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Auditing is an independent, objective assurance & consulting activity designed to add value and improve an organization’s operations. It helps an organization accomplish its objectives by bringing a systematic, disciplined approach to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of risk management, control and governance processes. Auditing is globally recognized. It is counter check to accounting data so that any error, mistake or fraud can be easily detected through the technique of auditing. It is the primary source of advice on efficiency, effectiveness and overall economy of an establishment. Auditing starts its journey where accounting end. In today’s society the exercise of an auditor’s to the economic and ethical leadership sets the bounding standard or in other words equips an auditor in such a way that recognizes him as a reliable body. With the growing conscious recognition of the importance of financial data in the ordering of everyday business and economic life, the need of basic economic facts is providing a constantly enlarging opportunity for the accounting profession. The auditors' reports have an especial capacity to fulfill the need for reliable and authoritative financial material not only because of the reputation or prestige of the certified statements, but also because of the significance generally attached by the business man to the functions of the auditor and his reports. These functions, and the scope of these reports, have in the past been definitely related to the character of and changes in business activity. Audits and reviews are basically procedures performed on the financial statements of a company, for the purpose of determining whether the financial statements include any material misstatements. Misstatements are essentially wrong numbers due to numerical errors, fraud, or errors in interpreting the accounting rules. Misstatements are material if they are large enough to make a difference to a user of the financial statements, such as a bank or investor. And the person who involved in auditing is known as auditor. It also provides the techniques necessary to examine the internal control system of a company and perform operational or compliance audits by internal or external auditors. The early conceptions of the functions of the auditor were such as to confine him to the duties of a mere checker and verifier of debits and credits. As business became more complex in its interrelationships there has been a compensating broadening demand for the acceptance of new and formerly unrecognized responsibilities by the auditor.
History of Auditing
Auditing existed primarily as a method to maintain governmental accountancy, and recordkeeping was its mainstay. It wasn't until the advent of the Industrial Revolution, from 1750 to 1850, that auditing began its evolution into a field of fraud detection and financial accountability. Businesses expanded during this period, resulting in increased job positions between owners to customers. Management was hired to operate businesses in the owners' absences, and owners found an increasing need to monitor their financial activities, both for accuracy and for fraud prevention. In the early 20th century, the reporting practice of auditors, which involved submitting reports of their duties and findings, was standardized as the "Independent Auditor's Report." The increase in demand for auditors lead to the development of the testing process. Auditors developed a way to strategically select key cases as representative of the company's overall performance. This was an affordable alternative to examining every case in detail, and it required less time than the standard audit. Many auditors in the likes of Mascarenhas & Turley, 1990; Abdel-Qader, 2002; Porter, et al., 2005 concurred with Flint (1988) that the aim of an audit has always been a dynamic rather than a static one. Brown (1962) asserts that the objective and techniques of auditing have changed during the four hundred years of recognizable existence of auditing to suit the changing needs and expectations of society. It can be observed that the changes in needs and expectations of society are highly influenced by the factors contextual to the economic, political and sociological environment at a particular point of time. Therefore, the review of the historical development of auditing enables one to understand, analyze and interpret the evolution of auditing due to the change in expectations of the society. Auditing as it exists today was established only in the later part of the nineteenth century, born out of the complexity of modern day business world. During the 18 th century, industrial revolution brought in large scale production, steam power, improved facilities and better means of communication. This resulted in the origin of Joint stock form of organizations. Shareholders contribute capital of these companies but do not have control over the day to day working of the organization. The shareholders who have invested their money would naturally be interested in knowing the financial position of the company, to enable them to know this; the shareholders formed a body known as the board of directors who then present as account to them at the end of each financial year. Soon, a problem of believing that their funds have been honestly and prudently managed arose, this originated the need of an independent person who would check the accounts and report back to the shareholders on the accuracy of the accounts and the safety of their investment. At this stage, it is important to have the concept of “audit” defined.
