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INTRODUCE YOURSELF How would you describe yourself? What are your strengths and weaknesses?

ur strengths and weaknesses? Where do you live? How long have you been living here? Do you like the town / city / village? Why? What do you do? What schools have you attended so far? Do / Did you enjoy being a student? Where do / did you study? Do / did you like the school? Why did you choose your college / university? What is your major? Why did you choose your major? What are / were your favourite college subjects? What do / did you dislike? What are you interested in? What are your hobbies? Why do you like them? What are your plans for the future? Do you have plans for further study? How do you plan to continue your education? What do you want to do in life? How would you describe the ideal job for you? What type of position are you interested in? What is important to you in a job? What motivates you in your work? Do you prefer to work by yourself or with others? Have you got any work experience? Talk about your work placement. Have you ever had a part-time or a summer job? Describe them. What are / were your responsibilities? What have you learnt from your past jobs? How did you find your job? What did / do you like most / least about your job / industrial placement? What do you see yourself doing five years from now? Ten years from now? What are your long-term career objectives?

Topic 1. - Earning a living FINDING A JOB Job seekers, that is, people who are looking for a job can find information about job vacancies in the following sources: school or college careers advisers job centres (government agencies) private search firms, recruitment agencies or headhunters job offers in newspaper advertisements or the Internet job fairs people who already work in the firm People who are interested can apply for the job by sending in a letter of application or covering letter and a curriculum vitae or CV containing details of their education and experience to the Human Resources Department of the company. HR will select the most suitable applications and prepare a shortlist of candidates or applicants, who are invited to attend an interview. A curriculum vitae is a brief history of the applicant. It contains information about the candidates personal data, schools, qualifications, positions, relevant experience, skills, abilities, hobbies and interests as well as the names and contact addresses of 2 referees who are willing to give further details about the applicant. A covering letter is a formal letter in which the applicant highlights their relevant experience and skills, draws attention to special characteristics and shows willingness to attend an interview. The main purpose of the interview is to assess the applicants suitability for the position, their appearance, general manner and communication skills. It also gives the applicant the opportunity to seek further information about the job. At the interview the candidate might be asked questions about his motivation, career objectives, strengths and weaknesses. Within a company it is the Human Resources Department that is in charge of recruitment and personnel problems. Its functions may be summarized as follows: finding the right person for vacant jobs: e.g. advertising the vacancy, interviewing applicants providing training and further development opportunities ensuring the welfare of or well-being of employees dealing with resignations of workers providing testimonials and references (names of persons willing to testify as to the character of a job applicant, written declarations about candidates) dealing with the dismissal of workers JOB ROLES AND TYPES What people do to earn a living is their job or work or occupation. There are two big groups of jobs: blue-collar jobs and white-collar jobs. Blue-collar jobs involve physical work. Some physical workers are skilled workers and have a trade such as electrician or bus-driver or mechanic. Others work as factory hands and they may be skilled or semi-skilled. And there is also a group of unskilled workers who are mostly 2

employed in the construction industry and in agriculture. Skilled workers need special training which they can get in vocational schools or in secondary technical schools. People in blue-collar jobs are paid hourly or weekly wages which are generally lower than the whitecollar workers salary. White-collar jobs require college or university qualifications. They are also called professions, such as a doctor, a lawyer, an economist. Some professions such as teaching and nursing are also called vocations which suggests that people do them in order to help others. White-collar workers are paid a monthly salary and work in better conditions than blue-collar workers. Jobs can also be classified according to the time spent working. If somebody works eight hours a day, five days a week, that person has a full-time job. Part-time workers only work for four or six hours a day. Very often they are women who have small children and need to spend more time with their families. In Hungary unfortunately many people need to have two jobs, a full-time job and also a part-time job in order to earn enough money to support their families. Casual workers are those who work on a totally irregular basis, a few hours a day or a few days a week, whenever they are needed. Temporary or seasonal workers are mostly employed in catering and the tourism industry and they usually work during the summer period. Another grouping could refer to the period of time ones work contract is valid. Tenured work offers the highest degree of job security because your work contract is not limited in time. Contractual work means that a given work contract is valid for a limited time, a year or two. In this case, of course, job security is replaced by job insecurity. New trends in job types include homeworking which means that people work from their homes through an internet connection, or hot-desking which involves working in an office where you dont have your own desk, but sit down at any free desk and do your whole work entirely with the help of a computer WAGES AND SALARIES Remuneration means the money you receive in exchange for work you have done. It is not surprising that many people consider money to be more important than other things in life. This is because the level of earnings greatly affects the quality of your life. The income you receive determines the type of house and furnishing you can have, the quality of your car or the length of holidays you can take. Obviously the standard of living of well-paid people is much higher than that of poorly-paid people. There are different forms of remuneration, for example, a salary is paid to white-collar workers, wages are paid to blue-collar workers. Students are given a grant, lawyers, doctors and consultants are paid fees, authors are paid royalty, senior managers are offered stock option plans, old age people are granted a pension. And taxes are a form of income for the government. Active employees generally have a base salary and they can also receive benefits depending on how important the work they do is. What is gross payment and net payment? gross pay: the total amount before any deductions have been made net pay: the amount received after deductions have been taken away

What deductions are made on your salary? income tax national Insurance unemployment contributions, superannuation contributions voluntary deductions: e.g. union membership fees, payments to private pension schemes, private medical schemes Why are some jobs better paid than others? The level of wages and salaries depends on a number of factors, such as market forces, qualifications, skill factors, job satisfaction. - market forces, that is, demand and supply. If demand for a certain job is low (few people are needed) and supply is high (many people are available to do the job), wages and salaries will be lower. On the other hand, if demand for a job is high but the supply of people for this job is low, then wages and salaries will be higher. The demand for a certain job depends on the level of economic development. An important element of this is infrastructure. For example, in regions with poor infrastructure there will be fewer factories, less investment and consequently low demand for labour. The supply of labour depends on how difficult and time- and money-consuming the acquisition of certain trades and professions is. For example, the supply of doctors will be lower than that of bus-drivers for the following reasons: - the occupation requires a high degree of skill and academic ability - the training period is too long for many people - the cost of training is too high. Changes in demand can also occur because of the movement of multinationals from one country to another. In this case certain people, mostly managers and technical people whose skills and knowledge are indispensable for the company will be asked by management to move home in order to follow work. This will have a lot of consequences such as cost of moving, housing and travelling. All these costs will affect the wage expectations of the people involved, that is these people will expect to get higher salaries. - qualifications also greatly determine how much income a person receives A good salary generally requires exam-qualifications, that is to say a college or university degree. White-collar workers will be offered higher salaries partly to compensate for the time spent in securing qualifications and partly because the work they are doing is more important for the national economy and the society as a whole. Blue-collar work includes skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled jobs, and of course there are wage-differences between these groups, with higher wages given for more skilled labour. However, unskilled jobs do not always pay the lowest wages because many of these jobs are dirty, unattractive or dangerous so few people are willing to do them. - the time it takes to travel to work and home - the employees work experience and age - the employees sex, race, nationality, religion. Discrimination at the workplace often leads to differences in pay. The principles of equal pay and equal opportunities for men and women irrespective of race, nationality, religion should be taken into consideration by all employers. - special skills (languages, computer literacy) - the degree of risk a job involves (miners, firemen, policemen, ambulance people should be paid higher wages)

- job satisfaction can also be of importance when negotiating wages and salaries. If a job is interesting, challenging and exciting, it can offer high job satisfaction which can compensate for less money received. On the other hand if a job is boring and repetitive, with little or no job satisfaction at all, people will want to be paid more money to do it. There are a number of factors that motivate employees and offer them job satisfaction: good pay and opportunity for wage increases promotion prospects interesting, creative and challenging job working hours (flexible and fixed hours, overtime) holiday arrangements job security ( knowing that there is no danger of losing your job) , social interaction with colleagues working conditions (pleasant, healthy, nice atmosphere) fringe benefits or perks receiving training, opportunity to take qualifications having a position of responsibility working for a respected and well-known company having freedom at work travelling or working abroad What fringe benefits / perks (invisible additions to the wages) can be given by companies? free or subsidised meals (e.g. luncheon vouchers) company car with full use of petrol, mobile phone free membership of private health schemes low interest rate loans for house purchase reduced prices for company products or services assistance with expense of moving house help with payment of private education fees travel allowance, end-of-year bonus stock option plan MANAGEMENT MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS 1. First of all, managers set objectives, and decide how their organization can achieve them. This involves developing strategies and plans. 2. Secondly, managers organize. They divide the work into manageable activities. They select people to perform the jobs. 3. Thirdly, managers practise the social skills of motivation and communication. They also have to communicate objectives to the people responsible for attaining them. They make decisions about pay and promotion. 4. Fourthly, managers have to measure the performance of their staff. 5. Lastly, managers develop people - both their subordinates and themselves. MANAGERIAL FEATURES/ CHARACTERISTICS What do you think makes a good manager? being decisive: able to make quick decisions

being efficient: doing things quickly, not leaving tasks unfinished, having a tidy desk, and so on being friendly and sociable being able to communicate with people being logical, rational and analytical being able to motivate and inspire and lead people being competent: knowing ones job perfectly, as well as the work of ones subordinates being persuasive: able to convince people to do things having job ideas being forward-looking being supportive and understanding being inspirational being hands-off but at the same time available having experience being someone who others can respect and appreciate being honest and reliable

LEADERSHIP STYLES 1. Autocratic. Such leaders are the absolute authority on all matters. They decide what to do, and whatever others may think, it is done. 2. Democratic or participative. The leader will consult with employees before making a decision, but will reserve the right not to act on a majority view. 3. Laissez-faire or free-rein. The leader gives general directions to workers on the tasks to be performed, and then leaves them to carry out the work in the way they think is best 4. Charismatic. A charismatic leader is one who influences and motivates others because he or she has an outstanding personality or character COMPANY STRUCTURE What types of structure are there? What characterises them? the most common: hierarchical structure / line structure, one person or a group at the top of the pyramid and an increasing number of people below them at each successive level; everybody has their superior (to whom they report) and their subordinates (to whom they can give instructions). The disadvantage of the pyramid structure is that the lower level you go the less decision-making power people have. This structure is particularly suited to small businesses. staff structure: there are people (e.g. the managers assistants) who will help their colleagues in the pyramid but who have no power to give instructions to people at the level below. functional structure: the whole business is organised according to functions and divided into departments such as marketing, production, staff, finance, personnel, research & development or sales. The head of each specialist department supervises, controls and is responsible for just the one function with which it is involved, thats why this type of organisation requires a lot of co-operation between departments. It is particularly suited to large companies with divisions located around the country or in different countries. 6

matrix structure: the employees have to report to several superiors; this is one way of keeping authority at lower levels.

