. * For more MATLAB applications.. This appendix is just an introduction to MATLAB. and if %e is used. The MATLAB Student Version contains just a few of these Toolboxes. Thus. ISBN 0−9709511−1−6. With this command only the real part of each parameter is processed. if %f is used. Others can be bought directly from The MathWorks. It uses specifiers to indicate where and in which format the values would be displayed and printed.array) command displays and prints both text and arrays. A−32 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The fprintf(format.

Example B.1.2) Substitution of (B. R 1Ω L 1⁄4 H C + vC ( t ) − + − i(t) vs ( t ) = u0 ( t ) 4⁄3 F Figure B. We will introduce Simulink with a few illustrated examples.1.+ vC = u0 ( t ) Ri L + L -----dt (B. and v c ( 0 − ) = 0. We will compute v c ( t ) . dv C i = i L = i C = C -------dt (B.1 For this example. and for this purpose. This author feels that we can best introduce Simulink with a few examples.1) into (B. the initial conditions are i L ( 0 − ) = 0 . and revise our models in either environment at any point.1 Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB The MATLAB® and Simulink® environments are integrated into one entity. Appendix A is included as an introduction to MATLAB.1) and by Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL). B.2) yields Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and thus we can analyze.Appendix B Introduction to Simulink® T his appendix is a brief introduction to Simulink. simulate. Some familiarity with MATLAB is essential in understanding Simulink. Circuit for Example B. di L . Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−1 .1 For the circuit of Figure B. We invoke Simulink from within MATLAB.5 V .

+ vC = u0 ( t ) . Also. for comparison. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . B−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.-------.+ 4 -------2 dt dt 2 dv C d vC . the total solution will –s1 t –s2 t v c ( t ) = natural response + forced response = v cn ( t ) + v cf ( t ) = k 1 e + k2 e + v cf ( t ) (B. the natural response is the sum of the terms k 1 e be –s1 t –s t –s t – at and k 2 e –s2 t .---------.5) is a second−order. are possible candidates since their derivatives have the same form but alternate in sign.Introduction to Simulink® d vC dv C .4) t>0 (B. Therefore. and the solution using Simulink follows. non−homogeneous differential equation with constant coefficients. However.+ LC ---------.+ -3 dt 2 3 dt 2 dv C d vC .5) To appreciate Simulink’s capabilities.+ vC = u0 ( t ) RC -------2 dt dt 2 (B. It can be shown* that if k 1 e 1 and k 2 e 2 where k 1 and k 2 are constants and s 1 and s 2 are the roots of the characteristic equation of the homogeneous part of the given differential equation. decaying exponentials of the form ke where k and a are constants.+ 3v C = 3u 0 ( t ) ---------. Appendix B for a thorough discussion. the solution cannot contain sinusoidal functions (sine and cosine) since the derivatives of these are also sinusoids.+ 3v C = 3 ---------. three different methods of obtaining the solution are presented.3) Substituting the values of the circuit constants and rearranging we obtain: 1 d v C 4 dv C -. and thus the complete solution will consist of the sum of the forced response and the natural response. It is obvious that the solution of this equation cannot be a constant since the derivatives of a constant are zero and thus the equation is not satisfied.+ 4 -------2 dt dt 2 (B.6) The values of s 1 and s 2 are the roots of the characteristic equation * Please refer to Circuit Analysis II with MATLAB Applications. First Method − Assumed Solution Equation (B. ISBN 978−0−9709511−5−1.

