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Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
Bulletin 22 New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
A Division of the OFFICE OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS
Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
by Vincent L. Morgan and Spencer G. Lucas
(based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger)
Bulletin 22 New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
A Division of the OFFICE OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS
Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
by Vincent L. Morgan and Spencer G. Lucas
(based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger)
The Granger Papers Project and New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
Lavas (source: The Granger Papers Project). G. Herman Mauney Gerald P. . drawn by John R. Ph. Ray Ziler Cover image: Arsinoitherium zitteli. Director.D.D. Jennifer K.. Officer NEW MEXICO MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENCE Adrian P. Morgan. Edson Way.D. EDITORIAL BOARD Spencer G.D. Johnson.D. Mary B. Hunt. Ph. Andrew B. Ph. Martinez C.D. Ph. ex officio Adrian P. Managing Editors David J. Fax (505) 841-2866 Published as Public Domain. Ph. Emerita M.D. Trevathan. Ph. Hafner. Secretary Bruce A. Governor. Jojola Imogene Lindsay. Heckert. Gary S. Original Printing ISSN 1524-4156 Published by Authority of the State of New Mexico Available from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.D. Lucas. M. President Wenda R. Ackerman.STATE OF NEW MEXICO Office of Cultural Affairs J. Ph. Howard Monica Y. Rodriguez. Ph. Black. Hunt. John P. Albuquerque. Ph. Esq.. Ph..D. Gavin. Source credit requested. Frey. therefore reproducible without permission.D. Director BOARD OF TRUSTEES Gary E. Ph. Doherty. State of New Mexico.S.D.. 1801 Mountain Road NW. Lowell R. Vice-president William F. Burks. Emerita Jared F. ex officio John T. NM 87104 Telephone (505) 841-2800. Eastham.
Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. Chronological synopsis of Granger’s 1907 Notes EPILOGUE Anna Granger and Henry Osborn Post-1907 Fayum The source for Notes Fossils. Morgan and Spencer G.. and the end ANCIENT VERTEBRATES IN THE FAYUM Arsinoitherium zitteli Andrews Moeritherium Palaeomastodon Basilosaurs FAYUM FOSSIL COLLECTING PRIOR TO 1907 The British The Germans An American in waiting Backers of an overseas expedition To collect a fossil TO EGYPT PARTIES TO AN EXPEDITION The work party: Walter Granger and George Olsen The escort party: Osborn and family Walter Granger George Olsen Cenozoic connection THE EXPEDITION “Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. 1907. 1907 Vincent L. G.. camels.” TABLE 1.and automobiles Aftermath of the 1907 Fayum expedition ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES REFERENCES AND RESOURCES Sources for Figures References Institutional Archives Interviews-Apropos Communication Supplemental Bibliography 1 3 4 4 7 7 7 8 9 9 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 18 18 19 19 19 40 44 46 47 47 49 49 51 66 66 66 68 68 68 . Lucas (based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger) CONTENTS PREFACE THE FAYUM LAKE MOERIS Life with Moeris Bahr Yusuf Memphis. W.
1907 APPENDIX C .ORIGINAL. 7 MARCH 1908 69 142 144 . NOTES FROM DIARY–FAYUM TRIP APPENDIX B . V. THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS.REPORT ON THE EXPEDITION TO THE FAYUM. N. EGYPT. 3594. 132.APPENDIX A .SUPPLEMENT.
1988). Map of Northern Egypt showing location of Fayum (after Bown & Kraus. .FIGURE 1.
Lord Cromer.FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. View of the American Museum of Natural History’s south side at 77th street in 1907. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. Theodore Roosevelt was President of the United States when he provided the 1907 American Museum expedition to the Fayum of Egypt with a letter of introduction to the British administrator of Egypt. Walter Granger. 1872-1941. . Henry Fairfield Osborn. 1857-1935.
but highly distinguished junior colleague of Osborn’s and Granger’s. Indeed Notes amplifies and clarifies the event considerably. Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip (Notes) (Fig. Thomas M. 16 Valentine Hill Road. Organized by the American Museum of Natural History’s (Fig. Simons.) onward.” a post-OsbornGranger American Museum of Natural History fares no better: its large. 1801 Mountain Road NW. linked to the Nile by a river arm known as the Bahr Yusuf (Joseph’s Canal) . states it occurred in 1906 . . PREFACE The Fayum region consists of a large. and usually do so incorrectly. as does a onetime Osborn/Granger assistant. 1 Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. 1907. or what role was played by the 1907 American expedition. Colbert (1905-2001) . Austrian freelance collector. quirks and difficulties. S. LUCAS2 (based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger) 1 The Granger Papers Project. President Theodore Roosevelt. introduces us to the relatively unknown. relating methodology and the finds for each day. Few outside the profession (and perhaps within it) know the history of Fayum fossil-hunting. S. 6). camp life and other matters. is the only firsthand and daily account of this “forgotten” 1907 expedition Simpson inquired of. Bown and Mary J. arrival of the American mail. 3). who wrote in his 1974 autobiography. whereas the entire expedition lasted nearly six months. . Recent Fayum collector. Kraus. He was still working on an enormous monograph on that subject when he died . It provides a remarkable glimpse into the daily routine of a fossil hunt. write a couple of popular articles about it at the time (1907). in the ensuing years this expedition became little known.Morgan.G. 1907. Scanty treatment of it can be found in popular literature today. The Greeks called the capital city of the Fayum Crocodilopolis.D. Despite housing Granger’s “Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. a vast salt-water lake lay at the heart of the region. Concession to the Improbable: It is odd that when Osborn wrote. Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935) (Fig. heralds the arrival of the American mail. But. 2002. NH 03824. Durham. Osborn did play an obvious and vital role. this expedition was America’s first fossil hunt on a continent an ocean’s span away and it carried the full weight of institutional backing and a personal blessing by President Theodore Roosevelt (Fig. The few historians who have mentioned it merely note it. Albuquerque. for it was sacred to the crocodile god Sobek. and bears witness to the ferocity of a khamsine (sandstorm). and helped the AMNH’s Department of Vertebrate Paleontology gain foothold on the international stage. 641). he never published further on it. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin No. Notes ends that myth: Osborn (and his family) camped in the Fayum for two weeks and then left. an account of the activities of his American Museum department [vertebrate paleontology] for 1904-08.. 2) Department of Vertebrate Paleontology curator. quirks and difficulties.. however. together with the weather and other matters. Until the Paleolithic period. Notes also acquaints us with personalities. and in his pseudoautobiography . who was worshipped there . This was gradually transformed into the smaller. It records camp life. Walter Granger (1872-1941) (Fig. He did. It apprises us of intervening events--such as the comings and goings of people and camel caravans. once-fertile depression covering 12. the sudden appearance of the unknown collector Richard Markgraf (1856-1916). 1907 VINCENT L. this expedition was America’s first fossil hunt to the Old World and carried the personal blessing by U. nocturnal interest in glue brushes. or that the 1907 American expedition was a pioneering one. The expedition lasted six months.C. 5). The region flourished from the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 B. Most of the few previously published references to the 1907 expedition that do exist infer that Henry Osborn was with it the entire time (January to June).-A. and Lucas. The dearth of published material on this 1907 Fayum expedition is puzzling. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. fresh-water Lake Moeris. MORGAN1 and SPENCER G. 1). relating methodology and the finds for each day together with the weather. NM 87104 2 Abstract––Organized and executed by the American Museum of Natural History’s Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. discovered in 1977 among a collection of his and his wife’s papers stored in a family attic. V. George Gaylord Simpson (19021984). place it in 1906-07 . . achieved considerable success. or had written for him. Few outside the profession (and few within it) know the history of Fayum fossil-hunting. Edwin H.000 square kilometers in the Libyan Desert. Little can be found in the popular literature today about the pioneering American vertebrate fossil-collecting expedition to the Fayum in 1907. and neither did Osborn after 1907. and the ferocity of an oncoming khamsine (sandstorm). located about 60 kilometers southwest of Cairo (Fig. 22. glossy 1995 salute to 125 years of expedition and discovery declares that its Fayum expedition occurred in “1907-8” ! Confusion and scant subsequent mention of the 1907 Fayum expedition was not lost on a slightly acerbic. but most of the surviving archaeological remains date to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. apprises us of intervening events such as the comings and goings of people and camel caravans.L. and illuminates this event considerably. 4). Simpson would be pleased to know that his lingering curiosity would eventually be resolved by Walter Granger himself. The region incorporates archaeological sites dating from the late Paleolithic to the late Roman and Christian periods (circa 8000 B. Egypt. Richard Markgraf. Nevertheless. While Granger did write a formal expedition report (see Appendix B). and executed by the Department’s chief fossilhunter.C. such as resolving a desert fox’s lingering. mention of the Fayum expedition was completely omitted. Expedition member Walter Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip (Notes) found in 1977 provides a rare firsthand account of the 1907 Fayum expedition. Elwyn L. he credits the Fayum expedition with awakening his interest in proboscideans (elephants and their kindred). Simons’ colleagues. It provides a remarkable glimpse into the daily routine of a fossil hunt. Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. acquainting us with personalities.
