Q. 1. Classify Hydraulic turbine. Ans. According to the type of energy at inlet (a) Impulse turbine (b) Reaction turbine.

According to the direction of flow through runner (a) Tangential flow turbine (b) Radial flow turbine (c) Axial flow turbine (d) Mixed flow turbine. According to the head at inlet of turbine (a) High head turbine (b) Medium head turbine (c) Low head turbine. According to the specific speed of turbine (a) Low specific speed turbine (b) Medium specific speed turbine (c) High specific speed turbine. According to the name of the inventor (a) Pelton turbine (b) Francis turbine (c) Kaplan turbine. Q. 2. What are the factors to be considered in deciding for a particular hydro electric project. Ans. (1) Water availability (2)Water storage (3)Head of the water (4)Distance from load centre (5)Access to site (6)Ground water data (7)Environment aspects of site selection (8)Consideration of water pollution effects. Q. 3. Show that the maximum hydraulic efficiency of a pelton bucket is 100%. Ans. V = Absolute velocity, Hydraulic efficiency= =V-v

Q. 4. Distinguish between impulse turbines and reaction turbines. Impulse turbine Reaction turbine 1. All the available fluid energy is Only a portion of fluid energy is converted in kinetic energy. 2. converted into kinetic energy. Blades are in action only when Blades are in action all the time. they are in the front of the nozzle. Water is admitted over the 3. Water may be allowed to circumference of the wheel. enter a part or whole of the

wheel circumference. Water completely fills the vane 4. The wheel does not run full passages throughout the operation of and air has free access to the the turbine. buckets. Unit is kept entirely submerged in 5. Unit is installed above the tail water below the tail race. race. There is always a loss when the flow is 6. There is no loss when the flow regulated. is regulated. Q. 5. Draw the performance characteristics curves for both impulse and reaction turbines and discuss their nature. Ans. Head, speed and output are the important factors for designing a turbine. So it required to know the operating conditions of the turbine under these variable factors. Information can be obtained practically by running the turbine system. The results are drawn in the form of curves are known as the characteristic curves. (i) Main or Constant Head Characteristics: When the head is maintained constant the speed is varied by quantity of water flow through the inlet the brake power is measured. The main characteristics of Francis turbine are identical to those of Kaplan turbine the discharge characteristics, however, differ the following information is obtained: →For pelton turbine discharge curves are the horizontal lines. →For Kaplan turbine discharge curve rises as the speed increases. →Power and efficiency curves are parabolic in nature. →For pelton (impulse) turbine the maximum efficiency for different gate openings occurs at the same speed. →For Francis (reaction) turbines the maximum efficiency for different gate openings usually occurs at different speeds.

Fig. Constant head characteristics for Pelton and Kaplan turbines

.(ii) Operating or constant speed characteristics: The speed is kept constant. These curves are also called as iso-efficiency curves. Results are graphically represented as shown in the figure: Fig. (iii) Constant Efficiency curves. →The performance of the Kaplan and pelton wheel is much superior at the low heads and at part load. The curves are draws after obtaining the data from various other curves like versus and versus . Overall efficiency is then calculated. →Propeller turbine gives the poorest performance at part load. A curve for the best performance is obtained by joining the peak points of various iso of various iso efficiency curves as shown in the figure. discharge and head H may vary the brake power P is measured. Constant speed curves for a hydraulic turbine The following information is collected: →Kaplan turbine is most efficient at all ranges of the output. →Different turbines have the same maximum overall efficiency of about 85% at full load.

Q. V = Absolute velocity. What are the factors to be considered in deciding for a particular hydro electric project. 7. Ans. 6. Head of the water 4. Constant efficiency curves for a reaction turbine Q. 8.1. Ans. Water storage 3. Show that the maximum hydraulic efficiency of a pelton bucket is 100%.Fig. Sketch layout of a typical hydroelectric power plant and label it. Distance from load centre 5. Water availability 2. Ans. Q. Access to site 6. Ground water data 7. Environment aspects of site selection 8. Consideration of water pollution effects. =V–v .

Sketch a pelton turbine bucket and show its working proportions.D/kN of water (Substituting v = (1 + cos ) KN Maximum hydraulic efficiency: ) taking cos =1. = = 1 orl00%. i.Hydraulic efficiency For maximum efficiency 2V -4v =0 Or It means that velocity of the wheel.9.e. Therefore. . for maximum hydraulic efficiency. Ans. Q. maximum W. should be half of the velocity.

