# Q. 1. Point out the significance of word ‘Free’ in impact of free jets. Ans.

‘Free’ in impact of free jets means ‘constant pressure throughout’ when the jet impinge upon stationary or moving objects such as flat plates and vanes of different shapes and orientations in the study of ‘impact of jets’. Q. 2. Define the term impact of jet. Ans. A fluid jet is a stream of fluid obtained from nozzle. When this jet strikes on flat or curved plate the momentum is changed and a hydrodynamic force is exerted. So ‘Impact of Jet’ term refers to the study of the effect when a jet strikes on the plate or vane under the various conditions. Q. 3. Explain impulse-momentum equation. Ans. When a force (Push or pull) is applied on the bodies it tries to change the state of rest or state of motion of those bodies. The amount of force applied is equal to the rate of change of momentum. Where momentum is the product of mass and velocity.

So Where product Ft is the impulse and it is equal to the change momentum. Q.4. Determine the force exerted by a jet on a stationary flat plate held normal to the jet. Ans.

Q. 5. Find out the expression for force exerted by a jet on stationary inclined flat plate. Ans.

Q. v = Velocity of Jet d = Diameter of Jet a = Cross-section area of Jet = u = Velocity of vane.F = Mass (Initial velocity — Final velocity) (Values of velocities are taken in the direction of the Jets). Q. What db you mean by jet propulsion? Ans. 7. Ans. Show that the efficiency of a force Jet striking normally on a series of flat plates mounted on the periphery of a wheel can never exceed 50%. 6. . and missiles. Jet propulsion is a simple application of the impulse-momentum equation wherein the reaction of high velocity jet issuing from a nozzle provides the necessary thrust. The principle is used in propelling ships. air-crafts. Mass of water per second striking the series of vanes = pav.

Determine force exerted by a jet on a hinged plate.Also the jet strikes the plates with velocity = v — u.u) Work done by the Jet= Force x distance per second = Fx × u = pay (v . Force on a hinged plate .u) -0) =pav (v .u) x u Kinetic energy of the Jet per second Efficiency. 8. Q. The force exerted by the Jet in the direction of motion of plate. After striking the Jet moves tangential to the plate and hence the velocity component in the direction of motion of plate is equal to zero.4u = 0 =2u or Or v= Maximum Efficiency: Substituting.Final velocity) =Pav ((v . Fx= Mass per second (Initial velocity . Ans. Condition for maximum efficiency Or =0 Or =0 =0 Or 2v .

In the diagram we have. What are the basic components of a turbo machine? How it is classified? .The plate can swing freely about point A. Fluid jet striking a moving fluid plate Relative velocity= v – u Mass of water striking the plate (Relative ‘velocity of jet) Force of striking the jet = Mass of water x Relative velocity Q. AC = AG = l Force due to Jet. Let the velocity of jet is v and velocity of plate is u Fig. 9. taking moments about hinge A Q. Ans. Determine the force exerted by liquid jet on a moving plate which is vertical and moving along a jet. Under equilibrium. 10.

wind mills. it gets split up.g. Deftor (ii) Parts of Centrifugal pump 1. Bucket 7. Spear 4. Casing 4. Casing 2.g. (i) Parts of Pelton turbine. All the turbines. Q. Nozzle 3. Compressors and gas turbines.g. Impeller 5.g. are: 1. Determine the work done and efficiency when a Jet strikes at the centre of vane for (i) Fixed vane (ii) Moving vane (iii) Series of vanes. These are classified as: (a) Open and enclosed machines (i) Open turbo machines are those which deals with indefinite quantity of fluid e. Breaking Jet 5. ‘Turbo’ means which spins or whirls. So there are various types of turbo machines available. propellers etc. 11. Shaft 6. (ii) Which handle steam e. steam boilers.Ans. E. Delivery Tank. (ii) Enclosed turbo machines are those which deal with finite quantity of fluid passes through a casing in unit time.g. Strainer 3. (ii) Those which produce power by expanding fluid to a lower pressure or head. pumps and hydraulic turbines.g. Ans. (iii) Which handle air or gas e. Runner 6. The jet leaves at outer tips. pump ducted fans and compressors. Fans. If we neglect friction the outgoing velocity should be equal to the incoming velocity. The force exerted by jet in normal to vane. (c) Based on Type of fluid handled: (i) Which handle water e. e. is given by .g. (i) when the vane is fixed When a fluid jet strikes at centre of a symmetrical fixed vane. These machines come under the category of aerodynamics. Turbo Machines: These are the devices in which energy is transferred by the dynamic action of moving blades either to or from a continuously flowing fluid. (b) Based on Absorption and production of power: (i) Those which absorb power to increase the fluid pressure or head e. Suction pipe 2. Delivery Pipe 7.