He mentioned and described the duties and responsibilities of an auditor. accounts.” F. meaning “to hear”. and whether the profit and Loss account gives a true and fair view of profit or loss for the financial period. who first published his treatise on double entry system of book-keeping for the first time in 1494. in his opinion. an English authority on auditing literature. such balance sheet properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and correct view of the state of affairs to the particular concern according to the information and explanations given to him. Such persons sent for the accountants and “heard” whatever they had to say connection with the accounts. as the balance of that account must be included in some form or other in the former”. effectiveness of the company. So we can say that auditing is an art and science of systematically scrutinizing the books of accounts and other relevant records of an enterprise in order to find out the exact financial position of the concerned enterprise for the sake of stakeholders. since then.R. He further continues that an “audit of a balance sheet involves the verification of the profit and loss account. De Paula. whenever the owners of a business suspected fraud. so as to give a true and fair view of the state of the affairs of the business. as will enable the auditor to satisfy himself that the balance sheet is properly drawn up. there have been lot of changes in the scope and definition of audit and the duties and responsibilities of an auditor. in what respect he is not satisfied. together with the books. and as shown by the books”. have defined Audit as “such as examination of the books. audit is a social phenomenon which serves no purpose or value except if its practical usefulness and its existence is wholly utilitarian. It was an Italian. It is clear from the above definitions that auditing is the systematic and scientific examination of the books of a accounts and records of a business so as to enable the auditor to satisfy himself that the Balance Sheet and the Profit and Loss Account are properly drawn up so as to exhibit a true and fair view of the financial state of affairs of the business and profit or loss for the financial period. according to the best of his information and the explanations given to him and as shown by the books and if not.Audit Auditing The word “audit” came from the Latin word “audire”. describes auditing as “ the examination of a balance sheet and Profit and Loss account prepared by others. Spicer and Pegler . 3|Page . accounts and vouchers of a business. In olden times. The Auditor will have to go through various books and accounts and related evidence to satisfy him about the accuracy and authenticity to report the financial health of the business. Auditing is the management’s primary source of advice on efficiency. and vouchers relating thereto in such a manner that manner that auditor may be able to satisfy himself and honestly report that. they appointed certain persons to check the accounts.M. Luca Paciaio. According to Flint (1988).
or individuals. mistake or fraud in the books of accounts and other relevant records of an enterprise.Audit Auditor An auditor is a professional who is responsible for evaluating some aspects of a project. business. The Code of Ethics states principles and expectations governing behavior of individuals and organizations in the conduct of auditing. The overall purpose of an audit function is to provide for verification of records. Traditionally. As a result. However. Auditing should adopt and uphold the Code of Ethics. and behavioral expectations rather than specific activities. there are now professions conducting environmental audits. Purpose of Auditing As promulgated by Auditors. an auditor is often expected to make recommendations regarding the correction of negative conditions that currently impact the organization. processes or functions in a sufficiently independent manner from the institution or subject being audited in order to add its value and improve its operations. its objectives are – To detect any error. and the veracity of the financial records of the business. Auditors often are employed for the task of determining the level of efficiency present in the production process of a business. Auditors are also to conduct themselves in a manner consistent with the promotion of cooperation and good relations between auditors and the sector. To independently identify information that which is essential to develop an overall picture of the institution/local authority. Specifically. 4|Page . describes the minimum requirements for conduct. Along with evaluating a project or aspect of a company. the efficient use of labor and other resources associated with the business. recent auditing has begun to include other information about the system. such as information about environmental performance. audits are mainly associated with gaining information about financial systems and financial records of a company or a business.
