BREASTFEEDING DISCOMFORTS EXPERIENCED AND IT’S MANAGEMENT BY PRIMIGRAVIDA MOTHERS

NAZRIA G. KAPUSAN

A Thesis Outline Submitted to the College of Health Sciences, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan, Cotabato in Partial Fulfillment of Requirement for Degree of

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING

TABLE OF CONTENTS Titles INTRODUCTION Significance of the Study Objectives of the Study Expected Output Scope and Limitation of the Study Place and Time of the Study Definition of Terms Hypotheses Theoretical Framework Conceptual Framework Pages REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE METHODOLOGY Research Design Respondents of the Study Sampling Instrument Data Gathering Procedure Statistical Analysis LITERATURE CITED APPENDICES .

with enzymes and living cells that cannot be reproduced in formula and which help prevent or delay allergies. 2005. 2006). . protect from infectious diseases and reduce occurrence of respiratory and digestive infections. Breast milk. ear. The World Health Organization recommends that infants be exclusively breastfed for the first months of life and that breastfeeding be continued into the second year of life or longer. unlike formula. 2001) The benefits of breastfeeding include: the reduction of infant mortality and morbidity and decrease risk of infectious disease. and premenopausal breast cancer are reported for mothers who have breastfed (Noel-Weiss. Breast milk is a living. allergies and asthma (Baldwin & Friedman. ovarian cancer. 2002). Less incidences of osteoporosis. Long term benefits include decrease incidence of obesity and chronic illness such as diabetes. (WHO. Cragg. 2006). changing food. like diarrhea. These recommendations are based on studies showing long term benefits in children who receive breast milk in their first year of life. promotes the growth and development of the human brain and nervous system. In addition breastfeeding promotes healthy oral development and satisfies the babies sucking needs. and urinary tract infections (American Academy of Pediatrics.INTRODUCTION Significance of the Study Human milk is uniquely designed to promote optimum health and growth in the human infant. Bassett & Woodend. Rupp. WHO. respiratory.

In addition. these was the researcher aims to know and also the management done by the mothers to lessen or prevent the discomforts in breastfeeding.natal care is indeed a need specifically in pregnant mothers and mostly the primigravida mothers because they do not have sufficient knowledge regarding child bearing and specially how they will breastfed their baby. Furthermore. through this study. researcher will be able to determine the discomforts experienced by primigravida mothers and how they will manage it. through this study. Also.Pre. When they were able to deliver the child. Breastfeeding provides ideal infant nutrition and is the physiologic norm for mothers and children. ongoing educational and support programs can improve initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Mothers often make a decision regarding breastfeeding early in prenatal care. and many have already decided whether to breastfeed prior to conception. the researcher can determine the perception of primigravida mothers on breastfeeding during their pregnancy stage and how they perceive breastfeeding after delivery. . Encouragement and education from Healthcare providers result in increased breastfeeding initiation and duration. the foods they will eat for them to produce more milk and how often they will breastfeed their babies. they often encounter discomforts most especially in breastfeeding. These were some of the questions encountered by primigravida mothers during their pregnancy stage. what will be their proper positioning.

6. To determine the perception of the mothers on breastfeeding during their pregnancy stage. To determine perception of the mothers on breastfeeding after giving birth. Expected Output 1. To determine the factors which contribute to their discomforts. To determine the factors which contribute to their discomforts. To determine the discomforts experienced by primigravida mothers on breastfeeding 4. To determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents. To determine the discomforts experienced by primigravida mothers on breastfeeding 4. 5. To determine perception of the mothers on breastfeeding after giving birth. To determine the breastfeeding discomforts management done by the primigravida mothers. To determine the socio-demographic profile of the respondents.Objectives: 1. 2. 3. . 5. To determine the breastfeeding discomforts management done by the primigravida mothers. To determine the perception of the mothers on breastfeeding during their pregnancy stage. 2. 3. 6.

Pikit North.Scope and limitation This study will include primigravida mothers residing at Poblacion. Place and Time of the Study The study will be conducted at Poblacion. February. . Pikit Cotabato. Cotabato. 2014.

Definitions of Terms .

.this refers to the sucking or nursing. Management.a woman that is pregnant on the first time. the first time mothers who encountered breastfeeding discomforts. Specifically the way the primigravida mothers nurse there baby. uneasy feeling. the respondents of the study. Discomforts-unpleasant. specifically the unusual feeling that causes pain to the primigravida mothers on breastfeeding.Breastfeeding. giving a baby milk from the mother’s breast.the way the primigravida breastfeeding mothers handle the breastfeeding discomfort experienced. Primigravida Mothers.

Hypotheses: .