Benefits of working for a small business: Employees are responsible for a variety of tasks which gives them a better possibility of realising their potential. Because of the small number of employees, they can deal with problems face to face. Employees get greater job satisfaction as they can actually see the result of their contribution to the company. Because of the relatively simple company structure, employees have more independence, they dont always have to wait for permission from a superior to perform a change. The atmosphere is friendlier, everybody knows everyone, there is more openness among people, closer communication and better working relationships. Employees feel a personal involvement in the business. Advantages of working for a large company: Employees can become more specialised in their work. Because of the size of the company, they can easily change departments if they have problems with their colleagues. They are likely to get a slightly higher salary than they would in a small company. They enjoy a higher degree of job security as a large company is in a better position in an economic downturn or recession. Large companies often have subsidiaries abroad, so people may be able to go and work in a foreign country. People can be proud of working for a company with national or international reputation.

Types of Business Organisations: TYPE LIABILITY PEOPLE SOLE unlimited sole trader (sole PROPRIETORSHIP proprietor) = owner and manager, provides all the capital

ADVANTAGES - easy to form and organise - no red tape or incidental expenses - highly motivated - freedom - less capital necessary to start - need not share profits - personal contact


- unlimited

- limited financial

PARTNERSHIP general partnership /unlimited partnership kzkereseti trsasg


partners (2 or more) + secret / silent partner

resources, difficult to get loans - no fringe benefits - illness or absence of the owner is a problem - have to provide all the capital - no continuity - easy to form - unlimited - less limited liability financial resources, - possible more people conflicts, provide capital disagreements - shared expenses and between partners - death or management withdrawal of partners

limited partnership betti trsasg

CORPORATIONS a) private limited companies (Ltd) = shares are not sold on the Stock Exchange

at least one partner has unlimited liability limited

from 2 to an unlimited number of shareholders and ownership is separated from management

-legal entity - easier to raise

- limited capital
because shares are not for public sale

b) public limited limited companies (Plc) = shares are listed on the SE, advertised for public sale

funds, more people provide capital - greater continuity - limited liability - separated management and ownership from 2 to an - limited liability unlimited number - legal entity of shareholders - economies of scale and - maximum ownership is continuity separated - can raise large sums from of capital management - can buy supplies in bulk and buy special equipment - easier to borrow money

- a lot of
documentation and expense to form - easy to take over - can have too many rules - annual accounts are open to public - double taxation

EMPLOYER - EMPLOYEE RELATIONSHIP 1)Why are workers organised in labour/ trade unions? labour/trade unions - organisations representing people working in a particular industry or profession and protecting their rights to represent common interests in negotiations with employers for better wages and working conditions to provide a communication channel between employees and employers to put pressure on or influence employers

2)What major issues do they negotiate with employers? improved wages and reduced working hours improved working conditions job security benefits for members who are sick, retired or on strike unemployment benefit, sickness benefit and pensions participation in company decision processes improved public and social services training, promotion prospects, redundancies promotion of equal opportunities and pay 3) What are the basic rights of employees? safe work environment, fair treatment regardless sex, race, colour, religion, political opinion, national or social origin, age, sexual orientation, etc. 4) What are the methods that workers might use during an industrial dispute? negotiations to reach an agreement or a compromise industrial action: strike, work to rule, go slow, sit-in, boycott 5) What working conditions can help women who support a family? help in combining work and home duties job sharing (two part-time employees = a full time job) flexitime employment, homeworking maternity leave, nursing breaks, childcare facilities job security, health protection measures paternity leave (surrounding childbirth) 6) What can employers benefit from family-friendly policies? greater commitment, loyal employees, better working morale more efficiency in doing jobs lower turnover of staff, better return on training investments, fewer unplanned absences better image, competitive advantage in recruiting UNEMPLOYMENT The unemployment rate shows the proportion of unemployed people to the total available labour force. It only includes the officially registered jobless population, and doesnt count with hidden or disguised unemployment (jobless people not shown in government statistics) What is full employment? 9

ideal situation (never achieved) the supply of labour (the number of people looking for a job) is equal to the number of unfilled jobs does not mean that there is no unemployment at all, but almost everyone who is able and willing to work can find a job at the wage level they want What are some of the reasons for unemployment? economic recession (companies lay off staff to reduce expenditures) the changing patterns of the labour market labour immobility (e.g. older generations are less mobile, they are bound by family ties to their place of living and are reluctant to move) people who do not want to work (voluntary unemployment) because they are happy with the unemployment benefit they draw from the state (high unemployment benefit and low minimum wages) people in the period of changing jobs for better pay or career opportunities (frictional or search unemployment) declining or disappearing industries, structural change of economy (structural unemployment) seasonal unemployment, e.g. in agriculture or tourism (at summer and winter holiday resorts) What government policies can reduce unemployment? providing more retraining schemes ensuring better supply of information about job vacancies improving geographical mobility of labour by providing housing or granting other benefits attracting investors, supporting enterprises that settle and create jobs especially in unemployment-stricken regions (tax allowance, temporary tax exemption, subsidies) providing lower unemployment benefits HEALTH AND SAFETY AT WORK The right to health and safety is a basic right of all employees and students. Each business has to protect its employees. First of all there are certain laws protecting people in the workplace. In addition, it makes sense for a business to protect its workers because satisfied employees perform better and more efficiently leading to higher productivity and more profit Providing a healthy and safe environment includes: - ensuring adequate work space, - ensuring suitable lighting, - ensuring suitable temperature (heating or ventilation and air-conditioning), - maintaining standards of cleanliness, - providing adequate washing and toilet facilities, - guaranteeing hygienic and safe conditions, - ensuring noise control, - providing and maintaining safety equipment and clothing, - ensuring first-aid facilities, - providing protection for the use of hazardous substances, - ensuring regular maintenance of working tools, equipment, - providing proper users manuals for special machinery, - offering employers liability insurance cover in case of accidents 10

- providing a break every 4 hours, PC glasses and special chairs for people using computers. Protection against fire refers to the following: - ensuring fire extinguishers in places that can be easily accessed, - providing escape plans, maps showing where to leave a building on fire, - offering instruction and training to employees on what to do in the event of fire, - organising false fire alarms to acquaint people with what to do if there is a fire. Of special importance are working time regulations which provide basic rights for workers, such as: - a twenty-minute rest-break after six hours work, - two days rest in a week, - eleven consecutive hours rest in any 24 hour period, - a limit of an average of 40 hours work in a week in which a worker can be required to work, - four weeks annual paid leave. Conditions for a healthy and safe environment will vary depending on the nature of task carried out. Ensuring the health and safety of a mine worker will require different decisions to protecting an office worker. It is in the interest of a business to protect its workforce. A healthy and safe work environment should prevent accidents, injury and illness among workers. Any one of these may result in staff absence and lost production for the firm. In extreme cases a business may even be taken to court for failing to provide protection. The court may order the business to pay compensation to the employee and also a fine. Health and safety regulations are updated from time to time as working conditions change, and they are compulsory for employers and employees as well.


English for Business The Topic:

Level 2


Base your conversation on the following: Say what your ideal job or occupation is. Describe the kind of work you would like to do. What kind of training would you need? What responsibilities would you like to have? What personal and professional qualities would you need? What promotional opportunities would you like to have? What would motivate you most in your job? What do you expect in terms of salary, hours of work, working conditions (health and safety), security of employment? Roleplay Candidate You are applying for the position of cashier with TESCO Supermarkets. At the job interview you learn about the long working hours and the limited possibilities of promotion. Try to convince the HR Manager who is interviewing you, that in view of the unsocial hours (sometimes night shift as well) and the boring work, you would like to have at least 25% more than the offer in the job advertisement Roleplay Candidate You are applying for a job in the Sales Department of a large multinational company. You are at the job interview with the HR Manager. Answer his questions referring to your motivation and your strength & weaknesses, then ask your own questions about such aspects as wages, benefits, working conditions, promotion prospects, etc.