law. 1998). professional discipline. in order to determine the effectiveness of that action. equity. human resource management. or systems ability to control risk. fairness. The question of ethics is one that is linked to the history of mankind. Similarly. as members of an established profession such as accounting. Chapman (1993) defines ethics as the basic principles of the right action and rules of conduct. it evaluates conduct against some absolute criteria and puts negative or positive values on it (Hanekom. Such values and principles according to the Charter include: efficiency. 1984). To identify strengths and weaknesses of the administrative structures in order to inform decisions on overall strengthening of the institution. These criteria can be in writing or merely the interpretation by an individual of what is acceptable and what is not. function. It deals with good or bad.Audit To identify any weaknesses or administrative flows which otherwise would not be identified due to unwillingness or inability by insiders of the institutions. etc should exercise judgment and discretion in carrying out their official duties. function. or system. To provide baselines on which reforms can be assessed. where applicable. impartiality. Ethics There is no universally agreed definition of the term “ethics” (Ayee. 5|Page . To perform an independent assessment of an action. Ethics deals with the character and conduct of morals of human beings. The Charter for the Public Service in Africa refers to ethics as “the standards which guide the behaviors and actions of personnel in public institutions” Article 22 of this Charter further provides ethics to mean a sound culture based on ethical values and principles. public – spiritedness and courtesy in the discharge of duties. Therefore public service ethics are broad norms that delineate how public servants – as agents of the state and . dignity. right or wrong behavior.
as well as all other individuals working on a company audit. Hence. under evaluation based on work done on a test basis. Auditors’ tasks are performed to ascertain the validity and reliability of information. The Code of Ethics extends beyond the definition of auditing to include two essential components – • Principles that is relevant to the profession and practice of auditing. the member liable to disciplinary action. and governance. 6|Page . statistical sampling is often adopted in audits. also to provide an assessment of a system’s internal control. An auditor is the most reliable economic guard against fraud. The fact that a particular conduct is not mentioned in the Rules of Conduct does not prevent it from being unacceptable or discreditable. control. and therefore. Below they are set out together with the principle they interpret. The goal of an auditor is to express an opinion on the person or organization or system in question. Auditor as an Economic Guard against Fraud The Auditing Standard defined an audit as the independent examination of and an expression of opinion on the financial statement of an enterprise by an appointed auditor in pursuance of that appointment and in compliance with any relevant statutory obligation. These rules are an aid to interpreting the Principles into practical applications and are intended to guide the ethical conduct of auditors. founded as it is on the trust placed in its objective assurance about risk management. breaches of the Code of Ethics will be evaluated and administered according to Disciplinary Procedures.Audit Importance of the Code of Ethics A code of ethics is necessary and appropriate for the auditing profession. external and student auditors. Applicability and Enforcement This Code of Ethics is directed to internal. • The Rules of Conduct describe behavior norms expected of auditors. an audit seeks to provide only reasonable assurance that the statements are free from material error. Due to practical constraints. For association members.
Why do we have to be honest? Elderly has told us that we have to be an honest person. also other people including being loved by God will trust it. after trying to think it over and to dive into this matter. lying.a concept influenced by both quantitative and qualitative factors. etc. no matter what! These answers are not satisfying at all. it is still being asked: why do we have to be an honest person? What would be the positive side of it? How is to have an honest conduct? How that honesty is can be perform in our daily life. or sometime it also said that: we have to be honest. However. it is still need to be considered. the answer would be honesty is a very good behavior. a set of financial statements are said to be true and fair when they are free of material misstatements. HONESTY Definition In a plain meaning. Professional Ethics of an Auditor 1. In practice and its application. Mostly.Audit In the case of financial audits. by law someone's honesty is being marked by the accuracy of one's confession or what has been told against the actual and the truth of what has happened. When we stick to the plain meaning and literally. so if someone said something that is not according to the truth and the reality or did not admit about anything that according to the fact. it is often said that honesty is a very good behavior. and how is our behavior to become an honest Tao practitioner? • • • Are we not supposed to lie at all? Is it possible that we always honest in our daily life? Or is there any tolerance where we could lie in certain thing for the sake of any interest? 7|Page . honesty is to admit. this person can be regarded or appraised dishonest. "Why do we have to be honest?" . hypocrite. to say or to give information according to the fact and the truth. In educating and motivating a child to become an honest person.
