A study on the economic impact of tourism in the Philippines was undertaken in response to the request of the Government of the Philippines with financial assistance from the Government of Japan. The report was prepared by Ms. Evangeline M. Ortiz and Ms. Miguela M. Mena, Consultants. The views expressed in the report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the United Nations. The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the United Nations concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area, or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. This document has been issued without formal editing.

CONTENTS Page
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
The General Philippine profile economic of the Philippine performance tourism industry...

1.

1.1 OVERVIEW... 1.2

3 3 4

2.3 2.2 OBJECTIVES 2.4

Objectives Sectoral Data Definition

availability AND coverage of

terms SCOPE

in

the

OF tourism

THE

sector STUDY 2.1

8

8 8 9 9

3.

3.1 METHODOLOGY... 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 Input-output

Modified RAS 1988 1985

table adjustment (Base-Year) 1-0

RAS update updating

method

method 1-0

exercises table

...,.""""

,.,

'

"

,

"

...

10 10

11
12

1313

4.1 4.5 4.3 4.6 4.7 4.2 PATTERNS 4.4

4.7.1 4.7.2 The Length Foreign Purpose Expenditure Domestic I nt

roduct

travel

OF

4.7.1.1 4.7.2.1 Trends 4.7.1.2 Regional of visitor ion of

tourism TOURISM stay accountvisit

by

arrivals in foreign

accommodation regional Volume Regional Seasonality in

IN the

visitors

THE

balance visitor and

distribution

PHiliPPINES pattern distribution

arrivals facilities of

payments

of

of

regional

accommodation of

regional

arrivals

travelers

establishments

15 15
15

16
18 18

19
19 19

19
20 20 20
4.7.3 4.7.3.1 4.7.2.2 4.7.2.3 4.7.3.2 4.7.3.3 4.7.3.4 4.7.3.5 Demographic Sex Age Occupation Education Purpose Room Occupancy profile supply. of of training visit rates regional travel ' '

21 22 22 22 23 23 23 23

1 2. 4.

other demand multiplier IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL top 1980 on exports ratios production coefficients and 1988 TOURISM 6.1 5.6.6 4.6.3 Impact ON THE ECONOMIC 6. OF THE PHiliPPINE industry 5.1 receipts.1 32 32 32 32 33 34 37 38 40 42 42 46 .5 6.6.4 linkages Supply Domestic Production Output disposition and ANALYSIS of production.7 Length of stay.2 6..3.3..6. 46 46 50 54 ii 7.4 Introduction.2 expenditure summary Impact Impact in of relation findings..CONTENTS (continued) Page 4. CONCLUSION 6.3 Impact Impact AND onRECOMMENDATIONS import netDirect indirect costs and indirect taxes employment impact .2 5. .1 Tourism Tourist Summary Tourist 6.2 6.3.7. Expenditure .6.. STRUCTURAL 5.3 5.3. 6..3 6.7.. on of 1980-1990 final analysis income employment Labor Labor-output to patterns.4 6..5 5.6.5 6. 23 23 ECONOMY IN 1988.. 6. ANALYSIS 6.6.6 6..3.6. cost demand the tourism structure 24 24 24 patterns situation 25 26 28 6.

12 6. 34 41 39 44 Page 47 33 45 36 35 27 43 42 21 24 22 17 19 17 17 18 6 7 5 16 15 25 20 20 .10 4. of exports the debits. '. 1988 final on rooms by accommodation 1988 1988 January-December by and effects domestic 1986-1990 production type of 1988.1 6.7 5. indirect) arrivals the the the rates data..'.. . ' ~ ' '.. average of gross situation.3 4.5 5. origin.5 5.. linkages.. demand demand of tourist final on on demand expenditures employment components on income on generation.3 4. iii 33 30 21 26 25 income.9 4. 1963.. patterns. establishments.12 6:11 6. demand 1988 quarter daily tourism-oriented tourism in 1988 impacts.' 1988 production ""' " " (output). Philippines. value (GDP).6 4.1 6.1 6.. receipts component.1987 1988 6.6 5. added. of LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES Organizational structure of the Department of Tourism . foreign establishments. of accommodation of by by at expenditure 1980-1989 accommodation 1980-1989 foreign product.4 1.2 4..2 5. 1988 expenditures by 1988 1988 1988 region. structures in arrivals.2 4. .' 1988 1988 visitors.8 Labor-output Sectoral Impact Impact Impact 1988 of of of impact final foreign final ratios.4 4.9 6..'.8 4.5 6.11 Total Summary Sectoral Foreign Production Disposition Impact Regional Tourist Philippine Export Visitor Supply Regional Regional Regional Breakdown Travel Room Visitor Visitor Ten Production Composition Sectoral Tourism Travel principal (direct occupancy receipts arrivals arrivals of and receipts and arrivals credits tourist and distribution forward-backward distribution distribution final visitor visitor findings visitor cost pattern import demand of cost and other of exports.. current (1988) origin.1989 prices 1980-1990 1988 1988 of sectors.10 6.6 6.' 1988 1988 on 1988 '. by 1980 1988 (output). total and demand to expenditure to to and outputs.7 4..4 4.1 1. of economic of of Philippines Philippines outputs.. Philippines.1 5.. 1988 & tourist 1980-1989 1980..2 4..3 6. structures. arrivals.

.. 1988 1988 1988 . 1988 6. 4.LIST OF TABLES 6. . 7. 85 91 6.. 1988. Coefficient Coefficient Coefficient 1988 Matrix.13 Impact of foreign tourist expenditures on employment..15 Impact of foreign tourist expenditures on indirect taxes. 1988.. 1988 97 103 iv Page 1 5. Matrix. 48 6.3.14 Sectoral impact of final demand on net indirect taxes. 49 50 51 6. Table 120 x x Commodity Sector Classification Domestic Extended Technical Technical Use Inverse Matrix. 40-Sector Commodity x Commodity Extended Inverse Coefficient Matrix.. Matrix.17 Sectoral Impact of impact foreign of tourist final demand expenditures on import on import costs. costs. 59 71 77 2. 1988 1988. 53 LIST OF APPENDICES 39-Sector 40-Sector Executive 1988 Input-output Order Commodity No.16 6.

the total value of goods and services available to the Philippine economy reached P1. On the demand side. Hence. The study drew heavily upon input-output analysis as a tool to ascertain whatever benefits there are to be derived out of an expanded tourism industry. indirect and induced effects. This is attributable to the fact that the sector is primarily a service oriented industry. The tourism industry posted a gross value added of 42. much higher than the national average.1 percent of the country's total gross domestic product of P803. particularly.3 percent were exported to the rest of the world.. Fully aware of the potential contributions of an expanding tourism industry to economic growth and development. These measurements provide only a partial picture of the total economic effects of tourism. its output is not used in further production of goods but rather to meet demands for such services as accommodation.2 units per 100 units of output. industry Tourism-oriented establishments exhibited low indices of sensitivity indicating a low forward linkage. the hotel industry catered most of its output directly to foreign guests (82. with only 7.700.485.0 billion. food. Tourism-oriented sectors.4 percent) as well as from freight revenues from exports of goods (42. Tourist bus/car services and travel agencies recorded the least combined output of only PO. The local air transport industry derived only 2. delivered 93 percent of their outputs to final demand catering primarily to the needs of households and international tourists. percent of total supply.6 billion or roughly 4 percent of More than half of the tourism industry's output can be attributed to restaurant and hotel subsectors which had a combined gross receipts of P31.3 billion valued at current prices.2 percent).7 billion as gross value added to the economy or a mere 3.6 percent of their total revenue from foreign tourism as the larger share of its output was generated from the local population (42.1 million or 87.473.7 The remaining 13. The seven tourism-oriented subsectors netted in 1988 a total of P24. In 1988. P58. domestic demand reached P1.9 billion or 86. ther tourism ranked second to the industry group in terms of absorptive capacity of intermediate inputs ratio. Of this total.6 percent). As a purchaser or user of inputs consumed in their production activities.7 percent was supplied through importations. the Philippines embarked on an intensified tourism development. tour assistance.8 units.0 percent sold to meet intermediate demand.4 billion. The study on the impact of international tourism on the Philippine economy has been conceived in order to reveal the interrelationships of the tourism sector with various production sectors of the economy and assess its direct. etc. The gross output generated by the tourism industry totalled the national total production of P1 . Among the tourism-oriented sectors. Tourist shops and recreational services subsectors devoted almost half of their outputs to international tourism. domestic production accounted for P1.1 million in 1988. 1 .EXECUTIVE SUMMARY International tourism has become an important industry in many developing countries. The economic benefits of the tourism industry have been generally measured in terms of tourist arrivals and foreign exchange generated by the industry. It also showed a high degree of intermediate input absorption. The tertiary or service sector which includes the tourism-oriented industries catered mostly to finaldemand.3 percent while the remaining 12.485.5 billion.7 units of imported inputs or a total of 57.1 units of locally produced and 5. accounting for 52.

With the given estimate of total tourist receipts. 2 .146.9 billion were generated by international tourism.062 or 6.6 percent of national total merchandise exports amounting to P152. Total employment generated by tourism was 756.692 is the highest among the final demand components. This means depends heavily on the system of industries for their raw materials.702).In contrast.7 percent of total gross domestic product.4 billion or 2. supplies and An estimated tourist receipts of P29. that the sector services.03.792 is also considerably higher than those of investment (0.96. is much lower than the national average of 13. The tourism industry had an import multiplier effect of 0. The tourism sector also ranked highest with an employment multiplier of 25. Its labor-output ratio of 9.400 or 3. The measurement of the contribution of tourism to the Philippine economy is most difficult because of the unique nature of the industry and the inherent limitations present in the national data bases. international tourism appeared to be the top foreign exchange earner for the year 1988. Garments had total exports of P27. however.854 or 85. Its income multiplier of 0.4 centavos for every peso of tourist expenditure.6 billion in 1988 at current prices.8 billion while semi-conductors and electronic micro circuits earned export receipts of P25. the tourism-oriented enterprises exhibited high backward linkage effects. implying a net foreign exchange earning of 0.708) and other exports (0. Tourism had an indirect tax multiplier of 0.2 centavos per peso of tourist demand. the economy required imported inputs amounting to P4. This represented 2. the study was able to present an assessment of the substantial contribution of international tourism to the Philippine economy which could serve as guide to government planners in formulating policies and programs beneficial not only to the tourism industry but for the entire Philippine economy.6 percent of the country's employed labor force of 20. However. For tourism goods and services. Tourism's output multiplier of 1.9 million. It comprised 19.3 persons per one million pesos of tourist expenditure.7 percent of total imports.4 billion during the same year.

presents an overview of the Philippine economy and a general profile of the country's The Philippine economic performance The year 1986 saw the country on the way to economic recovery after the recession years of 1984 and 1985. 1986 prices. the stability of the local currency.18 percent from the previous year of 1985. d) low inflation rate.581 million in 1986. dividing the real GNP with the population. 197 million. The sluggish performance a) b) of the economy could be attributed to several factors. during the second quarter.44 percent increase in population from 1985 to 1986.1 . the GNP increased The growth achieved by the economy in 1986 and 1987 was sustained performance of the economy can be attributed to the following factors: in 1988.579 e) Measured at the prevailing million to P604. The favorable a) b) c) d) continued optimism and subsequent expansion in private investments. 1.62 percent in 1986 from P594. in fuel oil prices brought about by the Middle East crisis. a positive annual growth rate of 0. in the latter part of the year. However. Real Gross National Product (GNP) of P88. the relatively favorable weather conditions. fiscal policy effected by the government. the acceleration the responsive in domestic demand. centers.617 million in 1985 to P1. the regaining the relation program implemented the stabilization of the peso. Expansion in all the major economic sectors was still experienced although at a much lower rate. This was mainly due to the 2.18 percent was achieved in 1986. Overall. 3 1. The following a) b) c) factors contributed of confidence to the economic recovery: in the government by the private sector an foreign governments.525 million marked an increase of 0.23 percent from P1.OVERVIEW This chapter tourism industry. by 1. e) The year 1990 saw the Philippine economy slowing down further the growth it has achieved during the past two years. among which: the power shortage experienced the devastating the instability the escalation calamities that hit major economic c) d) of the local currency. per capita GNP still declined by 2. and the manageable domestic prices.

particularly in the Metro Manila area which saw the construction of de luxe touristfacilities. The PCB was renamed as the Philippine Convention and Visitors Corporation (PCVC). instead. implement. Manpower was reduced in its attached agencies and the basic functions and responsibilities of the Philippine Tourism Authority (PTA) . The 1987 National Tourism Plan drawn up by the DOT spelled out the following Goal 1 Economic To maximize the economic benefits to be derived from the development of existing and potential Philippine tourism assets to benefit a wider base of the Filipino population. Immediately following this achievement.1. the Department of Tourism (DOT) was reorganized in 1987. programming. Appendix 1 provides a copy of Executive Order 120 which defined the functions and responsibilities of the various units of the d .2 General profile of the Philippine tourism Industry In the 1970s. While implementing its objective as the primary policy planning. the government has shied away from direct investment in tourism facilities. Whereas the past administration concentrated on high impact projects. development that is for and by the Filipinos to improve and promote their heritage. were streamlined and redefined. and coordinate the functions and resources required to institutionalize the priority position of the tourism industry within the country's political framework. the Philippine Convention Bureau (PCB) and the DOT itself. coordinating and administrative body of the executive branch of the government to develop the tourist industry. After the February 1986 peaceful revolution. preferring. the tourism industry started to post gains side by side with the other economic sectors of the country. Moreover. The present management in the National Tourism Organization (NTO) also emphasized a shift in the tourism development policies and thrusts. Infrastructure and support facilities rose visibly in Metro Manila and nearby provinces while marketing and promotional activities were intensified. Attached to the Department of Tourism were the National Parks Development Committee (NPDC) and the Intramuros Administration (IA) by virtue of Executive Order 120. tourist arrivals declined starting in 1981. however. Figure 1 presents the organizational structure of the Department of Tourism. The structural change of the PCB into a new corporation was done primarily to further strengthen its effectiveness as the marketing arm of the Department of Tourism. as the government emphasized tourism as being an important industry for the improvement of the Philippine economy. Goal 2 Socio-Cultural To ensure a level of tourism their quality of life. of the natural Goal 4 Governmental To provide a strong government organization that will effectively and efficiently direct. to promote a climate whereby local and foreign investors would be encouraged to invest in the industry. it undertook intensified development activities which reached its peak in 1975 and 1976. The decade of the eighties witnessed the continued marketing and promotional thrust of the government not only towards the international scene but also towards the development of domestic resources and new destinations. and thereby heighten their objectives: Goal 3 Physical-Environmental To achieve a level of tourism development that will ensure protection environment and preservation of the country's ecological balance. conserve national identity and unity. The country realized its one millionth visitor in 1980. the current emphasis is on smaller tourism plants to be developed in the regional areas so as to spread the economic benefits from tourism.

Department

of Tourism.

The Philippine tourism industry, after registering tourism arrival declines between 1981 and 1985 at an estimated average annual rate of 5 percent, posted an increase (1.09 percent) in 1986. In 1988 , an impressive 31.3 percent increase in arrivals over the 1987 figure was achieved. An increase of 14.05 percent was also registered for the year 1989. In 1987 , the United States of America became the largest market of the industry, surpassing Japan which consistently has been the country supplying the most visitors to the Philippines. Western Europe followed with the Federal Republic of Germany as the top market, followed by Hong Kong, the ASEAN countries and Australia. Although visitor arrivals increased from 1986 to 1989, official foreign exchange earnings as reported by the Central Bank declined by an estimated 19 percent in 1987. Due to this conflicting trend,the DOT, the Central Bank and the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA) are studying the statistical series of the tourist receipts. Meanwhile, the DOT has unofficially estimated tourist receipts in 1987 at $US1.46 billion, was above the official Central Bank estimate of almost $US700 million. Table 1.1 presents the visitor arrivals by country of residence in the last ten years and Table 1.2 presents the Philippine visitor arrivals and tourism receipts from 1963 to 1987. Investments in tourism plants and superstructures have also started to come in not only in Metro Manila but in the countrysides as well. Hotel occupancy rates averaged in the high 80s and room shortages have surfaced as a real problem. The limited airline seat capacities to the Philippines also became more highlighted. Both the government and private sectors in the tourism industry became optimistic about the growth of the industry. Conservative estimates by the DOT projected visitor arrivals to reach nearly two million by 1992 at a steady growth rate of 15 percent annually. However, global and local events tremendously affected the growth of the industry. DOT projections on visitor arrivals were adjusted downwards to reflect the effects of these global and local events.

Figure

1. Organizational

structure

of the department

of tourism

SECRETARY OF TOURISM

NATIONAL

PARKS

DEVELOPMENT COMMITTEE (NPDC)

PHILIPPINE CONVENTIONS VISITORS CORPORATION

&

PHILIPPINE TOURISM AUTHORITY

INTRAMUROS ADMINISTRATION

(PIA)

(IA)

(PCVC).UNDERSEC.FORPLANNING, PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT& COORDINATION OFFICE OF TOURISM DEVT. PLANNING OFFICE OF PRODUCT RES. & DEVT. OFFICE OF TOURISM COORDINATION UNDERSEC.FOR TOURISM PROMOTIONS UNDERSEC.FOR
TOURISM SERVICES & REGIONAL OFFICES

UNDERSEC.FOR INTERNAL SERVICES

BUREAU OF INT'L TOUR. PROMOTIONS

FINANCIAL SERVICE

&

MANAGEMENT

ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICE

OFFICE OF TOURISM INFORMATION

LEGAL SERVICE

5

~

ASEAN Brunei Darussalam Indonesia Malaysia Singapore Thailand SUB- TOTAL EAST ASIA Japan Hong Kong Korea (Rep. of) Taiwan Province 260,252 94,067 10,651 40,812 o 10,342 28,684 31,828 9,741 80,595

0 11,771 29,479 34,913 12,346 88,509

0 10,996 25,339 33,732 10,104
80,171

0 7,711 18,107 27,219 11,604 64,641

2,024 6,175 14,459 22,147 12,385 57,190 160,542 62,939 11,602 40,275 275,358

2,140 5,916 14,525 17,271 9,602 49,454
152 ,771

2,031 6,222 12,780 17,556 8,255 46,844

1,890 5,664
11,941 17,785

2,382 7,250 16,336 23,794 9,909 59,671 181,741 133,331 16,125 56,465 387,662

2,456 7,994 17,201 26,402 10,753 64,806 215,634 130,346 36,587 90,146 472,713

9,248 46,528 126,127 80,886 14,463 35,899 257,375

159, 652625698251 178, 92,281 12,298 38,394 335,875 75, 13, 46, 295,226 70, 13, 42, 304,610

133,536 75,344 12,623 34,369

407 10, 873 35, 708
52,

of China SUB-TOTAL SOUTH India NORTH AMERICA 151,251 17,013 168,264 ASIA 10,629 405,782

251,759

255,872

10,309 147,730 18,353 166,083

10,831 148,793 14,761 163,554

11,162 151,241 13,976 165,217

11,555
160,638 15,392 176,030

9,957 162,320 15,205 177,525

6,908 166,382 16,521 182,903

6,344 175,729 17,965 193,694 211,502
19,730

6,348 246,586
21,093

United States Canada SUB-TOTAL OCEANIA Australia New Zealand SUB- TOTAL EUROPE Denmark Finland France Germany (Federal Italy Netherlands Norway Spain Sweden Switzerland United Kingdom SUB-TOTAL MIDDLE EAST

231,232

267,679

67,942 4,435 72,377

63,342 4,337 67,679

62,969 3,910 66,879

53,238 3,501 56,739

49,670 3,230 52,900

48,176 2,660 50,836

44,571 2,539 47,110

43,126

45,349 3,349 48,698

50,529 3,614
54,143

2,789
45,915

2,257 988 10,511 32,047 Rep. of) 8,729 5,671 1,899 5,617 4,051 11,557 19,428 102,755

2,489 1,041

2,366 884

2,390 885 8,415 27,892 8,287 5,503 1,688 3,828 3,904 11,100 22,990 96,882

2,334 836 7,783 23,738 7,020 4,781 1,769 2,134 3,844 10,095 21,222 85,556

2,081

725
7,714
22,110

2,294 669 7,980
23,210

2,572 573 6,808 22,784 5,956 4,818 1,912 1,770 5,557 8,248 19,867 80,865

3,398 1,200
8,004

3,320 1,103
9,543 30,045

10,03031,501 9,760 27,612 8,976 5,430 1,774 6,301 4,483 11,561 21,488 105,074 8,701
5,171

27,399 7,415 6,109 2,411 2,403 6,883 9,993 24,715 99,930

5,463

5,379 4,325 1,999 1,415 4,838 8,826 19,316 80,251

8,869 6,543 2,726 2,978 6,759 10,853 26,600109,339

4,355
1,622 1,851 3,984 9,512 19,679 79,096

1,844 4,926 4,102 10,751 22,625 98,742

Saudi Arabia OTHERS

10,583

15,254 92,372
881,155

14,209 92,744
824,521

17,809

13,539
366 74,:

19,976 71,718 711,582 69,935 781,517

20,396 70,833 721,950 72,750 794,700

17.778 86,831 86,023

& UNSPECIFIED 96,558 947,543 60,616

Residences Total Overseas Filipinos Grand total

82, 077537 71,061 795, 65,013 860,550 747,459 69,253 816,712

706,!532 66,!542 773,074

937,5831,076,103 105,531 113,616

57,798 938,953

66,286 890,807

1,008,159

1043,1141,189,719

Prior to Brunei Darussalam's membership in the ASEAN in 1984 arrivals from that country were lumped under "Others".
Source:

Department of Tourism.

6

192,902 5,781 15,052 16,374 527 043258782

Table 1.2. Philippine visitor arrivals and tourism receipts, 1963-1987
Year Visitor arrivals Growth ( percentage)
0 7.62 11.66

Tourism receipts ($US million)

Growth ( percentage)
0 36.36

1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Central Bank figures of Tourism

69,913 75,243 84,015 101,695 108,805 112,268 123,268 144,071 144,321 166,431 242,811 410,138 502,211 615,159 730,123 859,396 966,873 1,008,159 938,953 890,807 860,550 816,712 773,074 781,517 794,700 1,043,1.14 1,189,719

21.04
6.99 3.18 9.80 16.88 0.17 15.32 45.89 68.91 22.45 22.49 18.69 17.71 12.51

11.00* 15.00* 28.00* 64.00*
80.00 * 48.00 *

86.67
128.57 25.00

49.00*
94.73 * 65.93 *

-40.00 2.08 93.33
-30.40

121.97 *
76.90 *

85.00
-36.95 -24.34 88.43 -15.11 40.61

58.18*

109.63 *
93.06 . 130.85. 210.05. 238.01 .
319.74.

60.53
13.31

4.27
-6.86 -5.13
-3.40 -5.09
-5.34

34.34
7.50 30.96

343.72. 450.14.
464.75. 366.25.

3.25
-21.19 38.43 27.63

507.00 .

1.09 1.69

31.26
14.05

647.06. 457.72. 1,300.97 .. 1,465.47 ..

