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DEVILS LAKE – RED RIVER BASIN FISH PARASITE AND PATHOGEN PROJECT QUALITATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT
Prepared by the Aquatic Ecosystem Committee Molly Bensley1, Terry A. Dick2, Crystal Hudson1, John S. Lumsden3, K. Kenneth Peters1, Brian W. Souter4, Linda Vannest1, David B. Donald5, and Richard Nelson6 for
International Red River Board
International Joint Commission
1 2 3
U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bozeman Fish Health Center, Bozeman, Montana, USA University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada University of Guelph, Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Pathology, Ontario Veterinary College, Guelph, Ontario, Canada Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Winnipeg Fish Health Laboratory, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada Environment Canada, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Bismarck, North Dakota, USA
2 Table of Contents Executive Summary …………………………………………………………………… 3 Background ……………………………………………………………………………. 8 Location of sample sites ………………………………………………………………. 10 Methods ………………………………………………………………………………. 11 Methods – United States ……………………………………………………………… 11 Methods - Canada ……………………………………………………………………. 15 Results and Discussion …………………………………………………………………18 Fish Species of Devils Lake ............................................................................................ 18 Virology ………………………………………………………………………………..18 Bacteria …. …………………………………………………………………………….19 Parasites ……………………………………………………………………………….. 21 Parasite Photomicrographs ………………………………………………………….... 22 Histology ……………………………………………………………………………….27 Histology Parasite Figures ..………………………………………………………….. 30 Qualitative Risk Assessment …………………………………………………………. 34 Summary ……………………………………………………………………………….41 Recommendations ………………………………………………………………………41 Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………….43 References …………………………………………………………………………….. 43
3 Executive Summary In 2005 the International Joint Commission requested that the International Red River Board investigate the risk that an outlet from Devils Lake in North Dakota would release invasive species and lethal fish parasites and pathogens into the Red River and Lake Winnipeg. Devils Lake supports an outstanding sport fishery and recreational industry valued at $56 million per year. The Red River in Canada and the USA supports a sport fishery mainly for channel catfish and walleye. In Canada, the Red River recreational fishery at $10-15 million is 10% of the total value of the recreational fishery for Manitoba. Lake Winnipeg supports the largest walleye commercial fishery in North America, with total annual revenues in excess of about $15 million (2005 statistics). Devils Lake was a closed basin within the Hudson Bay watershed that probably has not been hydraulically connected into the Hudson Bay basin for more than 1000 years. However, water levels began to increase in Devils Lake in the 1940s and by 2010 had increased by more than 15.5 m (50.8 ft). By 2010, water levels were within 2 metres (6.6 ft) of the elevation of the natural outlet of Devils Lake, Tolna Coulee. In 2003, North Dakota began construction of an outlet with a discharge capacity of 7.1 m3/s (250 ft3/s) from Devils Lake to the Sheyenne River in the Hudson Bay Basin. Construction of the outlet was completed in 2005 and the outlet was first operated in 2006, connecting Devils Lake with the Hudson Bay basin for the first time in more than a millennium. Operation of the outlet was restricted to the open water period (April to November) with discharge depending on sulfate concentration and natural flows in the Sheyenne River. In 2006, less than 2.8 m3/s (100 ft3/s) was discharged from the outlet for a few days during summer. Full operation began in 2007 at less than the full capacity of the outlet. By 2010, the outlet was operated at near full capacity (7.1 m3/s or 250 ft3/s) throughout most of the open water period. The outlet was fitted with a course mesh screen at the inlet to prevent entry of large fish. This screen was followed by a gravel and rock filter constructed near an intake point at the lake. In 2006, Canadian and USA fish pathologists initiated a three year study to identify fish parasites and pathogens of Devils Lake that were not found at downstream locations and therefore could pose a risk to downstream fish and fisheries. At total of 7 species and 1616 fish were collected
These eight experts were asked to address the following five questions and rank risk from the above agents to downstream fish and fish communities where appropriate. 76 parasite taxa. one parasite (a gryporhynchid larval tapeworm). The qualitative risk of disease to fish from the single parasite. None of these organisms or lesions was found at downstream locations (Lake Ashtabula. three bacterial agents (Pseudomonas mendocina. 29 bacterial isolates. A similar community of parasites was found both macroscopically and microscopically in fish collected from Devils Lake and elsewhere in the Red River Basin. no viral infections. pathogens and histopathology anomalies found in Devils Lake and not found downstream in USA and Canada. Based on the life histories and life cycles of the parasites. Eight bacterial agents. 1.4 from Devils Lake and 21 species and 4272 fish from six other locations in the Red River Basin including the Red River Delta and Lake Winnipeg in Canada. or the Lake Winnipeg – Red River Delta area). and more than 40 different tissue-species specific lesions were detected from fish in the Red River Basin. three bacterial agents. and by discharge through the natural outlet (should water levels continue to increase) and by . However. Brevundimonas diminuta) and 17 tissue-species specific lesions were identified only from fish collected from Devils Lake. A total of 2 viral isolates. Yokenella regensburgei. and 25 parasites were found in Devils Lake. Microbiological assays were conducted on a targeted group of known fish pathogens including viral and bacterial agents as well as other selected microbes. Lake Traverse. what are the mechanisms for transport from Devils Lake to other aquatic ecosystems in the Red River basin and Lake Winnipeg. Red River (ND). The probability of transport of parasites and bacteria by discharge through the constructed outlet. and appropriate tissues were collected for standardized microbiological assays and histology. and the lesions found in Devils Lake but not downstream was evaluated by four Canadian and four USA fish pathologists. The fish were examined externally and internally for parasites.
pathogens. high intensity of infection. Invasion of exotic fish or parasites could modify a local food web and change the population dynamics which could lead to a disease outbreak. best available scientific information. and considering environmental triggers. Yokenella regensburgei and Brevundimonas diminuta. 2. Using your best professional judgment and best available scientific information what environmental factors are known to trigger a disease outbreak for the identified parasites. and stress from low dissolved oxygen. The fish pathologists agreed that the risk to downstream fish and fisheries from these three bacteria was low. what risk to downstream fish and fisheries could these organisms pose and what is their likelihood of causing disease? The non-targeted bacterial agents found in Devils Lake but not elsewhere in the Red River basin were Pseudomonas mendocina. pathogens and lesions found in Devils Lake and not downstream? Environmental factors and variables that could trigger disease outbreak from those parasites and bacterial agents that were present in Devils Lake and elsewhere in the Red River basin included high densities of fish. . elevated temperature and toxic substances. if parasites. Eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg could also promote disease outbreak in fish in that lake. 3. and histopathological lesions and tumors found in Devils Lake and not found downstream were transferred elsewhere to the basin. Using your best professional judgment. high levels of carbon dioxide and ammonia.5 birds was judged to be high by the fish pathologists. Intentional or unintentional transport by human-related vectors of fish and their associated parasites was judged to be low by the fish pathologists. and the likelihood of any of them causing disease was judged to be unlikely.
however. The risk of transfer of these organisms from Devils Lake is high and the potential for infection of fish by these organisms downstream of Devils Lake was also high. Overall. For those fish parasite. Yokenella regensburgei and Brevundimonas diminuta. Of the 17 tissue specific lesions identified from Devils Lake fish. and lesions. pathogens. Therefore. what is the North American distribution of these parasites. and the probability of causing disease was unlikely. The fish pathologists agreed that they are probably present in the aquatic ecosystems downstream from Devils Lake. histopathological lesions and tumors found in Devils Lake but not elsewhere in the basin. Furthermore. Thus.6 A single gryporhynchid metacestode parasite was found in Devils Lake but not elsewhere in the Red River basin. It was hypothesized that this family of parasites is likely to be more widely distributed than the present scientific literature suggests. most were caused by myxosporeans and protozoans. there is no evidence of this parasite family compromising fish health. the potential to cause disease was judged to be unlikely. it is unlikely that this parasite would pose any significant risk to fish in the Red River Basin in the future. pathogens. 4. . and what is their relative abundance elsewhere in North America? The bacterial agents found in Devils Lake but not elsewhere in the Red River basin included Pseudomonas mendocina. These bacteria are ubiquitous in soil and water throughout North America. the fish pathologists agreed that the risk to downstream fish and fish communities from the myxosporeans and protozoans identified by histology was low. The single gryporhynchid metacestode found in a single yellow perch from Devils Lake could not be identified to species and thus the exact geographical distribution of this organism could not be determined. The risk to downstream fish and fisheries from this organism was judged to be low because it was rare and because the literature suggests that gryporhynchids do not compromise fish health.