9) Since the right side of (B.12) Also. Thus.= ---=0 C C (B.11) The constants k 1 and k 2 will be evaluated from the initial conditions.6) is written as vc ( t ) = k1 e + k2 e –t –3 t + v cf ( t ) (B.7) Solution of (B. First.= --i L = i C = C -------dt dt C dv C -------dt iL ( 0 ) 0 = ----------.9) we obtain 0 + 0 + 3k 3 = 3 or v Cf = k 3 = 1 (B.5 0 0 (B. i. we evaluate it at t = 0 .9) is a constant. we obtain v C ( 0 ) = k 1 e + k 2 e + 1 = 0.+ 3v C = 3 ---------. and dv C dv C i L -. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−3 .e.8).13) and (B.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB s + 4s + 3 = 0 2 (B. and equate it with (B.7) yields of s 1 = – 1 and s 2 = – 3 and with these values (B. dv C -------dt = – k 1 – 3k 2 t=0 (B. the forced response will also be a constant and we denote it as v Cf = k 3 .11). 2 dv C d vC .5 k 1 + k 2 = – 0.8) The forced component v cf ( t ) is found from (B.14) By equating the right sides of (B.14) we obtain Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.+ 4 -------2 dt dt t>0 (B.13).5 V and evaluating (B. -------.10) Substitution of this value into (B. using v C ( 0 ) = 0.5).13) t=0 Next.11) at t = 0 . we differentiate (B. By substitution into (B.. yields the total solution as v C ( t ) = v Cn ( t ) + v Cf = k 1 e + k 2 e –t –3 t +1 (B.

25s C 3 ⁄ 4s + Vs ( s ) = 1 ⁄ s + − VC ( s ) I(s) 0. we find the expression for the current as dv C 4 ⎛ 3 –t 3 –3t ⎞ – t – 3t .15).16) Check with MATLAB: syms t y0=−0.75*exp(−t)+0. y1=diff(y0) % Define symbolic variable t % The total solution y(t).5 ⁄ s + V (0) C − − Figure B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2.= -.e – -i = i L = i C = C --------= e –e A -e ⎠ dt 3⎝ 4 4 (B. gives k 1 = – 0.25*exp(−3*t)+1.17) Second Method − Using the Laplace Transformation The transformed circuit is shown in Figure B.75 e + 0. Transformed Circuit for Example B. By substitution into (B.12) and (B. we obtain the total solution as v C ( t ) = ( – 0.Introduction to Simulink® – k 1 – 3k 2 = 0 (B. R 1 L 0.1 B−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.-.2) % The second derivative of y(t) y2 = -3/4*exp(-t)+9/4*exp(-3*t) y=y2+4*y1+3*y0 % Summation of y and its derivatives y = 3 Thus.75 and k 2 = 0. the solution has been verified by MATLAB.8).25e –t –3 t + 1 ) u0 ( t ) (B. for our example. Using the expression for v C ( t ) in (B.2. vc(t) % The first derivative of y(t) y1 = 3/4*exp(-t)-3/4*exp(-3*t) y2=diff(y0.25 .16).15) Simultaneous solution of (B.

For distinction. in State−Space and State Variables Analysis.25e –t – 3t Third Method − Using State Variables di L . ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9 ‡ For an introduction to Laplace Transform and Inverse Laplace Transform.5 -----.5s + 2s + 3.= -------------------------------.5 ------⎞ + 0. please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications.5 0.25s + 3 ⁄ 4s ) ⎝ s s(s + 1)(s + 3) s ⎠ s s s ( s + 4s + 3 ) Using partial fraction expansion.+ --------------s( s + 1 )( s + 3) s (s + 1) (s + 3) (B.+ v C = u 0 ( t ) ** Ri L + L -----dt * For derivation of the voltage division and current division expressions.5s + 2s + 3 r 2 = --------------------------------s(s + 3) 0.75 + ---------------.5 -----.75e + 0.= ----------------------------------2 ( 1 + 0. Please refer to Chapter 5. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB By the voltage division* expression. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−5 . we will denote the Unit Step Function as u 0 ( t ) .--------------V C ( s ) = ----------------------------------s (s + 1) (s + 3) s(s + 1)(s + 3) 2 Taking the Inverse Laplace transform‡ we find that v C ( t ) = 1 – 0. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.5s + 2s + 3 r 1 = --------------------------------(s + 1)(s + 3) 0. please refer Chapters 2 and 3.– 0.† we let 2 r2 r3 0.18) 0.= r 1 ------------------------------------. 2 3 ⁄ 4s 1.25 s = –3 and by substitution into (B.5s + 2s + 3.+ 0.75 s = –1 = 0.18) 0.25 0. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling.5s + 2s + 3 r 3 = --------------------------------s(s + 1) 2 2 2 = 1 s=0 = – 0. ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9 ** Usually. † Partial fraction expansion is discussed in Chapter 3.5s + 2s + 3 = 1 + – 0.+ --------------.⋅ ⎛1 V C ( s ) = ---------------------------------------------. u ( t ) denotes any input. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0.

