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Multivariate analysis for assessing the quality of stormwater from different Urban surfaces of the Patiala city, Punjab (India)

Multivariate analysis for assessing the quality of stormwater from different Urban surfaces of the Patiala city, Punjab (India)

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this article deals with the stormwater characteristics modeling and assessment
this article deals with the stormwater characteristics modeling and assessment

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Urban Water Journal
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Multivariate analysis for assessing the quality of stormwater from different Urban surfaces of the Patiala city, Punjab (India)
Amarpreet S. Arora & Akepati S. Reddy
a a a

Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Punjab, India Version of record first published: 04 Dec 2012.

To cite this article: Amarpreet S. Arora & Akepati S. Reddy (2012): Multivariate analysis for assessing the quality of stormwater from different Urban surfaces of the Patiala city, Punjab (India), Urban Water Journal, DOI:10.1080/1573062X.2012.739629 To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2012.739629

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Urban Water Journal 2012, 1–12, iFirst article

CASE STUDY Multivariate analysis for assessing the quality of stormwater from different Urban surfaces of the Patiala city, Punjab (India)
Amarpreet S. Arora* and Akepati S. Reddy
Department of Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences, Thapar University, Punjab, India (Received 9 January 2012; final version received 9 October 2012) Land use modifications associated with urbanization, such as clearance of vegetation, replacement of previously pervious areas with impervious surfaces and drainage channel modifications, result in increased runoff volumes, which often create flooding hazards and increase pollutant transport. An attempt has been made in the present study to investigate stormwater quality from five different urban sub-watersheds (that differ in land use and development activities) in the city of Patiala, India. The five sub-watersheds have similar geological, topographical and climatic conditions and were chosen to minimize the effect of these characteristics on stormwater quality and quantity. Stormwater samples were collected during six storm events between April 2010 and March 2011 and analyzed for BOD5, COD, TSS, TDS, Oil and Grease, TKN, Total P, Coliforms and Heavy Metals (Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe and Cu). Results of the investigation indicate a strong correlation between land use and development activities and the resulting stormwater quality. TSS, COD and Oil and Grease were found to be major pollutants in surface runoff generated from commercial and urbanized catchments (all exceeded the surface water quality standards developed by Central Pollution Control Board, India). The water quality of the smaller residential catchment was better as compared to other catchments. Principal component analysis was investigated to identify linkages between stormwater quality and urban surface types. It was also confirmed through regression analysis that both antecedent dry period and rainfall intensity have telling influence on stormwater quality. Results obtained can provide practical information for improved stormwater management. Keywords: stormwater quality; principal component analysis; land use; urban sub-watershed; antecedent dry days

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Urbanization directly impacts water quantity and quality owing to construction of urban infrastructure and changes in landscape and runoff conveyance networks (Goonetilleke et al. 2005, Marsalek et al. 2006). Stormwater runoff from these urban catchments is widely recognized as a major source of environmental contaminants (US EPA 1983, Birch et al. 2006). The forms and concentrations of contaminants from runoff are closely related to various types of land use and related human activities (Ha and Stenstrom 2003). Land use modifications associated with urbanization invariably result in significant changes to the flow regime of urban catchments (ASCE 1975, Codner et al. 1988, Mein and Goyen 1988). Patiala (298490 and 308470 north latitude, 758580 and 768540 east longitude), an erstwhile princely city of the Punjab state of India, is located within a bowl-like drainage basin with planar topography. It receives rains primarily from Monsoons during June to

September months (seventy percentage of the average annual precipitation occurs in the months of July and August). To protect the city from ravages of annual floods, a proper drainage network for the walled city was designed in 1870 A.D. with all city drains culminating in Ganda Nallah/Jacob Drain. The two flood defence bandh’s – the first forming the outer edge of the city and the second on the Patialawi Nadi River – were constructed in 1889 A.D. After the independence of India, Patiala has developed into a forefront service city leading to its rapid growth. The population of Patiala has increased from 53,000 in 1951 to 320,000 in 2001 with a median growth rate of 30% to 35% (Census GOI 2001). There are a number of ponds, marshes and other low-lying areas between Patialawi and Chotti drain. These store stormwater and allow slow recharge of the underground aquifer. Currently, these water bodies are being increasingly developed and encroached upon, resulting in problems, such as: water logging, sewage backlash and flooding, even

