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God and the Unconscious

God and the Unconscious

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Published by Alexander Arion
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or were I had set out to do. Much that I had proposed to write was already written. with no great regrets. The need I had felt for who produced Ratsel der an objective and methodical general survey of Jung's psychology. Other occupations left little time or inclination to undertake a fraction of the research and reflection which the task required. the original enterprise was abandoned. Albert Begum's UArt rem romantiqiie dispensed me from the need for research into the origin and early developments of the idea of the unconscious. Moreover. with particular regard to its religious implications. So. The latter's booklet. was admirably met. philosophically and theologically. On many occasions I have been called upon to write or speak on some subject touching the relationship of depth-psychology and religion the bulk of the present volume comprises revised versions of a number of these essays and addresses. Although each item is fairly complete in itself.s Religion and the Cure of Souls in Jung's Psychology and Josef Goldbrunner's Individuation. : vii . and with a thoroughness I could not emulate. Hans Schaer'. I venture to believe that together they form a reasonably consecutive unity. much that et le the group of Swiss Catholic savants Seek. by doing. Hdligkeit und Gesundlmtj also took many words out of my mouth. elaborate plans for a My comprehensive treatise which would cover the whole ground psychologically. The reader is asked to supply the deficiencies of the present volume in this respect from their useful and complementary works. it gradually transpired that others more competent had done. historically. then by a Catholic priest. but not my interest in the subject. and Indeed was originally intended to be such. proved altogether too ambitious for my capacities and opportunities.PREFACE God and SEVERAL fairly years ago I was invited to write a book on the Unconscious. first by a Protestant pastor.

On the one hand there are. sustaining conclusions far remote which cannot be verified by methods to which they arc accustomed. with the experts on both sides. professional theologians or worker on these frontiers must conpsychologists. even established laws'. and there is no dictionary which will supply the exact he must employ. the task of the inter- languages Possibilities of misunderstanding preter has hardly begun. between the world of the empirical psychologist. I am painbe claimed for their manner. fully aware that as much cannot The reader will have the impression that the several sections of this book address quite different sets of readers. interested believers are not all of one tradition or denomination. and his surmise will in fact be quite correct. Moreover. operate in quite been have the two mastered. one or two of . Even when disciplined. unwarrantable trespasses into his own * domain in the scientist's generalized theories*. There is a difference. though different fashion. empirical hypotheses moral codes into his statistically gories of classification. who have one another's experiences. accustomed to scientific training and method. professional and churchgoers. Nor are scientific workers always so self-critical as to be wholly of provoking such interpretations. His work equivalents of the two languages will bring him into contact with two peoples who know seldom shared remarkably little about one another. with inferences and deductions which seem incapable of from direct observation. on their to be impatient with meticulous linguistic analyses* tend side. still philosopher or theologian and working 'explanations' into the provisional postulates entities into his cateof the scientist. whose respective upbringing and ways of thought render mutual understanding extremely difficult. They. and these theologians.Vlii GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS But if this can be said for their subject-matter. that the verse. not easy to bridge. and which nevertheless amazingly lay claim to guiltless it is not only permanent and universal validity. The worker on the borderlands of religion and psychology must be bilingual. tends to read The abound. and that of the trained theolono less gian or philosopher whose mental processes.

Some of the items in this volume were originally addressed to groups in the U. by accident or design. The questions themselves remain. A. or even attempts to answer. *The Unconscious and Gd* is made up of notes for lectures given in America in 1948 and at Oxford in 1949. Others were broadcast by the B. however. will be more enlightened by such personal addresses than by airy abstractions and generalities which touch nobody in particular. to whomsoever. whether through reading and reflection or through personal experience of psychological analysis. There can be no denying that they are altogether too weighty an overture to the miscellanea that now take its to retain them with very littk modification.PREFACE IX the papers which follow were originally intended only for groups of fellow-Catholics. and as far as possible to little cut out repetitions and to provide connecting links between the several items.. The result is an inevitable unevenness of style and approach. it has been found neither possible nor desirable to iron out the unevenness entirely. call for a more especial apology.B. On the other side there are those who. It is hoped that psychologists may find it of some interest to listen in to the domestic chat of Catholics^ and churchgoers generally. more for those of all denominations or none. I have. happened to tune in. one to an international conference of savants in Switzerland. and it may be of some value at least to formulate them.S. it is hoped. thought it well If they stimulate more questions than the remainder of the volume succeeds in answering. The basis of the fourth and fifth is a pamphlet 5 . have come to the subject wholly from the psychological side. nevertheless. Although every effort has been made to take as as possible for granted in the technicalities either of religion or of analytical psychology. to become acquainted with the sort of talk that goes on among some psychologists. The first two sections do.CL. without being professional psychologists. that is perhaps no very great loss. The tlprd item. the 'general reader'. They were to have been the introductory chapters of the abandoned treatise. place.

perhaps. has been specially written for this book. The Analyst and the Confessor* appeared in 1948 in the American weekly. It is. *Gnosis. The Dying God" comprises two talks broadcast on the Third Programme of the B. during November 1951. to the value of Dr Frci*s own observations and reflections is added that of the extracts from his correspondence with Dr Jung.. the fuller version which we here translate . Commonweal. following upon three talks on ethnological aspects of the same subject * from Professor Henry Frankfort. 'Devils and Complexes* was read to the Aquinas Societies of Oxford and London in 1950 and 1952. in 1947. the most important contribution that has yet been made to discussions on the frontiers of theology and depthpsychology. in 1952. Ascona. Psychotherapy and Ethics' is a revision of a paper read to the Oxford branch of the Newman Association in 1945.C. Gnosticism and Faith" was read to the Analytical Psychology Club of New York in 1948. in French translation. and was subsequently published in England by the Guild of Pastoral Psychology. the bulk of the fifth.appeared in Annaltn dtr philosophischen Gesellschaft Inncrschwdz und Qstschwciz in 1948.B. for that year. a translation of an important article by my good and learned friend. while retaining matter from the 1942 pamphlet. and subsequently published in Blackfriars and as a separate pamphlet. Switzerland. in * U Annie thtologique: both have been slightly revised for this volume. Father Gebhard Frei. and were published in the Eranos Jahrbuch the seventh had also been published in Dominican Studies and. Readers uninitiated into technical Jungian terminology will find in it succinct explanations of most of Jung's principal concepts* My .C. To these I am privileged to add. as an appendix.B. The sixth and seventh were read at the Eranos Tagung. This article first appeared in German in Gloria Dei in 1947.X GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS published by the Guild of Pastoral Psychology in 1942: to the fourth has been added material from scripts of talks broadcast by the European Service of the B. these should clarify several widespread misunderstandings. Switzerland. Professor of Comparative Religion and Psychology at Schoneck-bei-Beckenried.

At the time of my writing his foreword is unwritten. from Aristotle and Aquinas to Freud. my direct acquaintance with his kindness. thanks for their patience and those who in direct My to co-operation. will be manifest from text and footnotes. Many great names will be found there. . in such uncharted territory. kindly whatever I do of the human psyche. VICTOR WHITE. They are due no less to Professor C. of course. living and dead. G. extend to every reader who has the kindfor illusion. them out. Jung for his longstanding offer to contribute a foreword. mine and theirs. our frank discussions. publishers deserve more than. and I have thought it well to leave criticisms him with the last word. his genuineness and- above all his astonishing humility.PREFACE XI warmest thanks are due to the author for allowing its incorporation in this volume. be subject to the ecclesiastical imprimatur obtained for the rest of the book. My thanks are also due to the editors and publishers who have permitted inclusion of material in this volume.) My indebtedness to him in other respects should be to some extent apparent from my text. expressions of disagreement or misgivings about some of his views and My approaches in no way reduce my indebtedness and gratitude. (His foreword will not. and free to make any and reservations which may seem fit to him. though what I owe to his personal friendship. Oxford. have enabled me to know fessional. March 1952. can never be expressed. they are My gratitude ness to point will misunderstanding and bound to be many. where opportunities prejudice are so considerable. may their names not have been taken in vain by any avoidable misrepresentation of their thought! A still greater debt is.P. personal or proor hostile. The defects of this book are to be attributed my own unconsciousness. O. due to human encounter. My debt to other writers. however.


The problem of neurosis extends from the disturbed sphere of the instincts to the ultimate questions and decisions of our whole Weltanschauung. in such abundance. Most important among these is the appreciation of the fact that the object of mutual concern is the psychically sick and suffering human being. In the same way. it Is a reaction of the whole human being. far removed from the theologian's particular field of interest.FOREWORD years since I expressed a desire for cowith the theologian. long years of experience have again and again xiii . This book. and unjust. Neurosis is no isolated. To make this possible certain fundamental realizations are required on either side. Here a purely symptomatic therapy is obviously even more definitely prohibited than In the case of purely somatic illnesses. who is as much in need of consideration from the somatic or biological side as from the spiritual or religious. even though they are not psychogenetic. that I know how to Criticism this side is constructive value every attempt at positive co-operation. although these also invariably have a psychic component or syndrome. but I little knew or even dreamt how or to what extent my wish was to be fulfilled. Psychopathology and medical psychotherapy are. therefore it is to be expected that no small amount of preliminary effort will be required to establish a terminology comprehensible to both parties. to which I have the honour of writing an introduction. when viewed superficially. from and therefore welcome. is the third major publication on the theological side which has been written in a spirit of collaboration and mutual effort. Modern medicine has just begun to take account of this fact which the psychotherapists have been emphasizing for a long time. sharply defined phenomenon. In the fifty years of pioneer IT operation is now many just work which now lie behind me I have experienced criticism.

on the believes. whose orientation is that of natural science. He sees the myth as an 'expression of certain processes in texts. It is a living mythologem. and expressing empiricist's way of thinking the himself gets him into difficulties with theologian. but calls for careful reflection. The the Gospel or of a when he is either making dogma latter Here the because it 'demythologizing' it rejects the idea of the myth. Whoever honest and critical attitude is bound goes to work with an to admit that the no task of rightly understanding the dream is small matter. The is still 'numinous'. does not connect any idea of values with the concept 'myth'. he whose supreme truth other hand. occurrence of archetypal motifs iri dreams makes a beyond purely The indubitable thorough for knowledge of the spiritual history of man indispensable dreams.XIV GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS does taught me that a therapy along purely biologicaUines not suffice. a quality . play no small part in the therapy. which. of the a seems to him religious testimonies. being the unconscious. kading far biological points of view. not to the higher level of the mythoraised dream is the only but simultaneously the problems with which logem. but even knowledge. the religious statement represents an immediate 'numinous' experience. the unconscious'. but requires a spiritual completion. which applies equally to the religious He has no means of deciding whether the latter are 'truer than the mythologem. for between the two he sees 3 so-called religious testimony only one difference: the difference in living intensity. From the mythologem to the religious statement is only a step. mythology confronts us are brought into connection with the psychical life of the individual. This becomes where the especially clear to the medical psychologist statements of question of dreams is concerned. in depreciation The empiricist. But whereas the and relics of mythological figures appear as pale phantoms a long past age which has become strange to us. The anyone making a serious attempt to understand and dream-motifs certain mythologems is likeness between not be merely as similar so striking that they may regarded With this as identical. however.

He where the sick person feels a healing. however. Scientific materialism is by no means a private religious or philosophical concern. the empiricist will then ask : the proof that one interpretation holds greater truth than another?. which can make him 'whole'. The theologian can reproach the empiricist and say that he does possess a means of deciding the question of truth. the doctor is concerned with an urgent case and cannot wait for age-long schisms to be settled. with the generally valid truths. but a matter of collective importance. Even Freud's exclusively 'personalistic' psychology of drives was obliged to come to terms. In view of the extraordinary significance of so-called general truths. then the question of consciously reconciling his individual realization official choose to call the new insight or with the collectively valid opinions life-giving experience and convictions becomes a matter of vital importance. He cannot be living quality. a coming to terms between individual realizations and the social convictions . as we might well have realized from contemporary history. unrelated and estranged from his social group. In all humility. While the latter are busy is Which? and where wrangling.FOREWORD great extent. concerned at first as to whether this so-called truth bears the endeavour to discover stamp of validity. That or whatever one may which is only individual isolates. on the other hand. but will unhesitatingly seize upon what is vital to the patient and therefore naturally cannot prescribe for his patient just any Weltanschauung assumed to be a living system. he must efficacious. at least negatively. by dint of careful and persevering investigation. He would still be neurotic. the primordial representations collectives of human society. has already lost to a The empiricist knows that rites and figures once 'sacred' have become obsolete and that new figures have become 'numinous'. If. he merely does not wish to make use of it referring to the truth of revelation. Christians themselves do not appear to be at one on this point. XV which the myth. but. the patient is thus able to rediscover himself and get on his feet again. and the sick person will never be healed by becoming a mere individualist.

but also with good will. for it is can do to learn to estimate his theological premises correctly. Surely it would be valuable for the theologian to know what is happening in the psyche of the adult. however. one of the main difficulties lies in the fact that both appear to speak the same language. Just as the sick person in his individual distinctiveness must find a modus vivendi with society. This calls for the co-operation of many. via their parents or masters. it is quite beyond my power to promote the necessary processes of assimilation which coming to terms with the representations collectives requires. for it meets the preoccupation of medical psychology half-way. who as a rule only suffer from the problems of the age indirectly. they are the only people who are professionally concerned with the human soul. not only with intellectual understanding. I do not presume to know what the theologian misunderstands undepstand in the empirical standpoint. Therefore it was clear to me from the outset that I should never be equal to this task alone. but that this language calls up in their or as fails to much as I .xvi GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS necessity. great part of my life has been devoted to this work. Although I ana able to testify to the reality of the psychological facts. and it must gradually be dawning on any responsible doctor A incredibly important role the spiritual atmosphere in the psychic economy. If I am not mistaken. Only an uncritical optimism could expect such an encounter to be love at this first sight. namely the theologians. and above all of those who are the exponents of the general truths. present book bears witness to this. it will be his urgent task to compare the views which he has acquired through exploring the unconscious with the becomes an urgent general truths and to bring them into a mutual relation. plays I must acknowledge with gratitude that the co-operation I what an had so long wished and hoped for has now become a reality. The The points de depart are too far apart for and the road to the meeting-place too long as well as too hard to hope for agreement as a matter of course. Apart from doctors. But the latter confine themselves to children. with the exception perhaps of teachers.

emotional effect. Take.. for example. etc. eternity. remind these too hasty critics that a comparative study of motifs existed long before I ever mentioned archetypes. on the contrary. to their amazement. It is true that I have often been accused of merely dreaming of archetypes. He grants the divine image 'numinosity a deeply stirring. The fact that archetypal motifs occur in the psyche of people who have never heard of mythology and the botanist facts is common knowledge to anyone who has investigated the . Zeus. does not dream of such a far-reaching assumption. The the archetype. more or less unsatisfactory way. however. the word 'God'. For mean Jahwe. but when he uses this word he just as naturally means a mere statement. and he considers it immoral to confuse a dream with knowledge. He does not deny what he has not experienced and cannot experience. are to him statements which. The theologian will naturally assume that the metaphysical Ens Absolutum is meant. The empiricist.FOREWORD minds two totally different fields of associations. 'God' can just as well or Huizilopochtli. his primary interest is the verification of actual psychic facts and their regular occurrence. symptomatically or as syndromes. which he accepts in the first place as a fact and sometimes tries to accompany 3 . As a scientist. deeply convinced of the relative character of such statements. that they are speaking of two different things. which strikes him as downright impossible. to which he attaches incomparably greater importance than to abstract possibilities. xvil Both can apparently use the same concept and are then bound to acknowledge. but he will on no account assert anything which he does not think he can prove with facts. His religio consists in establishing facts which can be observed and proved. Shiva divine attributes of almightiness. He is aware that beyond provable he can know nothing and at best can only dream. at most an archetypal motif which preforms such statements. He describes and circumscribes these in the same way as the mineralogist his mineral samples explain rationally in a his plants. I must. Allah. more or less regularly him. As a is sufficiently hard-boiled to be he psychiatrist. omniscience.

Fate would have it. if his eyes have not already been opened in this respect by the universal dissemination of certain mythologems. a scholarly man. have never been conclusive scientific arguments. This discussion has left its mark on the book. But such a prospect would not be pleasing even to Marxism. as the reader will see for himself. Ignorance and narrow- mindedness. it is understandable that in concrete many and various clashes should occur. however. tant above all They are imporwhere an encroachment on the part of one realm threatens the other. naturally does not at all suit a Marxist philosophy. . so generously offered me by the author. a trifling and fleeting diminution of good.xviii GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS structure of schizophrenic delusions. True the psyche can be crippled just like the body. The |act that the psyche is no tabula rasa. Here the theologian has a certain right to fear an intrusion on the part of the empiricist. 1 I must be content to describe the standpoint. He turned out to be a fervent adherent of the privatio boni. I should never have dreamt of coming up against such an apparently remote problem as that of the privatio boni in my practical work. but brings with it just as instinctive conditions as the somatic life. and to lay my standpoint before the reader. For the theological standpoint I refer by the author of this book. My criticism of the doctrine of the privatio boni is such a case. a mere shadow. which together culminate in the discovery and verification of provable facts and their hypothetical interpretation. like a cloud passing over the sun. even when the latter is political. the struggle. you to the competent expose When standpoints differ so widely. Therefore I feel at liberty to avail myself here of the right of free criticism. that I had to treat a patient. the faith. both of an important and unimportant nature. This man professed to be a believing Protestant and would therefore have had no reason to appeal to a sententia communis of the Catholic : i . because it fitted in admirably with his scheme evil in itself is nothing. who had become involved in all manner of dubious and morally questionable practices. hope and devotion of the empiricist.

but from a logical point of view he would have nothing to say against it. But should he. as a moral man. find this way of expressing it rather too pessimistic. light or dark. right or left. good or bad. such as for example feelings of inferiority. with all their well-known attendant phenomena. he would immediately have to call himself to order. His better judgment would tell him: If your evil is actually only an unreal shadow of your good. This case originally induced me to come to terms with the privatio boni and its psychological aspect. The psychologist would. then your so-called good is nothing but an unreal shadow of your real evil. On the same grounds I also criticize the dictum which is derived from the privatio boni. or as an 'accidental lack of perfection'. it is self-evident that the metaphysical aspect of such a doctrine does not come into question for himself. omne i. To the empiricist. from a certain point of it Church. depth as reduced height. If he does not reflect in this way he deceives himself and self-deception of this kind has dissociating effects which breed neurosis. for he knows that he is only dealing with moral judgments and not with substances. 1 It would never occur to anyone except under very special circumstances and for a definite purpose to define cold as reduced heat. if it didn't seem too complicated. We call a thing. With this kind of logic one could just as well call good a diminution of evil. catch himself glossing over an immoral act by regarding it optimistically as a certain diminution of good.FOREWORD not proved a welcome sedative for his peace of mind. A . right as diminished left. A * recent suggestion that evil should be looked upon as a decomposition' of good does not alter this in the least. above or below. Instead of ninety-nine one might just as well say a hundred minus one. For these reasons I have felt compelled to contest the validity of the privatio boni as far as concerns the empirical realm. then just as actual or real as the antithesis. rotten egg is unfortunately just as real as a fresh one. 'Qmm bonum a Deo. had view> etc. it is true. thesis is The which alone is real.

such as the platonic ravrov-Oarepov.. independently of time and place. The justice of this dictum strikes me as questionable. for responsible for the wickedness of . particularly factors in the background here. the existing empirical material at least as But far as I permits no decisive conclusion which would point to an archetypal conditioning of the it apparently am concerned with privatio boni. I know of no empirical fact which silent.. The only left him is that of the fallen angel. pre-forming accessible to empirical research. hypotheses and models. and on the other he is given the seductive power of doing evil. The dignity which is reader will see that I take this dictum literally. on the other hand. and concepts. is apt to make the mistake i. unlike of an are which archetypal nature indubitably opposites and represent essential conditions for conscious realization. there might be a pre-conscious psychic tendency which.e.XX GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS for then on the one hand man is deprived . i. in the metaa substance realm. continuinfinitely and these would be case of mythologems. ally causes similar statements. The can only be confronted with each other. but not to metaphysical entities. good can be physical and evil a p^ 6v. as is the case with other metapossible that there are the dogmas archetypal physical statements. In other words. as well as the philosopher. Therefore they are still other pairs of frequently so misty and uncertain. Like every empirical science. Hence my criticism is valid only within the empirical realm. which have existed for an long time as psychically effective. as in the folklore motifs and the individual production of symbols. Adam can hardly be held the serpent. of the possibility of doing anything good. But the theologian. Clear-cut moral distinctions are unless I am mistaken recent acquisitions of civilized man. factors. malum ab homing Criticism can only be applied to psychic to ideas latter phenomena. would this it is come anywhere near such an assertion. Therefore at point the empiricist must remain Nevertheless. psychology also requires auxiliary concepts.

In reality. he can easily be overcome by the illusion that he is faced with a gnostic system. whose nearest parallels are to be found in folklore. ignore the fact that. It is certainly remarkable that my critics. materials of this kind are used for comparison. the well-known quaternity phenomena. with few exceptions. that if he merely skims through a book instead of reading it. as a scientist. Regarded theologically. I proceed observations from empirical facts which every one is at liberty to verify. naturally expresses itself in man just as much psychically as On the psychic side it produces. gnostic. whose parallels are to be found in mental asylums as well as in gnosticism and other exoticis and. for example. Moreover. but not least in those of shamanism. my concept of the archetype or of psychic energy is only an auxiliary idea. . in Christian allegory. last. for is pure gnosticism. the reader is confronted with such a flood of 'exotic'. Seen from a philosophical standpoint. the Individuation process develops a symbolism. Hence it is by no means a case of mystical speculations. therefore I am often classed the gnostics. among conceptions and last. Similarly. my concept of the anima. it is a model. of which the layman has never even heard. alchemistic and other 'mystical 1 example. The atom of which the physicist speaks is no metaphysical hypothesis.FOREWORD of taking them for metaphysical a priori assertions. Tar- When fetched' proofs. and as a philosopher I should cut a sorry figure. It is not the daring phantasy of the expert in comparative anatomy that can be held responsible when he throws light on the fact that the human skeleton is closely related to that of certain African anthropoids. the Individuation process is a biological fact however. This process somatically. which can be exchanged at any time for a better formula. but not least. but of clinical and their interpretation by means of comparison with analogous phenomena in other realms. or simple complicated according to circumstances by destined to means of which every living thing becomes that which it was become from the very beginning. my empirical concepts would be logical monsters.

Here I can give the author unstinted praise. These may first .xxii GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS the other hand. for I am convinced that. This is probably the reason why people prefer to ignore the facts which I have discovered and proved. they criticize me as if I were a philosopher. but have expressly pointed out that I regard it as a modus without definite content. As On a philosopher and speculating heretic I am naturally easy prey. I am guilty of many an offence against the theological way of thinking. in so far as he has the cura animarum at heart. whose point de depart is diametrically opposed to that of natural science. involuntarily. He has successfully endeavoured to feel his way into the empiricist's way of thinking as far as possible. and if he has not always entirely succeeded in his attempt. but they have a good side: not only do two apparently incompatible spheres come into contact. He has dealt with the opposite standpoint with the utmost fairness. or a gnostic who claims supernatural knowledge. The fact that archetypes exist is not dismissed by saying that there are no inborn representations. I am the last person to blame him. and at the same time he has illustrated the theological standpoint in a highly instructive way. In the practical field of individual treatment it seems to me that no serious difficulties should arise. Discrepancies of this kind can only be settled by means of lengthy discussions. or to deny them without scruple. I have never maintained that the archetype in itself is an image. which is most valuable to me. but they also mutually animate and fertilize each other. can afford to ignore the experience of medical psychology. I set a particularly high value on the real understanding shown by the author. But it is the facts that are of primary importance to me and not a provisional terminology or attempts at theoretical reflections. In view of these many and various misunderstandings. The medical psychotherapist cannot in the long run afford to overlook the existence of religious systems of healing if one may so describe religion in a certain respect any more than the theologian. This requires a great deal of good will on either side.



be expected where the discussion begins between individual experience and the general truths. In the individual case this necessity usually occurs only after a certain length of time, if at all. In practical therapy, cases are not rare in which the whole treatment takes place on the personal plane, without

any inner experiences that are definite enough to call at all urgently for any coming to terms with general convictions. In so far as the patient remains firmly within the frame of his traditional faith, he will, even if he is moved or perhaps shattered by an archetypal dream, translate his experience into the views of his faith. This operation strikes the empiricist
he happens to be a fanatic of the truth) as questionable, but it can be harmless or even lead to a satisfactory issue, in so far as it is legitimate for this type of man. I try to impress on my pupils not to treat their patients as if they were all



the population consists of different historical layers.

There are people who, psychologically, might just as well have lived in the year 5000 B.C., i.<?., who can still successfully solve their conflicts as people did 7000 years ago. There are countless barbarians and men of antiquity in Europe and in all civilized countries and a great number of medieval
Christians. On the other hand, there are relatively few who have reached the degree of consciousness which is possible in our time. We must also reckon with the fact that a few of us belong to the third or fourth millennium A.D. and are

consequently anachronistic. It


therefore psychologically

quite 'legitimate* when a medieval today on a thirteenth-century level
as the incarnate devil.


solves his conflict
treats his


For such a

man any

be unnatural and wrong, for his belief is century Christian. For the man who belongs by temperament, i.e., psychologically, to the twentieth-century certain considerations are of importance which would never enter the head of the medieval human specimen. How strong the spirit of the Middle Ages still is in our world can be seen, among other signs, by the fact that such a simple truth as the psychic quality of metaphysical figures will not enter people's heads. This is by no means a matter of intelligence

other way would that of the thirteenth-



and education or of Weltanschauung, for the materialist also cannot perceive to what extent, for example, God is a can deprive of its reality, not psychic entity which nothing but willing to be called reason, insisting on a definite name, even and matter ego. energy, The fact that there are different historical layers must be
psychotherapist carefully taken into consideration by and at the same time the possibility of a latent capacity for
further development,


which should,

nevertheless, hardly be

rationalistic' point of view is of the eighteenth century, the psychomuch more to the man of the logical standpoint appeals threadbare rationalism means most The twentieth century. best the than former the to more psychological explanation,

taken for granted. Just as the reasonable,
satisfying to the



and can only incapable of thinking psychologically on no account must which rational with concepts, operate savour of metaphysics, for the latter are taboo. He will at once suspect the psychologist of mysticism, for in his eyes a

rational concept can be neither metaphysical nor psychothe psychological standpoint, logical. Resistances against

which looks upon psychic processes as facts, are, I fear, the prealtogether of an anachronistic nature, including the understand does not judice of psychologism', which of the man the For empirical nature of the psyche either.

twentieth century this is a matter of the highest importance and the very foundation of his reality, for he has recognized once and for all that no world exists without an observer and consequently no truth, for there would be nobody to it. The one and only immediate guarantor of reality

most unpsychological of oddly enough just physics comes up against the observer at the decisive point. This knowledge sets its stamp on our century. It would be an anachronism, i.e., a regression, for the
the observer.


physics, the

all sciences

of the twentieth century to solve his conflicts 'rationaltant bien que mal, he istically' or metaphysically, therefore, has built up for himself a psychology, because it is impossible




to get along without it. The theologian as well as the somatic doctor will do well to take this fact earnestly


into account, if he does not wish to run the risk of losing touch with his time. It is no easy matter for the psycho-somatic

practitioner to see his long familiar somatic clinical pictures and their etiology in the unusual light of psychology, and in the same way it will be no mean task for the theologian to

adjust his thinking to the new fact, i.e., that of the existence of the psyche and particularly of the unconscious, in order that he also may be able to reach the man of the twentieth century. No art, science or institution which is concerned with the human being will be able to avoid the effect of the development which the psychologists and physicists have let loose, even if they oppose it with the most stubborn prejudices.

Father White's book has the merit of being the first theowork from the Catholic side which deals as deeply with the far-reaching effects of the new empirical knowledge in the realm of the representations collectives and makes a serious attempt to integrate it. Although the book is adlogical
first place to the theologian, the psychologist particularly the medical psychotherapist will be able to glean from it a rich harvest of knowledge.

dressed in the


C. G.





E pews were empty, the creeds were outworn; the JL gods, it was supposed, were dead. Dead ; not just, as had often happened before, transformed or displaced by

newer gods: as Zeus had unmanned and displaced Kronos and cast him into the underworld, as Teutonic and Celtic deities had become gnomes and fairies in Christianized Europe. 'The God is dead, Long live the God was no new

cry in




was, as Frazer showed, the very

secret of the

Golden Bough of Nemi and

countless parallels

over the globe. And indeed, gods must die that men may live and grow. Image-breaking is no less part and parcel of human life and history than image-making; it is also no less part and parcel of man's religion, and no less essential to it. For the fixed image evokes the fixed stare, the fixed loyalty which may blind man's vision to the claims of further and wider loyalties, and so paralyze the human spirit and crush its inherent will to advance and to venture. The ancient sympathetic magic which slew to fertilize, whose bloody rites of the dying and rising god enacted the natural processes of the seed which must likewise die if it is to be fruitful and to multiply, may have been a blind alley in the progress of agriculture. But its working on human culture, on the mind of man himself, is not lightly to be estimated. Already in the Hellenistic Mysteries the ancient nature cults are consciously recognized and practised as outward and visible signs and means of an inward mental transformation. The painful recognition of the clay feet of old idols is indispensable to human growth; it is also indispensable to the emergence of more appropriate figures for human awe, devotion and service. This is the inexorable law of growth both in the individual and the


it is


an inexorable law of religion itself. The evolving, Alexander and many a modern thinker the Deity which is a Fox of Heaven for ever outis an illogical pacing the pursuit of the human hounds and theologian. monstrosity to the traditional metaphysician To the former it is an outrage to attribute the characteristics of change and decay to the Transcendent and the Absolute;
elusive Deity of Professor
to the latter
it is

perverse to invert the roles of the pursuing

of Love and sin-laden, fleeing Man. But what may be false as a predicate of Deity is true of human images of Deity; and indeed the metaphysical and


what metaphysician and theological absurdity represents alike must recognize to be psychological fact. theologian

human imago of God must dissolve and if man himself is not to be (as the Jewish his own idols, psalmist foretold) petrified into the likeness of and if the image itself is not to come between man and whatEvery succeeding elude man's grasp
ever the image would represent. The lesson of anthropology and the history of human culture is also the lesson of religion itself; not only of the protean metamorphoses of the

myths and the mysteries, but no less of the image-prohibition of the Old Testament, of the image-shedding of the Vedanta and of Yoga, of the Nada of St John of the Cross, of the cry of God-forsakenness on Golgotha. Even the cultured apostate Julian echoes the pale Galilean': *O Helios, thou hast forsaken me'. 1 The mystic and the ascetic, the theologian and the philosopher, can lament no more than the humanist

historian of


culture the passing of forms of the


But while the mutation of forms

one thing, and a very

ancient and indispensable thing, the passing away of all forms, and of the very Formless itself, is quite another, and

appearance at least something quite new; even though perhaps to contemporaries of bygone twilights of the gods it was less obvious than to the subsequent historian that the was but the shadow of an darkness oncoming, overpowering i. Ammianus Marcellinus, xxv. 3 (quoted by H. Rahner,

My then

in christlicher Deutung, p. 127).

is unique in many respects. and ironically enough. Catteli.. comparative criticism and the physical sciences were Biblical religion. widely welcomed. held to have shattered all grounds for faith in him. moreoever. anthropology. Psychology and the Religious Quest (Nelson Discussion Books). i. is too familiar to require any detailed exposition. or. 'Every 5 schoolboy knows that Kant or somebody had disproved the it with a alleged proofs of God's existence he knows he little but of in faith. psychological science will show through what flaws in the human mind the illusion is created and sus1 tained. 60. and of which we see the fulfilment in our own time. psychoof Divinity. as it is widely apprehended.' In depth-psychology. The pure thought of the philosophers having destroyed God's existence. The situation is considered since the physical sciences have shown how illusory religious Raymond B. to be . nay. the decay of religion the preparation for religious revival. The situation.. by man's own all-conquering brain. the death the prelude to resurrection. p. or in what way. . As therapy. He was slain. as something final and definitive. The all reason for story needs not to be retold. led by Freudian particular. At first it was felt. more prosaically. that thought. But the twilight of the gods which we have witnessed in the past few centuries. ages certainty hardly paralleled knows on what grounds. by triumphant powerful divinities. his own head emancipawhich had ting him from the delusions and superstitions enslaved his heart.THE TWILIGHT OF THE GODS 3 approaching dawn. not by other and of march the but science. But then came psychology. God was dead and done with or very soon would be dead ignominiously and almost imperceptibly. to drive the last nails in the coffin we shall which to a book Professor Raymond Cattell (in The it: have further occasion to refer) succinctly put psychoother to be the first in routing the logists have jostled each forces from the battlefield of shattered remnants of religious human notions are. and never to be more replaced. or that it was only to replace a 'true' God by a 'practical' Categorical Imperative.

the distinguishing classifies presents of mental diseases. book as a whole: it contains much valuable data and is an important contribution to the problem of the classification of psychoses.4 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS psycho-analysis. and demons are but 'projections of the unconwhich in their turn are understood to be delusional personifications of unconscious complexes. And yet the fact that men sometimes drown is no argument against ships still less against the reality of the sea or of the respect which is due to it. 1946). 80.. H. 128. 1 and the religion of to-day is only the essentially unchanged 2 evolutionary product of psycho-sexual perversion. to known neurosis of humanity: nay. It is believed to have demonstrated that gods scious'. become a widely-held opinion when he wrote: 'All religion in its beginning is a mere misrepresentation of sex-ecstasy.e. p. 1. It is not our purpose to disparage this . and that this fact somehow invalidates religion and shows the unreality of that with which it is concerned. T. vol. illusory by-products of the conflict between our inward instinctual drives and the demands of our environment. p. Schroeder. 3. a question which the author expressly ignores. and behaviour towards. But the value of these data as a contribution to 'theogony' must depend upon inter alia the manner in which psychosis itself is understood. The Future of an Illusion (1928)'. An Introduction to the Psychology of Religion. and shows in turn the various symptoms) of human their close correspondence to men's traditional beliefs con- cerning. Although 2. is credited with singular success in this iconoclastic achievement. Sigmund Freud. The tacit implication of the book is that 'the supernatural' is an alien and hostile element peculiar to the psychotic. With a wealth of clinical material he and the syndromes (i. Thouless.' More of the Sorbonne recently and more ambitiously a Professor has produced a complete 'Pathological Theogony an in in terms of belief of the the exposition origin supernatural 5 3 lunacy.. vi. Georges Dumas. quoted by R. Freud himself is well have proclaimed that religion is the universal it is 'more than an obsessional Dr Theodore Schroeder expressed what has neurosis'. gods and demons. Le Surnaturel et Us dieux d'apres les maladies mentales: Essai de theogonie pathologique (Presses universitaires de France. American Journal of Religious Psychology.

not through religion but from of religion. The conquest misery through human science seemed but a matter of time. Not even the simplest notion of arithmetic escapes this inevitable condition for existence. devils. Science itself seems to have shown that its own former clarities were a delusion: the more man knows. saviours and creeds and are and nourished. 'The notion of the complete selfsufficiency of any item of finite knowledge. There is darkness over the earth. human want and was an inspiring theme indeed. perhaps to ourselves in our youth it seemed a famous victory. this triumph of the human mind reiterated suggestion that it insanity in humankind that is of the more or less latent God and over nature. the more they are inspiring. and are dependent on the universe for every detail of our experience. The enlightened sceptic whose self-sufficient was to have guided us yesterday is the benighted dogmatist of to-day. 'is the fundamental error of dogmatism. But to-day we can be much less sure of what value to put upon the substitution of man's scientific brain for his mysterious God or gods. The thorough finds science . Every such item derives its truth. gods. and although he reminds us of the risks inherent in attempting to account for the 'normal' in terms of the 'abnormal'. and its very meaning. Every scrap of our knowledge derives its meaning from the fact that we are factors in the universe.' writes Professor Whitehead. and not least its triumph over its own hallucinations. die hard. bewildering hours between crucifixion and resurrection.THE TWILIGHT OF THE GODS he is 5 careful to point out at the outset that such purely symptomological pathology ignores causation (and so really 'explains' nothing). Myths. begotten To our parents nay. Many even of those who still clung to the external forms of traditional religion could little doubt it in their heart of hearts. Even his old demons seemed less potent and less destructive. and especially in the dark. cults. the less he he knew. such unexciting notes of scientific caution are less impressive to the untrained reader than the powerful. The salvation of man by man. from its unanalysed relevance to the background which is the unbounded Universe.

p. as Whitehead goes on to show. however terrifying and perilous. and of alchemist the of The of Life. *Der Geist der Natunvissenschaff . Dessauer. Time and and Corpuscles. all is dissolved into algebraic 'patterns' for. of that very intellect which we had supposed was to enlighten us and save us. But even for the most disinterested alchemist. organic Space. there is the germ of isolated an self-sufficiency in existence. 4. this painful confusion and disorder was but a to the step. Jahrbuch. but not vice-versa'. 1946. by White- 2. In entity which enjoys 1 other words. are alike negated by Boltzmann's general theory of the laws of nature. E . F. Eranos ff. 325 cf.' So once again. He enjoys the delusion of complete futility. omnia abeunt in mysterium. From head. The most advanced physicists to us of our time summon prepare for a sacrificium intellects a sacrifice unparalleled in the previous history of humanity. hopefulness the optimistic evolutionist of yesterday. Essays I947)> PP.IOI > I02 ' in Science and Philosophy (New York. The new physics and the new astronomy do not merely summon us to an unprecedented asceticism of intellectual abnegation. the chaotic and the unintelligible before our eyes. 'Alas. cf. 2 The brightest certainties of everyday dissolve into experience. Schroedinger. no less than of yesterday's science. or at best. 1 . quoted 3 . Wherever there is the sense of self-sufficient comvicious dogmatism. pp. Eranos Jahrbuch. A. finitude is not self-supporting. Whitehead. which is to the effect that 'every order has an inherent tendency to new integration and 8 disorder. they positively force upon us the 4 darkest night both of sense and understanding. arithmetic totters'. There is no pletion. 1946. as did the alchemist's materia prima in amorphous solutio and putrefactio.6 sceptic is GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS a dogmatist. letters ibid. of Frege to Betrand Russell. N. . order of the Philosopher's Stone: the corruption of the familiar world of distinguishable sensethe generation of an Elixir perceptions was but a prelude to of long ago. Mass and Energy. 518. Waves and inorganic matter merge into one another and into the unknown and the unknowable.

the whole race of man would live under the threat of sudden destrucsome cynic. Einstein's equation of Mass and Energy does not just remain on paper. could remain only in the brains of scientists and in learned. 'World Chaos: The Responsibility of Science as Cause and Cure. I9 8 - . through the malevolence of benevolence of some the or tence of some optimist.J While our commonplace certainties dissolve into incommore prehensible and terrifying enigmas.' Lectures before the University of Manchester. 51 Professor McDougall's nightmare of 1931 bepessimist. i. and deprive us of our most elemental security. more. Our triumph over nature is looking like a Pyrrhic victory which has immeasurably increased our servitude. The tombs are opened: in THE TWILIGHT OF THE GODS awesome the frustration and guilt of epidemic neurosis and the terror of psychosis we are haunted by the sins of our forefathers. p. But their complicated algebraic formulas even the cataclysmic facts and prospects for which express crude language of old apocalypses is hardly adequate. no are of days mysterious bygone comforting mysteries The sacred is no longer secret: the veil of the Temple is rent in twain from top to bottom. ingenuity William McDougall. the more familiar. unintelligible books which we need never read. What we had supposed to be in mysteries are exposed to the gaze of everybody all their seeming triviality of 'complexes' and 'projections' and 'misunderstood sex-ecstasy'. Human hubris on not Genesis of the creation-story paper but in merely had begun to reduce matter back man's own threatens to take away the very fact. to Perhaps we could pass all this by (many still manage it by) if this dissolution of our old familiar world. had reversed twelve came fact years later. this pass annihilation of our hopes. physicist were to realize and teach us to unlock the energy within the atom. nor only make darkness of the mental light by which we had walked: it is a formula for earthquake. 'If some the brightest dream of his kind. in Religion and Sciences of Life (1934). which ground on which we tread. the inadvertion. and by the intractability of our inherited dispositions to the needs and the burdens of the present.

even among creedless scientists. have of religion itself. 50. op. 2 (Penguin Books). in his opinion.8 to force. grown alarmed at the results of the defeat slow 'the religious and the outcome to be anticipated from 2 Professor citizen. the Men of affairs. is. 2. . p..' moral disillusionment of the average are words these which from taken. a few of his shrewd generalizations concerning the social outcome of the cultural struggle For the pure-bred scientist the conduct of the resolute invaders requires no justification or apology. . p. are aware tion has been wrought. But it was it made no attempt to belittle and candour courage. R. A single-minded devotion to truth. and that a heavy price in human to happiness remains to be paid. Psychologist and social scientist lose their militant attitude to religion when they realize that all their forces may well be needed to reestablish some order in the city they have so successfully besieged. The first explosion of the code-name for the atom-bomb in the New Mexican desert official was 'Operation Trinity'. The intellectual world is full of 'post-war' 1. 103. who are concerned with how the world behaves rather than with any abstract that a heavy devastapursuit of truth by the few. even from a purely human and social standin godlessness to which the mass of of the point. B. sterling the dangers. Cattell. differ which conclusions reached and rested on assumptions the differconsiderably from those of this writer though more sometimes be to examination on found be ences may to be admired for its terminological than real. 1 But not only have the fruits of the victory of the sciences turned sour. . GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS cosmos to chaos. He sees a false ideology laid waste and a race of crabbed and timid intellects replaced by an enlightened people of nobler mental stature. . many. We must here neglect his and content ourselves with impressive collection of evidence. most important value in life. CattelPs pre-war booklet. Science Mews No. Western man experiment is now committed. The fact is beginning : dawn even upon the victors. no matter into what emotional difficulties it leads its followers. at. on the other hand.

have been amply confirmed by subsequent history. vacillating loyalties. 'It is high treason to say you believe in God because it is helpful to believe in Him'. But who knows if we penetrate by op. Not the least of the present social dangers is a disintegration of the system of order and morality. He has more respect for the proud unreason of the religious man.> pp. Individuals who will not suffer conflicts in their own minds will sooner or later find themselves in bloody physical conflicts between opposing groups irrationally bound to incompatible ideas. He recognizes in such pragmatic arguments as that men will return to religion in their troubles an argument equally applicable to drink and drugs. 1 fruitless THE TWILIGHT OF THE GODS These words. false goals. he knows that no people have ever been permanently happy or successful by cherishing an illusion. For though the acute mental conflict may first have raged only in the minds of intelligent and educated people.9 problems from this enormous cultural conflict. who cries. conflicts and despair are the demons fated to torture a generation which has not clearly and consciously thought out the process of readjustment occasioned by this conflict. But Professor Cattell went on very rightly to deplore a fashionable and facile 'return to religion' if that was to imply a surrender of and an escape from the hard historic destiny which modern science has bequeathed to us truth : No scientist worthy of the escapes to religion. 42. Changes from religious belief are going to mean changes in social and economic organization. Stoically to follow science into its bleak altitudes is the only course i. Boredom and misuse of energy. but perhaps the everyday world is even more distressingly aware of imminent emotional famines and pestilences arising from the intellectual readjustment. . cit. 43. left to us. written before the Second World War. name will follow any of these no matter how great his sympathy with a society in torment or individuals in extremities. formerly sustained directly or indirectly by religious belief. the consequences are going to affect all lives. For he holds the search for truth to be the noblest aim and as for human suffering. like Macmurray.

as he helped clear the ground of the litter of broken religious dogma.10 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS more patiently. pp. in their endeavour to show how and sustained'. or the most 1. tit. contended that the remedy but more. have not been religious 'illusion is created too scientific (as been scientific would maintain).. he puts the crucial question. with characteristic courage. 61. 60. Professor belief. we may yet reach something as valuable was lost with religion? 1 Professor McDougall. 'What shall we teach our children?' and admits with equally characteristic this candour that he 3 'is uncomfortably aware that book is too technical to help many people. op. p. 3. in the lecture we have already for the 'world-chaos' quoted. The most brilliant theory about would-be scientific substitute for op. He maintains same the and is by 5 inspired McDougall that the psychologists. dt. religion. 183.. and especicaused by science was not less science life of (psychology and biology) ally the pursuit of the sciences matter had disastrously 'dead of which the physical sciences dedicated to Professor is book CattelFs outpaced. Instead they have persisted conservatively habit of destructive analysis of religion. some critics in a dull enough. 2. and holding on to scientific methods further than many of our too rash fellow-scientists have as all that done. that his own science marked out clearly the foundations of a new 2 and nobler structure of scientifically founded religion. cit. 3 clever.' no part of the purpose of this present volume to examine in detail or to criticize Professor CattelPs own 'how the last of stimulating and thoughtful effort to show It is the sciences is performing the miracle of transferring religion from the mean and cramping foundation of dogmatic superstition to the basis of limitless growth found in science' His is perhaps too ingenious conception of the Theopsyche . a fact which he himself acknowledges when. . It is amazing that none of these psychologists has perceived. but have not 'have failed to follow reason They enough. op. p. 49. sadly lost in the ruins of religion'.

i. it has thereby created an atmosphere which remains wholly uninfluenced by any intellectual disavowal. The ease with which the classic spirit springs again into life can be observed in the Renaissance. Indeed. 1 we created and sustained'. . or indeed upon the unconscious! entirely forget that the religion of the last two thousand be incorrect or invalid. as if an intellectual religion. Jung. all of We We a psychological attitude. many of its . The readiness with which the older primitive spirit reappears can be seen in our own time. a definite form of adaptainner and outer experience. . of course. is actually unscientific if it disregards the proved characteristics of that 'unconscious' to which psychology. We think only to declare an acknowledged form of faith As C. we have to our age has a blindness without parallel. even better perhaps than in any other historically known years tion is to are compelled to raise the question: Are the after all? Or have the psychologists only dead gods really their These questions must be faced before name? changed we admit too readily their claims to have shown how the 'religious illusion is epoch. symptomatically important as a hint of coming possibilities.THE TWILIGHT OF THE GODS II religion. but the deeper levels of the psyche continue for a long time to operate in the former attitude. in accordance with psychic inertia. with a powerful display of evidence. The intellectual change is. G. In this way the unconscious has preserved paganism alive. G.Jung has said: to become psychologically free the traditional effects of the Christian or Judaic believe in enlightenment. which moulds a definite form of civilization. 230. p. Psychological Types (1938). C. of change opinion had somehow a deeper influence on emotional processes. ascribes ingredients. .


can tell dreamy phantasy. . G. 13 . It advantage as against the quantities of similar material which is locked away in private case-histories of having already appeared in print. y G. this is one of the things that happened Beyond the lane. and three black-cowled figures descended the steps and stood in the snow. When our sledge came in sight the door opened. now for the first time we are living in a Nature deprived of both spirits and gods und entgotterten Natur)\* But. more primitive ways of viewing our surroundings take its place. peopled by fairies and goblins and princesses and talking trees. Dr Sutherland relates how. during a long. . the forest became enchanted. Such experiences are no marvel to the psychologist whp is familiar with the fashion in which. 106. or a spontaneous. Jung.II THE GODS GO A-BEGGING themselves have convinced DEPTH-PSYCHOLOGISTS us that a dream. but contrariwise because it is characteristic. and at the far end of a straight road. more of what is happening below the surface of the human mind than any amount of intellectual analyses us is worth recounting here. both good and bad. (in einer entseelten : was a large oblong building of great height. and has the or statistics. . monotonous and tiring sleigh-journey through the Lapland forests. once our waking 'modern' attention is relaxed. each with his hands clasped and his head bowed in i. 'Since time immemorial Nature has always been animated (beseelt). to return to Dr Sutherland's daydream. not because it is rare. Aufsatze zur %eitgeschichte p. an attitude that was too obsequious. One such phantasy is related in Dr Halliday Sutherland's "otherwise matter-of-fact account of his Lapland Journey.

In an instant the Three knew they had been tricked. you . . gists He himself has little trust that professional psycholo- can be of assistance. follow the directions of the great explorers of fairyland. . and it's a long time since any of them have visited the upper rooms but you will see for yourself. 2. Sanscrit. about whose morals we are so much more concerned than about our own. ff. a The reindeer. 148 .. 'I know nothing about them.. because suddenly he swerved and galloped away to the right. a little sad. In that warning that his interpretation be written in Latin. for he adds: rich for fair in fairies and are very psycho-analyst and ask event I give 'If you have no belief you may take this story to a his interpretation. Lapland Journey (1938). Even in the upper rooms they are smouldering.' would take centuries. but one day all these are going to explode and the place will be religions blown up. we must be ourselves 'physically tired. especially as Little Bread Eater 1 was making straight for the door and I was 'It 'Years! It now almost within hailing distance of the three black- cowled figures. but not before they were so close that I saw. Of course that was impossible.' would take years to inspect that place.' The justice of the doctor's comment on the myopic will 1. and very poor*. pp. and the sledge passed the point of interception before the Three had reached it. The animal must also have seen them.. Hall'.day Sutherland.14 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS They seem to 5 be expecting you/ said a Tree. under the cowls the heads of skeletons. obsequiously waiting. Hebrew or in some other language not easily read by The Servants. Bread Eater was going "hell for leather". Each has a room to itself. Gone was their obsequious attitude as they Little rushed across the snow to intercept the sledge. . 2 Dr Sutherland tells us that to find that forest we must .. The three attendants were supposed to look after them.' 'How can dead religions explode?' 'Because they are not quite dead. 'All the dead religions of the world are kept there.' 'I had every reason to be alarmed.

the of her free associations. they will regard them as nothing but manifestations of regressive trends. A Life of One's Own by 'Joanna Field'. But to illustrate it by a few facts and documents which are public property should not be beyond our powers. and i. More often than not. Truly. London: Chatto and Windus. perhaps. quite early in her interior explorations.THE GODS GO A-BEGGING 15 rationalizations of his psychiatric colleagues is no more our concern than is the comment of his phantasy on the clerical skeletons whose too obsequious attentions to Ego have caused to neglect the religious dynamite of which they are supposed to be the custodians. Such experiences are by no means unique. All that concerns us here is them modern psyche of both its religious character. and few could read it without profit. One such document is provided by that very remarkable 1 book. previously confident of her emancipation from every form of superstition or religious belief. they will differ widely in their estimate of their value and importance in their patients' lives. re-issued in Pelican Books . and evidently exercised pated' patients. and a quantity of space for the presentation and examination of the material which would far exceed the scope of this essay. and few analysts would perhaps deny the frequency with which specifically 'religious' images and attitudes appear in the material of their most sceptical and 'emanciprimitiveness. Spontaneous phantasies of import similar to that of Dr Sutherland's are by no means excepto note the presence in the and explosive tional these days. It is a book well worth reading on its own account. To establish this would be impossible without access to thousands of dossiers of case-histories in the safe-keeping of analysts. She tells us of the shock and astonishment with which she discovered. and still more in the interpretations which they put upon them. unmistakably 'religious' character their crude and almost savage the immense power which they had on her supposedly free and autonomous thinking and behaviour. Here is recorded the frank and courageous self-analysis of an enlightened woman psychologist.

the cruelty. the beauty. We have only to consider the psychic the immensity and intensity of the libido energy which our forebears. the self-denial. which they have given to their gods or attributed to them the love. that none of this psychic energy has been lost or can be annihilated. the devotion. GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS for biologically conditioned functions and to But their existence and their power are seldom be disposed of so easily. we shall find either disturb . in other words. evade the character of omnipotence which our fathers attributed to divine beings. The universe : evidence is certainly strong which leads many psychologists to hold that the psychic forces which are not consciously accepted and directed will not on that account cease to be active. the horror. being deprived of divine beings. that the law of the conservation of energy holds some validity in the human psyche as well as in the physical let us suppose. How much of all this can find conscious and directed expression in human life when the gods have gone? Let us suppose. the laughter. the wonder. the repentance. nor should it be difficult for him to surmise how inevitably the breakdown of religious belief and practice must engender acute problems for mankind and profound disturbances in men's relations to their environment and to one another. the power. new and have poured into or extracted from their religion. that they will form exist or to autonomous complexes of psychic contents. the joy. This should hardly surprise even the inexpert layman. as will as likely our conscious attitudes and not. the wrath. But. but will become unconscious and affect our thought and behaviour none the less. the thought. If this hypothesis is true we shall find that we cannot. the guilt.l6 substitutes attitudes. the tears. : the hate. the fear. for instance. the inspiration. endeavours by introjection.. which. if only as a possible hypothesis. or be projected on to our neighbours and our environment. For there is no reason whatever to suppose that the psycho-physical constitution of man to-day differs very widely from that of his fathers. the weakness. the ecstasy. the passion. not many generations ago. the intelligence.

Jung goes from its so far as to assert that 'whenever the Spirit of God is excluded human consideration. There was no use. a relation. pp. ruthless. or that we ourselves are behaving as if we were God almighty. no reason. The Secret of the Golden Flower. or are the victims of inscrutable forces within. They were inexplicable merely in terms of cynical. deprived of its 1. What shocked and astounded us at Belsen and Buchenwald was less their shaming inhumanity. C. When God is not recognized. than their manifestation of stark. crannies of the human mind. 1946. He has seen in his newspapers and on the screen how irrational forces are unleashed which are more antagonistic to sweet reasonableness. then it must make its heaven and corresponding hell on earth? Can it be that the ancients were right in their persistent belief that immortality was the distinctive attribute of divinity? that though the gods could metamorphose or be replaced. than he had thought possible. Eranos Jahrbuch. Jung. selfish desires develop. . . in keeping thousands of people just alive. and even to utilitarian self-interest. Zeus but the solar plexus The gods have become diseases. we are in practice attributing omnipotence to a State. a Party. merely for their torture and affliction. are ineradicable from the nooks and . primitive devilry. p.THE GODS GO A-BEGGING IJ that. when they could have been so easily slain or just left to die.' And again. not now rules Olympus and causes the oddities of the professional office hour. a neighbour. 113. Jung.' 2 The Second World War did much to make even the average citizen aware of the fearful vengeance which is wreaked on earth when the human spirit clears the skies of its gods and the underworld of its demons. *Der Geist der Psychologic'. willy-nilly. a Leader. against which our conscious wills and endeavours are powerless. and that if the human mind is heaven above and its hell beneath. and out of this selfishness comes illness. heavens and hells. 112. . G. 400. C. 2. G. Could it be that gods and demons. or disturbs the brain of the politician and journalist who then unwittingly release mental epidemics. an unconscious substitute takes 1 place. not even a bad reason. utilitarian powerpolitics.

xvi. only agonies have travelled into the depths still fewer who themselves by of the human psyche and faced the 'perils of the soul'. chap. and of the enemy at not readily to be a of purely German supposed that they were symptoms and spectacular than the virulent disease. the gods of Olympus were pictured. the new disease of unconscious religion which becomes More commonly more undisguised. But it is manifestations of a widespread and typical modern malaise. Clergymen and moralists assure us that the alarming increase of divorce. it was inevitable that thereafter they could become devils and their homes hells. however anthropomorphically. the breakdown of countless homes and the prevailing misery in many more. cf. however subject to human passions and vicissitudes. Yet how often are we spontaneously betrayed into employing epidemic when is man filched of his gods. The symptoms of the concentration camps were blatant and that being those of the 'other fellow 5 . domestic and personal up- have seen even Professor Cattell write of 'the demons fated to torture a generation which has not clearly and consciously thought out the process of readjustment heavals! We occasioned by this conflict*. . And do we perhaps speak more wisely than we know when we employ the language of adoration in affairs of love and even of politics? Romanticism already made gods and goddesses of human partners. although there was a twilight of the gods of Asgard. rather peculiarly were easily recognizable. social. and the final hecatomb in Valhalla left Surtur in possession and made way for the 1 Kingdom of Heaven of Gimle the Blest. And in Northern lands. it was a twilight only which heralded the onslaught of the cold Fimbul-Winter. the chaotic 'Sexual Behaviour of the Modern Male' the revealed in the i. Boult. Asgard and Norse Heroes. they were yet always the Deathless and Immortal ones. the are less to the language of 'religion' as though it alone were adequate describe political. private and intimate symptoms whose to a and nature is suspected known few. K.l8 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS they could never finally die? For however crudely.

to this Adler himself expressly gave the name indeed difficult to understand of 'God-almightiness'. There is an undeniable but superficial sense in which that is true. religion and to is required to provide a substitute for be saddled with a task to which each is of its nature unequal. and it is it otherwise than as an un- conscious identification with. in short. G. Alfred Adler broke with Freud owing to the preponderating role he found in the power-complex. G. and hence required to bear a weight too heavy for it. the home a heaven each. From the beginning. p. Jung which has given most express recognition to the theory that 'many neuroses are caused by the fact that people blind themselves to their own religious promptings because of a childish 1 passion for rational enlightenment'. of sexuality and of the home. But unconscious and pathological it inevitably becomes so soon as 'God' is dismissed from consciousness. 'Ye shall be as it pathological. or hankering after. the tempter's original bait. i. Sex is expected to provide a mystical union. But the deeper levels revealed in the analyst's consulting room show that these catastrophes are more all these are the often to be attributed to the fact that unconsciously marriage has been regarded as too sacred rather than otherwise. divine God 3 was. To succumb to that temptation is not in itself power. But every school of depth-psychology has been compelled to face the same set of facts in the etiology of neurosis. . and which in other days carried it. Modem Man in Search of a Soul. the language of psychology can say only that the law of compensation demands that if the God-imago be repressed or ignored it must react negatively on the health* and consciousness of the subject. the partner a divinity. C. Jung. 77. It is the analytical psychology school of C. we are told. The language of religion will talk of the 'wrath of God' when he is neglected or scorned.THE GODS GO A-BEGGING Kinsey Report that : ig outcome of our loss of the sense of the sanctity of marriage. it is pathological only in the measure in which is unconscious.

op. 5 According to Dr Karen (admittedly a 'heretic to rigid Freudian orthodoxy) these play a universal and central role in neuroses'. 141. so 5 . 2. But the autistic thinking of my part. things like that it is better to say so openly I : by the names under which 2 they have always been known'. religious 'illusion 1. meanwhile mainly nothing but repressed suffice to record that it gives ample justification to that Treud's idea of the super-ego is a assertion Jung's furtive attempt to smuggle in the time-honoured image of it must Jehovah for 'When one does in the dress of psychological theory'.Jung. It is difficult to read this book without seeing that the components of the 'super-ego' are Homey e and (or at least rejected) therefore unconscious. 5 Freud himself explored and it is well known analysis and its far 'beyond the pleasure principle'. . Morals and Society. Jung adds that. far from having analysed away the has been increasingly confronted by it in Psychoanalysis. It is not. prefer to call things many for history psycho-analysts hardly permits such realistic respect and common speech even Professor Flugel must : he cannot possibly prove) that 'god' is a prothe of jection super-ego rather than allow that the super-ego be an unconscious might introjection of 'God (or at least of certain divine images and attributes). New Ways C. 1 The story of this development is related in Professor FlugePs Man. cit*. however. We need not here inquire whether to this assumption is to be credited his (for 5 assume very pessimistic prognosis of the therapeutic value of psychoanalysis. By way of 'sado-masochism' they have been compelled to lay increasing emphasis on the functions of what Freud called the 'super-ego'. p. More will be said of this book in a later section. Karen Horney.20 It is GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS still more significant that the later Freudians have themselves been increasingly compelled to pay attention to however they may be factors in mental disorder which clothed in 'scientific language are essentially 'religious'. irrational and damaging religion. 233. that the later developments of psychoderivatives have travelled far from the early simplicities. G. easy to deny that Freudian psycho-analysis. p.