x · = dx ⁄ dt .= Cx x 1 = i L = C -------3 2 dt ·2 = 3 --x x 4 1 (B.21) Also.23) yields · (x dot) is often used to denote the first derivative of the function x .22) Therefore. and (B.23) Solution† of (B. ·1 x x = –4 –4 1 + 4 u0 ( t ) · 3 ⁄ 4 0 x2 0 x2 (B.19).Introduction to Simulink® By substitution of given values and rearranging. we obtain di L 1 -.20). Page 5−23. Example 5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .23) is given in Chapter 5. and thus. we obtain the state equations · = – 4x – 4x + 4 x 1 1 2 · = 3 --x x 2 4 1 and in matrix form. that is.19) Next. or dv C i L = C -------dt dv C · ·2 = 4 --x . from (B. Signals and Systems with MATLAB Computing and Simulink Modeling. we define the state variables x 1 = i L and x 2 = v C .= ( –1 ) iL – vC + 1 4 dt or di L -----.-----. (B. L* · 1 = di -----x dt (B.22). ISBN 978−1−934404−11−9 B−6 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.10.= – 4i L – 4v C + 4 dt (B. * The notation x † The detailed solution of (B.20) and dv C · 2 = -------x dt (B. Then.

Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB x1 x2 = e –e –t –t – 3t – 3t 1 – 0.5.= – 4 -------2 dt dt (B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−7 .75e + 0. the Commonly Used Blocks appear as shown in Figure B.3.24) – 3t and x 2 = v C = 1 – 0.* * Henceforth. we can click on the Simulink icon shown in Figure B. We will use Simulink to draw a similar block diagram.25e –t (B. all Simulink block diagrams will be referred to as models.1 as 2 dv C d vC . It appears on the top bar on MATLAB’s Command prompt. In Figure B.25e –t – 3t Then.3. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we type: simulink Alternately.4. x1 = iL = e –e (B.1 with Simulink To run Simulink. Make sure that Simulink is installed in your system.75 e + 0.26) A block diagram representing relation (B. The Simulink icon Upon execution of the Simulink command. the left side is referred to as the Tree Pane and displays all Simulink libraries installed. In the MATLAB Command prompt.– 3v C + 3u 0 ( t ) ---------. Let us express the differential equation of Example B.25) Modeling the Differential Equation of Example B.4. Figure B.26) above is shown in Figure B. The right side is referred to as the Contents Pane and displays the blocks that reside in the library currently selected in the Tree Pane. we must first invoke MATLAB.

Introduction to Simulink® Figure B. On the Simulink Library Browser. A new model window named untitled will appear as shown in Figure B. we perform the following steps: 1. Block diagram for equation (B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .5.26) using Simulink.4. B−8 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. The Simulink Library Browser d vC ---------2 dt 2 u0 ( t ) 3 Σ ∫ dt −4 dv C -------dt ∫ dt vC −3 Figure B.6.26) To model the differential equation (B. we click on the leftmost icon shown as a blank page on the top title bar.

and on the right side we scroll down until we see the unit step function shown as Step.6. If the Equation_1_26 model window is no longer visible. See Figure B. The triangle on the right side of the unit step function block and the > symbols on the left and right sides of the gain block are connection points.5. The gain block in Simulink is under Commonly Used Blocks (first item under Simulink on the Simulink Library Browser).8). The window of Figure B. it can be recalled by clicking on the white page icon on the top bar of the Simulink Library Browser.8. and draw a straight line to connect the two Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. We point the mouse close to the connection point of the unit step function until is shows as a cross hair. This is done from the File drop menu of Figure B. The Untitled model window in Simulink. we click on the Sources appearing on the left side list. and all saved files will have this appearance. 4.mdl file 2. We select it.7. See Figure B.7. With reference to block diagram of Figure B.8. we observe that we need to connect an amplifier with Gain 3 to the unit step function block. Simulink will add the extension . The new model window will now be shown as Equation_1_26.6 where we choose Save as and name the file as Equation_1_26. and we drag it into the Equation_1_26 model window which now appears as shown in Figure B.8. Model window for Equation_1_26. We save this as model file name Equation_1_26. With the Equation_1_26 model window and the Simulink Library Browser both visible.mdl. See Figure B. We save file Equation_1_26 using the File drop menu on the Equation_1_26 model window (right side of Figure B.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB Figure B.6 is the model window where we enter our blocks to form a block diagram. Figure B. We choose the gain block and we drag it to the right of the unit step function. 3. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−9 .