The first page of Walter Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. Notes is handwritten in pen and ink on one side each of seventy-two 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheets of lined paper. 1907 (Notes). .2 FIGURE 6.
and to pose for photographs. mudstone. Indeed. to be seen. and the temporary attention of the nation's paleontologists. such as the early whales and a primitive seacow (Eosiren). about 45-26 million years ago . limestone and shale deposited in a mixture of shallow marine and riverine environments. such as the primitive proboscideans  Barytherium and Moeritherium . Osborn went to Egypt. He was confident to leave the expedition’s work in the hands of Granger. the 1907 Fayum expedition would not have occurred. Beadnell (1874-1944) (and Osborn) called the "fluvio- FIGURE 7. In general. with his wife. son and daughter in tow. because nothing more was required of him. Cairo off to the northeast (reproduced from Baedeker. Consequently. when marine embayments retreated across the landscape to be overrun by rivers flowing to the Tethyan coast. as the experienced Granger noted wryly after a dragoman mishandled a matter affecting the comfort of Osborn's assemblage in the Fayum: “Friend Mickawi is apparently just learning that he hasn't an ordinary tourist party on his hands .even if it was not as encompassing as he fostered. highlevel entree to the Egyptian authorities and their special generosity would not have been gained. early crocodiles and proto-elephants roamed the shores and frolicked in the water. 1908). Granger had been leading the Museum's vertebrate fossil-hunting expeditions since 1898 and. the blessing of the President of the United States. It is a geomorphic feature unique to Africa (Fig. Without Osborn. whenever Osborn visited him on site. The Birket Qurun beds represent just such an inundation. Osborn's visits to the field typically involved a degree of pageantry. The overlying beds of the Qasr el Sagha Formation are about 200 m thick and consist of sandstone.” THE FAYUM Sixty-five kilometers off in the Egyptian desert southwest of Cairo. and terrestrial animals. about 50-60 meters thick. huge snakes dwelled and slithered among 3 the rushes and palms. The depositional setting of the Fayum rocks in which Granger collected was a coastal plain on the southern shore of Tethys that had periodically documented a strandline migration of the retreating sea. The Fayum depression exposes a section more than 500 meters thick of sedimentary rocks that were mostly deposited during the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene in age. . Without Osborn. and strange bihorned beasts. it was always the same: a short stay to familiarize and photo-op. The AMNH expedition focused upper Eocene beds that British geologist H. L. 7). They represent marine deposits of the Tethys seaway which separated Africa from Eurasia during the Eocene-Oligocene . to visit the Fayum. thrived.” Indeed. to make introductions. the name of one of these early whales is the basis for long reference to the Birket Qurun beds by geologists and paleontologists as the "Zeuglodon zone" (Fig. as he would for the next three. The oldest exposed rocks are the Birket Qurun Formation. 8). the fossils of the Qasr el Sagha Formation represent both marine animals. Once filled with tropical life on a coastal plain. He required nothing more. Terrain map of the Fayum. having done so for the past decade. J. luxuriant plants and trees dominated the landscape. found nowhere else on earth. but no “real fieldwork. Without Osborn. they record a complex regression of the sea. and they yield fossil shells of marine invertebrates and highly significant fossils of early whales. the expedition would not have received funding. the Fayum is a geological depression that at its deepest point is nearly 40 meters below sea level.
American institutions headed out West in earnest to find and collect specimens worthwhile to pack into their laboratories and exhibit halls for study and display.4 Strewn about the camp sited on a bed of crusted desert sand with stark rock exposures. mostly deposited by rivers. conglomerate. now transcribed as Jebel Qatrani Formation. To the Fayum's east. 1921). the waters of the Moeris sustaining a seasonal rhythm to life forms of all sorts. Life took sustenance from Moeris and the lush environs it enabled. the American fossil-hunters could make out the pyramids at Giza. at the northern edge of the Fayum and 28 meters above sea level. although the expedition also went down into the Qasr el Sagha Formation and up to the lower Oligocene beds. this oasis became a huge and thriving nugget of life in the sand. west and south also lie desert. Indeed. After Beadnell. 10). 9) for nearly six months upon arriving in late January. “Fig.. Andrews. the Fayum once cradled Egypt's largest cultivated area. Along the edge of this plateau. lay fossilized tree trunks-. These beds yield the remarkable fossil assemblage of mammals first described by British paleontologist Charles W. In fact. Paleontologists and institutions throughout the world took note. Sometimes a simple haze obstructed these views. an uncompleted religious temple. 10). To the north.. Fayum. lie the ruins of Dimé. Whole nations were involved--fossil hunting was a matter of national pride that opened the geopolitical sphere while the Americans had merely to trek past their own Mississippi River to work huge new fossil fields. Seven meters higher. the lower sequence of the Jebel Qatrani Formation is a complex pile of sandstone. The waters of an ancient freshwater lake once lapped within an ancient quay nearby. caused by evaporation and replenishment by seasonal flooding in the Nile valley. . on the cyclical growing seasons enabled by the waters of Moeris. The Americans had found rich new and untapped fields of information for paleontology. it was dangerous. Marsh (1832-1899) and Edward D. cultural and religious practices. phiom. The prehistoric Fayum lakes existed in stages that take the names of “Moeris.” which once nurtured an amazing variety of life. But how? Along the north of the Fayum today arcs a huge. the only clue to how the Fayum had achieved its earlier great vitality now lies in the sand--a natural east-west cut through which floodwaters of the ancient pre-Nile rivers 20 kilometers away once coursed westward to fill and sustain the Fayum basin. commercial. Faiyûm. Granger. Osborn” (reproduced from Osborn.. Pronounced "fei-'yoom" and spelled variously over time (e. other fossilized testaments of the flora and fauna from the tropical life of the ancient Fayum.000 square kilometers of the desert-bound Fayum depression (Fig. and both had more recently eyed areas in North Africa. colonialism aided the cause: England searched in India. had sought to solidify their own importance by gaining territorially far-reaching vertebrate fossil collections and stratigraphical studies. material important to the gatherers because it would help advance the study of evolution. Cope (1840-1897) having already made a significant impact worldwide.. Dahshur and Lisht to the east. Lake Moeris and its prehistoric predecessors dominated the 12. The Fayum of Egypt was such a place . which ascends to the Libyan Desert . With vital and continuous sustenance from the waters and soils of the Nile Valley. Indeed. As much as 340 m thick." the token of its past. 89 -.g. But the Europeans had nearly always felt the need to look well beyond their own borders. their agricultural. their documentation of fossils from this upper sequence became critical to the direction of future fieldwork . Saqqara. in particular. the opening of the American West had already reset vertebrate paleontology's newest frontier and sparked new eagerness to gain knowledge. From the escarpment near their campsite on a clear day. Not only was this desert forbidding and hot. LAKE MOERIS "Fayum" comes from the Greek. Abusir. Beneath this still-life lay silent riches. but for one privatelyfunded exception--John Bell Hatcher (1861-1904). The ancient lake “phiom” refers to is “Moeris.visible proof of a vastly different earlier life. 9). For some. Just beyond Qasr el Sagha. America had not yet mounted expeditions to search for fossils beyond its own shores. To the south. The earliest humans in the recorded history of the Fayum basin based their existence. such as shifts in the FIGURE 8. mudstone and limestone. As the century turned in 1900. they could gaze upon the remnant agricultural bowl of the Fayum. before it rises another 183 meters to the Libyan Desert. North of Birket Qurun (Lake of the Horn) (Fig. Andrews (1866-1924) that were the primary collecting objective of the 1907 AMNH expedition. Natural changes in the lake levels were. who collected in the Argentine Patagonia in the late 1890s.Section through the Eocene and Oligocene . Life with Moeris For thousands of years. nearly vertical escarpment called Jebel Qatrani (Tar Ridge). lie the ruins of Qasr el Sagha (Temple of the Goldsmith). they saw the Qatrani Hills that led to the Libyan Plateau. European institutions. the work of betterknown early American vertebrate fossil collectors such as Othniel C.” These successions are marked by distinguishable fluctuations in volumes of water and shoreline occupied (Fig. and to the west they knew lay a valley they called Zeuglodon--the valley of the fossil whales. Germany searched in the Near East. Feiyum). meaning "lake. of course. Fayum. But other natural events caused dramatic non-seasonal fluctuations as well." These were later termed the lower sequence of the Gebel Qatrani or Qatrani Formation . Fayyum. It is at this southwest terminus that the 1907 American Fayum expedition camped and collected (Fig. of course. the terrain rises sharply and dramatically to a plateau 164 meters above sea level. is the southwest terminus of a string of sandstone beds that stretches from the Fayum all the way back to Cairo. a fortified position that once served as a point of departure for Fayumbased caravans negotiating oases in the Libyan Desert to the north. marine series (beds). Sometimes extreme winds from the southwest called khamsines would blow across the landscape with such force that flying sand particles blocked the views entirely. at 35 meters above sea level and about eight kilometers northwest of Dimé.
A. Map of the Fayum. and of the sea. (3) upper Fluvio-marine Palaeomastodon beds (lower Oligocene) (reproduced from Osborn. Stratigraphic chart . 1936). with the (1) lower marine Zeuglodon beds (middle Eocene).section showing the lowering levels of the ancient Lake Moeris.5 A B FIGURE 9. . B. (2) middle Qasr-el-Sagha Moeritherium beds (upper Eocene). of the brackish Birket-el-Qurun.