Even among those who still pay them the lip-service of conventional acknowledgment. Moses and Monotheism. in the all-pervasive power. Freud. as Jung has said. but it does affect us profoundly whether or not we so describe i. they will not lie down. misery and destiny. he can then become even unpleasantly important. Yet so late as 1938 Freud himself. as well as a Universal and central factor in the afflictions of the mind of modern man. the gods all the more persistently go a-begging for our attention. though with less of the . S. 91.THE GODS GO A-BEGGING and that 5 21 in the 'super-ego 3 it has come up against the most complicated and intractable. And depth-psychology itself which is exposing them again in all their potency indeed in all their naked primitiveness and explosiveness as inescapable factors in the fashioning of human health and happiness. and in practical ways. Scientifically labelled and filed. active powers in the formation of human life and behaviour. But although they are dead. The gods are dead indeed at least to the consciousness of masses of Western men and women. lf I know that God is a as mighty activity in my soul. and that with a claim more imperious than such and can usually be heard in logical 'arguments for the existence c of God*. We are far from rid of him by calling him a psychological content or a mental disease. it has revealed their ineluctable cally.' 1 How far psycho-analysis may be said to 'explain' even individual neuroses is an open question to which we shall again have occasion to allude. they are seldom realized as decisive. too'. p. For. . But it may be asserted with some confidence that the expectation that depth-psychology would dispose of gods and demons for us has been gravely disappointed. still suspected that his researches might lead to a result that reduces religion to the c status of a neurosis of mankind and explain as powers in the same way we its grandiose should a neurotic obsession in our individual patients. at once I must concern myself with him. dogmatic assurance of earlier years. Paradoxiit is very fact of treating them as 'projections' or contents of the unconscious.

Jung. G. p. is meant by the unconscious'. rich in possibilities because 5 it 1 . invisible But is this association of God with the unconscious in c and any admissible? What. and how did the very idea of an unconscious come way about? Why religion in briefly such diametrically opposed evaluations oi Freud and Jung? These questions we must now examine. means yielding to a spiritual being higher.22 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS him. Secret of the Golden Flower.. To serve a mania is detestable and undignified to serve a God : is .. 112. C. As Jung continues. . i. anyway. 'It is not a matter of unconcern whether one calls something a "mania" or a "God".

abnormal and paranormal psychological phenomena of 1. . p. Varieties impression. unlike the other advances which psychology has made. but an addition thereto in the shape of a set of memories. Jung.Ill THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD LREADY in 1902 William James could write: *^I cannot but think that the most important step forward A that has occurred in psychology since I have been a student of that science is the discovery first made in 1 886 that there is not only the consciousness of the ordinary field. The of Religious Experience. thoughts and feelings. 23 . with its usual centre and margin. 1946. 1 Jung goes so far as to say that by the discovery of the unconscious 'the old psychology was thrown out of the saddle and as much revolutionized as classical physics 5 by the dis- covery of radioactivity and he compares it in importance 2 to the discovery of numbers and their properties. William James. this discovery has revealed to us an entirely unsuspected peculiarity in the constitution of human . W. which are extramarginal and outside of the primary consciousness altogether. Myers's theory of 'subliminal C. p. 2. the phenomena of trance. Dreams. Yet it were then 'disfacts or what be asked well phenomena may covered' that had not been familiar from time immemorial. nature. 241. the influence of 'forgotten' experience or unacknowledged desires upon conduct. but yet must be classed as conscious facts of some sort. I call this the most important step forward because. 1925). 233 (35th date 1886 refers to the year of the H. automatisms of various sorts. 'Der Geist der Psychologic'. . alternating personalities. able to reveal their presence by unmistakeable signs. G. publication of F. consciousness'. Eranos Jahrbuch.

the karma of and acquired inclinations previous lives or the experience of the individual. has rapidly Comparatively new though it is. not only about psychology. : morality or politics or any manner of human behaviour. We can hardly read any book. It has become practisort of conversation. The ABC . adverbal or its in least at then noun adjectival the psychologists themselves it has become despite the of a few behaviourists an indispensable term of protests reference. not affairs. Ach: As a rule this concept is never defined in the works which employ it. but about art or 3 latter part of the nineteenth century. C. frequently. Gods and demons.. is becoming too ready 2 a resource in psychological difficulties'. K. What was certainly new. employing For forms. in the celestial and terrestrial. Ogden. Comparatively new the was us here concerns conception and name of the the agent or source to which as self or 'subliminal unconscious these phenomena were to be attributed. of Psychology (Pelican Books). was the deliberate method to the study of such application of experimental Truly. this concept become an important and indispensable item in modern man's stock of thought-forms and categories. Nor was it any novelty to attempt to correlate and account for them in various ways. Many more will complain with N. all this state of psychologists are easy about be found to complain and with ample reason that "The unconscious" .kinds none of these was new in human experience. bodily 'humours' or environment to any or all of these and to many other factors had such phenomena 1 for centuries been ascribed.. p. 'Revelation and the Unconscious'. 2. See infra. or at least as the collective noun to be employed to cover them. without stumbling constantly upon it. 17. and it is this that also phenomena. to cally impossible to carry on any about and discuss our own experiences ills. influences : 24 many GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS hereditary dispositions. or even to gossip as a if not it without our neighbour. More often than not the reader is obliged step by step to make his own picture of Some will ' 1.

still more importantly. 1 This comes as something of a surprise to the layman who has been led to suppose the unconscious' has been not only discovered but thoroughly explored and explained. This had manifested itself mainly in the utterances and behaviour of patients suffering from and it was hoped that hysteria while under hypnosis. But still more must it be attributed to the restricted views of the unconscious to which the popularization have come to think of the of Freud has given currency. of hypnosis for diagnostic purposes. p. It is hypnotic suggestion would also supply lasting came Charcot's Freud. Sigmund of and value the hypnotic to question desirability therapeutic the need and value suggestion. 223. shut. and more respectful N. The very association of God with dominantly transcendent intellectual God pictures of God: an exclusively in the Highest who has nothing to do with the lowest. The work of Charcot at Paris had revealed the dismissal important role which repression the unconscious from the mind of experiences. 'Uber den Begriff des Unbewussten in der Psychologic der Gegenwart'. Discussion of these dreams with the patient in the fully conscious state seemed to be more therapeutically efficacious. how also well known pupil. cure. unconscious as nothing but an alleged refuse-bin of the mind. i. and. which all noxious material and on which decent people keep the is hastily lid firmly It is well known how this conception of the unconscious came about. supplied to be 'the royal road to the unconscious'. emotions and ideas which it has failed to assimilate played in bringing about mental and emotional disorder. Ach. . he found. and that in its turn it has provided a definite and defined 'explanation of the that 5 THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD the unconscious may still the bizarre if not the blasstrike many as bordering on in part to our inheritance of phemous. ^dtschrift fur Psychologie. The dreams of natural the same information.25 what each author understands by it'. This may be due phenomena attributed to it. 1933. and proved sleep. We a receptacle into repressed.

it had even reached the conclusion that. while they dispose of popular beliefs that Freud first 'discovered' a hitherto wholly unknown and unsuspected region of the mind. and with the mutual attraction and had been occupied repulsion of 'ideas' . 'Freud's theories [as against Herbart's] had the immense advantage of being based on years of laborious and systematic investigation of individual cases. certain desires are incompatible with other dominant tendencies of the personality. than hypnotic suggestion thus was born what Freud's first patient called the 'talking cure'. p.* Similar conclusions about the importance of repression in psychoneurosis and psychosis were being reached in Switzer- land by Bleuler. C. 3- J. and more especially by the word-association tests of his pupil. IV. Jung. * 4. It merely joins the vast company of ideas that have gone from consciousness. ff. Such considerations. and for this reason are banished to the unconscious'. . cit. As Professor Flugel says. Druck] does not thereby cease to exist. xiii. G. J. pp. 279 2. G. 9 p. Flugel. C. Already at the beginning of the nineteenth century. op.. in the field of desire. and what Freud himself called 'psycho-analysis' . 18. Some such conception had been implicit in all association-psychology since Aristotle's De Memoria et Reminiscentia. 'Herbart's psychology extended 2 beyond the realm of the conscious to that of the unconscious'. ibid. cit. do not in any way minimize the revolutionary importance of his actual achievements.26 for GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS the patient's : individuality and independence. With Herbart. 4 1. op. Flugel. 19. . To the latter was due also the name and concept of the 'complex'. .the opposition seems to be on the whole an intellectual one: with Freud it depends upon an opposition . and it had not been until the time of Descartes that the field of psychology had been confined to that of consciousness. but may return either through a weakening of opposite ideas or by co3 operation with an ally'. A Hundred Tears of Psychology. 'an idea that has suffered inhibition (or repression.

For it is idle to minimize the revolutionary importance of Freud's recognition in his later works of 'the archaic heritage of mankind [which] includes not only archaic dispositions but also ideational contents. all of whose contents could be mechanistically explained in terms of the step was a short individual's life-history. Moses and Monotheism. In fact Jung's possession general anyhow. If this assumption were correct.THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD It 27 from the discovery that this 'banishment' or repression was at the root of much mental disorder to the assumption. and it is merely a truism that 'symbols are recreated in the course of individual development'. 249 ff. Freud stated on p. 28. thus understood. Outline of Psychop. pp. would account for all unconscious contents. and that repression. 1 (For it cannot easily be maintained that 'The whole is structure of Freudian metapsychology I. this assumption On also. Truly enough. Dr Edward Glover in his 'Freud and Jung* (Horizon. No Jungian has maintained inherited symbols or images. oblivious that the whole argument of Moses and Monotheism stands or falls with it. and at least theoretically analy sable until there was no 'unconscious' left. Yet the very assumptions on which was based this critique of religious beliefs as illusory had to be abandoned in the light of empirical data. as (according to Dr. first by Jung. though with some caution and reservation. 208 that he did 'not think much is to be gained by introducing the concept of a * "collective unconscious* (in the manner of Jung). and this. that it was the only root. p. analysis. then by Freud himself. then the psyche would indeed be a closed system. 159. hypothesis of 'inherited dispositions to reaction' is very much more cautious than Freud's. was the view of Freud himself in Totem and Taboo and The Future of an Illusion.) plays down the importance of this recognition. unaffected by his Freud. ' . Oct. 1948. Glover) 'many Freudian analysts prefer to think*. 'God' would be nothing but a projection of banished desires or repressed fears. but this of the unconscious is collective 'the content was because a of mankind*. cf. S. memory traces of the experience of former generations'. tacit or expressed. and keeps safely at bay the bugbear of the inheritance of acquired characteristics which Freud feared.

as an 'explanation' is ignotius. The writings of the highly gifted Robertson Smith provided me with valuable points of contact. (Moses and Monotheism. especially in so far as it had been the basis of his critique of religion. infra. not an ethnologist. It was right to select from ethnological data what would serve me for analytical work. inexplicable in terms of the past history either of the individual or the race. Under offers the word Unconscious'. 2. in juxtaposing nay. and even some medical circles. a painter of some distinction and. and although the scientific clinical investigations of Freud and those who have followed him appear to have been quite independent of previous investigation and reflection in somewhat more and 'philosophical' circles. but a psycho-analyst. The closed system of the optimistic early days of psycho-analysis is not merely cracked. . Freud moulded history it was of ignotum per be thought of his 'speculation'.28 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS incursion into the region of phylogenetic speculation' 1 2 quite apart from his recognition of paranormal phenomena. 17. A century ago there was nothing very unusual. In any case. p. it will be germane to our own inquiry to recall briefly some of the work that had been done. He was in his time a man of some jiote. The presuppositions of The Future of an Illusion are shown to have been themselves an illusion). to judge from the versatility 1. But whatever to undermined the earlier structure. Court Physician to the King of Saxony. In 1848 appeared the very remarkable book called Psyche by Carl Gustav Carus. The division is arbitrary. Edward See *I Glover. . I cannot say the same of the work of his am my good my opponents'. 3. the c Encyclopedia Britannica two separate articles.. 18. literary. it has burst wide open. in almost identifying God and 'the unconscious'. 207). pp.. 251. in many philosophical. he had the honesty and courage to recognize the facts which to fit his theories 3 . p.. 1 op. there is one on 'Unconscious (Philosophical)' and another on 'Unconscious (Psychologi- cal)'. 1 cit.

His Psyche has not yet been translated into English. the slenderness of the evidence which Carus adduced to support his theories could hardly commend them to the rigidly scientific mind. from Aristotle on/ he wrote. or even epitomized in : is the instrument. Carus then proceeded to criticize the academic psychology of his time which confined its attention to conscious mentation 'the psychological inquirers of antiquity. Only in our own day is the evidence being supplied. are accorded special praise for their insistence on psychosomatic unity and their realization of the non-conscious sources of mental events. should also be the aim of human life and growth is the ^Bewusstwerthe making conscious of the undung des Unbewussten' conscious. rather of than the subject-matter psychology. in particular. a 2Q been led to parts. we are told. though without the latter's accumulation of empirical data to support them. He was not. and we naturally find him more concerned with the positive 'participation' of consciousness in the unconscious than with such manifestations as projection. The book's main theme is opening words: 'The key to the underof conscious life can be found only in the realm of standing the unconscious'. The psyche is not only. consciousness psychopathologist. We cannot here attempt even a summary of Carus's entire book. there are many factors which may account for its subsequent neglect. however. went further on the true way than the moderns.THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD of his writings. psychology from the study of comparative anatomy. Apart from the more limited views of the unconscious which were to result from the work of Freud and other psychopathologists some fifty years later. it must suffice us to mention some relevant of man many He had highlights among its its conclusions. as we have seen. conscious. 'even though they were less informed about organic processes. Its aim which. a chiefly. .' Aristotle and Aquinas. It is astonishing to read Carl Gustav Carus to-day and to see how he anticipated many of the conclusions of Carl Gustav Jung. introjection. Though it seems to have made some stir in its time. complex-formation and functional disorder.

infinite. 'the unconscious is the subjective expression Christoph Bernoulli. Presently his picture of types' in what Carus called the unconscious begins to emerge: it is sketched mainly in a of sharp contrasts with consciousness as we know it. immeasurable. unfettered by the categories of space and time it and promethean. It is itself unfathomable. Such affirmations may strike us as arbitrary and fanciful. and we cannot fail to recognize Jung's 'archeUrbilder. Already for Schelling. Carus (Jena. It may be admitted that they afford a meagre foundation for so vast a superstructure. rather than with the observations he used to support them. egocentred the realm of unconsciousness is supra-individual. . 1925)- i. but only as what to us is 1 purely unconscious'. It is the source of : consciousness and possibility. it is untiring and consciousthis in respect also. series : is ceaselessly operative. in one of his other books. The realm of consciousness is invariably individual. it can be known only by its effects as perceived by consciousness. godlike) unlike sleepless (and The ness is unconscious : it is both epimethean itself. 'is the Divine (das Gottliche). all nature was 'ein bewusstloses Denkerf an unconscious Thinking and for Carus himself. animal or plant able proof of the existence of a (to us) uncpnscious mind. It is more to our present purpose to notice that the attributes of the unconscious as Carus sees them are precisely the attributes which tradition has ascribed to gods or God. and the source of all Kbnnen all power unknown and unknowable to By definition consciousness. and Carus himself more than hints at the similarity: The basis of all life/ he says. gence and teleology of unconscious manifestations irrefutand the Carus for supreme human.30 But GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS Carus quite expressly postulates a supra-personal unconscious. but we are here concerned only with some of Carus's conand arguments clusions. which for us cannot be fully grasped on the analogy of a human intelli- They consist gence. G. mainly of particular specimens of the intelliof life. Die Psychologie des C.

1. 4. no pantheist: divine itself unintelligible unless immanence. Here indeed the concept of the unconscious is so refined as to lose almost every connection with human psychology. The Philosophy of Coupland. the Absolute Ego of Fichte. Schelling's Absolute Subject-Object. 12. however. is God is utterly transcendent. But it is hardly distinguishable from the 'God' of the traditional natural theology of. Von Hartmann indeed sharply distinguishes his 'unconscious' from what he supposed to be 'the God of the theists'. a book which. a Prussian officer who had turned to Idealist philosophy. 'can be approached only by its submission to the deepest depths of what to us is purely unconscious. a participation in. von Hartmann. has run into several editions.' Some twenty years later appeared Eduard von Hartmann's Philosophy of the Unconscious. Carus.tr. Natur und Idee. G. But by then Carus has distinguished a It is of the latter that c the task of the human mind to pursue the Divine within us in its unfolding out of the unconscious relative and absolute unconscious. etc'. p. towards the end of the book it is hardly distinguishable from God himself. St Thomas Aquinas. and is at last revealed as that which has formed the core of all great philosophies. the attainment of God/ he says. . 2 2.for that 3! which we know objectively under the name of 1 "Nature". 3. the unconscious THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD is called 'the creative activity of the Divine'. Early in his Psyche. he also insists. Schopenhauer's Will. it is he writes that to consciousness'. for example. He is. the divine Mind. the Absolute Idea of Plato and Hegel. described it as the 'all-unity' which 'embraces the Cosmos. notwithstanding its bulk and weight. Ed. Vol.' and this in turn is a partial revelation of. . Von Hartmann himself. the Substance of Spinoza. G. the Unconscious. I. pp. but this only on the odd supposition that 'the God of the theists' was alleged to possess consciousness in his own restricted sense of a subjectobject distinction produced by 'brain and ganglia'. both in the German original and in the English translation. 'The highest aspiration of the conscious mind.

but one which is The moveincreasingly considered to be omnicompetent. and increasingly isolated from the larger context sciousness. a wealth of fascinabrilliantly told.|he came name The rtve.32 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS These speculations of Cams and von Hartmann had not dropped out of the blue. Herbart and Schilling have already been mentioned as forerunners of the conception of the unconscious. came Enlightenment and from Romanticism. supramundane and inframundane influences. by Albert Beguin is in his 9 I Art romantique et le it is His story confined to Germany and France. but its history goes still further back. but also the unique basis for all philosophy. but . of the sans etonnement and supremely in the Enlightenment. not (as is usually said) to the glorification of Man. Psychology. still more so from the cosmos as a whole. It is an ineluctable psychological law that over-valuation of consciousness brings forth an it came to over-compensation from the unconscious. itself an upsurge from the neglected unconscious. story is the activity and imagery. of life. even by believers. then the of the unconscious. it was were If behaviour. and so of Reason'. they thought and occasions on special only. especially since become had exclusively concerned with conDescartes. and with first itself. and his thought an master is now the 'external of exact copy reality'. From the pass in the latter part of the 'century its diametric opposite. Romanticism. The movement tended. the ment reaches its climax in eighteenth century le siecle The cogito became not entirety the Then came the reaction. Man of his own thought. and is of European intimately connected with the whole history culture. ting material. that in conditioning human they were constantly operative invoked at all. awareness of our own consciousness only the sole concern of psychology. but in practice it was hardly supposed any longer. Much had happened since the Middle Ages when dreams and their like were attributed to God and spirits and many other mundane. idea and. Faith and reason had been divorced: God and even angels might still be acknowledged. but to that of the conscious Ego a part only of man.

and with an almost obsessional occupation of suicide. Begum shows. In its last decade G. too. becomes what we call vie humaine*. so neither was the reaction quite so extreme as on the Continent. the Underworld. Elsewhere he has this startling piece of autobiography: *I know by experience that dreams lead to selfknowledge.. and Keats. understood as the way to the total advocacy extinction of consciousness. But on the Continent.THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD 33 doubtless paralleled in England. Like almost every line of Keats. death-pale were they 5 all : La belle dame They cried Hath thee in thrall! sans merci scribes a She had indeed. the Romantic reaction started much more violently: at first with a prewith death. joined to the rest of our existence.. Coleridge. C. Coleridge will deliberately quench normal consciousness with opium to produce The Ancient Mariner and produce an artificial dream-world in his prose works he : practically deifies the untrammelled. and I . The difference between Pope and Dryden on the one side. as the Enlightenment in England nevei attained the extravagances of the Encyclopaedists and the Philosophes. But in England. this dedreamland. Already in the eighteenth century we find among the Romantics a dawning recognition of the dream as contributing to human wholeness. Lichtenberg is writing. uncontrolled Imagination. Pale warriors. . the Kingdom of Heaven. ruins and dreaminess. 'The dream is a life which. but of Weltanschauung and dominant values. far away from the world of daytime consciousness. the bright day of the age of reason was succeeded by the inbreak of a dim world of moonlight and mists. aching hearts and hemlock- numbed senses: I saw pale kings and princes too. Shelley and Blake on the other. the Dream. I dream every night of my mother. It is true that. is not just of style or taste. But then the movement settled down to preoccupation with the images of the Night. For Blake the unfettered Imagination is the Mind of God.

if not also the Transcendental Categories. Quoted by A. op. himself work out the implications very far. Beguin clearly summarizes the situation when he writes. but he did not the : 5 . 3 Kant also was to write of Ideas we have without being cognisant of them'. On account of this Leibniz has been claimed as the father of the concept of the unconscious. A. cit. 103. 3. Hamann Self-knowledge means a descent into hell.. and this reaction also was to contribute to the conception of the unconscious. 1 Quite early in the nineteenth century. L'Art *937)> PP. that of the Unconscious as the sanctuary of our hallowed communing with the Supreme Reality. p. but it was not the only revolt which the Enlightenment produced. and it soon gains general currency in Romantic circles. which is the Guardian of the Treasure. Wilwoll in Ratsel der Seele (Olten. Reaction set in among philosophers themselves. 33. romantique et le reve (Marseilles.. that of the universal unity and the Anima Mundi] and it also creates several more that of the Night. 18.34 find GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS my mother in everything'. but that is the \vay to had written. p. J. word 'the unconscious' with the definite article (I'inconscient. only later was von Hartmann to argue that Kant's whole Critique of the Practical Reason. Beguin. and that of the Dream which transfigures perception. Flugel. Leibniz attacked the basic postulate of Locke's Essay on Human Understanding the postulate of the equation of Mind and Idea with actual perception and produced his petites perceptions. at. fF. C. the subterranean region of the mind. according to Begum.y p. 2. 98. Even before e that. but again without much further elaboration. cf. 1. deification'. and in which every image becomes a symbol. 1946). 'Romanticism revives several ancient myths. das Unbewusste) is used to describe this subterranean region. and all language becomes mystery 2 It is not difficult to see how this Romantic mythology filled the vacuum left by the enthronement of Reason and the breakdown of Faith.38. op. .

In Schopenhauer this stream of thought is joined by another. And. with the exception of few besides the Behaviourists (for whom the concept of c consciousness logist is equally obnoxious). the present-day psychocompelled to postulate an unconscious psychic life is c whether he likes it or not. and the two streams may be said to meet in Carus and von Hartmann. flowing from the Hindu and Buddhist metaphysicians in Europe. result was similar.THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD 1 35 presupposes an unconscious Mind. the Night. nor enable us to state very exactly what the problem is. but not only. N. But it may assist to widen the context in which it is nowadays usually discussed. Not until we come to Schelling do we find the unconscious as a central philosophical conception. 2 There is fairly general agreement also that this postulate is demanded by (i) the phenomena of involuntary mentation (particularly. Apart from the reality of the unconscious. et loc. op. rather had it grown out of reflection on conscious processes themselves. 9 20. Ed. 2. and all the other paraphernalia of literary Romanticism. op. agreement on the definition of the unconscious is notoriously lacking. For it is clearly impossible to say anything very definite or conclusive about 'God and the Unconscious' until there is some agreement about the meaning of our terms. or even if there be any such problem. any explanation of the regular processes of conscious phenomena is simply impossible'. while it should be agreed that God' is undefinable. It who were for the first time becoming known scious need hardly be said that this philosophy of the unconhad little to do with Dreams. Ach. There is indeed general agreement that. of dreams). cit. But the This sketchy historical account will hardly solve the problem of the relationship of God and the Unconscious'. both in fact and in terminology. von Hartmann. cit. and (2) the seeming purposiveness 1. .

Ratsel der Seele y p. At one extreme we find Dr Ernest Jones proclaiming the simple. We have also seen that Freud himself. G. Spiess. M. 1 But there is little agreement as to what the content or boundaries of this unconscious may be. the shallows which they so valuably discovered and examined Jones whole mighty ocean which lay beyond. G. p. 121: The existence of the unconscious is the result of repression*. in his later works. Dr Baynes errs by a needless excess. E. there are many less indefinite definitions and descriptions of the unconscious in this volume of colc lected papers. i. The evidence is at least strong that the early pscyho-analysts mistook a part for the whole. indeed he so broadened his concept of repression itself as to render it useless for supplying a causal Explanation'. understood as the source of biological purposiveness 2. p. iv. Analytical Psychology and the English Mind. or that could exist. beyond the range of this individual consciousness'. that has existed. N. 'The Subliminal Self and the Unconscious*. Baynes. The first is. The Personality of Man by G. cf. abandoned the theory that repression could account for all the phenomena attributed to the unconscious. ch. But there are two points that we may assert with some confidence.36 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS of non-conscious biological functioning. that the boundaries of the unconfor a scious. number in England. Tyrrell (Pelican Books). unreasoning and predomi2 At the other extreme we find his Jungian 5 . 3 Enough has already been said to indicate that Dr Jones's narrow definition fails to satisfy many of the needs to meet which an unconscious is postulated at all. 156. p. Ernest Jones. -i. But where Dr errs by defect. infantile. early orthodox Freudian view that the unconscious is the result of repression' and describing its contents as consisting exclusively of what is 'repressed. Baynes. In fairness it should be remarked that the paper from which this utterance is taken was composed for a 'private meeting'. c nantly sexual opposite conative. cf. un- assertion that 'the conscious is merely a term which comprises everything which exists. . H. 123. instinctive. Psycho-analysis. the out-Junging Jung in the sweeping late Dr H. 3.

our consciousness cannot penetrate. italics ours. only by its it is as a postulate. Outline of Psycho-analysis. according to Aquinas). it those facts is and does not seek to explain them'. to God or gods. though not exclusively. known (as is God. Dreams. it keeps as close as possible to 3 a negative concept for valuable. physical or biological factors. phenomenal effects. Before concluding. by definition. Psychological Types. Kant to The second employed term Grenzbegriff \v&$ employed by describe the concept of God. Freud.. the purposiveness of irrational life was precisely a ground for the affirmation of an intelligent God as in Aquinas's 'fifth way' to establish the reality of God. Jung. or can positively 'explain precisely nothing at all Of his own conception of the unconscious. we may turn to some still earlier observations concerning God and what we should now call 1. p. C. p. Freud in his last major work acknowledges 'that it is not properly a theory at all. of course. To this we shall return in other contexts. as well as to bodily humours and environmental factors. and the rest now ascribed to the 'unconscious'. attributed to inspiration. 613. 1 The 'unconscious' 5 a 'boundary concept . to describe that into which. demons or angels. and often intelligence We may and purposeful volition. 21. G. were then regularly ascribed. to angels or demons alongside. It is primarily what is not conscious. recall that the point we may note is that this postulate is account for phenomena which in ancient and medieval times were precisely. concerning 'the unconscious'. Then. involuntary phantasy. The unconscious is THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD at best a postulate. S. to God or gods. and however working hypothesis. Here we have confined ourselves to a brief historical survey of ideas that have been held. 2. . and are still held. and indeed indispensable.. parapsychological phenomena.37 and undirected mentation (including dreams) have yet to be discovered and are probably undiscoverable. but which yet often behaves as if endowed with for Jung a Grenzbegriff? consciousness. but a first attempt at a stock-taking of the facts of our observation .

The difficulty lies in this (Tertullian points out) that there is no common authority. the fundamental assumptions of Christian belief and thought. his appeal is precisely to the spontaneous. But they will find all that with which Christ's salvation. however. and the Christian Scriptures < and guilt. Stated in the of doubts spite and unpremeditated language of to-day. are made such by grace and baptism. prayers. not born such by nature. sin He shows how the involuntary and spontaneous speech and behaviour even of the most sceptical mind its uncontrolled phantasies. not indeed in any external scripture. They will not find indeed Christianity itself: Christians. but within the human soul itself. . and what Tertullian meant by it. educated pagan precisely denies or doubts. The common ground is to be found. Tertullian is celebrated for having coined the phrase: anima naturaliter Christiana the soul or psyche is naturally Christian. It first occurs almost casually in his long Apologia for Christianity against pagan and sceptical criticism. he recalls.38 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS to the unconscious at the turn of the second the early Christian writer Tertullian and third centuries. He argues that if only men will look into their own souls. In this little book we find him grappling with the same problem as that which besets us to-day: the problem of finding some common ground. be it Christian or not. It is. and Church. no common scripture or corpus of writing. even in persist and denials of consciousness. conflict and immortality. there they will find all the presuppositions of Christianity which the cultured and sophisticated consciousness doubts or denies. Tertullian finds and the answer to this problem in what he calls the testimonium anim& the witness of the phenomena of the human soul. some common speech. less well known how that phrase was occasioned. curses and feelings in testifying to its belief in these things. which the believing Christian and the unbeliever alike accept as a starting-point for thought discussion. have to do: God and demons. The sceptical. heaven and hell. even if he does not deride. but it was in his De Testimonio Anima that he develops the theme. between the believer and the unbeliever.

'Stand forth. . .' he writes. glutted in academies. Every country has its own language. since in thy learning and experience. simple and unspoiled. not what thou hast acquired in thy lifetime. Demons too are everywhere and the cursing of demons everywhere all the world over is this witness of the Soul. . uncultured and untaught. and so believe in your own self. If you would have faith God and Nature. . .. Soul. yet the subjects of which the untutored soul speaks are the same everywhere. .. . proclaim those very things we 1 (Christians) are derided for believing'. to nation earth: in them all there is every belonging upon one soul. and you will find that God is everywhere. first you must have faith in your own Man is one name soul. pp. i. There is not a soul of man anywhere that does not. I thou bringest with thee into life. no one any more feels confidence. in . . Look into the soul. trained in libraries. Vol. such as they have thee who have thee O want thine inexperience. and the goodness of God is everywhere. though many tongues. But I call thee not as when. I address thee. : by its own natural light. I. Slightly adapted from the translation of The Writings of Tertulliari) Ante-Nicene Library. 'stand forth and give thy witness. but what only. fashioned in schools. . 37 fF. thou belchest forth thy "wisdom". I require of thee.THE UNCONSCIOUS AND GOD 39 automatic expressions of the unconscious as against the sophistications of the spoiled and Educated' conscious ego. .


. he was presumably talking about what he knew. Dalbiez. An obsession of humanity or : not. for he was a pioneer discoverer of causes and on cures of neurosis. religion was certainly something like an obsession with Freud himself. The subject seems to have fascinated him in his writings he could never i . R. in Moses and Monotheism this theory is repeated assimilated religious belief On and elaborated and the fancifulness of the pseudo-historical scaffolding with which he there sought to support it testifies to the lengths to which he was prepared to go to maintain what had become an unshakable idee fixe. we can hardly have escaped be all studied. Freud's critique of religion. I. This was no case of a its impact. La Methode psycho analytique (1936). from that position he has never withdrawn. is part of our modern heritage. pp. Believers or unbelievers. perhaps thoroughly misunderstood and distorted.. examined specialist trespassing outside his own field to express opinions subjects about which he is no authority.IV FREUD. tested or Comparatively few can have it for themselves. Roland Dalbiez could write with truth: 'Ever since Totem and Taboo and The Future of an Illusion Freud's attitude towards religious beliefs has steadily become increasingly hostile 1 Already in 1907 he had IN cleavage their respective attitudes to religion there 5 . 614 ff. Even before the publication of Moses and Monotheism. When Freud said religion was a neurosis. and practice to obsessional neurosis. but it can the more impressive for that. 41 et la doctrine freudienne . JUNG AND GOD is a notorious between Freud and Jung. one which has progressively widened and deepened. the contrary. perhaps reflected indirectly.

yet analytic investigation. more about Freud than theorising about religion tells us our But that is hardly business. says on its motives for saying it. but a psycho-analyst. the father' .).. Van der Leeuw.. appear be much older and more wide- and that Father-gods appear spread in human religion. we must consider religion. The illusion of course was religion: its future was that it had not much of a future. 2. It is my good data what would serve me right to select from ethnological 3 is fair and frank enough. He then wrote.42 leave it GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS alone for very long. p. 196. See G. 'Psycho-analytic teaches with especial emphasis investigation of the individual that god is in every case modelled after the father. 91 fT. caution: a recognition that there is more to the matter than comes within the competence of psycho-analysis. But That work. 178 ff etc. 2 But. because. as Freud was to say later: 'I am comparatively not an ethnologist. Totem and Taboo (Pelican edn. as well as many psychologists. Moses and Monotheism. it was How 1. Perhaps it is ungracious to of psychoFreud's writings to his own technique subject it is difficult to avoid doing so. after modelled case disagree that 'god is in every they will insist that Mother and Daughter to goddesses. late. pp. its Essence and Manifestation. quite aside from all idea of a god analysis the other origins and meanings of god upon which psychocan throw no light 1 Here there is at least a note of 5 . any must be very important. p. 1207. what he own merits. Religion. and we begin to suspect that his anxious. . in The Future of an Illusion. rather than his personal His first important utterance on the subject occurs in Totem and Taboo in 1907. and that relation to god is dependent on our personal our personal If Psycho-analysis deserves relation to our physical father the share of the father in the then at consideration all. 3. . and even divine Sons. sometimes tortuous. Most will probably ethnologists.' for analytical my will such to be built ingenuous selection bear the weight upon it? much was to be built appeared in 1926.

which tell one something that one has not oneself discovered. It is this is unsatisfactory : as a definition of it far too broad on Freud's own admission would apply equally well to a geography book: but there is the difference that the assertions of the geography book are verifiable by methods which Freud will recognize as valid: assertions about God are not. need not be necessarily false . JUNG AND GOD it implied. as well as sex and 'incest'. it is the response need. word astonishment that an illusion meaning for the it 'illusion' as well. But having an dogmas and assertions. it is surprising that an empiricist who had met religion of any sort could suppose it consists of them and (apparently) nothing else. (so far) to commonplace The Future of an ibid. But that is constantly the layman's trap in reading Freud it is not so much that he must learn a strange and difficult jargon. religion. not necessarily an error unrealizable or incom. But we have also to notice that c Freud had own private . 2 patible with reality'. and which claim that one should give them credence. Freed from Freud's novel and unconit all ventional language. as that familiar words like 'religion'.. factor in its motivation'. adds up 43.' 1 Now. When we ask Freud what he means by 43 to be an religion. And if we ask him what prominent wish-fulfilment demand and to a basic psychological is. is We read with some . 2. assertions about facts or conditions of . However important or otherwise may be creeds or dogmas for religion.. In Freud's private vocabulary any an illusion 'when wish-fulfilment is a is or true false. . are given an unfamiliar extent of meaning until little is left that means confined religion to quite what it seems to say. . 'Religion consists of certain dogmas. p. on his any hypothesis. . 1.FREUD. belief. But the definition is also far too narrow. 54. psycho-analysis would eventually show illusion. the task of showing God to be : e 5 illusory rationalization of unconscious wishes his is greatly simplified. answer is as clear as it is surprising: 'I take my stand by this/ he forewarns us. reality. Illusion^ p.

but the with have nothing to do findings of psycho-analysis. the Lord taketh no knowledge or experiwe to us had would be little meaningless ence of fathers who are on earth. of The not findings assumed. but also untrue. a phantasy substitute for the a projection actual. and never wholly satisfactory. religious grow out of parental relationships relationships infantile them sexuality if you must). God. nor of their children's new nor startling that. So far as psycho-analysis untruth of religion is hordes and parricides. There is primeval in that (apart from the language) that is strikingly new. relationships to them. What then were the findings of psycho-analysis about an Illusion is an elaboration religion? Most of The Future of of the theory already quoted from Totem and Taboo> eked out with some more highly tendentious speculation about rationalism. Chapter Five of The Future of an Illusion is wholly devoted to an attempted refutation of the truth-value of the arguments. and the conclusion that it is therefore all abnormal and neurotic. nor is it to (call be wondered at that subsequent relationships are largely conditioned by these original ones. will claim no more than to show how the psycho-analysis illusion was brought about. It is neither or for that matter any relationships genetically. Jews and Christians for thousands of years have cheerfully father and mother forsake sung the psalm-verse: 'Whenc my Father who art in heaven' Our me up. such as they are. or which Freud could claim to about indeed with anything than anybody else. in short. religious statements. What is odd is the point of view. to Undoubtedly Freud himself believed religious belief platitudes. is 'at bottom an exalted father'. Oaks grow from acorns. They seldom speak with greater authority the of level the above rise popular tracts of Victorian the is concerned. parent: of to compensate for an infantile sense helplessness. Religious teachers themselves be not only an illusion in his peculiar sense of the word. but we do not human . proved.44 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS have always supand demands of needs inner were that meeting they posed the soul.' me.

Sanders to re-present Freud's psychology on the supposition that there is a God. instead of on the supposition that there is not. 1949). have set out to disengage Freud's psychology from his metapsychological theories and prejudices. B. and experience? Nor. among whom Dalbiez and Pfister are prominent. line and sinker. Several Freudians. But we should remember that psycho-analysis was born and nurtured in the climate of Victorian science. not only religion. dynamism. and tion of Freud's atheism. yet. but dreams. . uprooted instinctive human needs from its lowly origins in elemental. and are ready to detect function and purpose. it Freud's presentation of psycho-analysis assumes atheism. G. is not found to be withering in Western And is man this largely due to the fact that it has often become over- intellectualized. Freud's theories by psychologists show what follows from the eliminaBut meanwhile the sufficiency of and methods has been radically criticized themselves on their own ground. in their mani- festations. it is by no means valueless. perhaps. is as well as historic causation. at the expense of consideration in terms of function. JUNG AND GOD ordinarily think of an oak as a 'substitute' for 5 45 an acorn or as a 'displacement of an acorn which has been compelled to grow into something else because an unkindly environment has prevented its remaining an acorn. is Freud's conception of religion as a universal neurosis entirely without truth and value once we have understood his terminology. slips of the tongue and pen everything short of an unrealizable ideal of i. B. Freud's account of the genesis of religious belief found to be at best partial and lop-sided. 1 Mr Sanders is prepared provisionally to swallow Freud's psychology hook. perhaps. finality. Christianity after Freud (Bles. unbidden phantasies.FREUD. G. In England we have had the remarkable effort of Mr. does not even claim to prove it. We must remember that for him. with its concentration on past mechanistic causes. If religion and society. Once we to question the sufficiency of the repression-theory to account for all unconscious contents. Sanders.

3 it. has reached any very he that writings. Genesis. 26. unduly optimistic in supposing it could be been more psycho-analysed away. . justified critics from charging him with abandoning the physician's dental and metaphysical coat for the professor's gown. it cannot be said call the transcenhe would what definite regarding position the purely (as distinct from Within the of religious representations. the with significance psychological creasingly preoccupied 1.46 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS and pathocomplete consciousness is somehow abnormal 1 that confirm also will But religion. sense of creeds and external cults. stantly before our consciousness if it is how a sign of the position which in his earlier days he shared with Freud into a diametrically Jung moved steadily away from at least in his published opposite attitude. Theology has perhaps realistic in insisting that this irregularity must be accepted more in line with the together with all its consequences. 22. his remoteness on this earth from Divine vision.' Freud was of the are temple Almighty and the Lamb it was someknow we as that religion surely right in sensing C some radical irregularity and incompleteness but in man. if not the robes of the magician. fiom his incomprehension of and disharmony with the creative mind behind the universe. in the theology logical. and the professor's gown for the clergyman's surplice. do indeed find him inthe prophet. cf. is the result innocence and integrity. iv. Such religion. pragmatic) validity he would not be of framework purely empirical psychology ironical has not this but in prevented doing so. arises from man's relative unconsciousness. the mystagogue. and from inner conflicts and divisions. AT ocalypse (Revelation). in of man's fall from original theological language. 3. itself in trying to keep it conof depth-psychology findings to be finally overcome. xxi. 2. We Freud's Psychopathology of Everyday Life. cf. passim. even though. There is no religion in the beginning of the and there is none in the heavenly Bible 2 in Paradise his own for the Lord God City at the end: I saw no temple therein.

As Jung himself has remarked: The fact that many clergymen seek support or Freud's theory of sexuality or Adler's practical help from as both these theory of power is astonishing. Modern Man in Search of a Soul. Among all my patients that is to say. . . and none of them has been really healed who did not regain this religious outlook. By are disciples of Freud or Adler. .FREUD.. over thirty-five in the second half of life there has not been one whose problem in the last resort was . 264 ff. psychological types and historical epochs. who have given any serious attention at all to the psychotherapeutic needs of our age. being. This means that therapists the greater number of patients are necessarily alienated from a spiritual standpoint . 'Here then the clergyman stands before a vast horizon. p. But it would seem as if no one had noticed it.' Jung adds some words which must serve as justification for our venturing to treat of the matter at all. JUNG AND GOD 47 of religious symbols and their efficacy or inefficacy in varying It seems that. to 1 tasks of our age'). are rational methods psychology without the psyche. pp. 'people from all the civilized countries of the earth have consulted me. 'cope with the urgent psychic At first sight it seems odd that those few churchmen. should have shown a marked predilection for the approach of Freud and Adler rather than that of Jung. They the realization of hinder of treatment which actually the far larger number of psychomeaningful experience. . a fact which cannot be a matter of indifference to one who has the realization of i. clerical or lay. It is indeed high time for the clergyman and the psychotherapist to join forces to meet this great spiritual task' (namely. 'During the past thirty years/ Jung wrote in 1932.. 259. inasmuch I have said. not that of finding a religious outlook on life. whereas for Freud religion is a symptom of psychological the absence of religion is at the root of all disease. for Jung adult psychological disease... as theories are hostile to spiritual values. It is safe to say that every one of them fell ill because he had lost that which the living religions of every age have given to their followers.

deterministic. Adler's conception of of all the most cynical perversion of But one can always (it is contended) distinguish between the false philosophy and the valid empirical technique. human nature may be the divine image. Rudolf Allers in The Successful Error has argued. 263. One can analyse ad infinitum in the manner of Freud or Adler without ever intruding on the holy ground. 2 openly atheistic. . p. Maritain and a fairly wide consensus of Catholic psychotherapists. the irreligious. Theologically considered. or even more than. as against Dalbiez. but with doubtful consistency.' 1 Yet perhaps Jung's somewhat naive. Freud stops at the malum poena ('the evil we undergo') which is the immediate outcome of the Fall and which Western theology since St Augustine calls concupiscentia inordinata. if so disposed. Adler takes us further to that malum culp<e (the 'evil we do') which.48 spiritual GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS values is much itself at heart.. Freud's underlying philosophy may be materialistic. over against the community and the exigencies of integral human nature itself. the disorder of desire. see especially the first of his Two Essays in Analytical Psychology. mechaastonishment nistic. cit. This latter the theologians call superbia the self-assertion of the individual ego over against the Absolute. that no such distinction can be made op. as a consequence. The fact is that the of very 'religiousness' Jung is apt to scare off the religiousas much minded. and that no adjustments of it ab extra on the conscious level alone can enable it to fulfil its role of tran- scendent and integrating function. As to the manner in which Jung includes the Freud-Adler antithesis in a higher and integrating synthesis. one may even. which is at the root of all human ills. is the cause of this concupiscentia itself and of the conflicts and disintegration which follow upon it. and. adorn one's analysis with some pious preachments of one's own for the patient's edification oblivious that the very fact that the patient is suffering a neurosis is an indication that his religion is itself involved in the dislocation. Adler's diagnosis of the condition of fallen man goes deeper than Freud's. by sundering the grace-relationship with God. as.

They are logical consequences of the differences in the interpretation of psychological data which originally separated the. because it makes deeper and more particularized and more exacting demands.two men. if it is difficult to divest Freud of the professor's gown. and the much-shifting ground from which he levels his attack quite bewildering. it becomes quite impossible to draw a hard and fast line between them and in the last quite impossible to divest Jung of his 3 in practice. and the path marked out by his dream- a patient to be a kind of which leads progressively to something very like a religious conversion. And it may be agreed that. more moving. The grounds of Jung's break with Freud were anything but trivial or secondary.FREUD. but they were closely . a poor thing. less conventional. because it is less stereotyped. sequence ha$ proved to many interior religious pilgrimage c It is important to realize that the contradictory evaluations of religion which we find in Freud and Jung are not merely accidental or temperamental. more imperative. this very fact is apt to appear highly disturbing. Compared with much pulpit eloquence and ecclesiastical ceremonial. but mine own*. fact it is. JUNG AND GOD 5 49 between Freudian philosophical theory and clinical practice. it is difficult to disagree with this conclusion. and the fact remains that Jungian theory and technique are apt to cause the deepest misgivings by reason of the very religious aura which they assume. it is theory and surplice. Sometimes a deep and successful analysis is more like a religious retreat than most religious retreats. Both in realm of the psychological merges into the purely 'spiritual . a dream may be a poor thing. more personal. Whilst many of Allers premisses seem highly disputable. For the neurotic and the religionless it may be the only thing. into which none but the accredited priest holy To may Yet a enter. analysis if merge if not long before the psychological must so real 'cure let alone 'integration' to be is 5 effected. But to wean from Freud is not to win for Jung. Those grounds were many. those for whom the religious realm is a closely-guarded of holies. Jung's .

or that in its manifold manilibido an innate aspiration a naturale God. but seems to have been content at that time to regard God as a phantasy concretization of his instead of drawing the conclusion that his libido is actually realized only in God. As we shall see. deliberately retaining Freud's word. asserting that the psychological data were unaccountable except on a postulate which was as metaphysical as could festations desidyrium it indicates for . and their implications were far-reaching.50 came GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS connected. however little Jung himself at first may have realized it. unspecified. but Jung reached the basic conclusion that nothing could be sufficiently comprehensive to account for the empirical psychological phenomena short of an abstract conception of absolute. But. but indefinitely enlarging its meaning. This difference between Jung and Freud may seem at first sight to be purely academic. merely a matter of names. it is clear from the opening chapters of The Psychology of the Unconscious that Jung was led to this conception of undifferentiated energy by the fact that he was constantly presented by his patients with symbols which comparative religion showed to be universal symbols among religion could mankind for the creative and undifferentiated Divinity. Perhaps it was just as well. but it can hardly be denied that in positing an undifferentiated libido he was. Jung himself saw this clearly. however important and ontogenetically primary it may be. First the qualifications and amplifications which. formless energy. notably in The Psychology of the Unconscious and in the first of the Two Essays. it meant at the very outset that psychology and no longer follow their several paths without some merging. in spite of himself. undifferentiated. he was still very shy of religion: he was also very shy of metaphysics. Indeed. The sexual is only one of the countless forms which this libido may assume. Jung brought to Freud's theory of sexuality as the and dominant psychological factor. He has always been very sensitive to the charge of being a metaphysician. It was true that Freud himself had already considerably expanded his original conception of sexuality. indeed. To this he gave the name of libido..

1 FREUD. The fact that the central psychological standard of reference was transferred from sexuality. if it exists as such. doctrine that no science can demonstrate its own ultimate principles. but otherwise undifFerentiated. Jung's 'undifFerentiated libido is confessedly no more than an abstraction from differentiated forms of libido. complies with the Aristotelian. to the self. Jacobi. G. or to both'. and actus purus (under one name or another) is.. Whether or not the concept of a purely psychic. . ) interesting here. cf. The Psychology of C. 9 is none other than God. It stands in a similar relationship to actus purus as does ens communissimum to ens realissimum. It cannot be determined a priori whether it pertains to me. (J. libido can be logically maintained so long as we confess ignorance of where the bounds of the psyche are to be set (an ignorance which 3 Jung repeatedly and emphatically acknowledged. to is an and important point which cannot be pursued complete religion. 188. 'an abstraction that expresses dynamic relations and rests upon a theoretic postulate confirmed by experience'. p. to others. p. he would proso undifFerentiated as and that anyhow such conclusions were outside his competence. 226: 'There is no certainty at all as to whether an unconscious content belongs. Two Essays in Analytical Psychology. JUNG AND GOD traditional Yet for men call God. or does not belong. what be. to Jung his libido was not in those days. Within the is strict limits of empirical psychology libido is simply (as 'energy' in physics). inevitable a revaluation of the psychological function of Jung. in The Psychology of the Unconscious (1912) following on Die Bedeutung des Voters (1909) in no way This is not said in disparagement. formless energeia. made.5! metaphysics formless energy is synonymous with actus punts. itself centred in the incest-wish. In resting psychology on a conception that transcends empirical psychological observation (for libido is observable only in particularized forms and manifestations) Jung. as natural theologians have pointed out. Jung. an unspecified elan vital. That is to say. in effect. e. p. 30). but must relinquish this task to a superordinated science. 2 Had this been put bably have said that all that.g.

On the contrary. In the principal forms of religion which now exist. death and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. was in fact devoted to showing how the undifferentiated libido. is even for Freud in his more sober moods only a partial account. Religious activity (is comin childhood are withwhich those impulses pounded of) . as we have noted. re-enacted in the case-histories of 5 contemporary and often quite 'non-religious patients.52 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS repudiated Freud's account of the psychogenesis of the Man-God relationship which.' . but perhaps nowhere does Jung succeed in establishing his conception more satisfactorily than in his recurrent studies in this booic of the unique significance from the psychotherapeutic standpoint of the teaching. certainly there does not seem to have been any very definite realization of the implications of his own premisses. rites and beliefs. 38. . An immense erudition. is by religious symbols. incestuous application through the intervention of the incest barrier and which. weaned from the parents and transformed into creative and atoning power. But it cannot be said that. as is indicated particular activity. That attitude was not altogether very clear. nor even very consistent. especially at the time of puberty as a result of affluxes of libido coming from the still drawn from incompletely employed sexuality. covering the myths and religions of widely differing levels of culture. there was a quite extraordinary insight into I . The Psychology of the Unconscious. absorbed in the parental relationship. p. originally in the infantile state wholly . . The whole book. Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. 'feeds upon the incestuous libido of the infantile period. more clearly by the original title. . is brought to bear to support and illustrate this general thesis. the father-transference seems to be at least c the moulding influence. are aroused to their own x . life. Jung accepted. The religious instinct/ he wrote. elaborated and deepened it. Jung's conscious and explicit attitude towards religion was much more favourable than that of Freud. On the one hand. during this transitional period of his thought.

. 1 ultimately incompatible ideas seem to intertwine in The Psychology of the Unconscious. which cause is conceived to be the sexual Everything else is interpreted solely in this purely etiological context. Jung's differences with Freud were to lead to a revaluation of religion. cause and effect which were considered adequate for the i. an acute awareness. autonomous and godless. there was still pretty full agreement with Freud that religion is a regressive and illusory activity. and particularly of Christianity. that religion is not only psychologically valuable but also irreplaceable on the . pp. JUNG AND GOD what religion should do for man and what it had 53 achieved in the past. and the etiological centre of interest is identified with the axiological. by being subjected to analytical investigaand so rendered fully conscious and rationally explained. and perhaps also to exaggerated hopes that psychological analysis would exhaust other. that tions tion. At this late date. an idea. there is no particular point in subjecting Jung's earlier pronouncements on the value and validity of religion to close scrutiny. 142-145. or infantile sexuality potential mana but it makes a world of difference to our standards of appraisal. Two which we may trace rather to the assumptions of pre-igi4 humanistic optimism. It may make no objective difference whether we call mana transmuted infantile sexuality. 307 (note 42). The substitution of the word 'undifferentiated libido* for 'sexuality' necessarily involves a complete inversion of evaluation. could thereby be spirited away. on the one hand. supreme. if we do not gravely misread him. based on the empirical data. op.FREUD. all religious activities. the centre of interest is in the ultimate cause of all manifestations of the psyche. nor yet the ideal of 'moral autonomy' which he opposed to it in those days. But in point of fact. representa- and origins. but on the other. and it need not be wondered at that the same principles of mechanistic incest-wish. Psycho-analysis was born and nurtured in the medical clinic. In Freud. cit. far mqre radical than Jung could then see. . unconscious contents. leaving man the ultimate master of his own soul.

drives rather than desires were consequently the material in his patients which most interested him. as insufficient to account for all the data as was sexuality. others fail. was reinstated. Unfortunately. See the first of the Two Essays in Analytical Psychology. The cause was all that mattered to the analyst. neurosis. all might have been well. In Freudian theory the reduction of the disease to its discovering it to consciousness and evoking the appropriate abreaction. psychosis. the causa causarum. Had Adler learned no more than that from socialism. purpose. Some substitutes work. Direction rather than origin became the dominant concern of the psychotherapist. Reductive analysis is valuable only as subordinated to a prospective synthesis. 1 But for Jung also the important thing is not the acorn but the oak. so good. to that extent psychology was delivered from the crushing limitations of mere mechanism. were all that was required. a gross caricature of the early Freud. the principles of class-struggle applied to the individual in the form of the Will to Power were. finality. science. but rather especially religion. not hope Alfred Adler had already parted from the psycho-analytical community on this issue. by themselves. as Jung was to show. The whole viewpoint is changed i . All else is a more or less cause. and the ultimate cause was infantile sexuality. Adler had been a socialist. teleology. his narrowly conceived. all are really substitutes for the real thing. . finality was far too the discovery of causes only in so far as they make possible the realization of ends.54 diagnosis GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS and cure of the diseases of the body were considered adequate for the diagnosis and cure of the diseases of the soul. religion. is the prohibited incest. So far. satisfactory substitute. But whether they be regressions or sublimations. the important thing for the patient to know is not what he had been but what he could and should become. and from the socialists he had learned that it was vastly more impor- and the I real thing this is tant to become than and know what societies became and what they might to know where they came from. be it art. culture.

it is in fact only one form of life-urge bigger than itself. (The All this cf.. It becomes possible to view religion no more as a tolerated but regressive substitute for the forbidden incest. compelled him to revolutionize Freud's incest theory itself. set from a totally different standpoint. or motivated by the pleasure principle. Hence could be that manifest sexuality is itself symbolic. in much the same way as Hegel had been turned upside down by Marx. Fire-making rites are no longer seen as thinly disguised imitations of. 66. is turned upside down by Jung. Freud. Freud's data are accepted and indeed amplified. is the into regeneration is shadow of inward rebirth and life more abundant. 138. excellently summarized by Jacobi. 2. 1 The way is thus opened for a view of religion. cit. His analytic experience. . is intercourse the fitting or substitutes for. confirmed and illuminated by the study of comparative mythology. Impregnation of the mother for its own sake. sexual model for the psychological trans- formations symbolized and realized in fire-making rites. p. for instance. in effect. sexual intercourse. The Psychology of the Unconscious. the plunging of the neophyte in the font. but it may be fairly summed up by saying that Jung was led to the conclusion that the data which Freud had interpreted as indicating an incestuous wish were not ultimately incestuous at all. the union with the mother baptismal 1 .FREUD. op. The incubation of the mystes in the cave. pp. JUNG AND GOD 55 from a mere looking backward to a looking forward. what was really desired was the return to the womb rebirth. 2 The incest-wish is no longer the ultimate 'thing symbolized' . Examples are multipled indefinitely throughout the length of The Psychology of the Unconscious. are not sorry substitutes for incestuous penetration of the mother. was not the ultimate object of the libido at all. but as the fine flower and fruit of psychic energy liberated from its confinement to infantile incestuous channels. it is itself the symbol of a it yet more fundamental need and desire. 84. But Jung did not stop there. The whole story cannot be told here. but their significance is inverted.

Marvel not that I said unto thee.' 2 Here we are brought to Jung's most distinctive contribuand psychotherapy. 139. 2. behind child behind typal Father. in the individual's lifetime lies a racial heritage manifested Behind the particularized physical the archetypal womb of the Great the physical father the archebehind living. Can he be born?' To which In religion a system.GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 56 Western rite for the blessing of the Font at Easter. The pneuma bloweth (pnei) where it listeth. The ontogenesis of the psyche is a 're-echo' of a phylogenesis. Christ replied. and thou hearest the sound thereof. The second 1 . behind them * lie dormant the experiences of the race. but a return to what to the Christian Church has been a commonplace. to which he was led by experience with his patients. so is everyone that is born of the pneuma'. 1 Thus. but canst not tell whence it cometh or whither it goeth. mother's womb lies Mother of all lies the particular manifestation of the procreative sexual libido the universal creative and re-creative Spirit. . c the the puer oeternus'. Ye must be born again. John iii. That which is born of the flesh is flesh. *the libido becomes spiritualized in an imperceptible manner. as Jung comments. p. The power which "always wishes evil" thus creates a spiritual this course is raised to life. is but one indication of haw Jung's theory is no novelty. he cannot enter into the Kingdom of God. Psychology of the Unconscious. and to which the way was tion to psychology opened by the substitution of libido for sexuality. this longing for the womb and rebirth? 'How can a man be born when he is old? enter a second time into his mother's womb and So asked Nicodemus with Freudian-like literalness. it includes collective as well as personal elements. and that which is born of the pneuma is pneuma.) For what does it mean. 4-8. Behind submerged memories* of events in archetypal figures. with its frank and undisguised fertility symbolism. the contents of the unconscious are not limited by the acquisitions of the individual's lifetime. 'Except a man be born of water and of the spirit.

given a point to Tertullian's anima naturaliter Christiana such as has never been exhibited with such clear- An immense field for confrontation. not as a phantasy-substitute for the first. . the First and Second Eve. call in to question the competence of the explain many phenomena of the Ephesians iii. Clearly we are not far from St Paul's 'Father . Jungian inspiration. that Jung so far departs from Freud's assumptions as to causality-principle i. in the figures of the archetypal Mother. not to recognize in the undifTerentiated libido of Jung something very like the naturale desiderium of Aquinas. familiar in its contents and features. or who studies case-histories conducted under ness before. finds himself at once in a strangely familiar world. and even in spite of himself. This is only one example but it is a fundamental one of the manner in which the findings of analytical psychology have opened up vistas into a vast territory which the theo. but rather the physical father as the infant's first substitute for God. but rather does the first appear as a particular manifestation and symbol of the second. But even more striking still than these static symbols is the manner of the integrating or redemptive process itself as it is observed to take place in an analysis conducted along Jungian lines so remarkable indeed. but strange in its angle of approach. A theologian who reads Jung's works.' from whom all fatherhood 1 (patria) in heaven and in earth is named. the genetically open prior bearer of the image of the All-Father. logian cannot however recognize as closely resembling his own. Jung has in fact. and so inexplicable on a purely mechanistic hypothesis. symbols of the undifferentiated Divine Qusia\ in her 'terrible' and 'benign' aspects. God is less a Big Father than the physical father a little god. 14. JUNG AND GOD 57 of all these pairs appears now. It is impossible for him. comparison and correlation is opened out.FREUD. . no longer to conceive of God as a substitute for the physical father. for instance. The way is now to us. for instance. the differently psychologist and the theologian may fail to respectively regard it.

is. the redemptive functioning of faith and grace as known to psychology of the unconscious at Christian experience and studied in Christian theology. and the full development of this theory in his contribution to Naturerklarung und Psyche (Zurich. and risk the overthrow of cogent and comprehensible systems even at the cost of disregarding manifest facts.58 chronistic 5 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS all. Compare St Paul's transcendence of the inner conflict of and of reason through the response of faith Romans. even if not sometimes actually a vehicle of.g. 1 Whether the 'synwhich would he oppose to that of principle a excludes is indeed which causality. cf. perhaps. 1952). Wilhelm') Jung's preface to Wilhelm's edition of the I Ching. But Jung's work is hardly less disturbing to the professed theist and religious believer. pp. Those critics whose writings suggest that they are more solicitous for the tidiness of the psychiatrist's own mind than the health and happiness of their patients. ables into science. Cf. highly questionable. 142. evil spirits. of course. p. and good and 1. will doubtless continue to dub Jung an unscientific mystic and science mystifier. very suspect to those who have been trained in the mechanistic traditions of the old schools of it was clearly very suspect to Jung himself for many In years. Secret of the Golden Flower. p. as ever of the Golden Flower ( In Memory of R. 169: cf. 2. . 131 seq. spite of the lessons of more recent developments in it is still not easy to admit mysteries and imponderphysics. Coue and St Paul' by William Temple (late Archbishop of Canterbury) in Essays the laws of life to grace e. The Secret p. Two Essays. But it would seem to be certain that any deep and successful analysis involves a response to the 'leadership' (the word is Jung's) of manifestations of the unconscious which are closely parallel to. causality principle rather than a salutary re-enlargement of it beyond the narrow confines to which positivistic assumptions have restricted it. vii. 126. even to a zealot for his creed or for his church. 2 All this is. 5 fF. certainly Jung's later excursions into the more exotic byways of superstition and magic will do nothing to appease them. Perhaps even these have long ago ceased to think of God. Rascher. in e in Christian Politics.