we change the gain from 1 to 3. Dragging the unit step function into File Equation_1_26 Figure B. B−10 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. File Equation_1_26 with added Step and Gain blocks * An easy method to interconnect two Simulink blocks by clicking on the source block to select it.Introduction to Simulink® blocks. See Figure B.9.* We double−click on the gain block and on the Function Block Parameters.9. Figure B.8. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . then hold down the Ctrl key and left−click on the destination block.

we need to add a thee−input adder. we specify 3 inputs. We repeat this step and to add a second Integrator block. Finally.11. File Equation_1_26 with the addition of two integrators 7.10. To complete the block diagram. we drag it into the Equation_1_26 model window. and on the Function Block Parameters window which appears. We click on the text “Integrator” under the first integrator block. and we connect it to the output of the Add block. we click on the Gain block. The adder block appears on the right side of the Simulink Library Browser under Math Operations. we choose the Integrator block. File Equation_1_26 complete block diagram Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. we double−click on these gain blocks and on the Function Block Parameters window. Figure B. we add the Scope block which is found in the Commonly Used Blocks on the Simulink Library Browser. We then connect the output of the of the gain block to the first input of the adder block as shown in Figure B.12. and we change it to Integrator 1. and we drag it into the Equation_1_26 model window. and we copy and paste it twice. We flip the pasted Gain blocks by using the Flip Block command from the Format drop menu.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB 5. We select it. Figure B. we change the gains from to −4 and −3 as shown in Figure B. Figure B. Next. we change the text “Integrator 1” under the second Integrator to “Integrator 2” as shown in Figure B. We double click it.11. From the Commonly Used Blocks of the Simulink Library Browser. File Equation_1_26 with added gain block 6. Then. and we label these as Gain 2 and Gain 3.12.10. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−11 .

we double click on the Scope block. and 0. Figure B. B−12 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.13.13.5 V are entered by dou- − ble clicking the Integrator blocks and entering the values 0 for the first integrator. as shown in Figure B. The initial conditions i L ( 0 − ) = C ( dv C ⁄ dt ) t=0 = 0 .5 for the second integrator. The waveform for the function v C ( t ) for Example B.14.1. and v c ( 0 ) = 0. We also need to specify the simulation time. This is done by specifying the simulation time to be 10 seconds on the Configuration Parameters from the Simulation drop menu. To see the output waveform. Obtaining the function v C ( t ) for Example B. 9. Figure B.Introduction to Simulink® 8. We can start the simulation on Start from the Simulation drop menu or by clicking on the icon.1 with the State−Space block.1 Another easier method to obtain and display the output v C ( t ) for Example B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .14. and then clicking on the Autoscale icon. we obtain the waveform shown in Figure B. is to use State− Space block from Continuous in the Simulink Library Browser.

This gives us the ability to delete or modify selected variables.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB The simout To Workspace block shown in Figure B. This block writes its output to an array or structure that has the name specified by the block's Variable name parameter. and in the Functions Block Parameters window we enter the constants shown in Figure B. reside in the MATLAB Workspace. The Function block parameters for the State−Space block.14 writes its input to the workspace. Page B−6. The data and variables created in the MATLAB Command window. Figure B.15. We issue the command who to see those variables. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−13 . From Equation B.23. ·1 x x = –4 –4 1 + 4 u0 ( t ) · x2 3 ⁄ 4 0 x2 0 The output equation is or y = Cx + du y = [0 1] x1 x2 + [0 ]u We double−click on the State−Space block.15. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