Topic 2. - Production and sale of goods and services Before goods can be sold in shops, they have to be manufactured. In order for goods to be manufactured, raw materials have to be provided. The three sectors of production are: primary production: the extraction of basic/raw materials provided by nature, farming, fishing, mining secondary production: manufacturing and construction industries, changing raw materials into some end products tertiary production: the service industry (commerce and direct services) The chain of distribution refers to the passage of goods from producer to consumer. It involves the activity of traders (wholesalers and retailers) and the use of services to trade manufacturer wholesaler retailer individual customers Wholesalers are businessmen who handle goods in the intermediate position between the producer and the retailer, buying in large quantities and selling in smaller, more convenient lots to the retailer. Traditionally they have always dealt in large quantities. Their premises are usually a large warehouse divided into sections. Retailers may visit the wholesaler to choose their purchases, or orders may be telephoned in or passed to the wholesalers representative. Sometimes the producer will by-pass the wholesaler and sell directly to the retailer, e.g.: if the retailer is part of a large multiple chain, it can buy in large quantities and deal direct with the producer where after-sales service is particularly important: durable consumer goods Services to trade are activities that help traders in their work of buying and selling goods and services. They include the following: Banking: providing short-term finance, easy payment transfer Finance: long-term finance for industry, commerce and consumer credit Insurance: spreading the risks Transport: movement of commodities Communications: mail services, electronic devices, advertising

RETAIL TRADE Retail trade refers to the supply of goods to the individual consumers, buying from the wholesaler and selling to the public The functions of retail trade are: cutting up large quantities into small units providing the producer with an outlet for their products, holding stocks providing choice for the consumer, giving information and advice providing a feedback of consumer responses to wholesalers and producers Types of retailer: the simplest types: door to door, market traders, sole traders/ independent shops


more complex: chain stores, supermarkets, hypermarkets, department stores, specialist stores modern forms of retailing: vending machines, mail order, electronic commerce, TV shopping, shopping centres, franchise forms

Advantages and disadvantages of sole traders They are small shops owned by a sole trader or small partnership, personal attention to customers, no need to travel into town limited quantities, prices often higher, a limited range of goods, difficulties in running the shop if the owner is sick Chain stores (Multiples) a number of shops in common ownership, under a single name of common ownership controlled from central headquarters often are sited in town centres and shopping precincts advertising is cheaper: a single national advertisement can cover all branches nation-wide often by-pass wholesalers wide choice: deep-freeze counters, vegetables and fruit, groceries, cold cuts and cheese, dairy products, detergents, cosmetics, bakery counter, meat counter etc. Self-service stores and supermarkets They are considered to be a supermarket when they have more than 2000 square feet of shopping area and 3 or more check-out points. Advantages: These shops deal particularly in pre-packed, price-labelled products. Loss-leaders are frequently used to attract customers Customers serve themselves, so they save in staff, Shopping trolleys Impulse buying (unplanned purchase) Disadvantages: large premises in prime areas are expensive pilferage (stealing) levels are high customers receive little personal contact Hypermarkets They are a very large form of supermarket with a shopping area in excess of 50000 square feet. on the outskirts of towns where sites are cheaper usually one of many in a chain big shopping area, self-service, a wide range of goods, long opening hours, often night&day parts of the hypermarket complex may be rented out to other traders: independent shops good parking facilities Department stores They are divided into commodity departments. separate departments, each responsible for their own profitability 14

wide variety of goods under one roof, sited in town centres, car parks often rather expensive because the goods they market are of the highest quality Specialist stores specialise in narrow kinds of commodities quality and personal service e.g. jewellery, mens wear, ladies wear, shoes, sports goods, books, drapery and textiles, stationery, household utensils, electronic goods etc. Shopping centres a collector of shops and service providers a number of specialist outlets, each with a different owner service providers: multiplex cinemas, restaurants and cafes, banks, post offices, exchange offices, fitness rooms, child care, etc. parking sites, entertainment facilities Vending machines food, drink, sweets, tickets, stamps etc. 24-hour opening, fast service, no need for staff problems: lack of coins, out of order, vandalism Direct sales selling goods directly to consumers without the use of retail outlets: mail order, TV sales, ecommerce, teleshopping (by telephone) also called home or remote shopping advantages and disadvantages: - comfortable, customers dont need to leave their homes as they can order by telephone or the Internet - no need for shops, - customers save time, - easy to pay: cash on delivery or payment by credit/debit card - home delivery - often expensive (postal fees), - difficult to assess quality, customers cannot try on or touch products - delivery might take some time, unsuitable when goods are needed urgently - impersonal way of shopping - can be inconvenient to return unsuitable goods Advantages and disadvantages of night & day shopping customers: no need to hurry after work, more time to do the shopping, less crowded shops and no queues, but it can disturb family life and there is a danger of overspending staff: more job opportunities, getting money for overtime, but unsocial working hours employers: greater profits, but higher costs (wages, overheads e.g. light, heating) Customer service customer services: all services connected with the commodity (dealing with complaints, giving advice, repair services, home delivery, assembly services) companies want repeat business (customers to buy from them again) companies want to win customer loyalty


many companies have a code of practice (a set of rules which explains what the customers can expect of the company) customers can complain if they are not satisfied the warranty or guarantee service is a formal written document with the commodity promising to repair or replace the product if it breaks down in a given period of time customer care: an important issue for all companies A customer-friendly company will provide fast service, friendly sales staff, personal treatment, helpful answers, easy payment terms, generous discounts, competitive prices, consistent quality, long-lasting products, free delivery, clear instructions, up-to-date information Hire-purchase buying provides facilities for credit buying: paying a cash deposit and then paying in instalments over an agreed period of time used to purchase durable consumer goods How do supermarkets/hypermarkets try to make customers buy things they may not have planned to buy? (=impulse buying) attractive displays of inexpensive goods at the check-out, the arrangement of the goods on eye-level shelves, comfort and convenience of shopping, long opening hours winter sales and summer sales (off-season sales), clearance sales to get rid of stocks that cannot find any market, bargain counters all the year round Use of technology the increasing use of electronic equipment, for example: Electronic check-outs: Many items have bar codes on their label. At the check out these labels can be passed through a laser beam, which reads the information and transmits it to the electronic cash register. The register then produces for each customer a detailed list of the items bought. Light pens: can be used to scan the bar codes of products on the shelves of a store. This allows the firm to know precisely what goods are in stock. Bar codes convey information about an item, e.g. the manufacturers name or the brand name of the product. How can retailers convince customers to choose their shop for their purchases: offering a wide range of products of reliable quality, offering competitive prices, providing price reduction, discounts, special offers (Buy two for the price of one), offering free samples for new products, using effective advertising having the shop located centrally or close to customers homes, providing late-night and weekend opening, offering basic services within the shop: childcare, cafes, fast food restaurants, making sure more sales staff are available during peak hours to avoid queues, offering personal service, 16


providing optional delivery service offering home shopping facilities (companys webpage, catalogues), setting up order lines (customers order over the phone and collect goods from the store), providing free parking, providing good customer care.

A brand is a name given by a producer to one or more of its products. The aim is to differentiate the product from similar items of other producers and to make it distinctive to consumers. An effective brand name should be short and easy to identify and remember There are different types of branding: multiple branding - this involves a business using a range of brand names for its products, that is each product has its own brand name. An example is Unilever which produces Radio, Surf, Persil and other detergents. The advantage of this type of branding is that failure by one brand will not have a negative effect on another. corporate branding - this is when a business uses its corporate name as a principal brand identity. Heinz, BMW and Sony are examples. The advantage is that new products are more easily accepted by consumers if they already trust the existing corporate brand. corporate and individual branding - this is a middle way between the two previous branding strategies. Retailers own brand - products are branded with the name of the retailer selling them rather than the manufacturer. Examples include Tesco, Cora, Marks &Spencer own brand products. Own brands help retailers to gain customer loyalty. There are a number of reasons why businesses use branding: to create brand loyalty, to differentiate the product, to gain flexibility when making pricing decisions, to help recognition of the product, to develop a brand image.


Roleplay 1 A You are a supermarket customer. When you returned home with your purchases, you discovered that the ice cream you bought was beyond its sell-by date. You return to the supermarket and ask to see the manager in order to complain and request a replacement. B You are the manager of a supermarket. A customer has returned with some ice cream which they claim was purchased today, but which is over its sell-by date. You will need to see the receipt of purchase before exchanging it. You may also need to reassure the customer regarding the freshness of your other stock. Roleplay 2 A You are a regional sales representative of "Perfect Shine" which makes dishwashing liquid. Your product is new to the market, fairly good quality, and environment friendly and reasonably priced. You are touring Austria to promote sales of the dishwashing liquid. You have a meeting with Mr/Ms Achermann who is the purchasing manager of "Exter-Spat" supermarket chain. Discuss with him/her the possibility of a sale including prices, delivery times, method of payment, etc. and try to convince him/her to place at least a trial order. B As the purchasing manager your negotiating strategy is to praise the products and services provided by your traditional suppliers of dishwashing liquid. However, you realise that "Perfect Shine" might find a ready market among environment-conscious, middle-income customers if you can offer a competitive price to the major brands. Try to test the lowest limits of the "Perfect Shine" offer and finally agree to an order on a sale or return basis, Roleplay 3 A You are an old customer of Baseline Ltd., a manufacturer of tennis equipment. You have come to pay a social visit and to place a repeat order. To your surprise you find that their prices have increased considerably (15%) since last time you placed an order. Obviously, you want an explanation from their managing director. B You are the managing director of Baseline Ltd, a manufacturer of tennis equipment. With great tact and politeness you explain the reasons why you were forced to raise prices. You have had a sharp increase in the price of raw materials because a bigger rival who is now in a position to control prices bought up your old supplier. You have had an industrial conflict inside the factory won by the labour union resulting in higher wage costs, and lots of lost working hours. However, you do not want to lose one of your best customers and try to reach some agreement with him.