*Corresponding author. Email: enviro_amar@yahoo.com
ISSN 1573-062X print/ISSN 1744-9006 online Ó 2012 Taylor & Francis http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1573062X.2012.739629 http://www.tandfonline.com


A.S. Arora and A.S. Reddy have uniformity in the geological, topographical and climatic variables. Despite differing land use forms, all five catchments were prone to flooding even during modest of rainfall. Information on the land uses was obtained through the Department of Town and Country Planning Punjab, Patiala Municipal Corporation, local zoning maps and physical survey visits. The location of the study areas are shown in Figure 1. 2.2. Sampling and analysis

during modest rainfall events. Total surface runoff of the city is about 80 m3/s, which is expected to increase to about 275 m3/s in 2021 (Brar 2002). Before any planning or practical steps to control the quality of urban runoff, it is necessary to first specify the characteristics of the urban surface runoff (Taebi and Droste 2004). Many researchers have characterized urban surface runoff discharged from small catchments of various urban surface types (including roofs, highways, etc) and areas of different land use (Yaziz et al. 1989, Deletic 1998, Choe et al. 2002, Chang et al. 2004, Chebbo and Gromaire 2004, Gnecco et al. 2005, Goonetilleke et al. 2005, Yusop et al. 2005). However, there is little published literature on the characterization of surface runoff from urban catchments in India. The objective of this study was to investigate the characteristics of surface runoff from different urban sub-watersheds within Patiala, India and formulate relationships between pollutant load concentration, antecedent dry days (ADD) and catchment characteristics. These relationships can assist in assessing characteristics of stormwater from urban sub-watersheds and to develop innovative land use related control strategies to effectively reduce stormwater pollution. Results obtained from this study were used to identify specific pollutants that should be targeted for treatment. Inter-relationships among the pollution parameters were understood through Principal Component Analysis and Spearman correlation analysis of the stormwater characteristics and used in designing a scheme of stormwater treatment. Further, through multivariate analysis of the results, efforts have been made to model the stormwater characteristics based on the storm event size and the antecedent dry period. These models are designed to assess the characteristics of runoff produced from any specific storm event with specified antecedent dry days. 2. 2.1. Methods Description of the urban catchments

Five urban sub-watersheds were identified within Patiala to serve as catchments for the study. The five catchments encompass a wide spectrum of land uses, housing densities and other land development characteristics. Civil Lines area is a predominantly residential catchment. Manjit Nagar, located near Seona village, is a mix of rural and residential acreage. Preet Nagar contains mixed urban development. Model Town is a predominately commercial area near Tagore theatre. Lastly, Bus Stand area is a heavily travelled and polluted catchment. The study catchments were chosen within a five kilometer radius as to

For each of the five catchments in Figure 1, multiple grab samples of stormwater were collected immediately after rainfall events from a ditch where runoff from each catchment is collected. Since, this research aims to design a sub-watershed level stormwater treatment system, involving the collection or storage of stormwater at first place and then subsequently treating it. Hence, grab sampling was preferred over flow weighted measurements. Water samples were analyzed for numerous water quality parameters, including: pH, Conductivity, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Bio-chemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5) 5 days at 208C, Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Kjeldhal Nitrogen (TKN), Total Phosphorous (TP), Oil and Grease, Total Coliform count, Fecal Coliform count and heavy metals: Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe and Cu. Samples were collected in polyethylene bottles cleaned in advance by soaking overnight in 10% HNO3, rinsing twice with tap water and then with ultrapure water, drying to complete dryness in a clean oven at 608C and capping in the laboratory. Glass containers were used to collect samples for the determination of Oil and Grease and wide mouthed sterilized bottles were used for microbial examination. Field and laboratory blanks (ultrapure water) were also maintained throughout the sampling, preparation and analytical steps. The collected samples were brought to the Environmental Laboratory of Thapar University and analyzed according to APHA testing procedures for the analysis of water and wastewater (APHA 1999). Until the analysis was complete, samples were stored in a deep freeze. Some of the site and storm event data was obtained from Indian Meteorological Department and other environmental agency databases (Department of Town and Country planning Punjab) that were reported according to a standard data reporting protocol (Caltrans 2002). 2.3. Characteristics of rainfall events monitored Six rainfall events were sampled during the period from April 2010 to March 2011 (Table 1). Rainfall

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Urban Water Journal


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Figure 1.

Map showing the locations of the sub-watersheds studied.

Table 1.