For it would be grossly misleading to quote Jung as an apologist for religion as he commonly finds it among us Europeans to-day. His challenge to the professed believer is more but no less serious. When the salt has lost its savour. impossible more if we would not man or irreligion in our religion and our Western ourselves fellows. and by the scientist and the psychiatrist on the other. an outer and theoretic compensation for inner godlessness in practice. almost un- wittingly they may have so 'objectified' them. destroy fools himself when he thinks he has outgrown religion responsible. JUNG AND GOD active influences in their 59 own life and conduct. as more adult and has no need of God Nemesis he is learning in the bitter to his pretensions to self-sufficiency. so relegated them to the 'supernatural'. He himself would have it so. who never took in his much own be. it is indeed good for nothing but to be trodden down by men. Whether we belong to any denomination or none. challenged religion very seriously anyhow. It is comparatively subtle perhaps the for man of easy religion to dismiss Freud.FREUD. and will both by the theologian on one side. and it is rather as a challenge than as an apology that his work should be viewed. His own challenge to the unprejudiced sceptic and unbeliever is obvious enough. . he challenges us to become more conscious. and whose psycho-analysis 3 can be labelled as Science and outside the concern of ulti- mate beliefs : and values. Doubtless there is published writings that has been. Jung insists that such a dichotomy is that consciously or unconsciously religion affects everything in our lives. that it has never occurred to them that their ceaseless activities could and should become empirically observable and a challenge to searching self-examination. and that we take nothing on faith from him. confined them to Sundays. But he has outgrown an infantile religiosity which is no more than an escape-mechanism.


psychology, perhaps more than any other psychothus logy, brings modern science to the very frontiers of the realm traditionally held by theology. More exactly,
brings the methods of empirical science into the heartlands of that territory the territory of the human soul. Nor is this invasion only a purely theoretic reconnaissance of

the theologian's ancient domain, for not only does the theoretical psychologist claim to inspect this territory of the
systematic theologian, but also the practical psychotherapist (and the word means precisely 'curate of souls') increasingly

of the functions formerly performed by the practical pastor. The worries and anxieties, the moral problems and conflicts, the obsessive sense of guilt and all frustration, the hunger for guidance and assurance these and many other problems which our grandparents took to the confessional, the rectory or the manse are now far more often taken to the consulting-room of the physician and the psychologist. It would be profitable to examine the reasons for this; inquiries have been set on foot which yield 1 startling, if not altogether regrettable, results. Here we must be content to record the unquestionable fact. Those who seek help from psychologists rather than from the clergy are by no means only those who have no clergy to go to, or who own no Christian faith or denominational allegiance; sometimes they are devout and regular churchgoers. Indeed, it is very often the clergy who send them, sometimes contakes over




deliberately, perhaps


often unconsciously


See G. G. Jung, Psychotherapists or the Clergy', Modern in Search of a Soul, pp. 260 if.



and involuntarily. Many pastors of souls and religious writers would perhaps be surprised to know how often the very prescriptions and advice they have tendered in the exercise
of their own 'cure of souls' are the overt or latent 'complaint' when sheep of their flock become the psychologist's patients. 'The fact is not unknown that certain strict religious retreats and mission-sermons among Catholics, and a certain sort of sin-sodden training among Protestants, lead not to the Kingdom of God but to the psychiatrist's consulting-

room.' 1
disappointed, and

Those who seek the psychotherapist's aid are sometimes it is from these that the clergy are especi-

ally likely to hear more. More especially are they likely to hear the denunciations and appeals of those among their flock who may be passing through a phase of negative transference on the analyst; and if the priest or pastor does not understand what is happening, he may not only do considerable harm to the patient, but find his own worst

suspicions of psychology powerfully reinforced. But there are many more who have found,

with the

analyst's help, the release and health which they sought, and which they failed to find from the official representatives

of religion or from their own religious practices. In common with others, who would never have thought of seeking aid from that quarter, they have found, not indeed that their troubles could be removed like some bad tooth, but that with the aid of analytical psychology they could find insight, understanding, freedom and ability to deal with them, which previously they lacked. The result has been remarkably like the religious conversions and renewals of which they may have read, and so, too, have the actual experiences and processes by which the goal has been attained. The symbols which they have confronted in their dreams and phantasies have had much in common with those of religious initiations and other rites, and have been all the more impressive and effective because they have not been superi.

C. G. Jung, Psychologie und Alchemie, p. 37.

63 from without but and from have arisen within, imposed have come, not just as the expression of the beliefs of a group', as a traditional and collective pattern, but as closely intermingled with their own most personal and private experiences and problems. Those who have even begun to experience such release and salvation from whatever had previously tortured them, can give very little weight to the misgivings of theologians or the warnings of some of their pastors. In their attainment of light and insight they are likely to echo the man in the Gospel, 'If he be a sinner, I know not: one thing I know, that whereas I was blind, now I see.' ( John
ix, 25)



is not surprising that the very 'religiousness' of psychology has alarmed many of the religiousminded hardly less than it has alarmed the sceptic. theoretical dichotomy between religion and practical psychotherapy, even at the cost of fostering conflict and schizophrenia, seems to the more timid preferable to the risks of admitting the psychotherapist into the holy precincts of religion itself, or to the still more painful risks of luring the pastor of souls away from the security of his textbook lore to face the realities of the human psyche in the raw beginning (as he must) with his own. The belief that spiritual and mental disorder are independent of each other saves a great deal of trouble to the specialists in the treatment of both, and a misapplication of the venerable distinction




between the 'natural' and the 'supernatural' supplies a ready rationalization to justify the convenience. But the belief is as untenable in the light of the traditional theological principle that grace perfects nature' as it has been shown to be unsound and disastrous therapeutically. But

neither are the risks wholly illusory, so long at least as the respective roles of theologian and psychologist, of pastor and

psychotherapist, are not clearly distinguished and co-ordinated. The psychologist who abandons empirical psychology for the role of amateur preacher, moralizer and dogmatizer

unhappily not unknown; nor

'preaches psychology' and

the clergyman who the ministry abandons virtually



of Word and Sacraments 1 each
alike. If


a menace

to religion


the two roles are to unite in harmonious

collaboration, they must first be clearly distinguished, and the specialist in each must learn what the other is about.

not to be expected that the task of mutual understanding between the theologian and the Jungian psychoit is not logist will be found an altogether easy one; and only the theologian who may find it difficult to do justice to Jung's work. Jung's psychology is not primarily a theory but & praxis; the theory has grown out of, and is only incidental to, the Heilswegy the therapeutic art, the way of liberation and healing, which can never be quite identical in any two cases. Hence, as one of his leading collaborators has said

'Theoretic conceptions and explanations are adequate only up to a certain point for the comprehension ofJung's system,

completely one must have within oneself'. 2 It is therefore workings experienced perhaps pardonable that most theologians who have given any attention to depth-psychology at all still appear to be too busy catching up with Freud to have noticed the
for in order to




'Copernican revolution' (the phrase is Schaer's) which Jung has introduced. Freud, they find, is eminently tidier and more systematic, and to that extent more congenial to their own scholastic ways of thinking. Thomist theologians particularly must find



and while much of


common in Aquinas a*nd Freud, 3 common ground is axiomatic for

also, there are

very understandable reasons which

2. 3.

See H. Guntrip, Psychology for Ministers and Social Wcrkers (1949) chapters i and ii, for some excellent practical observations on this point. would not assert that the roles of priest or clergyman and of therapist cannot be combined in the same individual (there is evidence not only that they are successfully so combined, but also that there are cases of neurosis among religious people which only a priestpsychologist can touch), but it is essential that the two roles are not confused in his own mind and practice. Jolan Jacobi, The Psychology of C. G. Jung, p. 59.




Pie, O.P., Saint

Thomas d'Aquin

et la

Psychologie des


Le Supplement de La Vie Spirituelle, Nov. 1951. Translated and amplified in Dominican Studies, 1952.

FRONTIERS OF THEOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY 65 and have made it difficult for theologians philosophers to take Jung's work seriously. The obstacles to understanding are considerable, and
should not be minimized. Jung himself has repudiated every claim to have constructed a complete and water-tight 'that the system. 'It is my firm conviction/ he has written,

time for an all-inclusive theory, taking in and presenting all the contents, processes and phenomena of the psyche from one central viewpoint, has not come by a long way; I at the formuregard my theories as suggestions and attempts lation of a new scientific conception of psychology based in the first place upon immediate experience with human 1 of a pioneer, and for that beings.' He sees his work as that reason deems it unnecessary to chart territory already surveyed by other workers. The lack of 'one central viewpoint' but not only to is particularly perplexing to the theologian, has the theologian. Jung's psychology grown out of psycho-

become much more pathology, and although it has now this of influence the than that, preoccupation with the still is the erratic and abnormal very marked. This should not
be forgotten by the reader of Jung's works who is perplexed by what must seem to him (especially if he be a Catholic)
Jung's excessive interest

and sympathy




eccentric manifestations of religion also. Jung's whole approach to religion in his published writings, even



all allowances have been made for his empiricism, must often seem somewhat one-sided- At the beginning of his as a careful and Psychology and Religion he describes religion Otto aptly terms the scrupulous observation of what Rudolf

"numinosum", that is, a dynamic existence or effect, not 2 caused by an arbitrary act of will'. But in line with Schleirthe primitive experience on is the macher and Otto, emphasis 'it seizes and controls the as inasmuch of the 'numinosum', 'an is and human subject', involuntary condition of the suband quality of the 'careful character the than on rather ject',


'Foreword' to J. Jacobi, The Psychology ofC. G. Jung. C. G. Jung, Psychology and Religion, p. 4.

To many this will seem the raw and shapeless material of religion.66 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS and scrupulous observation'. Here. Schaer does not contradict Jung. find in Jung's conception of 'psychological truth'. rather than religion itself: a material which is equally capable of assuming the form of magic or any manner of superstition. Among these. logy. does not seem inseparable from his empirical work. it might be thought. yet it could give a very unbalanced view of human religion as a whole as it presents itself even to the inspection of factual psychological and anthropological inquiry. In the article which and the repercussions of the Kantian influences his earlier writings. may 1 . . Yet even Schaer fails us in clearly distinguishing a developed religious and worshipful active attitude. when he insists that 'religion consists not in merely experiencing the supra-personal forces of the soul as such. however. 100. issue between the theologian and the analytical psychologist. Jung's personal distrust of inferential thinking indeed presents a serious difficulty. involving rational and voluntary decision (let alone one that is distinctively Christian). and may rightly be considered to be the psychological root of the whole matter. He Hans Schaer. 2 apparent in difficulty Closely allied to this is the which the theologian. together with other critics. from that of the magician or the gnostic. p. but in adopting 1 psychically an active attitude'. Religion and the Cure of Souls in Jung's Psycho- 2. one which. if not also of lunacy. but rather attributable to metapsychological assumptions of inquiry. Notably in some of the notes to the original edition of The Psychology of the Unconscious. the theologian should have much of a constructive character to offer to the analytical psychologist in the elucidation of his own material. but nevertheless restores a necessary balance. and within his own legitimate field we are privileged to print as an Frei Professor draws attention to other points at appendix. or even the poet. This stress on the primitive experience (Urerfahrung) in religion is needful to the extent that it has been neglected elsewhere.

1 But Jung is justified in contending that these other criteria are not his business.) is justified in his note drawing attention to the ambigui5 ties in the term 'psychological truth . Morals and Society: A Psycho-analytical Study (Duckworth. 1945). Thouless. Jung deserves the praise his rigid rather than the blame of both theologian and scientist for and constant insistence upon this principle. Yet among counted the psyche's deep yearning for true Judgment concerning facts. A 5 On Introduction to the Psychology of Religion. An . see R. H. If Freud was mistaken in reducing religion to a matter of intellectual assertions. p. and that the only 'truths' with which he is competent to deal are the psycho- under his observation. while Jung on his part has become so enthralled by the psychological significance of religious dogma and symbolism that he seems to some extent to have lost interest in these criteria'. and the competence 'rational 2 logical facts which come these facts must surely be The to the practising psychotherapist must necessarily confine himself manner in which it works. G. Flugel. He does not deserve to be labelled (as by Flugel) a philosophical J. Chapter VI. we cannot push the element' in religion into the background alto'truth' of religion does indeed lie outside the gether. cit. Its presence among even primitive peoples has been noted by many anthropological field-workers. of the empirical psychologist as such. RheinVerlag. from the psychological standpoint. 'In becoming a psychologist Freud has not been willing to sacrifice the general criteria of truth observed by may other sciences.. Radin. it would seem impossible for the psychologist to distinguish hallucinations from 'real' perceptions. Flugel (op. Thomist will be more accustomed to distinguish 'material truth (FlugePs 'mere existence of mental states or processes') from 'formal truth' (to be had only in judgment) and both ffom estimates the 'rational element' in religion of functional value. whether attributed to faith or reason.g. e.FRONTIERS OF THEOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY 67 well be inclined to sympathize with Fhigel when he writes. 267. by P. Without some appeal to extra-psychological criteria. 1951). Man. et lot. Die religiose Erfahrung der Naturvdlkery (Zurich.

It is no scandal to him (Aquinas had shown the contrary in the very first page of his Summa) that the selfsame God whom the believer acknowledges by faith in revelation.68 GOB AND THE UNCONSCIOUS pragmatist for this scientific integrity. This inquiry was based on observation of fact no less than is that of more modern psychologies. and attempt to should under- stand those of the other. Where modern scientific method proceeds by way of generalization. e . that the theologian could offer his services in a positive and constructive fashion. him and it is by St Thomas Aquinas. not necessarily by as the different subject-matter or fields of inquiry ('material objects' schoolmen called them). Nor will a Thomist theologian be unfamiliar with the idea that the selfsame soul' or 'psyche* which is his professional concern may also be the subject of empirical observation and scientific inquiry. and to see where misunderstandings and mistakes may have arisen. If they should appear to conflict. will differ widely. The viewpoint and method of the theologian who tries to 'understand what he believes'. we would suggest. rather than with a suspicious resentment at the psychologist's intrusion on his own territory. commenting upon and developing Aristotle's De Anima. even by the 5 unbelieving investigator. and of the empiricist or rational thinker who tries to draw the consequences from what he observes. It is here. Aquinas himself conducted just such an inquiry. Yet it must always be found to be itself a psychological fact that a religion which not 'true' or at least apprehended as 'true' does not even 'work'. for instance. loyalty to truth will require of each that he verify and check his own processes. But its methods and treatment of observed facts differed considerably. but by the different ways (rationes cognoscibiles) in which the subject-matter can be rendered knowable by and to the human mind. could also be the legitimate object of purely rational inquiry. For this intrusion should not of itself disturb or surprise a theologian who has been trained in the traditional school is as represented. so also may their conclusions. For almost axiomatic that the different human sciences disciplines are to be distinguished.

to contribute to the psychologist. ready to recognize. St Thomas himself will science must be met on its own ground. psyche that Jung's psychology appears to to be subjecting to methodical study. he may not unreasonably expect that it will enrich his understanding of the material in his own field of inquiry. is open to an unprejudiced interchange of ideas and experiences an interchange whose importance the theologian. It does not claim to sow. Matt. than to that relevance of faith the widespread feeling that they are irrelevant. then. law. and . . It is precisely and practice to the needs and workings of the have rediscovered.FRONTIERS OF THEOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY 69 and notably in postulate. (cf. the priest and the preacher should be very standpoint. The way. and hope that he himself may be able. the psychology of Aristotle and Aquinas proceeded mainly by way of inference. Each may cover the same territory. On the contrary. yet each must realize that the other approaches it from a the theologian enables the seed to live or die. prediction or the instance of Jung's psychology the correlation of phenomena in terms of function. The next section in this book will suggest that this ancient psychology (though commonly despised and misunderstood as an obsolete faculty-psychology with no basis in experience) still has much of importance and value to offer those who follow purely empirical methods. hypothesis. But it is not to be expected that the encounter . Here it is enough to point out that a Thomist theologian should have no objection to the scientific examination of the workings of the human soul from standpoints other than his own. the Gospel seed but it does inform us about its effects in the that receives it. from his own theological work of the empirical tell him that every and understood only in the light of its own premisses and observations. xiii. still less to explain or explain away. human soil and upon the soil's condition which between and the analytical psychologist will be without difficulties which may make considerable demands on the patience of both. It is his own experience that contemporary religious scepticism is due less to a widespread belief that the Gospels and creeds are positively untrue. 4-8).

which gave an admirably objective .70 different. possibilities of mutual misunderstanding expected to increase. and to keep a 5 check on facts. for to him : 5 evident that it is rather Jung's concept of 'the Self' that is a and elusive cipher symbol or perhaps only an unsatisfactory is considered what that remember to has of Christ. The pioneer work of the Methodist. cleared away much debris. Dr Hans Schaer's Religion und Seele in der Psychologic C. Dr Scott Frayn. his own and the other's. and that it is our consciousness which is at fault in sundering them. G. As yet. experience a momentary in one of Jung's impatience when he finds a chapter-heading must endeavour books entitled. influence throughout the treatment of the same for instance Jung. its Where present-day alchemists were unconscious heretics. Jung's. which he to understand and appreciate. but have rent asunder what God had joined together. yet often incline to dissent from some of their interpretations and to discuss matters evaluations. point of view. 'Christ as him as literally Symbol of the Self it may strike it will seem selfpreposterous. Each party has to make the due allowances for the position of the 'observer . considers that the medieval and unconsciously inconsistent in claiming to be good Catholics and esoteric redeemers of matter at the same time. and offered several ideas which might stimulate many who could not give unqualified assent to all his views. Revelation and the Unconscious. what of and standpoint. He will accept with eager gratitude all the facts which Jung records in his invaluable books on alchemy. a Catholic will that it was not the alchemists to be more who suppose prone the moderns who joined together incompatibles. starting from the situation of secularized science. for instance. GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS sometimes an opposite.' When we come more strictly close to must be theology. too few theologians have given much attention to the task to which these developments in psychology challenge them. A Christian and involuntary may. which we have just quoted. was another contribution from a Protestant standpoint. But he the conscious of a matter is what of to be symbolic largely is first apprehended in consciousness.

but with no scientific pretensions. For so long as we must confess as Jung confesses that the psyche itself is an entity 1 (or. and probably inexhaustible. 2. The Archetypes' explain no more so long as we must acknowledge. namely his conception of the 'Self in 5 5 religious aspects. for. concept or name if that can be used of him. practical wisdom. so also is and his colleagues in Ratsel der Seek. In general. as Jung has explained in Der Geist der Psychologie. 268. The distinction of the 'God-imago of the psychologists from God-in-himselP should satisfy the most exacting and cautious theologian. 71 ft*. it is clear that an endopsychic explanation cannot be exhaustive or final. Two op. on his account its also. Essays in Analytical Psychology. it must be said that. .FRONTIERS OF THEOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY JI unbiased and presentation of the religious implications of Jung's psychology. From Catholic sources we have had Father Josef Goldbrunner's Heiligkeit und Gesundheit. y pp. and whose boundaries have not been discovered. as Jung acknowledges. and to some small extent account for their proximate origins and general tendencies. whose conoffers at least tents are inexhausted. cit. p. and reserved to the end the author's own personal opinions. while empirical psychology can observe and correlate the raw material of psychological data. a gem of simple. They are in any case only categories of experience like the species of the botanist and in no sense causal explanations. a postulate) 'beyond science'. God infinitely transcends every image. more exactly. it is incapable of challenging whatever claims may be made by the theologian or the philosopher 1. Professor Frei's essay at the end of this present volume should straighten out once and for all what has proved one of the that of Professor Frei most considerable tangles which confronts the theologicallyminded student of Jung. The same author's Individuation is a more considerable work. that no empirically verifiable 2 hypothesis can account for their ultimate origin. Nor should he be disturbed a partial explanation of analytical psychology the origin and formation of such images and conceptions in terms of psychological processes.

. but he is at least a psychological fact. I never allow myself to make statements about the divine entity. since most of my philosophically or theologically minded readers overlook my empiricism completely. . their final and all-governing purpose and In a letter written to a theologian in 1945. namely. But it is precisely what the theologian has to say. but the scientists cannot prove it to be God. You have to show the facts and let them draw their own conclusions. I meant to say Whatever he is. and of the importance of their encounter: You have rendered justice to my empirical and practical standpoint throughout. . when my books got into the hands of readers outside my psychiatric sphere. and formulation of. My public does not consist of theolgians. but you must again show facts demonstrating in what the goal is realized. so . that the dogma is the hitherto most perfect answer to. Thus when I said that God is a complex. . a matter of to-whom-you-talk. Jung stated own view of the respective positions of the psychologist and the theologian. and that God has worked all these things in man's soul. educated people of our day. : many It is mistakes. Hence scientist's task to . or direction. It opinions as if .72 to GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS account for their ultimate cause and ground. a well defined psychological phenomenon. my When you want to talk to scientists you cannot begin with a religious creed. he is at least a very tangible complex. I certainly never intended to say: He is nothing else but a complex. since it is not the -preach the Gospel. As a scientist I must give a wide berth to limit of science. the most relevant items in the objective psyche. they do not know of what you talk. since such ideas have been dismissed much . What you can show in this respect is the symbol of the self. You may say he is an illusion. which anybody may call God. they read them with very different eyes. . anything dogmatic or metaphysical. . but of worldly. When you talk of God. since this would be a transgression beyond the as follows his would therefore be unfair to criticize they were a philosophical system. I consider this a very meritorious act. Naturally. You also cannot say that man's goal is actually realized in God.

. 2. or should have meant. 27 and 36. letter. and with In the same patients practically nothing on the theological side . Summa Theologica I. 'Zur Psychologic der Trinitatsidee' 1 raise theological eyebrows. . On the basis of experience with the 5 there is much which must there is the one hand we find Jung unwittingly at grips with and recondite points of Trinitarian theology such as the a. . . It is inevitable that in his resultant essay. the most abstruse ' human 5 ' theologian will detect confusion of the timeless 'generation of the Second Person with Incarnation. On a realistic approach to the subject in terms of human experience which has hardly been matched since the De Trinitate of St Augustine. with his 'sending and human birth in time. the psyche alone. I certainly would talk about God. If I were talking to peasants. He will more perplexed in missing any clear recognition of the more obvious fact that any doctrine of the Trinity be still 1.FRONTIERS OF THEOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY 73 long ago as nebulous phantasies. and not metaphysical assertions which they cannot grasp. which they comprehend nowhere and which moreover offend their reason. On the other hand. Band VIII. 'supported only by my experience. Eranos Jahrbuch. otherwise you never bridge the gulf between the educated mind and fhe world of dogmatic ideas. a confusion which is nevertheless 5 5 reminiscent of some of the earliest Christian fathers. since I know that they know of what I am talking. But it is of the highest importance that the educated and 'enlightened' public should know religious truth as a thing living in the human soul. Jung recalled how his work with his had compelled him to give attention to doctrines and symbols concerning the Trinity. a vivid realization of what the docrine has meant. in the history of human culture and in the development of the mind of Western man. People must be taught to see where they come in. These points are treated by Aquinas. how inadequate was his equipment. I show facts to them.logical and non-natural character of the 'procession' of the Third Person and the impossibility of 2 giving him any distinctive name. 1940-41.

relationship the of realization show he does importance of adequate haps. and of a as doctrine particularly of personal prototype him. misses much of what (whether consciously or unconsciously. Jung sees how much was logical Yet so determined is they were carried on with such passion. f Plotinus. perescape quite parental. i. too. the doctrine in the psychology of religion itself. God. to satisfy the search its perennial paradox in all religion in into thirst for the Absolute by entering relationship with it. and while admiring divine about transcendence. that Jung. which sanctifies relationship itself. In the Trinity. Cardinal de Vio Cajetan. as acknowledged by the Christian psycht itself. Commentarium 39> 7- in Summa TheoL I> . is more 'transcendental' than the most transcendentalist' of the world-religions and philosophies. and why (to Christian. to seems Nor. Without to say about the psychodissenting from all that Jung has immanence of God and his 'relativity' to the human his scientific integrity in refusing psyche. we would urge affirmations any that the fact that men make these affirmations of God's trans- a psychological fact of immense importance and which the empirical therapist can ignore only at his peril. It may seem to him.74 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS and to however much it is itself a psychological fact. in terms relevance only of psychohe to see this psychological Athanasian the of value the that primary logical functions. and not of logy essentially consists of assertions assertions about man. elucidated only in terms of human experience and psychoabout God. 1 and in this he finds the supreme 'reconciling and meets the symbol'. the to a simple worship of the Trinity means even psychologically at stake psychologically of earlier Christian controversies in the heated Trinitarian modern historians) of amazement the centuries. the reflecting Christian finds the Absolute itself transcended in the union of the Absolute and the Relative. be while venturing boldly into theological intricacies. not excluding speculations on the 'Parabrahman' of Vedanta and the 'One' of cendence is influence. and as against polytheism or an undifferentiated monism). cf.

Touching i . p. especially among Catholics. with a fourth and eviP hypostasis. Jung logically enough requires the admission of evil. pp. e. 69 ff. and those human values.g. conception of evil as (apparently) some positive existence and reality of its own. the human totality. II. Of the position of traditional Catholic thought as formulated by Aquinas. this leads him to favour a Divine Quaternity. It must suffice to set on record that Jung's personal views on evil. and that some strong resistances are yet to be overcome before understanding is to be reached. by the present writer in Dominican Studies. and even the most sympathetic of his critics. are still a very serious stumbling block in the encounter between theologians and Jungian psychologists. in a fashion which itself. So far. but so far with inconclusive and nugatory results. This is not the place for definitive judgment on a discussion which is still in progress. 1949.FRONTIERS OF THEOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY 75 In Jung's essay on the Trinity the theologian (and again. (2) But inasmuch as the meaning of basic human words. Vol. and at length by Jung in Aion (1951). is at stake. but also into the in his essay on the psychology of the doctrine of the Trinity. not the theologian alone) will also be confronted with what has proved to be a most obstinate point of difference and mutual incomprehension between Jung. the indicative of fundamental matter cannot be lightly (3) dismissed as an academic logomachy. not only into the 'self. the following may be briefly noted: (i) There is no formal dogma of the Church on the subject. together with most of his school. As Jung himself . Regarding evil as having subject is itself which relatively good. the discussion appears an indication that to have generated more heat than light the issues at stake may prove to be of vital importance. Godhead orthodox Christians must find quite inadmissible. which inevitably affect much in his interpretation of psychological material besides his conception of the doctrine of the Trinity. 399. Jung repudiates the traditional definition of evil as the absence of appropriate good from a and maintains that this a 'privation' is false to the (empirical facts and psychologically harmful. 1 as they do on fundamental Since Jung's essay on the Trinity was written the discussion on the nature of good and evil has been elaborated with some warmth by both parties..

In God and Man. meaning in such fundamental Jungian conceptions as the 'assimilation of the shadow' if they are not to be understood as the what supplying of some absent good (e. consciousness) to is i. (4) They do not deny.j6 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS and Weltanschauung even points of human language. 'evil'. with its devastating results for the individual psyche and for society. pretation in the light of and that these could contribute much to a wholesome develhas initiated. But while this divergence of views must influence interpretation. the conception of evil as a privation of good asserted by the Fathers of both East and West. or their equivalents are used. 1 has written well of the on which confirmation contemporary psychology has brought.. we are unable to find any intelligible. 'Biblical Psychology' boni has contributed to this. they vigorously affirm it) . essentially valuable and of itself 'good'. Jung has our keenest support and sympathy in deploring the minimizing of evil which leads to its repression. (7) This conception is no a priori 'metaphysic'. a Catholic thinker will profoundly maintain that the facts are at least no less amenable to interhis own conceptions and values. as might a 'Christian Scientist the reality of evil (on the contrary. Emil Brunner. but is is 5 . opment of the invaluable work which Jung of God than in But it is less in the Christian doctrine the Christian doctrine of man that we may reasonably hope for points of contact between theology and analytical psychology. evil has no positive existence of itself as blindness is real from a real man) or dark(but consists in the absence of sight ness is real (but consists in the absence of light) (6) This absence may indeed result from a presence (as the presence of a cataract causes the absence of sight and the 'better' the cataract the 'worse' the sight) but does not consist in it. let alone desirable. On the other hand. but we are unable to find evidence that the conception of the privatio shows in Aion. in his essay We shall not be disappointed. values the difficulty is and faith Catholic from practice apart not to be belittled.g. . his Man . their concern is with the further question: In what does that reality consist? Or. What is it that constitutes x to be 'evil' and not that it is always the absence (the 'good'? (5) Their answer is of a real good from a real subject not the negation) privatio. in Revolt. cf. whenever the empirically verifiable by an analysis of meaning words 'good'.

it would be vain to seek for more. his sacrifice. The Christian doctrines of man's nature and destiny. but from beyond the boundaries . From the traditional and is no mere 'imputation'. From of the total depravity of human nature. we may reasonably look for some more positive and constructive contacts with empirical psychology. from the unconscious. and realizes it within himself and in his environment. does not destroy the inherent goodness of human nature. but really healing and integrating on the natural level which comes under divine forgiveness psychological scrutiny. For such a theology. his destiny. acutely brought home to us in deptha theology based on the Protestant tenets nature is healed by grace. and ofjustification by extrinsic imputation. Originally . But the realization of this image is something which exceeds his natural capacities for it means the attainment of conscious. of his ego-consciousness that is to say (from the empirical- psychological standpoint). The fundamental Christian doctrine of man.FRONTIERS OF THEOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY in its 77 own restricted sphere. which 'grace according to while it sin. human and false. . all these will be found especially relevant. disintegrates. Only a brief and bald outline can here be offered. sacraments and church. is that man is made in the image and likeness of God. not from his own conscious efforts (though these must accept and co-operate). to the revelation of man's disclosure of divine forc radical sinfulness. having rejected the ancient Catholic belief that dismisses Jung's human contradiction'. perfects nature'. which is possible only if God in his graciousness meets man. of its fall and disintegration. affective and factual relationship to God. It must therefore come from Godgiven grace man will need guidance and power which must come. of psychology integration as 'romantic' Catholic theology. in the measure in which he conforms to this divine image. and we are not surprised to find that Brunner. on which all else centres. of its restoration and at-one-ment through the incarnate Word of God. and of how the giveness in Christ alone meets the much of which is psychology. He fulfils his purpose.

insubordinate to the requirements of the whole (the 'self of Jung). in which man's various parts and functions -and even to consciousness. and GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS and ideally. The by Tall'. each tending to follow its own bent. Thus a 'fall downwards' ensues. whose constituent elements thus fall asunder. the economy of understood by Catholic Christianity. is brought about superbia. his constituent parts and functions are balanced and co-ordinated within themselves and with his environment. the autonomous self-assertion of the conscious ego over and against God. This original and ideal to theology as the 'state of integrity'. as the centre become autonomous and degrees impervious in varying to control ways and and order. see the present writer's essay in What the Cross Means to Me (James Clarke. Grace was thus the co-ordinating and governing principle both of the human (in Paradise). of 'original Tightness'. created with this needful this of positive imaging of his consequence Creator as the source and centre of his life. This condition is known to theologians as the 'state of disintegrated or fallen nature'. and man's conflict with his natural environment. according to this teaching. the attainFor a fuller development of this doctrine. But a few salient points of the general pattern may be briefly indicated. man was as a individual and of human condition is known society. involving the refusal and rupture of the bond of grace. At-one-ment. Adequately salus. 1943). This Tall upwards'. The rebellion against God the substitution of the individual or collective ego for God and hub of the personality necessarily means a dislocation of the integrity and harmony of the 'natural man'.78 grace. 5 . the whole . is impossible in a few paragraphs. as to sketch the 'state of repaired nature'. progressive process of at-one-ment. and hence of human society. the revolt of the human spirit from its subordination to the Creator. brings about the disintegration of human personality. as expounded by Aquinas. or of 'innocence 1 Analytical psychology shows the persistent power of this 'Eden-archetype'.

Yet it is not only by Christ. its full effects on the 'natural' and empirical level do not at once and automatically ensue. and show us the way to the . 273 ff. but never brought to completion in the Catholic dimensions of this world. It is God in Christ who reconciles the world to himself (II. pp. must be humbly accepted if they are to be transmuted. 18). Each his own. as Jung has rightly seen. flesh and devil. begun in baptism. the effects of his atoning work. Man's fallen and disintegrated condition. continued and developed in the Christian life. The lost innocence of paradise cannot be regained. and any attempt to find one's way thither through escapist phantasy and idealism is to reject the way of Christ. 19). although the baptismal rebirth reestablishes the bond with God. John i. harmony and irresponsibility of Eden. it. but in Christ that the atoning work is efficacious for Christ is not only the external cause but the model to whom man must be conformed. they are to be renounced only by being faced and overcome. Cor. is beyond man's unmust be an act of God and his grace. seems . v. that we can. no man has seen God at any time. and by taking 1 up our own cross. too.FRONTIERS OF THEOLOGY AND PSYCHOLOGY ment of salus (salvation aided powers . he accepts only-begotten to the full the consequences of human sin and it is only by 'putting on Christ' as 'members of his body'. make real in ourselves unknown God c (for . the disorder of desires (concupiscentia inordinata) and the lust of spirit against flesh and of flesh against spirit. Jung only echoes the teaching of Christian writers like Walter Hilton when he insists that the first step in the way to re-integration which the Christian understands as conformation to the pattern of Christ is the recognition and i . and not of purely human works. Christianity understands this as a progressive process. the Son has shown him'. There is no way back to the innocence. 79 and health). with the grace and power conveyed in his word and sacraments. There is no escape from world. Not only does the Son of God himself become human. and not by a slavish imitation as Jung to fear in Modern Man in Search of a Soul.

to grow 'unto a measure of the age of the fullness of Jung himself. but prevents our being dominated by it. But nor can a Catholic think of it as a task for the indi- vidual alone. 13). its (Acts. The Gospels relate only what Jesus began to do and teach with it. For through grace he is made mighty. theologian. and develop to await perfect man. iv. i. unto the Christ' (Eph. some philosophical. Lecture 31). the soul is not borne in the shadow. cf. to expand whole body. Integration of the Personality. lies beyond the field of present psychological observation. has written with startling insight on details concerning the Christian sacrifice. In the man in whom the Christ-likeness is being realized. and it is the task of his many and different members. and we shall then pass on to a consideration of the Thomist conception of revelation. and sometimes the shame. i). 287. from his psychological experience.8O GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS c 1 acceptance of the 'Shadow'. c 2. Victor White. and so atoning process is an unattainable 2 ideal'. When Jung writes that The Personality as a full realization of the wholeness of our being he confirms. sacraments and scriptures. p. are small offerings on some subjects which would seem to be of particular interest and importance to psychologist and theologian alike. and strong for to bear his body and all the stirrings of it. and the light it throws on the character of 'saving or 'healing' truth as distinct from other kinds of truth. with its many points of contact with the findings of depthpsychology. Our next essay would suggest that the ancient psychological and ethical investigations of Aristotle and Aquinas have much to offer which deservq the modern psychologist's attention. awaits an eschatological realization. Walter Hilton. though necessarily Christian belief that the fulfilment of this the only negatively. . but he beareth it. in a way which must often astonish and stimulate. and prepare his second coming. 5 1. Hilton stresses that grace does not rid us of the shadow. though he feel it. without hurting or defiling of himself '. others more theological. Enormous possibilities for mutual aid and enrichment open up. An English Spiritual Guide (Guild of Pastoral Psychology. The essays which follow in this volume.

307 ff. whose divine intellect provided a convenient refuge from the necessity of observing and thinking for ourselves. have done much to obscure and prejudice our vision of both of them. travaux recents' (Revue Neoscholastiqiie. AQUINAS AND conception THE Aquinas could of MAN and had they man which we find in Aristotle all hardly concern us at themselves not been men. Aristotle (tr. 423 ff) Between M. Mansion. pp. 126. Aristotle and St Thomas themselves would be the first to rejoice that many of the finest minds of subsequent ages have revolted indignantly against this stultifying des- human potism. death and destiny which confront us all. no less than of Aquinas. 3.VI ARISTOTLE. Every page of the De Anima and the Ethics seems to belie so facile a judgment. But now the reconstructions of a Werner Jaeger. There have been times when uncritical adulation. Buber. and we owe an incalculable debt to those patient research workers. 2. 'With Aristotle man ceases to be problematic'. Robinson). 1927. Man Werner Jaeger. and big men. at times threatening to paralyse every expansion of consciousness. have made of Aristotle. and Man. 81 . who had struggled boldly and realistically with the same problems of human life. detail. 'La genese de i'oeuvre d' Aristote d'apres les cf. whose observations and reasonings could be neither bettered nor questioned. have enabled us to view them in historical human proportions. who. a superhuman oracle whose ipse dixit solved every question. A. p. Legend and misuse. vested interests and sheer intellectual inertia. accumulating through the course of centuries. R. however open to criticism in 3 important points of 1. enable us to see in the stark. but it is a common one. in comparatively recent years. pronounces Professor Buber. and it is understandable. quoting Bernhard Groethuysen and echoing a 1 widespread opinion. 2 for instance.

and had sensed at least something of the bliss of passionless. 2. Jaeger has shown us. an inexorable logician. logical necessity and sublime idea. tit.Jaeger. of the catharsis of dramatic imagery. loc. marked for us by the transition from the of-fact. GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS ill-edited lecture notes of the later Aristotle (which form the bulk of what remains to us of his work) the fruit of a profound experience of the tragedy of human existence. Mandonnet. cit. Grabmann. Knowing more of his earlier worshipping devotion to his master Plato. 3. of a veritably existential pensee engagee. 1. Had they done so. Gilson. we are faced with an embarras de choix. Chenu and many another have done for St Thomas Aquinas. A condensation of Nicomachean Ethics. As it is.82 crabbed. Chapter IX passim.. not to speak of that never forgotten whisper of the Mysteries that 'the whole of human life is a penance for some heavy 3 guilt that the soul has incurred in an earlier existence' : their promises of liberation and immortality. shrewd. He had known. we can sense the poignancy of his Plato amicus. 'The young 1 Aristotle had really felt the pain of man's dualistic existence. worldly-wise pages of his De Amicitia. a Neither Aristotle nor Aquinas. too. he had experienced for himself the conflicting claims of plain fact. W. Jaeger. we might hope to condense it. magis 2 arnica veritas (Tlato is my friend but truth is my greater and read something of that bitter experience friend') of uprooted loves and loyalties in the detached. op. how there were still deeper sources of functional conflict and integration. W. godlike contemplation. p. nor any of their most ambitious disciples. devoted disciple of the Academy. 16.' A keen biological research-worker.. has ever been so foolish as to write a treatise De Homine. too. 'pious' pages of the Eudemean to the more mattersceptical pages of the Nicomachean Ethics . What Jaeger and as others have done to display and rehabilitate Aristotle man among men. cf. 100. a tutor and adviser of and withal a practical politicians. . iog6a. of an almost Faustian dycov Trepi rfjs fax*]? (struggle for the soul). op.

1946. But it may be doubted whether a more comprehensive and systematic picture of the subject has been painted since the treatise 'On the Emotions' (De Passionibus) in the second part of his Summa Theologica. and abysmally unmindful of empirical observation and practical therapy. We have seen how Jung's forerunner. singled out the psychology of Aristotle and Aquinas as especially praiseworthy. Carus. . the causes and remedies of depression. and a resume of all their works is as unpractical as it would be tiresome. And when will find he turns from Aristotle to Aquinas. recognition of both the organic and the psychological function of weeping. C. for instance. Professor Walter Wili l has drawn attention to many of the affinities which will be found in Aristotle's Ethics to fundamental conceptions in the psychology of Jung himself. concerned only with the higher'. purely intellectual process of the psyche. In Question 38.ARISTOTLE. that on the remedies for depression (De Remediis Tristitice). AQUINAS AND MAN and a painful decision of selection. the modern psychologist much more that may well astonish him. their classification and their mutual interplay. This theme could be augmented and developed considerably. Much must be neglected which might be found of exceptional interest to the practising psychologist. G. XII. have been studied with much greater thoroughness and detail since St Thomas's day. we find a surprisingly up-to-date application of the principle of functional opposition and compensation. Vol. an exact description and explanation of the releasing effect of the positive transference through a certain imagination that others bear the e own c sufferer's burden' ('quaedam imaginatio quod onus alii cum i. For there is 83 nothing whatever in the pages of Aristotle and Aquinas which they did not deem relevant to the theoretic understanding or to the practical guidance of man. aggression and fear. and certainly their concomitant enervation processes. It alone should dispose of the legend that medieval psychology was purely a priori. The emotions. even in his field of empirical psychological observation. Eranos Jahrbuch.

I believe. and as hydrotherapy would suggest that it is less in its own empirical Aristotle and St. but also of the manner in which it is to understand and define its own postulates. Jung.). . 200 ff. See especially 'The Basic Postulates of Analytical Psychoa Soul. proclaimed the imfor the honest analyst or analysant to evade increasingly conscious and critical scrutiny. is to supplement modern rather than to supplant. Thomas have anything to that sphere offer analytical psychology. On the other hand he has own images boldly. especially such existence. pp. gezwungen. purely empirical science can. some time on the basis of rough 2. . da sie lange Zeit Muhe hatte. logy' (Modern Man in Search of c Der eine wie der andere wird zu einer weltanschaulichen Auseinandersetzung mit sich selber sowohl mit dem Partner praktischen und behelfsmassigen Methode hervorgegangen. its and functional correlation. libido. On the one hand he description has insisted repeatedly on the inescapable necessity for the the unconempirical psychologist to make postulates e. rather than in their own spheres But I of trans-empirical philosophy and theology. Their con- and to complement. proceed for 1. affirm or deny the transcendental validity of the psyche's and judgments. transcend which itself the empirical scious. Modern psychology owes to C.. Aufsatze zur tyitgesch. pp. sich auf ihre eigenen denkerischen Grundlagen zu besinnen (C. psyche 1 to of the on and psychology empirical inability observation. . G. and consequently those of psychotherapy. G. as are concerned problems of Weltanschauung. tribution. possibility and with growing emphasis.g. ipsoferant*}. as I see it. psychological findings and methods. Die Psychotherapie ist aus dermassen 59> 63). compel analytical psychology to a more A undoubtedly.84 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS more than a hint of such 'modern' methods and prolonged narcosis. 'Psychotherapie und Weltanschauung'. 2 human of with the purpose or purposelessness scientific than Practical necessity no less integrity will. 5 . Jung the candid and oft-repeated recognition of the inherent limitations of own empirical method of phenomenal observation.. . not only of the psyche's own inherent aims.

for instance. 1 Provided I understand by 'subject' and 'object' no more than I Let me suggest one example. I do not seriously transgress the of purely empirical observation. ohm I es als solches zu erkennen. p. to assertions which overstep my empirical datum to affirmations not merely of what 'appears 5 but of what 'really is' even in spite of appearances. working hypotheses. may. without recognizing i. call a a particular psychological phenomenon projection. but sooner or later it will be compelled to attempt to examine and define those postulates with greater precision. in virtue of the projection itself. incurably persists in asking such empirically unanswerc 5 able questions as 'What?' and Why?' and 'Whence? and 'Whither?' Our rigid scientisme deplore this propensity and may as it an is infantile regression to pre-Kantian naivete. is it no longer a : projection.e. what is perceived my definition precisely does not describe the phenomena as the projector perceives them. to be such. Especially is this the case with psychotherapy. But then phenomena. he. . the content which. and I may accurately describe a projection as an unconscious 'process of dissimilation wherein a subjective content is estranged from the subject and. i. Seelisches\ ('In the obscurity of mcin eigenes Innerliches oder something outside of me it discover. among other things. something C. and even unconsciously assumed. incorporated in the object'. for whatever the human psyche may be found to be. I shall go on to describe a projection in much more absolute terms 'Im Dunkel eines Aeusserlichen finde ich. but in fact impossible to interpret the simplest psychological phenomena without at least tacit trans-empirical assumptions. wittingly or unwittingly. and satisfied with factual descriptions of functional and quantitative relations refuses to be 'nothing but 5 or statistical frequency. G. 582. Once he has assimilated the content to his empirical ego-consciousness. Thus.. with : Professor Jung. It rationalist.ARISTOTLE. Jung. AQUINAS AND MAN 85 and ready. it certainly empiricist. the psychologist calls subjective. on other grounds. Psychological Types. in a sense. I am driven therefore. is. descriptions of conscious as strict limits T or 'not-I' respectively. experiences as objective.

cit.86 which belongs GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS inside me and to my own psyche'. loc. (preserve the phenomena) will no purely pragmatic 'suit4 to 0u>&iv ra ^awoptva that criterion the alchemists' theory as for my own. let alone ontologicai. 2. or the cautious 'provisional view of the 2 to be psyche as a relatively closed energic system'. G. 336.) scientist's 1 But in so speaking I at once raise a hornet's nest of questions and assumptions which take us very far beyond the bare phenomena.). and to establish myownprojection-theory ofthesame phenomenon as genuinely rational and scientific. A ability' for attaining practical results. But among these results cannot be included the justification of qualitative. Psychologie und Alchemie y e 4. On p. etc. as Professor Jung in this important essay expressly recognizes (cf. Psycholgie und Alchemie. Psychical Energy'. that I can define the psyche at least sufficiently to enable me to attribute to the purely be such') 'inside' again other than 'without phenomenal (for recognizing it to and this in its turn implies that I have found it an 'outside' and an it is justification for applying these or any other spatial concepts to the psyche. as measured by results. cf. 7. cit. I must claim a subject other than that of the phenomenal empirical ego. op. G. I must be able to give a rational and critical account of my own terms. 15. I am I can discriminate what belongs 5 . for by was at least as successful and even meaningfulness is a projection. interpretations of phenomena. G. an objectivity other than that of the phenomenal objectivity experienced by the empirical ego (for this the alchemist or the patient also experiences and affirms). If I am to claim validity my statement that the phenomenon also the reality of longer suffice. cf. is not of course questioned. In further asserting that the projected content is really not claiming in 1 'outside' effect that but 'belongs to my own psyche'. If I entitled to dismiss the old alchemists Lehre der Entsprechung 5 am 3 (correspondence theory) as a rationalization. . I claim. p. p. 3. albeit tacitly. Jung 'On Psychical Energy in Contributions tical to Analy- Psychology. 6. G. The immense value. Jung. of conceiving the psyche as a relatively closed energic system. p.

can psyche be analysed into a number of component parts? Is psyche . functions. instance) 4 (for operations.. you may call them 'metaI am driven. in what sense: as an indepen- dent existent subject (as Plato had implied). in fact. closed system. which will is method cases in any way possible. questions which the Aristotelian-Thomistj&^^Ao/^fa sets out. ARISTOTLE. and what are also organic? logical Is (rot cover all any general definition of psyche. accidental) existent? Is it legitimate to attribute predicate of some other or is there an animal and even a plant to tive. and that I have some intelligent meaning when I refer to 'it' by nouns and pronouns indicative of of attributes of 'things' rather than by adjectives indicative indicative of or verbs the organism. and if so what is Or existent? of psyche only a qualitaponent and what sort quantitative or otherwise secondary (i. and if so.essentially to it. what its nature and essence (<(*6(ns KO! oiWa)? What attributes and events are peculiarly psychotSta Trddrj TTJS ^t^s*). not as a merely relatively. Most of these questions are already set out in the rationalis first is psyche. problems. and if so by what tori or 'something' (ri Is it an 'it' it to be attained? KO! roSc rt) at all. to pose the very physical'. or only as a sort of comcomponent of such an existent. I am furthermore assuming that I can talk of it as it' at all. I adduce the projection-theory which goes beyond pretation of psychological phenomena the merely descriptive or quantitative. AQUINAS AND MAN to the psyche from what merely happens 87 in it and this perhaps from 'external' agency or energy: that in the at psyche any rate. what is chapter of Aristotle's De Anima. What meant by the word. man. particular phenomenal event. psyche only do the human and non-human psyche? Wherein precisely and diverge? Can we admit a multiplicity psyches converge of psyches in one individual? In what way. drive us willy-nilly into a maze of philosophical.e. but as an absolutely. and attempts to resolve. if any. as only one example (but the fashion in which the of acute a one) particularly perhaps and indeed of any interpractical necessities of analysis.

capable of activity independent of the corruptible body. localized? How is psyche 88 related to 5 space and time. how are and classified? Are we to argue fl^n'0n from the psyche and its potentialities to the epya. but must be inherently independent or 'separated' (xwpivTr/)? potentialities to these to be characterized psyche. whether in the crude. . wholly What is to be thought of attempts to conceive the psyche solely in terms of physical kinetic force. and limited to. in what sense can it be analysed into parts? If only in terms of phenomenal operations (e/>ya). on the inherent incompatibility of quantitative and dynamic concepts of the psyche may be compared with that of Professor Jung in Aristotle's 'On Psychical Energy'. or the more refined mathematical all dynamic nor quantitative the facts. that I can attribute to it an 'inner and an 'outer'. can in no way be their product. 28 ff. as already by Democritus? Can consciousness itself be accounted for in terms of micro- istic macrocosmic correspondence.GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS quantitative. can they be combined as in the 1 'self-moving number' of the later Plato? Or x_an we conceive in terms of functional psyche solely pairs of opposites as Heraclitus? Or as a Gestalt. (dp/xovta) of opposites? Or as a wholly independent argument in De Anima 404 b. consciousness. a 'before' and 'after'? If intrinsically indivisible. divisible. as by many of the activities earlier Greek thinkers? Can psyche be identified with. a (cVcumcocrct?) perhaps by fashion of Plato's Timaus? If neither concepts cover harmony i . whether cognitional or orectic or to be rationally stated or classified? non-conscious. or inductively from the epya to the potentialities and to the psyche itself? Are all the epya and Trddrj (happenings) attributed to psyche dependent on organic processes. even though presupposing organic activities. be itself incorruptible and capable of are the various phenomenal independent existence? Must not a How of the psyche. and do all is to be distin(as some evidently do) involve affect? How and the physiological treatment of guished the psychological also operations of psyche Are there same the phenomenon? which can be only of the psyche and which. materialform of Empedocles.

Nearly set all 2. thinking is a function also for the modern psychologist. He has no Aristotle poses as the subillusions as to the immense difficulty which they present to the human mind. than in his genius for inferring from his observations general principles and potentialities as a comprehensive psychological framework. but with no essential relation to the organism. But the De Anima remains Aristotle's most important and to him distinctive contribution to psychology. and that the actual empirical phenomena for him nothing but data for the construction of theory. and his value to us to-day lies less in the field of pure observation and experi- ment. as by Plato and the Pythagoreans? 1 Such are the questions which ject-matter of his De Anima. 1. if there be temperaments which are inclined to dismiss all such questionings as 'intellectualism'. It should not be supposed that Aristotle's interests in the psyche were confined to these questions of principle and were general theory. A few are not explicitly raised until Books II and III. and some received little attention before the Moslem and medieval commentators. 'animus' thinking is no less deleterious both to the psyche and to psychology. The Parva Naturalia> especially the De Sensu et Sensato and the De Memoria et Reminiscentia (still recognized as having laid the foundations of the laws of the association of ideas). and their mutual interrelation. and many others. and an unavoidable one. methodical. show have been keenly interested in actual psychological events. a menace to health and And harmony. and doubtless. 2 Whatever we may think of his attempts to resolve them. we cannot say that the questions have lost any of their urgency. these questions. directed thinking is a labour and a bore. in which he was often mistaken. and of the attempts of his commentators and successors. out in the first four chapters of Aristotle's De Anima. if over-valued. will be found . for their own sake. AQUINAS AND MAN 89 entity. De Anima> 402 a n. we may do well to reflect that. at the lowest estimate.ARISTOTLE. unconscious. mysteriously indwelling the body. If conscious. inferior. and always limited in his equipment.

A.90 It GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS cannot be pretended that. 41 2a. the De Anima of Aristotle is easy or attractive reading. xl ff. Probleme der aristotelischen Seelenlehre'. pp. 'material' or for a 'mythology of the soul' what they offer to us is unrelieved intellectual thinking about the psyche. 83 ff. Eranos Jahrbuch. Festugiere has shown. and exact method of empirical obserand deduction a method which he vation. temporarily imprisoned in the body. 3 hypothesis. is little There to inspire us in the : formula which Aristotle finally reaches to define the psyche The first entelechy [act or completion] of a natural body in potency to possess life. Cf. notwithstanding the occasome sublime passages and some entertaining obiter dicta.: 'Les methodes de Fame' . De 4i2a. 1931.). 20. eine nicht gewohnliche forscherliche die Arbeitshypothese fur f Bewegung unddas Werden gefunden %u habetf ( ln order to have c Um found an unusual and academic working hypothesis to account for change and process').. 63. its demands on hard methodical thinking are considerable. important to understand what Aristotle is about. entity. Vol. or it is nothing. A. 2 For Aristotle himself his definition of the psyche was certainly no mere working- He describes it as logically necessary (avayKatov) 4 as Pere and. p. 2. Aristotle: De Anima. he reached it. Anima. De Anima. XII. D. Its emotional appeal is nil.P. Introduction. 4. la definition de (Revue des sciences theologiques et philosophiques.e. him with overthrowing the whole Orphic-Platonic experience of the psyche as a subsistent But it is Professor Wili charges den Preis. Hicks. of an organic body'. 1 Contrasted with the psychological insights of Plato. 3. the De Anima of Aristotle is cold and arid. We shall be disapsional relief of pointed if we look to Aristotle or Aquinas for psychological . for change or process 1. himself describes and works out in detail in his Analytics. 20. Certainly it is 'die Bewegung und das WerdenH that must be carefully considered induction taken as the factual starting point. not by of but as the conclusion of a ineluctable way hypothesis. pp. O. Festugiere. i.

as already in the vegetable In the higher forms of life. e. But why. but spontaneous. selfproduced movement. mind is also the power of transcending his own (vovs] mechanically conditioned organism altogether. as distinct common experience and common and common speech ascribes 'psyche' to the living experiences from the dead. immanent. . drive. and the conceiving of. the animals (<3a). De Anima III. but that by which we live 4 (<S cu/xev) : which 1. but nothing in modern biology has invalidated his common-sense observa- tions of the elementary manifestations of life. sensation. phantasy and correspond2 In man there ing forms of desire or appetite (ope&s).g. Aristotle insists. it is' (quo est) not 'something that is' (quod est) but 'that by not that which lives but that by which we . II. 4i4a. as against Plato. change. conserves. of ibrming conceptions which likewise transcend material spatio- repairs and reproduces temporal limitations. 5. process. it changes not only when acted upon by other agents or forces. so come higher forms of self-transmutation called. more precisely. it will be objected. 2.. and arguing to. kingdom. The living being is distinguished from the non-living being by the fact that it moves or changes itself. And what distinguishes the 'live' body from the 'dead' body is movement. memory. that psyche is not a complete 'it'. inclination. Aristotle knew nothing of cells. AQUINAS AND MAN Ql common consent the distinguishing characteristic of by we attribute 'psyche'. passim. in the narrow terms of Act and Potency? What theoretic or practical value is to be found in this insistence. and the denial of psyche to what is dead. properly locomotion. that to which Professor 1 as Jung has insisted. Desire. De Anima. 3. affirmations about reality which lies beyond sense-perception 3 entirely.is ARISTOTLE. that the scientific definition of words must be based on speech. Not any movement. this concern to formulate psyche in terms of pure reason? Why. 3. The most elemental of human life and death this is what gives rise to the everyday ascription of 'psyche' to what is alive. throughout Book IV of the Metaphysics. passim- De Anima *. but by its own forces it at least nourishes. itself.

p. Search of a Soul. cit. We may decry this ambition to rational certitude as a deplorable hubris of the puny human intellect. painstakingly established on undeniable axioms applied (so far as possible) to equally undeniable fact by indisputably cogent argument.. GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS not an independent entity but the formal. conceptual terms was the task he set him- psyche self: or more by his place first was set him exactly the task which he believed culture. Jaeger. 128. by implication. Man in 2. what he believes that task to be. roooa. It is difficult to understand how Jung can assert that. 19. but what is: to aspire of disinterested reflection on his to the the own by godlike prerogative be satisfied thinking. op. or a preference cloak mere no and pains 1. imaginative insight or gnosis (ywBw). Greek man has at last attained the ability and the leisure to investigate the ultimate problems of reality and of life. if by his by 'substance' is to be understood. p. In human of in history and the evolution two chapters of "his Metaphysics (which Jaeger has shown to be an epitome of a much more detailed history of human thought) 2 he tells us. 'It was as well as in universally believed in the Middle Ages the Greco-Roman world that the soul is a substance'. 200). or opinion (Sofa). and we are entitled boasted modesty is the fruit of equal own if our do so to for mental sloth. W. cf. 3. for their assertions. To present the in rational. Metaph. 1 constituent principle of a living compositum? The answer to the first question is simple. to ask not merely what seems. 982 b. . determining. as we are assured 5 . Aristotle's aim in all his later and more mature writing is not an nor a subesoteric. 18. 4. 3 knowledge (rmfrti?). ibid. universal a but conditioned view. No longer could human curiosity the imaginative constructions of myth the men who are : wise in myths (pvOiK&s ao^opevoi) must for those who speak by demonstration offer now be neglected (aTroSet^ecos-) and jectively and certain although the lover of proof c is already an incipient or (<tAo^u0o?) philomyth' myths 4 lover of wisdom or 'philosopher' (<tAocro^o$r). existence has which 'that (Modern independent translator.g2 live.

the question was not how the psyche can be imaginatively or mythologically perceived. reached acute dimensions and still threatens a deep psychological split in every man who has started to reflect on his own thinking. Because the psyche can be formulated in rational terms. or complain applied to that he failed to a task wholly different from that which he set out to accomplish. It was not for nothing that Aristotle had brushed with the assurance that aside (perhaps a little too easily) the jealous vengeance threat of a the tell lie many *poets : : 5 1. 13. for Aristotle in his De Anima. . In fact. in his time. JVzV. but how it is to be rationally conceived. 10. gSia. 3. 2. and Aristotle himself will take the words out of our mouths. 93 We undifferentiated intellectual assumptions. Ethics iO94b. 13. 1 We may assert the remoteness from concrete fact of universal concepts divorced from observation and experience. And we must not read into him the very error which he repudiates in Plato the reification of concepts. this does not mean he asserts the contrary over and over again that the psyche is nothing but a rational entity. A concept for the Aristotelian is not that which is thought (quod intelligitur) but that in which 3 (in quo) the data of sense-experience are considered* This leads us at once to the answer to our second question Why is it in terms of Act and Potency. Thomas Aquinas.ARISTOTLE. Summa TheoL I 85. 2. Matter and Form. The more differentiated the intellect. the claims cf. and Aristotle will agree with us again. AQUINAS AND MAN for uncriticized. g83a. Metaph. cf. of the later Plato to certainty were very much more extensive than those of Aristotle. 2 We cannot so easily deny him the right to fulfil pay the heavy price which fidelity to logic observation demanded of him. the more it is aware of its own capacities and limitations. cf. So. that Aristotle defines psyche? This question brings us to the heart of Aristotle's solution of the perennial problem of cultivated man a problem which had. as Jaeger shows. may say that there are regions of investigation which do not admit of such clear-cut accuracy.