-29.26 184.23
12.64

Department

figures

7

and 7) tourist handicraft shops. Employment generation. Professional congress organizers. The tourism industry to economic growth and development are: 2) expanded employment opportunities. Gross Domestic Government Product (GDP). 6) tourist transport operators. e. In examining the impact of tourism upon economic growth and development. the linkages between international tourism and the rest of the (3) (4) To measure and analyze economy. the range of specific sectors identified as part of the tourist industry are: 1) hotels. b.1 . its primary characteristics as well as the prospects of the tourism industry. its definition or delimitation as an industry. Foreign exchange generation. pensions. The study is focused on three sections. the market forces of supply and demand that affect it as well as an examination of the role that the public sector plays in its promotion as an industry. it aims to reveal the interrelationships of the tourism sector with various production sectors of the economy and assess the direct. 3) other forms of lodging accommodations (inns. 2) resorts. indirect and induced effects using the inputoutput analysis technique. and To provide policy recommendations based on the findings of the study. 4) tourist class restaurants. lodging houses. d. (1) (2) the main objectives of the study are: of international tourism tourism in the Philippines. 5) tour and travel agencies. 3) increased income. The second section explores the direct economic impacts of an expanding tourism and develops an econometric model through inputoutput analysis to estimate the contribution of the visitor industry to the economic growth of the country. and 4) enlarged tax collections. the range of goods and services on travel exports produced by the abovementioned sectors of the tourist industry could be classified into six categories: 1) accommodation. Objectives This study aims to explore the contribution of tourism to economic growth and development in a developing economy like the Philippines wherein the magnitude of the tourist boom has affected its economy. considered a distinct category in the country. 2. 2. AND SCOPE OF THE STUDY an important industry in many developing countries. The first section looks on the overall structure of the tourist industry. Furthermore. 8 2.OBJECTIVES International tourism has become potential contributions of an expanding 1) increased foreign exchange earnings. On the other hand. The third and final section summarizes relevant findings and discusses the implications of such on the overall levels of economic growth and development in the Philippines. c. the study draws upon input-output analysis as a tool to ascertain whatever benefits there are to be derived out of an expanded tourism industry. revenues. Income distribution.2 Sectoral coverage For purposes of the study. Specifically. on the economy of the To present and analyze the profile and behaviour To measure and analyze the impact of international Philippines in terms of its contribution to: a. were not dealt with separately since most were tour and travel agencies as well.

whether national or not.g. of Data on visitor arrivals are gathered from Arrival/Departure cards required by the Commission on Immigration and Deportation from all travellers who arrive or depart through all air and seaports in the Philippines. In addition to the data on establishments/facilities generated from the Study on Regional Travel. 5) local transportation. 4) sightseeing and amusement.Q .2) food and beverage. are compiled by the DOT's Office ofTourism Standards..3 Definition of terms The Philippines has adopted the WTO definition of from one day to 59 days for reasons of pleasure. This tourism impact study was confined only to the assessment of the effects of international tourist expenditures on the economy. who goes from his place of residence to another place of the same country for at least one night for activities other than remunerative.4 Data availability in the tourism sector Statistics on international tourism in the Philippines include data on the number and distribution visitor arrivals and the amount of foreign exchange generated. but excludes in-transit travellers who do not and troops. Ideally. on the other hand. Domestic tourist. facilities and services. transport crews a tourist as "a person who visits the country business. and 6) other purchases. . recreation. The Department of Tourism. family matters. health.capacity. the DOT undertakes the Study on Regional Travel in the Philippines which provides data on the regional distribution of foreign and local travellers. the 1988 Census of Establishments results as the primary source of private investments data were not yet available during the course of the study. e. theestablishm facilities and services available in the regions. employment data and others. on the other hand. the survey provides as an estimate of average length ofstay." 2. Tourist receipts refer to the payments of foreign tourists for goods and services in the country made out of foreign currency resources. conducts outgoing visitors to the Philippines. Such figures represent the value of tourist trade in the country as an invisible export. Statistical information on tourist receipts is officially collected by the Central Bank of the Philippines. religion or study. However. has been defined as "any resident of the country. visitor a Visitor Sample Survey (VSS) of receipts by year. 2. This study also provides the pattern of expenditure of travellers within the country. and the profile of the regional traveller. information on certain operations aspects of tourism-oriented enterprises." The term includes cruise passengers leave the transit area at the place of entry. 3) souvenirs and shopping purchases. capitalization. On the aspect of domestic tourism. sports. ownership. tourism final demand should include not only tourist expenditures but also capital expenditures for tourism-related activities. feedback and preferences. In addition to estimated tourist a breakdown of tourist expenditures by type of expenditure as well The VSS also provides general tourist profile statistics.

Data from financial statements and other documents submitted by establishments to the Securities and Exchange Commission. On the other hand. In the Philippines. such as accommodation and entertainment. such as the national income and product accounts. Under normal economic conditions. (b) changes in the degree of substitution. Analysis of repercussive effects of changing factor and output prices often require quantitative determinations at current rather than at base-year prices. The questionnaires were distributed to the sampled establishments and accomplished by the comptroller or accountant of the establishment and by the manager/proprietor for smaller establishments. Sectoral estimates of primary inputs of value added at current prices are generally derived from sectoral output and updated gross value added ratios. To deal with data gaps and the need for finer disaggregations survey on establishment income and expenditure-was conducted. the National Statistics Office and the Civil Aeronautics Board were utilized. may sell a large proportion of their output to tourists but not exclusively. while national income estimates have been made possible on an annual and. Therefore. namely: (a) price changes. For purposes of the tourism impact study. the project team decided to choose CY 1988 as the 1-0 update year. of tourism. CY 1988 was better than CY 1985 when the Philippine economy experienced a slowdown. of data compiled. The 1985 I/O Table is the sixth and the latest of series of benchmark tables constructed for the national economy. there is still a need to keep production and demand structures updated. the DOT's Licensing Division. Although many applications of input-output tables may not require the construction of 1-0 tables annually. to examine the economic significance output or value added of all existing industries into examining the impact of tourism upon economic growth input-output analysis as a tool by which the study would to be derived out of an expanded tourism industry. The updating exercise was carried out on the assumption that input-output coefficients change through time as the result of three factors. require much more extensive and detailed data than other forms of economic accounts. For instance. . a significant proportion of the output of the hotel sector is accounted for by sales to local clients.METHODOLOGY Official statistics do not identify or separately classify data pertinent to the tourism industry. the base year (1985) input coefficients were adjusted to prices of the chosen update year (1988) to account for price changes of inputs and outputs. in and development. the estimation process underwent two successive operations. Thus. and (c) changes in the degree of fabrication. many industries not normally thought of in terms of tourism such as construction and manufacturing. in general. The survey served as a special inquiry on selected datawhich needed further breakdown in order to be of use in the construction of the input-output table.1 1988 Input-output table updating exercises Input-output tables. lately on a quarterly basis. it is necessary to disaggregate the tourist and non-tourist components. First. Information gathered from the special survey was used as basis for disaggregating sales and expenditure of the different establishments as presented in their financial statements. the construction of input-output tables from primary data has been undertaken only once in every 4-5 years since the first table of 1961. a special sample The special survey on establishment income and expenditures was conducted to obtain additional detailed information on tourist expenditures. Based on these assumptions. Certain sectors which are officially classified. this study draws heavily upon be able to ascertain whatever benefits there are To augment the data available in the industry. 3. the project team embarked on several data collection schemes. These price-adjusted coefficients were then subjected 10 3. have a tourism component in that some of their output are eventually consumed by the tourism industry.

to the RAS method under consideration. For the tertiary or the services sectors. then 1985 matrix converted to current (1988) prices say. Ao*' would have served the purpose of this exercise. i. Wholesale price data for commodities provided the basic input in constructing the price indices for the primary and secondary sectors. the price-adjusted matrix. Ao. a set of price index numbers was specially constructed for each of the sectors comprising the economy. Then. s (2) where r and s are diagonal matrices with vectors rand s in the diagonals. This method consists of finding a set of multipliers to adjust the rows of the existing matrix. measured by the extent to which commodity i has been replaced by. and (b) the effect of fabrication. It is further assumed that each effect works uniformly. To be on the safer side. or used as substitute for. It is assumed that each element aij of the coefficient matrix being estimated.. Each cell in the base matrix. X1 = A1q1 (3) 11 3. These given vectors of final demand and value added are based on available data obtained from the national income (NI) accounts.1. measuring the extent to which commodity j has come to absorb a greater or smaller ratio of intermediate to total inputs in production. A1' is subjected to two effects.. let X1 be the unknown matrix of interindustry transactions for the current period (1988). Ao*' and a set of multipliers to adjust the columns so that the cells in the adjusted matrix will add up to the given row and column totals relating to the current year. will be subjected to these two effects and the new matrix A1 can thus be written as: /\ /\ A1 = A r Ao. and that any change in the ratio of intermediate to toal inputs of a commodity has the same effect on all commodities used as inputs. in this case. That is. . production cost structures change over time due solely to changing commodity prices. say. Ao*' is given by: A* a = 1\ 1\-1 P Aop matrix derived from the price vector p. If Ao is the base year (1985) coefficient matrix and if po is the price vector in which current year (1988) prices are related to 1985 prices. where p is a diagonal On the assumption of no change in production technology. however. in this case. implicit price indices derived from the national income accounts were used.e. namely: (a) the effect of substitution. The substitution multipliers which operate along the rows are denoted as vector r and the fabrication multipliers operating on the columns as vector s. to reflect possible shifts in production and demand structures during the period To evaluate the base year coefficients in prices of the current period. other commodities in industrial production. 1 The RAS adjustment method The RAS method is used to update input-output tables to a year for which row and column sums are known but not the intermediate deliveries themselves. Also. for getting the values of rand s is as follows: The estimating procedure Let u1 stand for the intermediate demand vector derived by subtracting the known vector of final demand from the output vector q1 and v 1 for the intermediate input vector which is equal to q1 less than given vector of value added. commodity i increases or decreases at the same rate as an input to allindustries. Ao*' was further adjusted to account for possible technological changes that might have occurred between 1985 and 1988. the resulting coefficient matrix.

we have: (6) u1 = r (AO*q1) s The column totals of matrix X1 will be: V1 = X1 i V1 = i1 A A V1 = r (Ao. Q1)S (7) Equation (6) and (7) contain all the information desired -the price-adjusted base coefficient matrix Ao*' the derived row and column constraints. s ) qj The row totals of this matrix will be: U1 = X1 (5) 1 1 I . we have (4) Xj = (r Ao. When a solution had been reached. however.I II II where i = L1~ Substituting 1\ equation 1\ 1\ (4) into equation (5).e. after which the normal RAS procedure will be carried out. q1. they are using more intermediate inputs and thus less primary inputs in their production processes. the initial step is to compute for the required new row and column constraints. If these values are solved simultaneously. u1* and V1*' respectively. usually greater than unity.I . The resulting rand s multipliers measure the degree of substitution and fabrication. respectively. 3. The next step is to set at zero all the cells in the base matrix Ao. of additional current information on some interindustry transactions. Sectors with high values of s are subjected to higher fabrication effects. x1. and eventually. 12 III . By adopting the modified RAS method in this exercise. for which current values had been firmly estimated. u1 and V1' and the current output levels. are those which tend to replace sectors with low r values as inputs into intermediate demands. i.2 Modified RAS method With the availability. The estimation process of obtaining X1 from Xo thus in effect amounts to nothing more than a proportional adjustment of the base matrix successively along its rows and its columns until convergence is reached. the zero entries will be replaced by their corresponding known values. 1. the values of the vectors rand s will be obtained and which in turn will be used to calculate A. The solution to these equations which is most usually and conveniently adopted is an iterative one. Sectors with high values of r. the simple RAS method will be modified to exclude these predetermined transactions from the bi-proportional adjustment process.substituting 1\ equation 1\ 1\ (2) into equation (3). by subtracting those known cell values form the original u1 and V1values.

computed rand s multipliers could not be used as measures of technological change.4 1988 1-0 update The 1988 1-0 table used in this study is the product of an updating exercise with the 1985 benchmark table as the basis. Unlike past 1-0 tables. could only be obtained from the worksheets. in traditional 1-0 tables.With this methodology. and (2) commodity x industry absorption or input matrix showing the distribution of commodities consumed by industries in production. 1-0 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM COMMODITIES COMMODITIES INDUSTRIES Absorption FINAL DEMAND TOTAL Output x INDUSTRIES Make M y q Output q PRIMARY INPUT TOTAL Value Added v q 9 Another new feature of the 1985 1-0 accounts is concerned with the treatment of general government current expenditures (GGCE). namely: (1) industry x commodity make or output matrix showing the distribution of commodities produced by industries.Year) 1-0 table The 1985 1-0 Accounts is the sixth of the series of benchmark interindustry studies made for the Philippine economy. all current expenses by government are reflected under the final demand column of GGCE. The new SNA rationalized this modification on the assumption that government now plays an important role in the expansion of the system of industries. leaving only the total net value of these expenses (after deduction of government sales) under final GGCE. the 1985 benchmark table introduced a major modification by transferring part of government current expenditures from final demand to the intermediate demand column of government services. 1. 1974 and 1979. however. 1965. In addition to benchmark tables.3 1985 (Base. the 1985 version was compiled following the new System of National Accounts (SNA) conceptual and accounting framework. a number of 1-0 updates were prepared. Whereas in previous 1-0 tables. The updating exercise was conducted on the 59-sector level of 13 3. 1. The make and absorption tables are combined with separate final demand and value added or primary input matrices to complete the 1-0 accounts. The usual procedure is to calculate for rand s given the base and the updated matrices using the equation A1 = r Ao S where A1 is the updated coefficient matrix and AD is the base-year coefficient matrix. the latest of which is the 1983 1-0 update with the 1979 benchmark table as the basis. . 1969. it is now possible to identify the outputs and inputs that. Past 1-0 studies covered the years 1961. With these tables. The new scheme as shown in the diagram calls for the compilation of two separate tables.

Tourism-related exports refer to foreign tourist expenditures while on visit in the country and this is equal to the estimated travel receipts as recorded in the national income accounts. Appendices 4 and 5 are the analytical tables. The transactions table presented in Appendix 3 is of a non-competitive imports intersectoral transactions are purely of domestically-produced commodities. where A is the matrix of intermediate input coefficients shown in Appendix 4. The sector classification scheme is shown in Appendix 2. (I-A)-1. type wherein treated as all value-added and services In the final demand quadrant of the table. the 59-sector table was restructured in size such as those sectors which were deemed to be less important in so far as the objectives of the study are concerned were condensed into major groupings and those sectors found to be tourism-oriented were further disaggregated. Appendix 5 is the so-called Leontief inverse. ' 14 . however. Cell entries along the imports row refer to the total value of imported goods consumed by the sectors (in the columns) in production. (I-A). The inverse matrix. Appendix 4 shows the input structures of the production sectors in coefficient form. the resulting 1-0 table for tourism consists of 39 production sectors. which shows the total (direct plus indirect) output requirements per unit of final demand.disaggregation. The transactions table is valued at current producers' prices. All other exports of goods and services are referred to as non-tourism exports. 5 final demand sectors and 4 value added or primary sectors. Imports are non-competitive and are reflected in the table as a primary input along with the components. For purposes of this study. the vector of exports was further subdivided into tourismrelated and non-tourism exports. provides the connecting link between final demand and output. It provides the ratio distribution of the intermediate and primary inputs. Thus. It is computed as the inverse of the technology matrix. Column totals in Appendix 4 are all equal to unity.

139 9.98814. to the generation of employment of foreign.2 The travel account In the balance of payments Data on travel credits and debits in the balance of payments from 1986-1989 are shown in Table 4.PATTERNS OF TOURISM IN THE PHILIPPINES Introduction In the Philippines.1 13.1. 15 4.1 Travel credits and debits.810 1. The Philippine Tourism Authority served as the implementing arm forphysical.197 1986198719881989 Debit . infrastructure and superstructure development while the Philippine Convention Bureau was created to be the government's marketing arm for conventions.962 1. NSCB. Such measures include restrictions on amount of foreign exchange that may be taken out of the country. considerably to the and to the attraction 4. it will be observed that the travel account has recorded a surplus throughout the three-year period. tourism was given a priority status through the creation of a separate Department of Tourism in 1973. (Millions of pesos) Year Credit 1986-1990 1. It should be stated at the outset that the travel credits and debits statistics are difficult to estimate and their reliability is very much open to question.42412. From the table. Table 4. The assumption into office of the new dispensation in 1986 sought for a thorough review of all agency mandates and operations. ban on travel by public officials and employees without presidential authorization and other bureaucratic delaying red tape as the requirement of travel clearances for all nationals. inter-agency and intra-governmental coordination. strategic and marketingplanning. Since then. The Central Bank. The Department of Tourism based its figures upon estimates of expenditures by foreign visitors as derived from Visitor Sample Survey. The existence of this surplus was greatly aided by the government's restrictive measures to curb dollar outflow by departing Filipino travellers abroad. 120 was promulgated in January 1987 reorganizing the DOT. The new DOT was tasked to tackle policy formulation. 4. tourism has been viewed as an economic activity.599 1. The credit item represents expenditure by foreign visitors in the Philippines and the debit item represents expenditure overseas by Filipino tourists.676 Exchange Source: Rate: National 1$US = P21. contributing country's acquisition of foreign exchange earnings. Executive Order No. delivery of support services for domestic and international tourism promotion. on the other hand. legislative liaison.0653 Accounts of the Philippines ESSO. regulatory control of the industry sectors. as well as. local investments. based its figures upon foreign exchange remittances and declaration of tourism-oriented establishments and authorized foreign exchange dealers.

74 million increasing over the 1O-year period by an average of 26.189. As an example. miscellaneous services other transportation and communication services. Table 4.2 shows the data on exports and imports.729 or a 2. there have been more imports than exports. arrivals the rates and tourist by which receipts the variables for the period grew were 1980-1989 sluggish and showed oftentimes a general erratic for a large part of the 10-year period under study. travel. Non-factor services include insurance. the annual rates of growth for tourist arrivals during the period fluctuated from as much as 4.809) Trade balance Non-Factor services -Exports -Imports 57.86 percent and -5.008.19 percent in 1984.375 (36. tourist receipts amounted to $US 319. respectively.3 Foreign visitor arrivals The interrelationships between can be expressed mathematically as !Joy income and the flow of tourist arrivals for the period under study = L\ Ta wherein the increments or decrease in income or tourist receipts increments of increase or decrease in tourist arrivals (Ll Ta). NSCB. 1988 (Millions of pesos) Item Merchandise trade -Exports -Imports Value 145.159 in 1980 to 1. promotion and investments. The trade balance is positive due to more exports lesser imports.566 182. Please refer to Table 4. situation is different with non-factor services.34 percent in 1981 and 1985. phenomenon is not new since even in the past years.Another area where the tourism industry has played an active and primary role was in the field of international trade.23 percent annually reaching $US 1. indicating a flaw in the industry's overall businessplannrng. Although upward -trend in the tourist the industry.2 Export and import data. In 1980.34 percent in 1980 to a growth rate of -21. The The and and 4.27 percent in 1980 to -6. government.4 percent annual increase in income via tourist receipts during the period. Table 4. the performance of the industry could not be considered as a general decline.370 15.762 41. tourist receipts showed a growth rate of 34. statistics gathered indicated that tourist arrivals grew from 1.47 million in 1989. All in all. for the figures have shown that there was an upward trend in both tourist arrivals and tourist receipts.608 Trade balance Source: National Income Accounts ESSO.719 in 1989 with a slight decline in tourist arrivals from 1981 to 1986. This registered an average annual increment of 20.5 for data on tourist arrivals in the Philippines for 1980-1989. The table shows a negative trade balance on merchandise trade due to excessive imports. 16 . On the other hand. (Ll Y) is directly proportional to the In using this concept to assess the performance of the tourism industry for the period 1980-1989.465.

72* 1. 114719 1.40 -5.221 4. 1980-1989 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 Source: Department of Tourism.75* 366. 25 -21 19 38. 1. 4. 816.14* 464.O.5 Visitor arrivals to the Philippines.25* 507. 1988 (F. 159953807550712074517700 938. 1980-1989 Tourist receipts 319. ($US millions) Year 1980 1981 1982 1983 1884 1885 1986 1987 1988 1989 Source: *Central Bank data. of Tourism data.771 8.038 2.294 25.47** increase/decrease ( percentage) 34 34 7 50 30 96 3. 1.06* 457.008.412 6.97** 1.86 -5.00* 647.4 Ten principal exports.64 **Department Table 4.465 1.69 31.3 Tourist receipts in the Philippines.63 -29 26 184 23 12.961 27.09 -5.185 coconut oil rods. 890. value in million pesos) Item Total exports Total ten principal -Garments -Semiconductors -Crude -Bars.13 -3.566 87. 773.465. 794.300.26 14.09 1.34 1.043.B.189. -Shrimps -Copper -Lumber -Banana -Gold -Prepared from copper ores tuna of electronic microcircuits exports Value 145.72* 450.27 ~. NSCB.907 Source: National Income Accounts NCSO.391 3.Table 4. 43 27. 860.277 3.74* 343. unworked and prawns concentrates (copper) 5. 781. Table 4.05 17 Annual .

Hong Kong and the United States. 4.5 Length of stay The number of foreign visitors is only one determinant of aggregate expenditure by foreigntourists. 4.19 percent came for convention and. Another important factor is the average duration of stay. Although primary markets continued to dominate the greater portion of visitor arrivals. Federal Republic of Germany. Out of the total visitors in 1989.4 Purpose of visit pattern. The bulk. The average length of stay per visitor in 1988 was 12. showed a higher percentage of independent travellers than those who availed of package tours.6 Visitor arrivals to the Philippines (Percentage) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 by origin.71 percent came to the Philippines primarily for holidaypleasure and vacation. 0. 1.56 percent came for health purposes. 65. 4. The UnitedStates.06 nights. Malaysia. Singapore. This pattern was similar to that in 1988. it was computed at 12. Particular markets though were heavily oriented to package tours like Taiwan Province of China and Hong Kong.11 percent of the visitors in 1989 were on packaged tours. Japan. A person's purpose in visiting a country greatly affects the length of stay and expenditure Thus. 18 1989 1988 1987 . has become the most important source countryfrom only to the United States. 12. Only 25. In 1989. Japan ranked second visitor arrivals by origin from major sources most visitors to the Philippines from 1980-1983. Majority of the holiday and business travellers came from Japan. 66. Table 4. Australia.Japan was the country supplying the which was second to Japan in the 1984 to date. United Kingdom.6 shows the distribution of for the period 1980-1989. Taiwan Province of China. slightly shorter than the 1988 average. 1980-1989 1985 1986 Source: Department of Tourism.04 nights.64 percent came to the Philippines on their own.23 percent came for business. one useful indicator is the classification of tourist arrivals by purpose of visit. Republic of Korea and Saudi Arabia with their rise and decline arrival pattern.29 percent came for official mission. Table 4. which used to be dominated by package-tour travellers in the past. the growth trends fluctuated heavily. This was particularly evident in the cases of Hong Kong. same period.

expenditure outlays were classified according to accommodation. local transport.96 22. 10 25.4.569 accommodation establishments in 1988. expenses. as follows: of the study are summarized visitor arrivals Trends in regional 4.5 percent.6 Expenditure by foreign visitors Visitor sightseeing. In 1988. average total of travellers.7 Breakdown of total average dally expenditure (Percentage) Category of spending Accommodation Food and Beverage Sightseeing Entertai nmentJrecreation Local transport Shopping Miscellaneous Source: 1988 Visitor Sample Survey.7. The Study on Regional Travel in the on the number and seasonality of visits to various parts of the country.7. 31 3.1 Volume and distribution of regional travellers travellers were reported to have utilized the A total volume of 2. entertainment/recreation. the purpose of visit.7.74. the average daily expenditure per visitor was $US115. 58 15.62.1 . 19 4. 29 1.8. 45 3. followed by East Asian travellers at $US153. Table 4.7 Domestic tourism Domestic travel patterns in 1988 through a study conducted Philippines provided information the mode of transport employed. the type of accommodation used.61. 1988 28. 31 4. ASEAN visitors recorded the highest average daily expenditure at $US 171. Region VII followed with an almost 13 percent share and Region I at 10. The data on visitor arrivals by region is given in Table 4. expenditure pattern and a profile The findings the Philippines was monitored by the Department of Tourism starting by the Asian Institute of Tourism.431. of foreign visitors. the National Capital Region captured nearly 45 percent of arrivals during the year. Understandably. due to the heavy influx of foreign visitors to Metro Manila. The breakdown of a respondent's average daily expenditure for 1988 is given in Table 4. Department of Tourism. shopping and miscellaneous food and beverage.

281.307.3 22.0 96.307 1988 Regional 4.470654.946.4 1.4 X XI XII Total 1.9 591.9 Regional visitor arrivals.063. 4.0 2.569 24.038.650.9 12.2 Seasonality pattern of regional arrivals of the yearare Visitor arrivals in all regions.0 4.893. including NCR.1 2nd Apr-Jun Source: There was no pronounced seasonality in terms of arrivals over the four quarters.10.7 7. Department of Tourism.6 7.262. Department of Tourism.431.0 4.603.0 1.911.167.0 1.505 282.7.2.0 42.079. divided into the four quarters as follows: 4.0 48.223.0 II III IV 40.9 2.0 254.0 42.502.429.2 0. although the second quarter exhibited a slightly higher figure over that of the first quarter.718 100.0 56.785.011.7.533 2.125.0 19.0 1. 4. This is because domestic arrivals were the highest from April to June while foreign arrivals were the heaviest during the firstquarter.873.0 100.7.0 37.1 20 .758.7 26.818.368.0 219.7 1988 Study on Regional Travel in the Philippines.1.0 Percentage Source: Table 649.001.368.2 accommodation facilities of accommodation establishments the distribution There were 832 accommodation establishments covered by the survey allover country in 1988.0 V VI VII VIII IX 10.5 2.0 313.410.401.431. January-December 1988 233. by quarter (1988) 1st 3rd 4th Total Jan-Mar Jul-Sept Oct-Dec 364.362.3 43. 26.0 35.0 4.8 Regional visitor arrivals.435 100.0 167.569.0 87.353.919.5 3.0 83.0 52.2 100.0 1.334.0 32.131 536.7 1.0 171.0 191.352 323.288. 44.0 102.0 174.0 204.795.Table 4.0 59.0 Study on Regional Travel in the Philippines.732 397. and their regional distribution is shown in Table 4.