FIGURE 10. Map of Fayum indicating extent of earlier lakes: 1. Maximum extent of Premoeris Lake; 2. Maximum extent of Protomoeris Lake; 3. Maximum extent of Moeris Lake (reproduced from Wendorf and Schild, 1976).
carving rivers of the Nile valley, earthquakes, and, perhaps, even the whims of El Niño . The ancient Lake Moeris known to historical accounts was the last stage in a long series of stages that began much earlier. Each stage reflected a cycle of noticeable expansion and contraction in lake level, and each can be documented by physical evidence of their shorelines (Figs. 10 and 11). Paleomoeris marked the first stage and ran from prehistory to 7,000 B.C. Its water level fluctuated from between 11 and 15.5 meters above sea level. Premoeris was the second stage and lasted a thousand years from 6,500 B.C. to 5,500 B.C. The lake's level during Premoeris began 10.5 meters above sea level, rose to 28 meters and then fell back again. The shoreline, of course, extended beyond that of Paleomoeris. Protomoeris followed Premoeris in 5,500 B.C. and lasted to 4,500 B.C. During the time of Protomoeris, the lake rose 24.5 meters above sea level before falling back to 8 meters above in 4,800 B.C. These are
the stages assigned by scientists to compose the history of the Moeris lakes, each being based on measurable shoreline remnants left by distinct major and natural fluctuations in the lake's level . But, none of these stages ended the way Lake Moeris would. Lake Moeris, the final stage, began in 4,000 B.C. with recorded history and lasted until 500 B.C., at about the time humans sought to regulate the sometimes devastating fluctuations affecting its level. Moeris averaged 13.5 meters above sea level when this stage began and had declined only 3 meters when Herodotus visited it sometime after 449 B.C. . Humans came to occupy the Fayum basin because they could live well off the lake and the agriculture it enabled. But seasonal and sporadic flooding in the Nile sometimes caused extremes in Lake Moeris that threatened the humans. So they sought a way to control it. Lowering the lake artificially by means of carefully draining it when necessary was one way, and the way that was decided upon and implemented by the humans. The result was that an average and predictable
ebb and flow in Lake Moeris’ level was effected with only minor fluctuations of about 2.5 meters caused by seasonal flooding from the Nile and by evaporation. A constant and happy life with Moeris was thus made feasible. Humans had harnessed Moeris into a manageable, cyclical rhythm provider. Seasonal floodwaters now became regarded as godsent, each new season was celebrated annually with religious symbolism. Every aspect of life in the Fayum became more securely tied to the more predictable waters of Moeris. Humans flourished as a result, this goddess of nature now tamed. But, as human presence and endeavor broadened within the Fayum, demands increased. More productivity was needed not only to sustain life, but to drive a now-flourishing inter-Mediterranean nation commerce. Bahr Yusuf The humans had also enlarged the natural cut that conveyed excess floodwaters and rich sediments from the Nile valley across the desert to the Fayum basin to enable navigation between the Nile River and Lake Moeris. This new water route was named Bahr Yusuf (Joseph’s Canal) after the Biblical-era architect who designed it (Fig. 10). When Bahr Yusuf allowed water-borne traffic in and out of the Fayum, it enabled the Fayum’s goods to travel up the Nile into the Mediterranean Sea and to ports all around. The Fayum's commerce boomed as it tapped directly into the flow of commerce between Egypt and its world trading partners. Almost instantly, at the Bahr Yusuf's mouth on the Nile River, arose a vibrant city of commerce called Memphis. Memphis, and the end For a time, Memphis rivaled all others as the finest city in Egypt. A line of foreign rulers that began with the Persians in 525 B.C. chose to govern from Memphis. Alexander the Great, who defeated the Persian King Darius III in 332 B.C., also seated his Ptolemaic rule at Memphis and, thus, also kept part of his army in Egypt. Fair-featured, blonde and red-haired children that appeared in Memphis and the Fayum in the years thereafter were known as the children of Iskander--of Alexander . As the Fayum’s population and Mediterranean commerce surged, the pressure increased for more land to be devoted to agriculture. None was readily available. Irrigating sections in the desert seemed laborious and uncertain, if not unfeasible. It was Alexander’s successor, Ptolemy I, Soter, ruler from 323 to 285 B.C., who believed he had the solution. Soter decided to drain Lake Moeris sufficiently to retract its shoreline
7 enough to expose needed land for cultivation. But to accomplish this, the lake had to be lowered to a level not previously attempted by humans during their earlier flood control projects. Soter implemented his plan, and it seemed to work initially; new land was created by lowering Lake Moeris. But the ultimate consequence was devastating; Lake Moeris began to dry up, and there was no way to stop it. By lowering Moeris as he did, Soter also dramatically reduced the lake’s surface area. While Moeris was probably doomed anyway, the Nile River slowly entrenching into its own valley so that it would soon stop flooding into the Bahr Yusuf, Soter had prematurely put Moeris at the mercy of the sun. The sun burned upon the lake as it always had, but now, though there was less surface area of Moeris to burn, the volume of Moeris had diminished significantly. Evaporation accelerated, and the lake slowly began to shrink. Over the years, the evaporation became more effective. Annual intake from flooding in the Nile Valley was no longer sufficient to offset evaporation’s gradual effect. As each cycle passed, both Moeris and the Nile eventually fell below the level of the Bahr Yusuf canal. Lake Moeris' link to the Nile was now lost and Moeris ultimately vanished. With it went the Fayum’s immense bustle of life and commerce and, by 1,000 A.D., even the city of Memphis was gone. Evaporation continued to lower the lake: by 280 B.C. it fell from 22 meters to 2 meters below sea level. The lake was at that level through Ptolemy's rule. But, by 200 A.D., it was down another 5 to 7 meters below sea level and, by the 13th century, it was at 44 meters below sea level, nearly at the actual bottom of the Fayum basin itself (Fig. 11). This is where its successor, Lake Qurun (Birket Qurun), sits today in the northwest corner of this once vast and rich area (Fig. 10). The brackish waters of Qurun are one-tenth the size of Lake Moeris. A small agricultural area now borders Qurun to the south. The rest of the Fayum is reclaimed by desert. This is where evidence of its ancient life now lies mostly buried beneath the sand . ANCIENT VERTEBRATES IN THE FAYUM In the ancient Fayum, 26-45 million years ago (mya), a coastal plain met the east-west shoreline of the Tethys Sea (Fig. 12). The lush tropical plain and warm ocean waters teemed with life. This variety of ancient life could not be sustained in the environmental conditions that characterize this area today: the rocks and fossils of the Fayum describe a tropical paradise lost long ago (Figs. 13 and 14).
FIGURE 11. Fluctuations in levels of Lake Moeris summarized (reproduced from Wendorf and Schild, 1976).
8 and flora of North Africa . An assemblage of fossil birds, for example, indicates they were trapped in deposits formed in slow water current conditions with their associated freshwater vegetation. The avian fauna, very similar to that found in tropical swamp and river areas of Central Africa, indicate that during the late Eocene and early Oligocene, the Fayum was a subtropical to tropical lowland coastal plain with seasonal rainfall. It contained one or more slow-flowing, swampy rivers heavily overgrown with papyrus, reeds, and floating plants like Salvinia and water lilies. Terrestrial vegetation in the ancient Fayum included liana vines, tall trees, and mangroves. The once-tropical, heavily-forested nature of the ancient Fayum, as indicated by its geology and its assemblage of fauna, is confirmed by the type of environments occupied elsewhere today by similar plant and mammal species. Indeed, the modern environment most comparable to that of the ancient Fayum is a zone of swamp land, forest and grassland that bounds the northwest portion of Uganda's Lake Victoria . The Fayum fossils show that the faunas of the region were highly unusual and without immediate comparison elsewhere. Approximately 20 orders of ancient mammals are known to be preserved as fossils in the Paleogene strata of the Fayum Depression. These fossils provide key insights into many aspects of mammalian evolution. Included are ancestral "stock" forms upon which were built the important lineages from which some later African mammals developed. Other forms were evolutionary experiments in the Fayum that ended abruptly without leaving any descendants. The fossil mammals include anthracotheres, arsinoitheres, creodonts, giant hyracoids, proboscideans, barytheres, basilosaurs, sirenians, rodents, bats, elephant shrews, insectivores (including the Ptolemaiida), marsupials, and parapithecid, propliopithecid and tarsiid primates [24(A)]. Non-mammal fossils include giant constrictor boöids, sea snakes, turtles, crocodilians, lizards, sharks and skates, lung fish, teleost (bony) fishes, many birds, a wide range of plants as well as trace fossils of social insects [24(B)]. Many of the Fayum's fossil mammals appear to be native African in origin, including some of the early primates, macroscelidians, tenrecoid insectivores, ptolemaiids, proboscideans, arsinoitheres and, possibly, sirenians . The most unusual members are among the larger mammals, many of which were very archaic and probably native to the Fayum. Some of the better known are Arsinoitherium zitteli, Moeritherium lyonsi, Palaeomastodon, and the basilosaurs. These large mammals were of particular interest to Henry Osborn: his desire to collect fossils of them gave impetus to the American Museum’s Fayum expedition. Arsinoitherium zitteli Andrews The giant subungulate Arsinoitherium zitteli from the late Eocene was a 3.4 meter long quadruped that stood taller than the largest rhinoceros of modern times (Figs. 14A and 15). Its large skull featured a huge pair of bony horns growing upon the snout side-by-side rather than in an anteroposterior line, as occurs in some rhinoceri. Although outwardly rhinoceros-like in appearance, Arsinoitherium was not related to that line. Instead, it is classified as one of the largest of the few known representatives of the order Embrithopoda--an evolutionary dead-end with no known ancestors or descendants. The precise placement of this order is not yet known, but it is generally positioned closest to the proboscideans and their relatives, the tiny rock hyrax, or to the perissodactyls . Arsinoitherium probably inhabited the Fayum's marshy areas and the surrounding low jungle and thick forest vegetation. It was heavilybuilt and slow-moving. Its dentition consisted of 44 high-crowned teeth that formed a continuous series from molars to incisors, these being primitive in construction though suitable for coping with a diet of the low foliage that grew around the margins of swamps and forests. Other remains of this unusual group of mammals have been found north of Tethys in Romania and Turkey, so they were not limited to the
FIGURE 12. Osborn’s map depicts the world as he reconstructed it during the time of the Fayum, correctly portraying separation of Africa from Eurasia by a seaway (Tethys, called “Mediterranean” by Osborn). However, other aspects of the map are now known to be incorrect (for example, existence of Central America) and Middle Eocene is too old an age designation for the Fayum fossil beds. Osborn’s caption is over-stated as well, given that the 1907 Fayum expedition was the Museum’s first exploration beyond American shores.