Characteristics of storm events. Antecedent dry days 30 22 4 5 24 32 Average rainfall 56 mm 33 mm 24 mm 4 mm 15 mm 10 mm


Data processing and statistical methods

Date of storm event (d/m/year) 8 June 2010 1 July 2010 6 July 2010 12 July 2010 6 August 2010 8 September 2010

events less than 2.5 mm (in some cases, up to 5 mm) yielded insufficient volumes of runoff to sample. No two storm events having antecedent dry days less than four were sampled as per guidelines specified in Caltrans Stormwater Monitoring Protocol Guidance Manual (Caltrans 2000). 2.4. Field and laboratory data quality assurance and quality control Standard field and laboratory quality assurance/ quality control (QA/QC) procedures were followed, using the procedures specified in Caltrans Stormwater Monitoring Protocol Guidance Manual (Caltrans 2000). Principal QA/QC performed on samples include field duplicate (all constituents); lab duplicate (all constituents) and blank runs (all constituents).

Correlations between runoff quality parameters were performed using Spearman’s non-parametric rank correlation procedure. This Spearman correlation analysis was principally used to identify chemical constituents that potentially serve as surrogates for other constituents. However, for practical purposes and to identify potential monitoring surrogates, only correlations with a Spearman R value larger than 0.8 were considered. Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a multivariate statistical data analysis technique which reduces a set of raw data into a number of principal components which retain the most variance within the original dataset in order to identify possible patterns or clusters between objects and variables, was used for pattern recognition. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to establish the dependence of pollutant concentrations on the ADD and rainfall. Coefficients of determination, also known as R2 values, were evaluated to determine how well the calculated regression model fit the empirical data. 3. Results and discussion

3.1. Urban surface runoff quality of the sub-watersheds Water quality parameters, whose arithmetic mean concentrations exceeded the Indian surface water quality standards (EP Rules 1986), have been identified


A.S. Arora and A.S. Reddy significant influence on the time and velocity of travel of surface runoff and hence the pollutant load. Secondly, as Bannerman et al. (1993) have pointed out, street surfaces are the single most important source of urban water pollution, the fraction of road surface within the impervious area is higher for Model Town when compared to Preet Nagar. . Bus Stand, highly travelled and fully urbanized sub-watershed, showed the highest concentration of BOD, COD and TSS in runoff, with mean concentrations of 33.5 mg/L, 324.7 mg/L and 268.5 mg/L, respectively. In addition to heavy traffic and transportation, there are significant extents of other impervious and pervious areas. Hence, the results obtained would be of the pollution generated from all these sources. Of the metals analyzed, only Cu, Fe, Zn and Pb were detected in the samples. Concentrations of the metals Ni and Cd were below detection limits (0.30 ppm and 0.01 ppm, respectively). The results indicate that the surface runoff of Patiala is badly polluted, especially for TSS, COD and bacteria. Pollutant concentrations at Model Town and Bus Stand, with high average annual traffic, were higher than those of the residential sub-watershed of Civil Lines and Manjit Nagar. Also, soil losses with high levels of TSS were observed during intense rainfall events. Concentrations for various parameters showed considerable variations among the events and also varied with the sub-watershed.

as the major pollutants and have been listed in Table 2 along with the other parameters which were selected and analyzed based on the earlier research studies obtained for characterization of stormwater. Comparing the results obtained for the mean pollutant concentrations, very little similarity is observed among the different sub-watersheds. These differences can be attributed to the fact that the land use and land cover characteristics, the spatial distribution of impervious areas and the management practices of the five subwatersheds are appreciably different. . Model Town, a commercial sub-watershed exhibiting an automobile workshop within the catchment boundary possessed highest concentration of Oil and Grease in the storm water samples. . Surprisingly, the highest microbial count was observed in Civil Lines, which may be due to animal dung and open urination. The catchment area for Civil Lines includes bare soil strips surrounding the road which are believe to be used for open urination and defecation. . TDS and nutrients (TP and TKN) were observed to be the highest for Manjit Nagar. This may be due to runoff from agricultural fields. . Preet Nagar and Model Town had surprisingly different runoff characteristics; although, the catchments contain similar percentages of impervious area. A number of reasons could be attributed to this situation. Firstly, the spatial distributions of impervious areas in the two catchments are different. This would have