What are the materials used for the buckets of pelton turbine? Ans. Explain the various factors which decide the choice for a particular hydraulic turbine for a hydraulic power project.Q. monthly and yearly basis. they are made of special bronze or steel alloys with nickel. What the function of notch in pelton turbine? Ans. These are known as hydrographs and flow duration curves when the river flow data is calculated on daily. Why the buckets of pelton wheel are provided with an under-cut? What role does the splitter play in the pelton turbine? Ans. 2. the path of the jet is not obstructed by the incoming buckets. Ans. Bucket of Pelton turbine The striking Jet of water is divided into two parts by the splitter and each part of the jet flows side ways round the smooth inner surface of the bucket and leaves it with relative velocity almost opposite in direction to the original jet.e. Q. Q. In pelton wheel each bucket is divided vertically into two parts by a splitter that has a sharp edge at the centre and the buckets look like a double hemispherical cup. Water Availability—The estimates of the average quantity of water available should be prepared on the basis of actual measurement. 10. To have uniform power output water storage is needed so . 12. Water-storage-The output of hydropower plant is not uniform due to wide variations of rainfall. Q. chromium or stainless steel.1. The curves or graphs can be plotted between the river flow and time. The buckets are the most important part of the pelton turbine they have to be designed to withstand the full force of the jet. A notch made near the edge of the outler rim of each bucket is carefully sharpened to ensure a loss-free entry of the Jet into the buckets i. 13. 11. weekly. Thus.

7. 3. Triangle of the velocities V = Absolute velocity of entering water = Relative velocity of water = Velocity of flow at inlet. The power produced by water turbine is directly proportional to the available head and discharge through the turbine. Environment aspects of site selection—The project should be designed on the basis so that it fulfils the following requirement related with environment (i) To assure safe. The quantity of water flowing can be controlled by varying the area of flow at the turbine inlet. The effects effect the economy and reliability of the power plant. Distance from load centre-To be economical on transmission of electric power. 14. The transport facilities must taken into the considerations 6. healthful. the area of flow is varied by rotating the guide vanes with the help of governor in a controlling unit. Fig. 15. cultural and natural aspects of the site. (iii) To preserve important historic. Q. 5. Q. Hydraulic turbines are directly coupled to alternators which must run continuously at constant speed. 8. Write short note on governing mechanism for hydraulic turbines.that excess flow at certain times may be stored to make it available at the times of low flow. Access to site—It is always desirable factor to have a good access to the site of the plant. = Corresponding values at outlet . Head of water—The level of water in the reservoir for a proposed plant should always be within limits throughout the year. Obtain Hydraulic efficiency and work done by pelton turbine (Impulse turbine). Consideration of water pollution-The effects of polluted water on the power plant is one of the major considerations in selecting the site of hydraulic power plant. the flow area is changed by moving the spear inside the nozzle and in reaction turbine. 4. so that electricity is produced at constant frequency. In pelton turbine. the routes and distances should be carefully considered because cost depends upon the route selected for the transmission line. (ii) To avoid health hazards. productive and culturally pleasing surroundings. Ans. Ans. Ground water data-The underground movement of water has important effects on the stability of ground slopes and also on the amount and type of grounding required to prevent the leakage.

• =Angle of blade tip at outlet H= Total head of water In case. Consider case in which the value of So.m. KN of water in the direction of motion of jet Work done = Force x Distance= = Hydraulic efficiency. =v and =v-v The relation between two velocity triangles is =v and = (V-v) Force.p.D= Diameter of wheel d= Diameter of the nozzle N= Revolution 9f the wheel in r. Work done per kN of water = is negative as shown in figure. a=0°. =0°. .