Topic 3. - Trade TRADE Trade is the exchange of goods and services for other goods and services or for money. International trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries. It includes: exports: the selling of goods and services abroad, resulting in an inflow of money (funds) imports: the buying of goods and services from abroad, resulting in an outflow of funds Reasons for international trade: countries are not self-sufficient in foods they do not have a climate suitable for producing all their needs they need raw materials that can only be found in other countries they dont have the technology to manufacture certain products there are cultural differences between countries The benefits of foreign trade are: increase in total world output increased specialization each nation specializes in the goods and services it makes best increased competition a wider range of goods and services, better quality, lower prices higher standards of living The balance of trade shows the difference between the value of goods a country imports and exports. The balance of payments shows the difference between the value of goods and services a country imports and exports. It shows whether the country is making a profit or a loss in its dealings with other countries. Balances can be: favourable when exports exceed imports and a surplus is created adverse when imports exceed exports and a deficit is created. Free trade is when no trade barriers are imposed, there is a free flow of goods and services between countries Protectionism means the restriction of the free flow of goods and services between countries. There are a number of reasons why countries often impose barriers to trade: to protect home producers to protect infant industries or declining industries to correct a balance of payments deficit to resist dumping and other unfair trading practices to protect the environment and the population to safeguard jobs Trade barriers are regulations that make trade between two countries more difficult and expensive. They can be: tariffs: a tax or custom duty imposed on imported goods to raise the price of foreign goods to the home consumer and thus to protect the home market


quotas: a limit on the quantity of the product that can be brought into the country during a year embargo: a government ban on trading between one country and another subsidies: a government finance towards the cost of the home-produced product so that it can be sold at a lower price national health and safety standards import certificates that are difficult to obtain slow administration GLOBALISATION Globalisation is the tendency for the world to work as one unit, led by large international companies doing business all over the world. Things that have led to globalisation include: tendency to end trade barriers free movement of capital cheap transport increased use of electronic systems of communication such as the Internet Pro-globalisation arguments: expansion and integration of global markets it can help to reduce geographical inequalities foreign competition forces local businesses to be more competitive free trade, liberalised markets growth in incomes and living standards in certain regions better access to information increased international contact enriches human life and culture Anti-globalisation arguments: widening social inequalities between the richest and the poorest groups of society profit-orientation leads to the exploitation of the Third World multinationals exploit favourable economic conditions then relocate plants leaving behind massive unemployment local business alternatives are often ignored environmental degradation: pollution, deforestation, habitat loss, climate change, huge waste production spreading of uniform western culture and the English language digital divide: those left out of information networks may be marginalized MULTINATIONALS - ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES A multinational company (MNC) is an organisation which owns or controls production or service facilities outside the country in which it is based. These companies usually have interests in at least four countries. Examples of multinationals include Ford, British American Tobacco, Volkswagen, Unilever, Sony. Multinationals often set up subsidiaries in developing countries because they enjoy a lot of advantages: availability of cheap raw material is high, labour costs are much lower than in Western countries,


they dont have to pay so much in taxes because they get tax allowances from the government, the quality of the local labour force is improving, employment law are less strict, trade unions in most industries are not very strong. While there are clear benefits for the host country, there are also a number of problems associated with them. The balance of payments and employment. One benefit of multinationals is their ability to create jobs. This, along with the manufacturing capacity which they create, can increase the GNP of countries and increase the standard of living. Multinationals also benefit the balance of payments of a country if their products are sold abroad. However, while multinationals can create jobs, they can also cause unemployment for two reasons. Firstly, they create competition for domestic firms. This may be beneficial, causing local firms to improve their efficiency, but it can also be a problem if these firms have to cut their labour force or close down plants. Second, multinationals often shift production facilities from one country to another in order to reduce their own costs. The effect of this is that jobs are lost and production is either reduced or completely stopped. In addition, multinationals can have a negative impact upon the balance of payments. This is because many of them receive huge amounts of components from their branches abroad, thus increasing the total quantity of imports. Technology and expertise. Multinationals may introduce new technology, production processes and management styles and techniques in their subsidiaries. Later, such techniques can also be adopted by home based firms. The process by which multinationals benefit countries in this respect is known as technology transfer. Technology transfer can be especially important to developing countries, which may lack technological expertise and know-how. However, this is not always the case. Managers and supervisors are often brought in from the multinationals home country, and little training is given to locally recruited staff. As a consequence, locals may be employed in low skilled jobs. Social responsibility. Multinationals have often been criticised, especially in their dealings with low income economies, where they use low or no safety measures. They have also been accused of marketing harmful products. In addition, environmentalists are concerned about the impact of multinationals on tropical rainforests and other natural resources. On the other hand, large multinationals are in a better position to finance projects that protect the environment from their activities. They also tend to offer better pay than local firms in developing economies. ECONOMIC PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES 1) How can countries be grouped? The First World Countries: industrial, high-income countries (USA, G8, France, Germany, Japan, Italy, Canada, Sweden, the Netherlands, and Belgium). The Second World Countries: both the upper-middle-income and the lowermiddle-income countries, e.g. the newly industrialised countries (NICs), Taiwan, Korea, Hong Kong, Brazil and Mexico (tiger economies). The Third World Countries: also Known as developing countries or less developed countries (LDCs). Low-income economies (many African countries) belong to this group. 2) What characterises developing countries? low standards of living inadequate food supply - malnutrition


bad geographical conditions: droughts, natural disasters, floods, earthquakes poverty and hunger poor infrastructure low per capita income short life expectancy poor educational standards low individual purchasing power (purchasing power: what a sum of money actually can buy at a given time) high percentage of GDP generated from agriculture (the amount of GDP derived from agriculture is less than 6 percent in the industrial countries - in the poorer, developing countries, the amount is more than 20 percent) inadequate medical and welfare support political unrest: wars huge debts which they are unable to pay back 3) What support can be given to developing countries? to set up charity organisations: giving money, food, medical help, medical supplies to raise money, to give grants to provide loans either to countries or to private companies - they have to be repaid and used wisely to improve infrastructure e.g. to build dams, roads, power plants etc. to improve educational standards - training programmes, facilities to improve hygiene, public health, to provide clean water to provide technical training trade as aid: paying First World prices for Third World goods to promote exports from developing countries and in this way to integrate the Third World into international trade to make developing countries less dependent on the rest of the world to write off or cancel a proportion of their debts Problems in less developed countries The most shocking problem these countries are faced with is famine. Because of the bad geographical conditions (deserts, rain forests), the lack of money and agricultural machinery, levels of agricultural production are very low and these countries cannot produce enough food to feed all the population. Many people starve or even die of hunger (especially children), starvation is a day-to-day problem. Obviously, standards of living are very low, educational, medical and welfare support are poor. The causes for this tragic situation can be found, on the one hand, in the past history of these countries (most of them are former colonies so they were exploited for hundreds of years) and, on the other hand, in their adverse climatic conditions (heat, drought, tropical rain). It must also be mentioned that these countries have huge debts with Western banks as a result of their governments borrowing in the 1960s to finance economic development. Possible solutions It goes without saying that rich countries have the moral obligation to help poor countries find solutions to improve the life of their inhabitants.


1. The most simple solution seems to be the donation of surpluses of food, equipment, clothing, medical supplies to poor countries. This aid can relieve the problem temporarily, but it does not offer a long-term solution as surpluses from donors are not regularly available and cannot be guaranteed. 2. What poor countries need is economic development. To achieve this, they firstly need money which rich countries could provide in the form of low-interest loans and grants that are then invested into the economy in creating new industries and modernising farming. Certain international organisations such as the World Bank, the IMF (International Monetary Fund) and the United Nations (UN) provide this type of assistance on certain conditions. 3. Poor countries also need development assistance and technical training for their workforce. This could be solved either by sending specialists to give the employees local training or by providing educational facilities for skill training in the developed countries. Young people from poor countries could be given the possibility of getting a degree in the developed world, and then they would go back to their homelands and use their knowledge and expertise for the benefit of their own countries. 4. Providing exporting facilities for these countries could also greatly help them overcome their present problems. Rich nations should guarantee to buy at first world prices not only their raw materials but their industrial goods as well. By guaranteeing fair prices they could help the Third World to integrate into international trade. 5. As far as their debt is concerned, these countries are unable to pay them back. Consequently, they need to reschedule or postpone repayments, or to borrow further money just to pay the interest on existing loans. This is obviously not a good solution. What could help them would be the writing off or cancellation of their loans.


English for Business The Topic:

Level 2

Global Economy: Multinationals - Help or Hindrance? (Syllabus Topic 3)

Base your conversation on the following questions and suggestions. Why do companies decide to set up subsidiaries in foreign countries? Which parts of the world do they generally expand to? Do they face any problems when relocating to new countries? What are the benefits for the host country when multinationals move there? What are the drawbacks for the host country when multinationals shift production to a new place? Do you think it is fair for multinationals to close down factories in one country and move to another? What solutions do you see to this problem? Are there any multinational companies in your country? Roleplay Candidate You are the owner of an export company specialising in selling Hungarian food and drink curiosities to the US. You would like to expand your business but do not have sufficient funds. You decide to visit the Commercial Department of the US Embassy in Budapest to ask for their help in finding potential US investors into your company. Explain what they would gain and what risks they would take. Roleplay Candidate You work for the Hungarian office of CARE, an international charity providing aid to poor African families. You are visiting the CEO of a big Hungarian company and try to convince him to donate some money. Outline what you would use the money for.


Topic 4. - Money 1. What are the functions of money? a medium of exchange (legal tender) a measure of value a store of value a standard for deferred payments 2. What are main characteristics of money? acceptability, stability of value, portability, durability, divisibility 3. What is inflation? a steady rise in the average price level - the value of money deteriorates 4. What are the consequences of inflation? the value of money deteriorates; purchasing power falls people can buy fewer things for their money changes the value of money, causes political and economic uncertainty some groups gain, others lose money (lenders, borrowers, importers and exporters, workers, employees, etc.) affects interest and exchange rates a stable currency protects the interests of businesses, promotes the creation of wealth, leads to a higher standard of living 5. What is monetary policy? the governments control of a countrys currency and its system for lending and borrowing money governments and central banks control a countrys money supply and implement monetary policy trying to maintain price stability keeping inflation low promoting price stability promoting employment growth 6. What is currency exchange? the trading of one currency against another at a set exchange rate, importers have to buy currencies in the foreign exchange market 7. Why do exchange rates move? appreciation: a rise in the price of the currency depreciation: a fall in the price of the currency changes in demand or supply in the foreign exchange market, it is affected by capital flow between countries goods, services, securities have an influence on the flow of funds inflation rate is another factor THE BANKING SYSTEM, BANKING SERVICES 1. What is banking?