F= (1 + cos 90° ) = (ii) If a = 0°. For exerted on the vane is given by = F p A (V-u) [(V-u)-(-(V-u)cos a)] =pA =pA Kinetic energy of the jet = (1 + cos a) 1+cos a) x u So. The effected velocity will becomes (V — u). For maximum efficiency. whose value is less than unity then. Efficiency. F= (1 + K cos ) (i) If a = 90°. the vane becomes a flat plate. the vane becomes semi-circular (ii) When the vane is moving If the vane is moving with velocity u in the direction of jet. If k is the friction coefficient. =0 =0 =0 =0 .The outgoing velocity may decrease due to impact and friction.

which receives the energy from the flowing fluid in the form of momentum and coverts the change in momentum into useful work. Dynamic machines meaning power machine. This means a 90° (for semi-vane circular yes maximum efficiency Q. U = If we put u = V. maximum efficiency now depends on the angle . V-2u=0 So. from nozzle strikes a series of suitably shaped buckets fixed on the periphery of a wheel. So . Q. 13. so we put u = (iii) Jet striking on series of vanes Initial velocity of jet = V Efficiency. Dynamic machines: The term dynamic means power.We know. the whole equal will become zero.4Vu = 0 (V — u) (V — 3u) = 0 U= V. The wheel get resulting . Ans.12 Explain the term dynamic machines. we will have maximum efficiency. If a = 90°. What is an impulse turbine? Ans. In impulse turbine a high velocity jet issued. For maximum efficiency.

with direction of motion of vane. Solution. Stationary Flat Plate (1) Flat plate normal to jet. with radial curved vanes Torque = Efficiency. Stationary Curved vane (Plate) (5) Jet striking symmetrical curved vane at the centre. F = (2) Flat plate inclinded at angle to Moving Flat plate jet. (7) Wheel. A jet of water having a velocity or strikes a curved vane. Problem 1.momentum and it gets rotated and thus we get the mechanical energy from the turbine. (ii) Work done per second per unit weight of water striking (or work done per unit weight of water striking) the vane per second. Calculate (1) vane angles. = 20° (2) angle made by the leaving Jet. which is moving with a velocity of 10 . so that the water enters and leaves the vane without shock. F = sin (3) Flat plate normal to jet. (4) Flat plate inclinded at angle to jet. with direction of motion = 130° =180° — 130° = 50° . F = (6) Jet striking an unsymmetrical vane tangentially at one of the tips Efficiency. Given velocity of jet (1) angle made by jet at inlet. The jet makes on angle of with the direction a motion of vane at inlet and leaves an angle of 130° to the direction of motion of van at outlet.

778 From ABC. we have Or . We have Where =0. and From the figure.e.14 From applying sine rule. sin =11.Vane angles means angle made by the relative velocities at inlet and outlet i.

Also compute the absolute velocity of the jet at’ exit both in magnitude and direction.794 + 1. find the angle of jet so that there is no shock at inlet.56 —10 = 1. A jet of water moving at 12 M/S impinges on a concave shaped vane to deflect the jet through 1200 when stationary. Ans. So Analysis at Inlet: Applying Sine rule to . and the work done per second per kg of water. = GH-GF= -u2 = 11.067 m/s Work done per unit weight of water [18.14 x cos 6.794 m/s.Velocity triangles (2) Work done per second per unit weight of the water striking the vane per second is given by equation: (+ Ve sign is taken as Where is an acute angle) = 18.24 Nm/N. Problem 2. From inlet and outlet vector diagrams for the vane We have. Assume blades are symmetrical. Assume that the vane is smooth.067] x 10 Nm/N = 20. If the vane is moving at 5 n1s.

there is no friction and relative velocity remains constant =7.94° (3) Since the direction of is opposite to that of motion of vane.42 m/s Angle of jet at outlet.2083 30— So. angle made by Absolute Velocity at exist (2.Or = 0. =12 = (30 — 12) = 18° 7. Hence.613) = 69.69. A jet of water 25 mm in diameter and moving with a velocity of 10 m/s strikes horizontally at the centre of square plate of edge 250 mm.16 N—mn Problem 3.06 = 110. the work done per second per kg of water striking is = 11. The . Angle of Jet at Inlet.42 x 5 = 64.06° at outlet with the direction of mo = 180 .42 m/s Analysis at outlet: For smooth vane.41 x 5 + 1.

81) x 0.08 sin (90 — ) (7 x 9.125 sin = 49.62°. Solution.67) x 0.135 = 0.81) x 0.125 sin = 6.08 cos (68. Force exerted by jet on the plate. (a) Let P be the force applied the lower edge to keep the plate vertical. It is suspended vertically by a hinge on its top horizontal edge. Normal force on the plate.714 = 45.25 = 49.plate is of uniform thickness and has a mass of 7 kg.08 x (b) Let be the inclination when the plate swings freely and a be the angle between the jet and plate. . (b) The angle of inclination. Taking moments about that high point A W x BG = W x AG ×AD (7 x 9. Then taking the moments about the hinge Point A p x 0.125 sin = 49. Find (a) The force to be applied at the lower edge to keep the plate vertical. of the plate if it is allowed to swing freely.