bacteria. and a leech. Identification of all parasites including myxosporeans to genus is difficult or impossible with histology because the technique does not provide the morphological detail required to provide taxonomic resolution. It was not designed to reduce risks associated with transfer of smaller organisms such as larval fish. it is unlikely that these parasites would pose any additional risk to fish in the Red River Basin if they were transported from Devils Lake by any one of multiple mechanisms or vectors. Given the life histories of parasites and pathogens in Devils Lake. All were widespread in North America and either common or abundant. Seven myxosporeans could not be identified to genus. There are multiple pathways of transport of the bacteria and parasites found in Devils Lake to other locations in the Hudson Bay Basin.7 The 17 tissue-specific lesions identified from Devils Lake fish and not found downstream in the Red River Delta were caused by myxosporeans. does this mitigation measure reduce the impacts for potential of transfer of these organisms to downstream ecosystems? The design of the existing filter was intended to reduce the risk of adult fish being released to the downstream environment. rock. Therefore. . and gravel filter intended to prevent the downstream transfer of fish. nematodes. The existing outlet from Devils Lake is equipped with a combination of screens. 5. protozoans. and therefore information on distribution and risk could not be determined by the fish pathologists. and free-living life stages of parasites. sporozoans.
(2) Provide a scientifically credible survey of fish parasites and pathogens in fish from Devils Lake. Hudson and Peters 2005. Forstie and Holloway 1984.8 Background Construction and operation of the outlet from Devils Lake connects a closed basin in North Dakota to the Hudson Bay drainage. The objectives were developed by the International Red River Board’s Aquatic Ecosystem Committee to provide direction to the three year monitoring program. Reinisch 1981. The outlet could potentially transfer fish parasites and pathogens from Devils Lake into the Hudson Bay drainage to the detriment of fish populations in that basin. Williamson et al. Arroyo 2005. Red River. These objectives were as follows: (1) Determine the presence/absence of fish parasites and pathogens in resident fish from Devils Lake. Red River and the Red River Delta. The outlet flows into the Sheyenne River and then the Red River which are southern watersheds in the Hudson Bay basin (Fig. Peters 2002. Sheyenne River. . The data can be used to perform a risk analysis associated with the transfer of fish parasites and pathogens through the outlets on Devils Lake to aquatic ecosystems in the Red River Basin including Lake Winnipeg. 1). Governments agreed in August 2005 that additional.g. 2005). basin-wide scientifically-sound information on aquatic invasive species focusing on fish parasites and pathogens was needed for the Red River Basin. and Lake Winnipeg building on previous work (e. Governments requested this work be undertaken by the International Joint Commission’s International Red River Board. Of special concern are the commercial and sport fish populations in the Red River and Lake Winnipeg that are of economic and recreational value. the Sheyenne River.
and virology. identification and analysis of fish parasites and pathogens. Although it was recognized at the outset that each country would use slightly different methods. bacteriology. the Ad Hoc Group of Experts met in Winnipeg. The Ad Hoc Group of Experts identified the following principles to guide the work: (1) Fish in the United States would be collected and analyzed by United States Fish and Wildlife Service. participating laboratories will meet to ensure methods are consistent for fish samples collected on both sides of the international boundary.9 (3) Use the survey of fish collected during this proposed survey to meet the overall framework for biological monitoring in the Red River Basin that is included in the “Work Plan” of the International Red River Board. fish were collected during the months of June and July to address the question of seasonality. The assessment focused on five areas: parasitology. As soon as the project is approved and funded in Canada and the United States. The co-chairs of the Aquatic Ecosystem Committee of the International Red River Board assembled an Ad Hoc Group of Experts to scope out a valid and scientifically defensible parasite and pathogen sampling program for Devils Lake and the Red River basin including Lake Winnipeg. Both countries agreed to start sampling in the fall of 2006. histopathology. Specifically. the researchers wanted to determine whether warmer water temperatures and spawning stress could significantly alter the bacterial and viral findings reported in the fall 2006 survey. the methods were considered equivalent and the results would be comparable and compatible. (2) Laboratories in Canada and the United States would use equivalent methods and analytical approaches to determine the diversity of pathogens and parasites in fish. preservation. A sample size of 60 individuals from each species was targeted. In 2007 and 2008. In August 2006. Manitoba to discuss specific field and laboratory methods for collection. Fish in Canada will be collected and analyzed by Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Canadian universities. .
these species are relatively abundant in Devils Lake. Sheyenne River.8 m with 5 panels . fish were sampled from two areas between September 25 and 29. fathead minnow. Six fish species were targeted for microbiology. and 2 inch mesh sizes (38. samples were also collected from Lake Ashtabula and Lake Traverse because these lakes were known to have an abundant and diverse fish community. histology. Two types of multi-mesh gill nets were deployed: 1) 125 ft X 6 ft with 5 panels incorporating ¾. Samples were collected from the Devils Lake. The five pathogens (and related disease) that were known to compromise fish health in other lakes and rivers were included in the study. 1). A standard target sample size of 60 fish for each species was used to determine the presence or absence of bacterial and viral fish pathogens (Table 1). Lake Ashtabula. and Lake Traverse (Fig. These were: Aeromonas salmonicida (furunculosis) Yersinia ruckeri (enteric redmouth disease) Edwardsiella tarda (edwardsiellosis) Edwardsiella ictaluri (enteric septicemia) Renibacterium salmoninarum (bacterial kidney disease). Fish were collected using experimental gill nets and modified fyke nets designed for shoreline sets. fish were collected from Devils Lake. In following years. The first year of sampling began in the fall of 2006.United States In the USA. Sampling in Six Mile Bay extended north into the mouth of Channel A. 1¾. white bass. Methods Methods . Except for brook stickleback.1 m X 1. the Sheyenne River. Red River. The primary sampling area was in Six Mile Bay located in the north-central section of the lake. 1. These six species were walleye. and brook stickleback. and Lake Winnipeg (Fig 1). northern pike. Red River. 2006 (Peters and Hudson 2007).11 as well as the risk of transfer of these organisms between water bodies. 1½. and parasite assessment in both USA and Canada. At Devils Lake. yellow perch. This widely accepted sample size provides a 95% confidence level that an infected fish will be detected given a 5% presumed prevalence of infection within a population of ≥ 2000 or more individuals (Ossiander and Wedemeyer 1973). A small number of fish were collected from a bay separated from Devils Lake by North Dakota Highway 57.
and histology in USA and Canada. Number of fish (and number of fish species) assessed for bacteria. virus. ND = no data.12 Table 1. 2006 Virus Bacteria Parasites Histology United States Devils Lake 387 (7) 387 (7) Red River 72 (6) 72 (6) Sheyenne River 78 (5) 75 (5) Lake Traverse ND ND Lake Ashtabula ND ND Canada Red River Delta and Lake Winnipeg 547 (10) 547 (10) 237 (7) 72 (6) 78 (5) ND ND 302 (9) ND ND ND ND ND 547 (10) Histology 2007 Virus Bacteria Parasites United States Devils Lake 289 (7) 139 (7) Red River 392 (22) 236 (22) Sheyenne River 100 (13) 54 (13) Lake Traverse 550 (18) 263 (16) Lake Ashtabula ND ND Canada Red River Delta and Lake Winnipeg 511 (9) 511 (9) 407 (7) 392 (22) 100 (13) 674 (19) ND 299 (10) 289 (7) ND ND ND ND 511 (9) Histology 2008-09 Virus Bacteria Parasites United States Devils Lake 292 (7) 292 (7) Red River ND ND Sheyenne River ND ND Lake Traverse 522 (15) 522 (15) Lake Ashtabula 390 (10) 390 (10) Canada Red River Delta and Lake Winnipeg 583 (10) 583 (10) 347 (6) ND ND 596 (17) 435 (14) 666 (9) 294 (7) ND ND ND ND ND . parasites.