Banking means dealing in money and refers to a wide range of financial services such as making loans, collecting deposits, holding accounts, giving advice, etc. 2. Types of banks a) The Central Bank (The National Bank): the governments bank the bankers bank b) Investment Banks: offer services to rich individual and corporate clients c) Commercial or Retail Banks: offer services to the public and to small and mediumsized companies d) Universal Banks: combine the services of Investment and Commercial Banks 3. What are the functions of the Central Bank? the governments bank (manages the governments bank accounts; advises and assists the government in its monetary policy; makes arrangements for government borrowing) issues banknotes the bankers bank: supervises commercial banks fixes the minimum and maximum interest rates has international responsibilities (services for other central banks and for international organisations e.g. IMF) 4. Services provided by Investment Banks raise money for industry finance international trade issue securities (shares and bonds) deal with takeovers and mergers offer stockbroking and portfolio management services 5. What are the main services of modern commercial banks (retail banks)? a) receive deposits from individuals and corporations b) hold accounts: current account for the safekeeping of funds needed for current use; it pays little or no interest; allows the use of debit cards to withdraw money from cash dispensers or to make purchases in shops; can be overdrawn (= you may withdraw more money from your account than there is in it) deposit account: the money deposited is tied up for a certain period, pays higher interest; does not allow the use of debit cards; cannot be overdrawn foreign exchange account: dollar-account, euro-account c) offer credit facilities: loan: a sum of money which the bank lends to a customer for a fixed period of time for a fixed interest; the loan is repaid over a longer period of time in monthly/quarterly/yearly instalments overdraft: a sum of money with which a current account can be overdrawn; interest is calculated daily; the money is repaid automatically when your account is credited mortgage: a special loan for house purchase d) offer investment advice e) provide plastic money: credit and debit cards f) offer mobilebank, telebank, and online banking facilities


g) exchange foreign currency, provide travellers cheques(= a cheque for a fixed amount that can be bought from a bank and cashed for local currency in another country) h) money transfer facilities: standing order (= payment of a fixed sum at regular intervals), direct debit i) financial advice, portfolio management, private pension funds, private health schemes j) insurance services k) bank statements, bank cards, cash dispensers, night safe l) safe deposit box 6. What is online/electronic banking? What are its advantages? service provided by banks that allows people to pay money from one account to another, pay bills etc. from ones personal computer over the Internet convenient, fast, available from anywhere at any time 7. What services are available through telebanking/telephone banking? 24-hour automatic or live voice service, from touch tone phones, a wide range of services (checking balances, making payments, etc.) 8. What are mobilebank services? text messages to customers (purchases, cash withdrawals, balance)

METHODS OF PAYING 1. How are cheque payments made? a written order to the bank to pay money from your account to the person named on the cheque (the payee); the account holder writes the cheque and gives it to the payee who takes it to the account holders bank to have the money cashed or transferred to a bank account 2. What is a bank giro? a method of transfer (credit transfer) of funds directly into the account someone else, who may hold his account at another branch or even a different bank to the person making the payment 3. Why are travellers cheques a safe method of payment? Where can they be bought and sold? easy to use; protect you from losing cash and theft can be stopped and replaced in 24 hours accepted worldwide (shops, banks, restaurants, hotels, etc) bought at banks, travel agencies, foreign exchange offices 4. What is plastic money? all types of plastic cards, to obtain cash and make payments without cash or cheques (=cashless society) 5. How can you obtain a bank card? at any bank branch office; bank account with regular income 27

application form, identification; pay some fees 6. What are the different types of bank cards? credit cards and debit cards charge cards (similar to credit cards, but you have to repay the bill in full each month, many companies use them for business trips) 7. In what way are debit cards different from credit cards? debit cards: you spend the money which you have in your account; you cannot spend more than you have in your account, it cannot be used to obtain credits without prior agreement credit cards: you spend the banks money; the bank pays the trader and the customer later pays the money to the bank, you must always pay a minimum amount of the bill each month, no interest is charged if the account is paid immediately, e.g. Visa, MasterCard, American Express (international card payment schemes, their logos are displayed on shop doors) with both cards there is a danger of overspending 8. How do you pay with credit cards? What is credit limit? transactions are recorded; interest rate is paid off later credit limit: the maximum you can owe at a time; by the bank danger: overspending 9. What are the advantages of using bank cards? convenient, easy and quick to use purchases with cards are mostly free safe, you dont have to carry large amounts of money on you you can avoid the inconvenience of not having enough cash available you can use them abroad for foreign currency transactions you can use them when purchasing goods by phone or over the Internet (24-hour shopping) 10. What are the disadvantages of using bank cards? high interest charges, annual fee for cards, commission for ATM transactions it can get lost or stolen card fraud (somebody else using your card without your knowledge) risk in online selling and buying: data security, privacy (Advice: never disclose your PIN, destroy transaction slips which show your card number, save receipts and check them, report any questionable charges to the card issuer) you run the risk of possible debt problems (overspending) slower than paying in cash there might be shops where you cannot pay by card as they are not connected to the electronic payment system 11. How can you withdraw money at an ATM? automated teller machine/ cash machine/cash dispenser, 24-hour access; insert the card into the slot provided key in your PIN code (Personal Identification Number) key in the amount you want to withdraw commission is charged 28

12. What do you do if your card gets lost or stolen? contact the card issuer 24-hour toll-free number for emergencies stop transactions (freeze it), replace the card later 13. What is a credit card fraud? How can you avoid it? someone uses your card without your knowledge using your account number illegally, extra imprints from your card PIN; limits on greater value transactions 14. Is it safe to make online payments? How can online sellers increase security of payment? greater risk (data security, privacy) asking for mailing addresses, telephone numbers, faxed customer signature 15. Advantages and disadvantages of paying in cash: accepted everywhere quicker than paying by card no risk of running into debt can be lost or stolen you need to check how much cash you have on you


Roleplay Banking You work for a Hungarian bank. A foreign client asks you about how he/she can open a bank account at your bank. Inform him/her about the necessary requirements (necessary documents, interest, regular income transferred to the account etc.). The client wants to use the account together with his wife/her husband. He/She is also interested in chequebooks and bank cards that could be used with the account.


Topic 5. - Transport Public transport in cities and towns Transport is - a means of making contact between two distant points. In most big cities people have a wide choice of vehicles as public transport services consist of taxis, buses, trams, trolley buses, suburban trains, the underground system. A great number of people live, work and travel in big cities like Budapest or London. Day by day the inhabitants have to travel long distances to and from work and school, and most of them use the public transport network. In addition to the actual inhabitants, lots of people commute and go to work in big cities, and thus public transport has to handle an enormous number of passengers. Perhaps the taxi is the quickest and most comfortable, but also the most expensive means of transport. The yellow tram is the cheapest and generally the slowest, but also the most frequent vehicle after the underground. It works by electricity and has a pair of fixed rails and overhead electric wires, so it does not pollute the air as much as buses do. The trolley bus is a mixture of trams and buses, it has rubber tyres but runs on electricity. The underground railway is definitely the quickest means of transport as it goes under the ground, so it never gets into traffic jams. It runs every other minute during the rush hours, and thus increases the speed of transport. Problems with public transport: constant congestion on the roads, traffic islands, pavements and in the vehicles traffic has slowed down immensely frequent traffic jams (rush hours) chaotic conditions on the roads, awful state of repair of roads (potholes, low quality asphalt, ambiguous road signs, poor markings) pollution to the environment caused by exhaust fumes parking difficulties and costs poor condition of vehicles - old and obsolete vehicles, no wheelchair access, few cars running on unleaded petrol, frequent breakdowns, dirty buses and train carriages lack of infrastructure - few motorways, few kilometres of bicycle tracks frequent delays Possible solutions to problems with public transport: stopping the deterioration of roads improving road conditions need for more ring-roads, one-way streets, computer-controlled traffic lights building of vehicle underpasses and pedestrian subways banning heavy-goods vehicles from towns using environmentally-friendly vehicles running on unleaded petrol providing free P+R (park and ride) parking facilities at the outskirts of towns where people can leave their cars and continue their journey by public transport introducing restrictions on the use of private cars providing cleaner, more comfortable vehicles providing extra services on vehicles used for longer journeys (catering services, access to electricity for laptop/notebook use) increasing the frequency of service


Transport infrastructure 1. Road transport national and local roads, motorways, ring-roads, roundabouts pavements, bicycle tracks, traffic islands, bridges road signs, traffic lights car fleet - buses, trolley buses, trams, coaches - for passenger transport lorries, juggernaut lorries for the carriage of goods network of overhead electric wires for trolleys and trams bus stops, bus stations 2. Rail transport network of rails on the surface and under the ground trains, carriages, trams railway and underground stations, warehouses escalators in underground stations agencies selling the service 3. Air transport planes for passenger and cargo transport airports, runways, warehouses air navigation centres buses and corridors connecting gate exits with planes agencies selling the service 4. Sea and river transport passenger/liner ships, ferries cargo ships: vessels, tramps, freighter, tankers ports, docks, piers canals Improvements to transport in Hungary: building new roads, especially in depressed regions (Eastern Hungary) where the road network is poorer building more motorways to raise general traffic standards and make access to industrial units easier improving the condition of existing roads, providing unambiguous road signs and clear markings expanding airport capacity (Ferihegy 1 and 2 are the only international airports, too small for the increased air traffic of recent years) ameliorating the condition of rail tracks and railway carriages encouraging people to use public transport by making it better and cheaper Passenger travel 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by train? fast; comfortable; meals and snacks are available; sleepers are available; reaches all important places; more environmentally friendly than cars expensive (especially in first class); crowded; noisy; dirty; delays 2. What do you think of train services in Hungary? 32