2.238 V VI VII VIII IX 2.056 534 X XI XII Total Source: 1988 Study on Regional 28.535 1. 100.784 883 1.Table 4. as follows: including facilities in the NCR. Department of Tourism.176 751 III IV 2.211 4.2 Room supply The 832 accommodation establishments covered in the survey.0 4. a total of 28.207 rooms distributed in the regions.7.0 21 .326 614 964 1.207 Travel in the Philippines. 1988 10.11 Regional distribution of rooms in accommodation establishments.135 1.10 Regional distribution of accommodation establishments. Department of Tourism. 1988 63 155 II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI 58 61 67 58 66 46 42 43 76 53 44 832 1988 Study on Regional Travel in the Philippines. reported Table 4. XII Total Source: 100.

A similar distribution of males and females was observed in 1988.3 percent.5 50 .5 percent.5 48. including NCR.3 Demographic profile of regional travel demographics of regional travellers in 1988.3 35.7 rates by type of accommodation.3 200 35 8 43 .1 percent of the accommodation facilities inthe regions.5 32. followed by Region III with nearly 8 percent. the purpose 5. 22 4.4 percent were females.0 47.6 59.About 36 percent of the total number of rooms were in the NCR establishments.3 31.0 percent which was higher by 0. the length of stay was registered at In summing up the travellers as there were grabbed the largest share 67.10 percent compared to the 1984 occupancyrate. hotels generally reflected higher average occupancies in comparison to other types of accommodation. was 34.8 32.7 1988 Study on Regional Travel in the Philippines. In certain regions. whereas among foreign regional travellers.6 . specifically Regions VIII and XI. the lower forms of lodging accommodations posted higher occupancies than the hotels. private firm employees of all travellers. By category of establishment.3percent.5 19.5 years.2 35.7.0 77. 66.8 days.4 34 .4 75.3 34. The highest average occupancy rate for the year was reflected by Region VI at 54. excluding the facilities in the National Capital Region.nevertheless. there were twice as many male female travellers.1 47.6 percent of the total number of rooms reported by the establishments.9 58.0 22.6 28.7 43.7 percent were males and 33.12 Room occupancy Hotels 1*-2* 25. Department of Tourism 4.l8's.7. 69.2 27.8. the average age was 33.5 47.8 65.. Region VII had slightly over 8 percent of the total number of rooms.5 49. by region (1988) Region Hotels Region 3*-5* 39.7 31.2 40.5 58. Among domestic regional travellers.6 70.1 24.6 31.4 54 32 .5 34.7 23 20.8 Inns 33 1 19 3 Unclassified average 21.6 percent were males and 30.0 27. Sex The established perennial proportional ratio of male to female travellers was 2: 1.1 11. however.3. Table 4.3 30.3 percent were fema.2.5 22.1 . followed by Region X with 47.6 V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII 31.1 34.6 50.8 22. majority of the travellers attained university/college degree at of visit was primarily for pleasure/holiday. Although the hotels constituted only 28.7 18.4 38.2 37.5 64 . they accounted for 62. 4.7.3 Occupancy rates In 1988.4 54.6 73.6 49.1 51. the average occupancy rate for all regions.7 percent compared to the 1983 computed occupancy rate but lower by 0.0 II III IV Resorts 26.

3.6 years.7 years then domestic regional travellers at 31.45 spent daily by the domestic travellers. business remained to be the main purpose of visit by the majority (30.0 percent.8 days.7.40. Secondary education holders and graduates of vocational/technical courses had their respective 11.7 percent shares. while the foreign nationals stayed for an average of 6.3 percent.5 Purpose of visit Out of the total visitors. although a substantial 25.7 days.3.1 percent had reached post-graduate degree. While almost 60 percent of the foreign visitors come for pleasure/holiday.7. the overall average daily expenditure per traveller was P708. On the other hand.4 percent came to the Philippines primarily for pleasure/ holiday while 24. Those who came to visit friends and relatives had the longest stay. Domestic travellers had a higher percentage of university/ college holders than foreign travellers.7 percent) of the domestic travellers. 23 . 4.6 Length of stay The average length of stay of the regional travellers in 1988 was 5.7. Businessmen followed at 20. 4. Government employees comprised 16. the shortest length of stay was reflected by those whose main purpose of visit was to attend a convention or conference.5 years.2 percent. Foreign regional travellers a higher median age at 34.3.7 Expenditure In 1988. 4. The length of stay also varied according to purpose of visit.7.3.3. higher by 27.2 Age had The median age registered for 1988 was 33.8 percent.7.20.7 days.9 percent came for commercial business.9 percent and 8. 35.3.4.8 percent than the 1984 estimate. The foreign travellers spent an average of P928. The domestic visitors stayed for an average duration of 4.7.4 percent while the professional group represented 13. 12.2 percent also come for their holiday. 4. higher by almost 42 percent than the amount of P539.3 Education training University/college degree was the highest educational training attained by the majority of the regional travellers at 67. 4.4 Occupation Private firm employees occupied the biggest proportion of occupational groupings in 1988 at 21.

7 percent measured at current producers' prices.3 percent while the remaining 12.1 Supply and demand situation.9 8.0 86. P29.6 37. while investment goods accounted for only 8.7 percent was supplied through importations.347 1. STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE PHILIPPINE ECONOMY IN 1988 Supply and demand situation In 1988. The table shows that the industry group comprising mining.1 percent) of total supply was demanded by the intermediate or the production sectors in the form of raw materials.Tourism Tourism On the demand side. Approximately twofifths (40.6 1.1 1.3 billion in 1988.8 percent of total demand of P1 . The remaining 13. from 5.515 226.1 46.877 644.2 Domestic production Table 5.916 682. domestic (home) demand reached P1 . Table 5.700. gas and water produced the bulk of the country's total gross output value of P1. Final consumption by households and government accounted for 37. the total value of goods and services available to the economy reached P1. Together with the three major groupings is the tourism-oriented industry group broken down into the 7 sectors identified as the major tourismrelated industries.7 13. supplies and non-factor services consumed in the process of production.485. Of the total exports tourism.700.039 12.2 shows the composition of domestic production of sectors classified according to the major sectoral groupings of the national income accounts.3 billion.7 percent of total supply.431 196.9 percent.0 87.485 billion in 1988. 24 5. Out of this total supply value.292 1.473.1 shows that domestic production accounted for 87.473. The primary sectors of agriculture.5.943 Exports Non.3 11.7 percent in 1988. This represented value of P226.700.9 billion in 1988 or 86. construction and the utilities sectors of electricity.5 billion worth of goods or 48. manufacturing.488 29.7 40.8 Intermediate Final Consumption Investment (PCE + GCE) (GDCF) 791. The industry groups produced P713. The service sectors except the tourism-oriented sectors ranked next grossing P465.5 billion or 31. fishery and forestry yielded a total gross output of P247. valued at current prices.4 billion earned in 1988.7 100.362 147. Table 5.4 percent.055 .3 percent were exported to the rest of the world. 1988 Total supply Domestic Production Import Total demand Domestic 100.3 215.0 percent of the total gross output.4 billion or 16.9 billion was generated only 1.

either for final consumption.1 D367 1.:31 7. 79 Tourist bus/car service Air transport Travel agencies Tourist shops Recreational services Restaurants.22 4.: 2278 7.~ 98.84 8.1 92.41 0.485 billion in 1988 accounted for P522 billion or 35. 527 58.23 13.1 D9156997 334890 26. 6187 22. 2. Agriculture.! 9165 36. 63 2.: 92. 072 20.: 100. Tourism-oriented 4. 4.3 4.055 Gross output generated by the tourism industry reached a total of P58. 72776942031.1 DO617822 50.7 Hotels and other lodging Total 519 2.2 Composition Major sector grouping of outputs.30 18.:21 99.3 Travel agencies 4. 494 0. investment or for exports. fishery and forestry Industry group Services other than tourism-oriented Tourism-oriented sectors 4.1 20.4 4.485.5 billion. 121 10.50 31. 557 Percentage distribution 16.1 37.23 45. etc. 79.6 4.1 60. The restaurant and hotel sectors accounted for more than one-half of the tourism industry's output with a combined gross receipts of P31.76 1.: Total Consumption Investment 4.8 percent or P963 billion worth of goods and services went to the final demand sectors.1 4.1 92. fishery and forestry 2. 1988 Value (P million) 247. Table 5.Table 5.: 64. 612 857 13.23 - o. 4.06 0.: 87. Industry group Services other than Tourism-oriented 35. Agriculture.6 billion or roughly 4.08 32.' 70.23 7.66 48. cafes.37 Non-tourism exports Tourism exports 1. 5. 992 10. 79 82.4 Tourist shops 4.09 On the overall. 63. cafes.5 4. 65.3 Disposition pattern of outputs (Percentages) Final demand Major sectoral grouping Intermediate demand 64.:36 42.00 1. intermediate demand for the country's total production value of P1.1313.6 Restaurants.2 Air transport 4.7 All sectors 37. 16.2 percent. 39 0.!5210 42.04 31.49. 35.1 Tourist bus/car service 4. etc.4 billion.3 Output disposition patterns Reading along the rows of the 1-0 table shows the disposition of commodity outputs. Hotels & other lodging 12. The remaining 64.92.3.16423 7.16 46.0 percent of the national total production in 1988.71 100.07 42.50 13. Table 5.~ 35. 25 7360 .27 14.2 4. Tourist bus/car service and travel agencies recorded the least combined output of only P1.14 0.05 0. 41 37. either as inputs consumed by the production sectors or as deliveries to final demand.88 O.95 0.44 2.35 3.30 17.68 1. 3.26 4.5 Recreational services 4.1 0. 427 713.91 1. 489 465.03 0.02 7.3 shows the distribution pattern of sectoral commodity outputs classified according to the major sectoral groupings.

427 26 .95 3.15 Tourism-oriented 52.91 68. out of which P803.56 19.38 5.4 shows the comparative structure of production costs of the major sectors including the tourism industry.485. 1988 (Percentage) Inputs All sectors 35. the outputs of the tertiary sectors of services including the tourism-oriented industries went mostly to final demand.81 4.4 Production cost structure Basic information about the production cost structure of the national economy could provide a good reference point in understanding the role of the tourism industry in relation to the other sectors. Table 5.33 31.On the sectoral level.54 3. The pattern of distibution of output of the industry group is closely similar to that of the national economy. Likewise. the country's gross domestic product at factor cost stood at P745.29 4.20 42.4 Production cost structures.08 19.4 percent) as well as from freight revenues from exports of goods (42. Values for each input item can be derived from total values shown in the last row of the table.2 billion at current prices or 50. Table 5.2 percent) notably for final consumption by households. the hotel industry disposed of most of its output directly to foreign guests (82.055 2.16 1.00 247. The table shows the direct requirements of intermediate and primary inputs consumed in production. Among the tourism-oriented sectors.0 billion in 1988.21 100.26 36.00 38. this framework of analysis could be extended to examine also the tourism sector.86 5.91 AFP 22.00 58.89 26.6 percent).27 100.77 18. gas and water delivered most of their outputs to final demand (63.00 713. A look at the 1-0 transactions table shown in Appendix 3 shows that the economy's total production reached P1. 2. 5.49 3.80 19.00 1.9 percent) of the sectors' output was consumed by the production sectors while final deliveries accounted for the remaining one-third (35.16 64.489 Services 28.07 100.64 Industry 42.0 billion or 54.1 percent was generated as factor incomes (equivalent to gross value added) in the form of salaries and wages (compensation).03 35.53 9.2 percent of total output.73 54. the industry group comprising mining.03 2.46 100. Net of indirect taxes. The local air transport industry derived only 2.09 24.3 shows that a large portion of the outputs of agriculture.20 57.612 74. expressed in percentage forms. Intermediate Primary Imports Compensation Depreciation Net indirect taxes Operating Surplus Gross Value Added Total P millions Agriculture.2 percent). The input structure of the Philippine economy also gives vital clues as to the magnitude of dependence of the economy on intermediate rather than primary inputs or vice-versa. tourist shops and recreational services sectors relatively showed bigger proportions with almost half of their outputs going to international tourism. the bulk of which was consumed by households sector.84 10.485.65 14. Tourismoriented sectors delivered more than 90 percent of their outputs to final demand catering primarily to the needs of households and international tourists. In contrast. indirect taxes paid to government and operating surplus. Fishery and Forestry 4.1 percent).00 465.14 47. manufacturing. Expectedly.54 3. fishery and forestry was delivered to the intermediate sectors for further processing. Roughly two-thirds (64.94 100.527 4. construction and electricity.51 77. Table 5.6 percent of their total revenue from foreign tourism as the larger share of its output was generated from the local population (42. To some extent.97 71.61 5. Almost 80 percent of the outputs of services other than tourism-oriented establishments went to final demand.

leaving a gross value added of 42. 2. (4) travel agencies with 52. O.1 57.4 units for agriculture.8 units of imported goods and services to produce 100 units of output or a total of 46 units of intermediate inputs. had to set aside out of every peso of its receipts.53 42.21 100.94 100. The restaurants industry. Among the four (4) major groupings.In 1988.91 2.6 units.93 100.00 857 14. interest payments.41 47. recreational services is relatively capital intensive and represents a highly specialized service for which it can charge a premium price for highly selective markets.7 centavos) and imported inputs (2.3 centavos for compensation.16 2.46 4. the input amounting to 61.39 100.' 47.8 units.00 519 5. this made the industry group's direct relatively lesser than the other groups in terms of gross against 74.86 68.05 20.59 15. depreciation reserve for 4.01 47. 66 centavos for locally produced (63.0 centavos out of every peso of receipt.5 units.38 2.18 10.01 73. The residual of 26.9 units.68 36.2.992 The trend towards a higher intermediate input thus resulting in low gross value added is clearly demonstrated by the tourism subsectors. In effect.2 units. 2148 23.00 13.89 19.7 units per 100 units contribution to the national economy appear value added.50. 14866539.6.29 4.41 4. (3) hotels with 51. 14.3 units only as 68.39 10.557 52.00 42. 16 4. and (6) tourist shops with 45.20 30. To a great extent.00 2. 1. Payments to labor accounted for 18.5 which shows that.612 10. 4.5 units and payments for indirect taxes less subsidies for 3.072 Restaurants 63.6 units.21 48.121 49. This pattern is evident in Table 5.32 2.0 units.00 10. Also.5 Production cost structures of tourism-oriented sectors. 23.00 Hotels 1. The recreational services subsector exhibited an intermediate input consumption of 31.3 centavos). The recreational services subsector which had the lowest intermediate input absorption of only 31.26 17. (5) tourist bus/car service with 47.47 14.2 units of domestically-produced and 10. 48.7 units represented operating land rentals and other value added payments.11 33. In effect.9 units. 54. industrial group recorded the largest share of intermediate output.48 100. 14 0475 60. 27 58.99 5.9 units for the services group.: 5.31 1. Intermediate Primary Imports Compensation Depreciation Net indirect taxes Operating surplus Gross value added Total P millions 52. the whole economy required an average of 35. only the residual of 34 centavos went to the payment to the factors of production as follows: 14.92 1.00 20.1 units.6percent. 5. all the other six subsectors exhibited high total intermediate input proportions as follows: (1) restaurants with 66. 4. (2) air transport with 72.2 units per 100 units of output.51 54.7 units of imported inputs or a total of 57.95 100.39 14. measured at 38. appeared to be the most profitable based on its operating surplus of 49. except for the recreational service subsector.07 0. of intermediate input absorption accounting for 52. fishery and forestry and industry posted a higher gross value added of 42.64 27. Tourism-oriented industries likewise showed a higher degree. 5620 19.52 11.85 5.1 units. 1988 (Percentage) Inputs Total Tourist bus /car service Air transport Travel Tourist shops Recreational services 26.49 52. even when compared to the national average.1 units of locally-produced and 5. particularly.99 8. this indicates the high backward linkages of the tourism industry implying its intensive use of inputs produced by other sectors. This may stem from the fact that its low intermediate input absorption somehow accords it some form of protection from the adverse effects of erratic prices of raw materials.6 centavos for indirect taxes and 15.42 100.10904886965407 45.494 613991 .59 0.59 13.1 centavos as operating surplus.39 100. Table 5. The tourism surplus which include profits.

It is of common knowledge that major airlines even in the United States have been reeling from severe losses. poor peace and order conditions and threats of terroristic activities even on a global level can easily dissuade even non-tourists from travelling by air. However. the disposition patterns of the tourism-oriented subsectors showed that their outputs primarily went to final demand (93. 5.3.5 percent) and other services sectors (31. In algebraic terms.1 percent of the country's total gross demestic product of P803. only the tourist shops (54. despite the common perception that the hotel industry is in distress.4) and recreational services sectors surpassed the national average. In value terms..0 percent). of the tourism industry as measured by its gross value added may not be as impressive as the other sectors of the economy.7 billion as gross value added to the economy or a mere 3. The air transport industry had the lowest operating surplus of 0. IJ 28 U.0 percent) with only 7. it actually posted the next highest level of profitability based on its operating surplus of 24 centavos out of every peso receipt. Perceptions of political instabilities. The air transport industry is very highly capital-intensive and is extremely sensitive to currency fluctuations.64 or less than one centavo out of every peso receipt. the tourism-oriented subsectors netted in 1988 a total of P24. The industry's intermediate input share of 57. fishery and forestry (25. This is what is referred to as the forward and backward linkages of the tourism industry with the other sectors and which is best measured through input-output analysis. With the interdependence and backward availability of sectors. . and the index of the power of dispersion. This high dependence of the tourism industry on such inputs directly affects the growth of theindustry.0 percent of their outputs sold to the producing sectors. As shown in Table 5. Ui. the industry's interrelationships with the other sectors is reflected in the extent to which it purchases from or sells to other industries' goods and services. Tables 5.0 billion. therefore.Surprisingly..07percent. On the other hand.8 percent is higher than those of agriculture. requiring real high volumes of business to generate decent profits. either as a seller of its output or a purchaser of inputs.5 compared with the national gross value added ratio of 54.5 Linkages of the tourism industry The direct linkage effects of the tourism industry. Uj' are formulated as: n L = 1 I r. IJ 1 n n L i= 1 L = 1 r. of the Leontief inverse it is possible to determine which enables one to measure the total not only the direct but also the indirect forward The forward linkage of an industry is measured by the index of sensitivity while backward linkage is measured by the index of the power of dispersion. The resulting effect is low value added generation as can be seen in Table 5. as a purchaser or user of inputs consumed in their production activities. the index of sensitivity. especially when their prices increase erratically.4 and 5.5 showed that the tourism industry ranked second to the industrial groups in terms of its absorptive capacity of intermediate inputs ratio. have already been discussed in the previous sections. The direct economic contribution. linkage effects.

Table 5. ranking number 37 among the 39 sectors. Agricultural crops.6 presents the relative sensitivity and influence of each of the 39 sectors of the economy as lifted from Appendix 5. the chemical and petroleum industry sector. Industries with indices of more than one are considered to have good backward linkage.751. i. This implies that the particular industry sells most of its output to other sectors. It is understandable that the manufacturing and the agricultural sectors would have a high forward linkage because these sectors generally produce intermediate products for further processing by the other industries. The chemical products industry ranked first with a very high sensitivity index of 3. etc. This is attributable to the fact that the sector is primarily a service-oriented industry.160 followed by the trade sector. If the index of sensitivity is less than one. the tourism subsectors exhibited high backward linkage effects as evidenced by their more than unity indices of the power of dispersion.781. All the seven tourism subsectors exhibited low indices of sensitivity indicating that a greater portion of their outputs find their way to the final demand sectors. government. exhibited a very low backward linkage of 0. Ranked according to their indices of the power of dispersion. the food. these sectors being factor-intensivealready. The primary sectors of agriculture and mining registered low backward linkages. particularly technological innovations brought about by intensive research and development have resulted in the continuous production of new chemical products that have gained wide acceptability as an intermediate raw material by other industries. this sector being the intermediary in the inter-industry transactions with 2.898 and which ranked number 29 among the 39 sectors and the tourist bus/car service sector with 0. beverage and tobacco manufacturing with 1. This is 29 . it is generally the case that the output of that industry is primarily purchased or consumed by the final demand sector. of course.290.858 and agricultural crops with 1. food.160.. The reason for its low index of dispersion is because the industry is heavily dependent on imported raw materials such as crude oil which is used in production.321. the wood. IJ = 1 L i= 1 Where rij is the total interdependence number of sectors. In the case of the chemical industry.978 and ranked number 19.407. On the other hand. Hence. tour assistance. cork and cane products including furnitures sector ranked first with an index of 1. Such industries utilize more intermediate than primary inputs thus establishing a broad and stable linkages with other sectors of the economy. which registered the highest forward linkage of 3. with the exception of the recreational and cultural services which had an index of 0. The index of the power of dispersion measures the relative importance of an industry in purchasing and utilizing the output of other industries. households. its output is not used in further production of goods but rather to meet demands for such services as accommodation. closely trailed by the tourism-oriented sector of restaurants with 1.e.. Compared with other sectors. In contrast to their low forward linkages. coefficient n L = 1 n rc q for row sector and column sector and n is the Forward linkage is considered high when the index of sensitivity is generally more than unity (one). and foreign visitors. generally are in raw form and must undergo further processing. thus having minimal requirements in other forms of inputs from other sectors.n L =1 U I r. the tourism-oriented establishments exhibited low indices of sensitivity indicating a low forward linkage.

717 0.214 0.407 0.057 1.117 0. Tourism -oriented 19 Tourist bus/car 22 Air transport services 23 Tour & travel agencies 26 Tourist shops 35 Recreational 37 Restaurants 38 Hotels & other lodging places services 30 . publishing 11 Chemicals.830 0. 12 Non-metallic 13 Basic metals 14 Fabricated metals.927 16 34 27 207 28 24 39 21 25 Communication 27 Other trade 28 Financial 29 Insurance 30 Real estate 31 Ownership 32 Government of dwellings services & health services services 0.387 0. 1988 Forward linkage Vi Rank Backward linkage Vi Rank 1.160 0.202 0.Table 5. 6 Non-metallic 7 Food.808 0.898 1.830 2. cork & cane products 10 Paper.651 0. 1 Agricultural 2 Livestock 3 Fishery 4 Forestry fishery and forestry crops & poultry 1.997 0.031 transport equip.786 0.776 0.699 0.321 1.709 social & related communities sectors services 3 19 9 7 12 29 2 10 4.6 Sector forward-backward Sector linkages. beverage 8 Textiles.014 0.959 0. Industry 5 Metallic group mining mining & tobacco apparel. wearing 9 Wood.704 0. Services group other than tourism-oriented services 20 Other land transport 21 Water 24 Storage transport 0.201 1.972 1. Agriculture.954 1.668 0.838 0.978 1.981 0.686 services services -related & transport 0.677 0. & printing products products 1 5 37 8 11 26 25 15 18 31 13 petroleum mineral 0.266 0.650 0.290 1.934 1.781 1.931 0.815 0.098 0.652 0.952 services services 33 Private education 34 Business 36 Personal 39 Sanitary.756 0.945 0.135 36 17 22 35 33 32 6 30 2.900 0.192 1.774 1.853 1.849 1. services 14 23 38 & household 0.039 0.896 1.912 0.901 0.874 1.752 1.264 1.916 1.175 1.706 0.062 1.751 0. mfg.922 0.074 4 14 8 7 11 19 3 10 18 5 1 16 9 13 35 0.056 0.858 1.684 15 Miscellaneous 16 Construction 17 Electricity manufactures 24 6 31 21 30 27 20 2 12 22 17 38 33 32 15 34 25 37 28 29 39 36 23 26 and gas 18 Water services 3.021 0.539 3.921 0.992 0. footware 1. machinery.658 0.912 1.788 0.650 0.003 0.681 0.