If all is flux. as we ourselves have discovered in trying to define a projection. For such a man finds himself claimed and challenged by two opposing worlds: the changeless world of vousr. Zeno had supported this monism with his celebrated 'demonstrations' of the im- 5 hand. but therefore there can nothing cannot differentiate what is. appear sive: as of two jealous masters who will brook no allegiance the other. of Being. Parmenides and the Eleatics had of Being and proclaimed the uniqueness and indivisibility the play of dimissed the rest as illusory appearance. of Is of 'It Becoming. A world which is for nothing but change is unthinkable and indescribable terms stable be some there change itself is undefinable except of reference. Metaph. - had and nothing is one cannot plunge the same Heraclitus no same stick. for not only is there no same river. excluas each of totalitarian. of Pure Thought. the and be only one Reality. So the strife went on. and had dissolved the rest into 9 : Maya. seeming multiplicity of this its conflict of opposites is and and world of change decay therefore and unthinkable No-Thing. nor compromise with. Change and Enantiodromia. then one cannot plunge the same stick into the same river once. 4. possibility of motion. had affirmed the unique and sole reality of the Atman. at the very beginning of all we mean by Europe. of 'It and the world of sense-perception. Parmenides argument was powerful enough: what is not is nothing. came the Eleatic reply. the 'one without a Second'. . g83a. so in Hellas.94 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS of the gods for the hubris of the philosopher. As in India the Vedanta to. and it was no mere academic discussion it was the initial struggle for the wholethere is : i. of cuo^ais. demands The Seems'. of Changeless Certainty. Instability. stable . is flux 'All of sole the for change: reality opted 3 On the other (vavra p*i ouSev ^vei) stick into the same river twice. the perils of the soul that await the Promethean robber of godlike theoretic wisdom1 la grandeur et la misere de la metaphysique. and no same one.

will make possible the affirmation of the unique reality of the Absolute One. in terms likewise of act and potency must its 'parts' and operations be classified. Act and Potency alone. But if that is so. immortal being. contrariwise. nothing but a divine. 'Actus et Potentia dividunt ens. then psyche also must be defined in terms of act and potency. of Being and Becoming. Man. it is claimed. Somehow. and thither it should be his business to return. the analogical (non-synonymous. AQUINAS AND MAN 95 European man. man's steed. But only among these Ideas. strictly intelligible. and the relative reality of the make change Many. was not Soul and Body. evrcAc'xcia or cvcpyeta and Suva/us. and was his aspiration to affirm reality. in that transcendent realm of pure thought. Was man nothing but an automatic process of enantiodromia. was man's true home thence he came. in short. Act and Potency. Definition in these terms or their equivalents could alone meet the claims of rigorous metaphysic and . spiritual. of Understanding and Experience. unaccountably. Man was Soul. the world of sense-perception did 'participate' in the realm of eternal Ideas and 'remind' us of them. strangely incarcerated in a material body and involved in the unreal. to transcend spatio- temporal processes and formulate timeless truths (as in mathematics) an illusion? Or was he. weary wheel of purposeless Becoming liberation from which could be his sole aspiration? Plato and the early Academy had inclined heavily towards the latter alternative. This is not the place to discuss the argument: for that I must refer you to the sources and the text-books. of the One and the Many. but related) predication of Being.the was Aristotle's closely reapassive correlative of cWpyeia soned answer to the dilemma of vovs and ato^cw. a battlefield of opposing forces. et quodlibet genus entis* ('Act and Potency differentiate being. and every category of being'). The corollary of Act and not even a servant of the soul. house. and Soul was the godlike mind (Nov$). Potency. and supply a basis for the rational discussion of process. The body was : it was its unfitting prisonAt best.ness of ARISTOTLE.

of an 'inside' and an 'outside' of the psyche. 2. at least. that we can speak. 25 if. it enables us to avoid the difficulties of such hypotheses as psycho-physical parallelism. They enable us to view human psychology. . by reason of only incidentally (per accident. Kara its being the form of a body which alone is secundum se localized. as psychological restricts epiphenomenalism.And enables us. a possible working hypothesis. we cannot lightly dismiss its implications as.96 dialectic GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS on the one hand. and of both to quantity and extension. De Anima. evvXoi of De Anima. nor as only a branch of natural 1. for instance. 633) that issues in a plausible metaphysical conclusion for experimental psychology The Xoyot. 2 Aristotle's general conceptions of the relationship of form to matter. Instead of the 'Either-Or' of the Upanishads. 4-O3a. of early Greek and much subsequent thought. its own difficulties. wrote Wundt in his Grundzuge c do not square with the materialistic hypothesis nor with the dualistic theories of Plato or Descartes. neither with two separate and disparate fields of inquiry. der physiologischen Psychologie (4th edn. p. neither as simply a branch of pure metaphysics. as concerned. It is only the animism of Aristotle. as it enabled Aristotle himself. 'The products of my labours'.. nor yet with two purely subjective aspects of the same reality. It it enables us to work on the hypothesis of 'Both. But whatever we may think of the validity of Aristotle's definition processes of psyche as the ineluctable conclusion of a cogent argument. enable us to give which some to precise meaning it is to the application of spatial concepts the psyche cn/ft/Je/fy/cos'). and the empirical data of vital on the other. as those of a psychology psychology to conscious mentation. 1 to see psychology 5 . and biology and physiology on the other. on the one hand. 5 . in which psychology is combined with biology. but as concerned with the potential and the Whatever determining constituents respectively of the integral humanum. 25 is a remarkable adumbration ofJung's 'archetypes'. Aristotle's struggle with Plato was a costly one indeed. and of all a priori limitations which would banish the irrational and the unconscious from psychological consideration.

in Aristotle's definition Church. and nothing he can do can make him otherwise. 2. chapters 4. Already times seen the incompatibility of Platonic 'spiritualism'. Also. Tertullian. they enable us to see as soul and psychology as concerned with the whole man and its processes are as such the For body although body. being the animating principle of the comes body. Notwithstanding telian formula hesitations Aristotle's concerning immortality. Metaph. given the Aristotelian definition. with the Gospel whose central message was that of man's* psychoof health (solus) wrought in physical integrity the message the and flesh the and hope of glory through the through resurrection of the body. De Anima. and through the 1. 3. Platonist psychology leads directly to gnostic and Manichaean contempt for the flesh and the search for liberation from its shackles. Aristotle's psychology.ARISTOTLE. 481). but as necessarily combining the conclusions 1 both. AQUINAS AND MAN 97 of science. 3 within It its field.D. 'other-worldly qualities which we find in Plato. the concern of 'physical physiology. it must be admitted. 'religious'. A. of supreme importance. and no mere part of him. the denial of the individuality of vovs his school of most least at by his later work of the from absence the and (mind). 'numinous'. 12. the psyche. esp. Enchiridion Symbolorum No. and Catholic gradually gained acceptance at the Council of Vienne its denial was even the accounted heresy. Only the revelation that Divine Power enters history and assumes the flesh. the whole of man. dashes all such aspirations: though man has a divine and immortal principle dwelling in him he is essentially body as well as soul. and which had attracted the preferences of 5 many Christian Fathers in East and West. was this vigorous affirmation of the flesh as being of the very essence of man which to finally recommended the Aristo- Catholic Christianity. . 1311 (Denzinger-Bannwart. and the relative compatibility of Aristotle's hylomorphism. 2 Nor is this so surprising as might at first Tertullian 3 and others had in early sight appear. iO26a 6.

98 death of the GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS flesh gives eternal life to the risen flesh. 2. we have to think ourselves out of the whole body of post-Cartesian preconceptions. forgetful of the stove. De Anima 43 1 b 20. like an astonishing conmay cession to extreme idealism. But the very same principles of Act and Potency which compelled Aristotle to define psyche-in-general as the first entelechy of an organic body. given the rigorous rational of But Aristotle himself could not Aristotle. We must get behind that fateful day (was it cause or symptom of the split in the post-Renaissance European psyche?) when Rene Descartes was left alone with his stove. he things (fi fax TO. at. 'If I were asked . and conscious only of Rene Descartes. ovra TTCOS* ecm Travra) whole the universe only universe we explains. could destiny. It is true that Aristotle can have little validity for us if we suppose the Kritik to be beyond criticism. with the Bible in one make sense of human hand and Aristotle in the other. op. or if we try to fit him into our own divisions of Idealist or Realist. It is true that to understand Aristotle. rebuild Western thought on the Cogito. what was the most disastrous moment in the history of Europe I should be strongly tempted to answer that it was that period of leisure when Rene Descartes. and. 379.. It was St Thomas. coming as it does from one whom historians (even Jaeger) 2 agree in labelling as a naive realist. 3. that the human psyche is in a sense the whole existing universe the soul is in some manner all existing 1 This is SO. thought and sensa sensed. compelled him also to the conclusion 'summing up all that has been said about the psyche'. and especially his equation of the human psyche with everything. attempted can talk about first this consists of things At assertion sound to 1 . p.* Only now. innocent of the Enlightenment. because the 1 }) . psychology discover that. who could give both their due and show how the Gospel could meet the inherent insufficiencies and contrarieties which Aristotle had analysed and exposed. and living centuries before the Copernican revolution of Kant's Kritik.

AQUINAS AND MAN 99 thanks to phenomenology and existentialism. ovra Travra). are closely associated with the habit of thought then established. still less of an 'I as the subject of that thought. Subject and object are not ultimate a prioris: they are conscious data which presuppose a pre-conscious identity. The human psyche. with . and one which a-priori mutilates it. . as potencies to one unique and identical act of knowing and being known. When I think. Man and God. by definition. I cannot doubt. remained for a whole day "shut That many of our worst troubles not up with a stove". having no claims to meet. Intellects in actu est intellectum in actu\ and Aristotle's parallel analysis of the processes of sensation should leave us in no doubt of his meaning. a participation mystique in the deepest sense. 1 precisely that act in which. only in philosophy. its wider functions are indeed all embracing (TO. . objects. p. . 57. 2 alvQ-rjais both. Nature.' William Temple. I think things. For the pure Cogito never was nor will be in human experience: it is an arbitrary abstraction from a fact. while the first function of the psyche is to animate the body. is means for human happiness and 'misery. I ego. and from which I infer the human psyche my But an act of psyche it is. and it is in that vitally important sense that Aristotle knows that. I cannot be conscious of my thought. and in that thinking both l and the things' emerge. unless I am thinking the 'Not-F things. 'The Cartesian Fauxall this This <k De Anima 43oa 14. Thought clearly . by its powers of vou? and makes and becomes the whole world. 87 and in De Veritate VIII. Pas*. Aristotle (and still more 5 ' St Thomas) knew that subject and object were unknowable except in function one of the other. are we beginning to free ourselves from the effects of that venture to build thought on a thought which was never a fact. passim. but also in politics and economies. in experiencing the 'not-F. i. and irreparably divorces the ego from the non-ego without which it is no conscious ego at all. but drawn from his premisses by Aquinas in Summa I. on reflection.ARISTOTLE. not explicitly stated by Aristotle. perhaps also to Einstein. e 5 c is experience itself.

the problem is indeed a difficult one to resolve. neither to resolve. 1 and the psyche was the actuality of a living of body and as such inseparable from it. 3. On the one hand. for they are inherent in thought in discussions of the significance of the formula Hhou art that'. Jews. 3 that man is made in the image of God and its not vice-versa. and Indian haunted has we know how that same problem human nature be no doubt can as we know it. De Anima i. and the to the end. Aristotle's of exegesis remember that Aristotle is first and foremost a rigorous could only drive him to logician. ii?a 1 6. and independent of the activity of a thing space-time conditions.100 It GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 5 should be clear enough what Aristotle held vovs to do. On the other hand. tf. Eth. and the force of logic antinomies which pure reason without revelation is De Unitate Intellects impotent could its potency (Svvafjus). been much more controverted what he held vovs to be. there that for Aristotle vovs was a potency (Svvafus) and a part of the psyche. as has been maintained by most of his commentators? From the standpoint of pure textual exegesis. even as But difficulties remain. the conclusion corresponds should be that it was incorruptible and immortal. . 2. The revelation of creation will enable St Thomas to distin1. Christians and Moslems. and if the psyche could not survive. Aristotle psyche with it. I confess that I find the It has arguments his for the first adduced by St Thomas Aquinas in completely convincing. It seems likely that. the activity of vovs was undoubtedly immaterial.Jfic. distinct from each individual psyche. strong arguments can be brought on both sides. Without the faith of the 'People of the Book'. The evident fact survival to seemed death and bodily corruption preclude of the psyche. and since to its being (actio sequitur esse). Did he indeed hold vovs to be 'separate only from material organs and quantitative extension.. 42 ga 10. (Tat twam asi). or to be a single separate entity.e.. was unable to decide whether vovs was literally divine (and 2 hence a substance) or only relatively divine or godlike. We must text.

432a. 1 and the sub1. the latter in its turn being individuated by the body of which it is the form. They offer no facile Either-Or. and the godlike. but neither is it adequate to specify all the phenomenal functions of the psyche in a manner that may NIC. created intellect which is essentially and only a potentiality of the psyche. 2. is clearly a preliminary statement of problems. Ethics. uncreated God. But it be that must admitted the convinced affirmation of immortality which we find in the early Eudemus finds no place in the De Anima. In so doing he can reconcile the implications of both of Aristotle's sets of observations without inconsistency. 1932). 15 sqq. AQUINAS AND MAN IOI guish clearly between the indwelling. the SXoyov or irrational and the \6yov ^ov. Eth. which he regards as 'sufficient* for his ethics.worldly and takes no account whatever of the prospect of an after-life. The Nicomachean Ethics translates ruthlessly the theoretic antinomies of the De Anima into profound tensions of practical life. Aristotle nowhere repudiates the threefold division of the parts of the psyche. the source of all truth and knowledge. jtoV. 27 that his i U ideal religieux des Grecs et iO2a. not of definitive solutions. It is difficult to see how it could do so. It is 1 be expected of psychology. Aristotle himself insists that the Ethics presuppose the De Anima* notably in its divisions of the potentialities of the psyche into two classes. 24. De Anima. 3 or rational. VEvangile (Paris. but finite. but it seems that there is no reason to oppose this to the De Anima as Professor Will suggests. 55 ff. pp. and the whole discussion of the end of man and of the motivation of human character and conduct in the Nicomachean Ethics is wholly this. but a stern insistence on Both-And. was complete. no2a 29. and reflecting on the seeming antinomies in the human psyche itself. I cannot find that Aristotle came ever explicitly to deny the immortality of the human psyche the passages adduced : 1 by Festugiere and others do not seem conclusive. true that Aristotle says in i iO2a. 3. summary of psychology in the 'exoteric writings is sufficient for the purposes of the student of Ethics.ARISTOTLE. The dilemma presented to human reason when unaided by faith. .

iioab 1 6. The conflict of the rational and the irrational elements in man is not to be by-passed. 2. is emphasized. cit. 12. 6 1. division of the the irrational class. op.. cit.g. between the bestial masses and the sublime gods. as applied psychology. not practicable and obtainable by man body the integrasexual. cit. July 1945. 1 The latter in their turn may be governed by the conflicting motivations of desire and aggression. and Fortitude.. 5 noob pp. The aim of ethics must include into 'the factors or these tion of all partly physical physical is Man as well as soul. lyyff.* without shame' (rtrpdyajvos balanced emotional man's In this task. 7. iog6b 34.. i I04b 24. ibid.. cf. 5. of the good citizen. 6 The insufficiency of the human individual and the necessity of society.IO2 instinctive GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS first. even the priority of the social as against the individual good. 6. standing 7 as it were. op. 4. by Temperance life. 22. quoted in Plato's 'Vir bonus quadrato Protagoras 339b. Harvard Theological Review. op. On the one hand. has its indispensable part to play. lapidi comparatur . and those which can participate into the purely in directed reason (Ao'yo?). op. op. emotional. He sets aside the Absolute Good of Plato as the governing norm of human character and conduct. is 4 set aside for the harder task of the directed use of the emotions. just because 2 . foursquare avtv $6yov}. Ehrhardt. the will be the formation purpose of ethics. who is the truly human being. and later fundamental for the Stoic and the Yogi. from Simonides of Cos.. Since the Good tout court is irrelevant to and unobtainable by man. xogyb i095b 9 ff. A. Aristotle's psychology in effect sets the stage for the notorious stresses and strains of his ethics. The ideal man of impassivity or apathy (airaffeia) proclaimed by Speusippus. together with the attempts of the later 5 Academy to 4 construct an ethic of it is mathematical precision. hungry. e. at. 3.. . cit. iiO2b 20. cf. he shows that the aim of good living must be the humanly possible.

And later still.) 1099^13. op. cit.. he free. as Aristotle recognizes. after human Aristotle's 'magnanimous' prig: free. but 1 only such as is human and humanly possible. i. 4. Presently there emerges the figure of possibility that. n66a 16. But it is hard to his insistence on man's psychowith square equally logical of the individual wholeness on the subordination and physical human and divine. cit. op. on the other hand. unsocial. the 'theoretician'. Aristotle does indeed allow the acquired by all. 4 It Aristotle. cit. cap.. And that in itself rules out the and nearly all the conditions of good which he had himself laid down as the business of human morals and well-being. Aristotle ventures. human bliss or fulfilment may be no a Divine gift. cf. cit. ciL 3 109413 23. the acme of humanity. citizenship not within the power of logic to resolve them. but he dismisses it as a but acquisition which lies outside the scope of ethics. the godlike contemplator of the divine.I ARISTOTLE. op. has reached this conclusion that man's bliss must consist in the highest activity of his highest part exercised on the highest objects and with the maximum of perfection and 5 permanence so far as this is possible'. and then only for a few. who is indeed a parasite on a society based on slavery. The good of man's highest part. 3. op. His ruthless logic was not afraid of antinomies. Of course this godlike bliss in this vale of tears. 2 question But. this divine part of man' is even the true self of each'. op. common good of the city. njjb 30. and for a moment or two. the good life. Perhaps. . 8 passim. Aristotle's own psychology leads him to another set of conclusions which are not easily reconcilable with the foregoing. even anti-social. seldom possible. 3 but this ideal is superis by unexceptionable logic that from observation of the human psyche. It must be human effort. 5. his vo$-. AQUINAS AND MAN 03 The purpose of ethics must be eudaimonia. is shown to be something very different. and alongside all this. 2. self-sufficient. and seeking a godlike life among men passionin self-sufficient c is isolation. ny8a 3. and in some limited degree. starting to the is. but it was generality of men. 9 Book X.

assisted certainly by previous comthe mentators. the Father of the Lord Jesus Christ. Isaac and Jacob. develops. 2. 3 It was true that man could not reach the Absolute Good. how the Revelation of Christ brings the answer to the human contradiction which Aristotle had so fearlessly investigated and exposed. For the mentally right. synthesizes. even if Absolute Good is no Idea. dots the i's and crosses contrit's of Aristotle's De Anima. but the living God of Abraham. his purpose was to bring more the service of Christ Tor the complete showing forth divine teaching' 'ad in contained are of these things that maiorem manifestationem eorum quae in hac sacra doctrina con1 But in so doing he shows. . 2 So the Summa of St Thomas begins by affirming what at the beginning of his Ethics Aristotle had been compelled to and bliss deny: the attainability of man's true and last end and completion. Summa TheoL I. 5 ad 2. There had been observation or nothing essentially faulty in Aristotle's mind life reasoning. The Absolute Good of Plato was indeed humanly But now the Christian impracticable and unattainable. Aristotle's reasoning to theologian. incidentally but tinentur'. God in and through Jesus inevitably. (^a/na^a rov Oeov &rj alcoves ev Xpiara) 'Irjvov) (Rom.IO4 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS St Thomas Aquinas. cf. i. St Paul had found in the intense experience of that death-bringing conflict between the law of the members and the law of the the prerequisite to the 'gift of God' that is 'eternal in Jesus Christ our Lord'. no mere principle of impersonal intelligibility or ultimate aim of movement and desire (as for Greek speculation generally). Gilson. on the contrary. i. Plato had been fundaa sense Revelation showed that in the for wrong reasons. But not in this lay his chief bution to the solution of the problem of man as Aristotle had left it.E. 23). 3. Summa TheoL Li. but God in Christ showed that the Absolute 1. vi. It was no part of St Thomas's programme to as a Christian bring Christ to Aristotle. God and Philosophy.

man dimly but surely partakes of a sort of imprint of God's own knowledge* 2 Reason can argue ('quaedam impressio divinae sciential) that there is indeed 'what men call God'. have seen that the Ethics had methodologically dismissed. . but that image had become. man's need for a know- which ledge which transcends rational discovery: a knowledge is essentially not a human but a divine knowledge (for God only knows what things God has prepared for those that love him). reach out to to 05 man and comI man its own eternal life. may accept in humble faith in God's communication of that knowledge. 2 and 3.ARISTOTLE. but one which men. but disintegrated into autonomous component parts. and can be attained only by the power and grace in and through c his . The Summa. 3 But the end. St tivity Thomas of the human mind will explain later. AQUINAS AND MAN Good not municate very first only could. ii ff. the suggestion that the good life might be a gift of the gods. Faith. is the humble recepto the Unseen and the Unknown: 1 faith in the Divine revelation. on its page. not through unaided reasoning processes. Therein lies the primitive and fundamental revelation of the meaning 1. There was a truth in those whispers of the Mysteries of a primeval catastrophe and guilt which Aristotle had heard in his youth. of the indwelling Spirit given by Christ who attains the immortal first God through life Christ: the of soul* and body by accepting the death which is their separation. nevertheless. God had made man in his own image and likeness. 3. which God has destined for man the eternal divine life dwelling in him as a free gift of Divine love can be known only by God and communicated by his revelation. L Summa I. but did. the fulfilment. Summa^ I. i. affirms as a fact that it is a Divine gift. 2. Summa TheoL II-II. not annihilated. therefore. The Summa begins by affirming. 3 ad 2. and can make certain analogically correct statements about him. as We a hypothesis which lay outside its own field of inquiry.

. St Thomas will take up and develop all Aristotle's fulfilment in contemplation of the Divine arguments for the stable character of human by man's highest This mind (vovs) is itself in its immateriality. but also. and perhaps correct. can be actualized into likeness to God (conformitas Deo) only by divine power and grace. But the way to fulfil that imaging of. A.I06 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS of man.P. A revelation. xciii. Summa Summa 9 I-II. exercised cannot discover. human reason. La structure de Fame et I experience mystique. cf. must come to supplement. the Divine Threefold in Fourfold of psycho-physical is attained only through the Imago Christi. in the human processes observed psyche? Do they afford any parallels to and studied in depth-psychology to-day? 1. 2 Radically man has a capacity for God (capax Dei)) though that capacity endowment of mind 1 (vovs). Death and Resurrection of the Man who is the Word of God to men in human flesh. and for God. i-iv. and conformity to. co-ordinate function of Memory. Man had fashioned gods in the likeness of his own psychic contents and aspirations: to Israel is made known that contrariwise the psyche is made like God. What in St Thomas's mind. and to partake in the eternal life of God. Son and Spirit. . 3 it is a 'made Trinity . in its threefold not only godlike. even the highest flights of mere reason. and what processes does it involve psyche. O. known only to the People of the Book. data. with human body and human Eternity is through the Human man in time: the Imago Trinitatis on the purely human which transcends reason. 2. Gardeil. and conformity through grace to the Life. All this. the created likeness of the One God who is revealed as Father. Understanding and Love. is this revelation. I.


would be a mistake to suppose that Aristotle never any inkling of the possibility of a revelation which would convey knowledge over and above what man could discover by the directed employment of his own senses and his own intelligence. In his early work On Prayer (of which only fragments remain) he had said that God is either mind

IT had


or beyond


knowledge that God (as he argues at length in Book XI of the Metaphysics], this could not exhaust all that could be known about him. As Jaeger says: 1 'Neither Schleierrnacher nor Kant distinguished more sharply between faith and knowledge than did the originator of speculative argument for God's existence in his classic pronouncement: "Those who are

(vovi) . If a certain dim but conexists could be attained by strict






being initiated [into the Mysteries] are not required to engage in active study (^afortv), but to be passive to inner 2 experience (7ra0etv)'V In his De Divinatione per Sornnia he had raised the question whether dreams might be divine in origin, and a means of communication of divine knowledge; and while he rejects the hypothesis, for reasons which may strike us as extraneous and not wholly convincing, he does not dismiss it as intrinsically impossible. But when we turn from Aristotle to Aquinas we turn from a purely philosophical thinker to one who was primarily a theologian and only secondarily a philosopher. For the
theologian, rational philosophy (whatever




and merit)


primarily of interest as the

handmaid of
help in


(ancilla theologiae)

a handmaid

who may








p. 1240.


Fragment (Rose)









to examine St Thomas's treatment of the revelation involves: this cognitio which, which processes limits to rational investigation, is within though subject itself no grasping (juatfefr) but an experiencing (rraQtlv),

accepted by and we turn



takes pride of place;







of directed

thinking. St Thomas describes the typical apprehension of revelae tion as a kind of clouded awareness mixed up with darkness (quaedam cognitio obumbrata et obscuritati admixta?} (De In the same place he argues that its quality Veritate xii.


as to

knowledge. In its most quality as clear the controlled, orderly, which of typical forms, it is everything

the Divine prophetic insight into


in inverse ratio







by no laws of logic or method,
recipient's volition;


most suspicious. It is governed it is not even subject to the St Thomas here recalls well be

the pathetic protest of Jeremiah

clean contrary to



no permanent disposition (habitus] to be used at will, but something momentarily undergone (passio) ; something, not that the recipient does, but that is done to him, which

him and overpowers him compulsively (De Veritate 1 It proceeds by no. i; Summa TheoL I-II. 171. 2, etc.). measured steps, which can be checked by laws of logic and detached scientific observation; it is an intuitus, an intuition a vision more especially an inward vision or audition




Its inspiratio (ibid}.

normal and typical vehicle

not the rational concept, but the concrete image, the uncontrolled phantasy, the dream, the hypnogogic (sleepy)
81; I-II. 173, 2, etc.). It thrives intense of introversion, of alienation from under conditions in states of ecstasy, of trance, of external sense-perceptions,
Ver. xii. 7,

imagination (De

frenzy, which, St



may be induced by solitude

All subsequent references in the text of this essay, unless otherwise stated, are to the Summa Theologica of St Thomas I=Prima Pars; I-II=Prima Secundae; 11-11



Secunda Secundae; III=Tertia Pars.



by Saul and Elisha


the sense-lulling, hypnotizing


of music (De Ver. xii. 9; I-II. 173, 3, etc.). The prophet does not always know what he sees nor even what he says (I-II. 173, 4) ; nor of these does he invariably discern between what is of divine or superhuman origin, and what is 'from his own spirit' ('per spiritum proprium'), a product

himself puts it, of his own instinct (I-II. be moved not only to see and say the strangest things, but to do them too, as Hosea was moved to take a succession of harlots to wife. More shocking still perhaps to sweet reasonableness is St Thomas's emphasis
171, 5).


He may

that prophetic revelation is as such independent of good morals let alone of personal sanctity (De Ver. xii. 5 I-II. 1 72, 4). For prophecy is required, he says tersely, not 'goodness of morals' (bonitas morum) but 'goodness of imagination'

If sexual excess and worldly prehe are inimical to prophetic insight, that adds, occupation, is not for any ethical reason, but for the purely psychological one that they withdraw attention and interest (i.e., libido) from the interior image to the external world. Aristotle, St Thomas reminds us, had already remarked on the fact that it is not the best people who have the best dreams; 1 he had also remarked that it is the melancholic man' we might render this as the 'introverted intuitive' who is




2 usually the best dreamer quite irrespective of his morals. St Thomas finds Scriptural warrant for parallel phenomena even in regard to supernatural revelation. Nor does he

hesitate to

draw the


marks the differences

even while he most carefully between the typical condition of the

inspired prophet in the act of perceiving Divine revelation, with that of the psychotic, the 'raging maniac' (furiosus), the man whose 'mind is possessed* (mente captus). Nay, the prophets are to be likened to the brute beasts inasmuch

'they are rather acted
Ver. xii.

upon than

act' ('magis


quam agunf). (De

3 ad


Div. per Somn.


15, cf.


Ver. xii. 5. obj. 4.






not the whole Truly enough, as we shall see, that is of a scandal be to doubtless but something enough picture;
to the cultivator of the clear~and~distinct, the cut-and-dried,

the methodical and the controlled. It


the scandal which

had led Plato to identify prophecy and mania pavrucr) and and to expel the 'enthusiast' and the inspired from paviK-fi the Republic. Aristotle was too open-minded an empiricist and too integral a rationalist so easily to dismiss the manifestations of unreason, embarrassing though he found them to be. For him facts were facts, and to that extent subject to of reason. However little he may seem to the

uncanny subject in his TI^pl rr)$ Ka6 VTTVOV jjLavTWYJs (treatise On Divination by Dreams), he did not ignore it. St Thomas had read that perplexed work on dream-interpretation, and his own De Prophetic utilizes some of its ideas.

investigation us to be at home with the

narrower rationalism is less patient with irrationality, less than the comprehensive, clear-cut conconclusion. the water-tight argument, the established cept, his Metaphysics, of Book Second the in Aristotle said 'Some', 'desire to have all things clear-and-distinct (dKptfi&s), while others are annoyed at it and both there and early in his Nicomachean Ethics he warns his hearers of the danger of that desire when the object of our study does not permit of
with anything



such sharpness of outline. St


at the beginning of his

the Metaphysics the are warning that there are objects before which our minds and as the eyes of bats in respect of daylight; but he adapts stresses it to the point of saying that, in respect of divine our minds are as bats' eyes before the naked light

Summa quotes from the same book of


of the sun


1,5 ad


Such a



a painful one for

the adept of the idee claire, of Latin precision, law and order. St Thomas also was a Latin, by culture if not by birth, and never was there one more vigorous in vindicating the function of reason in theology, more thoroughgoing in



logical implications,

more dexterous

in mani-

In the




pulating the concept, the proposition, the syllogism; but never as ends in themselves, never with the idea that scientific rational theology was a substitute for, let alone an improvement upon, the original revelations on which it is based
it is its purpose to clarify. As we progressively appreciate how much analogies play in St Thomas's thinking in the Summa itself, its first impression of clarity, of the clear-and-distinct, of the comprehensible and the cut-and-

and which

dried, rapidly vanishes. It is more to our present point to note that St Thomas did not neglect to direct his powerful reason

upon the largely non-rational phenomena which underlie it and to attempt to account for them in rational fashion and by rational means. No Christian theologian worthy of the name can afford to do otherwise. Plato could expel the inspired and the possessed from the Republic; they can never be expelled from the Church which is built on the foundations of the prophets and apostles.

In this essay it will be impossible to present an adequate didactic account of St Thomas's conception of revelation,
it and to draw out all its implications. more than try to indicate that it deserves more consideration than it commonly receives, and that

alone to expound

can do

is, once the difficulties of understanding his medieval terminology have been mastered and related .to our modern language and knowledge, surprisingly up to date in regard both to the problems which it faces and the postulates it invokes. But it is idle to pretend that his treatment of the subject does not present many serious difficulties, especially


for the



One difficulty lies in the enormous variety and multiplicity
phenomena which demand to be considered, a which renders fact the subject peculiarly impervious to any facile schematization and generalization. 'God who at sundry times and in divers manners spoke in times past unto
of the actual
the fathers by the prophets',


loquens patribus


Multifarie, multisque modis, olim Commenting on this prophetis*)

verse of the Epistle to the Hebrews, St Thomas stresses the extraordinary richness and variety to be found in the



methods which God has devised


his saving


even in the Old Testament alone. Clearly, then, we must not look to St Thomas for anyc


thing so naive as any one single, all-embracing, a priori theory of the mode' of revelation, such as some modern writers have attempted. There is no one mode. The Spirit of

bloweth where it listeth, and it is unscientific to attempt to contain the infinitely rich and diverse operations of the self-revealing God into any one preconceived human category.


At the human end, the

receiving end (and, as



see, for St Thomas we cannot really speak of revelation until or unless the revelation is received), there is no one

thing, no one single event, called Revelation: there are countless revelations of very varying kinds and very varying

The task of theology is not to lay down some a priori pattern of how God should reveal and what he should reveal; its task is to bow down in deep humility before the

manifold and bewildering variety of what God actually it, in the first place, as naked, unchangeable fact, however offensive or otherwise it may be to particular
does ; to accept

and preconceptions. If inquiry is to be truly not to say reverent, it will not attempt to mould and transmute the elementary data in the interests of some preconceived theory. But neither will it be satisfied merely


to record and describe; it must analyse the bare phenomena into their constituents, assign causes and purposes in the light of the revelations themselves and with the aid also of

knowledge derived from other sources; attempt classification of kinds and degrees of revelation on the basis of the knowledge thus obtained: in short, attempt to reduce the vast body of highly variegated raw material to some intelligible unity without prejudice to its richness and variety, and without loss to the unique individuality of the particular

specimens which

fall under its consideration. Its method be primarily inductive; but it will not hesitate to employ

the findings of deductive as well as inductive sciences in the accomplishment of its task. The purpose of such an investigation will be that



for St

Thomas, the purpose of all

Manifold indeed are the factors which he finds in different ways and at be operative in revelation. i). as not. Questions 171-174. St Thomas finds revelation to be brought about through the most natural and lowly causes and to be reflected in the most commonplace processes. tion it of consciousness or knowledge: a cognitive psychological . with and salvation Thomas This precisely is the not inconsiderable task which St has set himself in his two principal treatises De Prophetia: in the De Veritate. i. the greater clarification to our own minds of what is contained in divine teaching ('ad maiorem manifestationem eorum quae in hac sacra doctrina continentiir*) the more man for his salus (cf. This warning is especially necessary in the case of the terms prophetia and propheta themselves. Here is no a of transcendent God periodically 'invading' simple picture the natural order according to one single. by gesture to essential and the 'gift of prosecondary consequential belongs to the employment (usus) or the proclamaessentially (denuntiatio) of prophecy. needs and factors. established different times to scheme. Primarily and prophecy is not a certain kind of speech. and not subconsciously to read into it our own meanings derived from current speech. We shall. and the Secunda Secundae of the Summa. 2).REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 113 theological inquiry. when he does so action that is all or dramatic by by writing. 3. and regardless of natural causes. but a certain kind phecy' . tell anything at all. coming the difficulties have gone a long way towards overof understanding St Thomas's conception of prophecy and revelation if we are at some pains to understand his terminology as he himself understood it. I suggest. or even from current theology. De Ver. Question XII. A propheta. xii. intelligent understanding of God's ways his ultimate health and well-being I. It need hardly be said that for St Thomas a propheta is not necessarily one who foretells the future (II-IL 171. does not necessarily whether by speech. as he understands the word. as well as by causes and processes of the most transcendent As often character.

by means other than those of the consciously employment of those faculties. tinguishing the distance of what is seen from normal vision and cognition 'Prophets know those things which are far removed from whatsoever. 2) .114 event GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS which the prophetic utterance presupposes and expresses outwardly (II-IL 171. i et 13). At the outset of both treatises St Thomas recalls the passage Samuel ix. 9. If foreknowledge of the is characteristic of prophetic insight. but within that field the prophet will see something and he sees it which our connatural faculties cannot see. is to be called a Seer or Prophet. in contrast opaque to the present or the past (II-IL 171. : 3 We might render this by saying that the prophet is conscious of that of which other it men are unconscious: he sees c as were. the because future is peculiarly remote and only to conscious ordinary apprehension. processes But not only. The dismark of prophetic sight lies in the remoteness. : the knowledge of men' ('prophetae cognoscunt ea quae sunt procul remota ab hominum cognitione') "they saw things which the rest did not see' ('videbant ea quae caeteri non videbani }. His knowledge is essentially a vision by which we understand. or reason out in his own brain (De Ver. 3. This does not mean. xii. Not. and that the field of natural perception and reason may fall within the scope of the prophet's vision. but any sort of direct perception it may. De Ver. is there a distinction between directed : . and often will. De Ver. as we shall presently see more clearly. xii. from afar' ('quasi ex longinquo') what is remote or opaque to average consciousness. not merely ocular vision. of course. evidently. St Thomas is most emphatic that it is not. that thefield of prophetic vision is necessarily totally different and remote from the field of ordinary vision and appre- future peculiarly that is hension. that anyone whosoever who 'sees' anything whatsoever. xii. take not only visual but also aural and even forms which forms. for St Thomas. 2). altogether transcend the of and exterior even interior sensation. 'He that is now called a Prophet. i. The prophet may see what anybody can see with his own eyes. in any way in i 5 . in times past was called a Seer a Videns.

though may . Truly enough away from carnal and earthly things' ('a carnalibus but divine power can and does overrule the indispositions. thus Amos the shepherd naturally uses language and imagery with pastoral associations.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 115 the essential prophetic knowledge (cognitio prophetica) and its employment (usus) or proclamation (denuntiatio) . a 'touch' (tactus]. but. as the atmosphere to the radiation of the sun (De Ver. Not indeed always. Here he is in no way a responsible agent. 4). he is seized by a power. as terrenis vacantes*) 5 Thomas recognizes. i). 5). with or without regard to his own character and predispositions. to choose their own words. because. These they will normally choose in accordance with their own character and experience. In c regard to the former the propheta is purely passive. 32. he sees what he sees and cannot help himself. the two involve diametrically opposite psychological processes. xii. whether or not he simultaneously retains the normal use of his 5 5 there are conditions and psychofavourable to such experience. Willingly or unwillingly. while the 'sons of the prophets' cultivated solitude and introversion. he does nothing consciously and willingly. xii. or rather (since divine power always acts according to nature and never against it). De Ver. St is But normally tion. the prophet is in this a true principal. an 'inbreathing (inspiratio]. their own images and language. it happens to him. In the use of prophetic experience the prophet 'spirits receive divine assistance. 'turning et own faculties. cf. the of the prophets are subject to the prophets' (I Cor. to use the technical language. supplies the dispositions simultaneously with the vision (De Ver. there are cases when the prophet precisely overwhelmed by superior power to speak or act in a fashion beyond his cognizance or control (II-IL 173. or rather a light. But in the 'employment' or 'proclamation matters are normally very different. it is true that in the and in the employment or proclamaemployment or proclamation only. beyond his control. 4). and logical predispositions conditions and predispositions which are unfavourable so Amos protested he was no professional prophet. xiii. it is within their power to speak or not to speak. xii.

etc. is precisely the psychological 3 occurrence in the prophet's mind the 'prophetic vision (visio propheticd]^ his awareness of what is commonly hidden for St Thomas. 1. or even becomes man (cf. which normally ignorance our own minds.. 3.). to disclose. not just that prophecy receives revelation. will not bear very much rational scrutiny. that. by which prophecy is brought about. 43. 'adds nothing to God but only to the creature* in Deo. and by this very perception the veil of darkness and ignorance is taken away' ('Revelatio est is from human perception. 16. the veils are the and darkness. but that it is revelation: though it as he also says. ad i. 'Revelation the very perception itself of divine things. I. We must remember that for St Thomas every action or relation which we attribute to God but which has its effects in time or space. 7. and it is these precisely which the envelops It is not God who . cause. 171. sed solum in creatura'): it involves no or entity reality on the side of God who is unchanging Actus PurtLSy but only a new reality or entity in the created universe (cf.. and the divine assistance will be in the nature of co-operative (gratia co-operans) rather than of operative grace (gratia operans) as in the prophetic knowledge (cognitio propheticd) itself. We are now perhaps in a position to understand why St Thomas can say repeatedly. But a moment's reflection will show that such a supposition is an anthropomorphism. though picturesque and helpful up to a point. to remove a veil. So. is true.Il6 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS secondary. moves this or 6 ad 2) we are not saying that something happens in eternity but that something happens in space and time. ipsa perceptio divinorum in quo perficitur prophetia: et per ipsam removetur obscuritatis et ignorantiae velamen\ II-II. 13. which. And what happens when we say that God reveals. the unconsciousness. and perhaps we go on to suppose that when we speak of divine revelation we mean that God somehow removes covers and veils from himself. i ad 4). is wrapped in veils. III. i. We are used enough to the idea that to reveal means to uncover. ad 2. When we say that God ('nihil ponit new reveals as also when we say that God creates. that not ail revelation is prophecy.

which while naturalis) attributable to no special innate faculty or 'spirit of divination' in human nature.. God is more intimately present to all his creatures than they are to themselves (I. but our minds are in degree absent from him. 171. such a thing which he calls natural prophecy (prophetia a prophetia or vision. . it is a distance of cognition. so to speak. St Thomas drags across our path what at first sight looks like a red herring. or even in certain favoured human individuals. a superthat the seer sees and how. revelation. St Thomas assures us. and indeed must remain so until they possess the final consummation of revelathings. It is said that Freud withheld for ten years the considerable body of so-called paranormal material he had accidentally collected in the course of his psycho-analytic work. telepathy and clairvoyance. Tor fear'.. 8. as well as divine or supernatural prophecy or revelation.4). Trophecy is something imperfect in the category of divine revelation . it again became respectable to pay attention to dreams. an absence from human awareness of divine not absent from us. at the turn of the : century. and cannot be. Similarly.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 117 very fact of the prophetic vision removes. that is to say. perfectio autem divinae revelationis erit in patric?} . But already. Until the nineteenth century it had not become respectable to doubt such phenomena as precognition. is yet explicable by purely natural or created finite causes. reduces the distance which separates them from God. a distance of God from the creature. is God greater or less tion which is the beatific vision itself. . i) . and since. prophetic vision removes the which cloud our minds and. (II-II. its perfection awaits us in our heavenly home' ('Prophetia est quiddam imperfection in genere divinae revelationis . for. in veils varying ways and degrees. . their existence has been forced on our notice again. St Thomas was in no doubt at all that there is. the 'distance' which the prophetic vision traverses is not. and But how can we speak of a Divine natural prophetia? What is it why? Before settling down to answer these questions.

often employs natural resources and agencies in the pursuit of its own supernatural ends. 'of our scientific world-view being menaced In various parts of his works. to present St and cosmography. and 'E. mediumship. he invokes the latter not only to illustrate what the former is and is not.Il8 as GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 1 it.'.S. Cognition. and he put it'. 26. i. While he sharply differentiates supernatural from natural prophetia. and even were he to undertake it he would then find himself under the necessity of radically revising it and translating it all back again into the appropriate terms of modern science. St Thomas had gone by to considerable pains to study the origin of these phenomena. T. J. Bendit. but we are in no position to dismiss them all as so much balderdash: in fact they may be read not without profit physics. here as always. physiology. The modern reader whose interest in the matter is more than antiquarian is likely to have little patience with such recondite research. Quoted from Ehrenwald by L. the supernatural acts not against but in accord with nature. but also because he insists that. and finally and angelology demonology. telepathy and the rest by such innocuous ciphers as psi 5 . and since he himself does not attempt to expound supernatural revelation and prophecy without reference to them. clairvoyance. p. second-sight.'. Paranormal . biology.P. we can hardly hope to understand his exposition without at least paying them a passing glance.C. apparitions. of Parapsychology has rendered such highly emotive words as prognostication. St Thomas's speculations on the subject were indeed often based on observations which we now know to be thoroughly faulty. Ptolemaic astronomy. Any embarrassment we may feel in mollified alluding to such a subject may to some extent be by the reflection that science has recently removed preserve of the charlatan into the laboratory and under the name this traditional for the cold inspection of the statistician. Thomas's treatment of these Adequately would take us very far afield indeed. and into phenomena intricacies of medieval psychology.

5 what or 'distant' from the external senses. future. colours. so to speak. finally. with St bodies and angels to be possessed of the required attributes. in the astronomy of his own. Not so. the human imagination or is The phantasia. St Thomas's conception of concerns briefly. and also capable. St as it Thomas sought us at present. even tastes. Imagination may be directed by volition as in the conscious production of art forms and in the waking state it is . ancient or modern. the words pre'present* in space and time sent. the imagination 'forms' them in its own way. This can and does produce images. of producing images in human consciousness. the 'Eternity of Mr Shepherd. But we still have to ask how they can be actually produced. remote or wholly non-existent. so far fairly may be summarized what perceptions of man's external senses are limited to indeed. we hold heavenly or whether. Any attempt. past and future have meaning only in relation to such perceptions. It is therefore of the nature of the imagination that it may be a receptacle for forms of what is 'remote' in space or time. visual or other. selecting. prophetia naturalis. combining. change and decay. smells and tactile sensations. Thomas. if not also its condition of successive is equally the case whether we postulate the 'Serial Universe' of Mr Dunne. however.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS Iig alongside kindred theorizings of to-day. conditions 'a reflex of subatomic which must needs be explained by a four- dimensional continuum'. albeit indirectly. sounds. is of what 'absent is to them separating shapes. by sense-impressions. we suppose. and not that of the 'outer world' in the 'here and now' of sensation. of past. The requisite factors which Professor Jung seeks in the nuclear physics of our day. with Professor Jung. rhythms. Though fed. This 1 in certain states of consciousness. and makes them into patterns in a space and time which is itself imaginary. or whether. to explain such phenomena must in the last resort be driven to postulate factors which in some way transcend the spatial and temporal limitations of the world of ordinary sense-perception. the 'Psychon' systems of Mr Whately Carington.

he could hardly be averse to the hypothesis presupposed to much current psycho-therapeutic technique (i. Still more so in sleep. Not always so. 3 ad 3). 74. Most obviously is this so in the transmutation of food and drink into the substance of the organism. St well astonish us by his 'modernity' when he these phantasy-formations to biological on to attribute goes and even to what we should call biochemical factors: he is well aware of the influence of bodily health and disease on Thomas may the imagination. 'active imagination'). 6). in which conscious attention and control are relaxed and in which the external senses are inactive. But these also in their turn. St Thomas supposed. but the organism is also subject to many other agents in this sublunary world. they were also beyond time. But as soul (Psyche the subject of psychology) is subject psychological images reflexes.120 more or subject less is GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS influenced by the sense-impressions which the receiving. Ill 13. where modern neurology indicates rather such agencies as endocrine gland secretions and hormones. it is especially characteristic of the imagination to act 'subito' (I-II. Beyond change and decay. at least in part. as well as of the influence of the imagination in functional disorder (cf. and of the diagnostic value of dreams in medicine (II-IL 95.e. the case is not thereby materially altered. a translation into of biological instincts. were subject to the agency of those purer elements and qualitatively unchanging entities. and so to be ultimate finite predeterminants in the production of physical events (of physical as distinct from intellectual . 7 ad 4) and apparently spontaneously to produce images of whose origin the subject is unconscious. They were nevertheless conceived to be the source of all movement and change in this changing world. that these are. the meteora. affects and he speaks here of the activities of such Though entities as spirits and humours. in the dream. however. % to the action of the living organism (Bios the subject of biology) so the living organism (Bios) in its turn is subject to the action of nature (Physis the subject of physics and chemistry). which Ptolemean cosmography situated in layers beyond the orbit of the moon.

5. 115. it could also render a fair measure of probability in predicting human behaviour. spirit. that the occurrence itself would be directly perceived as present (which would be a contra. and especially in predicting the general direction of human history. and most men most of the time follow their biologically determined and star-ruled imaginations and passions rather than their intelligence (cf. By sense observation and rational calculation little could be predicted beyond their own positions and such . From this it followed that an intelligence which was capable of comprehending their natures. To the extent that such an intelligence (i. would be capable also of knowing the occurrences which result from them not.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 121 and volitional acts. and their causal efficacy. that mind would know the future or distant occurrence. the behaviour of man in the mass. of course. however: the heavenly bodies themselves could act directly or indirectly on the human which in its gaseous and fluid components. which as such. of the occurrences which fell within the same organism. angel or demon) could communicate that knowledge to a human mind.e. 95.. II-II. 4 with I-II. For although 'the wise man overcomes even the stars' ('sapiens homo dominatur et astris'). But whatever might happen in the human imagination through these Impressions of heavenly bodies'. it would be capable of precognition or telepathy. especially its sphere of celestial influence (see esp. the laws of their movements. Though prediction attained in this way would be concerned. i). They were therefore the ultimate determinants of occurrences which might be widely separated in space and time. that is to say. the wise are few. 77. turn would produce appropriate images of greater or less clarity and accuracy. Not only this. it is important to note. per se y only with predetermined physical occurrences. are extratemporal). I. and especially in sleep or trance. diction in terms) but by the presence to the intelligence of the causes which determine its eventual or 'distant' existence. laws and movements of the heavenly bodies was very limited indeed. the ability of the sense-locked human intellect to understand the natures. 6).

were enticing their services without in fact invite not could voluntarily this is St ulterior motives their with voluntarily complying 5 Thomas's interpretation of the famous 'pact with the devil True. the numerous forms of prognostication practised fact in his time they still flourish in ours he had found this had to be one of the chief deterrents to the deliberate employ- man to his own undoing. Human reason usually had no means of discovering whether the phenomena were the work of morally neutral heavenly bodies or of personal entities who. But it was hard to be sure. however. both as theorist and moralist. however veracious their the order of the universe. passim}. it might be benevolent beings who were operative. These their them with and determining stand the heavenly bodies. When St Thomas had patiently examined in turn. may be tempted to dismiss indignantly this whole idea as well as mechanical causation in human of We spiritual experience phantasy-formation as wholly alien from and scientific knowledge. and perhaps. organism through the human these beings imagination. shown that they. more optimistically. What was more. and such indeed was one of their appointed functions in . and so upon human the and upon human organism. underand would could Aquinas identifies with angels. they also had will. could and did act upon matter. would bind the pure bodiless minds. 96. No such limitations. the weather. the wholly as had been conceived and purely spiritual Daimones such refined and which by Greek and Arabian philosophers.122 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS occurrences as eclipses. too. the separated intelligences. But it may be sobering to recall that depth-psychology witnesses to traces of personal and in purposive as well as impersonal and mechanical agency its what to itsl attributes the phenomena empirical [with modern . De Sortibus. towards the physical. mental and spiritual health of man could by no means be relied upon. it could be activity in mundane events. and no less than our own human the minds. ment of most of them (cf. One predictions. since and their benevolence intelligence. II-II. Unfortunately.

infinite event is Godhead. and may help us to under- natural revelation. by the finite intelligence. in his is human consciousness not relative but absolute : later value of the word only to the prophet of supernatural. But excellence stand why. but true symbols for what wholly transcends sense-perception or rational comprehension. infinite. the ultimate Whence and Why of existence. account ofprophetia naturalis in an essay concerned with divine and superit is this. And it should have served many relevant purposes. it can never be directly known. 172. St Thomas will the procul videns. Not merely for its own delightfulness. as does the or 'far-seeing' poet. mere signs for what is otherwise knowable. uniformly in the direction either of sanity or sanctity. Hence. in the humanly knowable. finite effects. and even then not comprehended. in divine revelation also. the imagination is par the vehicle of prophetic vision (De Ver. The 'remoteness' from consciousness in space and time of the itself distant or the future event is purely relative. Short of the beatific vision. the eternal. 'prophet' employ . The images he sees are not. to use the modern terminology employed by Jung. It has introduced us to his conception of the imagination. I must apologize for what is admittedly a dispropor- tionately long. But in the case of divine revelation there is another reason. it is in fact directly known. Divine revelation (II-II. arising from the very nature of the Godhead itself. xii. 7). It is In this sense knowable only in and through created. does the teacher of the ultimate Mysteries work. i). but present to the senses.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS methodology compels it 123 to call e the unconscious'. or rather the remoteness of and even allow the in fact. and the apparent purposes are not. where and when it is neither distant nor future. but still all too condensed. from him. it would seem. transcendent. with its wealth of obsolete language and its strange pre-Gopernican setting. God's 'remoteness' from finite human conintelligence full sciousness. which is likely to prove the greatest stumbling block to the modern reader of St Thomas's own presentation. however. Not so.

53 and Galatians iii. etc. 19. I-IL 77. the possible and the future supplies goals to be attained.e. and conditioned by it. and were it not for the fact of that phantasy that external fact would not be fact. inasmuch as it originates in abstractions from images More to our present purpose (abstractio a phantasmatibus) is its preponderating role in in determining human and hence moulding human history. imagination supremely which constellates or dissipates human emotions. historical collective unconscious). that of the ministry of angels in its production. St Thomas takes in all seriousness the assertions of Acts vii. and patterns to be followed in human conduct (of. but (Trom necessity and to serve further ends') (Li. This idea is also .. is played by the imagination in human life. What man imagines does not merely mould history.). objects to be avoided. their action psyche.m. The interior life of the human myths and phantasies. i. It is the behaviour. in St Thomas's view. and especially its upon and reaction to the human environment. 1939. belongs to the common the stock of human symbolism and mythology (i. are no less history than lists of battles. however transmuted. Even our most abstract thinking is dependent upon . on 3rd September. This should be borne in mind when we are perplexed by the presence in Biblical prophecy of much that. symbol and metaphor. 3). The book has yet to be written which will throw into relief the immensely powerful role which. it. Such things are certainly no less the business of zprophetia concerned with the guidance of human through time to eternity than is a precise chronological record of the names of the kings of Israel. that the Old Law was mediated by angels (I-IL 98. our allusion to prophetia naturalis has introduced us to another most important idea in St Thomas's life conception of Divine revelation. kings and queens. and which by reason of its ability to present the absent. 9). Less overtly. it is itself one of its most powerful ingredients we should know by now that the phantasies of the Nazi : niyth are just as much history as the commencement of war at ii a.124 utilitaterri! GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 'propter necessitatem et imagery.

1 St Thomas presses this to the point of denying categorically that Old Testament revelation was ever the effect of immediate Divine agency. but they would do to fulfil their own private it. to unknown these functions understand we what on must answer 'Angelus xv. still less draw out its implications for the idea. to Pauline conceptions generally. 6. . If Exodus xxxiii. signifies general of mediating the 'message-bearer'. names of the various how they severally he shows angelic 'choirs' or 'orders' of contemplation and service (I. had asserted the identity of the 'angels' of the Scripture with the immaterial. not as independent agents e i. had said that The Lord 5 dum opinionem populi loquitur Scriptural ibid. stressed by P. spoke to Moses face to face. But he is also at great pains to give this important theoa rational and even logical idea of angelic enlightenment scientific explanation. however. be noted. however. as Pere Bouyer has shown. Bouyer as Pauline and Patristic.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS fundamental to the 125 argument of the Epistle to the Hebrews and indeed. (It is. le christianisme antique'. 'angel'. that could only be because 'Scripture speaks conformably to popular opinion ('secun1 1 . however. We cannot here go into all the intricacies of his angelology. well to remember that he recognized that the very name 'angel' indicates & function rather than a substance est nomen officii tantum et non substantial (In Matt. and in treating of the Scriptural depend to be. i.) . signify various functions name The 1 08. If angels were immaterial substances. a function therefore was this possible? The how But consciousness. as a friend speaks to a friend'. 2 and 5) ). operative in few points may. St Thomas. revelation. ad 2) one of St Thomas's many sweeping concessions to the principle that revelation is often more concerned with what people imagine : than with precision of statement about the external world. separated 'intelligences' of metaphysical speculation. Dieu Vivant. A in sharp contradiction to St Albert the Great and many medieval Christian and Jewish divines. that diabolic agency is also. Le probleme du mal dans No. though very differently. they could therefore do all that such beings could do.

xii. good or bad. and more rarely did. 9 3 ad the i). they could somehow communicate some knowledge of the eternal purposes and designs for creation to the mind of man in time. C. But how? It is beyond angelic power only It is to form ideas in human intellect God also Deus illabitur menti*). Even angels could not overrule the ordinary processes of psychology and biology. St Thomas held. II-IL i. But it belongs to angels to set in. But being in touch with eternity. 'proponere credenda (I. . This indeed is one of their primary functions in the universe: to give enlightenment to the human mind. and thai without creaturely mediation. indeed. and even without their agency could stimulate the external sense-organs (I. Brain-Mind Problem'. De Ver. they could only communicate some finite results of that vision. F. could impart faith. mind ('solus beyond angelic power St penetrates the Thomas is most emphatic on the subject. 1951). produce shapes and forms on 5 the "external world . 3. purposes. 2 and 3). But either way they must act through the organs of the human body.S. they natural knowledge as in 'natural prophecy. i forth the contents of faith. pp. in. 4).R. the complete receptivity and self-surrender of the intellect to the Unseen and Unknown. non scitum (cf. Angels could. Only by an agitation of bodily poralium spirituum et spirits and humours ('commotio cor- humorwrf} by modifications of the human 1 organism. images are produced.126 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS for the universe. though these in their turn are necessarily limited in range to the material provided by the recipient's sense-experience. They certainly could not communicate the incommunicable beatific vision itself. 53 (July i4th. Vol. Eccles. 'Hypotheses relating ff. in. Only God. 10). non visum. but as ministers of the divine purpose and especially for man. working in and through matter they must obey the laws and employ the resources of matter. Nature. i . We might say by the excitation of the neurones of the cerebral cortex to the see J. 168. though we cannot here pause to follow his argument directly to form images in the human imagination (I.. so to speak. Enjoying the divine could communicate not merely their own convision.

the proximate and immediate causes of supernatural. (cf. It implies no further I. and the relevance of events in and time to eternity. simultaneous and perfect possession 1 abilis vitae iota simul et perfecta possessio") which is eternity.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS The important conclusion is 127 inescapable that. the and ever more abundant perpetuation and evolution of life which life. should be quite mistaken to picture this as an abnormal interference of spirit with natural physical or biological of spirit processes. even though not all its manifestations in human consciousness were the created directly concerned with the transcendence of the instruthat to on we Whether order altogether. it is through the sub-rational that the very which he had at his own disposal. of superdistinguishing characteristic natural. would counterparts. in. prophecy. i). as distinct from natural. metaphorical first i. For angels 'enlighten' the human mind. 'endless. admits. The struggle for life. the space of divine revelation. suggest a natural longing (naturale desiderium) the infinite. as we now go on to see. indirectly fashioning images in the imagination a certain but also by 'strengthening' (confortatio) of the human understanding (I. were invariably biological or physical in character. can be satisfied only in life absolute and of life' ('intermintotal. both ontogenetic seem to be able to complete St Thomas's conception of much more satisfactorily than could that revelation ments of spiritual purposes are radically biological. And destiny in eternity. in St Thomas's mind the interpenetration We (Pneumd) and life (Bios) and nature (Physis) and soul (Psyche) was part and parcel of the normal order of things. And either super-rational is brought to human consciousness. are. no less than of natural prophetia. not only by thus or the senses. depends on the point of view which we take as our starting Either way. investigation. in St Thomas's mind. though the language is. say go point. and its psychological way. or that the purposes of biological processes are ultimately spiritual. This idea is not. i). such a crude anthropomorphism as might Boethius's classical definition of eternity. . it proves on at as St Thomas sight appear. our present knowledge of biology and phylogenetic. 106.

of a sound. is essential. they just the exact I are. and indeed fundamental. This particular theory that the prophet's enlarged power ofjudgment comes through angelic mediation is not perhaps indispensable to St Thomas's general theory of revelation. in both supernatural and natural prophetia. 2. De Malo. De Malo III. I-II. next year's. but rather an increase in the connect or disconnect. My hearing my sight of a cat. by mere intuition seen. 77.128 influx of GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS new ideas or images. 3). nothing. so to speak. it has no meaning. unless related to something else. my concept of a triangle have no meaning. an increase in the light in which the relations between ideas or images are . Similarly. last year's. xi. What. 3 ad 9). it is just itself. is the primary importance of the judgment itself. or a wholly non-existent Derby. suggested by the pseudo-Denys. no significatio. it profiteth me may have all sorts of paranormal dreams and visions. to it already possesses or the images presented to it (cf. 2). nor of veracious vision as opposed to hallucination (cf. but unless can judge and interpret. St Thomas himself suggests something of the sort when he writes of this intellectual 'strengthening'. unless an idea or (I. even God-given dreams and but if I cannot . however. of levels of mystical contemplation to the functions of the several angelic 'choirs'. I visions. so that with utmost certitude it sees. Moreover. that by its means 'the human mind is raised to understand in a certain way conformably to the manner of immaterial substances. can a be done fortiori by God. true or false. be done by angels in this fashion. It is. 12 De Ver. it tells me nothing. xii. Perhaps we may find a clue to this rather difficult theory in the approximations. Ruysbroeck and other mystical writers. 9 What can (De Ver. indeed no question of truth or falsehood. There is no apprehension of truth. but also conclusions. 3). not only principles. xvi. image is related to something else. the ideas intellect's ability to judge. I may have the most vivid dream of number on the flanks of a Derby winner. relate it to this year's. without a judgment or its equivalent 16. It is not a sign nor symbol nor in any way (simplid intuitu) significant.

the walls of my heart! My in tumult. . . . who could judge their meaning. in his portrayal of the prophetess Cassandra. these two functions of receiving and judging were often combined in the same person. pagan Egypt's food supply. St Thomas reminds us. Then the judgment on the reason For for it all: my people is foolish. Aeschylus. even though their immediate meaning concerned nothing more transcendental than providing guidance for . of war. of the dream. shows us with consummate art the psychological development of a typical prophetic experience. had excellent dreams. 7) he judged of their meaning in the light of some higher knowledge of the eternal designs of God. my bowels! I am in anguish. through the passing into trance and the dream and the gradual shaping and unfolding of hideous images. Oh. but not Pharaoh who had the dreams. . We similar and no less dramatic processes in the Bible instance in Jeremiah iv: may itself. but Joseph. . there were other functionaries whose business it was to find some significance in them. was the prophet (De Ver. Shock upon shock has come. But in Greece. Pharaoh. So Aristotle likewise distinguishes clearly between the pavrucq. I cannot keep silence is heart I Now The alarm hear the sound of a trumpet. I am no prophet. from deep unaccountable physical pain and emotional horror. The whole land is shattered. xii. They have not known me.. as in Israel. They are sottish children. see for My bowels..REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 12Q judge of them.. We know that at the Delphic Oracle the function of the Pythonic priestess was confined to her ecstatic utterances. the divination or interpretation. to the final terrified realization of the relation of those interior forms to events imminent in exterior reality.