T = 0. Explain the various design aspects of pelton wheel. 6.45 . 17. 97 . W = . H= Where is the difference of Head race and tail race.47 3.0 . Number of jets—Pelton wheel has one nozzle or one jet.2d 7. (1) Work done by pelton wheel. Actual velocity. of buckets are decided on the following principles: (i) The number of buckets should be as few as possible so that there is little loss due to friction. Mean diameter of the wheel — D refers to the diameter of the wheel measured upto the centers of the buckets. m=D/d 5. V Value.Q. Number of buckets — No.8d to 1. 0. Speed Ratio. Value of = 0. B = 3d to 4d Radial length. and usually adopted values are Axial width. Ans. Define the term Net or effective head. 1. — It represents the ratio of the peripheral velocity to the theoretical velocity of the jet. 4. 16. The head available at the entrance to the turbine is called Net or effective head. Q. (ii) The jet of water must be fully utilized so that no water from the jet goes waste. Ans. Working proportions-The working proportion of the turbine bucket are generally specified in terms of jet diameter d. Jet ratio — m represents the ratio of the pitch circle diameter of the jet diameter.99 (Friction loss) 2. Velocity of Jet – Theoretical velocity. L = 2d to 3d Depth. .e. i.0. is the loss in head due to friction in penstock. A number of nozzles may be employed when more power is required. The diameter is calculated from the formula U D u the pitch or mean diameter.

85 Power for single jet = = 500 kW 16= . speed ratio = 0. (3) (4) (5) Maximum. A double jet Pelton wheel has a specified speed of 16 and is required to deliver 1000 kW The supply of water to the turbine is through a pipeline from a reservoir whose level is 350 m above the nozzles Allowing 5% for friction loss in pipe make calculations for speed in rev/mm. Take velocity co-efficient = 0. of Jets= 2 =16 P=l000kW=l000x W H = 350 — (0. Ans.5 m d (Jet dia) =? N (Speed)? D (mean dia of bucket circle) =? = 0.05 x 350) = 332. No.46 and overall efficiency = 85%.98.98 Ku = 0. H = Power supplied the jet = WQH = (6) Power delivered by the bucket wheel= (7) (8) (9) Overall efficiency. Volumetric efficiency. (10) Mechanical efficiency.(2) Efficiency of Pelton wheel. Problem 1.46 = 0. diameter of jets and mean diameter of bucket circle. Hydraulic efficiency. Gross Head.

P. or 0. Shaft power = 11. = 11.772 kW. head = 380 meters. Determine: (1) Wheel diameter (2) No.m. jet diameter is not exceed one-sixth of the wheel diameter.985 . = Coefficient of velocity. A pelton wheel is to be designed for the following specifications. Velocity of jet.0538m Problem 2. N = 750 r. = 86 %. speed = 750 r. Overall efficiency.05 m/s = 0. overall efficiency = 86%.36 = 0.45 = 85. of jets required (3) Diameter of the jet Solution. S. = 0.pm.N= = 1016 r.85= Q= For single jet q= = 0. H =380m Speed.p.m 0.p.86 Ratio of jet dia to wheel dia. Speed ratio. Given Shaft power.772 kW Head.

85 m/s But Dia. of jet. d = = 0.86 Total discharge.165 m Discharge of one jet.The velocity of wheel. u = = Speed ratio x = 0. Problem 3. = 38.5 kW Determine (i) Power lost in nozzle (ii) Power lost due to hydraulic resistance in the runner.45 x But U= 38.989 M Ans. The following data is related to a pelton wheel: Head at the base of the nozzle 80 m Diameter of the jet 100 mm Discharge of the nozzle = Power at the shaft = 206 Kw Power absorbed in mechanical resistance = 4. .85 = Or D= 0. Q = Number of jets 2jets.05 Now 0. q = Area of jet x velocity of jet (0165) x85.

59 kW (2) Also power at base of nozzle = Power at shaft + Power lost m nozzle + Power lost in runner + Power lost due to mechanical resistance 235.35 kW. Calculate the power delivered to the shaft and overall efficiency of the machine.30 Shaft power.5 kW Now.44 Power corresponding to kinetic energy of the jet in kW = 218.44 — 227. Q = area of jet x velocity of jet 0.44 — (206 + 16.5) = 235.007854 Discharge of the nozzle.P = 206 kW Power absorbed in mechanical resistance = 4.59 + 4. Power developed is given by . Q = 0.85 kW (1) Power at the base of the nozzle = Power of the jet + Power lost in Nozzle 235. discharge. d = 100 mm = 0.30 = 0.44= 218.85 + Power lost in nozzle Power lost in nozzle = 235.09 = 8. Solution. = 80 m Diameter of jet. a = = 0. The buckets deflect the jet through 165° and the mean bucket speed 14m/s. Problem 4. Given Head at the base of nozzle.95. Assume coefficient of viscosity 0.007854 x Power at the base of the nozzle in kW = =235.44 — 218.1 m Area of the jet. A pelton wheel is supplied with water under a head of 45m and at a rate of 48 /min.Solution.85 = 16. S.44=206 + 16.985 and mechanical efficiency 0.59 + Power lost in runner + 45 Power lost in runner = 235.