This means that these industries depend heavily on the system of industries for their raw materials. the upper half of the ranking. All the other tourism-oriented establishments appeared to be on. supplies and services as compared with others. A unit increase in the final demand for any of these industries' outputs will induce relatively larger output requirements from other industries which supply their basic raw material needs. 31 .understandable because these two tourism sub-sectors practically offer a complete service which is not dependent on local materials.

Specifically.1 shows travel receipts from 1980 to 1990.0 percent from 1980-1990. for the past two years. As a proponion to total gross domestic product of the country. or multiplier. Of the total merchandise exports of P152. Tourist expenditure has repercussive. garments.9 billion would place it ahead of the garments industry which exported P27. Table 6. tourism receipts of P29. income and employment there and so on. the duration of stay and average daily expenditure.4 billion of exports. gold. However.9 billion and the electronics industry which generated P25. effects throughout the economy. for only 6.2 Tourist receipts. 1980-1990 Foreign tourist receipts are estimated using the component method. from a high 0(3. income. the total expenditures for the period are calculated. on the average. The fir'st round or direct effects occur in industries where the expenditure takes place. 32 6. among others.3 Tourism in relation to other top exports The total tourism receipt of P29. Given the number of visitors.64 billion. The indirect effect is the difference between the total and the direct effects.9 in 1980. tourist receipts had declined. income (valueadded) and employment in that industry. tourism is the most promising especially in the light of government efforts to develop and promote non-traditional products to boost the country's foreign exchange earnings. 6.4 billion attributable to seventeen (17) principal merchandise exports which include. valued at current prices. lumber. Tourism represents 13. bananas and prawns.9 billion based on the Revised National Accounts (RNA) would effectively make the tourism industry the country's top foreign exchange earner. The 1988 updated input-output table specially prepared for this study was used in quantifying the above-mentioned impact variables. crude coconut oil.4 billion. Indirect effects occur in those activities supplying inputs to the first industry. creating additional output.ANALYSIS ON THE ECONOMIC IMPACT OF INTERNATIONAL TOURISM Introduction This portion of the study deals with the analysis of the effects of international tourism on the Philippine economy.4 billion in 1988. it aims to measure the total impact of foreign tourist expenditures on output. The calculation of the indirect effects involves the computation of the Leontief inverse (I -A)-1 where each element. Tourism is a unique and non-traditional industry which offers a vast opportunity in generating income and employment by properly projecting traditional Filipino values which would attract fore. creating output. employment.2 percent of the country's total exports (sum of merchandise and non-factor services) of P226. indirect taxes and import costs. electronics. The direct effects of tourist expenditure are calculated using the direct input coefficient matrix as shown in Appendix 4.6 percent of total exports of non-factor to P73.4 percent of the total exports of P98.7 percent in 1988 to a low of 1. It was closely followed by miscellaneous services services amounting with P29. Tourism receipts would be equivalent to 30. 6. travel receipts accounted 2. It can be observed that travel receipts had been growing at an average annual rate of 21. Tourism receipts also accounted for 40. These estimates are reflected in the national income accounts as exports receipts for travel.8 billion in 1988. Clearly.7 percent.gn tourists to visit the country.1 . rij' represents the total (direct plus indirect) output requirements per unit of final demand. The year 1988 was a boom to international tourism recording an estimated tourist receipts of P29.9 billion. copper.

177.741.00 803.00 281.4 3.194 260 29.943 8.637 6.00 13.257.561. 1980-1990 Travel receipts Year Value (P million) Growth rate (percentage) 39.8 GDP (P millions) Travel receipts to GDP (percentage) 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 Source: 4. expenditures for food and beverage slightly dropped from 24.401.00 6. This is evident in the largest expenditure category of accommodation which significantly declined from 34.874.00 922.1 63.00 16.00 571.749. On the other hand. the table shows that there had been a shift in the expenditure pattern between 1980 and 1988.government (P8.572 98.00 28. Table 6.00 27.2 Tourism and other exports.26 billion).8 percent of total expenditures in 1980 to 29.306.767.6 22.6 The status of tourism table on exports: as a foreign exchange earner can be gleaned from the following summary Table 6.3 2.016.7 3.363.346 47.9 3. 1988.719 73. expenditures for entertainment and recreation and shopping were considerably increased.6 (5.066.943.00 . at current prices (Millions of pesos) Total exports Total merchandise exports Monetization of gold Principal merchandise exports Others Total non-factor services exports Other transportation and communication Insurance Travel (tourism) Government Miscellaneous services 152.634.4 Tourist expenditure patterns.00 685. National Statistical Coordination Board.00 609.6 2.077.9 2.00 National Income Accounts Series.2) 1.3 shows the expenditure pattern of foreign visitors in the country for 1980 and 1988.579.207.3 2.2 billion) and insurance (PO.0 10.461.00 524.1 Travel receipts and gross domestic product. 243.00 317.00 28. Likewise.003 29. 1980 and 1988 Table 6.00 8.00 23.643.6) (0. other transportation and communications (P6. Distributed according to the seven expenditure categories.394 ~ 6.3 26.704.794 6.00 29.1 2.4 14.481.3 percent in 1988.0 in 1980 to 22.00 7.0 percent in 1988.00 369.0 3.0 14.0 billion).00 18.3 2.595.254. 33 .

80 24. Its multiplier of 0. Coordination Board. This finding is borne out by the impressive multipliers generated in the study. Source: -Visitor -Economic & Social Statistics Statistical It was this apparent shift in the expenditure pattern that made the project team use a more update 1-0 table in the impact analysis.33 5. however.708) and other exports (0. 7.5 summarizes the various effects of the final demand components on the 1988 economy. in this case the 1988 1-0 update.00 28. the final demand components were categorized into four groups.702).692 is interpreted as the number of (monetary) units the economic sectors have to produce to satisfy one unit of tourist expenditure.96 22. National 4. The resulting 1-0 transformation of 1988 tourist expenditures is shown in Table 6.09 8.26 18.4 along with the other final demandcomponents. Income multiplier for consumption is slightly higher with 0.31 3.692) is the highest among the four final demand components.58 15.45 3. 5. 1980 & 1988 1.Table 6. namely: (1) consumption (private plus government).00 29.1 percent of total final demand of P962.3 Foreign tourist expenditure (Percentage) patterns. This finding confirms the previous result that the tourism-oriented sectors ranked high in backward linkage.4. For purposes of the economic impact portion of the study.9 billion. several research activities were undertaken. This value of 1.10 25.4 billion and represents a mere 3.792. the tourist expenditures had broken down into the seven categories were further disaggregated to conform with the 1-0 table sector classification. It should be noted that the tourism-oriented industries had indicated high backward linkages with other sectors which means that the indirect repercussions of tourist expenditure would be considerable. one of which was a special inquiry on tourist shops to solicit information on tourist purchases. and (4) foreign tourism exports (foreign tourist expenditures).634 of Tourism. For example. 3.1 percent of total exports of P226. 1980 & 1988. (3) nontourism exports (exports of goods and services other than for tourism). For this purpose.04 3.5 Impact summary analysis Table 6. For input-output use.73 100. total (direct + indirect) income effect in 1988 for tourism amounted to P23. 6. 6. Accommodation Food & beverage Sightseeing EntertainmenVrecreation Local transport Shopping Miscellaneous 34.31 100.75 5. the output multiplier for tourism (1. 2. Department Office. while direct income 34 . lies not only on the amount of direct contribution but on the degree of influence of tourism on the other sectors of the economy. 717 million measured by the GDP at factor costs.808. Its importance to the economy. Foreign tourist expenditures. amounting to P29. A comparative analysis of the various economic impacts shows that the tourism industry plays a progressive role in the economic development of the country. interpreted as the amount the industry generates per unit of tourist expenditure. International tourism's capacity to generate income is also high compared with other final demand components. In absolute terms.943 Total Millions of pesos Sample Surveys.943 million in 1988 is relatively small. denoted by FTE in the table. is higher than those of investment (0. It is only 13.29 1. (2) investment or gross domestic capital formation (gross fixed capital formation plus change in inventories).

Petroleum Products 12.832 3.00 0.16 1.03 030.14 1.00 0.344 347 87 12.00 2.754 2.01 0.673 8. Non-Metallic Mining 7.906 0.697 4.36 0.045 14.50 2.29 28. Metallic Mining 6. 44 3.88 1.275 119 8.121 105.67 0.17 0.718 46 4.504 1.00 2. Wood.66 2.37 0.386 0 156 7.896 2.963 40. Wearing Apparel.16 0.00 0.87 4.00 0.19 0. 00 1.20 0. Miscellaneous Manufactures 16.583 15.342 27.05 3.474 2. Storage & Services Related to Transport 25. 33.655 4.375 565 24.00 0.00 2.00 0.859 482 5.02 0.007 0 0 0 0 5.00 0.098 130 1.86 O.f 3.262 40.59 1.48 31. 37.210 45. Tourist Bus/Car Services 20.91 1.07 0.04 1. Non-Metallic Mineral Products 13.71 7.00 1.066 366 33.00 0.00 29. 36.04 0. 1988 (millions of pesos) PCE Value % 23.00 0.00 0.00 0.421 365 16.126 552.~ 178 9. 13 00 O. Social & Related 0 72.35 0.19 4.55 1.02 1.471 0.220 1.54 2.26 3. Air Transport Services 23.53 0. Sanitary.524 02 .865 0 0 GCE Value % Value Sector 1. 34.97 0.052 30 5.76 1.29 0.00 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 20.483 0 1.89 3.96 0.04 0.229 21.184 0 0 0 2.20 1.544 642 4. Water Services 19.32 0.04 0.~ 155 13.234 728 12.00 0.53 0.98 1.461 3. 8.73 2.05 0. 31.987 11.1 57 20.49 0.279 0 0 11.056 0 35. Water Transport Services 22.00 0. Paper.14 0.44 1.02 0.00 0.144 (142) 0 5.943 100.00 3.E 5. 38.10 4.065 72.51 0.69 15.917 6.76 2.25 11.00 0.04 0. Communication 26.01 0 278 0 184 354 119 0 613 1.107 9.25 0.705 877 1.04 0. Basic Metals 14.' 64 32. 3.87 4.80 0.20 2.03 -0.375 843 0.4 Sectoral distribution of final demand by component.76 0.88 0.884 100.93 1.~79 ~ 165 0.91 0. Other Trade 4. Fabricated Metal Products.203 453 0 679 6.810 100.942 5.023 5.279 798 30 0 496 0 0 180 0 0 1.00 3.00 15.03 3.PCE -Private consumption 27. 15. 35.00 0.767.20 1.00 NTE FTE -Non-tourist -Foreign exports tourist expenditure (Exports) GCE GDCF -Government -Gross consumption domestic capital formation 35 3.257 1. Chemical & Chemical Products.Table 6. 30.167 817 0 0 8.98 0.89 0.58 0 0 0 0 0 72.09 55 398 0 0 0.61 39.092 9.44 0. 2.311 2.705 16.00 0.00 0.171 2.10 0.16 0.12 O.~ 10.00 0.036 954 73.00 111.00 0.61 0.37 6.42 0.66 0.00 expenditures expenditures 196.06 4.08 10.808 8.70 0.02 2.956 40.051 4.73 0.00 1.23 7.955 5. Electricity & Gas 18. Publishing & Printing 11.19 13.( '32 21.00 0.614 3.521 18.00 3.37 0.00 \5.751 363 2.74 0.21 0.179 7.27 22.037 1.575 3.00 0.144 1.00 962.982 5. leather & Footware 9.31 1.~~O9 118 8.07 6.629 800 9.00 0.181 735 10.18 1. Food.00 0.21 0.93 1.276 22. 28.13 4.33 0.00 31.414 0.00 0. Tour & Travel Agencies 24.61 1.63 4.67 0.287 1.00 0. Crops & Agricultural Services 2.03 0.00 0.843 1.37 5.93 5.484 3.00 0. Machinery.07 0.183 100. 29.72 0.879 10.00 0..21 . Textiles. Livestock & Poultry Fishery Forestry GDCF % NTE Value 5.1 28 8.38 4.487100.00 0.292 76.00 0.00 0.83 2. Cork & Cane Products Including Furnitures 10. Tourist Shops Financial Services Insurance Real Estate Ownership of Dwellings Government Services Private Education & Health Services Business Services Recreational & Cultural Services Personal & Household Services Restaurants Hotels & Other lodging Places CommunitY Services Total .00 0.00 100.68 0.04 0 0 176.250 3."126 6.00 0.671 0 2. 32.82 0.997 0.00 0.58 1. Construction 17.14 1.60 0. Beverage & Tobacco Mfg.151 10.923 4.42 2.11 0.22 10.72 0.183 100.529 17.86 65.230.65 197.590 3.39 0.57 1.39 0.811 0.923 9.1 77 176 19.261 10.43 2.51 2.18 0.32 1. 4.33 1.74 56 7.724 0 % FTE Value % 0 0 0 0 0 Total Value % 34.718 72. Transport Equipt.18 1. Other land Transport Services 21.65 0.00 2.93 0.954 13. 3. 08 8.31 0.31 2.57 0.700 3.638 4.766 879 899 5.00 4.

therefore.O98 million. In contrast.3 persons per one million pesos of tourist expenditure.6) of tourist expenditure.4 centavos for every peso (100-14.1) because these goods are more capital-intensive than labor-intensive.619 million. Figures of employees On employment generation. It should be noted that net foreign exchange earnings from tourism is relatively higher than those of other export products which netted only 77. On government generation of indirect taxes.2 centavos (100-22. that needs to be In 1988. tourism ranked next to non-tourism exports.146. Nontourism exports posted an indirect tax multiplier effect of 0. The employment multiplier for investment goods is the lowest (17.O98 which is P10.Investment tion Nontourism exports Investment Figures 2 refer to total requirements refer to number per unit of final demand-. the import contents of investment goods and non-tourist exports exhibited high multipliers of 0. The import multiplier of tourism of 0.854 or 85. per one million units of final demand.effect was calculated at P13.071 units for every unit of exports demand.5. Summary findings of economic impacts. The indirect income effect is therefore P23. respectively. The government expects to earn PO.239 and 0. is 0. while tourist expenditures had a total import content of only 0. the tourism sector also ranked the highest with an employment multiplier of 25. the net foreign exchange earning.8) per peso of export receipts.135 import costs per peso of consumption demand. The data on import cost effects show that the production of goods and services for final consumption required the least amount of importations with PO.228.062 per peso tourist expenditure. 36 .146 determines the amount of the "leakage" deducted from tourist receipts to obtain the net foreign exchange earning. the difference between Table 6. This indicates once more the critical role that tourism can play in the special programmes of government on employment generation. 1988 Components of final demand Multipliers' Foreign tourism exports Consumption Nontourism exports Foreign tourism exports Consump.717 and P13.

1 percent was generated as factor incomes (equivalent to gross value added) in the form of salaries and wages. billion or roughly More than half of the tourism industry's output can be attributed to restaurant and hotel subsectors which had a combined gross receipts of P31. Tourist bus/car services and travel agencies recorded the least combined output of only PO. . 9. The remaining 13. On the demand side.6 percent went to final consumption by households. The tourism industry posted a gross value added of 42.0 billion or 54. The whole economy required an average of 35. The recreational services subsector had an intermediate input absorption of only 31. The balance of P792 billion or 46. with only 7. Tourist shops and recreational services subsectors devoted almost half of their outputs to international tourism. P803.9 billion or 86. all the other six subsectors exhibited high total intermediate input proportions. as follows: (a) restaurants with 66. 3.5 billion.0 billion. indirect taxes paid to government and operating surplus.6 percent). 8.1 units of locally produced and 5.7 units of imponed inputs or a total of 57. 2. panicularly.3 percent were exported to the rest of the world. 12. the total value of goods and services available to the Philippine economy reached P1. 11.485.6 Summary of findings 1 In 1988. Of the economy's total production of P1. the hotel industry catered most of its output directly to foreign guests (82. delivered 93 percent of their outputs to final demand catering primarily to the needs of households and international tourists.2 billion at current prices or 50.6. The local air transpon industry derived only 2. the country's GDP at factor cost stood at P745.6 units. much higher than the national average. 4.0 percent sold to meet intermediate demand. (b) air transport with 72. The teniary or service sector which includes the tourism-oriented industries catered mostly to final demand. The intermediate demand represented by the production sectors absorbed P682 billion or 40. (e) tourism bus/car service with 47.8 units. 6.2 percent). Of this total. 5.7 billion as gross value added to the economy or a mere 3. The remaining 64.2 percent of total output.6 units.1 million in 1988.700. and (f) tourist shops with 45. P522 billion or 35.2 units of domestically produced and 10. The seven tourism-oriented subsectors netted in 1988 a total of P24. (d) travel agencies 52.0 units. The gross output generated by the tourism industry totalled P58. domestic demand reached P1.485.1 million or 87.2 units per 100 units of output.5 units. Except for the recreational service subsector. accounting for 52. (c) hotels with 51.6 4 percent of the national total production of P1 . Among the tourism-oriented sectors. either for consumption.1 units. nontourism expons and tourism expons.2 percent was absorbed by intermediate demand. 37 10. Net of indirect taxes. It also showed a high degree of intermediate input absorption.4 percent) as well as from freight revenues from expons of goods (42.1 units. Tourism-oriented sectors. domestic production accounted for P1.8 units of imponed goods and services to produce 100 units of output or a total of 46 units of intermediate inputs.3 percent while the remaining 12.7 percent was supplied through impons. Out of the total domestic production of P1.485.1 percent of the country's total gross domestic product of P803.485.4 billion.1 billion in 1988.6 percent of their total revenue from foreign tourism as the larger share of its output was generated from the local population (42.6. government and investment goods.473.1 percent of total supply.7 percent of total supply. investment.1 million.8 percent or P963 billion wonh of goods and services went to satisfy final demand.3 billion valued at current prices.

2 percent was attributable to tourism.6. This An estimated tourist receipts of P29.96. is much lower than the national average of 13.708) and other exports (0.6 percent of the country's total exports of non-factor services amounting to P73.9 percent of total tourist receipts.6 billion in 1988 at current prices. only P1. Of total indirect tax payments to government of P57. Miscellaneous services totalling P29. Its labor-output ratio of 9. 21 23. Its income multiplier of 0.7 percent of total imports.854 or 85. had an indirect tax multiplier of 0. its output is not used in further production of goods but rather to meet demands for such services as accommodation.6 shows the total (direct plus indirect) effects of the components of final demand on sectoral production. .1 Impact of final demand on production Table 6.2 centavos per peso of tourist demand. the economy required imported inputs amounting to P4.7 billion or 28.4 billion or 2. however. 16.85 billion or 3. Total output requirements induced by non-tourist export goods amounted to P298. tour assistance.6 billion or 25.8 percent is higher than those ofagriculture fishery and forestry (25.. Expenditure pattern of tourists in 1988 indicated accommodation as the biggest item.702). Tourism-oriented establishments exhibited low indices of sensitivity indicating a low forwardlinkage.7 percent of the total was required to satisfy the demand for final consumption.4 billion or 39. Tourism's output multiplier of 1. 38 As 13.9 billion were generated would represent 2. the tourism-oriented means that the sector depends supplies and services.5 billion in 1988.8 billion while semi-conductors and electronic micro circuits earned export receipts of P25. To satisfy expenditures of international tourists totalling P29.9 billion also accounted for 40. It comprises 19.1 percent of the total. In contrast. 19.74 billion.7 billion or 22. Based on data available on the top exports of the country.6 percent of national total merchandise exports amounting to P152.7 billion worth of domestic goods and services. implying a net foreign exchange earning of 0. This heavily on the system of industries for their raw materials.03.9 billion.8 billion in 1988 at current prices.6 percent of the country's employed labor force of 20. 22. the tourism sector also ranked the highest with an employment multiplier of 25. The next big expense is for shopping amounting to P7. The economy has to produce P174. The tourism industry had an import multiplier effect of 0.3 persons per one million pesos of tourist expenditure. food. enterprises exhibited high backward linkage effects.146.0 percent). Garments had total exports of P27.062 or 6. Tourism. For tourism goods and services.9 million.692 is the highest among the final demand components.9 billion.792 is also considerably higher than those of investment (0.7 percent of total gross domestic product. etc.4 billion.8 billion or 20.8 percent closely followed as top non-factor services export.5 percent) and other services sector (31. 20. international tourism would appear to be the top foreign exchange earner with its total receipts of P29. 6. On employment generation. The industry's intermediate input share of 57.4 percent. some P961. by international tourism. therefore. International tourism receipts of P29. Hence.3 percent.4 centavos for every peso of tourist expenditure.2 billion worth of goods and services to meet investment demand amounting to P111. 15.400 or 3. Of the total production value of P1 .485 billion in 1988. the economy set aside some P50. followed closely by food and beverage with P6. accounting for P8. This is attributable to the fact that the sector is primarily a service orientedindustry.a purchaser or user of inputs consumed in their production activities. Total employment generated by tourism was 756. the tourism industry ranked second to the industry group in terms of absorptive capacity of intermediate inputsratio.4 billion or 64.

97 9.620 12.32 0.722 5.100 3.53 32.62 50.818 32.25 24.00 5.527 15.239 2.00 499 4.447 1.71 49.015 1.491 23.871 26.18 3.056 2.08 55.55 89.611 6.00 100.41 31.17 13.03 20.379 3.121 159.520 3.54 36.67 52.39 66.252 9.00 100.771 5.7148.39 2.80 0.92 39.421 10.12 23.119 1.692 Total Value 132.943 1.86 2.00 100.64 13.912 16.631 1.164 3.41 1.33 0.74 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Total Final demand Output multiplier 40 0 2.007 17.45 24.324 1.54 45.558 519 7.877 26.496 6.309 4.00 100.00 100.647 4.00 50.186 46.748 22.26 0.521 29 71 39 35 174.659 363 119 178 0 17 469 248 4.456 967 73.00 100.00 100.224 567 28.15 83.74 44.00 100.29 0.16 3.718 72.~66 44.32 0.00 100.00 100.521.26 16.21 100.653 55.00 100.74 15.168 0 7.79 1.73 222 132 0 10 37 470 0 236 241 9.904 1.53 50.263 17.478 858 41.56 12.94 51.00 100.046 11.228 12 "2 73.061 4 5 7.83 38.129 10.00 100.00 99. In short.511 3.46 81.373 2.548 160 1 9.378 6.58 969 179 0 576 145 0 8.62 18.36 27.13 0.460 1.351 6.520 3.18 1.24 12.64 96.00 100.66 0.82 0.513 80.910 4.964 20.39 4.783 4.47 64.60 0.676 million total output requirements to P29.87 3.58 Investment Value % 8.449 11.These total output requirements were estimated using the matrix equation: Where x x y (I-A)-1 = (I-A)-1 Y matrix of sectoral outputs induced by components matrix of final demand.358 2.00 0.480 29.731 40.00 100.358 232.975 71 105 229 405 37 784 54 290 115 232 444 128 67 783 1.56 65.129 2.34 0.97 7. These are calculated as the ratio of total output requirements in each final demand component to the corresponding total multiplier of 1.650 3.319 11.07 64.00 0.633 9.00 100.35 2.41 75.00 26. these multipliers represent the value of production to satisfy one (monetary) unit of tourist expenditure.028 6.41 5.686 4.692.134 267.37 0.618 Non-tourism export Value % 11.96 6.546 18.28 2.87 90.183 386 1.01 0.750 8.568 7.38 2.6 Impact of final demand on production (output).54 6.991 0 3.45 50.485 21.39 0.78 70.539 8.630 110.00 100.198 2.99 75.72 45.24 2.5631 39 .200 111.213 0 42.043 3.29 40.00 100.072 21.415 624.66 16.597 17.66 3.49 0.35 21.213 1.00 23.00 0.08 42.91 75.718 72.00 8.29 27.00 0.66 15.055 % 100.529 11 79.27 24.487 26.00 100.495 2.66 3.05 2.73 26.61 0.76 29.61 0.16 58.962 0.430 40.485.541 372 1.669 3. calculated as the ratio of P50.949 23.47 22.79 11. followed by investment goods with 1.27 6.676 29.881 2.56 68.392 12.30 0.092 1.124 21.00 100.868 6.450 38.92 50.00 100.45 31.64 80.11 1.587 5. Foreign tourist expenditures registered the highest output multiplier of 1.00 100.08 1.32 1.43 0.681 10.571 10.33 15. = = = Table 6.30 0.119 2.977 32.19 1.00 100.745 12.17 49.00 100.764 196.37 0.632 961.37 37.00 100.6 also shows the output multiplier effects induced by the components of final demand.00 100.574 632 1.252 7.00 100.19 7.21 66.02 82. 1988 (Values are in million pesos) Sector Consumption Value % 104.00 100.00 100.530 14.260 57 41 3.93 2.76 45.065 105.287 '18.488 1.00 100.783 5.70 1.58 2.692.197 1.68 30.11 1.015 1.00 100.45 87.35 6.518 298.02 2.41 11.34 39.324 4.995 1.826 16.43 0. Table 6.00 100.00 100.00 100.641 13.811 4.79 0.495 4.993 10.135 17.46 0.902 1.041 10.820 51.95 7.206 25.156 2.62 14.00 100.22 1.599 695 6.08 68.18 33.75 66.80 1.563.28 56.089 2.84 27.767 391 2.12 Tourism exports Value % 3.67 1. Exports other than for tourism registered the lowest output multiplier of 1.00 100.13 8.72 4.943 million total tourist expenditures.78 22.08 62.93 25. and Leontief inverse of final demand.16 32.711 28 50.062 6.55 28.00 0.837 5.98 7.315 7.00 100.666 1.00 100.83 11.608 41.00 100.