In the late Eocene to early Oligocene, about 34-30 mya, when dense tropical plant life proliferated throughout the Fayum, strange animals roamed throughout a haven of lakes, swamps and slow-moving rivers as they fed or harbored in trees, grasses, papyrus, reeds and floating vegetation. Of the many forms of prehistoric life that variously existed in the ancient Fayum, the Fayum’s mammals were among the most unique on earth. Some were forerunners of today’s mammals, such as the elephant and the whale. Some evolved no further, such as the bizarre, laterally bihorned Arsinoitherium (Fig. 14A). Fossil remnants of Fayum vertebrates, as well as of its trees, plants and other life forms, remain the principal record of the Paleogene fauna
FIGURE 13. Ancient Fayum proboscideans as restored by Margaret Flinsch in 1932 under the direction of Osborn. Palaeomastodon (upper left), Phiomia (upper right) and Moeritherium (in water, center) were all critical to understanding the origin and evolution of the proboscideans.
The nasal bones of Palaeomastodon were retracted up on a bulbous skull (Fig.9 A B C D FIGURE 14. Both sets of second incisors in both jaws were enlarged into short. Lavas. and a set of simple. two “Phiomia. Short. 14D). a Paleomastodon. The upper . a Moeritherium. thick legs terminated in broad feet with flat hooves. Moeritherium was a heavily-built. from which the animal derives its generic name. Palaeomastodon stood up to 2. Lavas in 1995. deified his sister. 16A). and had long legs and an elephantlike skeleton (Fig. bilophodont teeth. Egyptian princess Arsinöe. as well. pig-like animal that stood about 1 meter high at the shoulder. also once known as the "Dawn Elephant" because it was believed to have been the direct ancestor to later proboscideans (Figs. Philadelphos.) Fayum. 13 and 14C). A. living not unlike a hippopotamus or tapir during the early Oligocene. Moeritherium possibly frequented thickets at the edges of the Fayum's lake. The generic name comes from the Greek-born. Palaeomastodon The Paleogene Fayum sediments have also produced important proboscideans more advanced than the Moeritherium--the earliest mastodons. These animals are now known elsewhere in Northern Africa. and their distant descendants possibly include modern elephants. Moeritherium Another large Fayum mammal was Moeritherium. but there was a highly mobile upper lip similar to that of a tapir. Ancient Fayum mammals as restored by John R. suggesting the presence of a trunk. D. Several closely-related species have been found from localities north of Lake Moeris. stout. from late Eocene to early Oligocene deposits in the Fayum.4 meters high at the shoulder. Both were much larger animals than Moeritherium. as well as two horizontal tusks protruding from the lower jaw. are closely related to each other. two Arsinoitherium zitteli. but the first discovery of moeritheres was in the Fayum. Philadelphos. B. There were two downward projecting tusks from the upper jaw. marshes and coastal plain. whose name also predominated a number of religious centers within the Fayum oasis (Ptolemy II. sister-wife of Egypt’s foreign ruler pharaoh Ptolemy II. The genus Palaeomastodon (including Phiomia). Now it is considered to be from an aberrant line very close to the true main lineage of proboscideans (which still remains unknown). hoping to gain acceptance of their marriage by his Egyptian and Greek subjects). There was evidently no perceptible trunk. C.” (Drawings by John R. boar-like tusks.
Skulls of: A.10 FIGURE 15. Apterodon macronagthus. (Drawings by John R. Prozeuglodon atrox. E. D. Lavas. Skeleton of Arsinoitherium zitteli. C.) . B. Moeritherium. Protosiren.) A B “Phiomia” wintoni Moeritherium C D Prozeuglodon atrox E F Protosiren Apterodon macronagthus Ptolemaia grangeri FIGURE 16. (Drawing by John R. and F. Ptolemaia grangeri. “Phiomia” wintoni. Lavas.
while the British military ruled Egypt . Lyons (1864-1944). who joined Beadnell in 1901 for further fieldwork in the Fayum. a Basilosaurus skeleton with external hind limbs and individual pelvic limb. was also the first to describe (in 1884) the so-called "Berlin Specimen" of the Archaeopteryx found near Blumenberg. Their efforts. the hyracoids Saghatherium and Geniohyus. 17). were remarkable. In 1994. It shows adaptations more suited to swimming than those of Ambulocetus. 16C). and on how and when their terrestrial ancestors returned to the oceans. Beadnell. 1874-1944. German paleontologist Wilhelm B. Captain (later Sir) Henry G. More recent discoveries of early whales in Pakistan are also of forms with feet. and thus appears to lie between Ambulocetus and Basilosaurus. however. foot. the first recorded Fayum fossil find was of tree remnants described by Arthur Bedford Orlebar (1810-1866) in 1845 and 1846 . from 1901 to 1904 north of Birket Qurun (Fig. Dorudon (=Zeuglodon) osiris. Modern whales were descended from land-dwelling. and may have been used as copulatory guides or to aid movement through shallow water. . Andrews and Beadnell each published initial papers on their finds in 1901 and followed them with comprehensive studies in 1905 and 1906. It had wellformed fore and hind limbs and it may have been able to move on land as well as swim (which is assumed to be the main means of locomotion). Hugh J. These three whale fossil types have supplied much-needed information on the chronology of cetacean evolution. but shows adaptations for swimming more akin to the latter. Exploration of the fossil-wood zone by Beadnell and Andrews produced more fossils of land mammals such as the two-horned Arsinoitherium. But. Beadnell soon located fossil mammals and reported them to his director. The fossils were assigned to British Museum of Natural History paleontologist Charles W. The Fayum finds provided a key link between ungulates and modern cetaceans (whales lack external hind limbs though they retain vestigial ones as embryos). incidentally. two other ancestral whales were found in Pakistan that provide evidence on the position of the basilosaurs within the cetacean lineage. Basilosaurs The most important marine mammals from the Fayum are undoubtedly the basilosaurs. in 1877. and until recently. L. the British geologist Hugh J. ancient land vegetation that once edged the stream course in the Eocene . a huge boa snake more than 9 meters in length (Gigantophis). hoofed ungulates. The Eocene whale Rodhocetus also was found in Pakistan later in 1994 . stationed with the Egyptian Geological Survey in Cairo. L. The first Fayum vertebrate fossil find was an archaeocete whale collected by the German geologist Georg Schweinfurth (1836-1925) in 1879. a fossil sea-snake (Pterosphenus). The British In 1898. Beadnell and Andrews found a fossil of a Palaeomastodon. The Archaeocetes (the group which includes the basilosaurs) now thus appear to fall in line somewhere between Ambulocetus and the modern toothed (Odontoceti) and baleen (Mysticeti) whales. they have always been restored showing whale-like flippers. This latter site they termed a "fossil-wood zone" because it was distinguished by the fossil evidence of an earlier. Andrews. not paddles . an amphibious. In 1990. and was a small seal-like animal with a typical basilosaur-like skull. because it retains ancestral features of parts of the vertebral column and pelvic girdle from the former. undertook to explore and map the eastern and northern border areas of the Fayum Depression. also known as the zeuglodont whales (and technically called protocete archaeocetes) (Fig. Over 240 skeletons of the whale-sized Basilosaurus are known. The results FIGURE 17.11 jaw tusks may have evolved from the much shorter tusks of a Moeritherium-like ancestor. Ambulocetus natans was older than Basilosaurus. Dames. among others. marsh-dwelling proto-elephant (Moeritherium). and the giant hyracoid Megalohyrax. a remote ancestral proboscidean (Barytherium). it attracted little interest. FAYUM FOSSIL COLLECTING PRIOR TO 1907 Although Fayum fossils may have been known to the ancient Egyptians . the primitive mastodon-like Phiomia. At a point higher in the escarpment. 18) led them to discover. Beadnell (Fig. even though Dames placed the whale in a new species. Germany. and others. Dames (1843-1898) of Berlin's Museum of Natural History published on Schweinfurth's find in 1883 and again in 1894. a sea-cow (Eosiren). and toe bones was described for the first time. The tiny legs of the basilosaurs may have been derived from mesonychids. Progression through water was probably by a combination of paddling the hind limbs and undulating the spine up and down.