2 miles) reach upstream of the bridge at 52nd Avenue south in Fargo. One sampling site in 2008 differed from that sampled in 2007: Lake Ashtabula replaced a sampling site on the Sheyenne River. Additional samples from fish were collected from Devils Lake. North Dakota) using standard procedures as described in the U. modified fyke nets were deployed with hoop nets with 3. South Dakota) and the Red River (near Fargo. Fyke nets were typically deployed as overnight sets. Gill nets were checked in 1 to 3 hour intervals to minimize fish mortality.6. Sampling gear was composed of 38. and the Red River was not sampled in 2008. Fish and Wildlife Service’s Wild Fish Health Survey (USFWS 2009). Nets with ¼ inch (6. Red River Delta and Lake Winnipeg is shown in Table 2.5.8 cm (1.3 mile) reach up and downstream from the bridge on State Highway 20. North Dakota).8.4 and 12. Fish were collected from the Red River on 12 – 13 October 2006 in a 2. . and 12. and 5 inch mesh (91. 2. Fish and Wildlife Service maintenance shop in Valley City.8 m with 3 panels of 7. and Lake Traverse in 2008 (Peters 2011). Lake Ashtabula.9. Nets and traps were set for 18 – 24 hour intervals. Fish were held alive in large totes or in boxes with lake water until examined.7 mm mesh). collections occurred at Devils Lake.0 km (1. North Dakota.7 cm mesh).1 cm mesh sizes). 4. The reach extended along the south-eastern border of the Spirit Lake Nation. The list of fish species collected from North Dakota. North Dakota.4 mm) mesh were used primarily to capture fathead minnow. Also. Upon collection.13 incorporating 1. In addition. 5. S.5 inch) mesh. fish were transported alive to a temporary field laboratory near the Devils Lake public access at Six Mile Bay. 4.S. fish were collected from the Sheyenne River along a 0. Lake Traverse was added as a sampling site in 2007 and 2008.4. 10. On October 11. In 2007.1 m (125 ft) of multi-mesh gill nets similar to those used on Devils Lake. 3. 2006.5 km (0. Modified fyke nets were composed of a single lead and single throat and incorporated both ¼ and ½ inch mesh (6.2.4 m X 1. 2) 300 ft X 6 ft with 3 panels of 3. Fish collected from the rivers were transported in coolers to a U. . Lake Ashtabula (near Valley City. Fish were held on ice and processed during the same day as capture. Lake Traverse (near Sisseton.
Fish not examined at the field station were frozen and examined later at Bozeman Fish Health Center. fish were anesthetized with tricaine methanesulfonate (Finquel®). Bozeman. fins and gill clips. Staining. Wet mounts. Fish and Wildlife Service 2005). Section 8. Upon arrival at the health centers. liver.FWS. tissue smears. wet mounts were prepared from skin scrapings. Eyes were removed and dissected. and identification of preserved specimens were .gov. Parasites recovered during the survey were photographed and then preserved in either alcohol-formalin-acetic acid (AFA. In brief. The gastrointestinal tract was removed divided into three sections corresponding to the esophagus. weighed (g) and measured (total length. Details of laboratory procedures are available at http://wildfishsurvey.FWS. An incision was made along the length of each section and examined under a dissecting microscope. stomach and pyloric caeca. The skin was removed from one side of the fish and muscle groups were examined at regular intervals. Samples were assayed for fish pathogens and parasites according to protocols and procedures for the National Wild Fish Health Survey (U.S. and then examined externally and internally for clinical signs of disease or other abnormalities. and gut contents were examined with light microscopy at 20 – 400X magnification. Thirty fish of each species were randomly selected at Devils Lake to perform a comprehensive parasite evaluation. Wisconsin). Sections were then scraped and contents were transferred to Petri dishes and suspended in normal physiological saline solution.fws. Montana) or the La Crosse Fish Health Center (U. The goal was to examine a minimum of five freshly caught fish of each species at the temporary field station. mounting. cestodes and trematodes) or glycerin-alcohol (nematodes) solutions. and intestines. spleen. Principle fish pathogens of the National Wild Fish Health Survey included specific organisms that are known to cause disease in cultured or wild fish and are regulated or managed organisms in most state and federal fish health inspection programs.1).14 For necropsy. samples were logged-in and assigned case history numbers and then submitted to the appropriate laboratory sections where fish pathogen assays were performed. kidney.S. heart. Tissue samples for pathogen testing were collected using aseptic field techniques and packed in coolers with ice for transfer to either the Bozeman Fish Health Center (U. mm). Fish were examined externally and internally for parasites according to methods of the National Wild Fish Health Survey (2005.S. Tissue smears were prepared from major organs including brain. Onalaska.
The majority of the fish were processed for virology.15 performed by a parasite specialist at the U. spleen and liver. Fish and Wildlife Service Lacrosse Fish Health Center. esophagus. S. Each fish was weighed and length (fork. additional samples of emerald shiners were collected to determine the geographical extent of this invasive and pathogenic cestode. Additional fathead minnows were examined to determine if the mongenean Gyrodactylus hoffmani was present in the Red River Basin in Canada as it was initially identified as a species of interest. body cavity. . Several smaller species such as fathead minnow. gill nets and electroshocking. heart. total and standard) was recorded. Smaller fish were placed in sealed plastic bags. eyes. Fresh tissues smears were not possible as all samples were frozen immediately after capture but smears were taken from frozen material whenever possible. Each fish was necropsied and the following organs checked: external body surface. caecae. swim bladder. after the unanticipated discovery of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi in the year 1 survey. stomach. each fish was placed in a separate plastic bag identified by fish species. Methods . muscle. gills. placed on crushed ice in coolers then transported to the Winnipeg Fish Health Laboratory (Fisheries and Oceans Canada). Fish were captured using several methods including seines. Furthermore. buccal area. bacteriology and histopathology within 10 hours of the time of capture. reproductive structures.Canada Ten fish species were captured from the lower Red River and south basin of Lake Winnipeg (Table 1). Sex and state of maturity was also recorded. site and date of collection. white bass and brook sticklebacks were kept alive and necropsied the morning after their capture. yellow perch. Complete necropsies were done on a total of 1279 fish collected in Canadian waters. intestine. The samples were frozen for full necropsies at a later date. Larger fish were placed on ice in coolers and transported to the lab. For parasitology. nares.
Testing for the presence viral pathogens involved the use of three cell lines. goldeye and yellow perch). white bass. two tributaries of the Red River (Netley Creek and Wavey Creek). Sixty lake whitefish. brook sticklebacks. A total of 547 fish were screened for bacterial and viral pathogens of concern. Only 7 channel catfish were captured. Sixty fish samples were collected for 9 of 10 species. fathead minnows. These methods differed slightly from the method described in National Wild Fish Health Survey procedure used by the U. A commercially produced bacterial identification system. Those parasite species not identified to species were either immature or required freshly fixed material rather than specimens from frozen samples. and Willow Creek which drains into the south basin of Lake Winnipeg in the vicinity of Sandy Hook. with 60 fish per species collected. Sampling commenced on 10 October 2006 and ended 26 October 2006. were screened for the myxosporean parasite Myxobolus cerebralis (causative agent of whirling disease in salmonids). chinook salmon embryo (CHSE). 10 species were targeted (walleye. For microbiology and histology. Fish were collected at these same general locations in 2007.16 All parasites were identified to at least genus and enumerated. northern pike. channel catfish. sauger.FWS. API-20E was used to identify selected representative bacterial isolates. The viral testing method used in the Winnipeg Fish Health Lab was that described in the Fish Health Protection Regulations: Manual of Compliance (FHPR: m of c) with the exception that Brain Heart Infusion Agar (BHIA) was substituted for Tryptic Soy Agar (TSA) for initial isolation and culture purification. obtained from a commercial fisher. the south basin of Lake Winnipeg. The method used for detection of Myxobolus cerebralis was the cranial digest method using pepsin-hydrochloric acid as described in the FHPR: m of c with the exception that cranial digests . epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) and Channel Catfish ovary (CCO). Bacterial isolation and identification methods were also similar. Fish were collected from several sites on the main stem of the Red River north of Selkirk. emerald shiners.S. but both methods are considered equivalent.