honesty and responsibility when dealing with individuals or other companies in the business environment. Common traits often include transparency. honesty and integrity. Definition Professionalism is often defined as the strict adherence to courtesy. Because many small businesses have limited capital resources during the early years of operations. Work ethic is usually concerned with the personal values demonstrated by business owners or entrepreneurs and instilled in the company’s employees. they often contain similar business elements. A professional work ethic may be seen as somebody “walking the walk” regarding their personal morality and ethics. These personal traits often display themselves publicly when individuals respond to various business situations. The good work ethic may include completing tasks in a timely manner with the highest quality possible and taking pride in completed tasks. Morality and ethics usually represent the personal beliefs individuals display when working in business. PROFESSIONALISM Professionalism and work ethic are two important features in the small-business environment. The style and organizational structure may also depend on the entrepreneur’s personal use of professionalism and his work ethic when handling business situations. Features Professionalism and the work ethic demonstrated by individuals in the business environment may be built around an internal moral system or code of ethics. While businesses may be started under a variety of circumstances. Small businesses that treat each customer in a professional manner and display a strong work ethic 8|Page . an important advertising strategy is word-of-mouth. reinforce and update his/her knowledge. Function Small businesses often use professionalism to help them establish a good reputation in the business environment.Audit 2. refine the skills that are necessary for carrying out his/her tasks and enhancing his/her output and productivity”. This trait often includes a high level of excellence going above and beyond basic requirements. Business owners often use these elements to ensure that their company operates in the highest professional and ethical manner possible. This is in accordance with Article 21 of the Charter for the Public Service in Africa which states that – “Professionalism manifests itself in the public service employee’s behaviour at work and in his/her constant effort to improve.
when business integrity is present throughout the deepest layers of a company and not just at its surface. Effects Business owners and entrepreneurs may decide to create a written set of guidelines outlining their company’s professionalism and work ethic expectations. principles. Considerations Transforming an individual's understanding of professionalism and work ethic may be a difficult process in small business. If you have integrity. objectivity. These guidelines may also be included in the company's employee manual so business owners can properly train and educate individuals about the importance of the company’s professionalism and work ethic. I have discovered that at the very top of the list is the distinguishing quality of integrity. Without integrity at the helm of a company. These written guidelines can help the business owner translate his company's mission or vision to employees. nothing else matters. measures. regardless of the employee’s personal moral or ethical beliefs. “integrity” refers to a quality of a person’s character. 3. When used as a virtue term. The integrity of Auditors establishes trust and provides the basis for reliance on their judgment. In fact. it becomes the heart and soul of the company’s 9|Page . But employees often adopt the business’s professionalism and work ethic guidelines when working for a company. would you know immediately which one is the most important? Based on my many years as a business owner and entrepreneur. — Alan K.Audit when completing business functions or responsibilities can help develop positive goodwill with consumers. values. Many individuals may not have the same views on professionalism and work ethic as the business owner. methods. If you don’t have integrity. especially if they are well compensated. INTEGRITY Integrity is one of the most important and oft-cited of virtue terms. Integrity requires Auditors to observe both the form and spirit of auditing standards. nothing else matters. expectations and outcome. The concept of integrity has to do with perceived consistency of actions. It also requires observing the principles of independence. a business is usually short-lived. and absolute honesty in their work. standards of professional conduct. Simpson If I were to ask you what attribute is the most influential in regard to the success of a business. Business owners may hire these individuals if they have technical experience or expertise in the business.