943 million in 1988 on income into its direct and indirect effects. 40 . restaurants (sector 37) and hotels (sector 38) registered very minimal effects. Table 6. which normally buoys up the economy. 90.1 percent) than consumption (35. respectively. Table 6.7 percent. business and trade services. while the primary sectors of agriculture. Most of these indirect production were concentrated in agriculture. had the highest income effect of 93. Table 6.8 shows the effects of final demand on gross value added. based on the figures on compensation of employees. Gross value added or GDP at market prices is equal to GDP at factor cost plus indirect taxes less subsidies.708 and 0. Expectedly.9 percent of total output requirements of P50. restaurants. tourist goods are more capital intensive (8.4 percent) and investment goods (37. It can be observed that total income generation per dollar of tourist expenditure stood at 79. forestry and mining (sectors 01-06) do not contribute directly to the economy. air transport (sector 22).9 billion.2 Impact on income Income is measured in this study as gross domestic product (GDP) at factor cost.7 percent for consumption goods. The bulk of this tourism income generation was produced in the crops and agricultural services. This represents 40.6.52 percent.7 percent of the total indirect income effect. The impact of final demand on value added is estimated as: V Where V B X = = = = B.Table 6. The table shows that the economy was able to derive directly an estimated P13. tourist shops (sector 26). The trade sector except tourist shops (sector 27) and the food. Consumption. investment good demand and non-tourism exports had higher capital intensities of 16. textile manufacturing.8 shows the factor intensities of each component of final demand.04 percent and 9.7 shows the disaggregation of total output requirements to meet foreign tourism demand.672 million was generated indirectly. Indirect income from the tourist-oriented sectors such as tourist bus/car services (sector 19).718 million.7 percent) than consumption goods (6. hotels and on lodging places.6 and 11.8 percent vs.4 percent).808. respectively. This is higher than those of investment and other exports with income multiplier of 0.702. It is equal to the sum of compensation of employees.9 shows the sectoral impact of final demand components on income. their indirect effects appeared to be substantial accounting for 44. The table shows that indirect output totalling P20. chemical industries.3 percent. The remaining 45.10 shows the sectoral breakdown of the total impact of international tourist expenditures of P29. It can be observed that. Exports posted the highest indirect tax effect of 9.7 billion were required to satisfy tourist expenditures of P29.1 percent. However.2 cents.9 percent).2 percent. Table 6. The effect on indirect tax payments by tourism is fairly high with 7.0 percent or P10. utilities sectors. travel agencies (sector 23). Total income effect for tourism is higher than that for other export goods (92. beverage and tobacco sector (sector 07) also contributed substantially accounting for 17. 6.X matrix of value added by component matrix of value added coefficients matrix of output requirements derived from Appendix Table 2 induced by each component of final demand. recreational services (sector 35).0 percent of the total income effect of P23. food manufacturing. other trade. food manufacturing.9 percent). but lower than that for consumption with 0. recreational and cultural services. as against 6.046 million from tourist spending or 55.7 billion. depreciation and operating surplus. It can ben observed that tourist expenditures for goods and services are less labor intensive (34.

54 453 613 1.574 632 1. 100. 100.00 100. Publishing Chemical & Chemical Products Mineral Petroleum Non-Metallic Basic Metals Fabricated 180 9. 00 100.00 100.056 2.659 363 119 178 28.00 100.00 100. 19. 79. 00 100.056 78.673 8.677 00000000000000 .771 Mining Mining & Tobacco Apparel. 100.00 100 100 . Livestock Fishery Forestry Metallic 3.00 100.00 2. 13.00 100 .00 100. 22. Recreational Personal & Cultural 0 35 & Household 2 30 1 14 0 .659 363 119 178 90 9 67 170 Tour & Travel Agencies Storage & Services Related to Transport 92.771 5. 184 354 119 79.00 100.59 17 16 248 16 16 77 100 .734 41 50.00 100.261 2.03 100 .00 100.27 174 Manufactures 7 37 100. Restaurants Hotels & Other Lodging Sanitary. 5.66 1.89 100. Water Services Tourist Bus/Car 784 -863173972900 54 12 115 48 100 .00 20 .711 28 40 28 CommunitY 20.00 100.119 1.00 100. 100.750 Places 96.574 632 1.00 100.46 100.69 20 .00 100. 12.260 57 41 3.00 100.34.671 99. 1988 (Values are in million pesos) Total output Value % expenditures on production Direct Value % Sector Crops & Agricultural & Poultry Services Indirect Value % 100 00 100 00 100 00 100 00 100 00 100 00 100 00 35.11 Products 71 105 1.65 97.00 .975 Leather & Footware 3.00 2. 7 .96 Paper.00 100. Cork & Cane Products Including Furnitures & Printing Products 74. 29.00 17 469 248 Services Services 4.183 386 1.38.00 100.00 100. 17. 229 405 37 & Gas 784 54 Services Services 290 115 232 Machinery.00 100.70 98. 18. 16. 32. 14. 10. Beverage Textiles.00 90. 26. 100.39. 6.00 40.782 797 386 Wood.00 100 00 - 3.00 100.260 57 41 Mfg.14 100 .00 33.583 679 6. 100. 8. 9. 23. 20.943 59.Private Education Business Services 3 41 100 00 35. 31. Transport Equipt. 11.91 37. 278 95.00 29.00 100.Table 6. Social & Related Services Total [ 8.71 Communication Tourist Shops Other Trade Financial Insurance Real Estate Ownership Government of Dwellings Services & Health Services Services 21 100 . 00 100.00.599 695 6.34 25. Wearing 3.00 100.795 71 105 Meta! Products. Miscellaneous Construction ElectricitY 55 398 24.00 75 .00 100. 7.27 Other Land Transport Water Transport Services Air Transport Services 444 128 67 783 1.00 100. 4.119 1. 25.043 3.98 1 . 15.7 Total (direct and indirect) effects of foreign tourist (output).00 100.04 100. 24.00 100. 100.386 64.00 100. 21.00 100. 100.09 4.02 98. 3.00 100. 27. 100. 30.73 100 . 100 .00 4 .86 99. Non-Metallic Food. 36.

It is computed by getting the ratio ofthe number of employment and the amount of tourist expenditures.X = A vector of number of persons required to sustain tourism demand.04 8.6.018 540. This represents a mere 3. The LMC indicates the number of employment created per one million pesos of tourist expenditures.333 276.08 50. This is understandable because a large portion of investment goods is capital-intensive.04 92.Table 6.66 7. Labor multiplier coefficients Total employment generated due to foreign tourist expenditures reached 756.6.916 13. the sector employed indirectly some 221.934.280 9. where Ij is the ratio of the number of employed persons in sector j per 1 million pesos output of that sector (Appendix 6).: 3203 8.945 67.40 92.3 persons per one million pesos of output.98 49.8 Impact of final demand on components (Values are in million pesos) of value added.802 100.418 14.6 percent of total employment of 20.7 thousand persons out of 756. L = diagonal matrix of labor-output ratios Ii.712 49.3. estimating equation is: A L Where = L. On the other hand.4 thousand required.876 90.00 803.43 8.847 25.! 52 34. Employment multiplier for sectors producing investment goods is the lowest at 17.461 57. 3.3 6. Non-tourism exports exhibited an employment requirement of only 18.774 100.3 as shown in Table 6.00 6.44 39. 053 74.Nevertheless the employment multiplier of tourism of 25. the LOR represents the number of employment required to produce one million of output. 1988 Component of value added Investment Value 1.19 191.1 persons per 1 million peso output.736 34. use a great amount of agri-sourced materials. Compensation of employees Operating surplus Depreciation GDP at factor cost Indirect taxes less subsidies Total (GVA) percent Value percent 37.1) contributed an unexpected large number of persons employed to sustain the demand for tourism.791 2.00 84.4 thousandpersons.717 92.214 1. The L . It is the ratio of number of employment and output. 42 Consumption 100. 4.77 745.11 is the highest among the four final demand components.1 B713 23. It is interesting to note that the agricultural sector (No. 100. which comprise the biggest subsector in the tourism industry.23 12. 445 137.00 Impact on employment Two ways of measuring the impact of tourism on employment are through the use of the Labor Multiplier Coefficients (LMC) and Labor-Output Ratios (LOR).784 36.7 thousand in 1988. In 1988.564 504.858 Total Value percent 280.016 100.184 32.81 7.43 16.92 7.00 151.267 37. This can be explained by the fact that restaurants.1 9. 2.874 396.08 Exports Non-toursim Tourism Value percent Value percent 49.

79 0.86 0.64 13.78 70.300 716 8.50 0.47 22.00 6.67 24 0.29 0.62 50.106 3. Cork & Cane Products Including Furniture 10.330 100. 15.42 75.16 32.460 0.431 3.55 45.24 2.806 4.74 9.783 Investment Value 6.303 1. Fishery 4.38 2. Social & Related Community Services Total Final demand Multiplier 973 504. Wood.58 196.637 100.56 68.54 50. Hotels & Other Lodging Places 39.23 1.965 9.220 36.92196.359 2.67 52.55 89.35 2.00 18.430 100.29 27.732 30.36 2.45 50.557 100.91 111.39 2.00 1.00 0.30 0.00 5.774 100.08 42.35 21.54 6.42 0.32 0.00 0. Livestock & Poultry 3.9 Sectoral Impact of final demand on Income (GDP). Petroleum Products 12.332 594 37.97 9.116 3.897 702 28 4.147 24.46 87.00 3.00 8. Insurance 30.58 7.07 64.167 3.00 3.02 2. 1988 (Values are in million pesos) Sector Consumption Value 1.00 100.30 0. Personal & Household Services 37.256 100.718 2.106 100.570 13. Financial Services 29.73 12.93 39.39 4. Other Land Transport Services 21.37 0.796 2.110 161 561 50.00 2.869 100.099 9.424 223 100.00 100.345 1.883 100.62 Non-tourism export Value % Tourism exports Value % Total Value % % 79.943 0. Non-Metallic Mining 7.00 6.722 740 900 76.94 51.00 15.32 0.937 323 2.00 100.17 3.58 3. Forestry 5.37 0.577 100.41 11.46 24.60 0.13 0.967 100.00 6.998 100.592 7.778 100.17 13.25 24.488 0.34 39.28 2.758 725 848 29 27 1.211 100. Communication 26.58 137. Crops & Agricultural Service 2.103 45.26 24.26 16.282 396 1.63 80.882 224 81 125 11 257 155 563 2. Food.00 0.00 3.545 2.00 3.13 8. Beverage & Tobacco Mfg.914 11.099 1.33 15.703 1.00 6.28 56.76 29.555 26.768 12.250 2.396 100.16 3.82 0.808 64.141 100.66 16.16 58.01 0.97 7.72 3.819 17.186 762 3.92 50.75 66.61 0.925 114 4.00 325 1.33 0.580 100.46 0.82 1.87 3.802 157 132 5.282 1.744 % 6.00 100.00 13.533 1.84 27.702 18.08 1.307 7.41 5.830 995 3.83 22 17 13 78. Sanitary. Leather & Footware 9.66 15.00 624. Ownership of Dwellings 32.20 68.00 152 93 7 20 293 36. Water Services 19.00 1.54 36.862 10.71 49.649 2. Private Education & Health Services 34.00 4.585 284 12.72 49. Other Trade 28.64 3.879 3.02 82.00 100.380 459 36.33 0.00 17. Electricity & Gas 18.05 2. Business Services 35.59 0.00 316 99 6.00 26.874 1.79 11. Basic Metals 14.755 555 74.58 2.24 29. Air Transport Services 23.49 67.70 101.770 10 0.971 3. Tour & Travel Agencies 24.766 429 18.62 18.666 100.08 62.00 1.36 6. Non-Metallic Mineral Products 13.11 32 1.00 1.00 783 102 358 24 21 12.558 100.119 1.52 32.09 55.331 1.09045.792 3.97 23.17 49.00 33.135 3.236 48.232 100.95 6. Tourist Bus/Car Services 20.33 1.44 0.36 27.17 1.760 1.03 37 537 551 1.00 57 192 19 408 39 145 51 73 79 55 1.064 1.38 0.246 1.56 12.566 40.92 75.981 100. Textiles.743 402 2.210 168 1. Real Estate 31.453 2.036 11.269 12.576 30.802 100.995 0.00 100.11 1. Transport Equipt.00 100.00 100.886 0.96 7.542 100.188 4.818 1.41 31.27 6.051 13. Metallic Mining 6.207 821 7. Tourist Shops 27. Miscellaneous Manufactures 16.73 26.00 100.18 66.74 44.00 1.277 100. 8.00 9.18 745.26 0.837 2.00 100.66 6. Chemical & Chemical Products.766100.16 83.11 962.139 1.826 521 3.718 20.79 1.00 6.19 7.968 100.41 29.884 5.46 81.646 100. Water Transport Services 22.29 40.00 11.00 6.00 0.00 100.69 2.8 0.698 1.46 31.152 3.654 2.72 16.299 16. Construction 17.19 1.267 306 6.76 2.504 1.706 11.157 4.402 88. Recreational & Cultural Services 36.558 48.941 4. Paper. Wearing Apparel.78 22.784 1.00 100.00 11.55 28.83 38.Table 6. Publishing & Printing 11. Storage & Services Related to Transport 25.98 75.873 100.708 43 .67 112.56 65.93 25.87 90.64 80.39 66.759 4.20 99.00 19.21 33. Restaurants 38.93 2.00 23. Fabribated Metal Product Machinery.51 23.601 1.00 100. Government Services 33.

76 1.00 3.22 0.00 0.04 100.92 15.90 0.33 0.26 2.22 0.04 28.090 563 0 11 9 155 248 0 3.046 10.43 1.09 0.08 1.00 0. 1988 Sector Indirect % 0.03 0.30 0.35 1.24 0.37 8.95 0.06 3.218 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Total 587 0 33 0 0 14 189 0 3 19 408 39 0 0 39 145 51 73 79 55 37 537 551 1.90 0.882 224 81 125 139 0 6 51 15 16 58 63 51 0 4 37 116 421 551 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.23 4.77 0.743 402 725 848 29 27 1.00 23.63 2.883 783 102 358 24 21 57 192 19 408 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.00 0.10 0.34 0.48 0.10 0.00 0.61 0.16 2.079 11 13 24 17 10 550 2.08 1.60 4.11 5.25 0.39 0.753 0 13.81 0.00 0.07 0.27 0.48 0.718 3.25 11.51 0.00 0.00 9.15 0.93 0.68 6.20 0.00 0.10 Impact of foreign tourist expenditures (Values are in million pesos) Total Direct % 11.770 10 23.09 100.00 0.16 0.53 0.72 0.34 4.Table 6.09 0.03 2.00 100.22 16.00 0.84 0.00 0.092 2.246 665 196 102 325 24 21 43 % 25.94 0.79 7.23 0.96 3.00 0.94 3.672 44 .12 0.05 1.22 0.69 3.04 0.16 0.00 1.17 0.14 0.00 Value 2.22 0.116 3.00 0.45 0.11 1.31 0.00 17.32 7.00 0.25 7.00 0.70 3.12 0.45 0.00 0.743 Value 2.77 6.06 0.58 0.00 0.18 3.00 Value 0 on Income.00 1.246 1.10 0.05 0.65 13.57 1.50 0.10 0.00 0.00 2 3 402 725 848 29 27 1.37 0.00 0.23 1.82 0.44 0.882 224 81 125 0 11 257 155 3.08 0.40 0.00 0.

00 0.00 100.2 64.5 28.7 9.9 1.00 100.70 30.410.5 0.65 3.4 272.38 21.65 89.0 0.2 0.07 17.0 0.8 603.7 62.0 21.0 138. 1988 Sector Consumption Number % 6.50 0.38 39.278.3 0.72 26.1 24.9 66.38 2.95 2.84 9.9 44.85 27.5 38.9 56.0 54.9 190.1 1.15 56.00 100.2 5.9 0.41 11.00 100.6 113.00 100.1 9.50 18.3 45.8 13.8 33.9 0.00 100.814.53 31.24 2.00 100.08 1.9 198.69 48.1 24.65 3.85 0.1 79.11 1.6 196.0 109.31 0.0 25.5 0.34 0.81 0.934.58 2.70 1.1 13.1 9.7 21.0 7.57 66.6 3.5 0.21 1.8 1.7 45.83 38.00 100.3 2.43 70.6 52.58 12.5 1.69 0.00 100.74 45.4 1.602.7 5.995.0 851.6 75.33 1.63 96.00 100.07 64.0 127.00 100.0 0.94 25.1 14.5 6.9 0.00 23.2 66.28 24.88 1.7 46.45 50.90 6.8 0.2 0.0 425.6 1.3 63.2 16.24 56.0 1.00 6.460.16 58.00 26.94 39.9 39.1 28.16 49.50 36.3 49.00 100.00 0.0 415.0 144.6 18.74 0.1 163.41 0.1 0.71 1.9 20.0 23.5 1.0 1.24 12.2 18.5 0.9 9.0 33.4 0.51 45.52 0.8 9.00 100.9 39.8 19.34 0.3 0.7 13.6 1.8 4.3 30 31 32 33 34 35 0.00 100.7 9.4 98.75 80.8 22.9 17.00 7.62 0.02 82.97 75.477.3 6.00 100.43 24.67 52.78 22.5 97.03 1.0 23.56 65.42 2.00 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 945.3 0.67 1.00 100.9 70.26 0.0 49.Table 6.00 100.00 880.97 51.00 100.65 15.0 0.0 34.77 29.21 330.0 62.3 7.14 1.91 50.4 6.2 64.8 6.6 0.4 0.7 962.4 122.27 0.00 0.0 48.92 7.67 68.08 66.16 32.0 818.0 11.2 22.60 50.197.9 63.00 100.00 100.9 38.2 0.4 29.63 16.5 45 .28 40.2 1.00 100.3 95.9 236.488.54 0.13 0.08 24.9 88.00 0.2 23.11 Impact of final demand on employment generation.25 0.3 33.58 68.17 1.9 8.46 32.0 20.05 2.58 3.9 32.00 5.6 0.09 42.9 4.41 31.17 Total Number 8.9 17.3 37.28 0.2 218.33 15.1 1.7 111.17 13.1 44.01 0.2 0.7 36 37 38 39 1.16 83.5 12.0 0.40 75.00 0.06 0.78 70.00 100.00 100.667.0 93.5 32.71 11.00 100.6 186.00 8.3 43.30 0.809.0 8.2 788.98 9.41 5.68 0.36 27.3 34.9 1.45 81.02 2.0 17.4 4.0 2.00 100.6 50.0 152.74 44.8 16.27 7.00 50.53 2.2 43.78 49.5 119.8 20.5 2.00 100.39 4.84 90.00 100.26 16.86 3.0 815.0 830.9 0.00 99.0 3.00 100.2 0.6 299.55 7.2 415.55 28.5 12.8 57.74 16.0 488.61 4.4 46.74 75.00 100.9 146.06 624.9 1.47 87.1 14.00 100.7 756.23 3.69 0.06 45.2 124.9 17.3 2.29 66.5 462.42 22.3 100.0 29.0 Total Final demand (P Million) Multiplier 23.0 42.6 8.12 Non-Tourism Number Export % Tourism Exports Number % 221.28 2.26 27.3 0.0 18.8 2.54 6.37 6.0 750.7 4.738.00 100.3 107.64 0.943.6 5.5 0.00 0.0 730.16 3.74 9.00 100.19 7.52 50.0 0.00 100.5 % 100.0 34.64 Investment Number % 552.6 1.886.33 0.00 100.6 5.37 37.9 6.0 3.0 54.43 0.7 2.9 45.98 23.00 100.4 1.7 0.064.12 8.36 2.43 66.8 11.038.37 0.9 0.8 62.908.7 52.00 100.00 100.

900 people were directly hired to satisfy international tourism demand or 49. 6. sectoral labor-output ratios refer to the number of persons employed per unit of output. For the purpose of this study.2 Labor-output ratios As previously stated. This is estimated as: J\ s where = s.3 Direct and indirect employment impact Table 6.3.96.400.18) registered the lowest LaRs. thereby indicating that every million of output to meet tourism demand generated employment for almost ten people. cork and cane products and miscellaneous manufactures subsectors registering much higher LORs of 17. tour and travel agencies with 12. It can be observed that. the LOR of the primary sector represented by agriculture. The LOR is expressed in terms of number of employed persons per P1 million output. Table 6. The indirect employment requirements appeared to be higher. The agricultural crops sector alone accounted for 221. 15. These ratios make possible the generation of estimates of manpower requirement needed in each sector to meet demand for tourism goods and services.6. of the total employment requirements of 756.87. Out of this total. totalling 383. Expectedly. Air transpor1 services (1. some P36.62 and restaurants with 11. followed by the trade sector with 45. 735 million in 1988.40.3.300 people required indirectly to meet tourism demand.70. with textile manufacturing. The agricultural sector had no direct employment effects induced by tourism.O15 million was generated due to final consumption.13 shows the total impact on employment broken down into its direct and indirect effects.56. wood. tourist shops had the highest LOR of 16.7 percent of the total employment impact.4 . the total employment effects of tourism on the economy can be better appreciated through the use of Labor-Output Ratios (LOR).12 which summarizes Labor-Output Ratios shows that the national economy had an average LOR of 13. followed by recreational and cultural services with 13. The secondary or industrial sector had an LOR of 6.8 percent of the total indirect effect. 46 6.92. P13. Impact on net indirect taxes Indirect tax payments to government totalled P57. Tourist bus/car services had an LOR of 9.32. some 372.6.6.3 percent of the total.700 persons or 57.03. and only P1. respectively.847 million due to international tourism.44) and hotels and other lodging places (5. The tertiary sector of services other than tourism-oriented showed an LOR of 17.01. Classified on the sectoral level.500 employees or 50.6.858 million due to exports other than tourism.x S 1\ = = vector of net indirect taxes (less of subsidies). Among the tourism-oriented subsectors. the subsector of crops and agricultural services showed a very high LOR of 62. diagonal matrix of net indirect tax coefficients derived from Appendix Table 2. Tourism-oriented services had an LOR of 9.24.99 and 14.51. fishery and forestry stood at 25.11.600 persons and the textiles and apparel sector with 31. S and x = matrix of total output requirements.

28.639 14. D.282 Services Other Than Tourism-Oriented 20. 10. 14. 2. 12. 16. .559 15. 31. 34. 3. 18.030 Tourist Bus/Car Services Air Transport Service Tour & Travel Agencies Tourist Shops Recreational & Cultural Services Restaurants etc. Beverage & Tobacco Mfg.886 9. 21.440 12. Hotels & Other Lodging Place 14.888 2.783 6. 7.261 1.244 39. 15.175 64. 30. 29. c. 22.204 17.509 10.827 17.702 11.170 4. 9. Fishery & Forestry ratios LOR (EIP millions) 25. 8. 38. Non-Metallic Mining Food.184 5. 4. Textiles. 39. 11. 36. Leather & Footwear Wood.015 7.429 Crops & Agricultural Services Livestock & Poultry Fishery Forestry Industry Groups 5.996 3. 17. 1.242 5. 24.280 13.400 13.048 24.723 0.12 Labor-output Sector Agriculture.000 11. 33.110 1. Cork & Cane Products Paper.993 9. 23. Social & Related Community Services Services 9. Wearing Apparel.971 0.250 1.623 1. 25.670 9. Other Land Transport & Services Water Transport Services Storage & Services Communication Other Trade Financial Services Insurance Real Estate Ownership of Dwelling Government Services Private Education & Health Services Business Services Personal & Household Services Sanitary. 19. Metallic Mining 6.871 62.852 3. 13.335 0. 26. 27.180 13.392 Tourism-Oriented All Sectors 47 A.Table 6.103 13. 37. 35.242 25.620 16. B.920 6. Publishing & Printing Chemical & Chemical Products/Petroleum Products Non-Metallic Mineral Products Basic Metals Fabricated Metal Products Miscellaneous Manufactures Construction Electricity & Gas Water Services 6. 32.