on the vane in the direction of motion. How much would be the power developed by the vane and what would be the vane efficiency P neglect friction? How these parameters would change if instead of one vane there is a series of vanes fixed to a wheel and wheel in the direction of jet with velocity 35 m/s? Solution: Since the jet of water moves in the same direction so velocity triangle will be a straight line = 0.8 m/s and =86. Further the vane is smooth (no friction). So inlet 86.8 m/s =86.8 — 35 = 51. If the rate of flow is 170 litres/second. determine the component of force. A Jet of water of 5 cm diameter impinges on a curved vane and is deflected through on angle of 175°.Problem 4. therefore (a)Force exerted by jet on the vane in the direction of motion is = 10546 N Work done = Force exerted x vane velocity =10546x35=369110Nm/s • Power developed by vane = 369110 W 369 kW .8m/s Corresponding to outlet velocity triangle. The vane moves in the same direction as that of the jet with a velocity of 35 m/s.

then from equation 20. Find the velocity of the jet if the specific weight of the metal is 75.2 the force exerted by the jet the direction normal to the plate is given as . then the entire fluid mass pav issuing from the Jet is utilized in striking the vanes.54 Solution.6) =17578N Work done = F x u = 17578 x 35 = 615230 Nm/s = 615.17 (86. a = = 0. and keeps it steadily inclined at 30° to the vertical.8+16. A horizontal jet of water of 20 mm diameter impinges with its axis perpendicular and 50 mm below the edge of the hinge.23kW Water efficiency = =96% Problem5.22 N Area of the jet.7% (b) When a series of vanes are fixed to the wheel. Efficiency of the vane= 56. Weight of the plate = = 30.000314 Let the velocity of the jet be V m/s.Kinetic energy supplied by jet = =640407 Nm/s. A metal plate of 10mm thickness and 200mm square is hung so that it can swing freely about the upper horizontal edge. =1000 xO.

we have Velocity of jet V = 9. Find (a) vane angles at entrance and exit.2 m/s .9 of that at inlet. Applying the cosine rule at the inlet velocity triangle. and the absolute velocity-of the water at exit is to be normal to motion of the vanes.33 m/s Thus From inlet velocity triangle = (0.33) = 28.272 Taking moments of all the forces about their hinge 0.As shown in the above figure = 60°. Solution. A jet of water having a velocity of 45 m/s impinges without shock a series of vanes moving at 15 m/s.9 x 31.81m/s Problem 6. by substitution. we get = 0. the direction of motion of the vanes being inclined at 200 to that of the jet The relative velocity at outlet is 0. we have = 31. and (c) the hydraulic efficiency. (b) work done on vanes per unit weight of water supplied by the jet.

66 N.46 = 30.21 N. (b) velocity at outlet to velocity at inlet. Change of velocity in direction of jet = 9. Solution: Discharge from jet = Velocity of jet For theoretical force it is assumed that the velocity is not reduced as the water passes] round each cup.e.39 (1 . the vane angles at entrance and exit are 29°26’ and 57°52’ respectively.m/N × l00 = 62.cos 165°) = 18. Work done on the vane per unit weight of water.5641 From outlet velocity triangle since = 90° i. when the discharge from the jet was 980 N per minute. of jet per unit weight of water per second =103. If the reaction of the cup was found to be 26..= 0.5 N.74 N . ×(45cos20°)15 = 64.m/N Hydraulic efficiency K.46 m/s Hence theoretical force = (mass flowing/second) x (change of Velocity) x 18.65% Problem 7. calculate ratio of (a) actual to theoretical force of the jet. A jet of water 15 mm in diameter impinges on a fixed cup which deflects the jet by 165° as shown in the accompanying figure.E.

From impulse-momentum equation = (mass of water striking the plate) x (change of velocity normal to plate) Where and are the inlet and outlet velocities in a direction normal to the plate.= 0. 1.72 Problem 8. then Actual force = (Mass flowing/second) x (change of velocity) Or Solving for .76 m/s =0. 1. Solution. =pAV(V-0) …(i) In case of flat plate moving at one third the jet velocity. we get = 6.862 If is the actual velocity at the outlet. Establish the ratio of forces exerted by a water jet when it is made to strike: (i) A stationary flat plate held normal to it. In case of stationary flat plate. . (ii) a flat plate moving in the direction of jet at one third the velocity of jet. (iii) a series of flat mounted on a wheel and moving at one third the velocity of jet.

.(ii) 1. the forces exerted are in the ratio Problem 9. In case of series of flat plates. Find the force exerted by a jet of water of diameter 100 mm on a stationary flat plate.u) (V ..4 N Ans.. Given: Diameter of Jet 100 mm = 100 x Area of jet Force exerted by jet striking normally on a fixed plate. =100 x 0..u) = pA (V . (ii) (iii). m = 0.. when the jet strikes the plate normally with a velocity of 30 m/s.(iii) Comparing (i).(V .1 m .u) .00786 x = 707. Solution.