Four of the seven species were the same (northern pike. and the WFHL received kidney smears from 46 fish representing 7 species. salmoninarum detection in the respective labs were different. material was exchanged and processed using the R. Alphabetical listing of common and scientific names of fish species captured in the study from 2006 to 2008 from both the United States and Canada. Common name Black Bullhead Black Crappie Brook Stickleback Common Carp Channel Catfish Emerald Shiner Fathead Minnow Freshwater Drum Goldeye Green Sunfish Mooneye Northern Pike Sauger Smallmouth Bass Shorthead Redhorse Stonecat Tadpole Madtom Walleye White Sucker White Bass Yellow Perch ACRONYM BLBL BLCR BRST CMCP CHCT EMSH FTMN FRDR GOLD GRSN MOON NRPK SAUG SMBS SLRD STON TDMD WALL WHSC WHBS YLPR Genus and Species Ameiurus melas Pomoxis nigromaculatus Culaea inconstans Cyprinus carpio Ictalurus punctatus Notropis atherinoides Pimephlales promelas Aplodinotus grunniens Hiodon alosoides Lepomis cyanellus Hiodon tergisus Esox lucius Sander canadensis Micropterus dolomieu Moxostoma macrolepidotum Noturus flavus Noturus gyrinus Sander vitreum Catostomus commersonii Morone chrysops Perca flavescens . Kidney/spleen tissue harvested from 59 fish representing 7 species was sent to Bozeman. to compare the results obtained in each lab. Table 2. Therefore. The methods used for R. white bass and yellow perch).17 were prepared from five fish pools (12 pools total) and not a single 60 fish pool. salmoninarum detection method used in each lab. walleye. Kidney smears prepared from all 547 fish were stained using the Indirect Fluorescent Antibody Technique (IFAT) and examined microscopically for the presence of Renibacterium salmoninarum (causative agent of Bacterial Kidney Disease).
. lymphocystis and dermal sarcoma. black crappie. and CCO cell lines used by both USFWS and DFO). white bass were not native to the Hudson Bay Basin. viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus. No invasive or foreign fish species have been found in Devils Lake either prior to or during the parasite and pathogen project. and the Red River Delta. were detected in walleye from the Red River Delta using histology. These collecting methods and the large number of fish collected suggest that probably all of the fish species present in Devils Lake have been captured and identified either during previous fish surveys of Devils Lake or during the present parasite and pathogen project. Virology Over the course of the survey. There were no viral agents or viral lesions detected in fish from Devils Lake or elsewhere in the Red River basin by either direct assessment (CHSE. All fish tested were found to be negative for the targeted viral pathogens using the cell culture methods employed. yellow perch. 1641 fish from Manitoba waters and 3072 fish from North Dakota waters including 968 fish from Devils Lake were screened for the targeted viral pathogens (Table 3). fathead minnow. Lake Ashtabula. All these species are known to occur elsewhere in the Hudson Bay basin. white sucker. During the present study. but are now widely distributed especially in the Red River subbasin. EPC. northern pike.18 Results and Discussion Fish Species of Devils Lake A total of nine fish species occur in Devils Lake including walleye. However. white bass. During the present study. 1. The targeted viral agents were infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. white bass were collected from Devils Lake. However. infectious hematopoetic necrosis virus. Lake Traverse. and channel catfish virus. black bullhead and brook stickleback. two viral lesions. These fish were collected at multiple locations by two methods using a range of mesh of small and large mesh size in the sampling gear.616 fish were collected over three years.
but not in fish collected from North Dakota waters. Of these13 bacteria. The remaining 13 bacteria were detected in fish from North Dakota waters but not in fish downstream in Manitoba waters. eight species were identified in fish collected in both surveys. These important bacterial pathogens were not detected in Devils Lake during the study although three of the five were detected elsewhere in the Red River Basin. Of the 29. Another eight species were identified in fish from Manitoba waters. The three isolates included Psuedomonas mendocina from fathead minnow.19 Table 3. Summary of the Virology Test Results for 2006 to 2008 Compiled by the Winnipeg Fish Health Laboratory and the Bozeman Fish Health Center ____________________________________________________________________________ Winnipeg Fish Health Laboratory Year # of Fish 2006 2007 2008 Totals 547 511 583 1641 # of Pools 116 117 127 360 Virus Detected (+/-) 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ Bozeman Fish Health Center # of Fish 537 1331 1204 3072 # of Pools 115 287 246 648 Virus Detected (+/-) 0+ 0+ 0+ 0+ ____________________________________________________________________________ Bacteria From the surveys conducted in both Manitoba and North Dakota waters. three were cultured from fish from Devils Lake. and Brevundimonas diminuta from northern pike. The five targeted pathogens (and related desease) included: Aeromonas salmonicida (furunculosis) Yersinia ruckeri (enteric redmouth disease) . a total of 29 species of bacteria were identified (Table 4). Yokenella regensburgii from fathead minnow and northern pike. and they were not detected in fish from any downstream waters. In both Canada and the USA five bacterial pathogens were specifically targeted for their presence in fish (targeted pathogens). These three environmental bacteria were isolated in 2006 but not in other years.
Canada and the North Dakota. LT. SR) No Yes (LT) No Yes (RR. SR. RR) Yes Yes (DL. LA) No Yes (SR) Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Yes No Identified bacteria Aeromonas hydrophila Hafnia alvei Pseudomonas fluorescens Plesiomonas shigelloides Acintobacter lwoffi Edwardsiella tarda Pseudomonas maltophilia Pseudomonas sp. Citrobacter freundii Myroides sp. Salmonella cholerasuis-arizonae Pseudomonas cepacia Flavobacterium sp. Sheyenne River (SR). Willow Creek (WK). USA.Acintobacter Yersinia ruckeri Pantoea sp. Bacteria detected (Yes / No) Manitoba waters North Dakota waters Yes Yes (DL. SR. Netley Creek (NC). LT) No Yes (DL) No Yes (DL) No Yes (DL) No Yes (DL. and Lake Winnipeg (LW). Pseudomonas mendocina Yokenella regensburgei Brevundimonas diminuta Shewanella putrefaciens Enterobacter sp. Enterobacter cloacea Erwinia sp. North Dakota waters were Devils Lake (DL). Manitoba waters were Red River (RR). RR) Yes Yes (DL) Yes Yes (LT) Yes Yes (RR. Pasteurella . SR. Summary of bacteriology results for Manitoba. LA) No Yes (LT) No Yes (RR. Citrobacter sp. LT) Yes Yes (LT) Yes Yes (RR) No Yes (LT) No Yes (RR. RR) Yes Yes (SR. Red River (RR).20 Table 4. Klebsiella oxytoca Pseudomonas paucimobilia Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Lake Traverse (LT). Wavey Creek (WC). RR. and Lake Ashtabula (LA). LT) Yes Yes (DL. Enterobacter agglomerans Alcalignes sp. SR) No Yes (SR) No Yes (LT.
by comparison has more than 20 fish species of fish. Both cases represent asymptomatic infections as no clinical evidence of infection attributable to this pathogen was evident in either fish. and Yersinia ruckeri was also found in black crappie from Lake Traverse. Parasites A total of 76 parasite taxa were identified from the Red River Basin (Table 5). Myxobolus cerebralis (whirling disease) has devastated salmonid populations in western rivers in the inter-mountain region of the United States. and the 20 that were examined for parasites supported 64 different parasite taxa. Whirling disease was not detected in Devils Lake nor in lake whitefish from Lake Winnipeg. . Edwardsiella tarda was detected in the liver of one northern pike and one channel catfish collected from the Red River Delta in 2007. In Lake Traverse. Salmonid species were not present in Devils Lake. The absence of this pathogen in Devils Lake was expected because whirling disease is only associated with fish species from the family Salmonidae which includes lake whitefish. Edwardsiella tarda was also detected in black crappie and channel catfish from Lake Traverse in 2007. but only one parasite (a gryporhynchid metacestode) was found in yellow perch from Devils Lake and no other location in the Red River Basin (Table 5 and 6). A parasitic pathogen. fathead minnow had the most diverse parasite fauna. Devils Lake had fewer parasite species than other locations assessed during the present study probably because the lake has few fish species (7 total) and has only supported fish since 1958. Twenty-five of the 76 taxa were found in Devils Lake. and some species may have been transferred into the Lake as bait or perhaps by overland flooding from the Pembina River under high water and high flow conditions. with nineteen different parasite species in total.21 Edwardsiella tarda (edwardsiellosis) Edwardsiella ictaluri (enteric septicemia) Renibacterium salmoninarum (bacterial kidney disease). Sports fish have been stocked into Devil Lake. Lake Traverse.