• Respect the integrity of other auditors. 10 | P a g e . Just as it sounds.Audit culture and can mean the difference between a company that succeeds and a company that falters. • Not represent themselves as employees or contractors for the Construction Safety Network at any time. Without question. but in recent times has been shown as falling short. there is in fact no need to accept anything less than the best. Relationship Marketing is founded on the single and most critical characteristic. that it remains steadfast no matter what. achieving true integrity with clients often leaves many an entrepreneur bewildered. or engage in acts that are discreditable to the profession of auditing or to the organization. Since there is a wealth of competitive companies easily available and accessible via the Internet. Where Does Integrity Start? In an effort to build upon a foundation of integrity. diligence. It is the Internet’s immeasurable impact on the global marketplace that is now making the expression of integrity. Auditors shall – • Follow high standards of fairness. • Not knowingly be a party to any illegal activity. others sense it and find it very attractive. integrity and ethical conduct. Based on many years of study. Integrity in its essence must be so ingrained within the nature of an individual. • Observe the law and make disclosures expected by the law. grasping for techniques and strategies that guarantee their futures. known as “Integrity. and responsibility. and contribute to the legitimate and ethical objectives of the organization. The Internet’s Immeasurable Impact on the Marketplace! The importance of integrity has always existed among the business community. the first requirement would be to establish excellent rapport with clients. reliability and credibility extremely important. • Achieve their work with honesty.” However. Furthermore. recognizing their different experiences and areas of expertise. But integrity is not something that can be grasped and then simply used. its company and the team members. the consequence of global competition means that customers will simply not consider a company that shows any less than the highest level of integrity. the best and most practiced method for achieving rapport is by way of Relationship Marketing.
They must make a balanced assessment of all the relevant circumstances and not to be unduly influenced by their own interests or by others in forming judgments. what is the true nature of integrity? There are in fact some very basic principles that surround the qualities of business integrity. data collected and the anonymity of interviewees. Philippa Foster Black. • Not use audit information for any personal gain or in any manner that would be contrary to the law or detrimental to the legitimate and ethical objectives of the organization.Audit The True Nature of Integrity! Now you are probably asking yourself. integrity begins with a company leader who understands the qualities of integrity which then filters down throughout the company into every department and every member’s approach and attitude. In recent research performed by the Institute of Business Ethics. but it has been proven that ethical behavior pays off in financial returns. evaluating. • Be prudent in the use and protection of information acquired in the course of their duties. 11 | P a g e .” These findings deserve to be considered as an important tool for companies striving for long-term prospects and growth. The Director of the Institute of Business Ethics. OBJECTIVITY Auditors must exhibit the highest level of professional objectivity in gathering. it was found that companies displaying a “clear commitment to ethical conduct” almost invariably outperform companies that do not display ethical conduct. • Take all reasonable steps to protect the confidentiality of the audit results.an organization which is among the world’s leaders in promoting corporate ethical best practices. stated: “Not only is ethical behavior in the business world the right and principled thing to do. not only in fact but also in appearance. It is essential that auditors are independent and impartial. • Reveal any potential personal or perceived conflict of interest during initial contact or communication with a client. Auditors shall – • Sustain the confidentiality of information received during the audit. 4. • Auditors must avoid conflicts of interest at all times. and communicating information about the activity or process being examined. At its core.
respectful and efficient manner. • Commit to honest. Support for auditor opinions must be derived from quantitative. • Assist clients with any post audit questions. • Separate fact from opinion clearly and concisely in their evaluations. compromise or threaten the ability of the auditor to act and be seen to be acting independently. and not assign or subcontract any obligation of the audit program. • Strive to be complete in their evaluations and avoid any omissions. such as recommendations or explanations of results. • Protect their independence and not accept any gifts of gratuities which could influence. measurable data. diligent. Auditors shall • Engage only in those services for which they have the necessary knowledge. COMPETENCY Auditors must apply the knowledge. • Willingly and openly share their collective knowledge and always be in the pursuit of the truth and enhancement of health and safety in the construction sector. • Uphold both the actual and perceived political neutrality in order to discharge their duties and responsibilities in an impartial way. • Be consistent and accurate in their evaluations of data obtained through documentation. Auditor Violation and Disciplinary Process 12 | P a g e . and experience needed in the performance of auditing services. and experience. • Continually improve their proficiency and the effectiveness and quality of their skills. thorough and straightforward communication in the performance of audit activities. interviews and observation. • Serve the client in a conscientious. 5.Audit • Auditors must not conduct two consecutive audits for a company. skills. skills.