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Table 2. Mean values of the parameters analyzed along with their permissible limits as per Indian surface water quality guidelines [28]. Parameter BOD# COD# TSS# TDS Oil & Grease# TKN TP Total Coliform# Fecal Coliform# Zn Cd Ni Pb# Fe# Cu Units mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L MPN/100 mL MPN/100 mL ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm ppm Model Town 19.1 214.3 114.5 32.7 143.4 9.7 0.56 2.07E þ 06 9.33E þ 05 0.74 BDL BDL BDL 42.4 0.21 Civil Lines 12.1 67.3 27.8 21.9 5.8 9.2 0.67 4.44E þ 06 2.11E þ 06 0.28 BDL BDL BDL 10.0 0.06 Manjit Nagar 18.7 122.3 96.8 43.5 29.4 10.4 0.71 5.57E þ 05 1.90E þ 05 0.88 BDL BDL BDL 36.9 0.08 Preet Nagar 12.7 111.6 61.9 23.1 14.4 7.6 0.73 2.10E þ 05 5.79E þ 04 0.44 BDL BDL BDL 17.5 0.09 Bus Stand 33.5 324.7 268.5 40.6 106.0 10.9 0.80 1.59E þ 06 4.62E þ 05 2.02 BDL BDL 0.28 92.6 0.90 Permissible limits 30.0 250.0 100.0 2100.0 10.0 100.0 5.0 * * 5.0 2.0 3.0 0.1 3.0 3.0

* At present there is no standard developed or issued by CPCB for the Coliform count. # Parameters identified as major pollutants as per Indian surface water quality (CPCB) guidelines BDL- Below Detection Limits (0.01 ppm, 0.3 ppm and 0.05 ppm for Cd, Ni and Pb respectively)

Urban Water Journal
Gan et al., 2008 Kafi et al., 2008

Smullen et al., 1999

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Comparison of stormwater pollutant concentrations obtained in this study and previous publications.

TSS (mg/L)

COD (mg/L)

Land use is considered the most important factor affecting the quality of stormwater runoff. Numerous research studies have attempted to relate land use to pollutant loadings (Sartor and Boyd 1972, Hall and Anderson 1986, Lopes et al. 1995, Parker et al. 2000) and observed variations in physical, chemical and microbial characteristics of stormwater among different land uses. Table 4 provides a summary of the relevant characteristics of each area. Information given in the table has been formulated using the land use maps obtained from the Department of Town and Country Planning, Punjab along with a physical survey of the sites carried out in December 2010.

Patiala, India

Guangzhou, China United States

Paris, France

Table 3.


Isfahan, Iran

Range Mean Range Mean Range Mean Range Mean Range Mean

7.8–38.5 19.2 11–241 153 3.0–28.0 13 * 10.4 * *

BOD (mg/L)

30–380 168 56–569 389 75–518 308 * 66.1 139–2542 561

3.3. Multivariate data analysis for correlating land use with water quality

11–325 114 36–421 264 103–836 416 * 174 43–467 161

Comparison of key runoff quality constituents reported in other countries with this study are outlined in Table 3. Most of the studies listed were implemented in urban areas except France and some sites in the USA, which were carried out on urban edge areas. Inspection of the table shows that almost all the site mean pollutant concentration of the listed constituents in Patiala are higher than the results from USA (Smullen et al. 1999) and China (Gan et al. 2008) except for the TSS, which is least among the compared areas. Runoff from the catchments in USA is least polluted as compared to others. The studied areas in Paris and Isfahan of Iran were comprehensive urban watersheds, where the water quality of stormwater runoff was closely related to the layout of land uses, drainage system and environmental background. In general pollutant concentration values of all the parameters except Cu (0.268 mg/L in this study against 0.117 mg/ L), in Paris were much higher than our study results (Kafi et al. 2008). Mean values of COD and TSS (168 mg/L and 114 mg/L respectively) in the present study are much lower than the study results of Iran (561 mg/ L and 161 mg/L respectively). However, the concentrations of TKN, TP and Zn observed in our study are on higher side than Iran (Taebi and Droste 2004). Low or negligible concentration of Pb observed in the current study as compared to the studied areas of other countries can be attributed to the fact that the present study has been conducted recently after an appreciable time lag, since the ban of leaded gasoline. The differences among the studies demonstrate the uncertainty and randomness of the stormwater pollution and press on the need for making site specific observations before planning a stormwater management system.