5.+ a 2 ------.+ a0 y ( t ) = u ( t ) --------3 -------3 2 4 dt dt dt dt 3 2 (B. Example B. and to see the output waveicon.27) as a set of state equations B−14 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 with the State−Space block. we double click on the Scope block. The state−space block is the best choice when we need to display the output waveform of three or more variables as illustrated by the following example. to start the simulation we click clicking on the icon. and then clicking on the Autoscale obtain the waveform shown in Figure B.27) where y ( t ) is the output representing the voltage or current of the network.+ a 1 ----.16. x2=0.Introduction to Simulink® The initials conditions [ x1 x2 ]' are specified in MATLAB’s Command prompt as x1=0. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .16.2 A fourth−order network is described by the differential equation 4 y d y dy d y+a d . we form. As before. The waveform for the function v C ( t ) for Example B. Figure B. We will express (B. and the initial conditions are y ( 0 ) = y' ( 0 ) = y'' ( 0 ) = y''' ( 0 ) = 0 . a. and u ( t ) is any input.

and we relate them to the terms of the given differential equation as x1 = y ( t ) dy x 2 = ----dt d y x 3 = -------2 dt 2 d y x 4 = -------3 dt 3 (B.31) and in matrix form ·1 x ·2 x ·3 x ·4 x 0 0 = 0 –a0 1 0 0 –a1 0 1 0 –a2 0 0 1 –a3 x1 0 x2 + 0 u(t) 0 x3 1 x4 (B.30) We observe that · 1 = x2 x · 2 = x3 x · 3 = x4 x d y = x · 4 = –a0 x1 –a1 x2 – a2 x3 –a3 x4 + u ( t ) --------4 dt 4 (B. a 2.+ y ( t ) = sin t ------.32) is written as · = Ax + bu x (B. The differential equation of (B. we must define four state variables that will be used with the four first−order state equations. and a 0 so that the new set of the state equations will represent the differential equation of (B. It is known that the solution of the differential equation 4 d y d y . a 1.125 [ ( 3 – t ) – 3t cos t ] 2 (B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−15 .Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB b. therefore.28) is of fourth−order.28).29) In our set of state equations. we will select appropriate values for the coefficients a 3. We denote the state variables as x 1. has the solution y ( t ) = 0. x 2.34) Also. we will display the waveform of the output y ( t ) . and x 4 . x 3 .33) (B.32) In compact form. 1. (B.+ 2 ------2 4 dt dt 2 (B.28) subject to the initial conditions y ( 0 ) = y' ( 0 ) = y'' ( 0 ) = y''' ( 0 ) = 0 . the output is where y = Cx + du Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and using Simulink.

Introduction to Simulink® ·1 x ·2 x ·3 x ·4 x 0 0 A= 0 –a0 1 0 0 –a1 0 1 0 –a2 0 0 . 0 1 · = x .37) where ·1 x ·2 x ·3 x ·4 x 0 0 A= 0 –a0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 –2 0 0 . 1 –a3 x1 x= x2 x3 x4 y ( t ) = x1 .38) Since the output is defined as in matrix form it is expressed as B−16 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and u = sin t (B.28) can be expressed in state−space form as ·1 x ·2 x ·3 x ·4 x 0 0 = 0 –a0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 –2 0 0 1 0 0 + 0 sin t 0 x3 1 x4 x2 x1 (B.34) is expressed as x1 y = [1 0 0 0] ⋅ x2 x3 x4 + [0 ]u( t) (B. 1 0 x1 x= x2 x3 x4 y ( t ) = x1 .27) will be reduced to the differential equation of (B. By inspection. and u = u ( t ) (B. 0 1 · = x . the differential equation of (B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .28) if we let a3 = 0 a2 = 2 a1 = 0 a0 = 1 u ( t ) = sin t and thus the differential equation of (B.36) 2. 0 b= 0. 0 b= 0.35) and since the output is defined as relation (B.