. and gravid posterior proglottid (right. cysts in the kidney of freshwater drum (left) and spore in wet mount preparation (right) from Lake Traverse. and Lake Traverse. proglottids (center). Lake Ashtabula. Photomicrographs of Henneguya sp. acetocarmine). Photomicrographs of Bothriocephalus cuspidatus with scolex (left). Specimens commonly found in the intestines of walleye from Devils Lake. The parasite was also observed on fathead minnow from Lake Traverse.22 Parasite Photomicrographs Photomicrograph of wet mount preparation with Gyrodactylus hoffmani anchored near dorsal fin ray of fathead minnow from Devils Lake.
found encysted in the liver of a rock bass from Lake Traverse (top. Photomicrographs of Proteocephalus pinguis fresh mount (left). cyst on the pectoral fin of a fathead minnow from Lake Traverse (left) and wet mount of spores observed with bright field microscopy (center) and phase contrast microscopy (right). scolex with five suckers (right).. acetocarmine). and acetocarmine-stained view of scolex (center) recovered from the intestines of northern pike from Devils Lake and lake Traverse Photomicrographs of gryporhynchid metacestode Paradilepis sp.23 Photomicrographs of Myxobolus sp. . Photomicrographs of Microcotyle spinicirrus found on gill lamellae of freshwater drum from Lake Traverse (acetocarmine). lower. fresh mount.
24 Photomicrographs of acetocarmine-stained specimen of a gryporhynchid metacestode found in yellow perch from Devils Lake in June 2008. .
Paurorhynchus hiodontis Polymorphidae cystacanth Pomphorhynchus bulbocolli Posthodiplostomum minimum Prohemistomulum sp. Chloromyxum sp. Henneguya sp.parasites identified to species and only reported from Canadian waters in the study. Ergasilis cyprinaceus Ergasilis luciopercarum * Glugea sp.25 Table 5. Biacetabulum sp. . Hunterella nodulosa Hysteromorpha triloba Hysterothylacium brachyurum Khawia iowensis Leptorhynchoides thecatus * Ligula intestinalis Megalogonia ictaluri Microcotyle spinicirrus Microsporidea Myobolus sp. metacercaria Diplostomum spathaceum Diplostomum of Bolbophorus confusus * Epistylis sp. ? Diplostomulum sp. Myxosporea Myzobdella cyprinaceus Myxobdella lugubris Neascus sp. Heterosporis sp. Spiruridae (immature mematode) Tretraonchus monenteron * Trianenophorus nodulosus * Trichodina sp. Rhabdochona bulbicolla Raphidascaris acus Sanguinicola occidentalis * Spinitectus carolini Spinitectus gracilis Spiroxys sp. Valipora sp. Tylodelphys scheuringi Unicauda sp. List of parasite taxa found in the Red River Basin. Urocleidis sp. Actheres pimelodi Alloglossidium corti Allacanthocasmus sp. Clinostomum marginatus Coccidia Corallobothrium fimbriatum Contracaecum sp. Crepidostomum cornutum Crepidostomum illinoiense * Cryptogonimus sp. Capriniana piscium Centrovarium sp. Ambiphyra sp. Bothriocephalus claviceps * Bothriocephalus cuspidatus Bothriocephalus acheilognathi * Bucephalus elegans * Bunoderina sacculata * Camallanus oxycephalus Caprinia sp. Myxobolus sp Myxidium sp. Neoechinorhynchus cylindratus * Onchocleidus chrysops Ornithodiplostomum ptychocleilus * Paradilepis sp. Gyrodactylus hoffmani Gryporhynchidae Ichthyophthirius sp. Proteocephalus pinguis Proteocephalus pearsi * Rhabdochona sp. * . Apiosoma sp.
f (fin). RRD = Red River Delta. (larvae) Myzobdella lugubris Devils Lake host and anatomical location BLCR(g). BLCR(i). (i) intestine. FTMN(g). FTMN(g). FTMN(i).s). Neascus sp.s). Bothriocephalus cuspidatus Bothriocephalus sp. Parasite taxonomic classification Class Protozoans Family or Genus and species Apiosoma sp. Rhabdochona sp. Gyrodactylus hoffmani Gyrodactylus sp. (larvae) Raphidascaris acus Raphidascaris sp. Piscine hosts and anatomical location of parasites recovered from fish collected at Devils Lake and at three sites in the Red River Basin. (metacestodes) Contracaecum sp. FTMN(e) FTMN(m) BLCR(mt). Onchocleidus chrysops Diplostomum spathaceum Diplostomulum sp.26 Table 6. NRPK(s). WHBS(i). Unicauda sp. WALL(g). WHBS(g. (g) gills.s) FTMN(k) FTMN(k) FTMN(g) FTMN(f) YLPR(s) WHBS(g). Sample site abbreviations: LA = Lake Ashtabula. (m) musculature. LT = Lake Traverse. Neascus of Posthodiplostomum sp. (s) skin. WHBS(i) Other Red River Basin sites of detection LA LT LA LT LA LT RRD LA LT RRD LT LT LT RRD LT LA RRD LA RRD LA LT LA LT LA LT RRD LA LT RRD RRD LA LT Myxosporea Monogenea Trematoda Cestoida Nematoda Hirudinea BLCR(mt).s) WALL(g) BLCR(g. WALL (g. (l) liver. YLPR(i) YLPR(i) FTMN(pc) FTMN(i). (k) kidney. YLPR(i) LA LT YLPR(mt) LA LT RRD WHBS(mt) LA LT YLPR(f) LA LT . Epistylis sp. Trichodina sp. (mt) mesenteries. Myxobolus sp. YLPR(g. Spiroxys sp. WALL(mt). Anatomical abbrevations: e (eye). (pc) peritoneal cavity. WHBS(mt) LA LT RRD YLPR(mt) RRD FTMN(i). NRPK(i). Dactylogyrus sp. FTMN(mt) FTMN(m) WALL(i). NRPK(i). (metacestodes) Gryporhynchidae Ligula intestinalis Proteocephalus sp.
peripheral nerve tissue. Histology provided another perspective on the observation of several parasites found during more traditional parasite surveys. Seventeen tissue-specific lesions were identified from fish in Devils Lake that were not found in the Red River Delta. However. Both the traditional approach and the histology approach identified similar protozoan. and nematode parasites. These included myxosporeans from kidney tubules. . cestode.27 Histology Histology was conducted only on fish from Devils Lake and the Red River Delta (examples in Figures 3-1 to 3-11). histology identified additional myxosporidian parasites in a variety of fish tissues from Devils Lake that were not identified in the Red River Delta (Table 7). and ovary. cartilage/bone tissue. trematode.
common. low. Protozoan – Ichthyophthirius Protozoan . Location of lesion Taxon responsible for lesion Seen in Lake Winnipeg fish North American distribution Abundance (rare.tubule Kidney . Summary of histology for fish collected in 2007 and 2008 from Devils Lake and the Red River Delta. Monogenean -Gyrodactylus sp.intestine Gill Gill Gill Gill Gill Gill GI .intestine Gill Gill Cestode Protozoan– Trichodina sp.28 Table 7.interstitium Skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle Nerve .intestine Gill Gill Gill Gill Heart Ovary Skeletal Muscle Intestine Liver Cestode – (possibly Proteocephalus sp. Protozoan – Apisoma sp.tubule Kidney . Monogenean Trematode Similar Similar Similar .intestine Cartilage/Bone Thymus Myxosporean (large) Myxosporean (small) Myxosporean Myxosporean Trematode .-like Annelid (leech-like) Sporozoan Myxosporean Myxosporean Not seen** Not seen** Similar Similar Similar Not seen** Similar Similar Not seen?** Similar Similar Not seen Similar Not seen Not seen Not seen** Similar widespread widespread widespread abundant abundant common unlikely unlikely unlikely Walleye GI.peripheral Brain .meninges GI. Protozoan – Apiosoma sp. abundant) Risk of disease (unlikely.Digenetic Cestode Myxosporean Myxosporean – Henneguyalike.flagellate Myxosporean Microsporea.Suspect Ovipleistophora ovariae* Myxosporean Nematode -Contracaecum larval nematode Similar Similar Not seen Not seen Not seen No photo Not seen Not seen Not seen Similar widespread widespread widespread abundant abundant abundant unlikely low unlikely unlikely widespread common low White bass GI .Digenetic (encysted) Myxosporean Trematode . Protozoan – Trichodina sp.) Protozoan – Trichodina sp. high) Fathead minnow Kidney .