TP (mg/L)

TKN (mg/L)

4.5–12.2 9.56 20–36 26.8 0.74–19.2 7.32 * 1.67 1.22–22.38 6.65

0.46–0.97 0.69 * * 0.15–0.68 0.39 * 0.337 0.064–0.79 0.274

0.20–2.63 0.87 0.17–3.20 1.31 0.39–4.40 1.76 * 0.176 0.015–2.386 0.342

Zn (mg/L)

BDL * 0.0005–.013 0.0023 0.0004–0.005 0.0016 * * * *

Cd (mg/L)

0.03–1.25 0.268 0.056–0.175 0.117 0.01–0.25 0.14 * 0.067 * *

Cu (mg/L)

BDL * 0.02–0.43 0.166 0.012–0.43 0.118 * 0.175 0.018–0.558 0.278

Pb (mg/L)

Taebi and Droste, 2004


Comparison of runoff pollutant concentrations
This study Reference


A.S. Arora and A.S. Reddy principal components PC1 which described the largest data variance and PC2, the next largest amount of data variance, it was possible to develop Biplots for the individual study areas as shown in Figures 2–6. In the urbanised catchments (Figures 2 and 6) the data were found to form into a series of clusters. These clusters can be related to rainfall intensity. The angle between loading vectors is significant as the degree of correlation between individual parameters is inversely related to it. Hence as the angle reduces, the degree of correlation increases. Vectors situated closely together represent variables that are highly correlated while orthogonal vectors represent variables that are uncorrelated. The conclusions derived from the PCA are given below.

Major uncertainties arise in efforts to articulate the process kinetics of pollutant generation, transmission and dispersion. The fact that characteristics and chemical composition of primary stormwater pollutants are influenced by the urban form would mean that the effectiveness of structural measures would not be universal. To further confirm these findings, an attempt has been made to relate the different type of land uses with various constituents by using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). In the PCA undertaken, the water quality concentration data as mg/L was arranged into a matrix using the software, for each study area. PCA was undertaken on the normalised data for pattern recognition and for the identification of correlations between selected variables. Using the

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Table 4.

Characteristics of selected sub-watersheds. Land Use

Subwatershed name Model Town Civil Lines Manjit Nagar Preet Nagar Bus Stand

Symbol SW-1 SW-2 SW-3 SW-4 SW-5

Catchment characteristic Commercial Residential Rural acreageresidential Mixed urban Heavily travelled urbanized

Catchment area 8501 m2 31733 m2 15673 m2 6124 m2 39950 m2

%Impervious cover 75 65 25 75 95

%grass cover 11 10 33 10 0

%bare soil 10 15 40 10 5

%tree canopy 4 10 2 5 0

Figure 2.

Principal Component Biplot for Model Town.

Urban Water Journal


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Figure 3.

Principal Component Biplot for Civil Lines.

Figure 4.

Principal Component Biplot for Manjit Nagar.

Subwatershed-1: Model town (commercial), Figure 2 . As Total P and TKN are not correlated with TSS, it can be summarized that most of the nutrients are in dissolved form.

. COD and Oil and Grease are strongly correlated with each other and with TSS. Hence, most COD and Oil and grease constituents are particle bound. . Also the metals Cu, Fe and Zn are very much correlated with TSS suggesting that most


A.S. Arora and A.S. Reddy

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Figure 5.

Principal Component Biplot for Preet Nagar.

Suspended Solids (SS) would be inorganic particles. This could be possibly due to the erosion of road edges due to surface runoff. The roads do not have kerb and channelling and in most places are not provided with grass cover. Subwatershed-2: Civil Lines (residential), Figure 3 . Total P and TKN are not correlated with each other or with TSS. However, TKN is weakly correlated with TDS suggesting most of the nutrients are in dissolved form. . COD and Oil and Grease constituents are particle bound as they are strongly correlated with each other and with TSS. . Among the heavy metals Cu and Zn are strongly correlated with TSS. Fe on the other hand shows weak correlation in this catchment. . Strong correlation among Total and Fecal Coliform for this residential sub-watershed, suggest fecal matter to be the source of microbial contamination. Subwatershed-3: Manjit Nagar (rural acreageresidential), Figure 4 . TKN is weakly correlated with TSS suggesting that most of the nitrogen to be dissolved form. Total P and TKN are not correlated with each other.