Calculate the bucket pitch circle diameter.9320 = 93. the cross-sectional area of each jet and the hydraulic efficiency of the turbine.267— 14) + (1 + 0.95 = 0.37 . Q= Velocity of jet.267 m/s u = 14 m/s K =1 (Neglecting friction in buckets) =180°—165° =150° =cos15°0. = Overall efficiency.46 (iii) relative velocity of water at exit from the bucket is 0. There are two equal jets and the bucket deflection angle is 165°.20% Problem 5.w = 9810 W =9810x0.9659 [(29. Make the following assumptions (i) Overall efficiency is 85%.985 = 29.86 times the relative velocity at inlet.98 x 0. v = kv = 1. Power available from the turbine shaft 4000x = (9810xQx350)x0.9659) 14 =193. = 0.008 kW Hydraulic efficiency.9659)] 14 = 800 (15.85 Total discharge through the wheel.8=7848N/s v = 0. operating under an available head of 350 m. when the water is discharged from the wheel in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation (ii) coefficient of velocity of nozzle ku 0. Solution. A pelton wheel is required to develop 4000 kW at 400 revs/min.267 + 1.97 and blade speed ratio ku 0.

86 cos 15°) = 0.12 m/s Also 38.5.46. The project is required to produce a total shaft output of 13. The wheel speed is 650 rpm.38 Area of each jet. =1.82m (180 — 165) = 15° Bucket to jet speed ratio.97 and 0. 1. water available under a head of 250 m is delivered to the power house through three pipes each 250 m long.37 = 2A x 80.8% Problem 6.E.12 = Since the jet gets deflected 165°. Solution. H = 250 — 20 = 230 m We know Power available.85 and speed ratio is 0. u= = 38.9128 or 91.= 0. A = Velocity of bucket. of jet) = 2 x (0. P = = 2829 kW . (relative to K.474 — 0.25 MW by installing a number of single jet pelton wheels whose specific speed is not to exceed 38.97 x Total discharge.858 = 85. Net available head.28% (relative to power) = 0.02 respectively. Determine (i) the number of pelton wheels to be used (ii) Jet diameter (in) diameter of supply pipe Take velocity coefficient for the nozzle and Darcy’s friction factor as 0.4742) (1+ 0. At hydroelectric power plant. overall efficiency is 0. Through three pipes the friction loss is estimated to be 20 m. Invoking the relation for the hydraulic efficiency of a pelton wheel.

46 = 0.167 m Total discharge for 5 machines = 5 x 1.9 Discharge per pipe. speed ratio Total flow of water in liters/second . = 20= =0.46 x 65. say 5 (ii) Velocity of jet.97.85 Discharge. If the jet ratio is 10. Given P = 375OkW.Number of machines = = =4.933m.38= Hence jet diameter. =95% = 80% = 0. Q = Also 1.46. u = 0. D = Power available from turbine P = (w Q H) = (9810 x Q x 230) x 0. Assume generator efficiency 95%. 29. V = = 65. H = 400m. find the mean diameter of the runner.97 m/s also Diameter of wheel.38 = 6. QP = .16 m/s Tangential velocity of bucket. d = 0.881 m Loss of head. Find the total flow in liters /second and size of the jet.16 = 29. coefficient of velocity 0. Solution.68. Problem 7.46 x Velocity of jet = 0. A pelton wheel is required to generate 3750 kW under an effective head of 400 meters. overall efficiency 80%.97= = 0.97. speed ratio 0.