Permanent removal of the auditor’s certification. auditors will cooperate fully with an inquiry in the event of a breach of this Code of Ethics.Audit During the audit process. 3. As part of the Code of Ethics. Conflict of interest and 3. The Company is not required to apply progressive discipline in situations which are serious in nature and warrant severe penalties up to and including permanent removal of certification. and a stipulation to not have this reoccur. 2. All sanctions against an auditor will involve a full investigation before any actions are taken. Human resources management & malpractice Corruption Corruption threatens the economic and political fortunes of developing countries the most. conflict of interest. three specific conditions must apply for an act to be considered corrupt – 13 | P a g e . However. the Code of Ethics is the accepted practices that surround the auditor. and will result in swift intervention by the Company. corruption is the abuse of entrusted power for personal gain. Corruption 2. Bribery. Suspension of the auditor’s certification. Formal letter advising the auditor of the violation. 4. Violations of these are considered to be serious in nature. the following sanctions may be administered to the auditor for violations of the Code depending on the situation 1. In particular. A requirement to have retraining undertaken by the auditor. The undermining practices and behaviors are many but this paper emphasizes the following 1. a restatement of the required standard. and illegal deals impose heavy costs on the economy while distorting development policies and undermining confidence in public institutions. Broadly defined.
v. not citizenry as a whole. Lower investment – Foreign and domestic investors are scared off by unpredictable costs. The arm’s – length principle is violated. in investment) that do not serve the public interest. Both business and society bear the costs of corruption through. iv. lower quality. c. ii. i. and thus property rights. Reduction in competition. Lower investment means lower growth. Unresponsive policies and poor administration – Law makers in corrupt systems use their powers to help rent – seekers. while new firms face high barriers to entry. Corruption is one of the most serious unethical practices that undermine trust and confidence of public officials. Public confidence can only be reclaimed by establishing a reputation of integrity. Rampant corruption signals to potential investors that the rule of law. Officials make biased decisions (e. The bias or conflict of interest must be intentional. iii. The two parties in a transaction display bias for working with each other that is inconsistent with impartial treatment. There must be some advantage for both parties to commit this violation.Audit a. Bureaucrats are not held accountable for their performance and actually have incentives to delay services in order to extract bribes. it could involve favoritism or non – monetary gifts.g. making an investment there a risky proposition. and taxpayers swallow the cost. b. Resource Misallocation – Resources that could be put to productive uses are instead devoted to corruption. Consumers end up paying in terms of higher prices. Firms waste time and resources on rent – seeking – cultivating relationships with officials and spending on bribes. and limited product offerings. efficiency and innovation – Rent – seeking means that favored companies do not compete on market signals alone. This advantage need not be monetary in nature. are very weak in the country. Exacerbated poverty – Corruption lowers the income potential of the poor because there are fewer 14 | P a g e .
2008). 15 | P a g e . If violators on both the public and private sides conceal their transactions. inconsistent. Lack of transparency and accountability – When deals are made behind closed doors. simply raising the wages of officials will not curb corruption so long as opportunities to abuse the system persist. entrepreneurs do not know their rights and obligations. and frequently changing laws and regulations – When laws are contradictory or require heavy interpretation. ii. and unfair enforcement of laws and regulations – Even if laws to combat corruption are on the books. It also limits their access to quality public services such as health care and education. iv.Audit private sector opportunities. However. whether they serve public interest and respect the law. they escape being accountable. When laws are unpredictable. low penalties. and high cost of compliance will render laws ineffective. Inadequate. it becomes impossible to assess the criteria behind decisions. A weak justice system. self – serving decisions. the discretionary power of officials is amplified. Low public service salaries – when officials cannot meet what they perceive as their daily needs through their salaries. increasing the risk that they will make arbitrary. lax enforcement can invite abuse. Unclear. so they can not comply fully nor defend themselves for example against illegal inspections. they resort to corruption to supplement their income. but generally can be attributed to the poor design of institutions (Cipe. Causes of corruption Corruption has multiple roots. Corruption then becomes a means to circumvent inefficiency and arbitrary official actions. Some of the deepest roots include the following – i. complex. iii.