39) We invoke MATLAB. Block diagram for Example B. On the Simulink Library Browser we select Sources. we start Simulink by clicking on the Simulink icon. we click and drag the State−Space block from the Continuous on Simulink Library Browser. We connect these four blocks and the complete block diagram is as shown in Figure B. 0 0 1 0. Figure B.17.2 We now double−click on the Signal Generator block and we enter the following in the Function Block Parameters: Wave form: sine Time (t): Use simulation time Amplitude: 1 Frequency: 2 Units: Hertz Next. 0 0 0 1.Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB x1 y = [1 0 0 0] ⋅ x2 x3 x4 + [ 0 ] sin t (B. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−17 . we drag the Signal Generator block on the Example_1_2 model window. and we save this model as Example_1_2. and we click and drag the Scope block from the Commonly Used Blocks on the Simulink Library Browser . on the Simulink Library Browser we click on the Create a new model (blank page icon on the left of the top bar). We also add the Display block found under Sinks on the Simulink Library Browser. we double−click on the state−space block and we enter the following parameter values in the Function Block Parameters: A: [0 1 0 0.17. −a0 −a1 −a2 −a3] B: [0 0 0 1]’ C: [1 0 0 0] D: [0] Initial conditions: x0 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

2 using four Integrator blocks by this approach would have been more time consuming.18. Figure B. we switch to the MATLAB Command prompt and we type the following: >> a0=1.2 The Display block in Figure B.Introduction to Simulink® Absolute tolerance: auto Now.17 shows the value at the end of the simulation stop time. we obtain the waveform shown in Figure B. To see the output waveform.40) B−18 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Examples B. we double click on the Scope block. and Gain blocks found in the Commonly Used Blocks library. Display blocks found in the Sinks library. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . The model will display the values for the unknowns z 1 . We change the Simulation Stop time to 25 . z 2 .2 have clearly illustrated that the State−Space is indeed a powerful block. then clicking on the Autoscale icon. a2=2. We could have obtained the solution of Example B. and z 3 in the system of the equations a1 z1 + a2 z2 + a3 z3 + k1 = 0 a4 z1 + a5 z2 + a6 z3 + k2 = 0 a7 z1 + a8 z2 + a9 z3 + k3 = 0 (B. Example B.1 and B. a3=0.3 Using Algebraic Constraint blocks found in the Math Operations library.18. a1=0. x0=[0 0 0 0]’. Waveform for Example B. we will create a model that will produce the simultaneous solution of three equations with three unknowns. and we start the simulation by clicking on the icon.

After clicking on the simulation icon. a2=−3.3 Next. z 2 = – 3 . a9=2. k1=−8.. The output must affect the input through some feedback path. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications B−19 . a7=−6. We can improve the efficiency of the algebraic loop solver by providing an Initial guess for the algebraic state z that is close to the solution value. By default. Model for Example B. Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing..Simulink and its Relation to MATLAB The model is shown in Figure B. a8=1.19. a3=−1. we go to MATLAB’s Command prompt and we enter the following values: a1=2. k3=5.19. The Algebraic Constraint block constrains the input signal f ( z ) to zero and outputs an algebraic state z . a5=5. a4=1. The block outputs the value necessary to produce a zero at the input.19. a6=4. we observe the values of the unknowns as z 1 = 2 .. k2=−7.These values are shown in the Display blocks of Figure B. This enables us to specify algebraic equations for index 1 differential/algebraic systems (DAEs). Figure B. and z 3 = 5 . the Initial guess parameter is zero.

a4=11. Introduction to Simulink with Engineering Applications. k2=−6. Page 2−2. a7=−8. Chapter 2. k3=9. This model can be seen by typing thermo in the MATLAB Command prompt. 978−1−934404−09−6. Page 2−2. the reader can follow the steps delineated in The MathWorks Simulink User’s Manual to run the Demo Models beginning with the thermo model. a3=4. a9=15. Section 2. should be ready to learn Simulink’s additional capabilities. The model of Figure B.2 Simulink Demos At this time.Introduction to Simulink® An outstanding feature in Simulink is the representation of a large model consisting of many blocks and lines. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . It is highly recommended that the reader becomes familiar with the block libraries found in the Simulink Library Browser. we can group all blocks and lines in the model of Figure B.20. a2=−1. we choose Create Subsystem from the Edit menu.. B−20 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. These blocks are described in Section 2.1. ISBN 978−1−934404−09−6. to be shown as a single Subsystem block. and z 3 for the values specified in MATLAB’s Command prompt. a6=9.. The Subsystem block replaces the inputs and outputs of the model with Inport and Outport blocks. B. Introduction to Simulink with Engineering Applications. the reader with no prior knowledge of Simulink. Then.. k1=14.* For instance. a5=6. and this model will be shown as in Figure B.19 represented as a subsystem The Display blocks in Figure B. † The contents of the Subsystem block are not lost. We can double−click on the Subsystem block to see its contents. * The Subsystem block is described in detail in Chapter 2.19 except the display blocks.20† where in MATLAB’s Command prompt we have entered: a1=5.1. a8=4. Figure B. z 2 .20 show the values of z 1 .