13 Impact of foreign tourist expenditures on employment.2 27 29 30 0.0 O.0 372.24 00 O.5 0.6 50.3 6.2 0.1 0.64 O.00 15.1 0.3 63.6 1.3 0.6 0.Table 6.0 0.5 28.0 17.0 o.6 1.5 0.0 0.0 2. 1.0 0.8 43.5 25 26 0.4 0.0 0. O.0 0.0 57.7 2 3 4 5 6 0.9 0.0 0.2 6. 40 00 O. 00 00 O. 13 O.9 2.6 75.1 0.5 0.7 1.4 0.0 O. O.9 88.5 0.5 9 10 11 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 0. O.0 0.0 44.3 22 23 24 0. 1.0 0.7 756.9 4.6 75.9 0.9 17.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 11.0 0.3 38. 7 8 0. 00 00 O.5 0.37 10. 00 03 O.0 0.5 100. 75 3.4 100. 46 O. (Numbers are in thousands of persons) Direct 1988 Total 1 Indirect 221.9 0.0 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 0 00 221.6 5.5 1. 00 0.0 0.7 4.2 0.7 383.7 1. 05 O.02 4.9 0.1 0.7 0.0 0.2 18.5 1.6 0. 00 O.1 5.5 0.5 28. 00 67 O.9 45.0 62.7 4.4 1.3 0.3 o.84 11 69 20 11 12 04 0 00 100 00 0.4 1.9 31.3 45.6 3.8 0.0 0.0 3.6 0.2 0.1 0.8 17.00 0.7 0. 00 16.2 0.00 44.1 0.2 0.0 0. 1.00 O.0 1.56 00 O.9 1.0 45.0 11.9 48 . 00 O.7 31 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Total 4.9 0.00 O. 00 0.3 0.3 O.2 1.5 1.5 2.0 0.0 0.6 1.6 1.3 12.

41 31.76 0.00 0. Cork & Cane Products Paper.00 0.715 100.154 819 171 17 8.062 0.00 0.64 80.00 0.55 6.: 29 0.073 1. 00 100.37 1. 00 100. 00 Machinery.08 0.49 35.37 5.85 6.00 0.20 18 100.70 18.87 25.886 100.77 32.55 12.91 3.22 16.00 100.32 2.25 23. 32.35 38. 50. Social Community Total Final demand Services 0 0 11 0 0 2 2 1 6.54 o.995 96..00 0.00 100.00 58 0 0 0 410 131 2.69 Value 101 14 31 147 7 1 140 84 % 2.03 63.38 24 2.44 0.00 & Related 57.00 Wood.58 3. Manufactures 212 12.10 7.00 .39 256 100.0000 0 0.00 341 100.805 808 394 516 0 0 50.460 O.00 132 992 159 118 0 0 2 224 26.00 1.49 0.740 1.912 100.71 744 100.365 o. Non-Metallic Textiles.00 Food.00 0.35 0.00 0.00 196.16 & Footware Furniture & Printing Products/ Products 2.00 Tour & Travel Agencies & Services to Transport Communication Tourist Shops Other Trade Financial Insurance Real Estage Ownership Government Private Business Personal of Dwellings Services & Health Services Service Services Places Services 45 6 2 25 24 71 23 7 5 0 0 4 3.00 24 100.60 15.10 55.62 0. 1.08 42.70 48.29 2. 45.42 20 4 92 19 26 13.88 0. 346 121 544 545 100.89 75.55 13.00 O.858 16.00 0. 00 24 18 0 21 9.102 100.74 9.1 56 1. 1.420 2.847 29.38 100.00 100.898 574 100.068 118 2.210 64 9.27 27.32 0.636 436 53 79.67 52. followed by the chemicals industry with an indirect effect of P339 million and restaurants with P175 million.43 66.84 39.00 0.00 & Gas Services Services Services Water Services Tourist Bus/Car Water Transport Other Land Transport Air Transport Storage Services Related 0 16 180 99 681 18 0.54 1. Beverage Wearing Leather Including Chemical 2.943 1.626 68 29 65. 251 325 48 4.'41 11.1 centavos per peso of export demand.01 62.00 0.80 38. 7.00 51.05 0.33 0.27 7.00 100.00 7.00 100.39 0.015 624.86 45.00 100.42 27. 0000 8 5 6 33.84 30.84 27.00 6 55 1 175 453 0 1.00 5.18 0.: 30 2.66 60 143 0 50.2 centavos per peso of tourist demand.00 100.00 51.48 81.488 Multiplier 0.900 0 0 0 120 90.95 2.735 962.00 100.00 100.76 29.00 23.00 & Chemical Products Mineral 1 4 6 1 0 0 1.0580.28 56.00 5.663 15 876 206 % 11.00 100.00 100.060 49 r3 6900672122 80 . Publishing Petroleum Non-Metallic Basic Metals Fabricated Metal Product.05 64.11734556 190 100. 1.14 shows that the computed indirect tax multiplier was the highest for exports other than tourism with 7.58 7. 00 100.00 66.25 0.00 0 0 24 260 1.17 83.91 50.:32 1.29 12.017 2.00 0.054 0.00 100. Miscellaneous Construction Electricity 242 22.22 50.571 30 143 485 37 44.015 111.16 58.80 0.00 5 0 8.00 O.56 87.60 7.14 Sectoral Impact of final demand on net indirect (Values are in million pesos) Consumption Investment taxes.37 1.38 0.36 42 7 339 1 324 100.56 28.37 10.17 13.Table 6.00 O. & Agricultural & Poultry Services Livestock % Value 252 106 14 % 6. Table 6.31 24.30 25.53 22.44 229 100.62 24.00 3.01 82.33 153 82 4.38 Hotels & Other Lodging Sanitary.08 49.245 1.071 0.00 1. 18 478 369 31 256 18 93 23 1.00 100.44 2.00 100 128 39.79 18.23 1.78 643 100.34 15.00 66.00 100.74 26. 1988 Sector Non-tourism export Tourism exports Total Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Crops Fishery Forestry Metallic Mining Mining & Tobacco Apparel Mfg. Tourism ranked next with 6.57 68.00 0.00 0. 237 75 14 4 0 0.67 68.00 100. The largest contributor of indirect taxes due to tourism is the hotel sector with P453 million.376 130 83 337 15 23.00 621 0 128 167 0 45.37 0.74 Education Services Recreational Restaurants & Cultural & Household 184 105 46 13 275 71 46 36.70 Value 3.02 72.00 2.955 885 1.00 3.99 Value 432 68 221 573 1.41 75. 0 0.44 8.12 0.42 31.908 % 100.27 40.31 1. Transport Equipt.70 16.00 100.69 11.

00 0. beverage and tobacco (sector 7) and agricultural crops (sector 1) with indirect tax contributions of P147 million.00 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 7 5 0 0 0 6 0 0 2 2 0 0 55 1 173 451 0 904 Total 943 50 . Table 6. In 1988.74 0.00 0.847 100.44 3.71 1. some P904 million was derived directly and P943 million indirectly.00 7.59 0.53 0. respectively.43 0.00 0.15 Impact of foreign tourist expenditures on indirect (Values are in million pesos) Direct 0.00 0. the indirect effects were accounted for by the non-tourism-related sectors of chemicals (sector 11) with P308 million or 32.00 100.55 0.7 percent of the total indirect effect.44 0.48 3.08 0. total importations reached P159.00 6.00 140 30 11 0 31 0 7 308 1 3 11 12 13 14 15 1 1 4 6 1 0 0 8 5 6 45 0 1 6 0 0 0 8 0 0 1 0 0 0 5 2 9 1 2 5 07123 0.00 0.65 0.0 percent. followed by forestry (sector 4).21 0.11 0.21 0.00 0. P140 million and P101 million.53 2.74 32.6.43 0.00 0.29 15. of the total indirect tax effect of P1.11 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 101 14 31 147 7 1 140 84 42 7 339 101 14 31 147 7 1 5.14 49.00 0.32 0.00 0.00 0.66 0.5 Impact on import costs Table 6.00 0.11 0.53 0.00 0.00 0.15 shows that.00 0.00 0. Again.66 0.44 0.00 0.21 2.00 0.00 0.9 billion worth of goods and services consumed by the production sectors and the remaining P55.11 19. 6.4 million was directly imported for final consumption and investment.00 0.64 0.97 3.00 0.00 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 4 36 5 0 20 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 6 2 25 24 71 23 7 5 0 0 4 6 55 1 175 453 0 .Table 6.00 3.00 0.00 taxes.00 100.17 0.53 0.88 0.00 0. food.00 0.21 0.16 shows the distribution of imported inputs required in the production of goods to sustain the various components of final demand.21 0.11 0.00 0. 1988 Total 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 54 31 Indirect 10.89 0.74 0.00 2.95 0.00 0. The restaurants and hotel sector accounted for the bulk of the government income with a combined tax effect of P624 million or 69.11 0.18 1.00 0.98 0.847 million generated as a result of international tourist spending.11 14.85 3.00 0.

1 35 2 701 92 211 85 7 329 Service Services 214 1 .194 624.55 1.15 49.1 62 17.1 36 2.18 3.76 45.00 27 50.24 40.055 124 22.58196.50 87.00 26. 352 1.56 7.56 12.00 99. 00 1. 15 3. 25 33.39 4.46 45.97 4.45 31.37 Metal Product.00 66.43 0.930 8.995 0. .83 3.00 23.23 1.67 68.55 32.89 50.707 27.99 23. & Poultry Services % 79.916 & Chemical Products Mineral 12 13 14 Non-Metallic Basic Metals Fabricated Machinery.00 5.100 80.73 26.63 0.943 0. 13 Education Services 523501486000 2 97.75 Recreational Personal & Cultural 45.00 13.51 0.74 3.66 16. 34 O.50 0.34 21 .177 Products Non-Metallic 24. Leather Wearing & Footware 352 280 204 27.184 7.32 O.: 7.00 0.58 67. 1 67 2 12 3 12 444 200 109 8 17 2 495 50.583 111.62 39.76 29.09 1.07 00 & Household 748 254 26 19 84. 50 9 1 24 19 257 31 161 166 O. 75.228 116 1.00 82.: 237 505 9 366 164 896 2.54 212 7.00 2.553 126 46 1.75 50.: 2.00 6. Beverage Textiles.460 16.24 12.:32 0.Table 6.. 1433 33.865 830 577 1.24 6. 33 1.39 66.46 % Non-tourism export Value % 507 124 125 101 2.34 15.: 303341 0.78 70.43 0. 1557 28.26 2.62 50.74 44. Transport Equipt.66 15.23 0.74 9.91 2 1 Community Services 36.79 0.58 2.698 90 2 107 30 26 5.86 90.135 462 746 exports Value 119 26 18 % 2.16 Sectoral Impact of final demand on Import (Values are in million pesos) Consumption Investment Value 296 costs.460 155 5.10 1.65.488 0.32 0.67 39.86 0. Cork & Cane Products Including Furniture 27.18 1.40 0.' 38.72 48.239 11.18 64 .00 0.33 o.743 160 & Printing Products! 37.55 6.92 66.86 42 8 1 1 51.17 13.46 24. 60 1. 9 Wood.00 66.00 4 52 3 23 4 7 64 1 & Gas Water Services Tourist Bus!Car Services Services Other Land Transport Water Transport Services 2. 3. 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Miscellaneous Construction Electricity Manufactures 5.75 11.777 517 997 7 29 107 89 55. & Related 50.24 193 8 84 495 235 327 26 9 4 179 229 128 11.11 Total Final demand Multiplier 26.39 0.052 669 2.' 63.02 8.78 22.13 3 3283.228 51 Tourism 11 713324 41 94 89 .57 1.67 64. 2.45 75.65 2.035 4.04 2.05 0.469 1.67 16 .614 654 144 6.636 1.33 52.146 0.36 6. 1988 Sector Value 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Crops & Agricultural Livestock Fishery Forestry Metallic Mining Mining & Tobacco Apparel Mfg.1 1.98 9.53 28.28 56. 7. 1. 1.09 42. 44 89 19 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 Insurance Real Estate Ownership Government Private Business of Dwellings Services & Health Service 00 O.89 o.94 25. Publishing Chemical Petroleum 1. Air Transport Services 983 2 21 342 Tour & Travel :Agencies Storage & Services Related to Transport 25 26 27 28 Communication Tourist Shops Other Trade Financial Services 4 7.41 31.378 29.84 Food. 13. 40 D5 0.135 37 38 39 Restaurants Hotels & Other Lodging Social Places Sanitary.96 10 11 Paper.56 65.29 16 93 3.675 126 64 11.95 6.1 30.36 11.59 90.70 52.120 4. 26 O.16 58.034 11.10 0.47 81.61 3.042 8.86 38.05 76 2.67 44.59 0.

0 percent. the net foreign earnings is tourism it is calculated at 85.239.X = /\ vector of sectoral import requirements diagonal matrix of sectoral Table 2.4 billion or 2. These are arrived at by dividing total import requirements for each final demand component by corresponding final demand levels. 52 M . Consumption goods recorded the lowest import multiplier of 0. Given these import multipliers. input coefficients derived from Appendix M = = x vector of total output requirements. while for per dollar tourist receipt.943 million in 1988. tourism would exchange earnings than other exports. followed by tourism goods with 0. for exports other than computed at 77. Comparatively. It can be observed that a total of P4. and imported to sustain final demand. the following formula was used: " M where = M. therefore. the net foreign exchange earnings ofexports.676 million worth of goods and services in order to satisfy tourist demand of P29.17 shows the total import requirements by industries needed to produce the total output of P50.7 percent) of total imported inputs consumed in production was induced by final demand for consumption goods.135.378 million worth of imports were needed broken down into P2. Import multiplier was the highest for investment goods at 0. implying that these goods have high import contents.2 cents for every dollar exports receipt.150 million worth of goods and services directly consumed by the tourism and non-tourism sectors and P2.7 percent of total imports. followed by exports goods with a share of 28. the economy required imported inputs amounting to P4.4 cents appear to generate more net foreign Table 6. tourism.228 million worth as indirec1.To obtain the estimates of total import requirements. For tourism goods and services.146. it is also possible to estimate It is therefore estimated that. It can be observed that more than half (52.

21 0.083 94 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 26 9 4 179 1.09 1.17 Impact of foreign tourist expenditures (Values are in million pesos) Total Sector 1 on import costs.05 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.Table 6.46 0.00 100.16 0.77 0.02 0.79 0.378 53 Direct percent 13 19 2.46 22.66 2.88 1.59 0.53 0.26 2.41 0. 1988 Indirect Value percent Value 119 26 18 26 9 4 179 592 32 64 906 Value 119 26 18 2.02 0.00 3.19 0.59 0.71 3 0 1 0 0 1 24 19 257 31 161 166 0 1 23 0 256 31 1 0 2 0 0 100.07 0.02 1.53 0.02 0.00 0.00 159 166 0 2.675 126 64 997 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 0 91 0 0 26 87 0 0 0 22 0 7 29 107 7 29 81 2 4 52 3 1 89 4 52 3 23 4 7 64 4 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 Total 6 51 0 0 52 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 1 1 67 015 012 2 12 0.00 100.55 0.09 4.16 1.44 2.09 38.87 0.09 0.228 .07 0.72 0.43 5.68 3.150 0 4.03 0.00 0.27 0.

AND RECOMMENDATIONS As acknowledged by all other countries. a very amorphous market. The main difficulty in defining fact that it caters to a wide variety Because most firms in the industry of their customers are tourists. this procedure will likely produce unreliable results with a large margin of error. While other industries can be easily defined for official statistical purposes by simply measuring the commodities which they produce and their size and perlormance can be measured through a direct survey. . therefore.7 percent of GDP. this cannot apply to the case of the tourism industry. 54 CONCLUSION 7. Part of this stems from the recognition that a very large underground economic sector exists in the Philippines. the business transactions of which are difficult to capture and measure. faced with this dilemma.6 billion in 1980 or 1. this points to the necessity of revising some financial rules and regulations to allow the establishment of more government authorized money changers. there are inherent flaws and deficiencies in the information system which characterize practically every sector in the economy. Tourism receipts have grown dramatically from only P4. Clearly. authorities should review the incentive scheme for such money changers to make their operations more effective.0 billion in contrast to the P29.74 billion using the DOT component method.6 percent. These limitations were recognized from the start when the series of studies on tourism industrywere conducted. the stability of the foreign exchange rate of the peso will be the most influential factor that will affect the preferences of tourists to patronize the services either of the legitimate money changers or the informal market. do not have a clear and reliable basis in establishing what proportion direct measurement of the industry is practically impossible. This same problem bugs the successful measurement of the manpower export programme in which banking institutions capture barely less than one-third of actual foreign exchange remittances. Moreover. the authorities charged with preparing the National Accounts do not have much choice expect to devise methods that inevitably have built-in flaws. or to the various regions of the country. While growth is a positive development. who happen to be tourists. One glaring example is the measurement of tourism receipts. tourism growth rate was 26.9 billion in 1988 or 3. In the final analysis. First. Between 1987 to 1988. National statistics indicating growth may not be that meaningful if the benefits do not accrue more equitably to the people. While sampling through surveys can be resorted to and the result obtained therefrom can be used as basis for proportionate distribution and interpolation of levels and patterns of expenditures. the measurement of the contribution of tourism to the economy is difficult because of the unique nature of this industry. even in areas that are covered by the formal market. the issue of how this growth is related to equity should be considered. the the tourism industry and measuring its economic impact lies in the of consumers. sectoral tourism data should be generated in order to show more clearly tourism's contribution to growth and equity for a balanced sectoral distribution of its benefits. Somehow. however. several aspects concerning it must be looked into. should also generate sectoral and regional growth and income. despite best efforts and good intentions. Moreover. Corollarily.9 percent of GDP to P29. The NSCB tried its best to fit in the Input-Output Table. We can only conclude that the wide discrepancy in the two data bases reflects the sizeable portion of leakages that go to the blackmarket. The Central Bank data on the invisible receipts of the Balance of Payments statement placed tourism receipts at only P9. Future tourism growth objectives. data are still difficult to generate because of lax and weak enforcement of laws and other rules and regulations.

However. further research should be done alongthis line in order to generate data and develop a methodology for incorporating also the social costs oftourism. Product development efforts should be intensified to improve the quality of domestic souvenir items and thus make them more saleable to the foreigntourists. both benefits and costs should ideally be considered. 55 . This results in not reflecting the full cost of such services thereby tending to overstate the economic benefits of the sector. Many of the support services for tourism are still provided free of charge or at nominal cost by government authorities. efforts should be exerted to lessen the import content of tourism thereby increasing net foreign exchange benefits. The industries with which tourism has high backward linkages particularly should be closely examined and efforts should be directed towards increasing the output and consumption in said industries. a more feasible alternative to increase revenues would be for the authorities to insure the implementation of efficient and effective tax collection schemes. such as in communication and other promotional activities. this calls for restraint on outbound tourism expenses given the scarce foreign exchange resources of the country. It follows that new hotels and other tourist facilities that are being put up by private business establishments would adopt the same principle. as is usually done in determining the economic rates of return of projects. the costs of providing such services would be more reflective of true market conditions. It is about time that this practice be reviewed and modified to come up with a more realistic estimate of tourism benefits. Let it be understood that while tourism may generate income and employment.9 billion.3 billion.2 percent of total government indirect tax revenues. In making an economic analysis of tourism. Tourism should induce investment opportunities in those sectors that utilize their products. Clearly. it inevitably also has some negative effects especially on the environment and the moral values of society. If such factors could be given due weight and quantified accordingly. the authorities should pursue privatization programmes for tourism morevigorously The transfer to the private sector of many hotels and other tourism related business establishments that were either foreclosed or sequestered should be apriority. Clearly. then the economic benefits that we have computed in this study would change drastically. The tax multiplier effect of tourism should be enhanced by encouraging greater expenditures by tourists on these sectors. Once privatized. Local products should be promoted more aggressively to the foreign tourists. based on the tourism imports multiplier of 0. Another alternative to maximize revenues would be for the authorities to consider increasing the tax rates associated with these products and services. Nevertheless. While inward tourism receipts totalled P29.146. Therefore. this privatization scheme should be reinforced by promoting a strong partnership between the government and the local private sector through institutionalized consultations and the implementation of synchronized promotional and development projects for the industry.85 billion indirect tax contribution of tourism represents only 3. only 85.Another issue is that of net foreign exchange earnings from tourism receipts. the private sector feels that the present tax measures implemented by the government is on the upper limit. Likewise. This study has focused more on the benefit side because of lack of reliable data in quantifying the social costs of tourism. outward tourism expenditures (travel expenses by Filipino tourists going abroad) in the same year amounted to P26. The P1. especially by the private sector. Similarly. Moreover.4 centavos out of every peso of tourism receipts may be considered as net foreign exchange earnings. Tourism's low forward linkage but high backward linkage indicates the direction that may be pursued in terms of investment.

.

ORDER .APPENDIX 120 59 EXECUTIVE 1 NO.

in Article II. 2. it is directed that necessary and proper changes in the organizational and functional structures of the government. This Order shall be known as the Reorganization Act of the Ministry of Tourism. the Philippines needs: A government ministry that will: (a) (b) (c) Assist in coordinating tourism matters. DEFINING ITS POWERS FUNCTIONS. I. AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES is mandated expressly RECALLING that the reorganization of the government (a). and Article III of the Freedom Constitution. is herebyreorganized. NOW. TAKING achievements NOTE that. structurally and functionally. do hereby order: 1 SEC. THEREFORE.5 (1986). agreements and other Provide such other public sector services to the tourism industry as well as the formulation of standards and the compilation of statistics on tourism matters. hereinafter referred to as Ministry. Reorganization. The Ministry of Tourism. arising from treaties. . Section1 HAVING IN MIND the pursuant to Executive Order No. in accordance with the provisions of this Executive Order. CORAZON C. by virtue of the powers vested in me by the sovereign will of the Filipino People and the Freedom Constitution.OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE PHiliPPINES MALACANANG EXECUTIVE REORGANIZING ORDER NO. 61 SEC. AQUINO. in order to realize its full tourist potential in the magnitude suggested by the of other countries which have been developed by private enterprise as well as bygovernment. the plans and actions of various government instrumentalities on Discharge the government's responsibilities commitments on tourism and travel. its agencies and instrumentalities be effected in order to promote efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of public services. Title. CONSIDERING that tourism is an international industry that has played a significant role in boosting the economies of many nations and in fostering goodwill between nations and peoples of the world. 120 AND THE MINISTRY OF TOURISM. President of the Philippines.

Advise (a) (b) . Declaration of Policy. enjoyable stay and travel of the foreign and local tourists in the country.firms. resorts and other tourist-oriented facilities. 4. Promote the Philippines as a locale for foreign film or movie production or any other form of entertainment that will serve to enhance the image of the Philippines as a tourist destination internationally. promote and develop tourism as a major socio-economic activity to generate foreign currency and employment and to spread the benefits of tourism to a wider segment of the population with the support. Formulate standards for tourism-oriented establishments that will prescribe minimum levels of operating quality and efficiency in order to ensure that facilities. motels. standards for purposes. resorts. (I) (m) 62 SEC. and to assure the safe. plans. civil or military. international visitors offered the opportunity to travel to the Philippines and appreciate its natural beauty. Ensure a harmonious. including tourism- (f) (g) Promulgate rules and regulations governing the operations and activities entities and establishments that cater to tourists. The Ministry shall have the following powers and functions: the President on the promulgation of laws relative to the policy. inns. other issuances. convenient. positive and constructive development of the tourism industry. history and culture. effort and initiative are fostered and supported. and agencies. and tourist-oriented facilities for classification to prescribe rules and regulations governing the issuance of licenses to travel (h) (i) (j) (k) Approve the construction standards of accredited tourism-oriented establishments hotels. The Ministry shall be the primary government agency charged with the responsibility to encourage. encourage and develop Philippine tourism as a major national activity in which private sector investment. programmes and projects both domestic and international. office or institution as are charged with the duty and/or responsibility of selling government-owned or controlled hotels. and Filipinos themselves enabled to see more of their country and imbued with greater pride in and commitment to the nation. and enforcement of its order and/or decisions. Promote and ensure the pleasant and hospitable entry. plans. To provide technical assistance to the Committee on Privatization and Asset PrivatizationTrust. and other related facilities and services. SEC.SEC. in the implementation of this Executive Order. Powers and Functions. 5. stay and egress of tourists. Represent the government in all such conferences and meetings concerning tourism and travel and discharge such responsibilities of the government as may arise from treaties. personnel and services are maintained in accordance with acceptable local and international norms in the operations of tourism-oriented establishments. It is hereby declared the policy of the state to promote. Prescribe information reporting on the purchase. Formulate policies. resorts. (c) (d) (e) Devise an integrated marketing programme designed to attract and induce people abroad to visit the Philippines and enhance the prestige of the Filipino people and the Republic. for the development of the tourismindustry. agreements and other commitments on tourist and travel to which it is signatory. 3. sale or lease of accredited oriented facilities. programmes and projects designed to promote and develop the tourism industry. to provide accreditation of hotels. of all persons. the Ministry's rules and regulations. assistance and cooperation of both the private and public sector. or such other government agency. Mandate. and through which socio-economic development may beaccelerat foreign exchange earned. Coordinate with any or all government agencies.