Present Day Audit Situation It is the duty of an auditor to bring to bear on the work he has to perform that skill.Audit Integrity Strategy and Procedures In order to manage the conduct of public servants. care and caution must depend on the particular circumstances of each case. not a bloodhound. or. few seem to have coordinating strategies in place. it entails having in place – among other systems – an overall national integrity strategy. cautious auditor would use. as was said to approach his work with suspicion. managing the conduct of public servants means being able to monitor their behavior and being able to detect any systematic failures that allow high degrees of misconduct in order to take prompt remedial action. sound human resource management practices. The U N D E S A (2001) survey observed that although some African countries espouse a national integrity strategy or broad ethics or uncorrupting policies. not only to punish violations but also to serve as a deterrent for other contemplating similar actions. What is reasonable skill. Similarly. measures for guiding and managing the behaviors of government employees require enforcement procedures to be effective. Essentially. or with a forgone conclusion that there is something wrong. care and caution which a reasonably careful. An auditor is not bound to be a detective. The government as the employer must have a way of enforcing minimal standards. He is a watchdog. 16 | P a g e . He is justified in believing tried servants of the company in whom confidence is placed by the company. and comprehensive disclosure procedures. He is entitled to assume that they are honest and rely upon their representations. provided he takes reasonable care.
et al. however. By 2000. the control of audit quality. the audit profession began to take increased responsibility to detect and report fraud and to assess. Some of the key reform activities include – 1. The Public Company Accounting Oversight Board which oversees audit firms and their procedures and the enforcement of accounting standards is also established as a result of this act. As a consequence of the high level of litigation and criticism against the auditors. Presently. 2004). According to Porter et al (2005). The quality of audits is being placed under scrutiny after a series of financial scandals of public companies such as Sunbeam. the act also requires auditors to report to the audit committee on those significant matters. The SarbanesOxley extended the duties of auditor to audit the adequacy of internal controls over financial reporting.. The collapses of these giant corporations had brought about a crisis of confidence in the work of auditors (Boynton & Johnson. the auditor will be in a better position to identify matters of significance and relevance to the audit profession on a timely basis. and the rotation of audit partners as well as the prohibition of conflict-of-interest situation. Furthermore by understanding the full range of risks in businesses. nearly all large accounting firms split their consulting arms into separate companies and made announcements on their more stringent rules and measures to ensure better independence and audit quality. Regulators of the auditing profession and the investing public began to doubt whether audit firms could remain independent on audit issues when the firms were so dependent on consulting revenues. Furthermore. if not controlled. audit firms have been largely providing consultancy services to businesses.Audit The auditing profession witnessed substantial and rapid change since 1990s as a result of the accelerating growth at the world economies. Adoption of the business risk approach in turn enhances auditor’s ability to fulfill these responsibilities. by the accounting bodies. governments. will eventually affect the financial statement. doubts about an auditor’s ability to continue in conformance with society’s and regulators’ increasing concern about corporate governance matters. stock exchange commissions and academics to strengthen the audit practice (Leung. Waste Management. In addition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (The US) in response to the fall of Enron the Sarbanes-Oxley Act was implemented. consulting revenues exceeded auditing revenues at all the major audit firms in the USA. Advocates of the business risk approach opined that many business risks. and report more explicitly. Xeror. the ultimate objective of auditing is to lend credibility to financial and non-financial information provided by management in annual reports. Adelphia. The business risk approach rests on the notion that a broad range of the client’s business risks are relevant to the audit. It outlines the rules on auditor independence. present-day auditing has developed into new processes that build on a business risk perspective of their clients. a spate of radical reforms was undertaken in various countries. 2006). It can be observed that auditing in the present day has expanded beyond the basic financial statement attest function. Since the early 1990s. for example. Enron and WorldCom. This is in view of the fact that a number of 17 | P a g e .