. Most of the organic pollutants are in dissolved form as TSS is uncorrelated with COD and weakly correlated to BOD. . Among the heavy metals Cu and Fe are strongly correlated with TSS. Zn on the other hand is not correlated. . Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform show strong correlation for this sub-watershed suggesting fecal matter to be the source of microbial contamination. No correlation with TSS suggests that coliforms are not particle bound. Subwatershed-4: Preet Nagar (mixed urban), Figure 5 . Total P and TKN are strongly correlated with each other but are not correlated with TSS. Hence, most of nutrients are in dissolved form. . Biodegradable organic pollutants and Oil and Grease are strongly correlated with TSS and hence particle bound. Non-biodegradable pollutants on the other hand are not correlated to the TSS. . Among the heavy metals Fe, Cu and Zn are strongly correlated with each other but not with TSS. Hence, heavy metals exist primarily in dissolved form for this sub-watershed. . Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform show strong correlation for this sub-watershed also.

Urban Water Journal


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Figure 6.

Principal Component Biplot for Bus Stand.

Subwatershed-5: Bus Stand (heavily travelled urban), Figure 6 . Total P and TKN are not correlated with each other or TSS; it can be summarized that most of the nutrients are in dissolved form. . Biodegradable organic pollutants and Non-biodegradable pollutants show some degree of correlation with TSS and hence are particle bound. . Among the heavy metals Fe, Cu and Zn are strongly correlated with each other but not with TSS. Hence, heavy metals exist primarily in dissolved form for this sub-watershed. . Total Coliform and Fecal Coliform show weak correlation for this sub-watershed suggesting sources of microbial contamination other than fecal matter. The results obtained in effect mean that from a management perspective, mere provision of structural stormwater improvement measures such as detention basins or sediment traps will be effective in removing Suspended Solids, COD and Heavy metals to certain extent, but not necessarily effective in removing the other pollutants such as TKN, Total P and Coliform bacteria. Any structural measures to be adopted should depend on targeted pollutants and management

strategies adopted should take into consideration the rainfall, runoff and physical characteristics of the area. 3.3. Relationship of pollutant load with antecedent dry days and average rainfall Multiple regression analysis was undertaken keeping pollutant concentrations as dependent variable and ADD and Rainfall as two independent variables. Regression equations were obtained for all the parameters for each of the sub-watershed separately. Pollutant concentration from urban surface runoff depends largely on both build-up and wash-up processes (Hossain et al. 2011). The build-up depends on the ADD, land use, wind speed and traffic. Wash off may be a function of rainfall intensity and other factors (Kim et al. 2005 2006). Hence, an attempt was made to combine the effect of both ADD and rainfall. Among all the parameters, BOD, COD, TSS and Oil and Grease have strong dependence on the build-up associated with ADD and wash-off resulting from rainfall intensity. Regression Equations obtained for these parameters with respective coefficients for each of the sub-watershed have been listed in Table 5. Parameters having R2 value less than 50% for all the sub-watersheds were dropped. The R2 values for certain parameters are greater than 80% suggesting

Table 5:

A.S. Arora and A.S. Reddy
Results of the multiple regression analysis and Chi-square test.

Regression Equation for BOD (mg/L) ¼ A1 þ B1*(ADD) þ C1 (Rainfall) Sub-watershed A1 B1 C1 R-Sq Chi sq X2 8.067565 3.092702 0.908853 0.956799 1.510016 Chi sq X2 17.83101 0.303127 62.00988 76.3137 15.20349 Chi sq X2 1.672522 2.93456 9.608517 8.24556 30.26708 Chi sq X2 2.199006 0.832171 4.305965 6.722328 3.694084 Null hypothesis accept accept accept accept accept Null hypothesis reject accept reject reject reject Null hypothesis accept accept accept accept reject Null hypothesis accept accept accept accept accept