and Derivative values as shown in Figure C.1. and the Derivative determines the reaction to the rate at which the error has been changing. the Integral determines the reaction based on the sum of recent errors. The weighted sum of these three actions is used to adjust the process via a control element such as the position of a control valve or the power supply of a heating element. briefly known as PID. The PID controller calculation contains three separate parameters. The response of the controller can be described Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1 Description and Components of a Typical PID A proportional−integral−derivative (PID) controller is a control loop feedback system used in industrial control systems. By adjusting the three constants in the PID controller algorithm the PID can provide control action designed for specific process requirements. The components and the functions of a typical PID are described. A PID controller attempts to correct the error between a measured process variable and a desired setpoint by calculating and then outputting a corrective action that can adjust the process accordingly. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications C− 1 . and two examples are presented using the Simulink PID Controller Block and the Simulink PID Controller with Approximate Derivative Block. C. The components of a typical PID The Proportional value determines the reaction to the current error. the Proportional.Appendix C Proportional−Integral−Derivative (PID) Controller T his appendix is a brief introduction to the Proportional−Integral−Derivative Controller. the Integral. Figure C.1.

and the absence of an integral value prevents the system from reaching its target value due to the control action. A PID controller will be called a PI. Some applications may require using only one or two modes to provide the appropriate system control.1 The model in Figure C. This is achieved by setting the gain of undesired control outputs to zero. P or I controller in the absence of the respective control actions. PD.3 produces the outputs of a transfer function without and with PID control.4. PI controllers are particularly common. A PID controller can be formed with four op amps as shown in Figure C. as illustrated by the example below. Example C. Integral and Derivative terms.2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications . PID with op amps C. C−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.Proportional−Integral−Derivative (PID) Controller in terms of the responsiveness of the controller to an error. Proportional v in Integral v out Derivative Figure C. The output waveforms are shown in Figure C. The use of the PID algorithm for control does not necessarily result in an optimal configuration for the system.2. the degree to which the controller overshoots the setpoint and the degree of system oscillation. since derivative action is very sensitive to measurement noise.2 The Simulink PID Blocks The Simulink PID block implements a PID controller where parameters are entered for the Proportional.

5. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications C−3 . Model for Example C.3. The components of a typical PID with approximate derivative Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Figure C.4.1 Figure C. Output waveforms for the model in Figure C.The Simulink PID Blocks Figure C.5.2 without and with PID control The Simulink PID controller with approximate derivative calculation contains the functional blocks shown in Figure C.

7.Proportional−Integral−Derivative (PID) Controller Example C.2 Figure C.6 without and with PID control The reader should try to minimize the oscillations shown in Figure C. and Kd will cause a small change in rise time and decrease the overshoot. Output waveforms for the model in Figure C. The examples presented in this appendix indicate that the Proportional Gain Kp . Integral Gain Ki .7 by assigning other values for the Derivative divisor.6. Generally. Kp and Ki will decrease the rise time and increase the overshoot.6 produces the outputs of a transfer function without and with PID control with approximate derivative. Model for Example C. Figure C. C−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. and Derivative Gain Kd are dependent on each another. The output waveforms are shown in Figure C.7.2 The model in Figure C. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