8 Size of jet: Let d = Diameter of the jet = 85. Depth of the buckets = 1.2m 4. 1.46V=0.24 = 0.5 = 1. of buckets Problem 9. Diameter of the wheel And peripheral velocity of the wheel V =0. Width of the buckets = 5 x d = 5 x 0.p. Design a pelton wheel for a head of 350 m at a speed of 300 r p m Take overall efficiency of the wheel as 85% and ratio of jet to the wheel diameter as 1/10 Solution.4m 2.48m 5. 0.2 X d = 1.136m = 136mm.m.46x81. =240mm 3.4/15.4m/s Peripheral velocity (v) D =37.Overall efficiency.24 = 1. No. Given H = 350m. Diameter of jet. A pelton wheel has a mean bucket speed of 12 m/s and is supplied with water at a rate of 750 liters per second under a head of 35 .0185 Or d = 0. N = 300r. Problem 8.9 = 67.7=2.5 = 0.2=37.2 x 0. v Total discharge = discharge through the Jet Q 1.9m/s We know that velocity of the Jet.25 = 85.25/67.

68 m/s u =12 m/s k =1 (for neglecting the friction in the buckets) • = (180°— ) = (180 — 160°) = 200 = cos = 0.966 or 96. The hydraulic efficiency of the turbine is given as turbine in = 0. find the power developed by the turbine and its hydraulic efficiency. If the bucket deflects the jet through an angle of 160°.68 -12) (1+0. Take the coefficient of velocity as 0.773 or 77. Solution.699 metric h.98.966 x 0. is = 324.80 = 0.5 N/s =25.m. Also determine the overall efficiency of the turbine if its mechanical efficiency is 80%.p.5 W.3% Problem 10. the power developed by the metric h.6% The overall efficiency of the turbine given by equation = 80% or 0.p.80 = 0. we get [(25. The following data were obtained from a test on a Pelton wheel: (a) Head at the base of the nozzle = 32 m . = 735.9397) x12W =238816 W= kW=238.9397 Thus by substitution.816kW Since I metric h. Neglect friction in the bucket. The power developed by the turbine is given as W=wQ W =9810 W = 9810x 0.75 = 7357.p.

81 kW As a check on computation.51kW And (4. i the runner and in mechanical friction..81) = 5.12 x 9.29 m/s (assuming K. we have (56. (ii) in the runner. 0.98 -.(b) Discharge of the nozzle = 018 (C) Area of the jet= 7500 sq mm (d) Mechanical available at the shaft = 44 kW (e) Mechanical efficiency = 94% Calculate the power lost (z) in the nozzle. Solution.46) Also = 0.84kW Power developed by the runner = = 46.84 — 46.03+281) =12. calculate.81— 44) = 2. Velocity of Jet.51kW Problem 11 How does a single Jet Pelton wheel differ from a multi-jet wheel A Pelton wheel is required to develop 6 MW when working under a head c 300 m it rotates with a speed of 550 rpm assuming jet ratio as 10 and overall efficiency as 85%.18 m/s (Assuming Tangential (peripheral) velocity of wheel. 9) . (in) in mechanical friction. Thus. Assume suitable values for the velocity coefficient and the speed ratio.81 x 300 75. Kinetic energy of the jet) = (9810 x 018 x 32) =56510W=56.67+5.5lkW = 51840 W = 51 84 Kw Power lost m the nozzle = (5651 -51 84) = 467 kW Power supplied to the number is equal to the kmetic energy of the Jet =51. Solution. V = = 0. the difference of power at the base of the nozzle and the power available at the shaft must be equal to the sum of the power lost in the nozzle. Power at the base of the nozzle Velocity of flow through the nozzle v= Power at the nozzle exit (e g.03 kW Power lost in mechanical friction = (46. = 35.51—44) =12.81 kW Power lost in the runner = (51. (i) Diameter of wheel (ii) quantity of water required and (iii) number of jets.

0. the blade angle at exit. determine: (a) rotational speed of the wheel. and (e) efficiency of the wheel with power input to buckets as reference input. the velocity triangle at outlet will be: = 0. Thus Number of jets. 2. D= Diameter of jet.Bucket pitch circle diameter.821u=u .98-0. Revised jet diameter follows from the relation.398= d = 0.398/0. n 2. d = (b) Power available from the turbine shaft is. =180—165=15° As the jet leaves the bucket without any whirl. (b) ratio of bucket speed of jet velocity.97. A Pelton wheel of 12 m mean bucket diameter works under a head of 650 m. From expression (i) and (ii).u) cos 15° = u.1164 m Problem 12. P= Total discharge through the Pelton wheel. Q = (c) The discharge through the wheel is supplied by the jets.6 . 89. Since the jet gets deflected through 165°.70 And hence we employ three jets. (d) available power (water power) and the power input to buckets.8856 = 2. If the water is to leave the bucket without any whirl.85 (109. (c) impulsive force and the power developed by the wheel. Velocity of jet Let bucket speed Relative velocity at inlet Relative velocity at outlet. The jet deflection is 165° and its relative velocity is reduced over the buckets by 15% due to friction. Take Solution.