The Minister shall be assisted by four (4) Deputy Ministers by the President upon the recommendation of the Minister. social and recreational outlets and other necessary amenities for the social upliftment of the populace and preservation of ecological balance. to or Coordinate with appropriate government agencies the development of infrastructure requirements supporting a tourist zone. of the Minister. (z) Coordinate with concerned government agencies the provision of social infrastructure requirements supporting a tourist zone as educational facilities. analysis of economic conditionsand (p) (q) r) Set up and organize foreign field offices for the purpose of overseeing promotional activities and implementing programmes of the Ministry. Undertake research studies and surveys for the continuing trends relating to tourism and travel. airports. Minister of Tourism. Office immediate staff. Arrange. electric power brought to the proper line of the zone. access roads to the zone. hereinafter referred to as Minister. and submit its appropriate in writing any specific powers and functions in favour of the regional offices.(n) (0) Prescribe programmes to encourage and projects. assist the appropriate government agency in auditioning Filipino entertainers being sent abroad. for theOffice 63 ( (s) (y) (a) (b) . 7. adjoining that may be necessary. who shall be responsible for the Office of Tourism Development Planning. Promote the protection. (t) (u) (v) Evaluate incentives to tourist-oriented recommendations to the President. SEC. Office of Product Development. and Office of Tourism Coordination: Deputy Minister for Tourism Services and Regional Offices. maintenance and preservation of historical. Deputy Ministers. all marketing and In order to project properly and enhance the Filipino image in the entertainment field and thereby gain better international respect and reputation for the country. the police district superintendent or station commander concerned shall deputize the personnel of the Tourist Assistance Unit of the Ministry for the purpose of enabling them to assist in the enforcement of all laws and regulations for the protection of tourists and other transients. The Office of the Minister shall consist of the Minister and his SEC. Delegate facilities. for the reclamation of any land adjacent a tourist zone in coordination with appropriate government agencies.Compile private-sector investment and participation in tourismactivities and integrate statistical data bank on the tourism industry. and other support facilities. The authority and responsibility for the exercise of the mandate of the Ministry and for the discharge of its powers and functions shall be vested in the Minister of Tourism. health centers. 6. harbors. Product Development and Coordination. who shall have supervision and control of the Ministry and shall be appointed by the President. proper. cultural and naturalassets with tourist attractions with the appropriate government agencies or with the privatesector or with the owners of said assets or attractions. SEC. who shall be responsible of Tourism Standards and all Regional Offices. Exercise such powers and functions and other activities incidental to the attainment of its mandate. such as but not limited to. 8. namely: appointed Deputy Minister for Planning. or (w) (x) whenever deemed appropriate. Upon petition of the Minister of Tourism.

other custodial work and such other related duties and responsibilities as may be assigned or delegated to it by the Minister. Ministry Proper. disbursements. 9. each of which shall be headed by a Service Chief. The Bureau Promotions is hereby created and shall have the following functions: Promote the Philippines as a locale tor foreign film or movie production or any other form of entertainment that will serve to enhance the image of the Philippines as a tourist destination internationally. 64 Promote. Tourism Promotions and Information. Deputy Minister for Tourism Promotion. SEC. SEC. (a) . 12. The Ministry Proper shall consist of the Offices of the Minister and Deputy Ministers and shall be responsible for the preparation and development of the policies. 15. and provide support for tourist councils. records. SEC. Bureau of Domestic Tourism Promotions and Information Organize and coordinate programmes of public relations. The Legal Service is hereby created and shall provide the Ministry with staff advice and assistance on all legal matters affecting the Ministry. throughout the SEC. encourage domestic tourism and encourage overseas visitors to travel Philippines. plansprogramm and projects of the Ministry in the context of its mandate. Regional Offices and Foreign Field Offices. promote educational and cultural tours to increase travel within the country. Deputy Minister for Internal Services. and Legal Service. (b) Design and provide support for dissemination of materials for publicity as tourist attractions in the Philippines. of International Tourism SEC.supplies. Plan promotional campaigns through advertising and publicity and coordinate promotional efforts with the private sector through sales campaigns and information dissemination. essentially 14. (b) (c) Provide support for the private sector in its promotional Organize campaigns. for the Financial of of (d) and SEC. powers and functions.(c). collection. who shall be responsible for the Bureau International Tourism Promotion. Legal Service. Administrative Service. 13. 16. equipment. special events to promote the country as a tourist destinations. Service Character and Head. Administrative Service. Financial and Management Service. who shall be responsible Management Service. communications. The Ministry. promotions. Structural Organization. SEC. The Bureau of Domestic is hereby created and shall have the following functions: and publicity. The services under sections 11 to 13 hereof shall be staff in character. and Office Tourism Information. 10. and management matters and shall perform such other related functions as may be assigned or delegated to it by the Minister. (c) (d) (e) organize. Bureau of Domestic Tourism Promotions. The Financial and Management Service is hereby created and shall provide the Ministry with staff advice and assistance on budgetary. financial. The Administrative Office is hereby created and shall providethe Ministry with staff advice and assistance on personnel. and to perform such other related functions as may be assigned or delegated to it by the Minister. Offices. shall consist of itsService Bureaus. Organize special events for the promotion of local destinations. 11. SEC. . aside from the Ministry Proper. information. security. Bureau of International Tourism Promotions.

Assist in auditioning Filipino entertainers in order to project properly and enhance the Filipino image in the entertainment field and thereby gain better international respect and reputation. The Bureaus under Sections 15 and 16 hereof shall be essentially staff in character each of which shall be headed by a Staff Director. inns. 18. conferences and conventions on Monitor trends and developments (h) Organize. meetings.Organize and disseminate centers. Planning is hereby created and shall have the following functions: The Office of Tourism Development Formulate plans and policies for the development of the tourism industry. inns. of Tourism promotional and tourist information materials to various tourist assistance SEC. 65 Gather (i) Cause (b) Coordinate (a) . sale or lease of accredited tourism-oriented facilities and.(d) market intelligence Field Offices. Office Standards. personnel and services are maintained in accordance with acceptable local and international norms in the operations of tourism-oriented establishments. (1) Generate favourable publicity on the Philippines. ensure aharmoniou positive and constructive development of the tourism industry. 19. (c) (d) (e) Regulate and issue licenses to qualified regulations promulgated by the Minister. Disseminate and research information on tourist markets through the Foreign current information on the country and its tourist products. and assisting in the marketing and SEC.shall The Office of Tourism Standards is hereby created and have the following functions: (a) Approve the construction standards of tourism-oriented establishments including hotels. motels. Office of Tourism Information. Encourage formation travel agencies in accordance with the rules and of industry associations for accreditations by the Ministry. restaurants. Formulate operating standards for tourism-oriented establishments including hotels andresorts. including but not limited to national tourism plans and the identification of master physical plans for touristzones within the country. tourism. set up and participate Supervise foreign field offices charged with coordinating promotional activities and programmes of the Ministry. in international in international tourism through the Foreign Field Offices. prescribe information reporting on purchase. motels.resorts. and other related facilities and services. 17. and other related facilities and services that will prescribe minimum levels of operating quality and efficiency in order to ensure that facilities. (1) with all agencies by the Ministry. SEC. and shall have the following functions: Promote travelling a continuing public. and programmes of the wholesome The Office of Tourism Information is hereby created and informative relationship between the Ministry and the (b) (c) the widest publicity of existing and for1hcoming activities Ministry through a functional relationship with the media. Bureau Character and Head. 20. Office of Tourism Development Planning. concerned on the enforcement of rules and regulationspromulgated SEC.

Office of Product Development. and beneficial to a greater number of Filipino communities. plans or operations of local governments. provided further. programmes and projects of the Ministry to ensure their Conduct research studies and surveys for the continuing Compile and integrate statistical analysis of the tourism industry. Ensure through proper coordination with appropriate government agencies and local private agencies the social growth of the community within a tourist zone as well. preserve such historical. cultural and/or natural assets or relics giving the zone its tourist value and significance. and assure adherence to approved zone development plans. 22. and other government agencies. hotels standards and such other restrictions as may be necessary within a tourist zone to control its orderly development. public corporations. data on the tourism industry and publish the same. domestic and foreign. both government national tourism plans and policies. governmental agencies. Coordinate priority activities and the private sector. Formulate a government plan for each zone in coordination with other government agencies and local government(s) exercising political jurisdiction over the area. that the tourism development plan is fully coordinated and integrated with other sectoral plans for the area. the development of the of the Ministry. Office of Tourism Coordination. provided. The Office of Tourism Coordination is hereby created and shall have the following functions: (a) Initiate and coordinate with all sectors.Iocal governments and other government agencies. and where clearly necessary and feasible. that the plan of the zone to be developed shall cover specifically those aspects pertaining to tourism. the viability and acceptability of new tourism-related Encourage and promote joint undertakings products and programmes. SEC. Analyze specific geographic areas with potential tourism value leading to the preparation of a national tourism development plan which will establish the order of priority for the development plan of tourist zones. effective implementation. 21. those of private entities so as to make possible the accelerated and balanced growth and development of tourism in the Philippines which is responsive to the needs of targetted travel markets. with the private sector of new tourism-related SEC. to all tourism-related activities of the private sector needing government 66 (9) (1) (b) (c) . and shall have the following functions: The Office of Product Development is hereby created (a) (b) (c) Develop and conceptualize and facilities. Provide support assistance. including building codes. Coordinate and assist in the implementation of tourism-related projects. to assist in formulating and implementing zone regulations. carefully control possible negative social impact brought about by tourism development. (h) Zone Administration and Control Coordinate with appropriate .(b) (c) (d) (e) Monitor and evaluate plans. new products which can lead to the enhancement of tourist sites Undertake pilot tests for testing products and programmes. and projects and private.

which shall oversee and implement the Ministry's marketing and promotional programmes. The Ministry is hereby authorized to establish. 27. Transitory Provisions (a) The transfer of functions under Section 26 (a) and (b) hereof shall include such appropriations. may be appropriate. Subject to the approval of the President the Ministry shall have foreign offices as may be necessary in the marketing and promotion of the Philippines as an international tourist destination. SEC. in accordance with Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. h7 SEC. bureaus and agencies. plans. Nov. the Intramuros Administration. Compliance with the following is hereby prescribed: (a) The Bureau of Tourism Services is hereby abolished and its functions are transferred to the Office of Tourism Standards and Regional offices in accordance with Section 28 (a) and (b) hereof. The Offices under Sections 18 to 22 hereof shall be essentially staff in character. The liabilities. as of (c) is hereby transferred to the with Section 28 (a) and (b) (d) The Intramuros Administration and the National Parks Development Committee (E. Foreign Field Offices. policies. Provide economical. have the following functions: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) Implement laws. The herein provisions shall likewise apply in the transfer of agencies under Section 26 (c) and (d) hereof. The remaining appropriations and funds shall revert to the General Fund and the remaining records equipment. rules and regulations. funds. 25. rules and regulations. with local governme~t units. Abolished/Transferred Agencies. A Regional Office shall be headed by a Regional Director and shall. Regional Office. 28. which may have been incurred in the performance of the same functions or for other purposes shall likewise be treated in accordance with the Auditing Code and other pertinent laws. each of which shall be headed by a Staff Director. The Civil Aeronautics Board by the nature of its responsibilities Ministry of Transportation and Communications in accordance hereof. under the immediate supervision of the Deputy Minister for Tourism Services and Regional Offices. 24. 26. The Philippine Tourism Authority and the Philippine Convention Bureau shall thereby be attached to the Ministry. SEC. Attached Agencies. 30. if any. SEC. 1963) are hereby transferred to the Ministry in accordance with Section 28 (a) and (b) hereof. Coordinate Coordinate rules and regulations of the Ministry. records. (b) The Bureau of Tourism Promotions is hereby abolished and its functions are transferred. facilities and other assets shall be allocated to such appropriate units as the Minister shall determine or shall otherwise be disposed. Perform such other functions as may be provided by law. and the National Parks Development Committee are hereby attached to the Ministry. programmes. equipment. operate and maintain a Regional Office in each of the administrative regions of the country.O. Office Character and Head. SEC. facilities.SEC. with regional offices of other ministries. within its administrative region. . other assets and personnel as may be necessary to the proper discharge of such functions. efficient and effective service to the people. Due to their operation and control over tourist parks and attractions. to the Bureau of Domestic Tourism Promotions and Bureau International Tourism Promotions in accordance with Section 28 (a) and (b) hereof. 23.

Those incumbents whose positions are not included therein or who are not reappointed shall be deemed separated from the service. 31. 33. The Minister shall issue such rules. Funding. powers. To apply to and closely coordinate with the Fiscal Incentive recommend appropriate incentives which are competitive countries particularly within the region. rules and regulations. 29. Those separated from the service shall receive the retirement benefits to which they may be entitled under existing laws. 17 (1986) or Article III of the Freedom Constitution. Prohibition Against Changes. continue to perform their respective duties and responsibilities and receive the corresponding salaries and benefits unless in the meantime they are separated from the service pursuant to Executive Order No. 32. in a hold over capacity. continue to perform their respective duties and responsibilities and receive the corresponding salaries and benefits unless in the meantime they are separated from the service pursuant to Executive Order No. SEC. whose positions are not included in the new position structure and staffing pattern approved and prescribed by the Minister under Section 29 hereof or who are not reappointed. regulations and other issuances as may be necessary to ensure the effective implementation of the provisions of this Executive Order. No change in the reorganization herein provided shall be valid except upon prior approval of the President for the purpose of promoting efficiency and effectiveness in the delivery of public services. taken from funds available Funds needed to carry out the provisions in the Ministry. 17 (1986) or Article III of the FreedomConstituti The new position structure and staffing pattern of the Ministry shall be approved and prescribed bythe Minister within one hundred twenty (120) days from the approval of this Executive Order and the authorized positions created thereunder shall be filled with regular appointments by him or by the President as the case may be.Otherwise they shall be paid the equivalent of one-month basic salary for every year of service. 30. powers or functions of the Ministry into a corporate set-up. No court or administrative body shall issue any writ of preliminary injunction or restraining order to enjoin the separation/replacement of any officer or employee effected under this Executive Order. SEC. in a hold over capacity. Notice or Consent Requirement. SEC. SEC. Any subsequent reorganization shall be approved by the President through an appropriate Executive Order. If any reorganizational change herein authorized is of such substance or materiality as to prejudice third persons with rights recognized by law or contract such that notice to or consent of creditors is required to be made or obtained pursuant to any agreement entered into with any of such creditors. the mandate. or the equivalent nearest fraction thereof favourable to them on the basis of the highest salary received. Incumbents. Review Board to evaluate and with those offered by other (c) (d) After a period of two (2) years from the approval of this Executive Order. shall be entitled to the benefits provided in the second paragraph on the same Section 29.(b) Incumbents of the abolished bureaus under Section 26 (a) and (b) hereof and the transferred agencies under (c) and (d) of the same Section shall. New Structure and Pattern. The officers (the term "officer" as used in this Executive Order is intended to be within the meaning of the term "official" as used in the Freedom Constitution) and employees of the Ministry shall. Implementing Authority of Minister. functions and position structure and staffing pattern of the Ministry shall be reviewed by the President to determine the appropriate changes which may include continuance of the Ministry or integrating the mandate. such notice or consent requirement shall be complied with prior to the implementation of such reorganizational change. but in no case shall such payment exceed the equivalent of 12 months salary. of this Executive Order shall be 68 . SEC.

are hereby repealed or modified accordingly. SIGNED: CORAZON C. Separability. Deputy Minister and Assistant Minister shall be changed to Secretary. this 30th day of January upon its approval. regulations. Nineteen Hundred and Eighty Seven. as long as such remaining portions or provisions can still subsist and be given effect in their entirety. respectively. Undersecretary and Assistant Secretary. 36.SEC. SEC. SEC. AQUINO By the President: SIGNED JOKER P. Effectivity. Change of Nomenclature. Any_portion or provision of this Executive Order that may be declared unconstitutional shall not have the effect of nullifying other portions or provisions hereof. which are inconsistent with this Executive Order. This Executive Order shall take effect immediately Philippines. ARROYO Executive Secretary 69 . or partsthereof. rules. 35. in the year of Our Lord. 37. 34. other issuances. SEC. In the event of the adoption of a new Constitution which provides for a presidential form of government. All laws. Repealing Clause. ordinance. APPROVED in the City of Manila. the Ministry shall be called Department of Tourism and the titles of Minister.

DIX 2 1988 INPUT-OUTPUT TABLE SECTOR CLASSIFICATION 71 APPEN .

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 12 NON-METALLIC PRODUCTS MINERAL 73 FOOD.1988INPUT. 21 TEXTILE WOOD. 30 31 22 .OUTPUT TABLE SECTOR CLASSIFICATION 39-SECTOR TOURISM DESCRIPTION 59-SECTOR MAIN TABLE DESCRIPTION TABLE PRODUCTION 01 SECTORS 01 PAlAY CORN COCONUT/COPRA SUGARCANE BANANA OTHER CROPS INCLUDING AGRICULTURAL SERVICES CROPS & AGRICULTURAL SERVICES 02 03 04 05 06 0708 02 LIVESTOCK & POULTRY LIVESTOCK POULTRY 03 04 FISHERY 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 FISHERY FORESTRY COPPER MINING GOLD MINING CHROMIUM MINING NICKEL MININGOTHER METALLIC MINING STONE QUARRYING & SAND PITS OTHER NON-METALLIC MINING & QUARRYING FOOD MANUFACTURES BEVERAGETOBACCO MANUFACTURES MANUFACTURES FOOTWEAR & WEARING APPARELLEATHER & LEATHER PRODUCTS CORK & CANE PRODUCTS FURNITURE & FIXTURES PAPER & PAPER PRODUCTS PUBLISHING & PRINTING RUBBER PRODUCTS OTHER CHEMICALS & CHEMICAL PRODUCTS PRODUCTS OF PETROLEUM NON-METALLIC PRODUCTS MINERAL FORESTRY METALLIC MINING 05 06 NON-METALLIC MINING 07 BEVERAGE & TOBACCO MANUFACTURING 18 19 20 08 lEATHER WEARING APPAREL & FOOTWEAR 23 09 CORK & CANE PRODUCTS INCLUDING FURNITURE PUBLISHING & PRINTING 24 25 26 27 28 29 10 11 CHEMICAL & CHEMICAL PRODUCTS. TEXTilES. PAPER.

OUTPUT TABLE SECTOR CLASSIFICATION 39-SECTOR TOURISM TABLE 13 14 MACHINERY EQUIPMENT DESCRIPTION 59-SECTORMAIN DESCRIPTION TABLE BASIC METALS METAL PRODUCTS & TRANSPORT 32 343536 BASIC METALS METAL FABRICATION MACHINERY EXCEPT ELECT'L ELECTRICAL MACHINERY TRANSPORT EQUIPMENT MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURES MISCELLANEOUS MANUFACTURES CONSTRUCTION ELECTRICITY & GAS CONSTRUCTION 17 18 19 ELECTRICITY & GAS WATER SERVICES TOURIST BUS/CAR SERVICE WATER SERVICES LAND TRANSPORT SERVICES 20 OTHER LAND TRANSPORT SERVICES WATER TRANSPORT SERVICE WATER TRANSPORT AIR TRANSPORT 44 SERVICE 22 23 AIR TRANSPORT SERVICE SERVICE 24 & TRAVEL AGENCIES STORAGE & SERVICES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION COMMUNICATION STORAGE & SERVICES RELATED TO TRANSPORTATION 25 2627 45 COMMUNICATION WHOLESALE AND RETAIL TRADE TOURIST SHOPS OTHER TRADE 28 FINANCIAL SERVICES 48 BANKS NON-BANKS INSURANCE REAL ESTATE OWNERSHIP GOVERNMENT OF DWELLINGS SERVICES 29 INSURANCE REAL ESTATE OWNERSHIP GOVERNMENT OF DWELLING SERVICES & HEALTH 49 30 50 51 52 53 33 EDUCATION SERVICES BUSINESS SERVICES 54 55 PRIVATE EDUCATION SERVICES PRIVATE HEALTH SERVICES PRIVATE BUSINESS RECREATIONAL SERVICES SERVICES 34 35 RECREATIONAL SERVICES & CULTURAL & CULTURAL 74 FABRICATED 33 15 16 37 38 39 40 41 21 42 43 TOUR 46 47 31 32 PRIVATE 56 .1988INPUT.

HOTELS & OTHER LODGING PLACES 39 SOCIAL & RELATED COMMUNITY SERVICES 59 SANITARY. SOCIAL & RELATED COMMUNITY SERVICES FINAL DEMAND SECTORS PCE GCE GDCF NTE FTE PRIVATE CONSUMPTION GOVERNMENT EXPENDITURE EXPENDITURE CONSUMPTION GROSS DOMESTIC NON-TOURISM CAPITAL FORMATION EXPORTS EXPORTS (EXPENDITURES) FOREIGN TOURISM PRIMARY M IMPORTS COMPENSATION DEPRECIATION INPUT SECTORS CE D OF EMPLOYEES INDIRECT TAXES LESS SUBSIDIES OTHER VALUE ADDED 75 SANITARY. . ETC.1988 INPUT-OUTPUT TABLE SECTOR CLASSIFICATION 39-SECTOR TOURISM TABLE 36 DESCRIPTION 59-SECTOR MAIN TABLE DESCRIPTION PERSONAL & HOUSEHOLD SERVICES 57 PERSONAL & HOUSEHOLD SERVICES 58 HOTEL & RESTAURANTS 37 38 RESTAURANTS.

PSIC CLASSIFICATION OF TOURISM-ORIENTED SECTOR
PSIC 71242 Tourist's service buses and cars, including chartered buses, and rent-a-car porter service, social

2.

PSIC 71920

Tour and travel agencies excluding escort service

tourist guides,

PSIC96900

Amusement and recreational service, not elsewhere classified Includes beach resort operation boating and yacht club operation Personal and household services Includes laundry shops, barber and beauty shops, tourist guides and social escort services, massage and bath operation Restaurants and other eating and drinking places Includes cafes, refreshment stands and kiosks, day and night clubs

4.

PSIC 97

PSIC 982

Hotels and other lodging places Includes motels, pension houses, and dormitories

76

1 3. 6. PSIC981 5.

3

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APPENDIX 4 85 .