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Model Town 18.2 0.50 70.372 67.30% Civil Lines 10.3 0.08 0.0115 14.70% Manjeet Nagar 17.5 0.14 70.065 45.00% Preet Nagar 14.8 70.12 0.0175 37.80% Bus stand 36.4 0.05 70.168 47.20% Regression Equation for COD (mg/L) ¼ A2 þ B2*(ADD) þ C2 (Rainfall) Sub-watershed A2 B2 C2 R-Sq Model Town 133 3.8 0.303 79.00% Civil Lines 57.8 0.114 0.308 91.30% Manjeet Nagar 98.4 0.16 0.88 17.60% Preet Nagar 154 73.58 1.37 57.90% Bus stand 284 3.7 71.31 65.30% Regression Equation for TSS (mg/L) ¼ A3 þ B3*(ADD) þ C3 (Rainfall) Sub-watershed A3 B3 C3 R-Sq Model Town 44.9 3.01 0.467 97.80% Civil Lines 7.78 0.471 0.459 89.90% Manjeet Nagar 34.5 2.25 0.584 97.70% Preet Nagar 64.8 70.47 0.279 27.70% Bus stand 226 3.55 71.14 51.60% Regression Equation for O & G (mg/L) ¼ A4 þ B4*(ADD) þ C4 (Rainfall) Sub-watershed A4 B4 C4 R-Sq Model Town 42.3 4.66 0.432 98.20% Civil Lines 2.09 0.109 0.0661 83.00% Manjeet Nagar 9.11 0.836 0.168 84.30% Preet Nagar 14.5 70.13 0.1 17.40% Bus stand 79 2.01 70.514 88.30%

that the equations and data are well matched. Further, to confirm the accuracy of the regression equations obtained, Chi-square tests were employed to evaluate the goodness of fit at 95% level of significance. The values of Chi-square obtained are listed in the Table 5. The Chi-square values were compared with the tabulated values at n-1 degrees of freedom i.e. four in the case of Preet Nagar and five for the rest of the sub-watersheds. For most of the cases, the null hypothesis was valid, as the Chisquare values obtained were less than the tabulated values (11.04 at df ¼ 5 and 9.49 at df ¼ 4). From the results obtained, it can be inferred that the pollutant load is largely dependent on the two major factors, ADD and rainfall and appropriate regression equations can be formulated for different sub-watersheds. The variations in results obtained for some of the cases can be attributed to the influence of certain other factors such as average annual traffic, type of land use, etc. This modelling was done with the interest of predicting the concentrations of the pollutant parameters which fit well within the model, knowing the two variables of ADD and Rainfall. Further difference in the equations obtained for each of the sub-watersheds infer that pollutant concentration does not depend on these two factors solely but also depends on sub-watershed characteristics.

4. Conclusions Stormwater samples collected from the five urban sub-watersheds of Patiala during six storm events were analyzed for BOD, COD, TSS, TDS, Oil and Grease, TKN, TP, Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe and Cu. Comparison of the results with the prescribed effluent standards for discharge into inland surface waters indicated that BOD, COD, TSS, Oil and Grease, Total Coliforms, Fecal Coliforms, Lead and Iron are the important pollution parameters and should be the focus of stormwater management efforts. There are variations among the sub-watersheds with respect to the pollution parameter of interest. Smaller storm events with longer antecedent dry days were found to increase the pollution concentrations. TSS, COD and Oil and Grease are the major runoff pollutants generated from the commercial catchment of Model Town (mean concentrations of 114.5 mg/L, 214 mg/L and 143 mg/L, respectively) and the urbanized Bus Stand catchment (mean concentrations of 268.5 mg/L, 325 mg/L and 106 mg/L, respectively) all exceeding the surface water quality standard developed by the CPCB. Of all the sub-watersheds, the water quality of the residential catchment of Civil Lines was better as compared to the others, barring the

Urban Water Journal microbial count which was observed to be the highest in this sub-watershed. This paper identifies appreciable insights into nonurban, urbanizing, mixed urban and urban catchments. The common management technique of dealing with suspended materials as a primary treatment for urban stormwater quality is shown to be less effective, in this instance. TP, TKN, TDS and Oil and Grease may not be alleviated as desired if the traditional strategy is implemented. It is important that predictive models be developed to take these characteristics into consideration and focus toward the removal of targeted pollutants while taking into account the catchment characteristics, ADD and rainfall intensity. An attempt was made to effectively model the stormwater characteristics with the storm event size and the antecedent dry period through multivariate analysis. These regression models can assist in assessing the characteristics of stormwater produced from any specific storm event with specified antecedent dry days. Overall, the conclusions reached here illustrate the value of first assessing runoff characteristics and providing careful consideration of existing conditions before embarking on costly control strategies. Site specific analysis can more thoughtfully guide pollutant reduction efforts and in the end, achieve a higher level of success. 5. Acknowledgment
The authors would like to thank Thapar University, Patiala for providing the laboratory facilities to undertake the task of testing and analysis.


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