3. Does the Hungarian Rail offer cheap tickets? Do they offer any reduction? young people up to the age of 26; students and pensioners; children under 6; employees of the Hungarian Rail 4. Do you think that in the age of cars there are still people who choose to travel by train? If so, why? e.g. commuters: cars are too expensive to use, enough space to move, can work or relax while travelling 5. What carriages does a train consist of? first-class and second-class carriages, smoking and non-smoking compartments, sleepers, buffet or restaurant cars 6. What are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by air? very fast; comfortable, flights to all the important cities all the year round expensive; takes too long to collect luggage and reach town/airport 7. Do you think flying is a safe way of travelling? 8. In your opinion, what is important from an airline? e.g. safety, comfort, punctual departures, good food and wine, attentive staff 9. What are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by sea? e.g. big ocean liners: several thousand passengers, cabins, entertainment, slow, bad weather 10.What are the advantages and disadvantages of travelling by coach? relatively fast, you can see more of the country expensive, less comfortable 11. In your opinion, which is the quickest and most comfortable way of travelling? Why? The use of cars 1. Do you consider a car to be a luxury/an essential part of your life/something you need but you cant afford? 2. Is it expensive to run a car nowadays? high fuel prices, petrol tax, road tax, weight tax, high parking charges, maintenance, insurance 3. What accounts for the high number of accidents on the road? drinking and driving, exceeding speed limits, careless driving, pedestrians, ignoring traffic rules, road conditions (potholes, ambiguous road signs, poor marking) 4. What are the advantages of using cars? comfortable, takes you door-to-door, freedom of movement, people are able to travel individually, no timetables the car industry provides employment for many people (reduces the rate of unemployment)


eases the burden of public transport (if people used cars less, there would be even more congestions on public transport vehicles) spreads population, allows people to live outside towns and commute daily to work 5. What are the disadvantages of using cars? congestion, traffic jams, environmental pollution, exhaust fumes, road accidents, parking difficulties, poor conditions of vehicles, oil = non-renewable energy resource, will become depleted sooner or later causing shortage of raw material for various industries climatic change, contribution to the greenhouse effect and global warming 6. What could be done to make people stop using their cars? convince more people to give up their cars and use public transport instead make it more expensive for people to drive cars (higher fuel prices, more taxes, more expensive insurance and maintenance costs) make unleaded petrol compulsory have more policemen on the roads to control traffic make traffic rules stricter introduce hefty fines for those who break the Highway Code persuade more people to use bicycles for travelling in towns (advantages: cheap, keeping fit, relatively fast, no problems with parking disadvantages: too much smog to breathe in, bad weather, can be stolen, lack of cycling lanes) The transport of goods 1. What are the major forms of transport used in international trade? rail, road, air, sea, inland waterways (rivers), pipelines 2. What factors influence the choice of transport? the nature of goods the size and weight of the products the value of goods the location of the terminals the cost of transport the reputation of the carrier how urgently the goods are needed the distance 3. When is air-transport used? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Give examples when you would transport by air. the fastest form of transport short transit times little risk of damage or pilferage suitable for perishable goods and goods of great value low packaging costs expensive limited weight and size the problem of bad weather relies on other transport noise, pollution limited number of airports

5. And rail transport? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Give examples when you would transport by rail.


faster than road transport over long distances less labour-intensive more economical in fuel passenger travel container traffic little pollution

fixed routes (railway lines) high equipment costs relies on road transport greater risk of damage and pilferage possible delays need for road transport

6. When would you choose road transport? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Give examples when you would transport by road. no rigid timetables and routes flexibility fast over short distances can reach places inaccessible to other forms of transport door-to-door no trans-shipment, less risk of damage and pilferage expensive the problem of bad weather and congestion noise, pollution only limited size and weight slower than railways over long distances condition of the roads tax on vehicles and fuel

7. When is it useful to use sea transport? What are its advantages and disadvantages? Give examples when you would transport by sea. cheap, very slow, relies on other transport forms


LCCIEB Level 2 Transport for the individual in your country Base your conversation on the following. Local transport What type of transport do you usually use? State the purpose, e.g. travelling to work, etc. Is this transport effective and economical? Make suggestions for any improvements Who provides this transport? E.g. private or public provision. Have you any views on this? Comment on the cost of such transport. Modes of transport available Comment on the availability and use/non-use of any of the following: Animals, bicycles, motor cycles, cars, river, sea, rail and air transport. Longer journeys What kind of transport do people normally use for long distance travel in your country? Is this within the financial means of the average person? Roleplay Candidate You are the member of an environmentalist group fighting for a cleaner and healthier environment. The solution you see to this would be a reduction in the use of private cars. To make your opinion known to the general public, you decide to give an interview to a magazine with a high readership. Answer the journalists questions. Candidate You work for the Hungarian Railway and are a keen supporter of environmental issues. You are concerned about the level of pollution caused by private cars and have a lot of ideas of how the railway could help improve the situation. Talk to your superior about your ideas. Candidate You need to hire a mini-bus for a group of 8 businessmen visiting your company. Discuss with the representative of the Bus Company your specific needs, including dates and times of pick-ups. You should also check whether the bus has seatbelts and if the passengers are fully insured.


Topic 6. - Communications and the media Business Communications 1. Definition a means of making contact between people, organisations, places for businesses: a means of - controlling the companys operation - co-ordinating the activities of the departments - motivating personnel - ensuring external links with suppliers, customers, 2. Types a) Internal written: letters; memos, minutes, reports, notices, manuals, newsletters. oral: face-to face, meetings, interviews, presentations, telephoning. b) External business correspondence, postal communications (orders, invoices), telecommunications, advertising, transport. 3. Telecommunications - instant delivery of messages; speedy a) Telephone: wire telephone, cell/mobile phone radiophone (to and from moving vehicles) free phones (toll-free numbers available to encourage custom) call cards (an alternative to coins) b) Correspondence facilities: the Internet: e-mail intranet: a private network accessible from PCs and open only to members of the same organisation or group. Users can read and respond to messages posted on a website. extranet: a private network restricted to members of the same organization and authorized outsiders. -facsimile transmission service /FAX (transmission of black and white A4-sized documents) c) Conference facilities: confravision: allows people to hold face-to-face discussions without having to travel to the same meeting place (sound + vision) teleconferencing: several people are connected by telephone at the same time (audio conference) The Internet www means World Wide Web. You log in to it from your PC and the whole world is within your reach. There are millions of websites storing an endless number of data, if you are looking for a piece of information, you just have to type in the key word, and then loads of tips will pop up on a search website to let you know where you can find what you want. Using the Internet is a very popular way to pass time nowadays. People just sit in front of the screen and surf the net for fun. What can you do with the help of the Internet? collect information, do research and be up-to-date, 37

read and subscribe to the online edition of newspapers and magazines, write e-mails, send a postcard, download information, music, films, listen to music, play games, purchase or sell goods, find cheap offers, sales, chat with friends and family, use banking services, carry on your education (e-learning), look up timetables, find a partner, etc. What can businesses use the Internet for? finding partners, clients, customers, suppliers finding information about competitors, their products, services, prices gathering information about the market, finding new markets displaying products, giving detailed information about products, services advertising (cheaper than printing or broadcasting) providing worldwide access to customers 24 hours a day throughout the year, writing e-mails, holding video conferences doing online banking buying online from suppliers supplying products directly to customers, no need for middlemen recruiting people What are some of the dangers of using the Internet? unreliable information, hackers (people who secretly break into the computers of others, inspecting or stealing data stored on them), becoming addicted, money stolen from a bank account, no real personal contact Can you imagine life without computers? everything is controlled by them (cars, electric gadgets, watches) database in different institutions (e.g. hospitals) helps us keep up with our fast way of life Mobile phones 1) Functions storing the numbers that you regularly call (phone book) voicemail sending and receiving SMSs (=short message service; short written messages, usually up to 160 words) getting information on calls applying settings, e.g. the language, time and date


extras, like alarm clock, timer, stop-watch, calculator and games using WAP (= a kind of simple form of the Internet; you can look at information on the net and send e-mails) sending MMS (= forwarding pictures) taking photographs and video shots roaming (= using your phone abroad) paying for different services (parking) playing games 2) Advantages feel safer - you can ask for help if something happens to you you are contactable anywhere (you take your mobile with you) you are contactable anytime you can switch it off if you dont want to be disturbed you can see the number of the caller and duck the call if you dont feel like talking to that person 3) Disadvantages it can be disturbing that people can reach you everywhere you must remember to take a charger with you when you spend several days far from your home because the battery runs down in some days it can be disturbing and annoying to hear people talk loudly on the phone in the streets, on means of public transport, in restaurants, etc. writing SMSs brings about changes and distortions in the language because people simplify it and use abbreviations and signs to express what they want it is rather expensive. The press 1) What kinds of newspapers, journals and magazines are there? local, national, quality (serious), popular (sensational) right-wing papers, left-wing papers, independent papers specialising in certain topics 2) What are the differences between sensational and quality papers? readership, outlook of the papers, topics, language and style, approach to the topic covered 3) What kind of articles and columns are there in dailies? political section travel columns world and domestic news gossip columns leading article sports news current events advertisements, classified ads editorial letters from readers arts reviews TV and radio programmes science weather forecasts economy etc. 4) How has TV changed our lives? How does it influence our lifestyle? pastime activities have changed, couch potatoes, commercialised channels 5) What do you think of advertising on TV? 39