1999). how much effort she will expend on the task and how she will deal with the challenges that she will encounter during her experience. Dennis’ Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy framework (1999).Theoretical Framework Self-efficacy has received attention as a predictor of health related behaviors. and psychological and affective states. 1977. Described as an individual’s confidence in his or her perceived ability to perform a specific task or behavior (Bandura 1977). vicarious experiences. Failures undermine it. verbal persuasion. These factors could be influenced by education and healthcare provider intervention (Bandura. Dennis uses her framework to understand the role self-efficacy plays in relation to breastfeeding behaviors. is based on the belief that successes build robust belief in one’s personal efficacy. is derived from Bandura’s Social Cognitive Learning Theory (Bandura. The first source. 1977). especially if failures occur before a sense . Breastfeeding self efficacy refers to a mother’s perceived ability or confidence to breastfeed her newborn and influences her decisions regarding breastfeeding such as whether to breastfeed or not. personal accomplishments. Dennis. The theory of self-efficacy proposes that a person’s level of self-efficacy may be influenced by four factors. These factors are: personal accomplishments.

whereas those who are plagued by self-doubt regard their arousal as a debilitation (Bandura. The second source. verbal persuasion. The final way to enhance efficacy is to reduce people’s stress reactions and alter their negative emotional proclivities and interpretations of their physical states. Seeing people similar to oneself succeed by sustained effort raises observer’s beliefs that they too possess the capabilities to master comparable activities required to succeed (Bandura. The third source. 1994).of efficacy is firmly established (Bandura (1994). 1994). . 1994). rather than the sheer intensity of emotional and physical reactions that is important. People with a high sense of efficacy are likely to view their state of affective arousal as an energizing facilitator of performance. is a way to strengthen people’s beliefs that they have what it takes to succeed. It is how the emotions are perceived. builds a strong sense of efficacy through the vicarious experiences provided by social models. The fourth source is psychological and affective states. vicarious experiences. People who are persuaded verbally that they possess the capabilities to master given activities are likely to mobilize greater effort and sustain it than if they harbor selfdoubts and dwell on personal deficiencies when problems arise (Bandura.

Conceptual Framework Independent Variable Dependent Variable SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE -Age -Educational Attainment -Tribe DISCOMFORTS and MANAGEMENT Figure 1. Review of Related Literature . A schemic diagram showing the relationship between the respondents’ sociodemographic profile and their discomforts and management on breastfeeding discomforts.

The following are some common reasons that a woman might decide not to try breastfeeding and information dispelling these common myths. one should still have glands necessary to produce milk. 2007). Breast size has nothing to do with the ability or inability to produce milk. . (Weekly. It is actually easier for a small-breasted woman to breastfeed. Long term breastfeeding and natural weaning as far the healthiest thing you can do as positive effect of breast milk remains for years after breast milk is discontinued the larger you breast milk. Even women with very small breast are able to produce milk. and parasites. the stronger your child ‘s immune system (Hanson. In our society. Milk glands lie under the muscle wall. we all know that ‘breast milk is the best’. many women are led to believe that they cannot or should not breastfed for various reasons. the ‘friendly bacteria ‘that helps prevent the growth of dangerous bacteria. so even if one has extremely small breast. and it is usually just not true. It provides Lactobacillus bifidus.In the book ’’Immunity of Human Milk’’ that breast milk contains lymphocytes and macrophages. Unfortunately. which produce antibodies and other immune factors. Some components are even directly antiinflammatory. Another molecule is breast milk actually kills harmful bacteria. “My breast are small. 1998). In addition to providing protection against viruses. fungi.

Pikit.METHODOLOGY Research Design This study will utilize a descriptive-comparative . it will obtain the socio demographic characteristic and the comparative to compare the breastfeeding discomforts of the respondents before and after delivery. Cotabato. Sampling Procedure . Respondents of the Study The respondents of this study will be ___ primigravida mothers residing at Poblacion.

The first part will generate the socio-demographic profile of the respondents. and the third part is the management done by primigravida mothers on breastfeeding discomforts. Statistical Analysis LITERATURE CITED . The second part s the perception of the primigravida mothers towards breastfeeding discomforts.The respondents of this study will be selected through simple random sampling from all puroks in Poblacion. Data Gathering Procedure The respondents will be randomly selected in their purok. Research Instrument The research instrument will be a self-made questionnaire. Cotabato. the questionnaire will be distributed by appointment. there is 10 respondents in each purok that will be selected randomly. Pikit. After identifying the names of the respondents. The questionnaire has three parts.

QUESTIONNAIRES Part I-Socio-demographic Profile Name (optional): _______________________ Tribe:_______________ Age when you first get pregnant:__________ Educational Attainment:_____________ .

no 7.Perception of Primigravida Mothers on Breastfeeding 1. do you like to breastfed your baby on the first place? a. give us some of your preception towards breastfeeding during your pre-natal check up? . do you prefer to breastfed your baby? a. midwife or ___________________________ 6. Who educated you to perform brestfeedig? a. Are you prepared in having a baby? a.yes b.Part II.yes b.yes b.yes 4. nurse b. are you willing to breastfed your baby? a. how do you understand breastfeeding? 8.no 3.yes b.no 2.no 5. yes b. are you educated on the proper positioning of the baby when you breastfeed? a.

9.yes b. what are those_________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ 11.no if yes. no 12. do the health care practisioner oriented you regarding breastfeeding discomforts? a. how do you manage those discomforts 13.mild . During your pre-natal check-ups or the time you are still pregnant. Do you encounter discomforts while you are breastfeeding your baby? a. Your perception on breastfeeding after you have given birth ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Part III – Discomforts Experienced by Primigravida Mothers on Breastfeeding 10. how painful do you think is the breastfeeding? a.yes b.

After you have given birth.b. and tried breastfeeding.severe 14.mild b. how painful the breastfeeding was? a.moderate c.moderate c. severe .

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