coefficient of velocity 0. The following data relate to a Pelton wheel : Head = 72 m.86 x 109. speed ratio = 0. shaft power of the wheel = 115 kW. = 1000 x 0. Solution.41 = Rotational speed of wheel. =0.6 = 94256 N Power develop by wheel. V= = 9810 x Q x72 x 0.98/1. X Q= Velocity of jet. Power available from turbine shaft = (WQH) x 115.41 = 4657 x W = 4657 kW (d) Available power (water power) = wQH = 9810 x 0.45.41 m/s 49.821 = 49.Blade speed u = 89. Speed to jet speed. Design the Pelton wheel. N = (b) Ratio of bucket.85 . P = impulsive force x distance moved = = 94256 x 46. W=5165kW W=5455kW Problem 13.4508 (c) Discharge through the wheel Impulsive force on the buckets.86 x 650 =5455x Power input to buckets = =5165x (e) Efficiency of wheel. overall efficiency = 85%..98. speed of wheel = 240 rpm.

2 mm No.28 = D =1.2 x 81= 97. ratio of bucket to jet speed 0.94 respectively and the overall efficiency of the wheel 87%.35 km = 2350 m Frictional losses = 26 (J/N) 26 (Nm/ N) (as J = Nm) 26 m Net head. A number of Pelton wheels are to be installed generating a total output of 18 MW Determine the number of units to be installed.81 m/s = 17. Solution.m.46. wheel speed 650 rpm. H = 300 -26 = 274 m Total output = 18 MW = 18 x N= 650 r.28 m/s Diameter of wheel 17. diameter of the Pelton wheel and the Jet diameter when the followings are available.2 x d = 1. Cv and Cd for the nozzle are 0.46 = O.= 36.37m Diameter of Jet Discharge 0.p.97. kW. = 0. Given: Total head=300 m Length = 2. specific speed not to exceed 30 (m. of buckets on the wheel Z= Problem 14. Water under a head of 300 m is available for the hydelplant situated at a distance of 235 km from the surface the frictional losses of energy for transporting water are equivalent to 26 J/N.97 and 0.91 = d =0.94 kW . rpm). Ratio of bucket to jet speed =0.081m81 mm Size of buckets Width of buckets =5xd=5x81=405mm Depth of buckets = 1.

of jet (d) We know Or Total water power in kW = Water power in kW per unit = =2.12 = 32. (iii) Dia.= 87% = 0. P in kW and N in r.m.p. Dia.955x kW .28) as Squaring both sides. of Pelton wheel (D) Velocity of jet is given by. we get P = (ii) Dia.87 And =30 where H is in m.46 x 71. But ratio of bucket to jet speed = 0.945 Ans.715m/s. Find: (i) Number of units to be installed (ii) Dia. of jet of water (d) (i) Number of units to be installed Let P = Power output of each unit in kW Using equation (18.46 Or = 0.46 x But = 0. of Pelton wheel = 0. of Pelton wheel (D) (iii) Dia.

Ans.4 mm. Calculate the power delivered to shaft and overall efficiency of the machine.But water power in kW per unit is given by equation as. A pelton wheel is supplied with water under a head of 45m and at a rate of 48 . . Water power= =9.95) min =0. Q = 48 The power developed is given by. Assume coefficient of velocity 0985 and mechanical efficiency 095.8lxQx274 But discharge (Q) through one unit is also given by Q= Or Or d. = = 0.1424 m = 142. Given: H =45 m.92kW Overall efficiency. The buckets deflect the jet through 165° and the mean bucket speed is 14 m/s.8 x 175.952 x 1.8 /sec = 0. Ans. Problem 15.9176 =269. P= (where k = 0.

= 0.9279 = 92.79% .

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