(bibullatus?) * possibly M. GI-mucosal epithelium Skin – oral cavity Nerve-sp cord Connective tissuelower jaw Cestode – Ligula sp. .muscle/vis. Monogenean.* Nematode widespread widespread ** ** ** abundant abundant low low White sucker Gill Myxosporean – Myxobolus ** sp.29 GI-muscle/liver Nematode* Not seen Yellow perch GI .intestine GI . Hirudinea: Leech Myxosporean – Myxidium sp. Myxosporean – Henneguya? Myxosporean – Henneguya? Similar Not seen Similar Not seen Not seen Similar Similar Similar Not seen Not seen Similar Similar widespread widespread widespread abundant common abundant low unlikely low widespread widespread common abundant unlikely unlikely Northern pike GI . Protozoan . Monogenean – Gyrodactylus Protozoan .intestine Gill Gill Gill Gill Muscle. Protozoan – Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Protozoa-Trichodina sp.intestine Kidney Gill Gill Gill Gill Gill Kidney Cestode Nematode Myxosporean – Thelohanellus sp.Gyrodactylus* Protozoa-Costia.Apiosoma sp. Protozoa – Ichthyobodo sp.like Trematode-Digenetic Cestode Nematode Sporozoan-coccidian Protozoan . bibullatus based on tissue and fish species **For myxosporeans for which a genus is not given no attempt was made to assign risk. (trijugum?) Myxosporean – Henneguya Myxosporean – Chloromyxum sp.Apiosoma sp.skeletal GI . It is most important to note that there is little tissue reaction to any myxosporean photographed in the Devils Lake surveys.Ichthybodo sp.intestine GI . (lieberkuhni ?) Similar some Similar Similar Similar Not seen Similar Not seen Not seen Not seen widespread widespread widespread abundant abundant low unlikely unlikely Black crappie GI-viscera Gill Kidney Urinary bladder Gall bladder GI-viscera Cestode – Ligula sp.Trichodina sp Protozoan . Myxosporean – Myxobolus sp.
Kidney tubule myxospore Figure 3-2. Small myxosporean observed in fathead minnow kidney tubules. Kidney tubule myxospores Figure 3-3.30 Histology Parasite Figures Figure 3-1. Skeletal muscle myxospores . Myxosporean from skeletal muscle in fathead minnows. Large myxosporean in fathead minnow kidney tubules.
myxospores cartilage . Mysospores observed in cartilage of fathead minnow. Nervous tissue myxospore Figure 3-5. Coccidian parasite observed in fathead minnow gastrointestinal tract. Myxosporean observed in fathead minnow peripheral nerve tissue.31 Figure 3-4. Coccidian Intestinal wall Figure 3-6..
Suspect leech. Yellow perch. Coccidian sporozoan in GI tract. Myxosporean in walleye skeletal muscle. Northern pike. Skeletal muscle myxosporean Figure 3-8. Gill tissue leech . Intestinal wall Coccidian Coccidian sporozoan Figure 3-9.32 Figure 3-7.
Ichthyobodo sp.33 Figure 3-10. in kidney tubule. Northern pike. Myxidium sp. Costia Gill filaments Costia . Kidney tubule Myxidium sp. Northern pike. Figure 3-11.
. However. Epistylis sp. These eight experts were asked to address the following five questions and rank risk where appropriate. was not identified from the Red River estuary but the genus is common in the Hudson Bay drainage. and its absence in the drainage south of the US/Canada border. Yokenella regensburgei. three bacterial agents (Pseudomonas mendocina. white bass. warrants further assessment of entry routes into the Red River Basin. brook stickleback. None of these organisms or lesions was found at downstream locations (Lake Ashtabula. Brevundimonas diminuta). three bacterial agents. from the current study can be compared to a report by Dick et al. . Myzobdella lugubris. (2001) for the Hudson Bay drainage where 53 parasite species from 8 fish species (whitefish. has been identified from fish in the Red River Delta. and Gyrporhynchidae have not been identified in Canadian waters. pike. The leech. However a closely related protozoan genera. For the 2695 fish assessed for parasites from Devils Lake. goldeye. However. or the Lake Winnipeg – Red River Delta area. the presence of the Asian tapeworm from a large number of fish hosts and the heartworm (Sanguiicola occidentalis) in walleye and sauger. One parasite (a gryporhynchid larval tapeworm). and 17 tissue specific lesions were identified only from fish collected from Devils Lake. a similar community of parasites was found both macroscopically and microscopically (histology) in fish collected from Devils Lake and elsewhere in the Red River Basin. Moreover. Caprinia sp. The parasite and pathogen species list. and the lesions found in Devils Lake but not downstream was evaluated by four Canadian and four USA fish pathologists knowledgeable on the topic of fish health. yellow perch. Most of the 25 parasite species identified from Devils Lake have been identified downstream but it is worth noting that in this study 14 fish parasite species found in Canadian waters were not reported from the Red River Basin. only a single individual of the gryorhynchid parasite was found in a single yellow perch. Eight bacterial agents and 25 parasites were found in Devils Lake. sauger and walleye) and 6 pathogens were listed.34 Qualitiative Risk Assessment A total of 29 bacterial isolates and 76 parasite taxa and more than 40 different tissue-specific lesions were detected from fish in the Red River Basin. The qualitative risk from disease to the structure and function of downstream fish and fish communities from the parasite. south of the US/Canada border (Table 5). Lake Traverse.
The probability of transport of parasites and bacteria by birds was judged to be high by the fish pathologists. The probability of transport of parasites and . parasites. c) transport of fish and their parasites and pathogens through the Tolna Coulee. 3 = high).and brackish-water fish are secondary intermediate hosts. This would be a particularly important transport route for those parasites with fish-eating birds as either an intermediate or primary host for the parasite. allowing the recovery of presently flooded agricultural lands. For example. the natural outlet of Devils Lake. Using your best professional judgment and relevant scientific information how likely is it that these organisms will be transferred? (Rank: 1 = unlikely. The spill-elevation of the Coulee would be allowed to erode to lower elevations to lower water levels in Devils Lake. what are the mechanisms for transport from Devils Lake to other aquatic ecosystems in the Red River basin and Lake Winnipeg. and micro-parasites identified by histology to other aquatic ecosystems including those downstream from Devils Lake. 2 = low. These include: a) transport by fish eating birds. b) transport past the screen and through the rock and gravel filter of the current outlet of bacterial agents and certain life-stages of parasites. pathogens and histopathology anomalies found in Devils Lake and not found downstream in USA and Canada. it is expected that significant flow would occur through the Coulee to the Sheyenne River for months if not years. and fisheating birds serve as the definitive hosts. The water level in Devils Lake would have to increase by about 5 feet ( 1. Once water levels reach the base elevation of Tolna Coulee 1458 ft asl (444.4 m asl).35 1. present knowledge on gryporhynchid parasites suggests the first intermediate hosts are likely copepods while fresh.5 m) before the Tolna Coulee would serve as an outlet to Devils Lake. The Canadian and USA teams identified a variety of mechanisms that would enable the transport of potential pathogens. The probability of transport of parasites and bacteria through the constructed outlet was judged to be high by the fish pathologists. Based on the life histories and life cycles of the parasites.