together with the Stuttgart's Consul in Egypt Teodore Wanner (1875-1955). very well-connected. An American in waiting Osborn's eagerness to go to Egypt was tempered. as he had the British earlier. Among the fossils they found were excellent specimens of Arsinoitherium and Basilosaurus isis. The Germans Granger’s expedition narrative Notes suggests that. and that Markgraf had accomplished it all under particularly difficult economic and physical conditions . he eventually met Markgraf. Because of their significant presence in and familiarity with Egypt. where they spent 10 days exploring and collecting in the upper Eocene strata of the Qasr el Sagha Formation and in the Oligocene strata of the Jebel Qatrani Formation. Well-suited to a lonely rigor of working in the desert. Fraas decided he might put Markgraf's skills to use by tutoring him in the collection of vertebrate fossils. by a FIGURE 18. Markgraf was a former mason and musician from Bohemia. The honor recognized that Markgraf's splendid collection brought national pride to the Kingdom of Württemberg. he was held in great esteem by German and. 1907. take American fossil-hunting overseas . Osborn entered into paleontology as a professional hobby. however. The larger studies. 3) was curator of the Museum's relatively new Department of Vertebrate Paleontology and destined. Markgraf left collecting in the Mokattam Hills to explore west of Cairo with Fraas’ colleague. later.12 Markgraf’s interest in collecting fossils and antiquities first drew the attention of German paleontologist Eberhard Fraas (1862-1915) during a visit to Egypt in 1897 . the English-speaking British were the logical choice to give it. their presence via Richard Markgraf in 1907 was unexpected by the Americans (and perhaps the British). Upon confirming reports from the British.” Fraas was delayed in reaching Egypt through a series of mishaps. and Hans Georg Stehlin (1870-1941) of Basel. Sadly. Fraas. were Beadnell's 1905 Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt and Andrews' 1906 A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayum. despite German publications on Fayum fossil finds in the early 1900s. Cross section of the strata exposed in the Fayum depression. Born rich. Switzerland. 19) set out yet again from his small farm in the eastern Fayum village of Sennoures (Sennourés or Senûres) to head northwest in search for fossils. Osborn (Fig. He had to bide his time. The venture was financed by Wanner. the lone and sickly Austrian artifacts-cum-fossil-collectorand-dealer Markgraf (Fig. Markgraf's work for Fraas. Nevertheless. his wife died and Markgraf had to leave their infant daughter behind in the care of others. For the duration of his short career. British. north of Birket el Qurun drawn by H. L. Sirenia and Proboscidea. by so doing. Ernst Stromer (1871-1952). . and wait for the British to finish their work in the Fayum. It is not clear whether Osborn was aware of and politely waiting for Fraas to complete his expedition work. Schlosser in Munich. in 1908. whose poor health forced him to relocate to a different climate. he continued the tutoring through correspondence. Markgraf was so enchanted by the Fayum that he eventually settled there. FIGURE 19. Fraas and Markgraf finally departed for the Fayum through the Giza pyramid field in early March with three Bedouins and a string of camels. He also had a keen eye for opportunity and talent . 1906. He headed to the same area at the northern edge of the Fayum where Schweinfurth. followed by Osborn in 1900. such as the Zeuglodontia. Osborn was thus anxious to inspect the Fayum himself and. and Stuttgart’s natural history museum in particular. Eberhard Fraas returned to Egypt in early 1906 for a short expedition into the Fayum with Markgraf . Metz and Fraas's brother Victor. and the Germans. Beadnell (reproduced from Andrews. and called the “1906 German Expedition to the Fayum. that certain groups of fossil mammals found in North America. French and American paleontologists. The British reports on fossils from the Fayum confirmed earlier published speculation in 1899 by Tycho Tullberg (1842-1920) of Uppsala. and eventually honored by the King of Württemberg . one of whom was the illustrious and supremely ambitious Henry Fairfield Osborn presiding at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. and other paleontologists in Frankfurt . who was collecting artifacts in the Mokattam Hills. As Fraas and Markgraf became better acquainted. He would need local hospitality and assistance to facilitate his effort. erudite monographs each. to become president of the Museum. One area they visited was the British localities in the north section of the Fayum near the Jebel Qatrani escarpment . would surely also be found in Africa . as he saw it. When Fraas returned to Germany. In 1903. While he remained in Cairo. Markgraf became an avid and excellent fossil collector for hire. He bought a small farm in the village Sennoures on the eastern edge of the oasis and began venturing seasonally to the northern sector of the Fayum to collect Mesozoic and Cenozoic specimens for Fraas in Stuttgart. Beadnell and Andrews had collected. Egypt . and a German businessman in Cairo named Gustav Metz also began to provide for Markgraf financially . Sweden. were soon recognized by the King of Württemberg (who ruled from Stuttgart): the Order of the Crown was conferred upon him in 1904. They reached the Fayum on March 11. Both works fascinated paleontologists around the globe. J. but could not. Fraas had planned to journey on to eastern and southern Africa. 1906). Richard Markgraf at his camp in the Fayum on May 14. and seemingly indomitable. as Osborn mulled over his forthcoming Fayum expedition.
The sun baked during the day. Morgan had taken a particularly strong. who later served as U. and had longstanding ties to two key and devoted American Museum patrons. called “dragoman. Choate (1832-1917). Morgan nephew. Arthur M. it was hoped. He had made a large fortune in railroad supplies and banking. Osborn’s failure to also note the German presence in the Fayum is not explained. as well as an American Museum trustee. no shelter. To collect a fossil Game as he sounded (“I am going into the Fayum desert to see what I can find”). In short. as 1907 loomed and nephew Osborn was finalizing his plans for the Fayum fossil expedition funded largely by AMNH president Jesup.. a co-founder and significant patron of the American Museum of Natural History in 1869. In his entries following that moment (Notes. and the ancient religious cultures of the pharaohs” . through his wealth. The single-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). would. French and Americans . Indeed. no vegetation. Fraas. Feb.000 to the department annually and later set up a large publication fund. Beadnell and by the British Museum. fossil collecting in the Fayum promised to be particularly trying. life-long interest in Egypt (“my beloved Egypt”) after making an impromptu trip there with his family in 1871 . Morris Ketchum Jesup (1830-1908). Osborn and Choate would serve as honorary pallbearers at J. George Olsen  (Figs. and it may have been Morgan (“Uncle Pierpont”) who persuaded Osborn to come back from Princeton in 1890 to join the AMNH (and Columbia University) and create a department of vertebrate paleontology (DVP) . particularly the Arsinoitherium and the proboscideans Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. (1858-1919). James. especially of the smaller fauna. introduced in Egypt by conquering Persian general Cambyses in 524 B. Osborn veritably preened as the moment neared. In addition to natural history. he would become drawn repeatedly to Egypt by “his fascination with sacred places and objects--from the rituals and pageantry of contemporary Islam to remnants of Coptic Christianity.” Despite the length of his delay. Josephine Adams Perry. Morgan also helped elevate Osborn to the presidency of the AMNH in 1908 . I am sorry to say. Thereafter. The . Simply walking around to prospect for fossils was arduous. he wrote to South African paleontologist Robert Broom (1866-1951). Entrepreneurs Jesup and Morgan back in New York City surely were content to know that their city’s prime museums were finally present in Egypt. and Theodore Roosevelt. in particular. facilitate the work of the party . and go directly to the fossil bearing Eocene deposits in the north of the Fayum depression. so I shall not see you. was essential to sustaining desert work. as the American Museum party gradually made its way through the pyramid fields and into the Fayum . placing a fullscale expedition into the northwestern part of it in 1907 still required an interpreter-guide. Proboscidea . and to Capt. Letters of introduction to Lord Cromer. Sr. Jesup was not a mere businesssman-turnedidealist now finding ways to spend his time and money. British Consular agent.. He was also 13 very well-connected. and did not intend to do so in the Fayum . The two New York City museum expeditions would meet briefly at the Lisht pyramids in early February. Lucretia.professional obligation to delay his effort until others already there were finished. Conditions in the desert environment beyond the northern shore of Lake Qurun were rigorous--no natural water. the New York City lawyer handling incorporation by the AMNH in 1869 was Joseph H. funded largely by Morgan . Backers of an overseas expedition Through the generosity of President Jesup this expedition was made possible. Granger seems to have been completely unaware of Markgraf’s existence. and Osborn had already selected the men to do it: Walter Granger and his field assistant. Jesup “was a lover of science and. here to explore thoroughly the zone from which the extensive collections have been obtained by the Egyptian Survey Department through Mr. P. Director General of the Survey Department. Perhaps the common man theme arose from his own humble beginnings. though the nights were cool. Adding to the mix. through Dr. I am going into the Fayum desert to see what I can find . secure an outfit there. 1907. P. 1907. Although the Fayum was a world-renowned tourist attraction boasting a light railway system in addition to roads . in 1891. According to one biographer. at the highest level of American society and power. I am just hurrying off for Egypt--the north of Africa. Morgan’s funeral . Junius Spencer Morgan .S. Lyons. Old Testament landscapes. J.. of course. The plans for the trip as mapped out by Professor Osborn were for the party to proceed from New York to Cairo. However. who was about to visit New York and wanted to meet with Osborn. although Osborn then continued to maintain a direct role in matters at the DVP. Granger wrote “[Markgraf] is apparently a prospector of some experience. Morgan contributed $16. Uncle Pierpont was also interested in ancient history. the American president (1901-1909).. H. and would serve him very well for most of his tenure at the American Museum from 1890 to 1933 . The chief object of the expedition was. On January 4. G. the wellearned prior claims of the English precluded any thought of our visiting this region so long as the English exploration continued . to secure a collection of these extremely interesting forms.. The Americans would not be slipping into the Fayum so unceremoniously as had Markgraf and Fraas.. But. married another J. prior to meeting him in the Fayum on February 16.C. was now also its president (since 1881). Indeed. Henry Osborn’s family and socio-economic ties were magnificent. As one author described it. Further. (1832-1878) were fellow co-founders in 1868 of the American Museum of Natural History .” and “--[Markgraf] has done considerable work here for Prof. just rocks and sand. Andrews. This was an expedition that held interest beyond North Africa’s vertebrate paleontology. primarily for Osborn’s prospective and monumental monograph. Jr. 20A and 39B). a sister of Osborn’s wife.. Morgan and Theodore Roosevelt. Lythgoe (1868-1934) of New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art was also preparing for its first pyramid expedition to Egypt. had dedicated himself to bringing science to the common man” . It may reflect the politics of the situation--the British rule over Egypt at that point--as well as Markgraf’s already established presence in the Fayum as the resident freelance collector working for paying clients such as the Germans and eventually the British. and then retired to devote his life largely to his passion for science and education. 1907. ambassador to Britain’s Court of St. Henry Osborn had not worked a fossil out of the ground since his student days at Princeton. Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913). He later explained that while the discoveries by Beadnell and Andrews created the temptation to go to the desert at once. 16 and 17). the American industrialist. In 1913.” and donkeys and camels with crew to handle them. Henry Osborn was a nephew of Morgan’s. It was thought also that careful prospecting would bring to light new forms.