6) 7) 8)

What do you think of Hungarian TV channels and their programmes? What programmes are you interested in? Why? Should TV programmes be censored? rating system, categorising programmes (e.g. age)

9) Which do you prefer? Radio or television? 10) What are the most frequent programmes on the radio? commentaries, radio plays, political and economic programmes, music, live broadcasts of concerts, news, lectures, reviews 11) What do you think of mass media in Hungary? mass media = radio, TV, the press, Internet cover a wide range of events, up-to-date, to keep the public informed entertaining controlled by money, not really objective, bias public opinion, very big power low standard of commercial channels, scandals and sensations in the focus full of commercials, interrupting programmes ADVERTISING AND PROMOTION 1) What is promotion? a series of techniques for informing, influencing and persuading customers in order to increase sales 2) What are the different forms of promotion? advertising publicity (press releases) direct mailing packaging sales promotion (free samples, bonus packs, leaflets, discounts, coupons, competitions, cash refund, etc.) point-of-sale displays (counter displays, window displays, etc.) exhibitions and trade fairs sponsorship personal selling 3) What is the aim of advertising? to inform potential buyers of the availability of goods and services. to persuade people to buy or behave in a particular way. 4) How does informative advertising differ from persuasive advertising? Informative: gives detailed information about the goods or services available without persuading customers to buy (such as colour, size, material, etc) Persuasive: tries to persuade people to buy irrespective of whether they need the product or service (techniques used: sex appeal, ambition, personality appeal, work simplification, health, etc) 5) What are the various advertising media? newspapers, magazines, journals, classified ads


TV, radio commercials cinema advertisements outdoor posters, hoardings/billboards, sandwichmen point-of-sale advertising (window and counter displays, demonstrations) direct mail sponsorship transportation advertising Internet, websites packaging, carrier bags, calendars, pens 6) List arguments for and against advertising. Arguments for advertising informs and makes customers aware of the choice promotes demand and makes mass production possible mass production provides employment and keeps prices down supports sports and cultural events Arguments against advertising the cost of advertising is incorporated into the price of goods and services. aims to persuade people to buy whether they need the product or not some advertising encourages unsociable habits and behaviour some advertising misleads buyers it is wasteful of resources (e.g. paper)


LCCIEB - ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS; LEVEL 2 The Topic: TELEVISION - THE EFFECT ON THE INDIVIDUAL Base your conversation on the following: Comment on your television viewing habits in relation to: amount of time spent watching TV types of programmes you prefer. Are there any competitive channels? Name them and indicate your preferences. To what extent is advertising a feature? why is it necessary? how do you react to TV advertising? do you notice any particular effects on young people? can you give examples of what you consider to be good and bad advertising? Consider the advantages of TV eg. pleasure, educational, news and current affairs. Consider the disadvantages of TV eg. portrayal of violence, effect on young people. Too much TV!!! What are the consequences? Roleplay Candidate You are the Advertising Manager of "Calorie-Blaze", a manufacturer of health-conscious food products. You are planning to launch a new snack food called Fruit-crunch and you want an all-out introductory advertising campaign. You are meeting the representative of your regular advertising firm. Tell him/her about your product, target market, launch strategy and advertising budget. Discuss basic ideas of the campaign. Candidate Your company makes skin care and beauty products. You have agreed to an interview with a television channel about products designed to keep people young and healthy. You make a skin care product which is supposed to stop skin looking old. Your advertisement says that it reduces wrinkles, keeps natural skin colour, contains vitamins, all the ingredients are natural, and it has not been tested on animals. The interviewer is concerned about these claims. Try to persuade the interviewer that the advertisement has no false claims.


Topic 7. - Education 1. What is the educational system in Hungary like? compulsory education: 6-16 private and state school system: private schools = fee-paying, state system = maintained by the government Stages of education: kindergarten/nursery school: preparing for school, being in a community a) primary school: basic knowledge of reading, writing and calculus, later other subjects b) secondary education: vocational schools (learning a trade), secondary technical school (learning a trade + obtaining a secondary school certificate); secondary grammar school (preparing for college or university, some last for 8, some for 6, most for 4 years); bilingual schools: one-year preparatory programme + 4 years c) higher education: colleges and universities 2. What is the academic year like? When does it begin and finish? How many terms are there? Subjects taught and compulsory exams. Punishment and reward in schools. September - June, divided into two terms compulsory subjects (in the first ten years of school) and optional subjects or electives (in the last two years of secondary education) entrance exam for certain secondary schools, compulsory school-leaving exam at the end of secondary school studies (which is the entrance exam to higher education as well) no corporal punishment in Hungarian schools any more; students with bad behaviour can be expelled from their school and recommended to find another educational institution to continue their studies a system of grading students from 1 to 5, 1 = failure and 5 = the best grade the best students are rewarded with books, scholarships to foreign countries 3. Further education. What choices do you have after leaving secondary school? secondary-level vocational training (another year at secondary schools) higher-level vocational training (= felsfok szakkpzs), courses last for two years and offer commercial training (e.g. accounting, business management), specific management training (e.g. hotels, tourism), community service training (e.g. nursing, caring) learning other trades (building, plumbing, electrician) or finding a job going on to higher education many students go to specialist colleges, e.g. to art, agricultural, commercial, medical or teacher training colleges, or to a College of Technology there are also courses designed to give an academic education in subjects like mathematics, history, sociology, languages or literature (after graduating these students can look for all kinds of vacancies open to graduates, in careers like accountancy, management or the civil service, knowledge of a particular subject is often not important, what matters is the more general and transferable skills analytical, communication and presentation skills)


e.g. University of Economics, Technology, Medicine, Arts and Sciences, College of Trade and Catering, Foreign Trade, Finance and Accountancy, Agriculture, Forestry, Physical Education, Teacher Training College 4. What are some of the recent changes in the education system? the first 3 grades of primary school: students cannot fail at the end of the school year without the consent of their parents any secondary school can have a language - preparatory year higher education consists of 3 levels: after the first 3 years: BA (Bachelor of Arts) or BSc (Sciences) degree the following 2 years: MA (Master of Arts) or MSc (Sciences) degree 3 more years: PhD courses no entrance exams to universities from 2005 on, admission depends on the results of secondary school-leaving exams two-level secondary school-leaving exam: intermediate and advanced exam 5. What Is the relationship between the EU and the Bologna process? What are the goals of the Bologna process? EU: free flow of workforce - in education as well the main idea: to integrate the education systems of the member states into an easily comparable and compatible system and by 2010 a common educational region would appear in the EU the goals: a two-level system in higher education (undergraduate and graduate) a shared credit system the support of mobility the compatibility of the knowledge acquired 6. What is the credit system? a shared credit system: a conform credit system all over Europe, credit points for the subjects that students have completed and if they want to transfer to another school, the credits would show what they have already studied 7. What are some of the problems that schools have to face in Hungary? financial troubles underpaid teachers lack of necessary equipment run-down conditions and facilities decreasing number of school-aged children (demographic decrease) closing down schools dismissing teachers, unemployment 8. Do you think that the aim of secondary school education should be: a) practical (e.g. job training); b) to prepare for university; c) to help you develop your own character and personality? 9. What would you change about the present system of education in Hungary? 10.Is there any careers advice available for school leavers in Hungary? 44

advice given by school teachers and careers advisory centres specialist careers advisors invited by schools to talk to pupils and give information about different careers and what job prospects there are after graduation visits to factories and businesses open days organised by colleges and universities 11.Can you stop learning after getting a college or university degree? lifelong learning: essential for us because we live in the age of globalisation, of information boom and of unbelievable technological advances; we cannot survive if we are unable to adapt ourselves to constant changes in our lives and environment 12.E-learning the latest and most advanced form of distance learning integrates computers and the Internet into the teaching and learning process offers the worlds greatest library near at hand for information; interactivity, independence, practice at your own pace 13.LANGUAGE LEARNING a) Why is it important to learn languages? Hungarian is NOT a widely-spoken language to talk freely to foreign people about different topics, to understand people and to make yourself understood, to make friends, to learn about other cultures, to read books in the original, to understand foreign TV channels, to be better informed about the world, to get a scholarship, to go abroad to study, to work abroad, etc, b) What possibilities are there for learning languages? state education (already from nursery or primary schools) language schools private tuition visiting or living in foreign countries work placement in a foreign country (during college/university years) subtitled films foreign TV channels and radio stations 14.PERSONAL EDUCATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. What schools have you attended so far? Do you do well at school? Where did you continue your studies after leaving primary school? Do you enjoy being a student? Why? Why not? What is the teacher-student relationship like in your school? Which are your favourite subjects? Which are the ones that you dont like? What are some of the out-of-school activities that you are involved in? What are your plans for the future?


LCCI ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS LEVEL 2 The Topic: Personal Experience of Education and Training for a Career Base your conversation on the following: State your intended career. What type of education or training have you had (are you having) for a career. Outline the subjects and the level you have reached. How long will/did this education and training last? Did you experience any difficulty in obtaining this education in relation to: availability and distance? cost? Who supplies this education? How will this qualification assist your career? If you could start all over again, would you make the same choices? If not, what would you choose? Roleplay You are the principal of a Business School. You have been contacted by the Recruitment Manager of an international bank. Discuss the banks requirements and explain what your school can do to ensure a steady supply of suitable new entrants.