Woe is me now. God himself. its end. While the natural propheta. and yet that be made known to man if his objecmust somehow purpose tives and activities are to be adjusted to that purpose. 3 ad ") Divine revelation is needful. it is that bewaileth herself. of supernatural from merely natural prophetia. its purpose or finis. xii. finite. St Thomas had said in the very first article of the Summa. In the attainment of that purpose and the fulfilment of that meaning alone lies his salus his ultimate health and weal. Primarily it lies in its very purpose . characteristic what is for St Thomas the distinguishing of divine revelation. present and future. Inasmuch as he.GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 130 And finally the application to the world of fact: The daughter of Sion That spreadeth her hands. too. but issue from the Eternal to whom which to us are past. saying. at his best. are not (as with the 'natural' visionary) contemporaneous pre- determinants of things to come. he is concerned with the things of time only from the standpoint of eternity. psychological media. is concerned with future good or bad 'fortune' as predetermined by the 'Fates' the mechanical laws of cause and effect is immanent in nature (karma) the supernatural prophet is concerned with the ultimate designs of the Author and Finisher of men and stars. created nature altogether (De Ver. That brings us to though this supernatural prophetia may be brought about through purely natural causes. so to speak. are equally present. and indeed must be realized transcends in natural. Here we may see the striking difference events. his sources of information. because the purpose and meaning of human existence is ultimately to be found only and incomprehensible Divinity. . And such knowledge can come ultimately only from the one source in the invisible that possesses that knowledge. Hence the 'remote' or the 'distant' with which the supernatural propheta is ultimately concerned (whether he himself knows it or not) not the remote or distant in time but in eternity. may foresee the future.

173. De Ver. harder A path awaited the people of Israel than was promised to the citizens of Athens in the closing chants of The Eumenides. so the 'supernatural prophet' sees something present which is significant of eternity. or. their libido St Thomas insists. As the 'natural prophet' which is significant of the future. So St Thomas accepts the traditional phrase that the prophet sees in speculo xii. 'Jerusalem which is 1 above. what concerns the of the occurrence. that the Biblical prophet sees eternity. 'Jerusalem als Urbild Eranos Jahrbuch. For. It is not at all. what it leading to from the standpoint of the eternal designs for man and his salus. only. strictly speaking. tion. if only because eternity is in it is not the reflector but the reflected. which is our mother' (Gal. in so far as his prophetic judgSee K. but. it might seem. 207 ff. aeternitatis (II-II. pp. the supernatural prophet. and yet picturable. the future. whose significance or meaning lies ultimately in eternity. but he is most insistent that we understand this quite literally as the 'mirror of eternity' is eternity'. is particularly concerned with the future.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS between the characteristic prophet of Israel and of. sees sees something present any more than the natural prophet. as well as the 'natural' prophet. i. True. iv. let us say. still is it. we may see strivings towards this sort of prophecy. XVIII. L. more exactly. i. St Thomas insists. 6). 3). . its eventus. Schmidt. and not the 'mirror which no sense a mirror. the transformation of the Fates from Furies into Graces on the emergence of the 'younger gods' . even in Greece. to deliver man from slavery to inexorable Fate to slavery to incalculable Caprice. the prophet could not see precisely events in time. And even if it were a mirror. und AbbilcT. Greece. Through repeated withdraw desolation and exile they had to learn to from their national capital in order that they might recognize that their earthly home was less a 'thing in itself than a symbol and a stepping stone to an incomprehensible. The mirror is of eternity is But the mere perception of an occurrence less not a revela- the occurrence prophet is the outcome itself.

it may be perfectly everyday and normal (II-II. in fact/knowledge of which can serve man's salus: past things. 174. with the present in so far as it is pregnant with the future. and is doing. (De Ver. xii 6) from the lowest to the highest. being itself a reflection of the divine knowledge.132 ment falls GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS also on the present or the past (or. the sublime utterances of the Divine Sophia all have their place within this comprehensive . 171. 2). spiritual things and material' (II-II. eternal things'. De Pot. on present memories or records of the past). The humdrum God's designs for his people's records of the Books of Kings. De Ver. 3). may extend to anything whatever that is subject to the divine knowledge itself. Thus Jeremiah saw eternal significance in an almond tree. from the standpoint of eternity. lie in eternity. length and breadth of creation. which is space not a reflection of eternity. they got up to their necks in politics. and the position of a pot. future things. the very acceptio or reception of images may be preternatural or supernatural. and whose ultimate significance 'sees' most paranormal and meaning does not hetica. to anything. The cognitio prop- St Thomas writes. 14 ad 5). He is concerned with the past in so far as it throws light on what man is. what will come of it (11*11. Amos in a basket of fruit. it is from the standpoint of whither they are leading man in accord with the eternal designs. xii. 2. i Quodlibet. vii. The prophets of Israel did not meddle in politics. The paranormal vision which : the future as predetermined in finite causes is at a rarity. But there is nothing whatever in in or the time. present things. 'divine things and human. his field of vision is immeasurably widened. iv. more exactly. But because the standpoint of the supernatural prophet is different from that of the natural prophet. But it need not be so. the copybook platitudes of Proverbs. no less tlian the visions of Ezechiel and Daniel. and they became so because of their eternal relevance in welfare. 3. The prophet's assertion or denial may indeed fall judgment on what we would his call paranormal occurrences. 171. a judgment passed from the standpoint of eternity.

Thus. Incarnation with the general conceptions of revelation which he had given in his De Prophetia. 174- 3). 174. It is. omission. 102) and two commentaries are attributed to his pen which attempted the same task for the love songs of Canticles. however. xii. did space permit. neither has he very much to say which would enable us to compare the apostolic witness of the New Testament with the prophetic witness of the Old. This chapter has omitted very much that cognitional prophecy. to complete the picture.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS conception. As for the strange tions of the Pentateuch. . xii. II-II. nor does he methodically study the respective roles . St articles in the 133 and meticulous ritual prescrip- Thomas devoted the longest whole Summa to set forth their revelational symbolism (I-II. however. which takes all its examples from the Old Testament. the Lord Christ who showed us the true way in his own person 5 Jesus (III Prologus}. be remembered that the whole Third Part of the Summa treats of 'our Healer. cannot. about revelation in the Person of Christ. . What sort of theory of revelation is this. do not prophetic foretellings. including interesting distinction between kinds of prewith its explanation why certain divine and infallible. however. leave the subject without a few words would be necessary We about what must seem a far more serious and extraordinary an omission which is not mine but from St Thomas's own treatises De Prophetia. and its brevity has unavoidably given a somewhat lopsided picture which has stressed certain features at the expense of others. ii-n. though come to pass as Jonah found to his chagrin (De Ver. it may be asked. it D Prophetia is certainly remark- must. true that St Thomas nowhere systematically and ex professo links up his treatment of the . 10. the Word made flesh? This omission from the treatises able . there are grades or degrees -of prophecy or revelation. i). Much St else Thomas's must be omitted from our account. and it would be interesting. to study St Thomas's classification of those grades (De Ver. and has practically nothing to say about the New.

indeed of the primordial which St Thomas may call this revelation that man is made to the image of God. The fulfilment of that process flesh. Biblical revelation progressively is redemption. If we like the quaint language of the 'Higher Anthropomorphism' (against the dangers of I. 174. cf. 14. a . but it is really a progressive revelation of the ethical character and freedom of man. Already in the De Prophetia he offers two thought-provoking suggestions. 6). xii. a twofold movement in Old Testament history. One is the idea borrowed from St Gregory that there is. II-II. liberation from servitude to finite causality.134 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS of revelation and prophecy under the two dispensations. a movement awayfrom the sublime visions of the Divine Transcendence and Majesty given to the Patriarchs and on Sinai. and a movement towards a progressively clearer vision of the Incarnation to come. imaginations. It is not too much to say that whereas 'natural prophecy' is mainly concerned with human irresponsibility. If we would know his mind on these matters we shall have to on scattered remarks incidental to his treatdepend largely ment of other questions. 9 ad 3) we will nevertheless warn us a 'progressive revelation of the ethical character of God'. as it were. and I must be content with a few tentative indications. and with it a progressive realization of human responsibility. Progressively in the Old Testament is there prophetic realization of the eternal relevance of the commonplace as distinct from the extraordinary. is the recognition of is it is God in and through human The New Testament not merely a fulfilment of the content of the Old. thoughts and actions. but simultaneously a revelation of the eternal relevance of everything in space and time. and supremely of human perceptions. supernatural prophecy in the Old Testament is increasingly a realization of man's independence and answerableness for his own actions. the revelation of God in human nature (De Ver. The task demands a whole paper to itself. i. man's dependence on mechanical law and spiritual caprice outside his own control.

12 ad 3). The apostolic witness not something which is to be set over against prophetic revelation.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS fulfilment of its 135 mode. I suggest we shall not be far from St. xii. for to that epoch. to whom all prophecy was orientated.' Already (De Ver. 5 ad 3). He writes: 'When Moses is said to be superior to other prophets. the invasion of Sennacherib or Pharaoh's dream. and they knew still more as inasmuch they found it in the mystery of Christ. 57. 4). but now it is an event of recognition of the interior image or idea in the exterior. Whatever the prophets knew the apostles knew. xii. and which was not itself prophetia but a denuntiatio ofprophetia he pointed to Christ with his finger. . but also and principally of their meaning in the eternal designs of God. St Thomas had given his account of how the Baptist was a prophet and more than a prophet'. as it is revealed to the not was holy Apostles' (Eph. (I. But John the Baptist belongs to the New Testament. For there to be revelation there must be perception. iii. and in the New Testament a clearer revelation was made. Thomas's mind if we see in this the distinguishing characteristic not only of the Baptist's. are the mere occurrences of the New Testament revelation. but of himself and c : New is Testament revelation generally. but something which presupposes and includes it. the more than prophecy' consisted in the fact that digito demonstravit Christum* he did what no previous prophet could do. while Christ. No more than were Jeremiah's almond tree. this is to be understood of prophets of the Old Testament. No and Psyche. 14 ad 5). on which A second line of thought is suggested account the Apostle in II Corinthians 3. But it is only in the interior says St Thomas c perception of the mystery of Christ that there is revelation. expressly sets all other Apostles above Moses. 18. Revelation is still no less a psychological event. was still awaited. he becomes at the very end of St Thomas's De Prophetia (De Ver. merely use human longer does the Word of God flesh and the natural operations of Bios it. prophecy especially belongs. not merely of the historic occurrence of the Crucifixion or the Empty Tomb. which known to other generations.

Synagogue. In Boeth. not only as were those of the Temple and to make present the future. 7. The Evangelist. s. is the universal de Trin. is the Holy Scripture of the prohetic vision. and for Jesus. Scriptura). but the hidden Heart within that external Figure. II. 8). it is true. there is no 'Sacra Scriptura dicitur i. but also to make the past the redemptive act done 'once for all by present But that also only with a view to eternity. There is no more to be revealed than is contained in that Figure to which the Apostles point with their fingers.136 Christ is GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS the symbol in his One who realizes makes real the prophetic own person.. 2 ad 3) . Ps. II-IL 95.v. quia manifestat illud Peter of Bergamo's Tabula 5 . 1 But though. Aurea (In. and who for that reason is no seer of the is symbol he is it. 3) says St Thomas. XII. but we have something the pointing with the finger to the outward embodiin Sent. Quodlib. The Catholic prophecy. as we have seen. if not also and foremost in the prophetic and human mind of Jesus Christ himself (III. which admits of no increase or addition (II-IL i. I suggest. It that the Spirit expedient for us that Jesus also goes away his departure is followed by a renewed and unprecedented outpouring of the spirit of may come. In the In the New Testament. a vision in the inspired mind of the Apostle and Evangelist. XX. 5 is St Thomas. have prophecy. and one supremely important sense. xi.. cf. but erit in patria\ it awaits is us in heaven. It is true that. the consummation of revelation c not in the Incarnation in time. But the a vision. III. 4). 2. Cor Christi. phecy both the proclamation and the ritual of the Christian Church will be concerned. we still New Dispensation. once God's Word is made flesh. 27. says St Thomas. 6). closed. precognitional prohas lost its supreme importance (cf. there can be no further increase of revelation of things to be believed by all. tells of the way mere contemplator and revelation of that still in which was realized the selfsame reality (substantia facti) that had been seen and proclaimed by the Old Testament prophets (Comm. more ment of the mystery. in is revelation faith and all-embracing faith (cf.

it is difficult on ayid his principles to see how they can b<e other than truly revelational. Every baptized Christian. on St Thomas's showing. a receiver of revelation. though the connection is not made by St Thomas himself. and on Faith depend Hope and Charity (II-II.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS more ever still for for God man to say. in a way in which no Old Testament prophet could be. xiv. the judgment functions of Wisdom. there is still plenty nay more to see. that on it depends Faith. of many millions more men in different sorts of woods than St Thomas ever imagined. xiv. necessary to his ultimate salus (De Ver. It must famous homo in silvis never heard from human continue. Knowledge and Counsel are. it might be inferred. xiii. St Thomas says. prophecy and revelation continue. It was not for nothing that St Thomas had joined the Order of Preachers into being to combat the esoteric. and matter especially sex and goodness sin. but proceed from a per- manent is disposition or habitus whereby the baptized Christian bene mobilis a Spiritu sancto ('readily subject to the movement of the Holy Spirit'). that they are no transient charismata. by calling and status and inherent quality. for the the man in the woods' who has lips the apostolic message of the Gospel. revelation greatest of these is charity' (I Cor. 7)* But the St Thomas had is . 171. in the operations of the Gifts of the Holy Ghost. I would suggest. But within the is n community also Certainly as sporadic charismata:. i) mata (II-II. The perceptive function of the Gift of Understanding. ProL). They seem to differ from prophetia only in this. in the first place. Prophetic vision and revelation still c 137 than must continue. and of whom. 'Not every good badness and with worldly occupation which had come . closely akin to those which he has described as pertaining to prophecy. dualistic which equated spiritual vision with Gnosticism Albigensian and holiness. is a propheta. 4. it is most firmly to be held that he will have an interior revelation at least of what We know Christian ad i). but also. learned from St Paul that prophetic the greatest and most desirable of charismata that to it are subordinated all other charis(I Cor. 8-13).

perhaps gaps and lacunae in St Thomas's there have certainly been many in mine. But the symphony was to be an unfinished symphony.' (De Ver. xii. Unsublimated sexuality and extravert activity. and this because interests and they are immune from carnal and terrestrial are endowed with natural insight. ceptions which they Christian materialism we may fittingly close this investiga- tion of high spiritual things. concerning revelation which have been forced upon us by modern science. And so sometimes prophetic vision is given to some who are bad and denied to some who are good. There are correlations to be made even of his own ideas which he himself did not explicitly make. if at the service of worth than the spiritual percharity. There are problems. but who do have charity. of which St Thomas knew nothing. had he completed the vast symphony of his Summa. may. . science every register from the played It had lowest. and who have not penetrating minds. There are own presentation. 5 ad 6). certainly. highest to the humblest processes of human the to loftiest the from angels of men to their tritest dreams wildest the from metabolism. Perhaps. 'is more suited to having prophetic than any bad man.138 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS visions man. presented everything in creation. for some who are lacking in charity have minds very apt to perceive spiritual things. observations and platitudes.' he writes. as all contributing to the unveiling to the human mind of man's ultimate significance and destiny and his guidance through time to eternity. While on the other hand there are some who are much occupied with earthly affairs and who are busied about fleshly reproduction (carnali dantibus operam generationi). What a in nothing so much as in its gigantic effort it had beenl And had set out to conception of that very revelation which it known to the instrument elucidate. he would have gathered together these scattered themes in an all-unifying coda. It had "employed every in had it of his time. the two main obstacles to spiritual insight. be of more eternal With that fine confession of hinder. Biblical and secular.

if only to show which way the prdphetic spirit blows. But even straw had been useful. as compared with revelation itself. his Summa was like straw.REVELATION AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 139 In the early morning of 6th December. 1273. Revelation had come to him. I can write no more. the Summa itself had implied much in its opening pages. by comparison with the things which I have now seen. Tor everything that I have written seems like straw. no longer as a subject for intellectual analysis and explanation.' C 3 . and which have been revealed to me. something mysterious happened to Thomas Aquinas. something which inhibited and paralysed further composition. at Naples. Now as even that was a thing of the past. he told his companion. but as overwhelming reality. It was no news to him that.


It is possible. and a certain amount of work of varying merit has been done in this direction. indeed. The problem is brought home to most of us in its most challenging and concrete form when the question arises of committing ourselves or others to psychological treatment. risk the undermining of our moral principles. let alone any critical examination of it as a whole in the light of any body of ethical principles. But the practical urgency of the problem is too acute to allow us Catholics to wait indefinitely for some decisive who and all-inclusive ethico-psychotherapeutical synthesis. perhaps. to take the written works of a given writer on psychological theory and methods. amorphous and contradictory a state that few generalizations about it are possible. This is due in part to the fact that contemporary psychotherapeutic theory and practice is in so variegated. is not always very practically helpful. work which is itself. of alleged psychotherapists who. perhaps of our religion and our faith? Rumours have reached us. in doing so. prescribe some such homely old 141 . by no means impervious to serious criticism. Do we not. adequate material for judgment and fair discussion on the part of those themselves lack either active or passive psychotherapeutic experience. The theoretic expositions of psychologists and the accounts which they give of their methods are not infrequently both better and worse than their actual practice. after long and costly weeks of treatment. perhaps.VIII PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS moral aspect of psychotherapy has received little -L serious and thorough-going consideration from Christian theologians or moral philosophers. and to subject them to ethical scrutiny. and in any case do not afford very. within its own inevitable limitations. But even such work as this.

to the direction. as the chief desideratum of dark doings in the reached have rumours too. cutting loose palliatives as a from hearth and home. there remains a fundamental misgiving not lightly to be set aside. treatment itself: of conditioning to certain patterns of behaviour under compulsions induced by hypnosis or drugs of confessions of dark secrets and immoral abreactions comof analysts who conceive it to be pelled by drugs or shock. Perhaps the most common and in my the most specious and dangerous is that which To these and opinion will spirit 'science'. away our misgivings with Psychotherapy. is a respectable branch of medicine. must not the whole end and aim of fashion the any psychologist who knows his business be to mind of his patient to his own standard of 'normality'. and must not the 'normal' inevitably be in accordance with the standard of the majority of men. i. subjecting another of to the mind. or impiety. their first task to induce their patients to fall in love with them and whose whole treatment consists in conducting morbid and pornographic conversations. it is the employment of purely scientific methods for the curing of purely mental disorder.. Even if we do not credit such rumours. divorce.e. have heard vaguely that one injustice. in accordance with the standard of conformity to this wicked world? Will he not ethical inevitably filch from us our religion and whatever world of the standards we may have which are not those around us? suchlike misgivings a number of answers are commonly offered. or some other form of uncleanness. thinly disguised as^a in any successful analysis. and are in any case fallible? could be assured on that. We may whole and important school of psychological analysis regards the elimination of God and conscience. It has and nothing whatever to do with religion or with morality. domination. super-ego. mental disorder (it is further implied) has nothing to do . Are we not in any case. we shall be the magic name of told. us. perhaps fundabe standards and moral may whose one and religious Even if we mentally unsound. Ugly .142 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS dose of fornication. in subour minds mitting to psychological treatment.

discovering the neurological or psychological cause of the complaint. can and must always be distinguished from their science and from their scientific therapeutic technique. know better. The genuine psychotherapist will be solely concerned. neither with a man's religious convictions. with correct diagnosis. the methods of curing it are parallel. by quite a few Catholic psychoThese will indeed be found to allow that religion may be a useful adjunct in the effecting of the cure. the Weltanschauung. and applying the appropriate remedy. Some will further admit a negative role to the moralist. the philosophy of a Freud may be materialistic and atheistic. The concern of the truly is scientific psychotherapist logical sphere and with scientific with an autonomous psychoremedies as ethically neutral as a bottle of physic or the surgeon's knife. as is the medical man. Psychoneurosis (it is suggested) is a disease as cancer is a disease. It is. and that the tendency among some who call themselves his disciples falls interests short of traditional ethical standards. in his own and that of the cure. the line taken logists and their friends. Some such line as this to allay our misgivings is taken by many who should. should religious or moral issues arise. and the priest and the moralist will kindly mind their own business and not meddle in a scientific world which they cannot expect to understand. as something purely adventitious and extraneous to the therapeutic process. Cure can and should be achieved without tampering with the patient's religion or his morality in the slightest. he will. The idea that the Freudian . in opinion. for instance. respect his patient's convictions and keep carefully off the grass. roughly my speaking. inasmuch as it belongs to him to decide (in the same way as for any medical practitioner) what is permissible and not permissible in the treatment and the remedy. the moral principles of these men.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS 143 with spiritual or moral disorder. the philosophy. and are neither affected by. nor do they affect. it would seem. While it may be true that. Indeed. but only. the religion or the morals of either practitioner or patient. nor with virtue or vice. We are assured that there is really nothing whatever to fear.

Among non-Catholics. This is not the place to enter into a discussion of this very special question: we must ask in more general terms whether an 5 . or should that. have their origin. and that it should not. or to state what range they would give to the term 'psychological data'. Dr William Brown is noteworthy as acceptbut ing in the main Freudian 'science' and 'technique repudiating Freudian 'philosophy' and 'irreligion'. in the medical clinic. at this stage. lines suggested is really adequate to allay Now it is perfectly true that psychotherapy this I it is. or inquire whether they are prepared to take a comprehensive view of all the data or limit them solely to such facts or aspects of facts as will fit into the categories of mechanical and historical causation. rigorously scientific. at this stage. answer on the our misgivings. directly or indirectly. press our would-be comforters to too precise a definition of what they understand by 'scientific'. at a By observation should be based solely upon very minimum. inquire whether this fact has been altogether to their advanstrive to be. as such. invoke postulates. We being abandoned largely owing to the impetus of psychology with dubious propriety that psychotherapy can hide behind medicine from the challenge of moral and itself: it is spiritual factors when these are being increasingly recognized . and his position has been supported by Maritain. We need not. however. hypotheses and theories beyond such as are demanded and verifiable by the factual evidence. and experience of psychological fact and phenomena and on no a priori theory. and which seems to be tage. even depth-analysis.144 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS technique may be safely applied without subscribing to the Freudian philosophy has been argued by Roland Dalbiez. It may also be allowed that psychotherapy is a branch of medicine in the historical sense that all forms of contemporary psychotherapeutic practice. inquire whether this idea of psychotherapy as a specialized branch of medicine does not sometimes presuppose a purely materialistic conception of the function of medicine itself which is now very much less self-evident than it was for our fathers. mean We may. need not.

and treat these as an untouchable sphere which is no concern of his. principles of behaviour. surely may choose with precisely agree that they are both concerned we can agree howto see hard therefore is It these very things. or is at the mercy of fears and unification and orientation. The concerned with the plain fact is that the latter is directly patient's mental outlook on life. Even in the case of patients who profess no religion. in a sense in which the former is not. And brought up code is not only an element in their probreligion or ethical often appears quite openly as one of its principal lem. but also factors. matter for that or define to ethics. it however we surely fails entirely in its own set purpose. his outlook. nor how a respon- we must sible and conscientious psychotherapist can disclaim any concern with his patient's religion and morals. or have or practice. his attitude to the world and his own place in the world. If not issue in the change of a psychological treatment does man's mentality. then if a man is suffering from any form of conflict.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS 145 of by hard-bitten surgeons and neurologists in the etiology functional and even organic health and disease. and mental between distinction a such with spiritual or moral disorder as is sometimes suggested. in the case of patients who consciously subscribe to. constellate if its business is to and give unity and direction to his interior attitudes and external behaviour. Must we not at least suspect that if religion is concerned with a man's ultimate values and motives. . But we need not enter into these somewhat intricate and recondite matters in order to question the equation between the cure of cancer and the cure of a psychoneurosis. some religious belief contradiction. his manner of conduct. their been in. and with patterns and the whole order of values. And. religion. with motives and duties. compulsions which inhibit that there is something wrong with that man's religion and To suppose achieve anything like a that such a man can be brought to his while religion remains change of outlook and behaviour achieve a selfhim make to unaffected seems like trying his religion is itself involved in his disorder? experience would seem to confirm that.

We may ask. psychotherapy can and should disregard and moral issues. Before turning to see if we can make some more constructive contribution to the solution of our problem. though very they . but would deny that our problem of extreme. Moreover. of the principal factors and of the inevitable outcome of any effective treatment he may who is so minded will be ungive. and we may recall that to bind back or means like the Sanscrit joga. mind and religio. far as to solution. G. the very word heart. exists. indeed. cannot principles a constant which can remain unchanged throughout the venture to contend that the process. goes so^ maintain that there can be no successful 'cure' of adult involve the attainment of a psychoneurosis which does not new religious attitude and the abandonment of previous therefore. And we would further is of all the most to otherwise who supposes psychotherapist be regarded with suspicion. otherwise of very who would agree in the main we have said. as is well known. : like whether any word can better sum up what must be sought from psychotherapy than metanoia which is the Biblical word for a change of a conversion. and so incapable of. It does therefore seem unscientific to contend that. for he is of all the most unconscious of his responsibilities. probably it is together by his ultimate binding him to God value and the aim of his life. very religious or irreligious attitudes something. transforming the religious and moral transferences which the patient will be all the more likely to project upon him. Even from the purely therapeutic together: that which should bind a or whatever he man may call religious standpoint it seems that a patient's religion and moral be regarded by the practitioner as a tabu. Jung. with all There are many. C.146 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS religious issues are fundamental found to emerge in depth- and also as the vehicles of its analysis as roots of the trouble. in the name of science. we must take a respectful glance at those who would go to the opposite different schools of thought. This correlating ethics with psychotherapy really and different in will contradictory do. an analyst aware of.

avowed. But we are. This denies our problem in effect that there is no room for psychotherapy because religion supplies all our needs. more indeed or less openly everything. whose power is increased rather than lessened by reinforcement of the habitual conscious attitude and pattern of behaviour. go to the sacraments. will to and it is precisely failing to fulfil its function of integration and co-ordination. incidentally. is 'nothing but' psychology. that frequently and formally repudiated by C. But he has tried all these things. morality. We are probably familiar with the cheery advice. read good books and then you will be quite all right and won't want to get involved with psychologists. by asserting more or less openly that they are really one and the same thing. and which tends in practice to substitute psychological techniques for religion. cannot easily be denied. more familiar with what may be called a crude 'pan-religionism'. and many a neurotic is perhaps dimly aware that. it can easily be shown that it goes far beyond and that what is warranted by his own data and scientific postulates if they be rightly understood. His religion. Not only does he experience fears or compulsions which are not wholly at the disposition of . it must be repeated. which can claim some measure of support from some of his own less careful writing. and his condition seems worse rather than better. for the very essence of any psychoneurotic condition lies in the inability of consciousness and conscious cope with or relate itself to some autonomous and automatic system. had he consistently followed it. G. be resigned to the will of God. And naturally so. keep the commandments. 'Keep the faith. by saying 5 he would have found therein an effective prophylactic against his present condition. consult a priest. Jung. is precisely one of the elements or factors in the disorder.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS 147 ways. that pan-psychologism has been religion. but a certain tendency in this direction among some of his disciples. It would take us too far away from our principal subject to discuss what may be called 'panpsychologism' I mean the theory. most of us. say your prayers. It may be mentioned.

it a satisfactory not make us 'bad'. we can at least be assured that his treatment will make us 'good' and stitute for the analyst than the analyst substitute for the priest. then. and whether on the mass-scale of the State propaganda-machine . it seems to me. any substitute for the religious or moral teacher. and ought not to be. It is not to be denied that competent and understanding religious or moral instruction on the conscious level may in some measure remove intellectual misunderstandings which foster the neurotic condition. It itself incapable is is not that his religion is objectively and in of forming a bridge. it may be urged. as such. even for our alleged good. But such a one. just here. Furthermore. Have we any right to be made anything. but that he will make us anything. with them precisely impotent to enter into any satisfactory is relationship. The priest. can at least be relied upon not to make us lose our faith or our morals. theological or religious instruction: the psychologist is not.148 ally) . but his personal religion itself infected with the disorder. even to be made good? Are we not merely delivering ourselves from one compulsive For. but in the measure in which it is truly neurotic. It is not to the psychologist we should go if what we seek and need were moral. I Now will it is would submit. if. it seems impossible to bring about a revision of purely intellectual judgment which will resolve the automatism of the complex and place it at the disposal of consciousness. that the us. real crux of our problem confronts question at issue is make us bad. as Catholics (for instance) we seek treatment solely from a Catholic psychologist. the real not merely the risk that the psychologist automatism to another? Is an imposed and compulsive goodness really goodness at all? Is the scientific employment of psychological knowledge. their unwilling victim. is no more a satisfactory subis may be doubted whether our problem would necessarily be satisfactorily solved if only we could find an analyst whose own religious beliefs and ethical principles were unexceptionable. GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS is conscious will (for that the lot of fallen humanity gener- he he is at their mercy.

What is more serious and to the point. the more he is in fact a magician who employs an esoteric and superior knowledge whereby he gains power over other people's minds and hearts. concerned to deny every this sort of psychological determinism. and the whole task of the physician will consist in finding and positing the appropriate stimulus to induce a preconceived and desired response. may be thought to be of considerably less importance from the religious and ethical standpoint than the fact that he is a magician at all.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS 149 or for the individual in the consulting room. and whether he be a black magician or a white magician. and fashions them in accord with his own preconceived idea of 'normality' . Though haviourist of all the various schools of psychology the Beto would alone seem be explicitly committed to absolute determinism. the more he claims to be in this sense a detached and rigid scientist. it seems that any psychology which claims to be scientific in the sense of being bound by the principles of mechanistic causality or sequence must to that and deterministic. it must in its curative methods work on the sole extent be assumption that the positing of a certain cause will produce a certain effect. in diagnosis. We Catholics are not. Whatever means it employs. it must exclude moral choice as a factor in the origin of the complaint and regard any sense of guilt as a morbid delusion. And if it is indeed true that by 'scientific' we are to understand solely that which can be dealt with in terms and categories of historical and mechanical causation. of course. it is bound by the laws of mechanical causation. a thing which is or even. or to suppose that . The psychotherapist. whether physical or not. This means that. then it is difficult to see a way out of dilemma. for matter of that. therapeutiethically tolerable or even cally successful? Are we really paragons of virtue psychologically healthy if we are so conditioned by external means that we cannot very well help ourselves? The problem narrows itself down to what seems at first sight to be an insoluble dilemma between freedom and determinism. any psychotherapy which claims to be rigidly scientific must be likewise committed to determinism.

and most other psychologies. makes light of. we may remark (In parentheses. He is capable of of acting for a purpose. We We not confuse freedom with omnipotence. not to make us good. and to avoid possible misunderstanding. we . but humbly recognize that our psychological. however estimable. and enable us to increase aim is to treat us as We Catholics ask of psychotherapy. and throughout this chapter. But we must maintain that man is not only a product of conditioned and conditioning agencies. that much of our mental life is causally predetermined in much must the same way as are events in the physical universe. On to determined effects passive the other hand we shall tend to welcome a psychotherapy whose aim is precisely to enlarge our knowledge of the factors that determine us. which will extend and strengthen our our sphere of freedom. We must therefore regard with considerable suspicion any psychology which ignores. self-mastery. or repudiates this characwhose open or covert still more teristic. no less than our physical. any psychotherapy ifwt were only reflexes to given stimuli. nor to tell us what to do or not to do in order to be good. of judging and choosing values. that here. Freudian psycho-analysis. We must decline to be 'made* anything by able to make or psychotherapy. life is in very great measure the outcome of necessity and of necessiare beyond our knowledge and tating factors. we want to be helped to be mar ourselves. many of which control.150 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS and events are the outcome of psychological characteristics do not have to repudiate the basic postulate of chance. exclude free choices which we have made in the past from among the very factors which later condition us. specific he is less than human. 5 nor even to make us 'normal in accord with any given norm. and determining causes. Nor can we which without being. to his very predeterminaresponding consciously and freely of a human characteristic the see we In this tions. but also is himself an agent capable of self-determination of perceiving alternatives and choosing from among them. but only to help us to achieve a greater freedom through a better knowledge of our necessity and compulsions.

Jung was not concerned with formal morals as such. more or less openly. or introversion-neurosis as he prefers to call it. and repression. in the stricter sense of the word. specializing in the treatment of dementia praecox. be regarded as 'scientific'. The more it claims to be respectably 'scientific' and to eschew all quackery. Fortunately.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS 15! are talking of'psychotherapy and ethics and by psychotherapy we understand the treatment of psychoneurosis by psychological methods. But. Psychiatry. in practice. he was led to discover that Freud's preoccupation with historical causation was apt only to confirm the patient in his regression and in his morbid shirking of personal responsibility. instinct and common sense admit the surreptitious introduction of factors which cannot. as is well known. were inappropriate and inadequate to handle . these exclusively mechanistic assumptions and to be conditioned by their limitations. but as an empirical and practical therapist he was very much concerned to help his patients to get better. consistently and methodically repudiates the sufficiency and primacy of the principles of mechanistic and historical causality in psychotherapeutic practice. also raises many moral issues.) My own very limited reading and experience of contemporary psychology compels me to record the opinion that by far the greater bulk of it seems to presuppose. broke with Freud on the issue of the all-sufficiency of infantile sexuality. He was driven to the conclusion that the concepts of historical and mechanical causation. G. the medical and usually physical treatment of psychosis. the Oedipus complex. to my knowledge. but they are of another order. C. only one school of psychotherapy which openly. with their exclusive reference to the historical past. the more will a psychotherapy based exclusively upon it be closed to the primary claims of human freedom and responsibility. and the more it aspires to the condition of an exact science in the traditional sense. to provide the etiology of every mental disorder. Jung. mostly conducted by dialogue or conversation between the therapist and the patient. But there is. in this narrow sense.

in that it follows the fall of potential in a way that cannot be reversed. The mechanistic view is purely causal. as is recognized by the physicists. from this standpoint an event is con- ceived as the result of a cause. . the assumptions that to this day underlie by far the greater part of psycho therapeutic theory and practice: It is a generally recognized truth that physical events can be looked at in two ways. 1 This is tion of the concepts i not the place to expound in detail Jung's applicaand laws of quantum-physics and to . can be regarded both causally and energically. Contributions Analytical Psychology. He thus stated his basic postulates. postulates which involve a break. to contend that. but Jung was soon led. The energic viewpoint on the other hand is in essence final. which he found to have a present and prognostic reference as well as a retrospective The practice. not only with Freud. . . Just as a physical event. . as the theory was later to provide a valuable working hypothesis for the improvement of the practice. but with one. and finally leads to an entropy. preceded the theory. p. however valuable the employment of causal concepts might be. of course. by way of his substitution of undifferentiated 'energy' or libido' for Freud's 'sexuality'. he found that they failed as adequate vehicles to exhaust the latent content of his patient's dream-material. the decisive ones to be employed in psychotherapy were energic rather than causal. i . that is from the mechanistic and from the energic standpoint. that it maintains itself as a constant throughout these changes. The flow of energy has a definite direction or goal. the event is traced from effect to cause on the assumption that energy forms the essential basis of changes in phenomena. a condition of general equilibrium. so could a psychic event.152 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS a practical therapy which was of its nature concerned with the patient's present and future. Furthermore. and so by the psychotherapist it should be.

and such authoritative systematisers of his work as Jolan Jacobi. The Guild of Pastoral Psychology own Tutorial Reading Course. G. The psyche and its phenomenal manifestations are no longer to be conceived purely or primarily in terms of determined cause and effect. offers a way out of our dilemma. For a detailed exposition of the theory and see Jung's its elaborations. the four irreducible 'directions' of psychic energy (introversion and extroversion. these functions are conceived as correlative. features of Jung's psychology the irreducible four functions (Sensation and Intuition. Thought and Feeling) and their interrelation. What is important to our that the theory issues from and issues present purpose in a practice which. the concept of the symbol . It is undoubtedly it cannot daring. books. We need not here discuss the later. of psychic transformation. The concept of a preconceived 'normality' as the goal of or psychotherapy gives place to that of 'individuation' of balance a conscious equilibrium of i. Reductive analysis still has its part to play. The Psychology of C. the matter admirably when she writes Dr Jacobi expresses : i . All these elaborations have been rendered possible only by the emancipation of psychotherapy from the exclusive standpoint of predetermining causality. Part VII. and perhaps not beyond criticism. but as a relatively its own potentialities closed self-regulating system possessing of recovery and renewal through the interplay of simulstaneous co-efficient functions. 'integration differentiated and mutually-compensating functions whose itself and can in qualitative content emerges in the analysis no way be determined in advance. mutually exclusive but compensating quanta. and perhaps more 3 .PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS 153 1 thermodynamics to psychological data. but only as a subordinate means to the differentiation of functions. at the lowest estimate. progression and regression) the collective unconscious with its immense in the task implications for the role of religious symbolism instrument the as itself of analysis. familiar. Jung (Kegan Paul) and Toni Wolff. . but it has proved as a that be denied working hypothesis easily in practice immensely is fruitful..e.

. 'Whoever would avoid suggestion must therefore look upon a dream interpretation as invalid until the formula is found that wins the patient's agreement. naturally takes account of the causae materiales and likewise takes the causae finales as starting and end-points. 1 . on the contrary. it is also in itself dialectic. method. Only his individuality is decisive here. op. Jung. calls forth a reaction between these two psychic realities that aims towards and results in bridging over both with a tertium quid. although he. It is accordingly. Jacobi. but is quite as 'dialectical 3 much in the analysis as the patient. adds to them something further in the causae formates. - The Jung practical consequences for our present discussion are important. not a rational consent but a true experience.. 66. for he must have a vital feeling of assent. p. Jung a prospective one. . The often heard objection that the therapist could suggestively influence . . . by confronting the contents of consciousness with those of the unconscious. cit. the causes of later psychic disturbances. i . a synthesis.' Otherwise the next dream or the next vision inevitably brings up the same problem and keeps bringing it up until the patient has taken a new attitude as a result of his experience.. and both see in the drives the causae materiales. too. as a process which. Dr Jacobi continues.. Alfred Adler considers and treats the initial situation with regard to a causa finalis. But the patient alone determines the interpretation to be given to the material he brings. J. . He does not 'analyse' an object at a theoretic distance. paraphrasing and quoting himself: Jung's method is therefore not only to this extent a procedure in that it is a dialogue between two persons . those formative forces that are represented above all through the symbol as mediators between the unconscious and consciousness or between all the Freud employs a reductive pairs of psychic opposites.154 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS Sigmund Freud looks for the causae efficientes. from the therapeutic standpoint a condition the that preliminary psychologist accept this dialectic principle equally as binding. too.

He is always to follow. the compensation of consciousness. never. If this were not so it could not at all exercise its characteristic function. will wreck the whole analysis. 'The patient is always right' psychologically right may be said to be the Golden Rule for a Jungian analyst. Jacobi. The objective-psychic. his task is solely to assist the vis medicatrix naturae within. in the highest degree independent. Quotations from Jung: Modern Man in Search of a Soul. is. amplify but interpret and amplify the patient's own material in a fashion that wins the patient's own assent. and Integration of the Personality. For Jung's is artificial positing is but the The in i. p.. . Consciousness can be trained like a parrot. J. for *the possibility and danger of prejudicing the patient is greatly over-estimated. as experience proves.' 1 This writer's more limited experience strikingly confirms it is indeed a fact that any attempt on the part of the interfere to the with analyst patient's endopsychic process and independence. or by a strong negative transference which. cit. whether consciously by trying to indoctrinate the patient with his own ideas. but not the unconscious. p. or by an acute recurrence of symptoms or a recurrence of dreams which represent the identical unresolved problem. the unconscious.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS 155 - the patient with his interpretation could therefore only be made by one who does not know the nature of the unconscious. if not speedily resolved. will invariably a vigorous protest from the patient's unconscious it may be by way of a dream which criticizes the analyst. the reduction of effects to causes will be necessary. He may interpret. 101. no the efficient cause of the patient's sense analyst 'cure' by the imposition of an agency ab extra. and perhaps no quality is more demanded of the analyst than the humility and the capacity for self-effacement and self-criticism which its observance requires. op. 68. 12. To do this. never to lead. or unconsciously by that involving the patient in his call forth own projections. of causes to produce effects. translator. p. the patient's companion in the journey into his own depths. His task is solely that of mediator.

But we must draw to such a conclusion as the situation allows. ready-made solution to our problem. Or. complex and practically untouched subject. Jung can be ethically acceptable. the solution does not exist. and the collaboration of priest and therapist in his treatment. therefore. contrary demands upon them as the decisive factors both in the process and the result. But we venture to submit that Jungian theory and practice at least offer possibilities of a way out from the dilemma with which we have been occupied. G. the proof of the pudding must always be in the eating and not in the cookery books. one in which his task is solely to assist in uncovering the sources which hinder the patient from fulfilling his individual destiny. enabling the patient himself to reconstruct his own life and to transform the unconscious sources of life. A therapy. precisely an activation of the ethical function'. be elaborated with a wealth of concrete example. it is. The Nor would we imply that no psychotherapist who does not claim discipleship of Jung is reliable. The special case of It to Jungian theory the Catholic patient. point could. it is a job yet to be done. as Dr it. nor that every psychotherapist who wears a 'Jungian' label on that account deserves our unqualified confidence. whose aim and effect freedom and responmakes the fullest one which on the but sibility. is by itself a vast. however. It is difficult to see any existing. on the contrary. the patient into any preconceived mould of alleged 'normality'. but. power and is integrity. would. as a 'way to self-knowledge and c self-control'. did space permit. Its effect is precisely to liberate from the in no way to restrict the patient's Jacobi has expressed inevitability of the historical-causal sequence. It is not suggested that no conceivable theoretical hypotheses other than those of C. still less to force.156 a therapy GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS in which the practitioner makes no arrogant claim to 'suggest'. or that therapists of other schools may not attain equally admirable results because of (or in spite of) other theories. be idle to suppose that even fidelity and practice will immediately solve all the difficulties which in practice may arise. .

we would and that suggest that we cannot complacently lies suppose that all the work to be done logists. Then. not to speak of the Fathers of the Church. only with the psycho- and moral education among us Catholics is in so happy a state that we need do nothing about it. and still more. Closely disinterested love associated with this is the need for some method whereby both the training and the consulting of analysts can be made very much less financially prohibitive than they usually are at present. are sent empty away to find sorne spurious substitute in gnostic cults. the urgent busi- and co-ordination of neurological. patience. and above all. Due consideration of each of these subjects would require a paper to itself. seems to be virtually ignored in the kind of teaching which presents morality solely as an extrinsically imposed code of arbitrary . which is that of St Thomas religious Aquinas. for what is ethics but the pattern of habit and conduct with a view to the telos. are brought to the threshold of the Church. the humility. all too often. analysts who are not only technically experienced and equipped. Also. the intellectual and emotional discipline. there practical problems of the spiritual direction of analysants and their after-care: the peculiar needs of Catholic special patients and of those many who.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS The task before us is 157 than allude to what gigantic indeed. psychiatrical and analytical methods. There is the crying need for more. the capacity for self-sacrificing and fearlessness which fruitful analysis demands. the balance and health. but who are possessed of the moral and spiritual integrity. as an outcome of analysis. the end and fulfilment. from the point of view of our special preoccupations is the need for the theoretic co-ordination of psychology with theology. and rightly so. of the whole human soul and all its parts? This standpoint. Aristotle said that ethical inquiry and teaching cannot be undertaken without a knowledge of the human psyche. In is. reliable analysts. I can do no more appear to be the most pressing needs. it the field of psychology itself there ness of the delimitation seems. for consideration of the very as Catholics. but who.

Morals and Society: worth. in any case. 2. Dr. This loss of the traditional pre-Reformation Catholic moral salutis. instinctive transformation by the disposition of Temperance within the cultivation of an immanent Prudence. of a 'second nature' regulations rather than as which responds to and integrates the innate needs and tendencies of the whole man. of Fortitude within the appetitus irasdbilis (the instinctive 'will to power'). 'Prudence'. While the above pages were being written appeared Professor J. 1 resistance to. 3. and 'leakage'. The morality of the intricate c moral systems'. O. The colloquialism used by Catholics to denote the abandonment of Catholic practice. Morals and Society. raises vast issues which require whole books to themselves. ^ appetitus concupiscibilis (the pleasure principle) for the virtue dutiful. C. He writes as a psychologist pure and simple. very different from our own. the Divine message and pattern of integral human health and wholeness? Each of these questions. See T. Can frustration.158 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS a life of virtue. logist's point of view. s. naturally enough. Man. A Psycho-analytical Study (Duck- . Deman.. 1. Flugel's Man. psychoneurosis is doctrine Christian that commonly presented we say either its psychological relevance as the Verbum all in us among 2 theology is a veritable breeding ground of psychological conflict. 1945). London. FlugePs approach is. and a few reflections upon it may not be out of place. in their turn. anti-instinctual effort itself. and with a minimum (at least in intention) of extra-psychoHe is moreover a convinced and logical presuppositions.* Perhaps it still remains among the most important contributions to the written from the psychosubject of psychotherapy and ethics The views it expresses are.v. cold. which filters from some of our 'moral our schools and homes in effect theology' textbooks into substitutes an external and casuistic jurisprudence for the and desire for its heightening and suppression of.P. not outmoded. Dictionnaire de theologie catholique. especially by adolescents.

something very much like what stands by the rational ethics of traditional philosophy. In particular we ingly anticipate and confirm our would draw attention to the frankness with which he dismisses the contention that psychotherapy as a 'pure science*. in the belief. 240. and his emphasis recalls the basic conhabit of goodness' life' as a life of ception in traditional ethics of the 'good of 'the for His virtue.). and considerations outside his own professional province and writes with an ease. Preface). Indeed. an urbanity and a humour unalso common to his kind. 29) seems expressing' and the ethics almost identical with that of Aristotle between aperij (virtue) and ey/c/xx-raa the 'spontaneous on (control). His contrast between the ethics of 'facing and of 'avoidance' (p.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS 5 159 orthodox a 'progressive and by no means though he is unusually open to interests but uncritical Freudian. 241) which Dr Flugel believes to be indicated by psychoanalysis conform strikingly with many of the main principles of Aristotelian-Thomist ethics. that from psychoanalysis (notwithstanding lessons general nature many of human morality and the general lines of moral progress student of Aristotle and St Thomas (p. because he believes that the analytical exploration of psycho3 logical means modifies our apprehension of these ends and values that he has written and published the book at all. 30 ff. FlugePs conclusions strikown. In certain important matters. 12 ff. and indeed the 'guiding notions concerning the main lines of 3 moral progress and development (p. that is to say. epicritic discriminatory power plea of the methods 'the as consciousness' protopathic against unconscious' is scarcely intelligible except as a modern restatement of Aristotle's conception of the participation by . cf. 1 many candidly recognized may be learned 'concerning the its insufficiencies) A cannot fail to recognize in the 'Cognitive (Psychological)' 3 judgment which Dr Flugel opposes to 'Orectic (Moral) he himself underjudgment. can confine its attention to the means of human conduct and values which are the disregard consideration of the ends and it is precisely province of ethics (pp.

241). can probably be changed x only by biological methods' (p. but 'our ultimate mental and moral capacities. they represent a return to those of the intellectualist' ethics of the philosophia perennis rather than (as he himself seems to c suppose) an advance to some new and hitherto unknown peak of human evolution discovered by psycho-analysis. the author. H. 252 (reasonableness). is not due in considerable measure to the vacuum left by the lism' abandonment of this precious heritage. and is in principle ff. and here the book is profoundly disappointing. physiologists : and neurologists to be increasingly anxious to pass the ball on their side. back to the psychologists the physician Alexis Carrel's Man the Unknown. 'passes the buck' back to the biologists. The seem biologists. which Dr Flugel so ruthlessly exposes. Indeed it may well be asked whether the 'stupidity'. and which he shows to be at the root of much of the conflict and neurosis of our time. in a passage of profound pessimism.) 5 . it appears. like our ultimate physical characteristics. Indeed after two hundred and forty pages. indistinguishable from Aristotle's aim of 'magnanimity However much we must dissent from many of Dr Flugel's concrete applications of these 'guiding notions'. most of which are employed in exposing the intricate complexities and bewildering depth of the factors analysis has to offer us in order to recover perversity. 'infantiand 'archaism' of modern man's 'super-ego'.l6o the his GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS a'Aoyov (irrational) in Aoyos- conception of 'autonomy* (pp. it is difficult to avoid the conclusion that. But the average reader will naturally look to Dr Flugel's book to learn what practical recommendations psychoit. in their main direction. Without cynicism. Psychoanalysis. Mottram's 'Pelican' book on The Physical Basis of Personality bear witness to the game of shuttle-cock which the specialists play with poor Modern Man! . and without disparaging the real i. can show man to how great an extent in human 'even his mental and moral characteristics are far from being completely amenable to conscious will and deliberation'. the surgeon Kenneth Walker's Diagnosis of Man and the remarkable last chapter of the neurologist V.

yet its nowhere abandoned. and in particular with the causal factors which contribute to the construction of the 'super-ego' and its conflict with the 'id'. . an exposure which is all the more impressive because the method is here followed with unprecedented to the study thoroughness and brilliance. Never i . morality are logically viewed as 'displacements' of infantile much as if a grown sexuality and parental relationships man were regarded as a 'displacement' of an embryo. 9). art. and the most psychology can do is to suggest some knowledge of what we ought to do. of whatever school. politics. it is inevitable that the axiological is still basic postulates are confused with the etiological. From the very first page Dr Flugel envisages his task solely in terms of 'diagnosis and prescription' with a view to discovering the 'origin and nature* of man's moral impulses (p. If the categories of purpose and finality be excluded from the study of psychological phenomena. the psyche is incapable of showing how to obtain the power to do it. and still more the neurotic reader. The bulk of the book is in fact occupied with the complexities of the conflicting factors which bring about man's moral problems and achievements. 1 It shows indeed how very far Freudian psychoanalysis has advanced from what Dr Flugel himself calls the 'crude hedonism' of its early formulations. will find little in the book which will not confirm him in the belief that he is the victim of a tangle of intricate mechanisms from which psychology is powerless to extricate him. Invaluable as the book will be to the professional analyst. what is prior in time is regarded as prior in importance and value. as a guide to the countless and complex factors to be looked for in the origin of his patient's troubles. culture. The uninitiated will find no more lucid explanation of these uncouth terms than in Dr FlugePs own book. the average reader. it may be said that perhaps the chief value of his book lies in its implicit exposure of the impotence of the exclusively Reductive' and 'historical causal' method of treatment.PSYCHOTHERAPY AND ETHICS l6l positive contribution which Dr Flugel has made of the etiology of modern man's moral and psychological problems. Religion.

7 ff. It is only consistent with these presuppositions that Dr Flugel misses the inner psychological relevance of sacrifice and asceticism. integration and healing (or its recognition should it emerge) is precluded a priori by a psychology whose whole preoccupation is with historical causation. but Dr Flugel can offer no glimpse of hope of such reconciliation of the conflict as St Paul found in the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ. perhaps. p. and that he can seriously advocate so sophisticated a product of ego-consciousness as CattelPs 'Theopsyche' as a substitute for God. it is still apt to conceive the way of health and happiness to lie in the murder (however 'symbolic') of the Father rather than in reconciliation with the Father through the self-sacrifice of the co-equal Son. which belittles 'intuition' as unscientific (cf. vii. 1 The emergence of a 'transcendent' or 'reconciling' function. .l62 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS before. Epistle to the Romans. 9) and which disregards the functional and teleological aspects of psychological phenomena. such as has been observed by Jung as the vehicle of solution. i. has the baffling complexity at the origin of the conflict between the 'law of my members' and the 'law of my mind' been so ruthlessly revealed. Notwithstanding the immense advances which Freudian psychoanalysis is shown to have made in its recognition of the importance of 'super-ego' factors in psychological health and disease. a tertium quid. and indeed of Christianity generally.

and it is probable that a more careful comparison of the two procedures may reveal still deeper affinities and connections between them than at first sight appear. On this point at least there would seem to be a considerable measure of agreement WE spokesmen and many psychoonly in the assertion of the superiority of their own respective wares. whether Freudian. By 'psychological analysis' strictly any psychotherapy which employs depth-analysis. or any other. it has become almost a commonplace among many Catholic apologists that analysis is a secularized and truncated form of sacramental confession. even on the surface. use this somewhat clumsy term rather than 'psycho5 lest I be thought to have in mind only Freudian ' * can analysis. Jungian. 163 I analysis . it is The equation tion than it deserves somewhat more critical examina- customarily receives. of which alone the term psychoanalysis I understand be used. While the psychologists will tell us that sacramental confession is a sort of na'ive and undeveloped. pre-scientific forerunner of psychological analysis. But there are still differences between them which more obvious and essential cannot be overlooked with- out risk of great confusion both in theory and in practice. place in the confessional and what actually takes place in the analyst's consulting room to see that the differences.IX THE ANALYST AND THE CONFESSOR are often assured by those who should know best that sacramental confession and psychological analysis 1 are very much the same thing. between many Catholic logists: if they differ. and a closer acquaintance We have only to take a look at what actually takes i. are very marked indeed. Doubtless there are certain resemblances which might incline us to put them superficial both into the same category.