” . Barnum Brown (1873-1963). Learning of Hatcher’s plans. the American reach across an ocean's span to hunt for fossils while so many lay uncollected in their own backyard may have seemed amazing. The American Museum's 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt was not Osborn's first attempt to collect outside North America. Osborn quickly dispatched Brown to sail to Argentina with Hatcher and Peterson in late 1898. 21). however. the Fayum’s ancient fauna typically lay hidden beneath the sand. the larger context for which was expansionism. and how difficult it would prove to take them out of the sand without breakage. the United States had just discovered a fossil treasure in its own backyard. Chunks of fossil wood seen at Olsen’s and Ferrar’s feet anchor the tent ropes. Hatcher and Peterson showed Brown a few old sites. had to self-finance his hunt for fossils in Argentina. the various continents were necessary playing fields in pursuit of that study. Olaf A. 1907. Ferrar on February 17. After they arrived. Osborn was. water of the Birket Qurun nearby was unpotable: suitable water for drinking had to hauled in by camel every few days. This also was a chance for Osborn to stand with the Europeans in obtaining significant and varied fossil collections for study and display. To Europeans forced to search well outside their own borders for fossils. Daoud Mohammed. he was from the upper economic.. a fossil still promised to be in such delicate condition that it required great care in handling. the third musketeer of American expansionism--came to call the ‘large policy’ of American assertiveness abroad. however. The Americans would eventually even adopt one excavation technique from Richard Markgraf: sandlensing. which only Henry Osborn seems to have appreciated at the time .) Olsen. Osborn tried to become involved.] Andrews I learned how very fragile some of our finds were likely to be. TO EGYPT On Saturday morning. fossil-hunters Walter Granger and George Olsen boarded the British luxury ocean liner S. The fundamentals of expansionism fit Osborn’s trade--the globalizing of American scientific fieldwork and study. Stuttgart's Naturkunde. By 1899. Osborn. The distinction between Hatcher's Patagonia expeditions and the American Museum's Fayum expedition is that the latter was institutionally sponsored and carried the blessing of Theodore Roosevelt as President of the United States. and then left him on his own. it was at least a two-day trip by camel to Tamia for help. and he was a friend of Roosevelt’s . Never before had North American fossil-hunters ventured off to hunt for fossils in the “Old World. Scientific enterprise in earth’s natural history on a global basis thus made perfect sense. A pivotal point for Teddy Roosevelt’s assessment of America’s place in the world occurred in 1890 when he happened to read Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s book The Influence of Sea Power upon History. Tinned food was the regimen when fresh was gone. 1660-1783 . A. he ran a department specializing in fieldwork. But Hatcher spurned him--they had a history of personality differences. reciprocity.S. Hatcher was a well-known American fossil-hunter who. of course. Paris’s Muséum Nationale d’Histoire Naturelle. or scraping and sweeping to loosen the thin crust of hardened or concreted sand and pebbles to let the wind blow away the loose sand underneath it and reveal any fossils that lay below . a fossil-collecting expedition was an excellent vehicle for stating American presence abroad in 1907. he was able attach one of his newest collectors. Granger. Peterson (18651933). and New York’s American Museum of Natural History were all now engaged in the hunt for fossils worldwide. Brown made a modest collection. supremely well-positioned to help facilitate American expansionism. The American Museum would not return to Patagonia until George Gaylord Simpson’s more successful expeditions there beginning in 1930 . Hartley T. London's Natural History Museum. despite his position as curator of vertebrate paleontology at Princeton University.. It was the launching pad for placing AMNH and American paleontology . B. Excavation and collection required skill. Cedric docked at New York City's harbor and made ready for their journey to Egypt (Fig. But the rationale was sound. Huge fossil fields all over the American West were being opened as American paleontologists scrambled to explore rich new sites while their European counterparts watched enviously.-r. also serves to show how truly remarkable and commendable Hatcher’s initiative to Patagonia was. At main camp in the Fayum: (l. It was therefore evident that technical skill would figure largely in our success . [Charles W. 1907. he agreed to let Osborn in on it. Granger with quarry workers and camel men in May. Great expectations were thus placed on Osborn's overseas campaign. Geopolitically. but returned with little new to science . But once found. Roosevelt quickly joined with Mahan in the “cause of naval preparedness and what they--along with Cabot Lodge. January 5th. Unlike the large chunks of fossilized ancient trees that rested upon the surface. as Hatcher did with his brother-in-law.14 A B FIGURE 20. 1907. This distinction. patience and some ingenuity. That policy could take many forms. After some effort. Ibrahim Salim. Furthermore. social and political crust of American society. If one became seriously ill or injured. As Osborn wrote afterward: Through correspondence with Dr. as Hatcher's venture was drawing to a close. to Patagonia three times from 1896 to 1899 . to the third and final of Hatcher's expeditions.” Only within the past decade had a North American fossil-hunter even ventured to hunt in South America. and competing prides of nation-states. Osborn had finally found a way to turn his comparatively young department of vertebrate paleontology into a major player on the international stage.