Topic 8. - Travel and tourism

TOURISM IN A NATIONS ECONOMY 1) What are the benefits of tourism for the economy and society? tourism is an economic commodity which creates wealth and gives employment stimulates development both in the destination country and in the home country promotes economic activity (industrial and agricultural sectors; providing transport, retailing, entertainment; making of souvenirs, etc.) increases the provision of facilities and accommodation (hotels, restaurants, sports facilities, wellness facilities, cultural programmes, festivals, etc.) tourism can improve the image of an area (parks, sports facilities, cultural events) creates jobs in hotels, restaurants, entertainment, construction industry foreign currency is brought into the country (invisible export) income for the local economy (tourists go shopping, spend money in hotels, restaurants, on transport, entertainment attracts foreign investments in hotels, catering units, venues for sporting and cultural events, transport infrastructure - roads, railways and airports the revenue from tourism can be used for local development projects the new services and facilities are also available for local people increases knowledge of other peoples life and culture an essential means of bringing people together, leads to better understanding among the peoples of the world; greater chance of a peaceful future boosts national pride 2) What are the negative effects of tourism? mass tourism and the development that goes with it can lead to pollution and spoil the natural beauty and attraction of a place over-exploitation of areas like the Mediterranean seaside man-made attractions as well as the art heritage can be spoilt development costs are often higher than originally planned leading to debts that have to be paid off by the whole population use of facilities often cost a lot and cannot be afforded by local people (may result in adverse feelings towards foreigners) tourists spend money abroad, not in their home country while they are away greater number of people can create security problems, higher crime levels high levels of unemployment in off-season times in certain areas 3) Why is tourism part of the invisible trade? it means the exporting and importing of services (= invisibles e.g. tourism, banking, insurance, shipping, etc.) it cannot be seen by tourists before they buy (when a tourist buys a package tour abroad, he is buying more than a simple collection of services, i.e. aircraft seat, hotel room, three meals a day, the temporary use of a strange environment, the culture and heritage of the region and other intangible benefits) visible trade: the exporting and importing of tangible goods (= visibles e.g. cars, furniture, food, etc) 4) Traditional forms of tourism Sun, sea and sand tourism 47

sightseeing tourism visiting friends and relatives 5) What are the new developments in tourism? maintain the quality of tourism by providing adequate facilities and services from transport to qualified/well-trained staff promote new areas and forms of tourism such as rural or cultural/urban tourism the elimination of visas and border checks between EU member states the introduction of the common currency air travel has been liberalized wellness / thermal tourism: thermal spas, baths activity holidays: skiing, sailing, scuba-diving, hiking festival tourism passive sport tourism (when you attend famous sporting events - Olympic games, world championships, etc. - as a spectator) survival holidays, all kinds of adventures eco-tourism: to learn about different places and environments, to do conservation work, voluntary work back-packing holidays: to travel as cheaply as possible (camping sites, youth hostels, cheap transport) ethnic tourism (participate in the life of different ethnic groups) business travel (conference tourism, incentive tourism - when companies finance trips abroad for an employee as a recognition of their work) 6) Why do so many people travel nowadays? have more money, depending on ones financial situation more time travelling is easier and faster on business, for pleasure, for relaxation, for education, for health to see other cultures, to learn other languages 7) What documents do you need if you go abroad? valid passport or ID, visa, travel insurance 8) Where can you change currency? banks, foreign exchange offices, travel agencies, tour operators finding favourable exchange rates 9) How can you take money with you when travelling abroad? taking currency notes debit or credit cards (safe) bank transfers (for longer trips, rather expensive) travellers cheques (easy to use; protect you from losing cash and theft, can be stopped and replaced in 24 hours, bought at banks, travel agencies, foreign exchange offices, accepted worldwide - shops, banks, restaurants, hotels, etc,) 10) Rural Tourism Have you ever longed for a holiday far from overcrowded places where you can enjoy the quietness and beauty of nature and experience unique things at the same time? Well, the place for your challenging but idle holiday is the Hungarian countryside. 48

Rural tourism in Hungary has a lot to offer the holiday maker. First of all, theres undiscovered nature. Regardless of whether you choose a mountain village or a settlement in the flat regions of the country, a number of biking and hiking trails will invite you to discover the wonders of natural landscape, the specific flora and fauna that remain hidden from the eyes of the sight-hunting traveller. Secondly, you will have the chance to get acquainted with the treasures of Hungarian folk art, music and dance. There is no better place than the countryside if you want to see and try for yourself some of the old handcrafts. Next to the small village museums exhibiting the characteristic hand-made local objects you will always find a workshop with friendly craftsmen encouraging and helping you to make your own gift. You will have a chance in trying your hand at pottery, woodcarving, weaving, embroidery, straw and wicker plaiting, or making different objects from leather or animal horn. Just imagine how proud you would feel having made your own wicker basket, straw hat or fancy towel with the typical flower of herringbone embroidery. And there is no better recreation after hard work than singing and dancing. In the community centres of most villages there are enthusiastic people, both young and old, who work together on preserving the specific folk music and dance of their area for future generations. Tourists are welcome to join any time. A further attraction of a rural holiday is equestrian tourism. Cross-country riding is available in many regions, so horse enthusiasts can ride freely and safely, and can partake of the unique and special experience which leaves them with the feeling that riding is at once a sport, a relaxation, an adventure and the conquest of nature. Last but not least, the eating experience should not be missed. Visitors will find themselves in a unique culture of gastronomy with a great variety of extraordinary food and drink such as goulash, stuffed cabbage, fish soup, meat pancakes or plum brandy, to mention just a few.

Tourist attractions of Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok County Situated in the middle of the Great Hungarian Plain, Jsz-Nagykun-Szolnok County is a very easy place to travel in, and nobody will have trouble finding a place to stay or eat. Neither will anyone regret having chosen this region as their holiday destination. The attractions of the county are so numerous that it is impossible to mention, let alone describe them all. Those who are interested in town architecture should not miss the town of Szolnok situated at the junction of two rivers. On the banks of the smaller river, the Zagyva, modern residential buildings have been erected while at the same time the structure of the fishing village that stood here many hundred years before was preserved. A glimpse into peoples lives in those days is offered by the County House Museum. The other riverside is richer in remarkable buildings. The three churches on the right bank of the Blond Tisza have always been defining features of the towns skyline: the Franciscan Church built in baroque style which today also hosts organ concerts, the former Synagogue, now home to fine art exhibitions, and the Calvinist Church with its high tower and St. Peters cock on its top. On the way to the town centre tourists attention is attracted by buildings in eclectic and classical style recalling the atmosphere of the beginning of the last century. The building the inhabitants are most proud of is the new theatre, which is one of the nicest theatres in the country.


For nature lovers Lake Tisza with its rich aquatic life, the National Park of Hortobgy part of the World Heritage - with its ancient fauna and flora, the Birds Reserve at Tiszafred or the Botanic Gardens at Tiszakrt are a must. You can also have a cultural holiday in this part of the world. The region is exceptionally rich in folk art and handicraft heritage, with Karcag and Meztr as worldfamous pottery centres. The Artists Colony in Szolnok offers an insight into the life and work of contemporary painters and sculptors, while classical, jazz and rock music festivals as well as open-air summer theatre performances provide unforgettable moments for both locals and tourists. Gourmet tourists will appreciate the gastronomical programmes of the region such as the Szolnok Goulash Festival, the Fish Days of Tiszafred or the Plum Jam Festival of Szentes. Sport-loving holiday makers will really be at a loss when making a decision. The abundance of water - both lakes and rivers - has turned this region into a paradise of water sports. Swimming, water-skiing, surfing, sailing are favourite activities for many tourists in the summer period at Lake Tisza, while rowing, canoeing and kayaking are practiced mostly on the Tisza. But its not only aquatic sports lovers who find pleasure and relaxation on riversides or lakeshores. Anglers can often be seen there in spring, summer and autumn waiting patiently for the catch, while in winter, when temperatures are well below zero, the waters turn into natural skating rinks. Biking, hiking and backpacking are further options for those who want to have an active holiday. There are lots of well-marked, shorter or longer hiking trails throughout the county, which are highly recommended as a way to better appreciate the landscape and to escape the crowds that come by car. Likewise, an increasing number of bicycle roads and trails make the area an ideal place for cycle touring. And last but not least, those who want to conquer the air are also welcome to this county. The adventurous lovers of flying are offered curiosities such as sport flights, hang-gliding, hot-air-ballooning and parachuting at a small airport near the county-seat, Szolnok.


LCCI ENGLISH FOR BUSINESS LEVEL 2 The Topic: The Importance of Travel to the Individual Base your conversation on some of the following ideas: Examine why people travel within their own country and/or abroad? What are the limitations to travel? Cost? Time? Travel in ones own country for: pleasure, relaxation, experience - name your favourite places the value of getting to know other people understanding and developing your knowledge of national culture national pride. Travel abroad: Greater awareness of travel facilities abroad - widespread advertising. What are the limiting factors of such travel? Cost? Time? Regulations? Increasing knowledge of languages, geographical areas, food and differing cultures Developing international understanding. Why is this important? How can the knowledge of other land assist your country? If you had time and money, where would you like to go and why? Roleplay You are the chairman of the Hungarian Olympic Committee. Discuss with the Mayor of Budapest the benefits of hosting the Olympic Games in 2020 and the measures that have to be taken to prepare your capital city for the event Roleplay A You are planning a visit to London in the near future. You meet a representative of the British Tourist Authority at a Holiday Show in your hometown. Tell him/her what sort of holiday you enjoy and enquire what they would recommend to do in England and when they would recommend you to visit.

B You are the representative of the British Tourism Authority attending a Holiday Show Find out the type of holiday which would be appropriate and respond to questions concerning itinerary and timing. 51