We shall soon learn that the analyst who plays the confessor will be as bad an analyst as the confessor who plays the analyst will be a bad confessor. Its starting-point. it is of the greatest importance to avoid all initial blurring of their basic differences. Here. and will be no a priori preconceptions. what part in it will be taken by the analyst and what by the patient. And the distinctions are indeed basic. But before we can hope to see how the one can illuminate. the other. can come from a closer acquaintance by the analyst of the practice of the sacrament of penance.164 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS with their respective aims and presuppositions will reveal still further the chasm that divides them. or by the confessor of the practice of analysis. and the contempt it must arouse in those who do. It is a medicine. as becomes evident so soon as we attempt to sort out and compare the constituent ingredients of sacramental confession with those of psychological analysis. . Few analysts. Nothing but good. The ingredients of which it is uncharted to be made will differ dictated by the material itself and widely in every case. Just how an analysis will proceed. would be prepared to present us with a formula which would cover all the component elements which go to make up an analysis. and we shall be put on our guard against the dangerous type of apologetic which might be understood as offering the confessional as a substitute for psychotherapy: dangerous because of the disappointment it must arouse in those who know no better than to suppose it to be a cure for psychoneurosis. but there are no ready-made maps. distinguer pour unir is the indispensable precondition for accurate thinking. its procedure be determined by the material which itself. but one for which there is no uniform prescription. what it will and will not achieve and what paths it will follow: none of these can be determined in advance. and perhaps subserve. of what it will consist. we believe. as always. is emerges in the analysis the analyst's skill. and those hardly the most trustworthy. its and its term will alike development. It by the patient's response and an adventure of exploration into territory: there may be compasses.

like all the sacraments. These may well serve us here as terms of comparison. it of certain definite 'matter' and certain definite not appreciate the logical and metaphysical considerations which have established this matter-form analogy as a technical device whereby theologians analyse the sacraments into their components. He may the constituent elements of the sacrament of penance are thus authoritatively classified under three heads: (i) remote matter. And he knows that consists c form'.THE ANALYST AND THE CONFESSOR Indeed its 165 much therapeutic success will depend on nothing so as on the ability of both analyst and analysant to rid themselves of predetermined plans and prejudices. 'what 3 The 'remote matter of it is all 5 . the 'form' gives a specific 'shape' or significance is stated to be the sins of the penitent committed since baptism. formulated and tabulated. Sin is defined as an evil human act. At once a striking contrast jumps to the eye when we turn to the counterpart of this 'remote matter' in psychological analysis. Sin. truly. and psychotherapy is also concerned. that is. In theological language it is malum culpae the . (2) proximate matter. In striking contrast. thanks to centuries of actual practice and theological reflection. with an evil. He is probably familiar with the traditional dissection of the sacrament of penance into its component parts: he knows that. is the sacrament of penance that about the subject with which it is concerned. is an evil. what he has to do and what the confessor has to do. the ingredients of the sacrament of penance are neatly and definitely sorted out. even mutually opposed. a human activity which lacks the goodness and Tightness it should have in conformity with the divine mind. The are familiar to most Catholics from their very catechisms. with their technical names. as is every therapy. instructed Catholic 'going to confession' knows fairly exactly what will happen. the material of which it is made and to which to say. both the sacrament and the analysis are concerned to remedy evil. but at least he knows the authoritative character of its results. Moreover. But the evils with which each is concerned are essentially different. These ingredients. and (3) form.

patterns of behaviour which the patient 'cannot help'. conflicts. with the unconscious. It can on no . From this basic difference spring others which are hardly blances less striking. we cannot overlook the essential difference in the material with which the sacrament of are respectively penance and any kind of psychotherapy concerned. psychotherapy deals with certain of human compulsions: with thoughts. at least no that analytical psychotherapy as we less. is with a certain kind This diiference is quite fundamental. emotions. sin. sin and seek forgiveness. and as such something essentially and usually contrary to the sufferer's will both and in its symptoms and manifestations. while it is of the very it is concerned. of its very nature as a sin is human act. being essentially voluntary. still to itself to factors less limit itself any definite date in the patient's history. In short. Sin. It involuntary in itself it is willed. It do . is someit we though may thing that happens to us. solely committed after baptism: it is not concerned with inherited of baptism itself. which are uncontrollable by his will and Confession presupposes the usually clean contrary to it. not something condition actions. sins actual with concerned is have already remarked. may sayprecise measure in that while the sacrament of penance deals with certain evil We results of results human freedom. Sacramental confession. psychotherapy cannot confine acquired in the patient's own lifetime. these actions are neurotic symptoms in the which they are involuntary. whose remedy lies within the province In contrast. in some measure voluntary: and a measure in which contrary. the primary and direct concern of the sacrament is with wilful misdeeds: the primary and direct concern of analysis of involuntary misfortune. on the a certain malum poenae an 'evil men suffer' or is a sickness. Whatever resemmay be found. is also essentidefinition of any ally conscious.l66 'the evil GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS men do\ It is. from turn to sin and to power and impotence and analysis usually presupposes necessity seeks liberation and freedom. A psychoneurosis. is sinful in the precise 'undergo'. feelings.

of accept the penal consequences the act of confessing in the first of these It is presumably that the resemblances and psychological to lie. causes or .THE ANALYST AND THE CONFESSOR 167 of account neglect inherited factors and whatever name. and as providing together unconscious attitudes to the with patient's conscious or them important elements in the total picture of the perThe patient's 'good deeds' sonality with which he has to do. No such limitation can bind the analysant. Satisfaction implies the willing as comacceptance and performance of some task imposed and faith a of token willingness to good pensation and as sin. not precisely as moral offences. under factor recognizes a 'collective unconscious' as an important sickness. Each represents a predetermined attitude or operation of mind or will in regard to the 'remote matter*. Contrition Here we have three definite performed and exteriorly and its turning implies the turning of the will from the same. Though who knows his business will want to exclude such no But the 'confession analyst 'conmaterial. interiorly non constituent a expressed. contrition said to be the three acts matter' of the sacrament of penance is on the part of the penitent: confessatisfaction. in mental health and dispositions: least The 'proximate sion. and its expression in words. real or fessions' to his alleged concerned with them. to God and the divine will. and and deliberate acts. all can any depth. but as symptoms of neurosis. Confession implies conscious acknowledgment of that 'remote matter'. he will still less seek to limit his patient's be he will And misdeeds. What a penitent is defined and restricted to expected to confess is very clearly the sins committed since his baptism or his previous confession.analysis which. required of the penitent and the two very different lies in the difference of 'remote difference the and things matter' which we have already noted. required of the penitent as sine qua of the sacrament. between sacramental confession analysis are more particularly supposed 9 'confession' required of the analysant are .

and so the very remedy for the evil to the form of the which sort is is the sacrament's 'remote matter'. The psychological processes demanded by the former requires a certain concentration of conscious memory and the orderly recital of a selection of its contents. Some very in certain cases superficial resemblance might be suspected some with is effected reconciliation in which imago projected upon the analyst. His business is less with what the free associations. the projection withdrawn is to the assimilate4 patient's own conscious ego. This can no more be predetermined than can the material itself. between sacramental and analytical each 'confession'.l68 will interest GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS him no and than his 'bad' ones (confessors are with rehearsals of the rightly. but never complete identity. There considerable disagreement among analysts as to what . patient does than why different standpoint may there be Only from this totally some overlapping. sponpenitent's virtues!) while dreams. a mental and physical relaxation which permits the free flow of uncontrolled phantasy and the suspension of regular directed' mental activity. contrariwise. and the couch or armchair of the and promote the two very analyst's room. Still less is there any equivalent in psychological analysis sacrament of penance. admirably express each is appointed. This 'form' is the words of forgiveness pronounced by the priest: it is the which makes the sacraspecifying and determining element is ment of penance to be what it is. Nothing of the be found in psychological analysis. impatient less notoriously. the second. The uncomfortable confessional differ correspondingly: box with hard kneeler. but there will be no 'remedy' except in so to far as the transference and still is resolved. he does it. it the efficacious sign of reconciliation with God. which for 'confession of kinds different its 5 of contrition or Psychological analysis knows nothing be to acts required of the predetermined it would fail entirely of its purpose were it to lay patient: down in advance the conscious attitude which the analysant satisfaction as was to adopt to his material. taneous reactions and other manifestations of the unconscious will interest him still more.

or as circumstances seem to demand. Here is a subject which deserves much more careful exploration and consideration than has yet been given it. we think. Moreover. do So the differences between sacramental confession as understood and practised in the Catholic Church and psychological analysis as known and practised to-day are considerable and profound. would maintain that the ultimate remedy conies from the analyst rather than the analysant and his own response to his own material. None certainly would claim Divine power and authority to forgive sin. Sin results in temporal (as well as eternal) punishments and consequences. even strongly advocate his 'active' intervention in the process. We may not overlook either the psychological value of sacramental confession or the 'religious' features of many an analysis and the close connections which may be found between them. sin and misfortune. be a grave mistake. are essentially different. or is possible in this brief essay. and that they are so wholly diverse that they can hardly be spoken of in the same breath? To say this would. But once the essential differences between the two have been understood. and to for therapeutic reasons will usually refuse resolutely so.THE ANALYST AND THE CONFESSOR own precise of those who most their 169 role in analysis should be. there is a close causal link between them. But few. and to give such authorized guidance on moral issues as is asked of him. Are we then to conclude that there are no connections between them. It is elementary Christian (and not only Christian) teaching that the first is the ultimate cause of the second. and even opposite in their voluntariness and involuntariness respectively. we may offer a few suggestions as to where such exploration might profitably be directed. . An analyst has no like authority to pronounce moral judgments. a confessor is required to act as judge of the objective moral Tightness or wrongness of what is told him. It should be remembered that although malum culpae and malum poenae.

may serve the ends. must always^ be attrisuffering. and that this of integrity and harmony) actual sin. But it is true that original sin is the ultimate. we need not be surprised to find cases in which therapeutic causes. then at least of mental to hygiene and prophylaxis. especially if practised with regularity and with frank and unflinching self-examination. It should perversity can be enhanced by personal. This must not be misunderstood in the sense of the cruel and unchristian assumption that all mental suffering. disorder (being all such not that remembered further be be characterized can human in fallen 'normal' nature) quite But neurotic. 3 and 85. . and that it could be 'cured' without any moral response or alteration. dies hard. The materialistic belief that a neurosis could be diagnosed without consideration of the patient's ethical valuations or behaviour. if not of psychotherapy. but becomes increasingly difficult to maintain. 3). Analytic experience witnesses of the unconsciousness which to extent the very great 'shadow' side of life contributes to the formation and per- A patient's failure to meet the and challenges ('temptations* deliberately consciously or 'tests' in Catholic parlance) which life brings him. the automatic outcome of sin (cf. : it is indirectly But indirectly in so far as it it is perhaps as prevention rather than cure that may remove one of its sacramental confession. or as pathological psychology itself finds it difficult to eliminate moral disorder from the as constitute the 'matter' of the : increasingly istic and mechanetiology of mental disorder. disharmony of man's psychological powers more especially. whether sistence of neurotic complexes. Summa TheoL I-IL 82.s). though indirect. especially buted to the sufferer's own personal and actual sins (such I sacrament of penance) we are forbidden straightway to ascribe it to the sins of 'this man or his parents' (John ix. So while sacramental confession (including contrition and amendment) does not deal directly with psychoneurosis.GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS 70 and St Thomas Aquinas explains how the disorder and and activities are. cause (by removing the the source of man's psychological original grace which was all such disorder.

with life's conflicting demands. It is a truism that if an analysis does not change the patient's outlook on life. and with it of his standard of values. it may do much to free the patient from those compulsions which make both sin and repentance from sin and even any clear-eyed self-examination difficult or impossible. it may'. a metanoia or change of mind. but something which emerges from the process and its material themselves. while psychological analysis is not ordained to forgive sin. it may occasion an On the other hand. The very enlargement of his consciousness automatically involves a shifting of his whole centre of awareness. Hence.THE ANALYST AND THE CONFESSOR they arise from his fully sistic I*Jl own character his or from his environment or from their mutual impact. is not something that he brings to analysis. Frequent and honest self-examination. where alone they can generate neurotic symptoms. should also be remarked that. never faced. is . however. it is seldom It it brings about something which. and the necessity of formulating its findings in the confessional. may enter in to prevent its exercising this particular efficacy. Numerous case histories show striking resemblances. may alone do much to promote a more complete self-awareness. This change. although psychological analysis cannot demand contrition of the patient. not only successful unless least. shady compromises. and with it of his moral valuations and behaviour. and indeed in certain cases (notably those known to Catholics c by the tragic symptoms of 'scruples') increase of the virulence of the disease. his whole mentality in greater or less degree. his narcisidealization of ego and corresponding neglect of the less acceptable traits of his character: all these. and so prevent these less pleasing features of a personality from sinking into unconsciousness. are a common breeding ground of neurosis. indeed it should. at very not unlike it: a radical change of the patient's conscious outlook. But other factors. the disorders with which psychotherapy is concerned. We say. it may do much to prevent. it achieves nothing. notoriously. while sacramental confession is not ordained to cure. inherited or environmental.

the sacramentals of the Church or it may be added the dream-symbols of the Scriptures. but also in the very symbols which to induce the eventually emerge from unconscious sources transformation. and those of dream recorded religious initiations.172 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS between the results of analysis and those of religious and moral conversions. can be affirmed or denied with certainty. Among all half of life patients in the second one whose problem in the last resort my there has not been was not that of finding . I have treated many hundreds of patients. The most that can be said in summary is that although sacramental confession and psychological analysis are two . but he with a particular processes which the living religions followers. is not so limited. them fell ill because he had It is safe to say that every one of lost that of every age had given to their has been really healed who did not regain his religious outlook. the larger number being Protestants. of the healing factors and experiences in holds to be the effects of analysis with what religious belief of divine grace. of course. . That they are such in fact the and operations we can never have sufficient grounds to affirm with certitude. and not more than five or six believing Catholics. both in their mode in their results. a small number of Jews. a religious outlook on life. but neither can we a priori deny the possibility. He has also remarked on the similarities. the resemblances are sometimes too impressive to be totally Though little ignored.' He added that 'This.Jung's celebrated declaration made in 1932: 'During the past thirty years. G. the baptism of John. and there seems to be no reason why the theologian should deny to dream-symbolism the ex open allow to the sacraments of the Old operantis efficacy he must God Law. We may again recall C. countries of the earth have people from all the civilized consulted me. conversions and illuminations. While man is limited to the appointed channels of grace and forgiveness. and none of them has also called constant attention to the parallels between and their healing symbolism. . has nothing to do creed or membership of a church' .

THE ANALYST AND THE CONFESSOR 173 wholly different things. are sometimes If. . this can only be from the patient's response to God's uncovenanted mercies through the inner life of his soul. But when the prevention. of psychoneurosis sometimes results from sacramental confession. however. this arises from the conscious human activities which it involves. pursuing two different but interrelated purposes. or more rarely the cure. divine grace and forgiveness attained through the processes of psychological analysis. the purposes of the one may sometimes happen (per accident] to be attained through the other.


techniques now to overcome. psychopathological case-material. on such supposed influences and now such and harness practices to human ends We might attempt 175 ment of such beliefs and to trace the developthe metamorphoses they .X DEVILS AND COMPLEXES E Devil and his works is a subject which we might JL approach from very many different points of view. and improved on the therapy of past ages to any notable extent. and see what parallels it affords with alleged diabolical possession. the very varying valuations put in different societies. to study human beliefs and myths concerning evil spirits and their influence on the human mind and on human behaviour. pheno- We menal approach: to anecdotes of events that might claim to indicate diabolic possession or Anthropologists. now to use alleged influences. factual. we could cover all and also in theorizing about the countries and cultures of go back to the beginnings of recorded history. We could spend a great deal of time in verifypast ing and correlating these records and them. folklorists and psychical re- the autobiographies of those who were or thought they were possessed by a devil. Or we might search the records of the some other kind of devilry. clinical. the globe. practices adopted to evade. now to be rid of. missionaries. Again. the innumerable reports of processes jfor witchcraft and sorcery which became an epidemic in Europe from the end of the fifteenth century inspect the Malleus Maleficarum and the whole mass of strange and seamy literature which that epidemic of witchhunting produced. searchers may be found ready to give us plenty of such material at first-hand. could confine ourselves to a purely positive. the different rituals. and inquire whether psychological science has in fact disposed of the allegations. Or we might examine modern.

for it is clearly a Samuel (Vulgate. occurs Hebrew Old Testament in I Chron. and more especially on Satan. And although later reflexion will identify the serpent in the Garden of Eden with the devil.) 21. and stirred up David among them saying: Go number Israel and Juda'. are relatively conspicuous by their absence. Epilepsy. and moved David to number [{. We must. In this essay we can hardly even touch upon them. and which such Christian practices as exorcism etc. there is no hint of this in the original story. II Kings) 24. i. the morbus sacer. the holy disease which is widely believed to be a seizure by a divine or demonic spirit. For here we have the primitive raw material which the Christian theology of the devil and all his works seeks to illuminate. without the article.*. the emergence of evil spirits as somehow distinct entities. distinct both from his emissaries or theophanies. It is noteworthy that the name Satan.. the good angels a was spirits. take a census of] Israel. I Paralip. 'And Satan rose up against Israel. in the Hebrew Scriptures. example of the gradual differentiation in the Old Testament of Satan from God. changing variety of symbolic representation. spirits. for example we must agree that malevolent preternatural powers. gradual process. however. but perhaps the clearest. with the gradual .1. They have no part to play in the cosmogony of Genesis (in sharp contrast to Babylonian and most other God and from or cosmogonies).' only once in the This passage c is later re-editing of II we have The particularly significant. touch however superficially and on the Biblical data concerning demons and evil lightly spirits. On all these things there is already a considerable literature. could alone absorb our attention. as a proper name. presuppose. call them gods. When we compare the Old Testament as a whole with cognate records in neighbouring lands Babylonia or Egypt.. devils or what you will.176 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS their undergo. in which. This appears to be not the only. where wrath of Jahweh was kindled against Israel. (Vulgate. the varying conceptions of the interrelation of demons and diseases. and much work still remains to be done. There can be little doubt that.

Although they are all pictorially represented as somehow personal. and quite explicit in such a passage as St Paul's 'Lest the greatness of the revelations should exalt me there was given me . This Divine benevolence. anthropomorphic or theriomorphic. humiliate him and expose his unrighteousness. 12. Lilith in Isaiah 34. 7). his more wrathful and disagreeable activites can no longer be attributed directly to him. however disagreeable and evil they may appear to man. underlying Satanic malevolence. is implicit in the New Testament also. however obscure. in the mysterious designs of God for the salvation of his people. the lying spirits that seize the false prophets. Apart from the serpent in the to garden. c DEVILS AND COMPLEXES Thus the in way Numbers 22. are always in the Old Testament believed to be beneficial to him in the long run. in their functions rather than their essence. the ones that inspired the witch of Endor. These activities. Satan is not. there are the mysterious sons of God who went is into in the daughters of men (in Genesis 6). the Adversary or the Satan is one of the Bene Elohim the sons of God who stand in the Divine Presence (i.177 emergence of a more moral and merciful conception of God.. Leviathan and Azazel in Behemoth Job. representative or angeP of God. the unnamed evil melancholic spirit that fell on Saul. the only malevolent power or spirit in the Old Testament. and Satan is and remains the Mal'ak Jahweh the emissary. (I Cor. of course. Baal and the other pagan gods of the neighbourhood Omnes dii gentium daemonia. In the opening chapters of Job. 22 it is a MaTak Jahweh who stands in of (in Hebrew 'satans') Balaam and his ass.. there Leviticus 16. All of them are presented as having some functions. All of these might be claimed to be in some way diabolic. and in varying degrees to possess the minds and hearts of man. 6) whose business it is to put man to the test. and Satan the 'adversary' emerges as the agent of such activities. We might say that they are purely personifications of divine functions . an angel of Satan to buffet me'. and indeed serve the Divine purpose by manifesting God's less amiable characteristics. the Bible is less interested in what they are than in what they do.

120). an autonomous complex. it is no longer I that do it. shadow. will almost personify what he calls 'the sin that dwells within me'. they do. It is the accuser which shows us up for what we really are despite our It is. analytical psychology. might i. in Romans 7. that is to say. dwelling sin' are precisely those elsewhere ascribed contrary to the 'mind'. 3 7. but sometimes they favour a more 'subjective' we might say 'psychological' interpretation and identify or ha-rd the 'evil inclination Satan with the 5 side' of God himself identify Satan with the dark human to and fearsome. but sin that dwells within a me (Rom. a fallen angel. in the jejune language of claims to It is the adversary which is righteousness. which delights in the law of God. which is less with what devils are than what behaviour. and how they affect human Only among the later Rabbis" does the question What is Satan anyway? And it is interesting to note that favour an 'objective interpretation which sometimes 5 arise would (dark or as a distinct but rebellious manifestation of God who is nevertheless an agent of the divine purposes for man. 1948). emphasis of his official liturconcentration the be not uttered. in Symbolik des GeisUs (Zurich. The priestly whose of transcendence on the very name Jahweh. .178 but it GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS human mind. See Rivkah Scharf 'Die Gestalt des Satans im Alten Testament'. the conscious ego. they together in later role an Jewish increasingly important angels play role in thought and apocalyptic perhaps a preponderant and prophetic popular. allusions to Comparatively rare and secondary as are the 'good' with devils in the Old Testament. apprehension) c they 'yet&r we read first in imagination inherent in man of which 1 Genesis and then frequently in the Old Testament. So also St Paul. which acts in and through us in spite of ourselves: 'If I do what I do not want. The functions of this 'into Satan. or projections of unconscious contents of the would be an anachronism to attribute such sophisticated interpretations to the minds of the Old Testament writers for them it would be entirely to miss the point of their narrations. rural Jewish religion.

G. have proved a dismal failure. Testimoni) Animae. Especially since Schweitzer and Otto. iii. are largely unintelligible except on the supposition of the reality and activity of Satan and other malevolent spirits.' 1 The coming of Christ itself evokes the spirit of anti-Christ. 'The devil'. 2. with customary exaggeration and insight. New De cf. 72 ff. and still more obviously the Apocalypse. In the pages of the New Testament. however. must be said. Even the most radical criticism of Formgeschichte holds that these passages belong to the most primitive strata. of the evangelical tradition. Aion. it has become difficult to read the Gospels at all otherwise than as an account of the struggle between the the de jure Reign of God and the de facto Reign of Satan actual 'prince' or 'god' of this world over human hearts. 2 Not only the words and actions of Christ as related in the Gospels. still less of the Testament teaching about the Devil. the essential core. but also the Epistles. more immediately relevant to our subject.DEVILS AND COMPLEXES gical worship in the 179 Temple at Jerusalem. We cannot here attempt even a summary of New Testa- ment manifestations of implications of diabolic power. Satan is believed 1. Something. . 'is fully known only to Christians. about New Testament and early Christian belief concerning the devil and disease physical and mental. only when the full light shines in th'e darkness is the intensity of the darkness made manifest. perhaps made it inevitable that popular interest with powers and spirits immediate concern with helping or hindering the daily would be more occupied who were deemed to have more lives of ordinary people. Tertullian will say. The polite efforts of nineteenth-century Liberal criticism to exorcize the demons from the New Testament. his characteristics and functions. to explain away its more 'devilish' passages as a later and superstitious adulteration of the pure ethical milk of the Gospel. or at least to apologize for them as an unimportant concession to contemporary illusions. Satan and the devils may be said to be fairly ubiquitous from the beginning to the end. Jung. pp. minds and affairs. C.

whom we 25 ff. we find the 'possessed' paranormal knowledge an apparently not . nowhere categorically stated. from the religious standpoint. And Jesus said to her. you are freed from your infirmity'. But it is 'Neither this man hath sinned. 26 ff. differs widely in degree. and speaking and acting in and through him. controlling him. however. and the healing work as commonly presented work of Jesus. not as a mere ridding of symptoms. and the 'legion' of devils who take possession of the man. is itself a testing or temptation which (as with Job) may lead a man from or to God. Only by a wild could Satan this stretch of language but somehow it is In the of a is later we Satan that. but as a release from diabolic domination. and even in kind. he is a remote cause. we read of 'a woman who had a spirit of infirmity for eighteen years. she was bent over and could not straighten herself. A psychiatrist will recognize is the case of the and the prodigious strength of the maniac. is so healed. Quite different spirit' (cf. This is so because sickness. Christ. consequences suffering. Mt. In Luke 13. who operative in the spinal curvature. Christ refers to her as 'this woman whom Satan bound for eighteen years'. 'man with an unclean read for instance in Mark 5. day language may say though not the proximate. or at least is using the infirmity to withhold the sufferer be called diabolic is possession.. 3). can hardly fail to remind the alienist of the in this account the dissociation phenomena displaying mediumistic slave of dissociation. disease is Although a of the devil.. absence of strength or health). from the praise and love of God into which she bursts soon as she of 8. his parents' (John 9. imme1 1. Here. So far there is mention only of 'infirmity' (dcrfleVeia literally. as also in the case of the girl of Acts 16. or an inherited result of that of his immediate forebears. firmly rejects the belief be somehow at the origin of that disease is necessarily the 'fault' of the individual sufferer. in in different cases. for 3 instance. secondary cause. 8. 'Woman. nor this diabolic domination diacy.).l8o to GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS all human siri and wayof its therefore and wardness. 1-20 Lk. 16 ff. disease and death. But in verse 16.

most the notoriously among cannot here examine in detail their methodology. do such questions become acute. To our question 'Do angels and devils exist at all anySt Thomas will not give us what we might consider way? 3 an entirely unambiguous answer. in purely rational and conceptual terms. Time will not permit us to linger further on New Testament ideas of diabolic influences in man's mental and beliefs and practices of the early physical health. abstracted from mere picture-thinking. He will want to know what we mean by 'exist'. interested in the latter might be referred to the valuable collection from early Christian literature on the Those subject in to Part I. Neither i. But it may be worth while to note a few of the conclusions which may be more relevant to our general theme. difficulty be accounted for purely glandular irregularities. If we limit existence to what is cerimmediately perceptible to our minds or senses.DEVILS AND COMPLEXES l8l unknown concomitant of insanity. Of these principal occupations of the and coherent. Only with natures the the rise of scholasticism. in this Church Systematic curiosity about the what. Jewish. Doctor' the of who earned the title largely in con'Angelic on the angels. then material as exist do reality they tainly they do not. nor. These treatises are difficult in all hi writings. Moslem and Christian. Dr Evelyn Frost's Christian Healing. nor on the 1 matter. probably the most St Thomas Aquinas. which can only with in terms of brain-lesion. whence and why of good or evil the Biblical writers. or repression. which will be free from uncritical of logic anthropomorphism and would satisfy the demands of the one and hermeneutics. the early Fathers of the Church. in any very troubled spirits hardly serious degree. This became (as is well known) scholastic theologians. Only then is the serious effort made to construct a methodical angelology and demonology. of was that as the most influential. as well successful efforts. nor even the conclusions which they reach. Appendix . the validity sequence of his treatises list all We of the premisses and arguments which they employ.

Only by some analogy with the material reality of our e to be' (esse) of them. Notably. abstract from them every notion and condition of succession. universe. and then affirm them analogireflect cally of the subject 'Angel'. To the question. thoughts. and a posteriori from observable phenomena which man of himself. But like our own conscious thinking result by saying they are nevertheless effective in bringing about changes and events in the corporeal world of space and time. require the positing of intelligent which transcends purely physical causation. strictly have in common with them is creatureliness. but experience can we apply the verb real enough. be.e. All that we. and above all in Avicenna. upon our own intellectual and volitional operations. In Aristotelian terminology.l82 is GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS said to exist. even though he holds them to be operative time. if it acts it must somehow he says. he replies with a docta ignorantia. volition or ability.e. and notably in the mind and purposive agency.. nor as contained in the categories of space and in space and time. as well as human What is active must be actual intelligence. this is of course guaranteed by but he finds the reality of incorporeal intelligences asserted notably in the Neoalso in writings of the philosophers He himself argues to Platonists. For St Thomas the are in their own they way the Scriptures. i. only God is able to make certain prebeing. both a priori from the hierarchy of in the creation. change and sense-limitation. the same conclusion. Perhaps paraphrase attempt that angels are a purely mental and not a physical reality: they are intelligibilia intelligentia thinking and thoughts. But we are nevertheless dications about them per viam remotionis. of angelology must be conducted entirely in the third degree the to can we abstraction.. are able to we non-identical but related sense). includhuman ing apparition in visual or imaginary form to . but rather what they are not. finiteness they have being. and then applying them analogically (i. theologian. by stripping our concepts of their material time-and-space conditioned in a content. we do not and cannot know what they are. or the objects of our experience. what are angels? Strictly.

passionless thinking thought'. But corruptio optimi pessima Thomas best is the worst sort of badness. Angelic or diabolic apparitions are not themselves angels or devils. St Thomas insists. So far as their natures and being are itself is concerned. superbia (which is ness or ambition or perhaps better translated as uppisheven self-complacency.DEVILS AND COMPLEXES 183 perceptions. But how? St Thomas argues. Evil cannot of itself. It is to this that Satan first instigates ('You shall be as God'). and (being immaterial. bliss and glory. that a bodiless. evil. The is to accept the offer of a share in Divine life. In their essence. badness) is the absence of some appropriate good in something which of good. evil (as an abstract noun. i. and St favours the view that Lucifer or Satan is by nature the very noblest and highest and most Godlike of all God's the badness of the creatures. in metaphorical language. This catalogue of bald conclusions from Thomist angelology may lack even plausibility: their verification presupposes a complex and taxing type of methodology to which few of us nowadays are accustomed. grace. than as pride) invidia with sin essentially Satanic thus autonomy over against God. 'God saw that all he had made was very 'the good' declares Genesis: 'bonum et ens convertuntur* affirmed the "real" and the "good" are interchangeable' ancient philosophers. they are at best corporeal forms assumed for man's benefit. the demons are very good indeed. not a physical. could be capable of only one did How did some angels * sin. timeless. their being. and consequent refusal its concomitant. or envy. and to the extent that man man succumbs to this . and therefore essentially changeless and incorruptible) could not. But they sinned their evil was and is a moral. Lucifer go bad? fall? How. It stands to reason for Aquinas that there can be no such exist thing as an essentially and naturally evil spirit.. such as angels are conceived to be. they did not. satisfaction with natural endowments and happiness. by a process of elimination.e. But we must hasten from this rapid glance at St Thomas's general angelology to his demonology.

Satan may elate us with wishful thinking. fears. Misfortune. physical or mental. demons. and to entice our consent to autonomy over against God and the Divine ordinance. melancholy. hopes. but they may induce us to rebellion and despair. St Thomas has no doubt at all about what we should now call the physical basis of the human mind. ex hypothesi. finite. anxiety. Either way the intended end-result is the same to solicit our assent to the halftruth or to illusion as the ultimate truth. try. they cannot directly implant new conceptions into the human intellect any more than they can compel the human will. sickness. But how could it be supposed that these intelligentia be they benevolent angels or malevolent intelligibilia. may be real enough as well as illusory.184 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS temptation. are not belief. and again we must confine ourselves to some of his more noteworthy conclusions without recording the arguments that led him to them. loves. and the rest. Human sin cannot come about except from man's own willing consent. test he can never compel. would be able to affect the human mind? This is a question to which St Thomas gave a good deal of attention. and if he did compel the result would not be the sin of the one compelled. and . Or he can oppress the human mind by the presentation of evils which. or depress us with affliction. Satan can tempt. again. hope. the father of lies. The nature and power of angels and demons being. But Satan cannot make man sin. as against God-centredness. either way he is the master of illusion. He can entice the human mind and will by presenting to it beliefs. so have angels and demons. Neither can they directly form new phantasies in the human imagination. and yet are not the supreme evil of turning from God. fear and love of the true God and of his designs for man. But just as our minds have a certain power to modify and transmute matter for their own ends. he imitates Satan. He can only offer us objects which will lure us from God-centredness. whether illusory or real as far as they go. by way of attraction or repulsion. which. are not sin. Satan is the spirit of selfcentredness.

All the rest. feeling and emotion. spleen and secretions. Just as our ability to modify matter is limited by the potentialities and recourses of the matter at our disposal. physical and psychological causes. But the principle remains very much the same. Truly enough. be unlimited. and in themselves can be equally well an occasion for the triumph of grace as for the triumph of evil. bile. will be able indirectly. for instance. the devils can only act upon the human mind through natural. : sumption. but we seem to have no warrant at all for limiting diabolic agency and purpose to . moods and emotions. Still less has he any doubt about the physical basis of feelings. but none the less effectively. to modify a man's psychology especially his emotion-toned as well. the melancholic to depression the former will be more amenable to temptations to prewill not. are only means. where we might talk about blood-pressure. Agencies which are able to modify the physical preconditions of phantasy. Satan (we may suppose) will exploit the psycho-physical make-up of those he favours with his attentions the sanguine man will tend to mania. This ability attitudes. St Thomas knows nothing of the facile distinction. which we find. there are cases in which paranormal phenomena are more in evidence. the latter to temptations to despair.DEVILS AND COMPLEXES 185 in particular of the spontaneous products of what we would now call undirected mentation or free phantasy. and conversely all natural physical causes can be instruments of diabolic purposes. in the Catholic Encyclopedia and most latter-day Catholic literature. and the activity of glandular neurones in the cerebral cortex. But only when there is the surrender of the will to these predetermined conditions can there by any question of sin only then can Satan be said to have triumphed. between mental disorder which comes from 'natural causes' and mental disorder which comes from diabolic agency. For him. so will be that of angels and demons. even what : might be called diabolic possession. attitudes. and talks about spirits and things is humours. His language about these not ours. he takes for granted the whole paraphernalia of medieval physiology. dreams and day-dreams however.

.l86 these. . as GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS some Catholic theologians and psychiatrists to-day seem inclined to do. Although. vires supra aetatis sen conditionis naturam it must not be supposed ostendere. exorcism is to be held. or to be telesthaesic or clair- voyant (ignota lingua loqui pluribus verbis vel loquentem intelligere: distantia et occulta patefacere. For the Roman Ritual lays down very good practical reasons conditions for the diagnosis of the possessed if the spectacular rite of solemn. but also layout public solemnity. . not only clerics . for instance.. . diabolic possession ^$ Nothing has yet been said about distinct from any other diabolic activity in human affairs. to whom it belongs to decide if one of diabolic possession. than is less commonly practised heretofore.. for weal or woe. It strict enjoins that this rite is to be performed only very excepcaution: the candidate must tionally and with the greatest to understand. But that possession must be limited to these cases in which the extreme and spectacular measure of solemn public be thought to be warranted. and the term is generally used only in those cases in which the subject appears to be under the more or less chronic control of an 'alter ego' which manifests paranormal knowledge or powers. . . is required the express and specific permission of the the case in question Bishop. . neither does exorcism may the regular which is to be understood the invocation of superior. to defeat the diabolic) to these solemn occasions. There are at the times of entry and liturgical exorcisms for all Church limit exorcism (by candidates for baptism departure in the life of grace (i. Fr Priimmer's Manual of Moral Theology.e. and whether or not a is truly But privately and withpublic exorcism is expedient. Tor solemn and public exorcism . its frequent most the even use is encouraged respectable and conby servative authors. We may quote. languages least at or talk to able be fluently. public. divine and angelic power. There would indeed seem to be no very hard and fast distinction or any generally accepted definition: it would seem to differ only in degree. which he has never learned. et id genus alia}. exorcism for and in danger of death).

' Priimmer Hermit casting out devils. 15 ff. confirmed by discussions with psychiatrist friends. The casting out of devils by Beelzebub is recognized by Christ as perfectly possible (Luke u. quotes the moral is much to be desired that the ministers Noldin: 'It theologian of the Church should perform simple exorcism more frequently. he invokes Divine is to say. that of course exorcism it does not necessarily always produce any is not automatic . a power. but though the perceptible result may be the same. strongly suggests that the names whereby mental diseases are classified are purely descriptive. from casting the finger of God'. both in purpose and in method.). This writer's limited acquaintance with psychiatric literature. 187 people may pronounce bidden to the laity laypeople as St Catherine of Siena and St Anthony the . . is power. remembering the words of the Lord. has not modern psychopathology disposed of the whole conception of diabolic them out 'by - Has not science made it plain that what more credulous ages considered to be the signs of an indwelling devil are now all tabbed and docketed as manic-depression. question must be asked. . a commission of the affair to higher power. exorcisms. which is beyond his own essentially a religious and not a magical act. schizophrenia. We need to beware of assuming too readily that a new name necessarily involves a new explanation which refutes the old. It that is not the utilization of higher power for predetermined ends. or to attempt a definitive answer to these questions without a more thorough understanding of all the terms than this writer possesses. He warns us. 2' 5 ' : immediate or visible effectj or perhaps any effect at all. The exorcist does not act in his own name. hysteria. "In my name with or without the knowledge they shall cast out devils of the subject. for nowhere is this forand we read in history of such holy . epilepsy. paranoia and the rest? possession? Do we now devils not know 5 are 'really that what were then thought to be unassimilated unconscious complexes? It is dangerous to be dogmatic. to say. however. that control. the Finally.DEVILS AND COMPLEXES . and in no sense at all cover etiological . it is to be sharply distinguished.

be as it So long was by Freud the in his earlier and unconscious consisted of more sanguine days. as it The word 'complex'.e. could be supposed. His definii. would not this would whom. in St Thomas. But (as we volume) this watertight concep- was later abandoned even by Freud be little doubt that it fails entirely to can there and himself. a boundary concept all 'covers quote from his glossary in Psychological Types] not are which conscious. for seen. Nor very good description of Thomist devils . 'save the phenomena'. psychophysical dispositions in will. psychotherapy. the term 'unconscious' which (to hypothetical Grenzbegriff. in most diabolic origin 'causes' cases. waste by-product. to are understood (which seem in no way ^as be to any great extent). isolated from consciousness. for instance. For is purely a Jung. as we have seen. there could be some hope cally produced that the devil could be have seen elsewhere in tion of the unconscious scientifically this vapourized. that once or repressed material that had nothing but the rejected automatimind's the been in the individual's consciousness. to invalidate such conceptions of their we find. not related tion of unconscious complexes in the same glossary is partiof cularly interesting and relevant: he calls them 'groups psychic contents. leading thus own in the unconscious. To the extent that their respective psychosomatic seem. more especially such paranormal with diabolic phenomena as have historically been associated serious few to-day depth-psychologists possession. it seems.l88 for certain GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS is explanations: that to say they are syndromes or no more than labels are commonly which symptoms associated together. as we have the devil must always employ and agency. indispensable although found on examination to take us little further. The definition might be a or angels. those psychic contents or processes to the ego in a perceptible way'. Probably would presume to offer any positive definition or complete causal explanation of the unconscious at all. functioning a life of their arbitrarily and autonomously.. whence they can at any moment hinder or further conscious acts'. let alone offer it as an adequate causal explanation of anything else.

Medieval man rightly saw no inconsistency between subjecting the insane to shock-treatment (a ducking in a cold pond or a vigorous thrashing). not mutually exclusive. When the theologian says that somebody is afflicted by the devil. which (as Dom Oswald Sumner has shown in a study on St John 1 Climacus) has much in common with the recorded conflicts of the Desert Fathers with devils.e.. and the belief that the devil was behind it all on the contrary the victim could thus be released from the devil by depriving him of the instruments of his dominion. Whether by exorcism. The Psychology of (Guild of Pastoral Psychology.S. each describes an observed occurrence from a different viewpoint. however. We can describe this 'casting out' in the language of depth-psychology as the objectification of the complex. Deep analysis itself will commonly mean a confrontation with the Adversary. in a different ratio formalis qua. each term may be. Finally.B.. it must be made clear that we do not of course contend that 'devils' and 'complexes' are altogether synonymous and interchangeable terms. the hoped-for result was the same the casting out of the devil. the invoking of superior power against the devil himself. When the psychologist says he is suffering from an unassimilated autonomous complex. while the meanings are different. and commonly is. i. referable to the selfsame phenomenon or occurrence. .DEVILS AND COMPLEXES 189 does the therapeutic success of psychiatry or analysis dispose of diabolic agency. but the net result on the symptomatic level does not seem to be anything very different. he is describing his situation in relationship to God. Our contention is that the meanings of the two sets of terms (the theological and the psychopathological) are. and we would offer for expert consideration the suggestion that. Lecture 63). or. Oswald Sumner. a church or a tomb). as the scholastics would say. Each speaks a different language. a progressive assimilation of the Shadow. and its dissociation from the conscious ego. the Desert Fathers St John Climacus. i. he is describing an inherent functional disorder. or by some psychological or physical performance on or by the sufferer. or to something like narcotherapy (incubation in a cave. O.


XI GNOSIS. pathological must admit the fact. G. . and I know of two schools in Germany which openly declare themselves Gnostic. That there is a general interest in these matters is a truth which cannot be denied. and that their moral teachings do not baulk at the shadow-side of life. Even in the form of its European revival. The modern movement my [Modern Man] We . The spiritual currents of the present have. in fact. theosophy. these are pure Gnosticism in a Hindu dress. I am not thinking merely of the interest in the psychoanalysis of Freud. together with its continental sister. their offence to good taste notwithstanding. the Hindu Kundalini- Toga shows this clearly. and so forth. astrology. a deep affinity with Gnosticism. . Jung that first gave me any idea that there might be more to it than a bygone form of nonof no interest to myself or sensical.systems is is these movements the interest in scientific negligible. Compared with psychology . but of the widespread interest in all sorts of psychic phenomena as manifested in the growth of spiritualism. What is striking about Gnostic that they are based exclusively upon the manifestations of the unconscious. One passage in particular aroused interest: is somehow fascinated by the almost manifestations of the unconscious mind. however difficult it is for us to understand that something which previous ages have discarded should suddenly command our attention. We which is numerically most impressive is undoubtedly Theosophy. GNOSTICISM in IT AND FAITH was the numerous references to gnosis and gnostics the writings of C. And as every person informed on 191 . There is even a Gnostic church in France to-day. can compare it only to the flowering of Gnostic thought in the first and second centuries after Christ. Anthroposophy. fanatical superstition to any modern man.

and that he does so without reference to any traditional creed. but rather in the Gnostic sense of should be wrong in seeing mere caricature or masquerade when the movements already mentioned try to give themselves scientific airs. An obstinate adherent of an 'obsolete creed may be expected to have a somewhat different angle on the subject from that of Dr Jung. but one which may not perhaps be without some psychological and 3 cultural importance. turns his attention to the psyche with very great expectations. Modern Man in Search of a Soul. 239. present situation with that how frequent are his and how often he compares our which confronted them some two thousand years ago. We their knowledge-content seems to accord with his own experience of the deeps of psychic life. passionate interest the statement holds in these movements arises undoubtedly from psychic energy which can no longer be invested in obsolete forms of religion I do not believe that I am going too far when I say that modern man. The subject concerns us. in contrast to his nineteenth-century brother. . I would suggest. not only for the reasons indicated by Dr Jung. into gnosis and gnosticism. 1 Readers of Jung's books know references to the gnostics. no longer has psychoc i. but also because Jungian psychology in its later developments is itself often suspected of something very like gnosticism. 'The Zurich school of Jung'. their doing so is rather an indication that they are actually pursuing 'science' or knowledge instead of the faith which is the essence of Western religions. and to ask what is to be understood by this contrast between the Taith which is the essence of Western religions' and ps'ychic experience and knowledge. He holds them valid only in so far as religious experience. The modern man abhors dogmatic postulates taken on faith and the religions based upon them. the subject of occultism will true in this field as well.ig2 The GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS testify. pp. pronounces Hans Prinzhorn. 238. and perhaps more critically. It is worth while to inquire more closely.

Strauss in his noteworthy presidential address to the Medical Section of the British Psychological Society.GNOSIS.' 2 Similar qualms have been expressed by Dr E. but they do indicate that gnosticism is by no means an issue with which we have nothing to do. Nevertheless there is general agreement to label as gnosticism the characteristics of a luxuriant outcrop of 1. Hindu. No. a mysticism without discipline. requires esoteric association with the Master/ More recently and more moderately. 22. B. number of the same review. 2. we must understand that there never was such a thing as gnosticism in the sense of a single sect. N. 4 and Psychiatry . XXI. Oct. Psychotherapy. 1952. British Journal of Medical Psychology.. etc. This must not mislead us into supposing that there was only one gnosis in fact there were almost as many gnoses as there were people who called themselves gnostics or who have been called gnostics by later historians. Vol. It should be added that these historians are by no means always agreed as to who should and who should not be called : gnostics. First of all. Buddhist. GNOSTICISM therapeutic actuality: it AND FAITH 193 represents a philosophy which. 3. Quo Vadimus?' i. . it may be profitable to* controversies to inquire into the gnosticism of the past. 24. and the which it gave rise. for 1 appreciation. i -i i. in order to see if they have anything to teach us who are confronted with similar problems to-day. p. or a single coherent body of belief or practice. February 1952. charge of gnosticism has been laid against Jung by Martin Buber in Merkur. so that in the end there remains a museum of religious experiences. However difficult the task. Dr Jung follows common usage in speaking of 'The Gnosis'. its Limitations. collector's items. its Nature. In Psychological Types and elsewhere. prompting a vigorous rejoinder from Jung and a further comment from Buber in the May. 'Religion 1948. its 5 Assumptions. Dr Karl Stern has qualified his approval of much of Jung's work with the misgiving that it 'frequently leads to some sort of non- committal mysticism. Since this paper was written the pp. with Christian. 3 This is not the place to examine these charges and misgivings.. The Commonweal.Y.

and the latter. But that much might be said of any of the great Greek thinkers and scientists of Socrates. Yet each claimed gnosis. is a Knowing One one who knows. to the Latin cognosce. then. In his extensive study of the 1 Hermetic literature and the Golden Dominican colleague development.194 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS variegated doctrines. i. none of whom would we think of as gnostics. in his Stromata. presents as the true gnostic precisely the mature is simply a Greek akin to the Sanscrit jnana. i. OjP. to the English / know. Plato or Aristotle. . Paris 1944). and even to be gnostic. J. But our task of getting a clear-cut picture is still further complicated by the fact that these sects themselves are clearly the inheritors of ideas. must recall that the word 'gnosis' We word which means knowledge: it is A : : classical Greek philosophy and science: nay further. the success of gnosticism would seem to be largely due to the intellectual bankruptcy and scepticism the distrust both of the senses and of the reason which had been produced by the later phases of Greek intellectualist thought. (Collection 'Etudes Bibliques'. or claims to know. Festugiere. La revelation d Hermes Trismegiste. many of which in greater or less degree claimed to be themselves in some way Christian. gnostic. my Professor Festugiere has traced that To Age of Greek inquiry and A. its sources. was by no means confined to adherents of those sects. things unknown (= unconscious) to the generality of men. There were few more severe critics of what we would now call gnosticism than the pagan philosopher Plotinus or the Christian Father Clement of Alexandria. myths and practices which ante-date Christianity by several centuries. sects and practices which were particularly in evidence in the first two or three centuries of the Christian era. that (with modifications) kindred ideas. Vol. myths and practices survived by many more centuries those sects which historians are agreed to label as gnostic. and further by the fact that the claim to gnosis. Indeed. contemplative. Catholic. the gnosis which we find in gnosticism stands in striking contrast to that sort of 'knowledge' which had been sought by wise.

and the wandering sophists were their business to arouse distrust for the senses making and for reason among the populace. a reversion to myth.GNOSIS. The philosophers themselves had perhaps contributed much to their own undoing. frustration and guilt. The psychological law of compensation teaches us that the hypertrophy of one set of functions and attitudes. reason. and at the same time failed utterly to fulfil the psychological and social functions which they had met. a profound sense of the chaos and . Rational thought demanded the existence of God indeed. The established religions themselves the cult of the gods of Olympus. or rather the importation and adaptation of foreign myths and the formation of new myths. in that 'Golden Age' itself. It must suffice us here. We must leave to scholars to discuss the origin of the new cults and practices which came to try to fill the vacuum and which. to see in this movement a great reaction of introversion. The charge of 'atheism' brought against Socrates was not altogether misplaced. Already. a contempt for the body and for all bodily manifestations. and the consequent atrophy of . a distrust of. to the classical cult of the body. to its search for clarity succeeded a search for mystery and a love for mystification. a social ritual which seemed conflicts to intensify rather than to satisfy the individual's sense of loneliness. in our own psychological terms. to the philosopher's attempt to overcome and transmute phantasy and myth into exact logical concepts and scientific thought. to its confidence in reason. became what they know under the general heading of Hellenist 'mysteries'. GNOSTICISM AND FAITH 195 speculation succeeded that amorphous movement which we call Hellenism. and a hankering for some sort of revelation to its optimistic view of an ordered cosmos. if not a contempt for. sceptics were undermining their human it basic postulates. to increase his and need for personal liberation. begotten in a much more primitive and less individualized culture had become increasingly an exteriorized and perfunctory performance. but the inferentially established God of Aristotle precisely discredited the gods of the myths and cults. misery of the material world. trans- planted to Greek soil.

s. VII. call forth the compulsive domination of those opposites.' See supra. and which gave her her very raison d'etre. but also in the very content and pattern of many of their visions as they have been recorded for us. Scott. not only in the supreme value they attribute to immediate interior vision and enlightenment. the of necessity is forced to flow back. by way of unconscious sources] an immediate vision as contrasted with a wisdom that comes . 'Gnosti- 2. suggest. was itself in its origins a gnosis. E. But at this point it becomes necessary to introduce a distinction between Gnosis and a Gnostic on the one hand. and Gnosticism and what we may call a Gnosticist on the other. passim. Hastings' Encyc. some of the later 'Christian' gnostics claimed the Naassenes. by 1 seeking'. as c i. F.. in addition to being a gnostic. if only because it is a profound mistake to suppose that. On the other hand. We in the heyday of Greek thought and science was characterized main by an unprecedented differentiation of extraverted thinking and sensation. cism'. in rejecting gnosticism. the revenge of introverted feeling and intuition is exactly what we should expect. 'to the word gnosis there always adheres the suggestion of a knowledge obtained supernaturally [i. for instance to continue and adapt the pagan quite explicitly Hellenistic we learn from Hippolytus. of Religion and Ethics. may. I that be said the If it more still be may fairly specific. Already in the early pagan Hellenistic writings. the main body of the Christian Church thereby rejected gnosis or could find no room for the gnostic. . 'Revelation and the Unconscious*. It neither did nor could. The distinction is of importance. centripetally. 2 mysteries. . By the latter I would understand one who.ig6 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS their opposites. .e. All forms of gnosticism display affinities with the Hellenist myths and mysteries. And this is speaking generally exactly what we find. to the interior world of the collective unconscious.v. Thwarted in its centrifugal flow into an external world which libido it is unable to assimilate and integrate. makes an ism' of his gnosis. The revelation which the Church herself accepted.

A dualism in the second place. to distinguish gnosticism by certain common characteristics of belief.GNOSIS. that gnosis 'puffeth up 5 . yet was a determined opponent of gnosticism. way and of the unconscious'. its twofold dualism. It is customary. GNOSTICISM to AND FAITH Clement of Alexandria. We will hear Jung's this own language in the Latin Vulgate transla- tion of that text: 'scientia inflaf gnosis inflates. Jung as 'perception by Closely allied to this. even solely. Church and Gnosis. C. and the rest. is the the supreme. I would suggest. is the assumption of the possibility of liberation. 20). which will be found in greater or less degree among all or most of these gnosticist sects. is a first place of mankind: who do Greek reality: who do know the saving mysteries. certain common patterns and features of the myths. we may recall. the of the gnostic's i. claimed be a gnostic. and those not: there are the favoured initiates. Burkitt. St Paul. by knowledge knowledge of that kind of introverted intuition which we have seen gnosis to be. and understanding 'intuition' with this'. certain common practices. and gnosticism In certainly valid. love or deeds. value attributed to gnosis itself. often and foremost among these. Elsewhere St Paul passes the remark. we have already remarked. of field there is the domain of Spirit. there are those A dualism in the necessary consequence. First perhaps more primary. and yet could warn Timothy against the 'godless chatter' and contradictions of what is 'falsely called gnosis' of (I Tim. Gnosticism is essentially esoteric and sectarian and (in the sense) aristocratic. 6. though assumed than openly declared. but primarily. whose truth every analyst is aware. accounted gnosis among one of the most precious of the gifts of the Spirit to the Christian Church. not by faith. Quoted by F. authorities will agree with Professor Legge to define gnosticism as 'the belief that man's place in the next world Most is determined by the knowledge of it that he acquires in 1 At least tacitly underlying all truly gnosticist writings. a key which us the distinguishing psychological feature of all to open as opposed to mere gnosis. . remark we have.

and which is Chaos. in origin of the 'external world'. this Elsewhere Jung has frequently explained the mechanism of its opportunities. which lies outside the Pleroma. . It is these very tion. which he expressly calls the this the Pleroma. (Danger itself 5 Fosters the rescuing power). which a 'good God sees that what he has called into being 5 a TalP from the is 'good . with its dangers and is identified with the newly activated function of inward Ego vision. Yet it may also signify a rejuvenation. In analysis of it is a critical juncture. intoxicated. inherently evil. and Very good'. of a familiar psychological condition: indeed the which symptoms of that tricky phase of inflated introversion a commonplace in most deep analyses. not in and through. and the more . Such are the presuppositions of every gnosticist mythos: it will seek to account for the not in terms of a creation. the Totality. for it is at once the moment of moment the also but inward intensest greatest vision. but in terms of Pleroma. of that vision danger when the very fascination of the power threatens to swallow consciousness and to alienate it from its environment. and over against world of Matter. overwhelmed by it. type of inflation. the All. to see in not. but from the 'external world of matter. and which indeed is often stabilized in certain paranoiac psychoses.198 own GOB AND THE UNCONSCIOUS inward-turned vision. expression. hostile. that we may be tempted to see in this a sign of decadence. alike will be concerned to impart a gnosis whereby the soul may be 5 liberated. difficult for the psychologist a rationalizawe doctrines the may say. I think. . : Wo Gefahr ist Wachst das Rettende auch. And indeed we have symbols on gnosticist gems and charms in which the material world is pictured as 5 Its mythos and its praxis altogether outside the mandala. for as Holderlin says : . Dr Jung has written of this condition in is the essay I have already quoted These claims of psychic life are so pressing compared to similar claims in the past.

So. overwhelmed. the greater will be the risk of identification with the newfound. a rationalization of the one-sided. a : Knowing One: one who sees that Inner World of Man' which is hidden from Tom. Dick and Harry nay (and here lies the danger) may fancy himself its lord and master in the very fact of consciously assimilating it. hitherto unconscious. We have heard Dr Jung say that the gnostic all its is teachings 'do not baulk at the shadow-side of life'. As we read some of the records and accounts of any ancient we can hardly fail I think to recognize traces of these selfsame symptoms. Their writings show them to have been quite at home with the dark and noxious powers of the unconscious: the Serpent. for instance. The doctrine of the evil of matter is plainly. The external world was clean outside his Pleroma. What is light to the 'average sensual man' had become the dark of the gnosticist.GNOSIS. : body and works. introverted attitude. That profoundly true if we understand it to mean that the gnosticists were intrepid explorers of that side of life which is shadow to the 'average sensual man' of to-day. power: with the Saviour-Hero dream-figure who often emerges at this stage to quell the inner forces of evil which had hitherto held the soul captive in its neurosis. which constantly betrays itself in gnosticist tenets. The subject is now ' indeed a gnostic. carried away by it. was the principal cult-object of the Ophite gnostics. and that in this knowledge lies are the inevitable corollary of the identification salvation of Ego with the inward vision. his All hostile to it and irreconcil: . his mastery of the collective. archetypal world has mastered him comgnosticist. too. I think. and in seeking to master and possess it he is in danger of becoming increasingly mastered and possessed by it. 5 he is fascinated. But this is not to say that they had no 'shadow' of their own. GNOSTICISM AND FAITH 199 perhaps the previous habitual attitude has been extraverted. and all of them were on more or less familiar terms with demoniacal figures. His 'enlightenment . His sectarianism and his esotericism his conviction that he and his like alone know. is his equation of the external material world with evil his fear and hatred of the pletely.

the world of fact was his shadow. C. pp. private terminology.20O able with GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS it. We We shall be wise to take with a pinch of salt the assertions of the unfriendly critics of gnosticism of its own time. also. It is doubtless possible to adduce many exceptions from the literature of gnosticism: I can only indicate general trends. I must trust I again very much what we might must insist that I shall not be misunderstood in drawing attention to the affinities between certain symptoms of gnosticism and those of inflation and even of certain psychoses. leisured classes that gnosticism flourished. Awfsdtze zur Zeitgeschichte. weird. and that was involve- ment in this material world. the use of foreign. of which Dr Jung has written in his diagnosis of rity. there was but one misfortune. it would seem. There was but one repentance required. Jung. light of the eyes to the true light of interior We shall not be surprised to find among some of the gnosticists other symptoms of inflation if not of alienation. my God. And his remark that it was chiefly among the wealthier. is contempt for the it). G. 1 body and especially for sex (we might say they had a reputation for erotomanic licentiousness. But neither can we be altogether surprised to be told by Irenaeus that. because of expect. love for long. 73 ff. There was but one sin any further involvement in this material world. for instance. highsounding but seemingly meaningless: a thing which every alienist knows as a favourite means of asserting one's superiofind also in their writings bloated. invented words and names. . Eloi lamma sabacthani? 'My God. grandiloquent language. For the gnosticist. and that was to turn from the false illumination. Absorbed in his lightsome world of phantasy. nor yet the genuineness or the profundity of their vision is in question. Neither the personal sincerity of these visionaries. that these are all generalities. preferably Oriental. notwithstanding the gnosticists' Adolf Hitler. languages which they plainly did not understand A (one gnostic supposed that 'Eloi. why hast thou forsaken me?' was esoteric 9 an a Hebrew name for the Divinity). Neologism. An i.

as if it were a seed. One of the best known of the gnostic sects was that of Valentinus. set forth more Emanations in couples. And many of the gnostics were certainly no lunatics. and to take a look at one or two of the gnostic myths themselves. In the earlier part of an anonymous gnostic work called the Pistis Sophia we may witness. Incomprehensible and invisible. as recorded by St many Irenaeus. and He alone was capable of comprehending the greatness of the Father. besides of the more unhealthy features I have mentioned. Aletheia (Truth) emanated. These Aeons. The Valentinian mythos. eternal and unbegotten. . And with Him was Sige (Silence). gave birth to Nous (Mind). But it is time to leave these generalities about gnosticism. to the womb of Sige. and wishing to glorify Him on their own account. perceiving for what purpose He had been produced.GNOSIS. having received this seed and becoming pregnant. having been produced to the glory of the Father. opens as follows: In invisible and ineffable heights the perfect Aeon called Bythos (Abyss) was pre-existent. also Himself sent forth Logos (Reason) and Zoe (Life) He is the father of all those who come after him. The very concentration of the gnostic's libido in the activation of the interior images may make of his loss our profit. Along with Him. He was throughout endless ages in serenity and quiescence. This Nous was both similar and equal to Him who had produced Him. a courageous process of confrontation with the archetypal images which can arouse nothing but amazed and reverent admiration. She then. By the intercourse of Logos and Zo were brought forth Anthropos (Man) and Ekklesia (Church. . Community) Each of these pairs is masculo-feminine. GNOSTICISM AND FAITH 2OI experienced psychologist knows better than to despise even lunatic ravings: he knows that in them he may find an insight into the interior life of the psyche seldom given to the so-called sane and 'normal'. And Bythos conceived the idea to send forth from Himself the Origin of all and committed this Emanation. and the origin and formative principle of the whole Pleroma. Anthropos . And Nous.

We ourselves hardly expect inspiration from the condensed potted myths of a classical dictionary. The two pairs of opposites. But this example has the advantage of being comparatively simple and intelligible. Vigiliae Christianae^ Vol. Patrikos (? Paternal Ancestry) and Ekklesia . Monogenes (Only-Begotten) and Makaria (Bliss). produced twelve more Aeons: Parakletos (Strengthener or Comforter) and Pistis (Faith). too. Ekklesiastikos (?) and Makariotes (Blissful). and I. Aeinous (?) and Synesis (Judgment or Conscience). in which gnostic myths abound and with which they commonly begin. it seems to me. its Silence (unconsciousness?): the emergence from both of a transcendent co-equal consciousness or Nous. Ageratos (Undecaying. i translation by G. in their turn producing a Dekad five more six more pairs: it is pairs of opposites. i. 1 Here we have one of those preliminary accounts of the emanation of a variety of figures from an unknown and unbegotten source. Wisdom). The names. 'The Valentine'. together with Ekklesia. Original adapted from Doctrine of . Anthropos also. whose names are the following: Bythios (Deep) and Mixis (Mixture). i. 4). but in fairshould be recognized that Irenaeus is giving us only a condensed summary of a probably much more detailed and example it interesting story. Permanence) and Henosis (Oneness) . Adversus Haereses. and a Dodekad almost too systematic and intelligible. the 'endless genealogies' of which we read in St Paul's First Epistle to Timothy (i. and Theletos (masc. and its feminine consort Aletheia or Truth. Elpis (Hope). male and female. is hardly i. Irenaeus. Quispel. These are. 2. Autophyes (Self-producing) and Hedone (Pleasure) Akinetos (Immutable) and Synkrasis (Blending). Metrikos (? Maternal Ancestry) and Agape (Charity). Such a myth as this. are fairly intelligible Greek words. they are almost personified abstractions.2O2 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS sent forth ten other Aeons. It cannot be said that this ness is particularly colourful or inspirational. in all probability. I. An unnamable Abyss. proper name from Thelo=I will) and Sophia (fern.

of the primitive pre-philosophical and pre-scientific myth. in the gnosticist the very opposite of all rational symbols has been myth. the world of rational symbols has not yet been constituted. 1 But here. methodical. Magic no longer possesses anything but ineffectual rites to impose on recalcitrant nature. the characteristic gnosticist attitude concepts. repressed. 2O3 We Testament or of Homer of which. came R. God both involve a refusal to turn of the Living worship man's relation to the Divine into a technique or a mystical . the Iliad . and philosophy has still to invent its own At this possibly privileged incantations for bringing beautiful abstractions to life. of intellectual Moreover. GNOSTICISM AND FAITH a myth at all. in the lyric preaching of the prophets of Israel and in the epic of Homer. formula'. p. BespalofF. it is more like allegorized philosophy. to transcendent powers is precisely magical as opposed to in Frazer's familiar sense of both these terms religious and the elaboration of a technique and a mystical formula to govern man's relation to the Divine describes exactly the 3 are not surprised to learn that gnosticist gnosticist s aim. Its abstractions : have been transmuted back into figures of the imagination no longer are they the seed. differentiated thought.. 112 (New York. we commonly have The world of systematic^ and gone nay. but rather the fruit. On Books). but being repressed still exercises its sway. has been this. moment. rather. in her book On the Iliad Rachel BespalofF writes: 'The ambiguous universe of demoniac forces is just receding from view. Bollingen .. a particular mode of thought is evolved which cannot be expressed The religion of Fatum and the . And so far from the gnosticist mode of thought' being 'inexpressible to be i. the pure free phantasy uncontaminated by the pale cast of thought. . We praxis tus of concerned increasingly with a vast apparacharms and amulets and magical pass. in conceptual form.are very far indeed from the freedom and the innocence. . producing a hybrid which is neither pure imagination nor yet clear.words. We are a long way even from that world of the Old GNOSIS.

of these Beings are altogether less rational and more fanciful In yet other gnosticist myths they often fail to yield any intelligible the interpretation of value of their letters. to us as archetypal figures spaceless entities which are known of the collective unconscious (as are the 'Eternals' of William Blake). names according to the numerical may sometimes produce significant have failed. results meaning whatever though Gematria. not all the gnosticist myths of emanations the so simple. the names. males of of Aeons distributed in sets neatly paired but a populous Pleroma including the Treasury of the Light.2O4 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS sample in conceptual form'. Rulers. Self-Begottens with their Begottens. too. twenty-four Mysteries. are quite Truly. Houses. Guardians. and an unspecified number of Unbegottens. . 'Aeon tells us at once that we have to do with these timeless. seven Voices. so rational. which give us little more than the dramatis personae of the where dictionaries subsequent stories the preliminary differentiations of the i See Lee and Bond Materials for the Study of the Apostolic . Here certainly we feel somewhat -nearer the authentic dreamland of uncontrolled phantasy. 1 But still. Spheres. At beginning of the numerous and more a far Pistis Sophia we are introduced to not we There find. as well as the 'Child of the Child which is 'the Place of the Twin Saviour'. seven 'other Amens'. Pairs and Unpaireds. twenty-four Invisibles. 9 Angels. three Triple Powers. Lords. Authentics. five Marks. and females. In the Blake) we must word 'Emanation' (another word used by at once recognize our own word 'Promasculine-feminine pair jection'. three Amens. twenty-four Aeons. one has the impression of being nearer the realm of sophisticated allegory than pure myth. the 5 we have seen is almost too The very word readily reducible to scientific concepts. The of opposites 3 is language very familiar to analytical psychologists. twenty-four Places. five Helpers. But far more interesting than these 'endless genealogies'. the Head of the Universe. Ministers. Archangels. Dekans. so schematic. : Gnosis. just a handful complicated dramatis personae.

masculine controlled and controlling Will. forbidden passion for the Father. 'Her passion was a desire to know the Father. as doubtless did Valentinus himself. see the Freudian myth itself as a shadow We of the more metaphysical yearnings of the finite for the infinite. the story goes on. had she not been restricted by that power. ii. the Horos or Limit plays the repressive function of the Freudian incest-prohibiting Censor. Sophia was subject to every sort of emotion sorrow she suffered because she did not obtain understanding . she would have been annihilated in His sweetness and dissolved into His infinite being. she finds herself im- impossible. thus understood. which was actually hubris. tortured and subjected to the tyranny of the other Aeons in the material chaos. because she aimed at the she did not [as 5 perfect Father fell into extreme agonies because of the unfathomable depth of the Father's unsearchable nature and her love for Him. because desire apart 5 could Nous alone] comprehend the allthe Abyss. Finiteness]. for she craved to grasp His greatness. GNOSTICISM involved in the drama of the 5 AND FAITH inner conflicts 205 are the subsequent stories of the Tall from the Pleroma. Horos [the Limit. moreover she was in despair. and of the redemption of the lost and afflicted soul.' 1 Then. . She was. i. she prisoned. alone. Unable to realize her hope. In the Valentinian version 'the very latest and youngest of all the Aeons. Or we may. The story continues : Left without. in Freudian terms. we are told (and the psychological insight is breath-taking). the product of her own disordered emotions. which is. Irenaeus (Quispel) op.libido GNOSIS. Sophia-Acamoth [feminine Wisdom] suffers passion and from her consort who is Theletos. I. cit. who exiled her from the Pleroma. we are told. may. penetrating more deeply.y^zr lest life should leave her as light had already done. 'led astray by disordered love. read this story as a transparent account of the formation of an Electra complex the impossible. Always yearning for Him. The root of : i.

xi. was inherent in all these elements. In the Pistis Sophia (which. origin. concealed in the other three passions. But then. her persecution and agony with the reductive phase of the analytical process. the hubris and repression of Sophia. . iv. 1 the higher world. Thus suffering was lack of inward been who had the of invisibly present bereft Logos being within her. I suggest. But glance taking texts actual few the of gnosticist very perplexing text one I want to say something that have been preserved for us took which about the struggle place between the main body and Christians of orthodox gnosticism. has many affinities with the Valentinian gnosis) of her and Fall her of told at much greater length the story this at another before rescue by Jesus. fear. cit. I do so the more readily because I believe that no more than is gnosticism itself are the issues of that conflict dead in the human psyche i. and I. but she could not achieve because she was prevented by the Limit (Horos). water from the . the soul of the whole universe derived its earth arose from her despair. Irenaeus (Quispel) loc. that the story of her salvation by Jesus. . and supplicated There follows 5 Pleroma. she raised herself timidly condensed form of the critical Irenaeus. the We shall not. from which the this world was made: from her longing for the bliss of Ideal World. I.206 all this GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS vision (agnosis). . she brought forth Jesus in remembrance of . (agnosis] lay into the been When she had empty space expelled devoid of insight (gnosis) which she had herself created by her trespass. while her tion of fire. but with a kind of shadow. story cannot be denied pathos and poignancy. air from the materializaagitation caused by her sorrow. if not a work of a Valentinian we are sect. . causing death and destruction. she strained herself to discover that light which had forsaken her purpose her. her reintegration into the is Jesus. as lack of insight . This was the origin and essence of Matter. we are told: 'When she had passed through every state of suffering. be far wrong in equating this part of the story Even in the the light which had forsaken her.