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.. N 00 ~ ~ -~M a ~8 00 00 ~- ~~~ MM om~ 8 ~.M~ _ 8 ..'" aI" "'0 OM 0 u 88 M'" "'0 m "~m ""'0 m.. ~~~OOO.. "'O~OOOO"""aI"""O"O""""O"aI"'O"'MO"'O""'OOM"'O"M"'" 0""" ".-NO~~~~..?~ "'..c 0 ~ ONOOOOO 0000 ~~~8 ~o~o 0000 000000000000000000000 0000000 6 66666 66 0~88888 88800 00000 888 000 88 00 ~808 8888888 0000000 c ooooooow~mNmOMMOM~OWOOO~WOMO~~OOW~O~~WN mOMN~ ~~~mw MN~mN ~O~WO ~M N~ N~ O~ MN ~~ W~ ~O M m N ~ W~ O~ N~ ~M ~ ~ ~ ~ ~M ~M mw N~ ~m wm O~ NN OMMW ~N~N ~~~~ mN~8 ."'o'" mo". ~<D ~'" ~~ ~ ~8 ~~ 00 a 00 a 00 00 000 E 0 c >:= 'C 0 8 ~NvMNmo ~ M ~~~vMm NM~MN 0 ~ ~~ ~ mO~MmmM 00 ~8 ~~ ~ ~ 88 ~~ ~ ~8 ~ ~~ 8~ ~~ 8880 ~~~a '" "'~"' ~"""I"-~ '" ... co~ 00'" ~ 66 6666 6 66666 66 M ~~g OMO N~O . CO.""" ooocoo..m "'0 mM 00 00 ~mM'" """aI ~"alO "M~~ 888 0000 '" ~ g~~~<D~:g '" o". ~"'oo"'~ ~o~"'~ """m.COO""" 666 """'" '" 0"'00 00000 '" CO ~ CO .. 8 a 00 M~ m'" M'" .NO rem~~ O-N~ ~...o~oo"'.oo~ "'CO a m '" '" 00 .m ."""'" ~N 1'-'" Q)O) MM ~ >< vooooomv~vNMOOO~N~WOWvWOMoooomN~OO~MNvO~M 0 v~NOOOO~ ~ ~M~~OOv ~ ~MVOO~~ ~ NN~VO~ 00 ~M~M~N OvNm~O~O~ O~~~M~OOOv ~v~vvw~moo mO~OOM~~V ~ ON ~~ N~ ~O M~~N OvMOO ~OOOv ~v~~ NN~NN~v om~m~oo~ vOO~N~~M OOOO~MN~ ./ CO 8 ~~~~ ~CO .""N a 0 00 a 00 00 0000000 0000000 N 0 O"'OON 00000 CO.....!~ "'0.o mo "'.. Q) (f) m 666 6666666666666666666 ...'" 0 00000 00 0> g ONI'-O> O>~~O>~ """"0"" 0>0 "'N "' (D 0 (D m 'u ~~m~o~~~~~~~o~~m~oo~~OO~~ON~~~OONm~~~M~ ~~m~ ~o~m~~~ MM~N M~~O~~~ m~mo m~m~m~~ ~~~O ~o~~~m~ ~o~~m O~~M~ ~NN~~ ~O~~O ~~~ ~~~ M~~ ~O~ ~N ~N ~~ O~ ~~~~ ~M~~ ~N~M ~ONM ~O~MMNm ~~~~~mm O~O~N~~ ONONN~~ == O>"'aI""~ "'N""O>N 0>0> aI'" ~ Q) u ...~ cn Q) ~8~~8 ~~~~~ 00000 "'~O"'<D "'0>"'1"-'" . OOOOOOOOOOOOOOONOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 1'-1'- ~ '" a ~ 0 ~ I'- ~ ~ I() '" I() ~ am 0000 '" '" ~ m """ I()I() """ mm 1'-1'""" mm ~NM~~~~romo~NM~~~~romo~NM~~~~romo~NM~~~~rom ~~~~~~~~~~NNNNNNNNNNMMMMMMMMMM ~ ~uct:o 90 -W C/)< 0> <- <-'I.~:8(..~~OOIn ~N co """""""" In'" """N".OO~NO 000000000000 -0000 ~~~~~~~Ngm~~ ~M.."0 0"""'" ~. 00 000 ~O~ M.m ..fi! 8 <D ~ "'.'" I:::~ "'0"'0 """"' 8 .~ .. ~m.'" "'0 00 00 00000000000 000000 a aaaaa '" 0 """""""'"~.""""'m OalM "Malmal'" """'" ~"'maloo ".- ~ ~ ooooooooo~ooom~oooomoNoovoMONNOO~~OM~~m v~ om Nv ~~ NN ~N ~o ~M Mm vO ~m 88 m~ ~~ v~ M~ I'M ~ ~ M N 0 0 M v 0 N 8 Nm M~ ~M ~M N M N ~ ~v o~ m~ ~M N~ ~~ ~~ """I'-~'" o)l'-Q)(Oon 1'-1'~(ONMQ) I'-Q)MI'-I'aaN~M aNaa~ I'-N ~ ~M ~o ~o o~ 00 M ~ V 00 V 000000 o~ov m ~m ~ ~ 8 m ~o~m m~ 8 ~~om ~~~N ~~~~ M~~~ N ~ ~~~21Z I'on a (0 ~~ aa ~ (Dm """ """ ". """ 00 00001'I() "'0."""" ~...mm O""'OmM ""'M "'~~""'o "'OM "'000"'0 000 ~OOOOO Mal""'" """""'" O"""M" 0""""0 "' a 00000 0 "'M" """" M..-~ "' 88 8~ a 00 ~ m M a ..Q) u '" 0> M ..... . c 0 000000000000000000000 0000000 0 In I''" '" '" """O>"'~ N""~N'" O~OO~ 0>'" """ """ O~NONO ~OOOOO 0 000000000 88 ~N~ NOO ~ 0 N 0 00 0~M mNO 0000 ~ 0 0000000 N~ 00 8 8 8 8 8 8 88 Q) ...J "'co~"' ~~~r::~::~ oo ~ "' '" ~ gg WMN 000 E E 00000 000000 a 0 ..~ ~ ~ 0 . 00 u ...N0000 0000 ~ """"""0 . "'0"""'" 8 """"...~ f. '" ~ N 0 0 ~~ ~~ 8 O.NO~OO~oo~o~m~O~~~N ~O~ N..1. "'0 c....~ >a....mNONNmO~O NM-om8 NOaa ~ 8 ~~~ 666666666666666666666666666 re~~ -a 000 --....m "'~" a 000 .~~~M~~-M~-~O."'I"-~ ~ o~~o'" 66666666 ~O~OOON~MN~OO~O~~vomomOO~O~OM~OOvMvvM~~ ~ 0 Nm~vv~ m ~ om~vm~ v~~O~ OM~~m ~ m m 0 ~N ~N ~ 8 v N o~ ~~ vmv~MNM 8 8 N~~~v~m ~MNOM N E E N 0 N 0 0 ~ N m m ~~o~mN 0M V~ v~ ~~ 000000000000000000 8 v N ~ 00 v v 0 V N NM 00 8 88 8 v V ~~ 8 0 VM 00000 0000000 N~~ 0 0 000000000000000000 0000000 ~ MalalvM ~ "-N"'COCO M NmmCOal -mo-o'" a "'vmNaI co "'Mv-aI N o~OOv 6 66666 OalmvN "'aI ~aI vCO mal Mm aiM co"66 v'" ~ u 0 oooooov~~~~om~NoMmo~a~oo~oMOMVoovvNm~mN moN~v ~Nm~~ ~Nm~~ ~~MvV g ~~oo M~NNvm m~~~mm aM~~~M omMNo~ m~Mv :c 0 v ~ 00 M OO~M 00000 OOOM 000000 0 0 g g ~ M ~ m ~ v M W ~ m MM Nv Mv Nm >< ~ ~ M v 0 ~~ 0 >g vv vm ~o Ov N~ g Nmmm~~~ ~OM~MN~ WMm~~mm mvN~~~m W ~ co '" f..

APPENDIX 5 91 .

"'.t-..: ......... m~mVNVN~~~~MmOMwmMO~O~OMNovmo~o~~~o~~mo MO~OWOOO~MVmONWOOmNNOOvv ~mwOmv~OOmN~NmNmW~~ CO) 0 ~mv 8 W~ N~ ~O ~ v~ mv~o omoooo 8 WVMVV~Mm m~0 O~vO~N~~ ~.~ ~<D "'0) ":0 ~N N~ N'" ........ . t'-'" ":6 NOO 00'" 000 .."'CO) """ o~"'...~ COlt> :."'..:""""'~"""°'" ~w~~moo~wmmwvmoo~vowmm oooooooo~ooooooooooooo . mm 00 0000 00000000 0> mmMOM~VmWONVMVWOONwo~vom~omNMMom~mMmNMM V~mmNMMmWWMm~O~VVvvomo ~~w m~~~w~~NNWN~w~ o~~ m~MmWvOvON~~MV 8 Mmv ~m~ 8 ~MVM MOOM ~m ~Nm~ MVmONWMM 8 N~~W v~NN NNm ~mm Mm NM wm ONmN Vmmm~mV~ O)t-.: ~ ~ 0) IX) -~m~mN~~~~m~-m-~~~oo~-~a~~a~~~Na~-oo~-m~N w-~moo~~ooa~~~w-oom~a-~mm ~Na~mN~~~m~~~oo-~~w ~88m85~~5~oo~~~88~8885~ oOOVOOOONOOOOOOooooooo 00 0000 00000000 85 00 00000000 ~~~5 ~ooo 88~88888 ..~ 'C 0 Q) Nv~ooa~OOMvv~~aOON~Moov~~vamma~oo~~a~oomvwoow~ vM~WNwaooooa~aVa~N~~WNOOM w~~aMm~moovNoo~~~vm~~~NOO oowamwooMavamvoowvvNaa~Moo ooww~vaa~w~M~oo~a~~~aNav ~m wa ~M Mm wmM~ M~~~ M~Ma oo~m~ NNoom~oooom ~Noo~am~m N~vaoov~~ a~~aaNNv ONM "'OM MCD mM >~g8~~~~o88~8@~88N88~o8 aaaaaaaaaa~aaaaaaaaaaa 6666~66666666666666666 66 00 0000 E E 6666 88 66666666 ~~88 88~88~o8 00000000 ...o~ ~N~v~~~~ma~N~v~~~~ma~N~v~~~~ma~N~v~~~~m ~~~~~~~~~~NNNNNNNNNN~~~~~~~~~~ l ~ ~- o~ -0 0 ~a~~~a~N~~m~~~~~N~~~~ma~~aa~NMa~N~amN~~ M~N~~~~MM~~~MN~a~~~N~~ ~~NaaMM~~~~~NN~~~~ M~m~~~N~M~~N~~~NM~ ~M~~~m~m~N~~~~~Nm~aM~N N~ 8 0 ~~ ~~ ~~ ~~ Nm~a ~~mM ~~N~ MONO ~~~~~~a~ M~~~~~~M ~N~a~Mmm a~Naa~MN ooooooooo~oooooooooooo ~a ~ ~aa~~aaa aaaaaaaaaMNaaaaaaaaaaa 00 8 88 M~ Ma ~m~ ~~a ~ m~N 000 a 88 8 N Noaa ~aaa ~~~~~~~~ ~~NN 00 00000000 8 8 ~~ a 888 8 ~ <o~ ~~ ~8 t-..'" M~Ma~M~N mm~a~~~~ ~~ma~vNN 00000000 ~88~88~088~~0~88~88~8~ 0000000000000000000000 ooo~oooooooooooooooooo 00 80 00 m~oo 0000 0000 88~88888 00000000 "'.. M«I ~88858~5g8~8g~88~88~88 0000000000-0000000000000000000000000 85 66 6666 66666666 ~8~5 ":0 85g88888 E C/) Q) 66666~6666666666666666 c .:: c u 8 °ONo omro ~OO ow Mo MW ~o-OO ~MV~ --ow WMMo mM~Nom-oW~-~o~W --mow~mm -ovoN~NN > to MmW~W~VWVOO~MMOOMOO-Mo-v-o-vomOOOWONomOOW-NW -WN-MW~WomMo~VM~M~V~WV 8 vomoN~__ooOOOOv~oo~~ WMmVW~o--N~M-~moN WWVNVVV-NVOOW-OOoNmMowroo "'«1<\1 "'OM °'" "'UI "'«I 0......m ":0 mmC\l """C\I (Q<D~ ~ . V~0 ~~m N~ mM~M oommVm~VOMmmN~NM~~ '(3 8 Ov Q) M~OOOONOOOOOOooooooooo VM~MV~~~V~~~MNOO~MOV~V ~N M~ mVm~ u 00 0000 Q) C/) . ":0 ~""" .. 8 ~oooo 8 OONNW mam~ --Na-N-W~ aam~ ~~m awoom -~~~ ": ~~NNa-NooNaw--waaWNaa~~ ~ aa~NW~~W-Nm~a~~~WN ~~ )( ~W m--a -~N~ -NW~W-NW mN~ ~~ 1'-'" <0 CO CO'" "'00 NOM ~ ":0 MCO ~88888g~88~88888~88~8g ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 0000000-00000000000000 """CO l'-l'8 ~~~~ vNNm 88 ~~ 00 ~~~~ 0000 ~~88 ~~~~~~~~ aaaaaaba 88588888 c /'Nm~mmo~~Nm~~~~Nv~~~mmMo~~ov~~~o~m~~M~~M NOM~OV~~NmmMMMM~MM~Mm~ MVOm~Nm~~~~~NN~~0~ Q) .....~ 'C 0 >v~mM~Mmv~mNmMaVvm~ NMN~~~mN~~NMmvaa~Nav~v 8 ~am MN~ ~m mN VM ~M~~ V~M~ vmN~ aa~m~VVN .1.0 ~Nv '... Q) 0 00 0000 00000000aaaaaa~aaaaaaaaaaaaaaa ~"! 00000000 88 ~~88 m~mo V~~~ ~~mVNmm~ mvm ~::J O~vO~N~~~~~888888~~~8~88~88~88 0'" m~ 88888888 ....~m"'.q ~M~ma~~mVMNmmvaNmNVMNmav~a~M~aa~~~~vmMV ~~~~a~V~NmV~MN~mvmMmma m~m~~N~~~~~~vm~Mmm m~ ~~~~ .m CDM m ":0 NCD u )( 0 .'" "'....~ E E 0u u ~~~880m888~80~88~88~08 000000000000000000000000000000000000 VMMV~mVNWMOOOMVOO~NOWOOM cn I Q) 66~6666666666666666666 80 66 ~~oo 6666 88088888 66666666 0) M (\J V~~W~M~M~w~vmNmW~W~~Nwa~va~~NMaM~WV~V~~ ~Mv~~a~mmM~~WMaNv~a~a~ N~m~~~NM~WMN~wamN~ vMN~a~~a~w~mmM~~~W ~~~~~~vv~wa~NNaavNaVN~ 8 av~ m~v mm N~ ~N ~~ ~N~N ~~NW M~~v aaNN aWM~~aWN w~~ 8 a~m aavaaaaa ~~~~ v~v~ ~N~888~88o~88o88~88o88 a~aaaaNaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa a~aaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaaa 88 00 ~o88 00 0000 0000 00000000 88888888 00000000 ~M~~N~~~OOV~~~~~~M~OO~O~OO~M~~O~N~~~M~V ~~MM~O~M~V~~~~~~~~OOV~ ~~ ~88888o88o~88888~88888 ~ooooooooooooooooooooo ~ooooooooooooooooooooo M~~~~V~~v~~~ov~ ~~ M~~~V~~V~~~~~~~ ~~~MOOV~~~~~OMOO~OO~NN 8 8 °v~ ~V~ 88 00 00 ~~ N~ ~N ~N ~v~v ~N~ MMO~ ~VN 8 ~NV~ V~V~ ~~MN OO~OOOOO ~888 88888888 0000 00000000 000000000000 ~~~M M~~~V~MO ~ ~o~ 9 ~NM~~~~mmO~NM~~~~mmO~NM~~~~mmO~NM~~~~mm ~~~~~~~~~~NNNNNNNNNNMMMMMMMMMM l 93 N<o'" ~VooN o~vm 8 ~N~ Wv ~ ~N ON~ ~~OVM~vN~VmM~NMMO~ . t ...

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. o~~mmm~mmNO~N~~~m~~~~~OM~o~~~momM~ON~m~ 0~~~mNo~~0~~Nmm~~m ~~NO~m~~Om~~~M~~Mm Q) ...."""""""""om""""..~~~mmO~NM.~~ ~ 000 ~ c ~N~MMM~MMNNN vV~~~mMo~~~~mM~V~~~~o~m~omNNN~~MN~~VM~~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ~MN MMNMNNNNM a: u.""" "'. ~I()~ COM ~. "'0) "':0 ~"'O> "'....-= "C 0 '. ~ci~~~ci~~ci~Mci~cicici~ciciciciciciciciciNcicicicicicicicicicicici -J ~~~m~mNm~MNm~mmM~mNmmaN~aV~Na~v~~~mM~mN aMam~N~Nm~~~~~aa~~vaN~~a~m~~vamaVm~~vmM m~~N~m~Mm~~mmmmN~~~MVm~~~~~Vm~~~mM~MV~M MV~~~~mNvmMaaa~mM~~~~NvNmmm~~MmNvNMVNmm ~N~vNM~~Nmav~Nm~~Ma~~vm~mm~~~~m~~NNm~m~ ~~~~a~~N~M0MMm~~mm~amamaNvammNv~m~~~~a~ ~maaammam~~mam~~M~~m~~~~m~vm~m~~~m~~~~~ <0 ~O~~OMmm~~~mO~~ONm~~MNN~~O~ONNO~MO~MN~~ om~~mo~M~o~N~mNmNm~ mN~~~~m~MmM~NNm~O.~ "'.~'" 00 "'00000 00 00 ~"'oo ~ooo ° ~ 88 "'~~ 000 Q) o".o mm""..~""..":0 E E C') ~NM~N~~mmm~~~m~N~~O~~N ~~ M~ ~M~N ~~~..'" . "'".. 88~8o888~o~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ~... "'~ "" "'0 ~~ ~~ a~~ M~M """ monm Mal 1..~.".1... "'m".r CO) vNvmVVMWVm~m~mMM~NO~ ~OMWmMmmm~mWNVVVmOOWOM w~~W ~WM~~0~N~~MM~ 0000 ooooo~oO~Oovo ooooooooo~oooooooooooo m >000000000000000000000000 0000 ~~~888g~8~~o8888re88~8~ 000000000000000000000000000000000000 88 ~~~~ 88888~oo ooo~oooo E E .~ u 0 8 ~~~"'0"' 8 ~"' 88 °"'~"""~ .moo""""""""" o"""o..""..~. 8 ~ 0 0 0CJ mvmm~mM~mNm~ww~mm~M~w~ow~o~mM~ovVN~VM~N mNMNm~m~mW~mMOmvOM~m 8 m 00 8 8 v O~ WN ~~ ~ ~ 8 Wm~M mm~N O~mN ~MMm ~o~~ 0000 M~MmW~~M v~oomwmo MNWNWNmM 8 ~m 88 o~ 00000000 0 Q) (/) I C') C') O~M~vWOOMWWOO~OO~NOON~vOO~Ov~ON~WOO~WNMM~NM u mm~M~OOOOWMMOOmMM~VMM ~m~N~~W~MNMMNOO~OMN oomOOVVmmMm~NMOO~~W~MO~~OO 8 MOON ~vW 000000000000000000000000 0000 oo~ooooo 0) CO) ~RJ~o88~8o~~o8~88M~8~88 OOOOOONOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO 000000000000000000000000 8~ 00 ~~ N~ MN ~~~o 0000 0000 ~oooom MWON ~OO~W 8~~8888~ 00000000 o~oooooo MOOv~v~mw MM~O~OOWOO Ov~O~WMM N C') ~~~8a88~~g~~~Ma~~~8~8~ ooooooooo~oooooooooooo cicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicicici oom~Noo~mooo~o~o~NV~MOO~O~~o~v~mo~vmoovoom O~OON~m~NVMMVmOOVN~~MOOOO~ ~~O~N~mOO~OOVMMMV~mO~NOO Vm~~~mO~~~~~N~O~~NOm~OO 8~ 00 cici OON V~ ~O ~8~~ 0000 cicicici O~MM N~~~ M~m~ 8~~8~~~~ 00000000 ~cicicicicicici mMN~~~ON N~NOOOOO~~ NNMO~~VO c...~ ~~N 000000000000000000000000 ~~ 8 0 88 ~~ ~o 8 00 ~ 0 0~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 88888 ~OOOOOOO 06666~66 ~~ O~N~ NOOO ~~~~ 0000 8 ~m 8 m~~~ M~O~ m~~~ O~~OM~NM 88 ~ ~~o~~~m~ N~~Om~m~ "in Q) E Q) <D ~M~NNN~N~M~MM~~Om~O~NM ~~ Q . "'~"'~""".......... . 0CJ ~~~~mNO~~N~~NNN~~~mmmmO~~O~N~~OO~~~~N~~ ~~~~mO~O~~~Mm~M~m~~~~~ MO NNO~ ~~M~ ~~m~N~~~ ~m~mM~~~~N~O~mMMN~O~~m ~~M~ 8 )( .. mo""""'"""o"""""""'~o"'om"'m"'o "'~~".~~~mmO~NM...m".~ NO> 13ffi ~.~o""""""""""'~"""m"""m...m"'o 'u . Q) '$~ ... ":0 ...m ~~mm~~~~NN~~~~mmoo~~~m~moommmOO~~Mm~~mN 8 mo~~~ 8 N~~~~ ~~~N ~m~Nm~oo ~Nm~~~~m ~~MNM~m~~mM~~~N~~N~N~M~~~ mmM~~~~~O~~MmN~~M~O~~m~m~ 8 8 ~~~~ MMm~ ON OM § O~O~ m~o Nmm 8 8 Nm~ ~~~ ~ ~ 0) N~~~~~N~~N~~~~~~N~~~~~~~~~M~~~~~~~~~~~~ m C') 0~N~ MOM~~~~~~~ ~ooo O~OO~NOOOO OOOOOOOOO~~OOOOO~OOOOO o~~~m~N~O~~M~~O~Mm~~~mo~oom~Noo~~m~~~m~ ~m~oo~~~~~~~M~OOmmmMNm MOWN~NmOM~NMMmNN~OOm~~ WW~N~N~~MW~~Om~MN~Om~~ ~~~~~Mm~~Mm~~~O~~OONOOOONO~~N~OOO~ ~ W~ ~o ~O ~O~~ N~M~ NO~O ~ 0000000000000000000000 00 0000 OOOOOOO~ . c C') ~MO~Nm~~~Mm~~NO~~MO~N~ ~~N 88 ONOOOMO ~0~~~~~ 8 M ~~~ ~O~ M~ Mm ~~ Q) (/) > t-.~ m 8 m~ ~O w~ ~O 00 'otCC~"! O~ ~w 00000000 ~NWN O~O~ ~~~ MOO N~ ON 00 ~ m ~ 0)1"1"-1/) )( 8 8 8 OMMO~~~m 8 8 m~NW~~~~ ~m~~~mNN c IX) CO) """""" 88 00000000 oooooo~o "'~o~ ~ooooo~ooooooooooooooo 000000000000000000000000 0000 o".."""""..""" "'0 """ "'."'.... "'o""... ~~~ ~~ ~~ N~ ...~~~mmO~NM.. """""" """"'~ """0.~~~mm ~~ I"-'otM :R~~ ~co """0 "on".. OOvv~ONmO~~OOvNW~~v~ ~OO~~~NNOOWWNWO~OO ~N~N~~N~OOOONo~m~wmvo~~oo~voo~oooom~~~woomw ~OvNOO~OOOOO~~vN~NWOOO NON OOON W~~ ~v W~ O~ VNN0 ~Nmm Nm~OOOOvOOOOO 8 888 000 000 V~~ O~~ 8 °VV~ NW~N 888~8888~5~~~~8~58 ooooooooooooooo~oo 000000000000000000 88 00 00 ~888888888888 aaaa~aaaaaaaa 0000000000000 ~~ ~~ o aO y ~ N M V ~ W ~ m m 0 ~~~~~~~~~~NNNNNNNNNNMMMMMMMMMM ~ N M V ~ W ~ m m 0 ~ N M V ~ W ~ m m 0 ~ N M V ~ W ~ 96 Ii) O~NO ~M~N 8 ~~M ~~v~ vm ~v~ vom~O~~~~N~N~~mN~~ >- C') ~~No~~~~mO~O~M~V~~NMvoom~O~MNMo~~m~~mNN ~m~~~~00MNMmM~NMOv 8 ~~N ~~ N~ ~N~m Nv~~ M~~ ON~OmM~~ ~NO ~~~ ~ 0 88 m m I ~~~~~~~~~~NNNNNNNNNNMMMMMMMMMM o~ ~NM.-= "C 0 ~8gg88~g8~~88~88~88~88 000000000000000000000000 ~~~~ 0000 00000000 oooo~ooo 88 reo~8 ~.J~C\I ~m ":0 vM I'-O)M ~&1N NO MM ""0) ":0 "'0) 1%)"'".~m"""o"""o""""'.."'.

DIX 6 COMMODITY x COMMODITY EXTENDED TECHNICAL COEFFICIENT MATRIX. 1988 97 APPEN 40-SECTOR .

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