Messrs. of course. Osborn wanted to expand the reach and scope of his young department. escorted the work party. PARTIES TO AN EXPEDITION The expedition was under the leadership of Professor Henry F. leaving Mr. and with the advance work essentially having been already done by the British. as well as specimens of the unique Arsinoitherium. from Granger’s hometown newspaper. but does not detail (as he would in Notes). . and returned to Cairo. The work party: Walter Granger and George Olsen The Granger-Olsen work party consisted of the two AMNH men overseeing native workers hired to assist with digging and removing sand. Though FIGURE 21. and raise it to a higher level. who chose as assistants. Clipping dated January 5. The Rutland Herald. which were the gift of Africa to all other continents? Moreover. Third. but Osborn felt Africa held great promise in furthering study of mammalian diversity. Osborn. to rival its four-horned American contemporary Uintatherium. the excitement of this most likely successful foreign exploit was stimulating. animals which were the gift of our Western American plains. daughter Josephine (1884-1967) and son. to bring forth the remains of the elephants. and perhaps most important. migration and distribution. Granger took charge of the work in the field upon Professor Osborn's departure from the desert .S. Fairfield (1887-1969) (Fig. Osborn thought fossil discoveries in Africa would shed further and revisionary light on Africa’s role in the origin and evolution of mammals. along with his wife Lucretia (1858-1930). it was no surprise that Osborn was able to solicit his good friend Roosevelt to attach America's prestige to his venture. Osborn wished to obtain exhibitable specimens of extinct proboscideans. why should not further discoveries be made in the Fayum by dint of very energetic search and the prolonged training gained by our young explorers in the deserts of the Rocky Mountains region?  The escort party: Osborn and family Henry Osborn also boarded the S. He wanted to expand his department’s program of study. 20B). He also wanted to show off his fossil collectors and he wanted to demonstrate that his reach extended abroad easily and naturally. Granger in charge . Asia and North America. indeed. and perhaps a Zeuglodon. Roosevelt was a staunch supporter of the American Museum. Cedric that Saturday morning of January 5th. the two-horned monster of Eocene Africa. 22). named after our own Uinta Mountains! How it pleased the fancy to take a caravan of camels. Mr. collecting fossils and packing fossils in boxes to be taken by camel to the railroad station at Tamia (Fig. He countered the thought that mammals had migrated to Africa from Europe and Asia with speculation that. 1907. an ardent expeditioner. to place beside their American descendants. and eventual wielder of the “Big Stick. it was the opposite: mammals from Africa had spread to Europe.” A little overseas demonstration of American skill in rugged scientific fieldwork in the western desert of northern Africa wouldn't hurt at all. Ferrar departed from the desert. 1907. Osborn's exploit would be America's as well.15 Fossil discoveries in Africa were relatively scant. Second. With Museum support. the fact that the 1907 American Museum Fayum contingent was actually two parties: the work party ultimately led by Granger. and the Osborn family member party led by Osborn who also. on the international scene. Walter Granger and George Olsen of the department staff. what temptation to secure some of the diminutive ancestors. Granger’s formal expedition report states. As Osborn later wrote: Now that many of the great extinct animals in the American Museum paleontological collections had proved to be of remote African origin. So. Granger and his crew would focus on the dramatic escarpment Jebel Qatrani that ascends from the Fayum to the Libyan Desert. the majestic mammoths and mastodons! What a temptation to bring back the great Arsinoitherium. The boxes would then be transported to Cairo by train where they would be stored until repacked by Granger and Olsen for shipment back to New York. On February 18th Professor Osborn with his personal party and Mr. foreign field campaigner.
In discussing the matter. the bluffs. Worse for the moment. both in Europe and North America. but I held that this absence was not proof of the absence of life in Eocene Africa. Granger and Olsen would remain in the Fayum for another three and a half months. that arrangement was reached only as they prepared to depart Cairo on January 31st. In Notes. though they traveled from Cairo into the Fayum together. I admitted that Africa was the 'Dark Continent' of paleontology. 23). and on into the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. as will be explained later. Indeed. because geological records are proverbially as incomplete as torn chapters of a book. Osborn's refusal hurt Anna deeply. the stakes were high. paleontology had advanced to such a point that the origin of many families was known. for this venture to Egypt. by 1907. or his own party not to be appendixed by a comparative stranger: Walter and Anna were recently married. No one knew whence they came nor how their remarkable characters had evolved. In the year 1900. Anna Deane Granger (1874-1952) at age 23 in 1897. Though his experience was only in the American West. of the invasion of Europe. that no discoveries had been made there except in the later period during which its Mediterranean shore had become part of Europe. but FIGURE 23. that it had no early fossil mammal history. most writers were talking of the invasion of Africa from the north by animals of European or Asiatic origin. basins and badlands of Wyoming and Colorado. the history of China was unknown. had asked Osborn for permission to accompany the expedition group to Egypt. Lucretia. outfitters and schedules. they had separate guides. 1907: l. the two parties were to intermingle. unknown. At the time it seemed a curious fact that this possible theater of evolution of mammals had not been sufficiently considered. Perhaps Osborn regarded Anna’s presence as unacceptable in some other regard . Ferrar. but Osborn denied her request . Nevertheless. As Osborn depicted it: In the year 1899. There were great unexplored regions in Asia. Asia. and the chances are always against the burial of land FIGURE 22. . I ventured a prophecy which placed the original home of the elephants and of several other great groups in Africa. and North America by animals originating in Africa. Fayum. Walter Granger By 1907. Granger terms the party the "Osborn party" and refers to their Fayum bivouac as the “upper camp. and returned to New York. and many writers were looking to the Orient for an answer to this question. had been to Europe once or twice on her own . Granger’s wife. Henry. Fairfield. guide Hartley T. Josephine.” Osborn and family left the Fayum after two weeks. Anna was not to be denied again and subsequently accompanied Walter on a combined business and vacation trip to Europe in 1911-12 and spent nearly a decade with him in China while he participated in the famed Central Asiatic Expeditions of the 1920s. Nevertheless. was that this matter would fester during the 1907 Egypt expedition.-r. Anna Deane Granger (1874-1952) (Fig. and appearing in the Lower Miocene period. dragoman Mickawi. Following the initial suggestions of Huxley. and few seemed to have in mind the possibility of a reversed current. the Colorado Plateau at Four Corners. to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Walter Granger was already known as an experienced and prodigious collector of both mammal and dinosaur fossils. on February 18th. She even camped with him during his winter collecting seasons in warlord-torn Sichuan and Yunnan provinces . Anna loved travel and. namely. it was varied and encompassed much of the west. upon invitation. The Osborn family party.16 there remained in doubt the group of elephants. and ultimately put Walter at risk. fully formed as if from the sky or by fiat of the Creator. in 1903. certainly the most paradoxical in structure of all quadrupeds. from the plains of Kansas and Nebraska. Perhaps Osborn’s refusal came because he wanted Granger and Olsen to concentrate exclusively on the Museum's work in the Fayum. and her resentment would simmer for the rest of her life .
Charles telegraphed Walter immediately. Mr. that part-time work was available for Walter if he wanted it. it seemed probable that many of the animals which suddenly appeared in Europe without any known previous ancestry there would prove to have originated in Africa . They could trace his paternal ancestry to Launcelot Granger. To afford this opportunity financially. that. or sea-cows. In science as in love it is well to be audacious. A distant relation from that line was Gideon Granger. Granger also signed on as a part-time janitor. and hippopotami. ancestors of the great family of elephants. a fellow Vermonter. who came to Boston. Wortman (1856-1926) and Olaf Peterson. and. as others in Mammalogy were doing. and became interested in their work almost instantly . a Postmaster General under Jefferson and Madison and a mutual. Whereas Osborn was better suited to life in the halls and laboratory of the Museum. giraffes. and another part-time job with the Museum's custodial department. from England in 1654. so Granger filled in for him. and Granger was at the ready. 25). They began their employment at the American Museum of Natural History in the same year. that there seemed to be evidence in Europe of three such chief waves of life from Africa. among larger quadrupeds. Granger also became a . But his background was dramatically different from Osborn’s. Granger's other early mentors at the museum were ornithologist Frank A. but of the Hyracoidea. Once at the Museum in New York City (Fig. perhaps. Granger transferred to the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology  and began the study and collecting of fossils full time (Fig. he also donned a suit and tie for work as a Museum floor guide. as well as of numerous smaller animals. Granger traveled and camped in 1894 with the Museum’s new fossil collectors Jacob L. for the collection. confidante to Jefferson and Aaron Burr during the raucous 1790s . however. Osborn was obviously primed. Vermont. but great history. by surplus population. while he was in New York on business. from the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. and. Granger-who had not finished high school--started with a part-time job in taxidermy with Jenness Richardson. 1901. Vermont. became wholly immersed in paleontology immediately. Richardson knew of Walter's taxidermy skills and deep interest in nature when they were FIGURE 24. Until the fall of 1890. It is intriguing that two men--Osborn and Granger--of such diverse backgrounds. together with department chair. when the trans-Mediterranean land routes were formed. Wortman and Granger went out again in 1895--Peterson was gone. Dr. their expeditions began occurring in 1887. as man is driven out. Allen (1838-1921). Osborn. and his wife Maria Morgan Granger. Jenness Richardson was a family acquaintance who advised Granger's father Charles. The family had no great wealth. 1890. taxidermists together in Rutland. Vermont. Walter heeded the call and left Vermont on a train for New York City just as his senior year of high school commenced. Vermont. He began collecting with them in his spare time. the problem of the origin of the elephants might be solved . His father Charles was the son of preacher Calvin Granger. Massachusetts. Walter Willis Granger was born to an insurance man Charles Granger and his wife Ada Haynes Granger in rural Vermont. successive waves of animals migrated northward and poured into Europe and Asia. of course. Granger at work in the Taxidermy Department of the American Museum of Natural History in 1892. of the antelopes. He joined the Museum in 1890 as part-time taxidermist and part-time maintenance man. In the following year. and joined the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology full time in 1895. Chapman (1864-1945) and mammalogist Joel A. driven out. His mother was the daughter of a family doctor in Middletown (Springs). the single activity Granger treasured from his youth was to be out-of-doors in the study of nature. Chapman was the first to take Granger out on a Museum field trip . of the Sirenia. would come together naturally for such a dynamic purpose. Walter Granger had never ventured so far from the woods and mountains near Rutland. Field trips and observations were his forte. inquired “How about that African trip? Do let me know” . of Randolph Center. display. So I became convinced of the probability that Africa in early geological times was a great center of independent evolution. Osborn continued. Granger made his first American West expedition in 1894 to trap mammals and collect birds. after its long isolation by the sea. and that prominent among the quadrupeds were the mastodons. 24). On some evenings and Sunday afternoons. In short. Henry Osborn. Granger would share Osborn’s absorbing passion. In addition to Richardson. Thus. A postcard sent to him by a friend on November 27. if not always his approach. he soon envisioned field trips to the American West. Among his duties were to refill the kerosene lamps posted in and around the Museum and clean and trim lamp wicks. if the paleontology of Africa could become known.17 animals in such a manner as to be preserved for future record. I described this African 'Garden of Eden' as the probable nursery not only of the elephants. He began making expeditions to the American West in 1894. to leave no doubt as to my faith. The Mammalogy Department was actually the first branch of the Museum to make field trips. which is where Walter was born on November 7. or rock conies. if controversial. Relatives on Walter’s mother's side--Haynes and Perry--fought in the Battle of Bennington in August of 1778. Allen was the first to publish the results of Granger's fieldwork in mammalogy and excerpts from his field notes . As well as eventually making excellent and prodigious collections of vertebrate fossils for the American Museum. Wortman was his mentor now. scientific study and evolutionary placement of vertebrate fossils. almost breathlessly: Along such lines ran the prophecy. supported by kinds of reasoning familiar enough to paleontologists since the days of Darwin. 1872.