Buber. The gnosticists but they were wealthy and influential. Already. that Christ's for all life and teaching and death and rising had been men. disciples. For the Christian. and Tertullian and Hippolytus. this opposition was immeasurably cannot read the Christian Fathers of the early centuries. 109. They may be briefly summarized. let us put ourselves in the position of those early Christians who accepted the as Professor Gospels and the Apostolic writings. 11 ff. GNOSTICISM of to-day. 142 (Melbourne University Press. we are all in more or less conscious degree inheritors also of its distinctive values and attitudes. The case against gnosticism reduced itself to a few very simple heads which seemed to cut clean across what was believed to be the very essence of the Christian revelation. and come to the knowledge of the truth' See Mamre by Martin Buber. and the tradition received were probably not very numerous. I AND FAITH 2O7 : have already suggested that every analysant is a in some measure a gnostic (I do not say a gnosticist) One who has experienced some interior vision of Knowing the archetypal. i. a manifestation that 'God wills all men to be that there saved. 1942). endeavouring to be faithful to the increased. And whether we profess orthodox Christianity or not. writing Testament revelation and the opposition between the Old 1 fundamental assumptions and attitudes of the gnosticist. a fundamental was there has a as said. Gospel witness. alone in possession of the saving superior. Jew. exclusivism of the gnostic. pp. Whether we share their beliefs or not. We know that Valentinus himself aspired to the chief bishopric of Christendom the See of Rome. across the Christian conviction clean cut This knowledge. favoured people. . also pp. without especially Irenaeus in gnosticism a very serious menace saw that they seeing which threatened the purity and simplicity of the We original from the first Gospel message. . In the first place there was the very sectarianism and Each gnosticist sect was a chosen. collective psyche or at least (like the outer is probably involved in fringe of the old gnostic's followers) a transference on someone who has.GNOSIS..

but because it was for the whole man. In the Valentinian gnosis (and this feature is common to gnosticism) not only was liberation not for everybody. Matter was evil. and at most could pass through it. but Christ is All and in all. slave nor free man. barbarian nor Scythian. what they already called a Catholic. Christ. The poor had had the Gospel preached to them.2O8 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS was consequently no more a particular Chosen People. but a universal. they believed. The Christian Catholic. which the Valentinians expressly identified with the imagination) from the body and from the psyche. really suffer and die in fact and history. not only for all. circumcised nor uncircumcised. contrary. but for that very reason he must 'abhor the the evil world of generation. 'there cannot be Greek nor JW. to suffer and to die. the AllFather. It was only for the Pneuma (the spirit. in the sphere of sensation as well as of intuition that was unthinkable. in and through the flesh. One and all the Christian gnosticists were docetists the Christ-Saviour only appeared to be a man. The Christian revelation of the Incarnation and the Resurrection of the flesh was a message of salvation of the whole man. Virgin's . This transcendent Entity might somehow have operated every now and again through the man Jesus but become a Man. the saving message was to be proclaimed from the housetops. as water through a pipe' as Valentinus himself put it. . 11). interior intuition. to be born of Mary. c womb 3 . was 'kath hdori with the whole not only because it was for all men. not an inferior Aeon but the Nous co-equal with the All-Father. was certainly some divine Spirit. and no mere part of him. but All and in all. the Abyss. in accord faith. The apostolic on the witness. if not one substance with the Absolute. : the whole world of exterior sensation was repudiated in the supposed interests of its opposite. and that he was made flesh and dwelt among us in time and space the world of fact and sensation.' Yes. an Aeon from the Pleroma. 'Here/ the Epistle to the Colossians had said (3. himself uncontaminated. Church. it was not for the whole of each. was to the effect that Jesus was himself the Logos.

And this is the message we have heard from him and proclaim to you. I John i.' These words from the beginning of the first Epistle of John might almost have been written perhaps they were fellowship with us: . WithCatholics did not what the Catholic beliefs . 1-5. and in him there is no darkness at all. the were not antagonistic to Catholicism.. be open to the fullness of the mysteries.GNOSIS. The esoteric gnostic revelations were not anyhow for such gnosticists as these . alone really knew as the and practices themselves really meant. I think we may express this words of Bacon: 'Animus ad amplituantinomy dinem Mysteriorum pro modulo suo dilatetur\ non Mysteria ad Let the conscious mind. with our hands whom we this have Word looked upon. so that you may have . Catholicism. They were something that Irenaeus found much more trying: they were patronizingly superior. angustias animi constringantur\ so far as it can. let not the mysteries be constrained to fit the narrow best in the c i. and here we touch upon Dr Jung's antinomy of gnosis and faith. the Life was made and manifest. the gnosticists. that which we have seen we proclaim to you also. 'That which was from the Beginning. for the average Tom. Again we have a sidelight on gnosticism which is by no means out of date. and of Life. written to underline the opposition of primitive Catholic and Evangelical Christianity to gnosticism. .. out committing Dr Jung. heard and we saw it . It is instructive to note in passing. and our fellowship is with the Father and with his son Jesus Christ. while the Catholics were antagonistic to gnosticism. The hidden mystery whom we touched have heard. that God is 1 Light. But the opposition cuts deeper than that. It is the opposition of those committed to the Whole to the view which would restrict the Whole to a Part. they held. was all very well for hoi polloi. Dick or Harry. and they. that according to the Catholic Irenaeus himself. . GNOSTICISM AND FAITH 2OQ of existence was manifested precisely in space and time and history. and within the field of the external senses.

the Church herself would be incomplete uncatholic. for gnosis. conflicts . inward-turned to : of the Mothers. Gnosticism says in effect to know is alL The enlargement of consciousness. in the second the attitude. For while gnosticism has no room for faith. away from the chaos of the of fascinans' of fact and human history and society: cruel world hard. But it is : . Gnosis cannot be a substitute for faith. Let her rather recognize the insolubility of her conflict and the impossibility of her yearning. that is : the very hubris of your own Sophia. humbly accepting a Divine revelation is it knows it cannot fully comprehend. which imprisons her in the very matter which she despises and would subjects her to the cruel tyranny of the very archetypes she excel. there lies salvation. Know the names and origin of the the Realm archetypes and projections of the unconscious. faith has room. In the we have the attitude of the Unknown. and utilizing trans- cendent power and knowledge for its own ends and aggrandizement. In the Body of Christ are many members. The message of the Gospels and the apostolic writings was a message of salvation by faith.Acamoth her lust for the impossible comprehenson of the fathomless Abyss. but the possession of gnosis is part and parcel of the gifts to the faithful Ecclesia. the second essentially the attitude of magic. But then she will be no longer a gnosticist Sophia. let her be thankful for the restraint of the Horos who saves her from annihilation in infinite unconsciousness. Not so. know their be their and triumphs and falls and recoveries and you will master and will be saved. each with their several functions and those of the gnostic are among the most honourable. let her open her mind to the mysteries and not seek to enclose the mysteries in her mind. but certainly of gnosticism. Without the intuitive understanding of what in faith she believes. but perhaps she will be Pistis Sophia Faith-Wisdom.2IO faith in GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS first confines of the mind'. seeking to subject the mystery to the comprehension of Ego. and by faith operative in works of love. indeed need. not necessarily of gnosis. the 'mysterium tremendum et the archetypes. The first is the attitude of religion. says Faith.

will The have her introverted Church Cor. And indeed. or inflated. I have a suspicion that in the perplexing first two documents of the Pistis Sophia we have a record. 'If I have prophetic powers. given Faith and Love. so as to move mountains. Love never ends. She will have her esoterics: those with a deeper gnosis of the Divine mysteries. read in this light. radically gnosticist indeed. but have not love. it will pass away. I am Love is patient and kind. nay. if we may adopt the useful Sanscrit terminology. is not arrogant. . but also and no less. This theory would require a paper in itself to develop but it is a hypothesis which would solve many of the difficulties which the text has presented to scholars. also 13).' but when the perfect comes. After the introduction to the . probably a Valentinian. (I intuitives. of the titanic psychological visions and struggles of a gnosticist. and it is for the benefit of the whole body and not only for the individual member.' writes St Paul in a famous passage. the imperfect will pass away. Gnosis is not supreme it must be ruled by Faith and Hope and Charity. who has felt and faced the tension of his gnostic vision with the counterclaims of Catholic and Evangelical Christianity. and even if I have all faith. . selfless works of love and service enjoy a certain priority. her alchemists and cabbalists. . and. love is not jealous nothing. But never with the idea that theirs is a superior perfection denied to mankind at large. by Bhakti and Karma. for gnosis. not in despite of faith. . for it is in the visible image of God in man that the invisible God revealed in Jesus Christ is to be worshipped and served. . her contemplatives and mystics. complex heavenly hierarchy. eleven . Here the whole setting is typically gnosticist. is not only to be attained by Jnana (or Gnosis) nor by jfnana without Faith and Love. For our gnosis is imperfect.GNOSIS. we are shown Jesus on the Mount of Olives. . GNOSTICISM AND FAITH 211 gnosis in faith. . and understand all mysteries and all gnosis. . and the greatest of these is Charity. of which we have already spoken. but as : c . Union with God. it may be found to be a work which many of us in our day may study with personal profit.

It is her constant faith in the True Light. she Pistis psychological and perhaps most of psychological courage and patience. a encompassing all others. stage material in this conscious with linked be to its content is up other and the Psalms the case Scriptures with which the : familiar. the Light which she rediscovers in Jesus. the case But the sort. cisely the whole Pleroma of the gnosticists. one and Jesus is Saviour preare Aeons of the exposed. for more in still but insight into the interior world. and he has more to does from a blinding light which terrifies them. here. She has mistaken the light of the Aeons for the One to do. Here we it is a gnosis of salvation not by but indeed. that saves her. is no inferior Aeon. and a still greater corresponding misfortune. of at each all in its insistence that. and there is True Light in which she had previously believed. Pleroma by her proud into another error. not only in a lesson it is ordinary psychological interest. transcending. Disciples are already consciously not contending that in the Pistis Sophia I am we shall find the pure milk of the Gospels. gnosis and even upsetting in in conquering. but that had had to do only with the God of this world of tell them. this he change and decay. as in regular gnosticism. cast out from fallen has she but the for lust Father. She is not just Sophia is have gnosis Sophia Faith-Wisdom. Jesus. paradoxically in which the perils attached to the gnosis but by faith. so to speak. His humanity no doubt that it is in left little misty and ethereal. perhaps. the successive vision. He the relates how he has discovered Sophia. but we are that we have blood and flesh also with the historical Jesus of no attempt.212 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS to his disciples. certainly have if it is not. to divorce the man Jesus from the celestial Saviour-Christ. talking are well content with the revelation he has already made. one with the First Mystery which is also the twenty-fourth is still. he is it progressively dawns upon them. They years after the Resurrection. or an unimpeachably correct statement of Catholic belief. The story is told as a It is of extradialogue between Jesus and his disciples. of nothing is history of a gnosticist whose response to his very gnosis We .

too. . and still less Tertullian. He himself. I and betters in agreeing that we do not must join my elders know what it is all about. Towards the end of the story.' be regretted that the contemporary perhaps Christian critics of gnosticism were not always better psychologists. and. even the very sectarianism and exclusiveness of gnosticism is repudiated. Not only are . He is a busy. commonthat they were. in the course of the long and intrepid spiritual struggle which I i. but perhaps more understanding and indeed perhaps more experienced in the labyrinthine ways of the mind and the functions of its phantasies and mysteries. but I trust have not mocked. have dared to be critical. 1 but he is no psychologist. . with what it threatened to the faith and practice of which he believed himself the guardian. . Origen and Clement of Alexandria are no less firm. we now compassionate of ourselves. La Saint Irenee temoignage (Paris. mainly anxious that the flock entrusted to him be not led astray by hirelings. 'Maria the Magdalen. much more concerned with what the gnosticists said. GNOSTICISM AND FAITH 213 him from gnosticism. Irenaeus obviously is striving hard to be just and not to misrepresent the gnosticists. but we are compassionate of all from not all the races of mankind. . than with trying to understand sympathetically to why they said sense men making it.freeing GNOSIS... that are and that cruel. said she to Jesus.e. [i. They are easy game. inevitably. archetypal Forces] they should be delivered from the hands of the Receivers [presumably their come into the hands of the Rulers passive counterparts] It is which are cruel in the Darkness". There is a still greater figure in Catholic history. writes straight. See the monumental work Gnose 1947)valentinienne et le of F. . we may say perin the very crooked lines whereby God sometimes haps. M. that they should be delivered the Judgments that are cruel that they should . the planetary. whose scalding. Even he. ironic words forbid me. O. and who is discovering the 5 'rescuing power in the 'danger itself. conscientious diocesan bishop and pastor.P. de Sagnard. "My Lord. I. cannot restrain themselves from fun of the gnosticist's phantasies.

and of which the Gospel says. as with people whom I. may you be angry with me one favour of you. or how difficult it is to avoid mistakes. I must beg this [Knowing Ones]. . . to be free from the phantasies which arise within us. Let those be angry with you who know not how painful is the healing of the inner eye of man if not that image of the Sun in it is to behold its true Sun the sky which you know. Let those be angry with you who do not know how rare a thing it is.' 1 i. as you. lovingly and tranquilly. Lastly. Contra Epistolam Manichaeiy cap. "This was the true Light that enlighteneth every man that comes into this world".214 he GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS relates in his Confessions. if there be no bold presumption that it is already discovered and possessed. and I. I : "The Sun of Righteousness is risen upon me". 'who do not know with how great toil truth is attained. But for me to be angry with you. claim that we have already discovered the truth. at least. and had been an adherent of the great Manichaean movement which stands in direct line of succession to the gnostic sects of earlier centuries. For then only may we seek it. 3. in later years. impossible. Let us. and talk with you. Let us seek it together as something which is known to neither of us. Let those be angry with you who do not know what sighs and tears are needed if the real God is to be known even in the tiniest degree. with notes on gnosticism St Augustine prefaced some of his 'Let those be angry with you/ he says to the gnosticists of his time. Let us not. . is utterly written. on both sides. let those be angry with you who have never been led astray. have been led astray. do not claim to know. and which possessed many of their cannot do better than conclude my the words whereby. and how hard a thing. 'But in order that neither . on either side. . grant this at least that I may listen to you. had had his gnosticist phase. . lay aside all arrogance. But if I may not ask so much as this of you . but that Sun of which it is distinctive features.

or perhaps his son or some representative or substitute or effigy. and that the whole nation perish not. whose death and torment is somehow necessary if the life or power which he embodies. he prophesied*. is to survive or revive. and who was now anthropology and folklore. and with much of the excitement of a detective story. sleeplessly and anxiously awaiting his own murderer. but being the high priest for that year. and on which the people depend. words are attributed by the Fourth Gospel (John to Caiaphas. Glue leads to clue as Frazer's vast researches fan out into space and time. Frazer's . a divine king or priest. that the slayer and the slain should alike be some embodiment of divinity. a priest who had murdered his predecessor. combining encyclopaedic knowledge with rare literary grace and dramatic effect. ransacking the annals of history. recall. the literature of all nations. comparative religion. archaeology. Yet the pronouncement of Caiaphas might well have served as a motto for the whole work. set out to solve a mystery the mystery of a haggard. so far as I can in the twelve large volumes of Sir James George Frazer's The Golden Bough. . hunted 'priest of the wood* by the shores of Lake Nemi long ago. a priest who had plucked a golden bough.XII THE DYING GOD expedient for you that one man should die for the people.' These T is 1 1 50) us that 'he spoke not of himself. Frazer. are also told that it was this official utterance of the High Priest that decided the authorities to put Jesus of Nazareth to death. and it tells We This remarkable fact is nowhere mentioned. Slowly there emerges the hint of a world-wide pattern of belief and practice according to which it is expedient that one should die for the people that the whole nation perish not.

several similar phenomena which. little doubt that eagerness to find resemblances has obscured differences which. clustered found together in a similar situation or context. Let us look briefly at a few of the facts vast abundance. Dolorosa' Mater the behind sense goddess in a primitive c and (I may similarities add) very much more in the way of impressive between Christian beliefs and practices and these only a few out of a so-called fertility rites and cults. 1 Professor Frankfort has told us that the facts are not New Year which accompany and.. Frazer himself noted hundreds of parallels called Christian in the practices. He has brought weighty objection word implies the that a pattern at all. folklore and rituals of soand so-called pagan peoples.2l6 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS researches also showed the astonishing resemblances between a many of the rites and ceremonies usually associated with this death and revival. in are commonly though not invariably greater or less number. But are we describe what. That discussion must be left to experts in that field. a totemic feast behind the Last Supper . games. might lead us to to our calling it suppose. among in space and time as well as levels peoples widely separated of culture. the suffering mother. actually quite so simple as Frazer some of Frazer's followers and codifiers more conspicuously. We can gauge the significance of divine child. the god who passes ' in Christiathrough death to resurrection. But there can be to But there is another question of similarities and differences which Professor Frankfort has only alluded. are at least equally significant. He also reminded claimed to see their "dying god" behind the figure of a mother Christ. beliefs. all pointing to some common ancestry or inspiration in the rites of the dying i. because they recur his and us that Frazer generation nity'..C.B. especially to the student of a particular culture. and it must be agreed find another to difficult is it something far too rigid. In previous talks in the series broadcast by the B. He told us such symbols as the that. . needs to be described: namely. word which would agreed.

There is the sacred : . There is the recitation of the story of creation. there 'golden boughs' of palm and olive are carried and distributed to be (as for Virgil's Aeneas) the passport to the coming mysteries. the ritual of entry into a holy place or mood on Palm Sunday the solemn procession to the church. They begin with the rite d'entree. Even if we confine ourselves to the latter. the sacrificial communion.THE DYING GOD and rising god. There follows the narration of the events to be re-enacted. Then. 217 and customs found locally and unofficially in Christian countries. it can amount to very great folly indeed. is unmistakable. There is the pouring of water on the earth. but many of which would hardly pretend to be specifically Christian. banquet. the knockingon and opening of its doors. and of previous deliveries of the people. But he did not always distinguish beliefs. the solemn extinguishing and later kindling of light and fire. from those which we find are given official and universal recognition in traditional Christian creeds and liturgies. there are unmistakable resemblances to it when the flaming Paschal candle. on succeeding days. there are traces at least of the 'light-mindedness' or Tolly' in the banging of books at the end of the service of tenebrae where and in some southern countries accompanied with fireworks and general pandemonium. but with him in mystical identification. representing Christ. dying and dead one. the sacred it is mating of the priest-king with the representative of the goddess. At Easter (and the . and though there is not the Hierosgamos. there is the alternation of rejoicing and lamentation (in the Greek church it is still called the Threnos) mourning not only for the condemned. Nearly all the features with which Frazer and his followers have familiarized us may be witnessed to this day during the celebration of Holy Week and Easter in any church where the ancient rites of the Eastern or Western Churches are performed in their fullness. the setting-up of the stauros (the pole or cross). is plunged into the font to the accompaniment of prayers whose references to sexual union and fertility are explicit. the resemblances to the so-called pattern of the rites of Spring.

the partaking by the faithful of his reunited It body and blood. This hypothesis was to the effect that Jesus Christ was compelled to play the actual role of victim in the cruel ritual murder of a substitute for a 'dying god' if not by the Roman soldiers in celebration of their Saturnalia. The whole cycle of fast and feast reaches its climax in the Easter Sunday Mass. he is thinking of the welcome with palm and Gospel story of the entry of Christ into Jerusalem and his olive branches. He had a section on the 'Crucifixion of Christ' which is very striking. And it is just when we turn to the Gospel stories of the Passion and Resurrection of Christ that the similarities become quite astonishing. there is (or at least there was it still survives in the Dominican ritual) the search for the lost and hidden life which had died: the Easter morning search for. give him the king's raiment. For the may Catholic or Orthodox Christian who joins. and let him lord . and is admittedly in a high degree speculative and uncertain'. for instance. because. In his later editions he relegated it to an appendix.2l8 GOD ANT) THE UNCONSCIOUS Venerable Bede name is that of an old goddess of are the there baptisms (the initiations or illuminations dawn) of neophytes). the Bread of Life which had been hidden and ignored since Good Friday. which Frazer held to be a Jewish adaption of the Asiatic equivalent of the Saturnalia. as he said. mob in celebration of Purim. be said that these are just so many heathenish adulterations of the pure milk of the Gospel. 'the hypothesis which it sets forth has not been confirmed by subsequent research. But the matter cannot be disposed of so easily on any hypothesis. His quotation from Dio Chrysostom's description of the latter is certainly impressive: They take one of the prisoners condemned to death. then more probably by the soldiers of Herod and the. in the Palm Sunday procession is not usually thinking of Nemi or Virgil or Frazer or even of the crops. and so it is throughout the rest of the celebrations. Frazer himself noticed this. and tells us the triumphant return of. and seat him upon the king's and throne. the enthronement and offering of the risen conqueror of death returned from the underworld. the Sacaea.

' . Very striking.' she says. in the 'pattern in the the it is now and this instance. who takes the lead. is the Easter morning search of the women for the body of the it is not Mary the Virgin but Mary the sinner. it is the Passover meal to which he gives a new significance. and of the latter with so many features of the so-called pattern of the dying god. now the like meal is a 'new testament' in flesh and blood. agon garden. much as their mothers had wept there centuries before for to The Old Testament had what appears to have the dying Corn-God. for frequent.THE DYING GOD it. Tammuz to the horror of the prophet Ezekiel. In her language the word for 'my lord' must have been Adoni\ and only some inhibition of mistaken reverence can prevent us from being reminded of Aphrodite. We notice that at the Last Supper Jesus Christ not only takes the customary corn and fruit. and I know not where they have laid him. if not universal. 'They have taken away my Lord.. though an interior and not an external combat. and we notice that . dead Christ. The daughters of Sion weep for him on his way to Calvary. the resemblances to the Gospel story are unmistakable. There is also the striking of the victim by the servant of the high priest. There are many parallels in the literature of the 'dying god' to the opening of tombs and the raising of the dead which. of which we read. Not only is there the continual parallel of the Gospel narrative and the Church ritual. but there are several other incidents in the Gospel to remind us of features There is. The subsequent 'descent into hades'. too. already given an added meaning been part of an older fertility rite. 26. not indeed in the Gospels but in the epistles of St Peter and St Paul. the underworld. accompanied the Crucifixion.. we read in St Matthew's gospel. 5 . bread and wine. to whom much had been forgiven because she had loved much. is very significant We note that in fact the external combat is expressly declined when Jesus bids Peter to sheath his sword (Matt. him. But afterwards they strip and scourge and crucify Whatever is to be thought of the hypothesis. And there are many more which Frazer did not mention. 51-52). is one of the more universal features of the 'pattern'.

account. Before turning to discuss their very important differences. that its bearers belong to an Army Medical Corps. but nor can I say a priori that those in principle 'meanings' for different minds (and meaning is meaningless except in relation to some mind) are unrelated. as for us. We have stressed it may be thought grossly overstressed some similarities between the Christian and pagan mysteries. 'Why seek ye the 5 living among the dead? He is not here. as a return from departed life as in Mesopotamia. long live the King' is the constant motif of the mysteries of the dying god in all their varieties and guises. and the meaning or interpretation of the fact. and what a believing Christian is to make of all this. as a rebirth of the individual mystes as at Eleusis. And however it may be pictured or conceived. Whether we mysteries. of meaning. elevations and debasements. St Luke's. let alone an identity. the answer to the search of Aphrodite or Astarte or Isis or Mary Magdalene is the same. or as a final and definitive attainment of life in a new and immortal dimension as by St Paul. 'The King is dead. and to that of the dying god in particular. All must depend on the evidence of those minds themselves. and about the very important contribution which the psychology of the unconscious has made to this subject in general. it did not mean. or to a fourth-century Greek. or whether among are comparing the Christian and pagan we are comparing pagan 'dying gods' themselves. We cannot at once argue from a similarity of fact to a similarity. as Frazer too often seemed inclined to do. something should be said about symbols and symbolism. Tor he is dead'. Whatever a serpent on a pole 'meant' to an Israelite in the desert. as life issuing from only apparent death as in Egypt. And here I would repeat and emphasize what Professor Frankfort has said so excellently: 'The appeal of religious symbols is not dependent on a correct understanding of their original mean- . the woman's search is greeted with the reproachful question. he is risen. we must not fail to distinguish at least between a symbol as a bare observable or recorded fact. According to another.22O GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS seeking and weeping for Adonis.

divine support. invisible divine kings : stood behind their thrones. p. Here we touch on one of the big differences between Freud and Jung. awe. and usually disagreeable. and in alien surroundings. * Austin Farrer. their lasting forms challenge the imagination they may be charged with a new significance which they themselves called forth. For these are not something fixed and immutable. or even for the same mind. acted out. As Dr Austin Farrer. But it means also that the meaning of a true symbol rational formula is not exhausted when we have found some 5 which will define or 'explain it. it moves us. intuited. A symbol. This that the same symbol can have a variety of meanings though usually interrelated meanings for different minds. painted out. i. until men have seen human be? In kings. on the other hand. felt. or by the new significance which they themselves call forth. The Glass of Vision. : divine authority except by a divine king already acknowledged? But then. Freud seems to have viewed the symbol only as a source of disguised. it arouses not only thought. . . . 3 may stimulate a new integration Incidentally. Now.' means Psychologists tell us that symbols are polyvalent. fear. A symbol cannot only be thought about and restated conceptually. Whether it is just looked at or heard. each makes the other. as we say. that is a very perfect description of the functioning of what Jung calls archetypes. seen or heard. fact. shifts our centre of awareness. the how can they know what a divine king would human king and his divine archetype arise at 1 once. un- influenced by the stimuli that arouse them. horror and the rest. has well put it 'When human kings arose. talking of our dying god or divine priest-king. if kings arose with we might suppose that the divine king was already known for how can the human king be clothed with . 'does something to us'. it can also be imagined. information for the resisting consciousness. A living symbol is very much more than a shorthand device for what can be expressed more fully and accurately. 99.THE DYING GOD 221 ing. Once created. but delight. changes our values. written out or danced out.

not indeed directly by sympathetic magic. the descent into the underworld. and by himself. that it was the very instrument which. whose usefulness has been outlived. symbol the psychological machine which transforms energy much as a turbine transforms the untamed. transforming the otherwise dissipated instinctive energy of primitive peoples into actual agricultural labour. But most notably. and he has a language or a jargon into which to translate their 'meaning'. the analytical psychologist does watch the actual functioning of symbols produced in dream his patients. treasure all these. This is what Jung means when into work. the plucking of the tree of the quenching and kindling of light and fire. that the old symbols and images and rites which we associate with the dying god are still brought forth spontaneously in the dreams of modern people. ality. just because it was polyvalent. consciously or otherwise. However that may be.222 Jung saw GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS that it was very much more than that. and who must die if ~a more robust suedivinity. are regular features of analytical healing just as they have been found to be regular features of the seeming gibberish of the old alchemists. sacrifice. transformed consciousness itself and thereby the sick he calls the personality. whose powers have waned. the search for the buried life. He suggests incidentally that the so-called fertility did have an actual causal effect on the crops and the rites food supply. And he finds this very noteworthy fact. the combat. but by releasing. and are still. in countless different guises. the spilling of blood and water. the being made a fool of. directing. immensely potent in shaping their life. he finds the motif of the central the putting to death of the old ruler of the personthe old king or divinity. or mediator with life and the dominant psychological function of the sick personality. . The rite d* entree. useless energy of a torrent into power that can be controlled and applied. and the role thing or unconsciously play in moulding character they consciously and phantasy by and behaviour for weal or woe. He sees someof their at least actual causes and effects. which without them would have been a psychological impossibility.

without losing their wonted sense. I read one of those books pubby the Rationalist Press. with the processes of nature. and several incidents in the Gospel and Resurrection of Christ. gained a quality and a sense of which my pastors and catechisms had told me nothing. The dying god is not just an obsolete museum-piece for the study of archaeologists. in the individual as in society: It is expedient that one should die for the whole. without relevance to the basic and perennial needs of human society and the human psyche. : We rites larities have drawn attention to some of the striking simibetween on the one hand the traditional Christian of Holy Week. Fifty years or so ago it seems to have been widely supposed that these discoveries of similarity between Christian and pagan mysteries. without roots in the earth. Analytical psychology has limitations which we must yet consider. but at least it has shown that the dying god is not dead he is still very active and alive in our minds. but had not Christ himself drawn the analogy between the Christian self-sacrifice and the grain . collected by scholars like Robertson Smith and Frazer. The Christian Scriptures and the Catholic rites to which I was accustomed. a sense of lished effect solidarity with creation. it had just the opposite on me to that intended. And it must be admitted that they did make nonsense of a great many nineteenth-century ideas about Christianity. or to the forms and forces that shape them. they made it impossible at least to regard it just as some sort of transcendental ethic.THE DYING GOD cessor is 223 revive. as a boy. popularized in tendentious paper-backs by writers like Grant Allen. with the cycles of the seasons. dropped ready-made from the sky. lest the whole perish. and healthy life is to For always the priestly law holds good. But I remember when. Dramatizations of the processes of vegetation they might be. somehow made nonsense of Christianity. in history. to take his place. and on the other hand the so-called pattern of the dying and rising god which emerged largely as the result of Frazer's narrative of the Passion researches in The Golden Bough.

one way or another. a Robertson Smith. whom the fortunate accident of his execution invested with the crown of a god. and to collect the results conveniently in books. a Lewis the literature of Spence. in one important respect. with equal conto the level of a fidence. will reduce Jesus of Nazareth multitude of other victims of a barbarous superstition. . of Righteousness earthen vessels wherein it pleased the divine wisdom to set before hungering souls the bread of heaven. The early did not indeed have a Frazer. and their writers were is noteworthy that they It resemblances. . the for account to were. whatever else I was doing when of fast and feast. calendar Church's the followed or Mass. as we and widespread they are. least more sympathetic with Frazer's 'sceptic' than with Frazer's 'devout Christian': at stition in the they were more vocal about the barbarity and superpagan rites than with talk about the types and . these 'discoveries' of between the pagan and Christian mysteries were Christians nothing new to the Christian church.224 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS of wheat which must die if it is to bear fruit? Moreover. He . Frazer himself saw that his 'discoveries' were as patient of as of the evolutionist one which he a Christian interpretation wrote: 'In the great army of martyrs have died a cruel who in many ages and in many lands Christian will devout the of death in the character gods. on the other hand. They did not know. The sceptic. but the rites know. a Hocart to ransack the world for traces of the dying god. how agelong of spring and the dying god were being enacted. Saviour the of forerunners and doubtless discern types of the Sun advent the in the stars that heralded morning sky himself favoured. a Lord Raglan. and will see in him no more than a moral teacher.* However similarity startling to our parents. what men I was doing something not entirely different from been have to and women of every creed and colour seemed doing since the world began. these books gave me a new sense of solidarity with humanity as a I attended whole. by their non-Christian neighbours on their very much occupied in trying doorsteps.

With St Augustine they held that the coming of Christ had made religions. writing to the Galatians. As Professor Frankfort was telling us about the differences between the dying gods of Mesopotamia. the part for the whole. 225 The although this aspect did not escape them. for them. and as St Paul. saw something blasphemous and outmoded in continuing the rites which expressed Israel's ancient hopes now that they were fulfilled. But they did not. for the newer rite is here/ we still sing in a hymn translated from St Thomas Aquinas. of Egypt. ignores some important facts. and of the Greek mysteries. inspired by the devil. For the devil. so regard it. in the plural. But nowadays we need a more empirical and factual approach to the problem. Whatever elements of truth and beauty they might have contained. That opens a line of inquiry which might well be followed up and extended. the shadow for the substance. they were specious imitations and anticipations. it occurred to me how remarkably those very differences were combined in the Gospel story and in the interpretations we and Epistles of the apostles. 'Types and shadows have their ending. that is a piece of gratuitous sectarian prejudice. Of course. similarities they usually accounted for very simply. In the Gospel story they saw the realization alike of the hope of Israel and the desire of the nations. and we notice that this levelling down of Jesus Christ to just one of the countless dying gods. along with we much so manifestly false and ugly. so early Church Fathers saw something blasphemous and outmoded in the continuation of the pagan rites that expressed the world's desires.THE DYING GOD forerunners. to lure souls from the way of limitless selfsacrifice exemplified if and demanded by Christ. the reflexion for the reality. and could not. was precisely the spirit which sets up the relative as a substitute for the absolute. obsolete and retrogressive. But more important are the entirely new elements that the Christian story introduces into the dying god find of it in the Acts . they could now be only barriers fulfilling a diabolic purpose. regard Christianity as just one religion among many.

very Magdala. the normal process of folk-memory. he is still more and obviously the victim of commonplace human passions of avarice vested interests the jealousy of the clergy. not in the sanctuary be instructive. of world the but in workaday which incidents those how show to time did very permit. if there is woman called Mary of human a but no goddess. obviously. actual winding streets used by the man-in-the-street in a a search. set the Christian story poles apart from the general 'dying god' first place. examine some of pattern. and most am not now raising the question I am only concerned to in the Gospels 'really happened as if they had really happened. the symbolic fact and the symbolic meaning. we know. its most prosaic and even squalid. and it is precisely in and see the transcendent mystery. a dead All this setting about the very human task of embalming human bod>. that take events place. I whether the events related point that they really happened. tends to mythologize history. : the Judas. If this that embedded Jesus they the victim of a ritual murder. which poetic may to the archetypal ritual resemblances closest the display interwoven by the evangelists with pattern. a sordid diplomacy of Pilate. but cannot divorce. In the its we may briefly features which. taken together. Remembering we must transform it completely. distinguish. that I suggest. the appeasement disappointed fury of the revolutionary mob. the through is . labyrinth.226 pattern. If there is a sacrifice. those features are in matter-of-fact historical narrative about or the theatre. and the most as us strike mythological. However many features we may find in the accounts of the Passion and Resurrection which resemble those of ritual and mythology. It would fact. GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS and which. point out that they are related for the writers lay in the belief and that their whole 5 . it is historical. now it is reverses which. the punctilious conservatism of the Pharisees. . it is now the now it is is a if there and secular execution. are inextricably down-to-earth existence at its most personal and individual. the searcher is now provincial capital.

sees in the old New Year rites a periodic effort to escape from the profane to the sacred. 265. his emphasis on the matter-of-factness of the Passion and Resurrection (so painful to the poet and the myth-lover to this day) is in line fulfilment of this in with his central belief that the creative Word. that it was possible for historic existence to be regarded as itself a manifestation of God and the divine purpose. Scott Frayn. has become flesh and blood in determined units of space and time. Gallimard. the The Christian sees the Incarnation. 'Jesus death and resurrection an inner experience that had existed potentially for centuries in the human soul. Berguer. In his stimula- book. It is also the very reverse of the old rites. G. 1949). The Myth of Eternal Return^ the eminent Rumanian historian of religion. In spite of the efforts of the higher religions and philosophies to make some sense of earthly existence and notably in India with its doctrine of karma suffering it of was. he finds. . the divine message of healing and life. quoted R. 182. This translation into actual means of the perennial dream that the unconscious psychological jargon life projection 1. to abolish time past and utterly ting little destroy the previous year. from the uncertainties and disorder and strife of Becoming to the certainty and order and tranquillity of Being. Le mythe d'eternel retour (Paris. Revelation and the Unconscious. made 2. now withdrawn: it is now interiorized. They offered an escape from the existence to vicissitudes and miseries of to temporal archetypal origins. Some Aspects of the Life of Jesus. into life He translated the secular in is dream of the 2 peoples*. from earth paradise. only in Israel. in and through which deliverance re-creation is and to be found. Mircea Eliade. and to make a new start in a state of consciousness which is outside time altogether. p. With in his had incarnated say. The inner reality which through. but that had the ancient rituals had expressed is now lived Georges Berguer we may never passed beyond the sphere of the dream.THE DYING GOD 227 rather the mythological pattern that is realized in historical fact. p. with its new dimension 'faith in the absurd'.

'Christ. final and this is perhaps the most startling novelty. in which one slew another. The remarked how the 'agony' or combat is now an interior one fought out in sweat and tears in Gethsemane. over him. shall himself be slain. Pilate. but in . . for the willing self-sacrifice has has become particuc larized. have drawn attention to the fact that it is of the very essence of the old dying god ritual that it should be repeated over and over again ad infinitum. periodically just Christian scriptures stress this 'interiorization'. The which Christ Gospels stress constantly the willingness with he lays he but evade can he his to declines. leads him to the cross. Herod and the rest are but instruments of a divine purpose. We remember the verse from Macaulay about the priest of Nemi which Frazer quoted at the beginning of his work: The And Compare dieth priest who slew the slayer. he says. it. takes it from him. it is also .228 fully GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS conscious. inward love for his friends. and the whole nation perish a universal validity. of God'. We have already acted. . rising from the dead. goes down his own life. instinctively. and the evangelist not of the new at once glosses that Jesus should die in all one the but to gather together only for the nation. For in that he died to he died once. lt is expedient that one should die for the people. and is now voluntarily lived out no longer blindly. now that with St Paul's. Christ freely his offers himself. death. no one. no more. it is new for each and for all. this consummation in a unique ^//'-sacrifice of the old sacrifices. the old multiplicity of sacrifices becomes obsolete. dispersed children But the self-sacrifice of Christ is not only new. Death shall no more have dominion sin. and 'he is offered because it is own will' the priest and the victim are one With and the same. and still more emphatically Eliade and other writers. not outer compulsion. Frazer. Just because it not/ said the last priest of the old order.

if by this is meant the isolation of naked facts apart from any significance they had for Christ's own mind. a transmutation of religions into religion. that the nineteenth-century 'Quest for the Historic Jesus' was a vain illusion. and has. 9-10). We know now. these days. . of the conclude without referring briefly to two questions which. the meaning is embodied in the facts. the myth is not destroyed but endless repetition is broken together with its unconscious. Indeed. minds of his followers is : 'Christ of faith' and (whatever historical or literary criticism may say of and construction). outmoded in the also obsolete also the dying God-Man of Calvary? In answering the first. date We cannot. If the events on Golgotha put an end to the endless repetition rites of dying gods. and the facts disclose the meaning. for Christians. their provenance. 6. he liveth unto God'. in a brief and broad summary. its now arguing whether these beliefs about the Nazarene are true. we can hardly evade. at least. Just because it has been lived and died out in fact and history. Further research and reflection may show more clearly how far these beliefs also are anticipated in pre-Christian varieties and developments are not crucified We of the dying god pattern. and of whom there is not any historical record.THE DYING GOD 229 that he liveth. has not the of the unconscious. but only recalling. compulsive power. in becoming fact it ceases to be mere myth. consciously and fulfilled. however. must we not now confront a further stage in which even that must be left behind and face a 'death of God' : manner of Nietzsche? Has not science made Christ and superfluous? in particular. and more serious if Golgotha spelt the twilight of the gods. or the an 'historical Jesus' other than the a pseudo-scientific abstraction which could not have existed. Our only evidence for assessment is in the records. with its study and application pscyhology of psychic transformation through symbolism. that such was and is the significance he had. (Rom. what the records record is that the Word is made flesh. voluntarily. why then does the Church ritual go on repeating them as we have seen that it does? The second is more general.

of the symbol. is quite free obligatory. But their significance for those who take part in them is found done once for all' wholly in what Christ is related to have e : of him. Paganism also recipients. The own our take unless we up this is and ciples Incarnation means that the projection must be wholly withdrawn. For here. we may not again mythologize or ritualize the lived out in fact. any efficacy they have call ex opere operands. A Catholic significant exception does Church the them: of to attend. must be an act of God. but is inherent in what is done ex opere operato. is indispensable and of obligation.23O second. But there is one striking exception to all this the Church : that participation in the Easter thysia (or sacrifice) and deipnon (banquet) the Mass and Communion is she explains. insists and sacrament. though available if he finds them helpful to the self-sacrificial to evade that self-sacrifice by following of Christ. of which we may be the instruments or the cannot originate. something whose efficacy does not depend on our response. stimulus the to the of participant response That this is the way symbols generally function has been 'sacramentals' . or stay away from. forming power But the Church insists that end. the Gift and the Receiver of be one. But. but which we the has sensed that Giver. amply confirmed by analytical psychology. projecting that task cross and follow him. on the that wholly dependent. Something is done which we cannot do for ourselves. it is way to the answer to the Week and true that the ancient Christian liturgies of Holy Easter closely resemble the old rites of Spring. If we try tells us we cannot be his dishe to on him. ceremonies Paschal the important. GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS least point the perhaps we can at Yes. most them to make continues she not force them on him. they are done in remembrance are not with one single. to be genuine at all. that to available are they these rites and ceremonies are what she calls optional is what theologians is to say. nor do without. If the transpattern that must now be ancient the of symbols helps us to do that. and somehow divine somehow Sacrifice must The sacrifice .

1940-41. St Paul sees that in the priest human death on Calvary. But more than that it cannot tell us it cannot tell us if there be any such Lord (even though it sometimes finds it must postulate a super: ordinated personality'). It is one of the achievements of analytical psychology to have shown the psychological need to which this responds. with or without the aid of psychology. 1 that is not yet sacrifice. how. and it is on that account the reconciling that the Church dogma has insisted on the unmixed and undiluted Godhead and manhood of her Lord. Lecture 69. in a new way. sacrifice is considered to be a giving of God by God to God in and through the human and victim or his surrogate. As Jung puts it in the essay I have mentioned. and within the limits of empirical observation. why such things would be so. who possesses all. i. the more we find that is beyond our dominion and control. it cannot assure us that such sacrifice really exists. as C. Wounded by I a spear. Curtis has been published logy. the less we find we know. in a Stone Rachel Levy in her The Gate of Horn has indicated how already Age environment. the more we know we are not our own. an unqualified renunciation of every claim on what we possess and we do not possess ourselves. the more we advance in self-knowledge and self-possession. But. An English abstract by Monica by the Guild of Pastoral Psycho- . c Psychology can tell us. why. it is God in Christ who is very world to himself. and we may mean quite heroic selflessness and altruism. Only a Lord of all. and what the symbols work. dedicated to Odin myself to myself. Indeed. and therefore are incapable of self-sacrifice. Eranos Jahrbuch. can initiate and consummate the sacrifice and impart to us the new life which springs from death.THE DYING GOD I 23! tree knew that I hung on the wind-swept Nine nights through. Jung explains in his remarkable work on The Transforming Symbolism of the Mass. Self-sacrifice means whole self-giving. G. We talk loosely of self-sacrifice.

whatever may be the cost of abandonvery point. The truth or reality of religion lies beyond the competence of psychology.232 c GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS Psychology can deal with the matter only from thephenomeriological standpoint. so healing when recognized and placated. But we find also that. but perhaps through experience of analysis and of their own inner life. own an esoteric sect of initiates. because he no longer sees their significance and relevance to his own daily life. Perhaps analytical psychology itself is in danger of degenerating into a retrogressive mythology. while sacrifice is indispensable. is for truth and reality. even those of us who call ourselves Christians. by total dispossession of what possesses us. however. empirical method compel to point elsewhere for and ignorance. They leave him cold.' Yet the psyche's own deepest yearning. the ing agreeable make-believe. that it can be possible only to a greater power within us. personal. limitations of psychology's it At this ever to confess its any answer there may be. superficial problem to the collecfactors so destive. the Christian demand realization of the symbol to recognize the for the earthly But this is not to say that analytical psychology has nothing to offer us. the symbols employed by Christ and the Church have become every bit as obscure as the sarcophagus or titles of a Pharaoh. But to many a modern man. But this. Professor Frankfort has told us how Jung's interpretations have elucidated a variety of Egyptian texts and usages which has hitherto been entirely obscure to the Egyptologist. it is always found. can only come about by way of sacrifice. the power which men have called God. archetypal factors found behind it tructive when neglected or rejected. Jung has said that no matter how much he and his patients contribute to an . it is also impossible to the conscious ego to you and me. But there are many who have rediscovered that significance and relevance through analytical psychology. These make some such discovery as they work through from the seemingly petty. even for its own health and sanity. if it fails word made flesh. perhaps just by reading about it.



analysis, they can at best only prepare the way, remove the obstacles, to healing. Healing itself, he says, always comes

some wholly unexpected way from the unknown, wie ein Wundef like a miracle. For when the sacrifice is made, it is given back transformed and transforming. But sacrifice there must be, whether or not expressed in external ordinances; and psychology has strangely confirmed what theology has always maintained, that sacrifice can only be complete and perfect when it is the free and whole selfoblation of a dying man, who must also be the dying God.



The Method and Teaching of C. G. Jung


Frei, S.M.B.

misunderstandings of his critics show how necessary to keep the methodology of G. G. Jung constantly in min'd when reading his works. Jung holds that the empirical method is the one and only source of scientific knowledge. He stresses time and again that he considers it his business as a scientist, not to profess a creed or to engage in apologetics, but only to investigate observable facts and to


it is

draw from them


immediate consequences. Jung


of the sort by which we in the Catholic tradition construct a deserves 'rational psychology' or argue to God's existence the name of science in the strict sense. Some words of his
call rational inference

not allow that even what


own may show
this attitude:

with what emphasis he repeatedly

persists in

I pursue science, not apologetics or philosophy. I have neither the competence nor the inclination to found a writings speak for themselves, and show religion. that I keep well below the heights of each and every religious system, for I allow myself to go only so far as . observable psychological data permit me. Only facts concern me. Scientifically-minded people of to-day are saying, Let us get the facts, for about these we can all be agreed; opinions, which become inflated into absolute are my truths, are sources of unending strife' .... are these facts ignored? books not read more fairly? ... It passes unnoticed that I am collecting a corpus of material for to-morrow which will be sorely needed if Europeans of the future are to be convinced of anything at all. In my view it is quite perverse to criticize












work, whose aim is to be nothing but scientific, from any standpoint other than that which is appropriate to it, namely the standpoint of scientific method. I should be sinning against the obligations which scientific inquiry imposes if I were to say anything more, or anything else, than what the facts bear out. Any appropriate criticism which merits a hearing must therefore concern itself with these facts, and prove either that they do not exist, or that


interpretation of



contrary to scientific prin-




nothing unusual about

my scientific method;


proceeds in exactly the same way as comparative anatomy, except that its description and comparison is of psychological [instead of anatomical] forms. What I set forth is, at bottom, only a description of psychic occurrences which show a certain statistical

frequency. As a science of the soul, psychology must confine itself to its subject matter, and avoid overstepping its boundaries by any metaphysical assertions, or by any other expressions of belief or opinion. 4 The material which constitutes the subject of the psycho-


logical investigator's observation covers everything that the soul produces or has produced: notably, thoughts,

images, words, sounds, shapes, behaviour. All of these reveal something of the mystery which we call the psyche. Concerning C. G. Jung's statements of his methodology

we would maintain


in scientific research should not be denied the right to base their work methodologically on empirical observation alone, without departing from bare description of their empirical findings in order to make metaphysical pronouncements by way of inference. We do not reproach a geologist who limits himself to similar descriptions of strata and fossils on the contrary we respect the sobriety and caution of his method.

Those engaged




From a From a


dated 22 September, 1944. dated 7 April, 1945.



Eranos Jahrbuch, 1946, p. 464. Psychologie und Alchemie, p. 28.




Jung does not deny


addition to


empirical observation, there is such a thing as belief; but is convinced that it would be an offence against scientific

to proclaim his personal beliefs in purely scientific works. Again, it should be stressed that we do not require zoologists or mineralogists to do otherwise in their scientific


publications. 3. Professor




which overstep the

distrustful of processes of rational limits of empirical observation,

unwilling to dignify this procedure, such as we in our inferential psychology or to establish the existence of God, with the name of scientific. At this point,

and he





experience and


G. Jung acknowledges two ways only, We acknowledge three ways, ex-

perience, inference



But already our conclusion begins to emerge. We should confront and accept the wealth of empirical data which

Jung offers us and recognize its profound significance. At the same time we shall pursue our own traditional procedure
in the paths of 'rational psychology'. This clashes not at all with the findings of empirical psychology, and has its own

weighty themes of the soul's spirituality, substantiality and immortality. Neither empirical nor rational psychology clashes with our faith.

must first set out a few bald and didactic statements about the most important contents or results of this empirical investigation; these will leave room for somewhat fuller and more detailed treatment of some basic concepts (those of the 1 Complex, the Archetype, and the Symbol).


For clarification of these three concepts we are especially indebted to Dr. J. Jacobi sessay, 'Komplex, Archetypus,



which appeared in the

Schweizerische ^eitschrift

fur Psychologie, Vol. i (1945), pp. 276-313. Her elucidation of these three concepts is undoubtedly one of the most important contributions which have yet appeared to the understanding of Jung's psychology.


should be recalled that

much had

already been achieved

in the clinical investigation of the unconscious since the middle of the last century, notably by Liebault, Janet,

Bernheim and Flournoy, and in German-speaking countries by Breuer, Sigmund Freud, Alfred Adler and Eugen Bleuler. Jung has built on the foundations they had already laid, but has also reached many new and distinctive views. He compares the sphere of consciousness the domain which is within view of the conscious ego on its peak with an island in the midst of the ocean. The ocean is the unconscious. Directly below the surface of this ocean, and nearest to consciousness, is what he calls the 'personal unconscious'. It consists of what has been forgotten or repressed, and of

subliminary perceptions, thoughts or feelings of every sort'. But the distinctive feature of Jung's psychology lies in the fact that he found himself compelled, on account of his


observations, to postulate also what he calls the 'collective unconscious'. This consists of the inheritance of the psychic

experiences of mankind which, he holds, lie deep within the psyche. This idea of a 'collective unconscious' does not necessarily mean that everybody has the same soul, any more

than the fact that we each inherit certain bodily characterwhich we have in common with other people, implies that we all have the same body in common. Jung was
obliged to postulate this 'collective unconscious', in addition owing to the fact that certain

to the 'personal unconscious',

symbols symbols



dispositions to

form certain

are found uniformly

over the world, and that

similar symbols emerge in dreams, in day-dreams, in the phenomena of 'second sight', in religious and magical figures and emblems, in myths and fairy stories, in gnostic visions,
in alchemy, and in automatic and 'inspired' designs and utterances. Everywhere this 'collective unconscious' displays, in the main essentials of its manifestations, a similar structure

and pattern of behaviour, and appears


obey similar laws of

G. G.Jung, Psychological Types p.6i6.


Jacobi. to acknowledge and accept it realistically. TYPES. our soul. Another content of the unconscious is that 'image of the soul' which Jung calls 'anima' in males. tends in means direction. ANIMA-ANIMUS.APPENDIX 239 THE SHADOW. op. He distinguished between 'introvert' 2. . G. but also of loneliness. p. This means the acquisition of real independence. When human beings confront the unconscious they come up against what is known as 'the shadow'. In these pages suggest briefly how Jung's impossible to do more than theory of psychological types shows it is an equally deep 1 . 3 The totality formed of 'animus' plus 'anima' (which according to Professor Jung* forms the goal of the inner path) has an obvious connection with the ideal of the Androgyne. 'It is carry in us. Jacobi. The shadow contains the undeveloped sides of our person' ality. 112-1 13. 3 Ernst Aeppli. an ideal which as old as is probably mankind itself. that when consciousness particular the unconscious tends in the opposite direction. 1 77. p. the unconscious possibilities. thus balancing the inner forces.' 1 But it is no easy task for us to get a right relationour shadow. 'animus' in women. Cf. cit. ship to instead of projecting it on other people and yet without becoming identified with it and so falling under its spell. 1942. 104. Thus for example the 'anima' of an intellectual man often tends to be sentimental. 9 pp. Jung. The Psychology ofC. The anima animus) a always has a complethis mentary and compensatory function. abilities and intentions of This shadow has often been known as the dark brother. the isolation of the inwardly free man who can no longer be held in chains by a love affair or a partnership. insight. 2 both as individuals and (or the image of the other sex that we as representatives of the species'. one for whom the opposite sex has lost its mystery because in his own soul he has discovered its essential features'. Psychologic des Bewussten and Unbewussten. 'Anyone who has recognized the image of the opposite sex in his own soul has thereby secured a considerable degree of control over his emotions and passions. London. J.

out of which further psychic however. everybody's vocabulary and needs It may. the healthy man. Libido is the name which Jung gives^to the thus for Jung. lf a complex remains only a larger or smaller nucleus in the general collective unconscious. who equates it with the sexual instinct.240 and GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS ing. feeland intuition. and that it can often. appear in a personified form. consistently with his general or outlook. has his complexes. or should it knowing rise'. Psychic events when seen specifically in sequence constitute an expenditure of this energy. especially in dreams. as well as its results Complex. the : COMPLEX. in his view. that it can lead a more or less separate the psyche. Both agree of a group of feeling. considers the complex only from the etiological causal point of view.toned mental products in the unconexistence in scious. 'extravert' types according as to whether a person's attitude to reality has been mainly conditioned subjectively or objectively. there is no trespass into the realm of consciousness. in such wise that he considers that a complex may also be a source of more active striving for health. thought. that is to say. or autonomous. The term complex has now become part of no detailed explanation. cell. and a part of its structure. Three concepts are particularly useful for understanding manner in which the unconscious functions. Archetype and Symbol. a far wider meaning than it has for Freud. because it is the strengthlife flows. be pointed out that Jung gives it a wider that it consists meaning than it had for Freud. too. however. This is the put forward in his book theory Psychological Types. the term libido has totality of psychic energy. only as the symptom of an underlying sickness resulting from repression. become unduly overburdened. not only is it giving harmless but it is also very fruitful. are signs of the life of the soul f Thus complexes. Freud. it to what forms of neurosis or psychosis may give . should it. He has also defined four typical modes of behaviour motivated respectively by sensation. Dr Jacobi says. Jung views it also from the teleological or prospective standpoint.

whereas archetypes can be compared only to the prefiguration of crystals known as their 'lattice-structure'. inherited images. it can be manifested in the myth of the Sun the hero who escapes from the dark womb of Mother Earth only to sink back into it at close of each day: or it can appear in tions. or as the birth of Christ in as man's heart (seen here. Archetypes cannot be encoun- tered directly. in the course of his research.g. . fully-formed crystals. goddesses. the myth of the dragon-killer. Jung's theory of the archetypes of the is of the utmost importance for an his of the so if one bears in more understanding psychology.' ARCHETYPES. What are archetypes? First let collective unconscious us remove the misconception that archetypes are ideae innatae innate. but only indirectly through their manifesta- and especially through symbols. not as an act of grace. the difference between the personal and the collective unconscious became more apparent to Jung. mind that the concept of the 'self (which must later be discussed) is itself an archetype. he came to attribute the term complex specifically to the personal unconscious and the term 5 archetype more specifically to the 'collective unconscious . Thus 'Mother' is a single archetype which may be compared with such a 'lattice' yet it may be e. transparent or opaque. The struggle between Light and Darkness is also an archetype. of this shape or that. They are only dispositions to the formation of images. corresponding to the nature of the original 'lattice'. 5 . more In his lecture at the Eranos Conference in 1934 he defined the difference between complex and archetype thus: 'The contents of the personal unconscious consist chiefly of the socalled feeling-toned complexes which express the privacies of one's personal life. Whereas the contents of the collective unconscious are the so-called archetypes. We might compare symbols to concrete.APPENDIX 241 As. mother'crystallized' in countless forms the minds not only of in can of all sorts crystallize images different individuals but also in the minds of different peoples. but a purely . The crystals are not the but their shapes are governed by the nature of the 'lattice 'lattice' they may be larger or smaller.

' With his eye man sees the sun rise the experienced by the fact with his physical senses. 'Just as our physical organs are the result of a long process of development. It from right back in its earliest dark beginnings. symbols and myths. p. Nor are they dead for they live on as systems of reaction and disposition which determine life in an invisible. 2. Just as instincts give rise to particular types of reaction. for Jung says : physical facts should now be clear why Jung calls archetypes 'the organs of the pre-rational psyche'. thus also anyone who logically offends against the laws of the archetypes becomes psychoill. 109.242 is GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS The concept of death and resurrection psychological event). effective manner'. . Seelenprobleme. to imagine that it has been found possible to establish comprehensively either the origin 1. becomes as a result physically ill. of immense power and laden with significance. This statement is not to be taken in a purely materialistic then 'The archetype is not the consequence rather shows how physical facts are but of 1 soul. his digestive or visual organs for instance. so the archetypes are the outcome of all human experience. yet another archetype which can be traced in many forms. It would be wrong. Equally the archetypes bring blessings to those able to live with them in the right way. registers he also experiences this rising and setting in a psychic sense. and that 'they are in fact its psychological aspect'. so do archetypes in the psychological sphere. as may be seen in the myth of the Sun-hero. as in the Bach family Jung say we have little cause for surprise when we hear that archetypes are 'inherited together with brain 3 structure . Archetypes are centres of energy. but all the more . their moral laws are the equivalent of rules of hygiene which cannot be broken with impunity. and inasmuch as they are derived from nature. but and and set. 2 Anyone who offends against the laws of his physical organs. p. of course. Das gottliche Kind. sense. If we admit the fact of heredity if for instance. 173. we admit that musical talent may be inherited.

No one is more aware than Jung of the tendency of the soul to mere phantasy. W. Klages. power of the soul which manifests itself in dreams. and interpretation of. the comparative study of religions. who were principally concerned with Greco-Roman Mythology. It is a picture of something which is truly real but which transcends merely intellectual comsaid SYMBOL. who closely studied many In fruits this respect the symbolic language of myths and religious iconography. who.S. but he recognizes may be all power which its images can exert. Frobenius. . there were others who widened the field of research into general religious lore. published his Introduction to a Science of Mythology in 1941 (of which a translation appeared in England and U. Danzel and Leopold Ziegler. as in the symbols of the Fish. A symbol is not something which has been purposely thought out. and above all the study of dreams. the archetype cannot be but apprehended directly only in so far as it manifests itself in a complex or symbol.APPENDIX 243 or the nature of the archetypes: they are as deep as the unconscious itself and for this reason can never be made conscious in their entirety. F. In addition to these scholars. It may be said to have begun in 1859 with Bachofen's Essay on the Symbols on Ancient Tombstones. This development had been sensed in advance in the poetry of Holderlin. above. Jung has accomplished work of immense and lasting value. Then followed Rhode. present and Psychic future. Otto. symbols and myths. past. present in the same symbol. neither can it be fully explained in purely rational concepts. In his research into. like an allegory. Winthuis. the Magna Mater. the Divine Child. reality and material reality. within space and time. they included Dacque.A. in alchemy. together with Jung. in 1951). in mythologies. Eckhart Peterich and Karl Kerenyi. although also the almost magical It is this pictorial of his research will not ripen until later. Religious psychology. As we prehension. and also in creative art. the Cross. have been enriched by him to a very considerable extent. in gnosis. Jung stands at the head of a development which has been going on for a century.