To know the details of an auditor behavior we collect information with the help of the internet. Prohibit special relationships between the auditor and client.e. i. 2. Conclusion In this report we state our perception regarding honesty. the Australian Government Commission engaged professor Ian Ramsay to investigate the issue of auditor independence. integrity and dedicated professionalism which plays an important role of an auditor. So an auditor is the most reliable economic guard to check the day today financial 18 | P a g e . audit fees. lending credibility to the financial statement.Audit commissions recognized the importance of internal control in preventing financial statement misstatement. It was recommended that auditor independence can be improved through the following ways: Include a statement in the Corporations Act that auditors are to be independent. Positive findings of an independent audit can go a long way in building public trust in the organization. Establish an audit committee to oversee the issue of non-audit services. critical changes have been made to the audit practice as a result of the extensive reform in various countries. Although the overall audit objectives in the present period remained the same. Establish an auditor independence supervisory board. We await with interest the Court's interpretation of the words "material conditions or transactions". while negative findings can serve to catalyze change. This exercise aims at building transparency and enhancing accountability of key officials and decision makers within the organization being audited. Require auditors to declare to the Board of Directors that their independence is maintained. An auditor is therefore mandated to approach his duties with suspicion and to take an investigative approach to each transaction. scope disagreements and auditor-client relationships. Ramsay report (Australia) As a result of the collapse of HIH Insurance Ltd.
People are debating and complaining about outright corruption. Form the sequence of our analysis it seems that Auditor play a vital role for each and every organization. All these activities are must be needed to present in auditors activity which is the crying need of the business world today. Some recent study shows that auditor sometimes pursue some illegal activities which may result the dissatisfaction to the external users of audit report like investors as well as country faces economic destruction only because of those fraud activities. In these discussions. integrity and unprofessional behavior in government. the public does not distinguish among those in government. all are tainted by the same brush of guilt or indolence. Here it can be said that honesty. It is also important to realize that the war against corruption. transparency. Not only the internal and external auditors. an evil that threatens and weakens public officials’ ethics and integrity. Some recent study shows that auditor sometimes pursue some illegal activities which may result the dissatisfaction to the external users of audit report like investors as well as country faces economic destruction only because of those fraud activities. But in present situation it has been seen that there are several auditors who are trying to unethical practice which are only give benefit to them but it brings negative effect in the economy. But it is true that everything has some positive and negative attributes. Therefore public awareness needs to be aroused about the evils of corruption and its implications to the economic and social structures of society. In public perception.Audit transaction of an entity. This has to change if the citizens and the general public have to regain confidence in the public service institution. integrity and dedicated professionalism play a crucial role preparing audit report on the true financial position of the entity. 19 | P a g e . but also all the employees of the entity must have honesty. lack of ethics. integrity and dedicated professionalism. whether they are elected political leaders or career public servants. cannot succeed if the community has come to accept it as a way of life.
importance of ethics.Audit Executive Summary An auditor is the most reliable economic guard to check the day today financial transaction of an entity. In this paper we tried to identify the definition of honesty . purpose of auditing. auditor violation and disciplinary process . In today’s society the exercise of an auditor’s to the economic and ethical leadership sets the bounding standard or in other words equips an auditor in such a way that recognizes him as a reliable body. integrity and dedicated professionalism and their relationship with business. present day audit situation. how they can improve their present condition and so many other factors related to 20 | P a g e .
and the veracity of the financial records of the business. Auditors often are employed for the task of determining the level of efficiency present in the production process of a business. Here we tried to describe the scenario that honesty. Auditors are also to conduct themselves in a manner consistent with the promotion of cooperation and good relations between auditors and the sector. Integrity and dedicated professionalism can elevate the position of an auditor to be the best economic guard of an establishment.” 21 | P a g e . integrity and dedicated professionalism can elevate the position of an auditor to be the best economic guard of an establishment.Audit this matter. This Report will give you a lot of information about the “Honesty. the efficient use of labor and other resources associated with the business.
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