Ligula and myxosporeans. 4). pathogens and lesions found in Devils Lake and not downstream? There have been no reported historic fish infectious disease outbreaks in Devils Lake. elevated temperature and toxic substances such as pesticides. The probability of transport of fish and their parasites and bacteria by humans was judged to be relative low by the fish pathologists compared with transport by birds and through outlets. elevated levels of ammonia. Eutrophication of Lake Winnipeg could also promote disease outbreak in fish in that lake from decomposition of algal blooms in summer and the consequent reduction in oxygen concentrations in the water. Canadian and USA teams identified a number of environmental factors and variables that could trigger disease outbreak from those parasites and bacterial agents that were present in Devils Lake and elsewhere in the Red River basin (Fig.36 bacteria through the Coulee was judged to be high by the fish pathologists. d) intentional or unintentional transport by humans (or their boats) of fish and their associated parasites. A nutrient rich environment (eutrophic) that supports population growth of the intermediate invertebrate hosts may increase the transmission of parasites such as Bothriocephalus. However. but this projection depends on the time of year and the extent of flow due to annual precipitation in the Devils Lake basin. and if bilge water is not drained from boats before they are moved to another waterbody. more parasites/pathogens and their fish hosts would probably be transported through the Coulee during the summer than in the winter. However. Once the water level in Devils Lake exceeded the base elevation of Tolna Coulee and discharged into the Sheyenne River. These include high intensity of infection by the pathogen. and fish stressed by environmental variables such as low dissolved oxygen. Proteocephalus. fish and their parasites can be readily transported when live-bait is moved from one major watershed to another. Eutrophication also promotes higher rates of growth for some bacteria especially the aeromonids and pseudomonids. High densities of . 2. Using your best professional judgment and best available scientific information what environmental factors are known to trigger a disease outbreak for the identified parasites. elevated carbon dioxide levels.
mongeneans and leeches.37 fish may also increase the opportunity for direct transfer of ectoparasites such as protozoans. Using your best professional judgment. and considering environmental triggers. 3. and histopathological lesions and tumors found in Devils Lake and not found downstream were transferred elsewhere to the basin. 3 = high) to downstream fish and fisheries could these organisms pose and what is their likelihood of causing disease? (Rank: 1 = unlikely. Schematic showing the relationship between stressful environment and disease in fish (Figure 1) and the similar schematic (Figure 2) for a normal environment with healthy fish. Figure 4. pathogens. it is not surprising that the Canadian and USA non-targeted . 3 = high). invertebrate or fish host can modify a local food web and change the population dynamics which could lead to a disease outbreak. if parasites. The non-targeted bacterial agents found in Devils Lake but not elsewhere in the Red River basin were Pseudomonas mendocina. Yokenella regensburgei and Brevundimonas diminuta. Stocking an exotic fish species or a new species invasion by a parasite. best available scientific information. what risk (Rank: 1 = unlikely. 2 = low. These assay methods were not a rigorous scientific assessment to determine distributions or bacteria in the Red River Basin. Because the methods to identify bacterial differed. These bacteria were identified from Devils Lake by the random nature of the assay method used to identify bacterial agents in both Canada and the USA. 2 = low.
Of the 17 tissue specific lesions identified from Devils Lake fish. The fish pathologists agreed that the risk to downstream fish and fisheries from these three bacteria was low. there are no known fish kills in Devils Lake from this parasite. opportunistic pathogens are capable of causing disease if the health of an organism is otherwise compromised. and the probability of causing disease was unlikely or negligible. However. most were caused by myxosporeans and protozoans. However.. Some of the myxosporeans were very uncommon in the tissues of fish collected from Devils Lake. They are not known to cause disease in healthy fish. Overall. while myxosporeans are unlikely to be a primary source of morbidity/mortality there are documented cases where some species affect fish performance and population numbers. To date. The potential to cause disease was judged to be unlikely or low. and the likelihood of any of them causing disease was judged to be unlikely or negligible.38 (not reportable) bacterial species lists were different. However. Since these three species of bacteria are opportunistic pathogens and are ubiquitous in the environment. it is not surprising that they were isolated from the kidneys of a small number of fish. Limited laboratory and field data are available on the pathogenicity of this group parasites. The gryporhynchid metacestode found in Devils Lake but not elsewhere in the Red River basin was considered a new parasite and host record. including soil. . However. there was little pathology caused by any of the myxosporean observed in histology sections photographed from Devils Lake and the lesions in the tissues were minimal. the fish pathologists agreed that the risk to downstream fish and fish communities from the myxosporeans and protozoans identified by histology was low. The risk of transfer of these organisms from Devils Lake is high and the potential for infection of fish by these organisms downstream of Devils Lake was also high. The risk to downstream fish and fisheries from this organisms was judged to be low based on the paucity of data on the pathogenicity of this species and the unusual low abundance and consequent low probability of detection. they are believed to be transmitted by fish-eating birds.
Later. this very unusual record for a parasite warranted a literature search and literature review to determine the pathogenicity. Yokenella regensburgei and Brevundimonas diminuta. a tapeworm of spoonbill that was previously only known in its adult form. histopathological lesions and tumors found in Devils Lake but not elsewhere in the basin. from the mesenteries and liver of mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus and striped killifish Fundulus majalis from an estuary in South Carolina. Cyclustera ibisae and Glossocercus caribaensis. or from fish in other bodies of water in the Red River basin. However. Lake Traverse. Lake Ashtabula. Hoffman (1999) reported only three accounts of gryprohynchid cestodes from freshwater fish in North America. pathogens. and lesions (describe geographical distribution). (2004) published a proposal to replace the Family Dilepididae with Gryporhynchidae . These bacteria may cause disease in fish from the Red River Basin that are already in poor health for other reasons. menidiae and found it to be conspecific with Ascodilepis transfuga. what is the North American distribution of these parasites. pathogens. The gryporhynchid metacestode found in single yellow perch from Devils Lake could not be identified to species and thus the exact geographical distribution of this organism could not be determined. distribution. Previous records were not found in the literature of larval gryprohynchid cestodes in fish from Devils Lake. Scholz (2001) re-examined the holotype of C.39 4. and invasive potential of gryprohynchid cestodes. These bacteria are ubiquitous in soil and water throughout North America. Scholtz et al. The non-targeted bacterial agents found in Devils Lake but not elsewhere in the Red River basin included Pseudomonas mendocina. Texas. but the source of these organisms should not be attributed to Devils Lake. The fish pathologists considered these organisms to be common. common. Scholtz et al. The earliest report of gryporhynchids in America is a description by Chandler (1935) of Glossocercus cyprinodontis and Cysticercoides menidiae from fish collected in Galveston Bay. and what is their relative abundance elsewhere in North America? (Rank: rare. In 2004. abundant). (2002) reported on two gryprohynchid metacestodes. Helminth surveys of fish in Mexico resulted in the finding of 13 species of gryprohynchids with most being new records (Scholz and Salgado-Maldonado 2001). and very likely present in the aquatic ecosystems downstream from Devils Lake. For those fish parasite.
information on distribution and risk could not be determined by the fish pathologists. Given the life histories of parasites and pathogens in Devils Lake. does this mitigation measure reduce the impacts for potential of transfer of these organisms to downstream ecosystems? The design of the existing filter was intended to reduce the risk of adult fish being released to the downstream environment. larval gryporhynchids were found in fish from Lake Traverse that may be metacestodes of Paradilepis sp. it is unlikely that these parasites would pose any additional risk to fish in the Red River Basin when they are transported from Devils Lake by any one of multiple mechanisms. Because the design of the existing filter was not intended to reduce risks associated with small particle sizes the risk of . and gravel filter intended to prevent the downstream transfer of fish. 5. and Valipora sp. and leech which were found to be both widespread in North America and either common or abundant. Since seven myxosporeans could not be identified to genus.. bacteria. Finally. Given that all of these ten taxa are both abundant and widespread in North America. nematodes. ten were caused by myxosporeans. protozoans. rock. Given the apparent wide distribution but rare detections of this parasite in North America and no known evidence of this parasite compromising fish health. Scholz and Harris (2006) reported the first occurrence of Cyclustera ralli (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidae) in the livers and mesenteries of mummichog from Virginia.40 and at the same time presented a review of gryporhynchid metacestode geographical distribution. virus particles or free-living life stages of parasites. The existing outlet from Devils Lake is equipped with a combination of screens. The gryporhynchids from Lake Traverse were morphologically different from the specimen collected at Devils Lake. More recently. It was not designed to reduce risks associated with smaller organisms such as larval fish. and perhaps other unidentified species. it is unlikely that this parasite would pose any significant risk to fish in the Red River Basin in the future. These findings suggest gryporhynchid metacestodes are rare in North America but their distribution is probably wider than indicated by records in the literature. Of the 17 tissue-specific lesions identified from Devils Lake fish and not found downstream in the Red River Delta.
and 2008 is a significant effort to isolate and identify pathogens and parasites in a watershed that is shared by North Dakota and Manitoba. However. All were opportunistic pathogens that could adversely affect fish health only if fish health was compromised for other reasons. and Canada fish health experts provided the following recommendations that would help to ensure that risk of certain pathogens and invasive species entering the Red River basin is reduced and would monitor for the presence of invasive species in the basin. by birds (often the intermediate or final parasite host). . Summary Three bacteria. and the potential for causing disease was negligible. all experts concluded that the risk to downstream fish and fisheries was low from the parasites and pathogens found in Devils Lake. and several lesions were identified from fish in Devils Lake that were not identified elsewhere in the basin. However.S. These organisms (3 parasites and 1 bacteria. the organisms found in Devils Lake but not downstream do not pose a risk to downstream fish species or communities even if they are transferred through the existing filter.41 these smaller organisms being transferred downstream is high. there is limited risk to downstream fish species or communities from the organisms found in Devils Lake. The fish pathologists concluded that the fish parasites and pathogens in Devils Lake could be transferred from the Lake through the gravel and rock filter currently in place. one parasite. the risk assessment indicates that. the U. no virus particles detected) pose no risk because (1) they are widely distributed (2) they have life cycles and life histories the involve multiple hosts and multiple pathways for transport and (3) there are multiple pathways to transport these organism from Devils Lake. Based on the data collected. For these reasons. The parasites and bacteria found in Devils Lake were generally widely distributed throughout much of North America. and by unintentional and intentional transfer by people (or their boats). 2007. None were foreign parasite or pathogen species. at present. Recommendations: The investigation undertaken in 2006.