These opposed statements. . hinting at it and challenging the intuitive act of perception to grasp it fully' (p. 1 This recalls Jung's comments on various works of Eastern Wisdom: The Tibetan Book of the Dead. this is a mode of thought which links statements which are apparently directly contrary to one another. Leipzig. on the other hand. Mainz. the Jesuit Erich Przywara has used what he calls 'polarity-thinking' as the structural principle of his philosophy and theology. 1936. to the extent that these religions speak to their adepts mainly in their original images and symbols. 206).g. 204). The Secret of the Golden Flower. p. held simultaneously. See Psychologie und Alchemie. 191. one which 2 previously was completely unintelligible to us. for this would be nothing but empty formula' (p. 2.244 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS declared that Jung's Ziegler himself has conception of imagery is the most comprehensive contribution which European psychology has made to giving us the key to traditional religions. but only its outline. 197). will Guardini has already made many of us familiar with the idea that a philosophy of what he calls the 'living-concrete' (as opposed to a philosophy of the abstract) could approach 3 reality only with mutually contrary concepts. The concept of the 'self is as important as ' it is difficult. The Road to the Self. 1952. God is Cosmos: God is above Cosmos. 1946. The Great Deliverance. See Ueberlieferung. In a manner somewhat similar. Gegensatz. Der Uebertragung. stretch the human mind considerably. 203). But it is above all in the interpretation of alchemical pictures and symbols that Jung has opened up a new world. and Die Psychologie der 3. since they involve the complete renunciation of the images of phantasy. therefore we have to deal with concept-images of a special kind which do not represent directly the thing meant. THE SELF. e. 1944. We which may therefore permit ourselves a digression serve as an introduction to the subject. He maintains that a certain aporia exists in regard to living reality (p. 'There is no purely abstract thinking. such 1. 'there is no purely intuitive sense-cognition' (p..

etc. Physical science has the advantage of being able to express that which is measurable in mathe- And that we matical formulae. It has become increasingly clear to Letter dated 7 April.e. whilst psychology deals in intensities of energy. (Pascal alluded to something like this when he wrote. to the strictly consequential logical mode of thought characteristic of scholasticism. pp. reality which as such are opposed to each other. deals in amounts of energy. 14.e. in qualities which as such evade measurement. is an empiricist. Vol. 448. The function of evaluation thus replaces the function of measurement.. 2. 438. in quantities which can be measured and expressed mathematically.APPENDIX a renunciation is likely to make us feel like and to react with corresponding violence. Psychology also has reached the conception of an energy which manifests itself both in the and in the unconscious. 5 It is especially relevant to the relative 2 independence of the unconscious from time and space which chronicity'. even to the point at which such formulae can no longer be represented by the imagination. if not shocking. 485. fish 245 out of water Yet this is the central point less chology no now reached by modern psythan by modern physics. . We find traces of this in many of his statements about the unconscious and about the 'self. both psychology and physical science to-day require should renounce what is amenable to picture-thinking and 'models'. Eranos Jahrbuch. /' esprit de finesse remplace r esprit de geometrie. as for instance in the space-time continuum. i. 'any statement about a thing which is of its nature not directly recognizable must perforce be antinomistic ('ein an sick unerkennbares Ding 1 notwendig antinomistisch ist'}. It is naturally and strange.. Jung names *syn- Jung 1. physical science has the easier i.) Jung once wrote. Both have come to the conclusion that the primary datum is that of Energy. It is the basic psychical which can be no more than hinted at in concepts. 1946. 1952. in the theory of relativity. and are indeed conscious mutually exclusive. or the simultaneous combination of corpuscles and waves in the theory of light. Even task since it so.

symbol'.246 him GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS in the course of his many years of experience. which had meaningless hieroglyphs or had but which bore a curious resemb- and pictures lance to pictures and phantasies produced by his patients. It is certainly more than a mere analogy when we say that inner happenings display a process of growth which cannot be explained mechanistically. presentation. 'The archetypal image that leads out of polarity to the union of both partial systems consciousness and the unconscious i. He made a similar discovery regarding the symmetrical China and Tibet known as which had hitherto been regarded as purely ornamental. but have manifested an inner purpose or telos. have not occurred in a meaningless or haphazard manner. that the inner happenings which have been shown to him through the dreams and phantasies of those people. Jung. and which depict this telos. mandalas. and whose inner meaning had likewise remained an undeciphered hieroglyph.' 1 Jacobi. The Psychology of C. through a common mid-point. which works up from the beginning to the peripeteia and climax and ends in the denouement. . It is an Entwurf ('project') in the sense given to tialists. and to which he gives the name of the self '. Jung recognized that all these designs were symbolic representations of that telos. In his comparative Jung discovered that alchemists comuse of symbolic designs monly made until recently been taken as been wrongly interpreted. p. 1944. is named: the "self". both sick and healthy. but are guided by an entelechy. We will now at last examine this concept of the 'self and its symbolic rereligious symbols of India. this word by existen- After those drearn-pictures which reveal the 'shadow' and (or 'animus') there gradually emerge those which Jung groups under the term of the 'reconciling images the 'anima 5 studies of alchemy. who have undergone analysis. towards which all inner growth and individuation tends. In the context of this development every incident has to be understood 'prospectively'. 118. They might be compared to a drama. G.

Jung calls on the one hand. in a state of hubris (like Nietzsche) identifies himself or contrariwise It resists its powerful appears as Fascinans because it is the telos. Jungs (Berne. The 'self is Mysterium because it is the and yet as is 'totally other' (das ganz Andere) . p. encloses many others too. it is the quintessence of the individual and at the same time a collectivity. 1945) that Rudolf Otto in The Idea of the the Holy attributed to the 'numinous' are attributed also to 'self' as described by Jung. numinous. p.APPENDIX 5 247 especially in regard to this 'self that we find ourselves obliged to make use only of 'polarity. Paradoxically. that which is at once unknown familiar.thinking' . They are all there: Mysterium. When apex to that of the mystics who speak of the spark (scintilla) or the (odes) of the soul. It is Tremendum in its destructive character. and the 'whole He writes in Paraceldca (p. . 254. Jung i. iv.' (Jung himself has often suggested that a comparison with the presence of Christ through grace in the may greatly help to an understanding of this conception. Max Frischknecht notes in his Die Religion all in der Psychologic C. states: 'The intimate connection between the soul precludes any under-valuation of the soul. the characteristics which G. can never be fully grasped through concepts. the final goal of life. 1945. Tremendum. For them this was a corollary of the doctrine of the divine image in the human soul. he calls the unconscious. since the It is 'self it. : unconscious "conceptum in animo nostro" does not belong to me. he calls it the 'periphery' which contains all. Fascinosum. 1 his meaning is similar appeal in some manner. for that 5 . Vol. 167) 'The Self which encloses me. it is everywhere. 67. It God and may Schwrizerische %eitschrift fur Psychologic. seen when someone with it. yet it does not belong to one individual alone. the centre of the psyche' and the 'middle' (notably in the Chinese sense of the term). and soul especially the 'self. since the presence of Christ is the deepest source of life in each single individual. nor is it peculiar to me. In his Psychologic und Alchemic. Graber describes the 'self as the Divine inner core of man. while on the other. but to all who are part of his mystical body).

Letter dated 22 September. although it may. way towards the it is his not. combining both spirit and matter. but seek to be a complete human being. Psychologie und Aldume> p. but my greater Self. lives in me. despite these parallels. in itself. we should not forget that. and they have been led to assume that Jung equates this psychic totality with a purely immanent God. It appears to them that his concept of the 'self 'is a thinly.1 was astonished to find that even you. otherwise no association could ever have taken place.248 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS be going too far to speak of a family relationship. and should be shown the road to faith. yet the soul must possess some possibility of contact with God. . that is to say. 23. beyond precise description. 2 ' The Christian can say. too. Christ. But on the other hand. on the one hand. something which corresponds to the divine essence. the inner Logos of the process of individuation. : . In reply to one such critic Jung wrote . not only at the level of supernatural grace but also on the psychological level: 'My small "I" lives. also God.veiled substitute for God. yet not my small "I". did not understand the concept of the 'self. as Christ is. the 'self represents a purely : human wholeness. perhaps. there are many parallels between Jung's 'self and the traditional symbols of Christ for the 'self' can also be called Logos. He must accept the tension between 1. 'self man must not restrict himself by On being solely a creature of instinct nor solely a disembodied mind. 2. it may also be termed Anthropos or Microcosmos. But this 'self can never take the place of God. Such regrettable misunderstandings are due to the assumption that I am an irreligious man who does not believe in God. This corresponding quality described in psychological terms is the 1 archetype of the divine image' Here we should be on guard against a misunderstanding by some of Jung's critics. 1944.' Thus. be a receptacle for divine grace. How on earth did you and with a concept get the idea that I could replace God at that? I can establish the existence of psychological wholeness to which our consciousness is subordinate and which is.

and comprises both physical and moral evil (malum): from the psychological standpoint it is the shadow. it is wrong to assert that Jung simply identifies all of them. in a union which emanates both from within and T from without. The point of departure to this whole discussion is a fact. This is closely connected with the idea of God as it appears in Jung's psychology. never as a triangle. a bowl. four chairs round a table. all need to be inwardly must recognized and accepted. The circle may be depicted as a clock. To assert this shows a failure to understand the fundamental ambiguity of every principle. darkness. What may we deduce from new Jung suggests that the Tetraktys of (the symbol quaternity) represents a manifestation of the Divine in the Cosmos. guilt and forgiveness. and which borders on the ultimate . animus and anima. a college quadrangle. as opposed to light. 249 flesh as his cross. Thought and mind and soul. is added. As he studied this mandala-type of symbols. from a more cosmic point . conscious and unconscious. The sym: bolic expression of the 'self is a design of the mandala type which commonly appears as some combination of circle and 5 square. male Trinity. The symbol for the archetype of the 'self 5 5 is called the can be concrete (as in many pictures "reconciling symbol related to alchemy) or it may be more abstract (as in the mandala). T^his fourth principle is. established by a vast accumulation of observations. a prison cell. The shell of our small be broken and an existential link forged with God and the cosmos. a public 'square'. This fourth principle between a variety of meanings. clear.APPENDIX mind and Golgotha feeling. a this? a fourth. as well as of symbolic thought in general. or as a city with four gates in its quadrangular walls. oscillates symbol. and must endeavour through this to attain to the Easter resurrection. a round table. a ball. of which something should now be said. The square is often depicted in the form of a four-walled room. it problems of metaphysics and gnosis this is the problem of the Fourfold or the Quaternity. etc. To the lucid. Jung was struck by a problem which has increasingly occupied his attention.

the Devil It may be noted that the name Lucifer. anima' (or 'animus') yields the Viewed from the wider standpoint of the we are thus led to some relationship of God and the universe. 'Matrix and 'Matter' suggest the female element: the fourth principle is thus connected with the feminine principle. So (Jung suggests) we find the over against the light' masculine trinitarian symbol standing in the 'reconunited are both but feminine fourth. Shiva and earthly.Bramah becomes manifest as Shiva the lucid male principle but also as Shakti the female. fallen angels. Satan is counted among the Sons of God.250 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS of view. and on the other to materialize the spirit by symbolization. principle. As opposed to this. Shakti is forever seeking fulfilmutual the union (coniunctio) between them is their a with lotus the ment. adorning man's brow. gnostic interpretation risks of turning the cosmic Tour' into a Divine Tour'. of of the most profound problems philosophy and religion. appears as a mandala. Moral evil is corsome good of the freedom inherent in respondingly an abuse or disorder or human. but on the 'one hand to spiritualize matter. This fulfilment is represented by seen an thousand image which.. But evil is closely connected with the finiteness of the creature. primary cause. speaking symbolically. reminds us at given to the highest of the once of his luminous origin and of the darkness of his present character of all symbols. the symbol of wholeness . the rational activity. an absence of from that which of itself is good. which in 5 its turn is related to matter. of the Whole the coniunctio of the masculine 5 ciling symbol and feminine. among Hindus. can already see that the ideal is not to deny or to We eliminate matter. Thus. state. From the psychological standpoint that the integration of the c this means complete 'self. petals from above. angelic the danger. thus recalling the bipolar Four of the inevitably raises the The cosmic principle question: stand in how does the dark and demonic element in creation its relation to the Creator? Orthodox tradition maintains that all evil consists in a privatio. and by doing so it puts the supposedly positive principle of darkness in God himself. In the Book ofJob also. The words 'Mater'.

the Kingdom. and their full coniunctio is the end or denouement of the whole process. In psychological language. In Egypt we find a parallel in the male Osiris and the female Isis. between the King Kether and the Queen Malchut. representing Pity. Christ is the Mediator who links God with his Kingdom. who are both separated and brought together through their son Horus. Similar motifs are clearly found in the Jewish Kabbala. The Fourth principle is the principle of the Mother: 'Mother Mary' and 'Mother Church . where they are of importance also in connection with the development of Christian thought. Through the Son is effected the union of King and Queen. the Church. In the centre. and his Kingdom. bodily.I APPENDIX 251 and completion. the Intercessor. between the male Pneuma (spirit) at the top and the female Matter at the bottom. Woman. of the relationship between trinity and thus precisely the problem of the deepest quaternity the Creator and creation. Completion or fulfilment exists only when the fourth principle is brought into the Trinity. the lightsome male principle. between know relationship that in the Catholic interpretation. The King of Heaven and the Queen of Heaven unite themselves through the act of their Son. Matter has not been eliminated or excluded. the doctrine of the is The problem We analogy of being endeavours to hold the happy mean between deism and pantheism. on the contrary 'there will be a new heaven and a new earth': spiritualized matter and embodied spirit: 5 wholeness. God the Son. thus Mary is assumed into heaven even in her material form. below is Matter. is Tipheret. God the Father. Above all is Kether^ the luminous male principle. is Psyche. the Son. Below is Malchut (in the symbol of lo Sefiroth] representing matter and also the Kingdom and the Queen. He is himself the divine Bridegroom. The same might be expressed in Christian language as follows: Above is the Trinity. is the Bride. by taking analogy as the . of God and the Kingdom of God or the Virgin Israel. he is the Crown. separating and also linking them. the Kingdom between them is the Mediator.

fundamental to Taoism. but also : the identity of God and man. p. but four aspects. it would be madness to stress Christ's dogmatic humanity to such a degree that man could identify himBut this is precisely self with Christ and his homoousia. She must even condemn any approach experiences. therefore. From an orthodox standpoint. as for instance when he asserts that the reconciling symbol reveals an 'inner God' who is identical with man. Though we have the logion 6 1 myself and the Father are one. p. of c ' Atman with 'super-self'. though not inevitably. arise from the concept of quaternity. Yale University Press. since she cannot admit that nature unites what she has separated. He as writes: 5 identical with the individual man is an heretical assumption. He which for this reason he considers equally 'heretical'. the inference.252 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS principle both of the natural and supernatural order of reality. follow the same self i* 2. cit. and he adds that he himself feels that this state- ment is opposed to dogma. God remains the Deus incomprehensibills. there are not three. But the quaternity mind directly suggests not only the understood by the modern God within. Contrary to the dogma.. but is nevertheless unable to of the relationship give an exhaustive answer to the problem of God to his creatures. recognize that there is a danger that pantheistic We interpretations might possibly. op. 1 Jung notes that similar symbolism is found in alchemistic to these tracts. has to invalidate any attempt at taking such results seriously. . 1938. In fact Jung himself sometimes gives us cause to suspect him of pantheism. as well as the corresponding ideas. 74. 2 knows likewise that the affirmation of the identity of with Bramah. Who seeth me seeth the Father'. Psychology and Religion. We also recognize that the doctrine of analogy is correct. 78. the natural quaternity could be declared to be diabolica fraus and the capital piece of evidence would be the assimilation of the fourth aspect which represents the reprehensible part of the Christian cosmos. The Church. Zen Buddhism and to certain monistic tendencies of Sufism. I assume. the 'God within is also dogmatically Since a God difficult.

93. op. would be.APPENDIX trend. In a purely empirical sense.. 1946. even from a 2. 1 253 thing is certain. while the Trinity may remain a symbol of God transcendent. It broadly the case with Jung. we are here confronted with a central problem of natural theology. . to live is beheading against headache' . meaning pantheistic terms are may be that should also remember that a fundamental principle of interpretation demands that obscure passages in an author's work should be examined in the light of clearer passages. 3. They imply that. and the belief that man is also called to share both in the being and the life of the transcendent God should not be incompatible with it. should therefore regard quaternity as the symbol for man's immanent purpose and fulfilment. and that the 'self can never be a substitute for God. and to the extent that real One may pantheism offers a solution we must reject it. merely academic specula- the integration of the fourth principle. as against a rather one-sided spiritualization (which in the language of symbolism recognizes only the 'three' as valid). p. We We We are here concerned with no tions. This is indeed maintained by our theology and by the revelation of God in Christ. *A mere suppression of the shadow is just as little a remedy as 2 On the other hand. Eranos Jahrbuch. When we read the passages of Psychology and Religion just quoted we should especially remember that Jung tells us also that quaternity is a symbol of the 'self. are very practical and concrete matters. But we bear in mind that the most recent studies by Catholics concerning the relationship of Atman and Bramah (for instance in the works of Fathers Dandoy and Johanns) have shown that used. life of the lower man alone. fulfilment or the 'self would prove to be the telos (aim) of man. the dark material The attainment of completion. 94 (English edition). cit. the 1. their often when apparently is such is not in fact pantheistic. Psychology and Religion^ p. and with it and chthonic principle should also be recognized and accepted.

to some extent.y p. It should. even it is character. offered up to an idea greater than man*. The shadow must at least It is be recognized and acknowat this point that ledged perhaps even lived? we may and sense the keenest tension between Catholic convictions Jung's psychology (and for that matter. 3. Psychologie und Religion. Nevertheless. To destroy a man's morality does not help either.. 2 Jung does not and that souls before human himself adopt which in the this doctrine. that is. 39. and it is still the most vital and yet the most ticklish problem of a civilization that has forgotten why man's life should be sacrificial. op. 'His school'.. 3 This when exists his conscience should. tit. last analysis is he points out that it is reason ethical governs decisions of an which the Catholic position also. p. . be recognized on both sides that this question should be treated seriously. Jung writes of it : was also dangerous. between Catholic convictions and much other modern psychology). For only by fulfilling completely all the exigencies of life can the soul. cit. however. without which even the shadow makes no sense* 1 . cit. departing undergo every possible experience or else return to the prison of the body. be mistaken. op.254 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS c psychological point of view. On the one hand we find the claim to an absolute moral law. according to clearly stated that a man must follow his conscience in accordance with the best of his knowledge. p. because it would kill his better self. with understanding 1 my concern is 1. 4 and he emphasizes: 'It I have nothing to do with the undermining of morals. he tells us. 94. to be blind to the tension which at this point between analytical psychology and Catholic teaching on morals would be to distort the true facts. p. 4. why it is that. 94 (English edition). 'taught that Good and Evil are held to be such only by man. through no fault of his own. generally 2. no remedy either. op. 161. gain its liberation from imprisonment in the somatic world of the Demiurge'. on 6 the other the gnostic temptation' such as Jung describes in connection with Karpokrates.

thou art blessed.) . those he most loved He c asks.' (Letter dated 13 January. It is not possible to distinguish between symbols of God and symbols of the "self". Jung has. created a substitute for God in the 'self* or if not created. all the same. / did not make it so. The place of the deity seems to have been taken by the wholeness of man*. I cannot help this being so. So great is the "numinousness" in our experience of the "self". i. This leads one to think that. this is the C mandala. But if thou knowest not what thou art doing thou art accursed Indeed how could there be redemption without sin? (Adam's. 1948. For even the concept of the "self" indicates something transcendental. It is only fair to judge a . 'God has burdened with sin 5 not the Apostles all and of St Paul! And of the infamies of David! And of the passage attributed to St Luke in the Codex Bezae: 'if thou knowest what thou art doing. p.e. 2. not merely conceptually). in reality. modern mandala is an involuntary confession of a peculiar mental condition. A ' 1. There is no deity in the mandala. though he does not give the name God to the 'self (and even declares that to infer that he does so is to misunderstand his teaching). however. We start from a very concrete experience. It is impossible for psychology to establish the difference between the image of God (or the "self") and God himself (i. that it is only too easy to experience the manifestation of the "self" as a manifestation of God.) What could be redeemed if we were unable to sin? 1 There is one more point which remains to be elucidated in connection with the reconciling symbol. Professor Jung has kindly given us the following explanation of this important passage: 'This whole statement is conditional and means "It looks as if God and the 'self were identical' '. is the 'self. 1948. and there is also no submission or reconciliation to a deity. 2 This wholeness of man. sin is 255 Eckhard come been mortal in effect unavoidable... I mean that the manifestation of the "self" should have this Godlike character. Psychology Letter dated 13 January. The words of Meister to my mind. and Religion. it is not possible to observe the distinction empirically. and empirical science is incapable of making positive statements about it. then he has at any rate found one. Had sinners?' Just think of St Peter 5 .APPENDIX speaking. 99.e.

: What men creation. such an assertion must undoubtedly be disturbing. to understand his meaning. the mystery situation in which he and every vanished". By this experience we feel. from a psychological point of view.256 man. yet not this also is fulfilment or comI. He observes the liberating and redeeming effect which. 1 61 . in fact. I am speaking to those to whom God is dead. Psychologie und Religion. as though touched by some divine power. Of course. Jung listens to itself the soul. is sense in which with the mind of the Church. 1 . Jung is fully aware that the idea that unconscious mean God's identity with man. To a theological mind. is only a human attempt to describe some transcendent experience. for it sounds as if some sub: We are dealing with what is the image so haughtily call a 'substitute' (Ersatz) is his of God . this purpose exerts on modern man. but to the many for whom the "Light has gone out. owing to an archetype which shows itself in some particular soul. his GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS teaching and his life's work. and is 'numinous' in God's own name. 2. It can happen that the fact of God. but Christ liveth in me' 2 pletion. for most of these there is no way 1 The minister of religion is also aware that few of these people can be helped by being 5 . and discovers a meaning and a purpose of life simmering within them. to the of these people. Jung is a Doctor of Medicine. I could say that the 'self is somehow equivalent to God. or the image of the God-Man. is still no need found in the centre of the mandala. namely to become whole. But there is irreconcilable this wholeness should the to interpret this wholeness in this way. Trouble arises because my critics have not themselves experienced the numinous character of the archetype of the 'self. Professor Jung has made the following remarks about his personal views God himself has created the soul and its archetypes. Regarding the subject of this paragraph. St Paul's 'I live. our symbols are not God the mandala. You must simply believe'. and he has defined his position very clearly when he says: *I am not speaking to the beati possidentes of faith. for instance. in the Hindu Atman is identical with Bramah. c told. by the concrete effort should be made stands. p.

20 July. Similarly. or do anything whatever to him? I am not so mad that I should be suspected of intending to create a substitute for God. but have to buy myself a new real one. and I am not the idiot to say that the image I behold in the mirror is my real. I am speaking of a psychological this interpretation a psychological image of of something transcendental because it is indescribable and incomprehensible. in Die Religion in der Psychologic C. Psychology deals with these images only in so far as they come under our experience. 1948.) 1 Neue puncher Nachrichten.APPENDIX 257 THE RELATION TO RELIGION Our consideration of Jung's conceptions of the 'self and of the quaternity has brought us to the very heart of the religious problems raised by his psychology. A few words of comment may now be added. is human and it also is cannot even replace a lost button through my imagination.. has directly accused him of atheism. or by symbols so alike as to be indistinguishable. But it seems only fair to suggest stitute for God had been made. 1944. The best I can do is to have a divine image. This has nothing to do with God as such. We observe that both are expressed by identical symbols. 34- . 1945). G. with rather more caution. This is how he understands these things: When (as a psychologist) I speak of 'God'. How could any sane man suppose he could displace God. and he can hardly believe anyone capable of such stupidity. Similarly Schweizerische Kirchenzeitung. 1 . 2. and their formation and behaviour in the context of life can be studied by comparative methods. Max Frischknecht. (Letter dated 13 January. living self. 302. The Protestant theologian. Ibid. How could any man replace God? I image. 945. 'The majesty of the highest archetype becomes the psychological substitute for the his 1 2 majesty of God'. Another critic writes that for Jung. others. the 'self wholeness. Since several of Jung's critics have reached a similar conclusion it seems evident that there must be some ground for it in Jung's own words. have called approach 'religious psychologism'. Jungs (Berne. But to a psychologist seems equally absurd. pp.

In the same he writes: I have never anywhere denied God. although it may perhaps be a receptacle for divine grace. Images of God can be withdrawn and replaced by others.258 that GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS an author himself should know what meaning he attaches to his own words. and especially the Catholic dogma. but are also likely to provide scientifically-minded people with some way towards understanding it. those facts which can be ascertained empirically and which not only lend plausibility to the Christian dogma. Such regrettable misunderstandings are due to the assumption that I am an irreligious man who does not believe in God and letter should be shown the road to faith 3 . I proceed from a positive Christianity.. . which is as much Catholic as it is Protestant. 3. or of moulded by the hand of God? when was single organ. Which of us has still the same picture of God in his heart that he had in childhood? Has God therefore changed? One can make a god of the wrong things: as St Paul says some people make a god of their belly (Phil. and I endeavour to demonstrate. he is wary of making pronouncements on the existence or nature of God. . are no longer living in zoology began with the first We any Letter dated 22 September. in a scientific and responsible manner. Authors who take as positive a stand as I do in relation to Christianity deserve to be read more carefully and thoughtfully.. In this sense we must agree with Jung that God is 'the dominant psychological factor'. and Jung has never felt himself so completely misunderstood as in this instance. 19). In this connection Jung asks Who expects a zoologist to pronounce that the original : shape of vertebrates. before an endeavour is made to convert them to something which is already the object of their greatest lies concern! 1 Where then the root of the misunderstanding? It is well to recall that Jung's method is to describe images of God purely from the standpoint of an empiricist. without the reality of God being touched in any way. 1944. To repeat his statement: 'the "self" can never take the place of God. the eighteenth century i.

Buddha. images. From the standpoint of natural science this has nothing to do with the theological question of God's existence. nor does it in fact say such a thing. This is done to-day in the same manner in which it was done two thousand.APPENDIX 259 chapter of Genesis. The idea that I am an atheist is. I. be said about Jung's attitude He justly maintains that his Letter dated 7 April. . the Zodiac. however. It is the task of therapy to restore to the heart its former rhythm. And if people have the peculiar impression that I preach a religion. the right to make pronouncements on the observable psychological influence of an archetype. years ago. rather 5 . but concerns solely the phenomenology of what are called the psychic dominants whether they be called God. 1945. temerarious. to say the least. (And St Paul rightly understood this last point when he wrote of those 'whose god is their belly in Phil. it must be sick. the Planets. Purusha. . . namely 1 through anamnesis of the archetype. . which as a psychological factor. Science has. etc. similarly psychotherapy must restore the 'original pattern'. . Zeus. . My . 19). the same applies to the psyche whose functioning depends on the archetypes (instincts. has influenced man everywhere since the beginning of time (as is proved by the consensus omnium) absolutely identical with God? express assertion is that this is not so. this must be due to ignorance of psychotherapeutic methods. Should we accuse a physiologist of making a God of the living body by describing it as a 'selfregulating system?' Is then the image of God. If for example. or rather that no justification exists for such an assumption. Finally. .). Just as science cannot assert that God moulds an archetype. so neither can it say that the archetype produces God. or Sexuality. and even four thousand. a few words should to the Church and to dogma. . Despite the fact that my good faith has been questioned (I have unfortunately not discovered why this should be) I should consider it most dishonest were a psychologist to assert that the psychic image of God does not have the most powerful influence on the soul. 3. that means the accustomed ways of psychological functioning. the heart ceases to function normally. Allah.

' He writing anything which might look. and not a few Catholics were 1 among them. even remotely. that is to say of the views of the two separate sections of [Western] Christendom. a belittling of the value of doctrine of the Church. I know little about Church teaching. with understanding and good will. Ibid. 'I am able to confirm from much experience that people who had lapsed from their denomination.. instead of criticism which misses the target. has also expressed the wish that. 3. and I know so Protestantism that I could never abandon it. 2... that I am particularly desirous to avoid any unnecessary 2 difficulties with her. . 3 make that much of Jung has given us what is probably the most exact and frank description of his own thoughts regarding the Christian denominations : has acknowledged the legitimacy in both views. like a criticism or. Letter dated 22 September. As a Christian he is bound to admit that the Christendom to which he belongs has been split for the past four hundred years and that his Christian convictions do not deliver him from. would correct my inadequate theological terminology. I am so deeply convinced of the (if I may so express it) immeasurable importance of the Church.260 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS methods can open our eyes to the fullness of meaning contained in the dogmas. worse still. p. Has it not been noticed that I do not write for Church circles. but for those who stand extra ecclesiam? I associate myself. but rather involve him all the 1 . with those who are outside the Church . on purpose. found a new approach to their old truths. I should much prefer to have a scholarly Catholic collaborator who. 1944. cannot declare either of them alone to be the only valid one. 29. but this little is enough to teaching unforgettable to me. Jung's position as a scientist (not as a man) is independent of denominational allegiance. without being untrue to himself. and of free will. He who Psychologie und Alchemic.. or whose religious zeal had grown cold. so that I could avoid .

. Die Psychologie der Uebertragung (pp. as The when he is writes : a transcendental concept. On the strength of my psychological experience. In this context. 26l which afflict and the fissure the to a denomination. will spring. the conflict Corpus Christi. far an individual to refrain from belonging from always indicating an antiChristian attitude. 2. In my eyes it has the highest authority. 2 On the subject of immortality Jung writes: Our 'self as the container of our whole living system. and the sum of all that has been lived in the past. relatively eternal. *939> P. the pregnant mother earth. Self. . 1948. idea of immortality which arises from these psycho3 logical fundamentals is quite legitimate.APPENDIX more in. shows.e. since unfortunately I cannot believe anything I do not understand. too. etc. decision of The a realization of the presence in the heart of man of the of God. just as are Immortality the concepts of God. includes not only all the deposits. 49-54). On empirical grounds I am convinced that the soul is in part outside space and time (i. let alone of Pistis. and in this I am like many other people to-day. and I could never produce a gift of grace. It cannot therefore be rationally established or proved. Freedom. Faith is a gift of grace if ever there was one. but I try to understand it. 3. and this surely cannot be the meaning of belief. just the opposite. 1 Jung has described his own attitude to dogma in vigorous Kingdom : words I do not fiddle with dogma.123. If it were otherwise. but is also the starting-point. from which all future life 5 . Die Beziehung zwischen dem Ich und dem Unbewussttn. Letter dated 13 January.) Similarly the 1. Jung remains true to his empirical standpoint. Zurich. I should only be believing in empty words. in some cases. however hard I tried. since I know it. jthe presentiment of things to come is known to our inner feeling as clearly as is the historical past. I consider dogma to be an immense psychological truth which I need not believe.

and my inward eye has been opened to the beauty and the greatness of dogma. my life has meaning. on grounds of experience. 1948.* 2. and Evil to par 1. differences of principle still subsist. but that the Spirit of my Father draws me away from her into the wide world and into its battlefields. Had this not been granted me. excellence. There I find.) This indeed is Sin with a capital S. Letter dated 12 January. Letter dated 13 January. I should indeed have been a bitter enemy of Christianity. . to be probable. (The Buddhists also have recognized that amdya non-consciousness is a root of all evil. His later works show a closer rapprochement than do his earlier writings. and of the Church especially. 1948. But thanks to this act of grace. It is an observation which A must. be understood in line with his customary terminology if it is not to give a misleading impression (and indeed it can hardly be otherwise construed at all) : Christ is in us. though the particularly informative observation by Jung may be quoted by way of conclusion. I am enabled to see that the Church is my Mother. both Jung's closeness to. activity of God and the presence of the us not be real and observable? Every and we are in him! Why should the Son of Man within day am I thankful God that I have been allowed to experience the reality of the Divine Image within me. Catholic ways of thinking are immediately apparent from the above statements.262 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS continuation of personal consciousness after death appears 1 to me. however. the suffocating darkness of unconsciousness. To the careful reader. and his remoteness from. day in and day out. that the light is threatened with extinction by the 'prince of this world'.

Jung. Watkins. they have latterly preferred to designate their work as Komplex-psychologie. G. AXIOLOGY. translated by the late Dr H. the complex being their principal unit and term of reference. Term employed by * psycho-analysts for the process of releasing a repressed emotion by reliving in imagination the original experience' (Drever).GLOSSARY* Definitions marked (Drever) are borrowed. Eranos jfahrbuch. Messrs Kegan Paul. Justification may be found for this if it be remembered that in Greek ana-lusis originally meant *loosening~up' or 'releasing' rather than dissection. by kind permission of Penguin Books Ltd. ANALYTICAL PSYCHOLOGY. Jung's term for a content of the collective unconscious. however. and this has come to play a less role in the work of Jung and his colleagues. 'Der Geist der Psychologic'. not observed. to distinguish his conceptions and methods from those of psycho-analysis understood to object into its mean is usually (#. .). 'Analytical psychology'. from A Dictionary of Psychology by the late Dr James Drever. but the word is sometimes used more loosely to denote experienced images or patterns of a and especially Jung's collective character. an archetype is postulated. described by him as the psychological counterpart of biological instinct.. here reproduced by kind permission of the publishers. Aquinas and traditional thought: that from which anything proceeds in such wise that its reality depends 263 . For Aristotle. 241 flf. after his breach with Freud. dominant ARCHETYPE. CAUSE. * ABREACTION. The definition of karma is from the Glossary to Sri Krishna Prem's The Toga of the Bhagavat Gita. Emeritus Professor of Psychology in the University of Edinburgh. is usually retained in their English-language publications. Those marked (Jung) are extracts from the chapter of 'Definitions' in Psychological Types by G. G. 1948. Jung's views on abreaction will be found in 'The Question of the Therapeutic Value of Abreaction'. 1952.#. 1938). The science or knowledge of values. Being strictly unconscious. and published in Penguin Reference Books. The term used by Jung. Baynes (New Impression. by science. See supra pp. by kind permission of Messrs John M. Since analysis the purely intellectual dissection of an components. Contributions to Analytical Psychology (1928).

etc. and the actualizing and determining form. accompanied. in much the same way as physical force can be considered as the form or momentary manifestation of physical energy' (Jung). 'In my view. (e. See Libido. 'Causality is the presumption of connection between events or phenomena of such a kind that the occurrence or presence of one is necessarily preceded. point of view' (Drever) FUNCTIONAL PSYCHOLOGY. . any activity (therefore not to be confused with the potencies* powers or faculties of Aristotle. in the most general sense of vital impulse or energy' (Drever). 'By psychological function I understand a certain form of psychic activity that remains theoretically the same under varying circumstances. sanctify lies what under the earth. in its usual sense of sexual desire. it. Literally wood-shape-ism. Aquinas. From the energic standpoint a function is a phenomenal form of libido which theoretically remains constant. 'Literally. KARMA. 26. See supra pp. rather than a static.) which the recipient.g. Pertaining to the earth. The science or knowledge of causes. Especially actions as the elements that manifest that aspect of the cosmic order that we know as causal sequence. 5Hence also the law by which actions inevitably bear their fruit (Sri Krishna Prem). intrinsically (materially or formally) or extrinsically (efficiently or teleologically) For modern psychology and science generally. FUNCTION. In mathematics (with which Jung's 'energic' conception of function has certain analogies). this concept is synonymous with psychic energy.264 upon GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS whether . a variable quantity whose value depends on the values of the variables involved. 'Term. rather than to describe or analyse the facts of experience or behaviour or a psychology that approaches its subject-matter from a dynamic.). cover any psychology which is concerned with 'deep' or unconscious factors. Transient gifts or graces of God . used by psychoanalysts originally. A word used to (German Tiefenpsychologie . but later. The Aristotelian analysis of objects on the analogy of the potential and indeterminate matter. sizes the functions rather A type of psychology which emphathan the mere facts of mental phenomena. . LIBIDO. or followed by the occurrence or presence of the other' (Drever) CHARISMATA (gratiae gratis datae). or COMPLEX. prophecy. French psycho- DEPTH-PSYCHOLOGY logie des profondeurs). of a statue. Loosely. etc. CHTHONIC. 238 do not. HYLEMORPHISM. Psychic energy is the intensity of the . ETIOLOGY. action. miracles. or seeks to interpret mental phenomena with reference to the part they play in the life of the organism. ENERGY. as such.

therefore. be more clearly or characteristically represented is symbolic (Jung). less serious and less fundamental than psychoses (q.v. desire. 243. a representation by some- thing not directly connected with it.GLOSSARY its . 'In psychoanalytical theory. of unconscious. . 221 ff. : 3 (Jung). any activity of the nervous system. 9 ONTOGENESIS. be strictly differentiated from that of a mere sign. . 265 . for the group of functional nervous or mental disorders. of the nervous system. 85. appetite or conation. .. 'Origin and evolution of races or species' (Drever). See p. p. Every view which interprets the symbolic expression as an analogous or abbreviated expression of a known thing is semiotic (Le. 'A complex going together of the various symptoms of a disease' (Drever). 'a system of psychology. The Gods of the Greeks.v. 246. A SYNDROME.)' MANDALA. Pertaining to broadest sense. Kerenyi. psychogenic in origin. constituting a definite disease entity' (Drever). 1951. word used by Jung and C. pp. 'The concept of a symbol should. 9 treatment after the manner of a sign). developed by Sigmund Freud (Drever). 'Abnormal or pathological mental state. PSYCHONEUROSIS. but employ it as a concept denoting intensity or value . A (Drever). conception which interprets the symbolic expression as the best possible expression of a relatively unknown thing which cannot conceivably.). ORECTIC. of which hysteria may be taken as the type' (Drever). SYMBOL.v. See MYTHOLOGEM. material' (Drever). and a method of treatment of mental and nervous disorders. 10.) (Drever). . It is misleading to employ it of psychologies and methods which have departed from those of J Freud. 'In the old sense. usually repressed sexual. psychic process psychological value (I do not) understand libido as a psychic force. in the PHYLOGENESIS. a functional disorder. PROJECTION. This usage is explained by C. 'Term usually employed. in present sense. Kerenyi for a mythological story. . in my view. Properly. rather indefinitely marked off from psychoneurosis (q. I do not hypostasize the concept of energy. though not always consistently.' See supra pp. . PSYCHOSIS. PSYCHOANALYSIS. in contrast with phylogenesis (q. NEUROSIS. 249. 'The evolution and development of the individual.

UNCONSCIOUS. 23 . the latter may be studied especially ff. mandala] : see Onians. as directed towards and determined by an end. completion. phenomena. a band. love or hate. An end. goal.266 GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS TELEOLOGY. chap. purpose. of the passing of an affective attitude or colouring from one object or person to another object or person connected by association in the experience of an individual person or animal' (Drever). See 'The Unconscious and God* passim. bond. Origins of European TRANSFERENCE. 'Term employed by psychoanalysts [and depthpsychologists generally] of the development of an emotional attitude. positive or negative. in Jung's Die Psychologic der Ubertragung. Originally. Freudian and Jungian estimates of the transference and its place in therapy differ widely. TELOS (Gk). towards the analyst on the part of the patient or subject. including mental. pp. goal or purpose' (Drever). xiL (cf. also used generally. ring Thought. *A doctrine emphasizing the character of vital.

to The Oxford University Press for the extracts from Werner Jaeger's Aristotle. for the extracts from J. for the extract from Rachel Levy's The Gate of Horn. to Messrs Jonathan Gape to the Ltd. for the extract from Karl Stern's article. for the extract from Austin Farrer's Glass of Vision. G. for the extract from Hans Prinzhorn's Psychotherapy. Religion and Psychiatry. Odgen's ABC of Psychology and from their edition of Sigmund Freud's Totem and Taboo. for the extracts from the same author's Moses and Monotheism. to Messrs T. to Dr Edward Glover. and The Liveright Publishing Co. to G... for the extracts from Sir J. Ltd.. and Professor A. & T.. FlugePs Tears of Psychology. to Messrs Penguin Books Ltd. and Messrs Alfred Knopf Inc. for the extracts from for the extracts and to The Hogarth Raymond Cattell's Psychology and the Religious Quest. for the extracts from Ernest Jones' Psycho-analysis. to Messrs Geoffrey Commonweal and Dr Halliday Sutherland. from Sigmund Freud's The Future of an Illusion. Inc. to Messrs 267 . for the extracts from his Freud and Jung. to Messrs Pantheon Books Inc. for the extracts from the Lapland Journey. Frazer's The Golden Bough and from William Temple's Nature. to Messrs Ernest Benn Ltd. for the extract from Rachel BespalofF's On the Iliad. Man and God. for the extract from Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. to Messrs Faber Faber Ltd. Black Ltd.. Publishing Company.. N. Science for the extract from the latter's and Philosophy. Nelson & Sons. & C. K... C. for the extract from Father Priimmer's Manuale Theologies Moralis. Essays in to Messrs Rider & Co.. Duckworth & & Mr John Farquharson for the extract from William James' Varieties of Religious Experience. for the extracts from C. Whitehead. Clark. Herder. latter's A Hundred Co. to The Hogarth Press Ltd.. Press Ltd. Ltd. to Messrs Bles Ltd.. to Messrs Macmillan & Co. to Messrs B. to Messrs T.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Author and the Publishers wish to express their thanks and acknowledgments for permission to make use of copyright material to Messrs A.

for the Routledge from The Psychology of C. Jung's Psychology and Religion. extracts the Cure of Souls in Jung's Psychology. G.. 268 . and the authors concerned. Psychological Types. from Religion and GOD AND THE UNCONSCIOUS & Kegan Paul. Jung. by Jolan Jacobi. The Integration of the Personality. and from The Philosophy of the Unconscious. for the extracts from C. Berguer's Some Aspects of the Life of Jesus. and to The Yale University Press. G. to Messrs Williams and Norgate Ltd. Jung. all by C. from Contributions to Analytical Psychology. by Hans Schaer. for the extract from G. Modern Man in Search of a Soul. by Eduard von Hartmann. and The Psychology of the Unconscious. G.

(Beguin). iQin Freud (Sanders). in Summa Theologica (Cajetan). of Psychology. 104 (Tertullian).B. 214 Contra Epistolam Manichcei (St. 201-202 Awn (Jung). 81 Beziehung zwischen dem Ich und dem Unbewussten (Jung). The. 152. 38 Aristotle (Jaeger). 33 Between Man and Man (Buber). 261 Belle Blackfriars. iQn : U Bedeutung des Waters. 36 Analytics (Aristotle). x British Journal of Medical Psychology. 263 Coue and St. 87-101 passim. The. Paul (Temple). U. 74 Commonweal. 98 Christianity After De Anima De Anima (Aristotle). 19771 Comm. 75/2. The (Coleridge). 24 Adversus Hcereses (Irenaeus). 214 Contributiom to Analytical Psychology (Jung). 86.INDEX OF BOOKS AND PERIODICALS TO. 68. 107 Aristotle De Anima (Hicks).C. gon Art romantique et le reve. 33 Annalen der philosophischen Geselleschaft Innerschweiz und Ostschweiz. x. 193 Confessions (St. Augustine). 90 Ancient Mariner. La (Keats). QUOTED FROM OR REFERRED A. x Apologia (Tertullian). Die (Jung). 98. 4 Analytical Psychology and the English Mind (Baynes). vii. 92. 58/1 Critique of the Practical Reason (Kant). 3234 Asgard and the Norse Heroes (Boult). 34 Critique of Pure Reason (Kant). 1 93 Catholic Encyclopaedia. Augustine). The (Ogden). x Annie Theologique. 81. 82. 45 Church and Gnosis (Burkitt). 179/1 American Journal of Religious Psychology. 185 Christian Healing (Frost). 97 269 . 51 Dame sans Merci. The.

The (Freud). Eudemus (Aristotle). 89 De Sortibus (Aquinas). 115. 42-44 Gegensatz. 7 in Glass of Vision. 114. 128 De Memoria et Reminiscentia (Aristotle). The (Farrer). 10472 Gods of the Greeks. 101 Freud and Jung (Glover). 243 Ethics. 90 XIII. 73 De Veritate (Aquinas). i6on Dictionary of Psychology (Drever). 263 XVIII. De 128. 41. 6n. 82 ff. 28 Future of an Illusion. 236. 213 The (Kerenyi). 100 123. 131 Essays in Christian Politics. J$n. 27/2. 6n Geist der Psychologie. 263-266 passim. Augustine). 23. Gate of Horn. 129. 109. 252 XIV. 28 Eranos Jahrbuch VIII. 125 Dominican Studies. gjn Encyclopedia Britannica. 133. 76-77 God and Philosophy (Gilson). 122 De Testimonio AnimcB (Tertullian). 58^ Essays in Science and Philosophy (Whitehead). Der (Jung). 138 Diagnosis of Man (Walker). 34 Essay on the Symbols on Ancient Tombstones (Bachofen). 179 De Trinitale (St. Der (Guardini). no De Malo (Aquinas). 28. 99/2. The (Levy). 137. 158^ Dieu Vivant. 131. Gloria Dei. 26. 83. x. Unitate Intellectus (Aquinas). 221 ' x et le Gnose Valentinienne God and Man (Brunner). 134. 135. 126. 38-39. 107. 27. 245. 8g De Sensu et Sensato (Aristotle). 113. 130. 244 Geist der Naturwissenschqft (Schroedinger). Dictionnaire de Theologie Catholique (Deman). La (Sagnard). 17. 231 4. temoignage de Saint Irenee. 23. 132.INDEX OF BOOKS AND PERIODICALS 27O De Divinatione per Somnia (Aristotle). x XT. 75^ Enchiridion Symbolorum (Denzinger-Bannwart). 17. 82 Ethics. 265 . 5-6 Essay on Human Understanding (Locke). Eudemean (Aristotle). Nicomachean (Aristotle). 231 XII. 108-109.

Individuation (Goldbrunner). 20. $6n Guild of Pastoral Psychology Tutorial Reading Course (Wolff). 247 Ideal religieux des Grecs et Fevangile. The. La (Dalbiez). iGoft in Revolt Natur und Idee (Carus). i54-i55. 71 Horizon. 101 Integration of the Personality. 21. 76*2 Man. 92. 26. 2ft Grundzuge der physiologischen Psychologie (Wu^dt). 186-187 Materials for the Study of the Apostolic Gnosis (Lee and Bond). vii. 207 the (Brunner). 2Jn Hundred Tears of Psychology. 107. 227 Man Man Unknown (Carrel). 175 (Buber). 79ft. An (Thouless). no Methode psychanalytique et la doctrine freudienne. 10 1 Kinsey Report. 204/1 Merkur. 15 Mamre Malleus Maleficarum. 12 6ft Naturerklarung und Psyche. 67. 102 ft Hastings' Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. 6ift. r 9^-i92 Moses and Monotheism (Freud). 9 Lapland Journey (Sutherland). The. 19372 Metaphysics (Aristotle). 34 Idea of the Holy. 58ft Mature. 71 U (Festugiere). The (Jung). 84/2 92ft. 223 Griechische My then in christlicher Deutung (Rahner). 41. 243 6jn Ion (Plato). 20. Morals and Society (Flugel). The (Frazer). 477. The (Otto). Great Deliverance. 19. 196 Heiligkeit und Gesundheit (Goldbrtmner). 31 Nature. Introduction to the 1 Psychology of Religion. vii. 42 My the de reternel retour. 2jl 215-220. 80. 28. 47-48. A (" Field "). 256-257 New Ways in Psychoanalysis (Horney). 15 %n Harvard Theological Review. An (Kerenyi and Jung).INDEX OF BOOKS AND PERIODICALS Golden Bough. 91 ft. 244 i. 20 . A (Flugel). 13-14 Life of One's Own. 26. 96-97. Le (Eliade). Man and God (Temple). 41 Modern Man in Search of a Soul (Jung). 94. 98ft Neue puncher Nachrichten. 27ft. 158-162 Manuale Theologies Moralis (Priimmer). 154-155 Introduction to a Science of Mythology.

36^ Philosophy of the Unconscious (von Hartmann). 3. 238. Psychopathdlogy of Everyday Life. 90 Road 5*tf. der Leeuw). 71 Religion and the Cure of Souls in Jung's Psychology. Religion in der Psychologie C. 247. 37. 247. 46/2 Its Limitations. G. (Schar). 64*2 News. 246 Paranormal Cognition (Bendit). 15372. 28-31 Psycho-analysis (Jones). 257 Schweizerische ^dtschrift fur Psychologie. 252. 50-56. 244. 65. 34^. 227*2 Revelation d* Hermes Trismegiste. 66. 8iw el Philosophiques. 8n . Psychology and Religion (Jung). 237/2. Its Essence and Manifestation (van Religiose Erfahrung der Naturvolker (Radin). 37 Paracelsica (Jung). i 18/2 Personality of Man. for Ministers and Social Workers (Guritripp). 256 266 Psychologie der Vbertragung (Jung). 204. 42/2 Religion. 55^. The (Freud). 266 Origins of European Thought. und Unbewussten (Aeppli). 62. passim. 194 Revue des Sciences Theologiques Revue Neoscholastique. 201. (Prinzhorn) Psychotherapy. (Frischknecht). 236. Pistis Sophia. Jung(JzcoU). 36 Psychological Types (Jung). 36. 2672. 65. 70 10 Religion and the Sciences of Life (MacDougall). 85. 86. 6777 Revelation and the Unconscious (Scott Frayn). 253-255 8~~io Psychology and the Religious Quest (Cattell). 107 On the Iliad (Bespaloff). 189 Thomas d'Aquin et la psychologie des profondeurs Schweizerische Kirchenzeitung. Its Assumptions. to the Self. The (Tyrell). 36. 244. 203 The (Onians). 246 66n Psychology of the Unconscious (Jung).INDEX OF BOOKS AND PERIODICALS 272 On Prayer (Aristotle). 5 in. Jungs. 31 i6on Physical Basis of Personality (Mottram). iozn Psyche (Carus). 7. 70. G. 206. La (Festugiere). Outline of Psychoanalysis (Freud). 188. Its Nature. 244 John Climacus (Sumner). 260. G. 259 Ratsel der Seek. Carus (Bernoulli). 211-213 Protagoras (Plato). 247 Saint Science (Pie). The. 240. 263-266 64^ Psychology Psychology ofC. 239 Psychologie des Bewussten Psychologie des C. IT. 192-3" vii. 239. 30 Psychologie und Alchemie (Jung). 64.

The. 2. jQn The Responsibility of Science as Cause and Cure. The. 23 Vedanta. 83-84. 205-206 Walter Hilton : An English Spiritual Guide (White). 104-106. 27. 94 Vigilice Christiana. 107-139 Surnaturel et les dieux d y apres les maladies mentales. Le. io6n Successful Error. 2O2. 41. 58. see Psychology of the Unconscious What the Cross Means to Me. Le (Dumas). 244 Timceus (Plato). Seelenprobleme der Gegenwart (Jung). 44 Transforming Symbolism of the Mass. 96 Varieties of Religious Experience (James). 7371. Supplement de La Vie Spirituelle. The (Jung). 8on Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido. 231-232 Two Essays in Analytical Psychology (Jung). The (Jung). 194 Structure de Vdme et F experience mystique. _ 48/2. %ur Psychologie der Trinitalsidee 24-25 (Jung). 48-49 Summa Theologica (Aquinas). The (Jung). 71 (Ziegler). ^n Symbolik des Getstes (Jung). 74. 7. passim. 227 Stromata (Clement of Alexandria). The^ geitschrift fur Psychologie (Ach). 242 273 244 Some Aspects of the Life of Jesus (Berguer). 136/2 Tibetan Book of the Dead. 73. 178/1 Tabula Aurea (Peter of Bergamo). 58. 17. 6^n 99. 243 Upanishads. 88 Totem and Taboo (Freud). 9372. World Chaos (MacDougall). 22.INDEX OF BOOKS AND PERIODICALS Secret of the Golden Flower. The (Allers). 68. 75^ . 10 : Writings of Tertullian. 50. 21. La (Gardeil). 42. 5 in.


Whateley. 73/2. 109. 6n Descartes. Alfred. 238 Brunner. 154. 144 Dandoy. Christoph. Martin. 181-185. Cajetan. T. 194. James. Thomas. Albert. 218 Dacque.D.. St. nQn Berguer. St. 81. 264 Aristotle. C. 68-69.. 87-103 passim. 26. 106. xi. C. 36. 104-106. Roger. 30 Bespaloff. St. 263-266 passim 275 . 182 Coleridge. no. 78/2. Rachel. 218-219 Drever. William. T. 243 Bguin.. 238 Boltzmann.. 99. 82 Clement of Alexandria. 144 Breuer. 263 Bede the Venerable. S. Eugen.. 193?*. 48-49 Ammianus Bouyer. Bernheim. 104. 35. 33. 47-48. 213 194. 119 Carrel. 159. Georges. G. 252 Danzel. iQn 125 Alexander. 225 Avicenna. xi. 107. Bendit. 29. Rene. 23 in Bachofen. Emil. 80. vii. 225 Chenu. 26. J. G. 81-84. F. 45. 83 Catherine of Siena. H. 187 Aquinas. 209 Baynes. William.. i<2jn Ach. Grant. 264 Augustine. 204/2 Boult. 125 Brown. 98 Dio Chrysostom. T Raymond. M. 238 Democritus. 88 Denzinger-Bannwart. F. 19. 157. 19772 Marcellinus. 48. 7 5 n. Anthony the Hermit. 74/1 Carington. Roland. 90. 129 Albert the Great. 26. Boethius. 197. 223 Allers. 32. 41. 25 159.. 238 ^Eschylus. N.. Q r Qharcot. St. Dessauer. 37. 52 3. i6o earns. Monica. Cardinal de Vio. 28-31. St. 207 Burkitt.. 195.. 263. A. Ernst. AeppK.. 6 Bond. 2 Allen. 187 Cattell. 33 Curtis. 24-25. 57> 64. Rudolf. 73.. 107-139 3 r > passim. 80. 76-77 Buber. 203 Blake. L. 170. 35 Adler. 238 Bernoulli.INDEX OF AUTHORS QUOTED AND OTHER PERSONS MENTIONED. 98. 8-10. K. 263.. 29. 243 Bacon. St. 101. 158/1 97/1 9671. 81-84. 68-69. 214.. 227 32-34 Deman. 243 Dalbiez. 204 Bleuler. 54.

John. 79. 207 Hitler. Henry. 7. J. 243 Homer. 203. 34. 67. 59> 64. Mircea. Max. 33 Kerenyi. 243 Frost. J. A. 66.. 243.W. 2 Kant. 19 Klages. 70. 102/2 Einstein. C. Meister. 37. 232 Frayn. Flournoy. 90> I0 7 3.. 82 Groethuysen. 55. 238 Liebnitz. 143. G. 189 Johanns 252 153*2. E. 228 MacDougall.. 71 Freud.. J. 4. G. 34. Walter. W. 118/2 Ehrhardt.. Bernhard. 57. 227/2 Frazer. 191. 71 Grabmann. 31 " 55 Field. 247. 224. Graber. J.. A.J. 88 Farrer. 225. 221. 20 Irenseus. 3 i. G. 196. 204/2 Gardeil. Karl. G. 65/2. 243 Lee. Sigmund.276 Dryden.F. 117. 20-21. 64. x. 90. 213 51/2. 34 Hegel. Jacobi. Adolf. x. 188. 25-28. 158-162 Frankfort. St.. 33 Liebault. 34 Macaulay. 224 Holderlin. 20. 207. 36 Julian the Apostate. William 23 Janet 238 John Climacus St. 101. 94 Herbart. 205-206. 265 Frischknecht. 64/2 Legge. 209. 154. Austin. 33 INDEX OF AUTHORS Hamann. Rachel. 201-202..G. 26 Hicks. 223. 126/2 Eckhard. A. Ernest. Karen. 254 Ehrenwald. 18 in Keats. 238 Flugel. vii. 221 Festugiere. H. 67. W. 151152. 28 Goldbrunner. 10 . Emmanuel. Thomas. 265 Kinsey. 215-220. i. 256 Frobenius.^Gebhard. 247 Josef.. 15 Hocart. 231 Lichtenburg. William. 244 Guntrip. 26. 81 Guardini. Albert. 227. 203 Horney. 27/2.. xi. 216. Scott. John. 198. 200. 197 Levy. 194 Fichte. 98 Eliade. xv. 29. 227 Frege. 19. 88. 240. 238. Werner 93/1 98 107 James. Evelyn. Son Hippolytus. C. D. 6 154-155 237/2 239 240 246 81-82 Jaeger. Jolan. 36-37. 7. 82. 41-46. 2 Frei. 4 Dunne. 106/2 Gilson. 34 Locke. G. Georges. 119 Eccles. 55/2. 220221. 200 Dumas. 228 Empedocles. Joanna. Edward.55 Heraclitus. 47-50. 104/2 Glover... *5 6 92 John of the Cross St. von. 90/2 Hilton. Jones. 52-54.

. 194 Pie. 195 Spence. i6ow White. Plotinus. 196 Shelley. 5-6 Wilhelm.. 107 Schmidt. A. 3132. 205. 187 277 Scharf. loin Wilwoll.. 186-187 Przywara. H. Karl. 4/2. 6jn . 35 Ogden. 98^ in. G.* Wundt. 89. 30. Alexander. Eduard. G. Oswald. 224 Speusippus. A. 1 10.. F. 213 Otto. 45 Schaer. 90. 34 Winthuis. . 83. B. 224 Russell. Victor.Tyrell.. 193 Strauss. 87 Quispel.. Rudolph. Bertrand. 78^ Whitehead. 58^ Wili. A. Eckhardt. G. 43-35 Walker.. K. 243 Wolff. 65. 64. 35 Schleiermacher. 207 van der Leeuw. 264 Prummer. 70 Zeno. 4 Schweitzer. F. 65. i6on Nietzsche. P. 6n t Ruysbroeck. 153. 119 Simonides of Cos. F. 223. 217. 179. B. G. 13671 Peterich. 31. 13-15 Temple. 31. g6n Radin. 24 Onians..36 Spinoza. 74.. N. 131 Schopenhauer. 1 02 ^Spiess. 247 Noldin. von. H. 193 Parmenides. R. Karl. Erich. Kenneth. Leopold. 2 Rhode. 87.. 94 Ziegler. 201. E. ijSn Schelling... 179... 48. 2O2n. 244 pseudo-Denys 128 Pythagoras. 194. A. Walter. Virgil. A. F. V. W. L. 82.. 42/1 218 von Hartmann.. 97. 229. 33 Prem. 128 Sagnard^ F. William.INDEX OF AUTHORS Macmurray. R.. 243 Pfister. 75^. 31 Stern.. Lord. 38-39. P. K.. 243 Robertson Smith. 189 Sutherland. E. 57. 224 Rahner. -97> i2. 205^ Valentinus. 263. 266 Origen. 6472 Tertullian. 247 Otto.. 94 Peter of Bergamo. 66.. Rivkah. Lewis. Jacques. 91. W.. K. Bin Maritain. M. Theodore. 45 Sumner. 9 Mandonnet. 243 Schroeder. 31. 28/1. 179 Scott. 104. M.. 90. vii. 243 . 194 Pope. Halliday. Hans. 36^ 5872.. Plato. B. Raglan. N. 55 Mottram. 213 Thouless.. 144 Marx. 33 Shepherd.. io2# Socrates. A. Tcni. 82 Mansion. C. B. Sri Krishna. 95> 96. 213^ Sanders.





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