The rise time. and the time required for the output voltage v out to reach 90% of its final value is 2. be unacceptable. Using Thevenin’s theorem. denoted as t r .2 τ = 2. is defined as the time it takes the voltage to rise from 10% to 90% of its final value. D. in most cases.1RC . v in R1 R2 (a) C2 v out av in R C2 (b) v out Figure D. In an RC network the time required for the output voltage v out to reach 10% of its final value is 0. we will investigate the types of responses which are obtained with a step voltage input if the circuit is improperly adjusted. This is explained below.1. The rise time t r is the difference between these two values and in terms of the RC time constant τ it is given by 2.3RC .35 t r = 2.1) Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.1(a). Also.1 Uncompensated Attenuator Let us consider the simple resistor combination of Figure D.2. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications D−1 .1(a) represents an unavoidable condition since the output of the resistive attenuator in most cases is followed by the input capacitance of a stage of amplification. It is an indication of how fast a circuit can respond to a discontinuity in voltage. We will examine the conditions under which it is possible to ensure no distortion even if shunt capacitances are taken into consideration. we can replace the circuit of (a) with that of (b) where R represents the parallel combination of R 1 and R 2 and a in av in is the attenuation factor.= --------0. We could make both R 1 and R 2 very large so that the input impedance of the attenuator would be large enough to prevent loading down the input signal but his may produce a large rise time which would.Appendix D Compensated Attenuators T his appendix begins with a simple resistive attenuator which may be used to reduce the amplitude of a signal waveform.2RC = ---------2 π fc fc (D. Actual and equivalent circuit for an uncompensated attenuator The presence of the stray capacitance C 2 in Figure D.

so when computing the output voltage v out this branch may be omitted and the output will be equal to av in and independent of frequency.2 × 0. If. it is practical to make capacitor C 1 variable and the final adjustment for perfect compensation may be made experimentally with the testing of a square-wave.2) and under this condition there will be no current flow in the branch connecting point x to point y . D−2 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.2RC = 2.2(a).2. The bridge will be balanced if R1 C1 = R2 C2 (D. we form an attenuator with R 1 = R 2 = 1 M Ω and the input capacitance of a stage amplification is C 2 = 15 pF .2 Compensated Attenuator We can make an uncompensated attenuator a compensated attenuator. meaning that its attenuation will once again become independent of frequency by placing a capacitor C 1 in parallel with resistor R 1 as shown in Figure D.1(b) will be t r = 2. A compensated attenuator and its equivalent drawn as a bridge The circuit of Figure D. With these values the rise time for the circuit of Figure D. In Figure D. D.3(b) is undercompensated.2 τ = 2. It was stated above that we could make the input impedance of the attenuator large enough to prevent loading of the input signal.3(a) the circuit is overcompensated and in Figure D. C1 R1 C1 v in v in R1 R2 (a) C2 x R2 (b) C2 y v out v out Figure D.5 μ sec This is a very large rise time for a practical application and thus it is unacceptable. Figure D.3 shows the appearances of the output signal when the input is a step voltage of amplitude V if the compensation is not precise. for example.2) must hold precisely.Compensated Attenuators where f c is the 3-dB frequency given by f c = 1 ⁄ 2 π RC . Because relation (D.2(a) is shown as in Figure D.5 × 10 × 15 × 10 6 – 12 = 16. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .2(b) to form the four arms of a bridge.

Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications D−3 .Compensated Attenuator Step input.3. amplitude V Perfect compensation Output v out v out ( 0+ ) v out ( ∞ ) = aV v out ( 0+ ) v out ( ∞ ) = aV (a) (b) Figure D. amplitude V Output v out Perfect compensation Step input. Overcompensation and undercompensation responses of an attenuator to a step input Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing.

Compensated Attenuators NOTES: D−4 Electronic Devices and Amplifier Circuits with MATLAB Computing. Second Edition Copyright © Orchard Publications .

In our previous studies* we discussed the superposition principle and Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems.1(c). ISBN 978−0−9709511−2−0. Illustration of the substitution theorem For the simple resistor circuit of Figure E. or vice versa.1(d). the substitute branch may consist of a resistance of 1 Ω and a voltage source of 3 V as shown in Figure E. x 2Ω 4Ω 24 V 2Ω 2Ω x 3A 1Ω x 3Ω x XC = 8 ⁄ 3 Ω V ' = 10 ∠53. or it may consist of a resistance of 3 Ω and a voltage source of 3 V of opposite polarity as shown in Figure E. According to the substitution theorem. E. * For a detailed discussion of Thevenin’s and Norton’s theorems and the superposition principle please refer to Circuit Analysis I with MATLAB Applications. For instance.1° V x y (a) v xy = 6 V i xy