C) monitor selected organisms and pathogens in aquatic ecosystems at a few biophysically unique locations to assess the effectiveness of legislation. monitoring should be targeted to specific species of concern and problematic parasites. Innovative risk analysis methods and techniques such as computer modeling should be used. This focused monitoring program should use multiple approaches and methods. and short. Use the data generated in the present study to conduct a risk assessment to fish in the Red River Basin from the parasites and pathogens found throughout the Red River Basin. and to provide a feedback loop for adaptive fish disease control and invasive species management programs. B) maintain active enforcement of invasive species policies and legislation.and longterm monitoring goals. C) field and laboratory methods for Canada and the USA should be standardized. Adopt a proactive model and precautionary approach to prevent and monitor transfer of invasive species and certain fish pathogens into the Hudson Bay Basin. methods. bacteria or virus. 2. enforcement. D) based on expert input. provincial. and could include the following key components: A) one sampling location in Canada and one sampling location in the USA. and fish disease prevention and control policies and legislation. E) fish species should be selected that are more susceptible than others to disease producing organisms. and federal agencies should adopt a general model with the following key components: A) enact legislation and develop policies to prevent transfer of foreign species and fish pathogens into the Hudson Bay basin. including Lake Winnipeg. Ongoing targeted surveillance should be coordinated with the National Aquatic .42 1. To effectively prevent transfer of invasive species and non – endemic fish pathogens into the Hudson Bay Basin. Methods should be standardized to ensure that data are comparable and compatible and costs for monitoring are kept at reasonable levels. A workshop could be held to develop protocols. B) fish parasites and pathogens should be assessed every three years at these two sites. 3. A fish parasites and pathogens monitoring program should be established based on selected and restrictive criteria. and remedial actions to prevent the introduction and spread of invasive species into the Hudson Bay Basin. state.
1935. Chandler. 6. ND. We thank Greg Linder. biological factors. References Arroyo.43 Animal Health Program (NAAHPs) that is in the process of being implemented in Canada and the USA. These population characteristics of the Asian tapeworm could be used as a model to study invasion pathways of foreign species into the watershed. or could be used to develop invasive species management strategy should an invasive species become established. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 83:123-157. A. 2005. Final report. The likelihood of these organisms moving into the basin should be modeled. 4. C. or anthropogenic activities. and a risk assessment should be undertaken as part of this process to provide decision makers with information that could be used to prevent invasive species from entering the Basin. and Kevin Amos for their constructive comments during the risk-assessment process and on drafts of this report. biota survey for Devils Lake. and distribution of the Asian tapeworm (Bothriocephalus acheilognathi) in the Hudson Bay Basin. State and provincial agencies should continue to maintain and to improve surveillance procedures to prevent transfer of organisms into the Hudson Bay Basin. rate of spread. Council on Environmental Quality. 5. The science literature and other information should be regularly reviewed by the International Red River Board and member agencies to identify those organisms that are extending their range toward the Hudson Bay Basin possibly because of climate change. Parasites of fishes in Galveston Bay. 2005. Acknowledgements This project was funded by the USA and Canada sections of the International Joint Commission. conducted July 25-30. USA. . B. Marcogliese. David J. Implement a project to determine route of transfer.
Comparative Parasitology 69(1):104-108.D. Peters. E. U. D. A. Metacestodes of the family Dilepididae (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) parasitising fishes in Mexico. Master’s thesis. South Dakota. 2nd Edition. Ossiander. Hudson. North Dakota. Identity of Cysticercoides menidiae Chandler. Fish and Wildlife Service. Leitch and M. Bozeman Fish Health Center Technical Report 07-01. U. Bray. R. Systematic Parasitology 49:23-40. K. Tenamoc. and G. Larvae of gryporhynchid cestodes (Cyclophyllidea) from fish: a review. 1984. T. . 82-103. L.44 Dick.S. Parasites and pathogens of fishes in the Hudson Bay drainage. J. 1792) from South Carolina. Bray. Jr. Computer program for sample sizes required to determine disease incidence in fish populations. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2007. Survey of specific fish pathogens in free-ranging fish from Devils Lake. A. 2005. Forstie. N. Parasites of fish from the James and Sheyenne Rivers. Survey of specific fish pathogens in free-ranging fish from Devils Lake and the Sheyenne and Red rivers in North Dakota. Ithaca. 1935 (Cestoda: Dilepididae). Hoffman.. 2001. Steele. R. and Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota. 2004. Wedemeyer. J. 99pp. Comstock Publishing Associates. T. Kuchta. Larval tapeworms (Cestoda: Dilepididae) from mummichog Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus. U. K. J. Scholtz. and Lake Traverse. K. R. Peters. F. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1999. 1981. M. J. Institute for Regional Studies. and H. State University. 2011. Bozeman Fish Health Center Technical Report 11-01. Fish and Wildlife Service. Terry A. Bozeman Fish Health Center Technical Report. Parasites of North American Freshwater Fishes. C. 2001. Survey of specific fish pathogens and parasites in free-ranging fish from Devils Lake and the Sheyenne and Red rivers in North Dakota.. T. A. U. S. and G. Scholz. Survey of pathogens and parasites in fish from Devils Lake and Lake Ashtabula in North Dakota. M. Folia Parasitologica 51:131-152. Scholz. and C. Beckham. Choudhury and B. University of North Dakota. Parasites of fishes from Devils Lake and the Souris River in North Dakota. U. S. 30: 1383-1384. and K. The Journal of Parasitology 87(4):927-928. L. New York. 2006 survey results. Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada. Holloway. Salgado-Maldonado. Prairie Naturalist 16(1):11-20. 2002. S. Peters. T. Bozeman Fish Health Center Technical Report 05-02.. Souter. 1973. 2002. Jamestown Reservoir complex. 2001. In: Science and Policy: Interbasin water transfer of aquatic biota (Eds. Hudson. G. Peters.A. Scholz. Řepová. 1766) and striped killifish Fundulus majalis (Walbaum. R. Reinisch. S.
Dick. Harris. and C. Green. Washington. North Dakota – Manitoba’s contribution to a multi-jurisdictional collaborative assessment coordinated by the United States.C. A. D. U. T. D. T. Rheault. U. S. Comparative Parasitology 73(1):130-133. Council on Environmental Quality. S. 2009. the Sheyenne and Red Rivers in North Dakota. A limited survey of biota in Devils and Stump lakes. Kling. 2005. Salki. 2006. Fish and Wildlife Service. J. and A. D. 2005.Laboratory Procedures Manual. S.A. 1766) (Cyprinodontiformes: Fundulidae) from Virginia. Ross. Williamson. Fish and Wildlife Service. L.A. Manitoba Department of Water Stewardship Report Number 2005-03. U. and Lake Traverse. Woodland (Ed). (USFWS) U.0 Edition. . D. Bozeman Fish Health Center Technical Report 09-01. Fish and Wildlife Service.45 Scholz. Water Science and Management Branch. Survey of pathogens and parasites in fish from Devils Lake.. National Wild Fish Health Survey . South Dakota. First report of metacestodes of Cyclustera ralli (Underwood and Dronen.S. 3. H. 1986) (Cestoda: Cyclophyllidea) from the fish intermediate host Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus.
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