the Willwood Formation exemplified a temporal continuum. but little time recorded. He was a stocky man of Danish descent. Olsen eventually took up laboratory preparation of the fossils as well . Walter Granger on an Eocene expedition to the American West in 1905. there is little succor for collectors in the Fayum. 26). the bones are in the sand--only certain layers. time cannot be evaluated because there is no geological level with which to equate it. There are alternating layers of clay and loose sand. The strata are riddled with unconformities. George Olsen retired on pension in 1935 and died from cancer on November 7. this work nevertheless was and remains of the utmost importance. Granger and Olsen centered their efforts on the two quarries (A and B) that were opened a few years earlier by the British paleontologist Andrews. Like Granger. in the rock strata of one of Granger's more favorite locations. Many of these determinations have withstood the scrutiny of time and modern techniques . By 1907. which itself is laced with areas of massive erosion and deposition. and everything becomes relative to base level in the Fayum. A gap there is not really an evolutionary gap. . at the Mongolian Flaming Cliffs (Bayn Dzak) in 1923.18 The 1907 Fayum expedition lasted as long as those Granger had been making to the American West since 1894. they were less occupied with typical American West tasks such as protracted physical labor. He was an excellent field worker in fossil reptiles and mammals. close by. supplies. and diagrams of the fossil locations he worked. pioneer in keeping extensive and detailed field notes. 6). the Fayum does not expose a continuous stratigraphic section. as well as a large work crew. fossil packing cases. etc. FIGURE 25. It laid the basis for new conceptions and more adequate knowledge of the beginning of the Age of Mammals and resulted in the most remarkable series of primitive mammal remains that has yet been assembled . In the descending levels of paleontology that existed then--scientist. however. Ancient fossil mammals still barely known to science would be found there. 1939. the site was remote desert sand. junior colleague (and subsequent vis major in American vertebrate paleontology) George Simpson wrote: [Granger] obtained large collections from almost every known early Tertiary formation of the West.) of the British-run Egyptian Geological Survey. “The strata are so uneven and irregular that it is difficult to follow them. in the Fayum Granger and Olsen had the support (expedition and camp equipment. Olsen was already a veteran of Granger’s collecting expeditions to the American West. Cenozoic connection Reflecting on Granger's career following his death in 1941. Granger and Olsen would open a third site. and the fossils were difficult to find.” Erosion cuts out time. 770 meters of strata clearly represent a mere 3. the time controls placed on each fossil he collected from there were very precise. George Olsen was the only person to collect with Granger in three of Granger's four major locations over a lifetime: the American West. The Fayum's deposits lay within the Oligocene and Eocene Epochs of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. Time is better represented. it is merely time unexplained. Within the Willwood Formation of that basin. records. and keeping supplied with water and provisions. Deposition distorts time--much sediment. Quarry C. with a walrus-like mustache. transporting fossils out of the desert. On the other hand.5 million years. He was scheduled to assume Granger's work of collecting of Pleistocene fossil vertebrates in Sichuan Province during the mid-1920s. Olsen was especially good at excavating small mammal fossils--detailed and exacting work. He joined the American Museum's Department of Vertebrate Paleontology in 1901 as a collector and preparator. cooking. Other than the raw and natural beauty of the place. He would later accompany Granger abroad again--for the famed Central Asiatic Expeditions to the Gobi Desert during the 1920s. camels. Gaps exist everywhere. collect and preserve. He also methodically identified and correlated geological characteristics and circumstances to the fossils he was collecting. collector. for example. Cenozoic deposits around the world are typically fossiliferous. but find little in it. the Fayum of Egypt and the Gobi Desert (Fig. For Granger. As Granger described it in Notes on (Feb. were different and more rigorous: the weather was harsh. particularly the delicate ones. Mantled with an alluvium that combines extremes of soil maturity because of extensive erosion and deposition. So. about 30 to 40 million years old. Three hundred and forty meters of an eroded section in the Fayum can represent 20 million years. caring for horses and equipment. Overshadowed in the public eye by later Asiatic collecting. drovers. George Olsen Olsen was a veteran of collecting expeditions to the American West with Granger. Wyoming's Bighorn Basin. but his opportunity was lost as warlord battling intensified throughout that area of the Yangtze River basin. preparator--Olsen was both collector and preparator. The physical conditions. so the Fayum deposits held promise. He almost made it to Granger's fourth. It was George Olsen who found the first whole fossilized dinosaur eggs for scientific study. the remote mountain winter camp in China's Sichuan Province. and moderate literacy.
The original of Granger’s Notes is handwritten in pen and ink on one side each of seventy-two 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheets of lined paper. Fayum of Egypt (1907). Thus. C. early in the expedition. and it is the oldest surviving flagstone pavement known . 24 Apr. Greatest confusion--regular bedlam. Strolled about streets in evening. Cairo was reached the same day. China (1921-1927). Jan. D. travel via pyramids to Fayum At camp in Fayum.S. 23-Weather pleasant. Granger and Olsen departed from New York on the S. 9-12 Mar. Chronological synopsis of Notes. infers that a diary existed from which material was extracted to create Notes. The following table summarizes Notes by dates annotated by subheadings. on Wednesday. Notes from Diary--Fayum Trip. Anchored in Alexandria harbor at about 9 o'clock. 16 Feb. Beyond the quarry site. Significant remnants of this Old Kingdom road exist today. arrange fieldwork. Cedric steamed across the Mediterranean Sea. Gibraltar. 14 Mar.M. 5-15 Feb. Passengers were landed first and baggage was late in following. bound for Alexandria. American West (1894-1941). if any. Not only is the fauna of the region highly unusual. "Cedric" on January 5th. Arrived Cairo after Six & went to Shepheard Hotel (Fig. From this cap at the point of Widan el Faras (Ears of the Mare). 23-30 Jan. 27) . 7-8 Mar. The title. The wind would reveal whether a fossil was lying at the bottom of the shallow concavity it eroded.  called on Prof. arrange fieldwork. Small museum with fine display of invertebrates .900 square kilometer area of the Fayum of prehistoric times contains one of the most complete faunal assemblages of Paleogene mammals found anywhere on the African continent. About a hundred native porters (Cook's & independent) to handle baggage . 13 Mar. the terrain rose sharply more than 80 meters to the upper fossil wood zone and another 76 meters to the basalt cap of the Libyan Desert (Fig. collecting fossils Meeting Richard Markgraf Markgraf departs area Granger to Cairo Granger returns to Fayum Collecting in Fayum Camp moved to Qasr-el-Sagha Party returns to Cairo Resupply in Cairo Party returns to Fayum Collecting in Fayum To Qasr-el-Sagha and Cairo Granger in Cairo hospital Last days in Cairo Depart for USA [Arrive Egypt. 8). THE EXPEDITION Professor Osborn and Messrs. 24-Capt. African coast in sight at Sunrise. meaning they canvassed the desert's surface by foot looking for rock outcrops and other visual hints of fossils. Thurs.-20 Apr. Quarrying in the Fayum meant removing layer upon layer of sand from a crater-like basin until a fossil was reached. 31 Jan. B. W.19 A B D C FIGURE 26.-6 Mar. The form and whereabouts of such a diary are not known. this A.M. Granger and Olsen prospected as well. Night quite cool and overcoat very comfortable. Every one anxious to get his aboard the special train first. Genoa. The next five days were consumed in preparation . Went with Osborn & Lyons to the Geological Museum (Branch of the Survey Department). January 23. it is also not known what material. Markgraf. Granger and Olsen made the serendipitous acquaintance of the freelance collector. 25-30 Apr. Gobi Basin (1922-1930). tour Cairo] Wed.” TABLE 1. Dawn broke as the S. which is about 52 meters thick (Fig.S. Granger’s collecting sites world wide: A. Special train did not leave for Cairo until 3:30 P. 1 May 2–28 May 29 May 30 May-8 June 9-13 June 14 June Arrive Egypt. via Azores. Have just had a particularly cold spell so they tell us. O. reaching Alexandria after an uneventful voyage on January 23rd. Baggage was dumped from lighter on pier and passengers obliged to select their own and employ the natives to take it to train. and Naples.-4 Feb. G. It was from Richard Markgraf that they learned about sandlensing--breaking the hardened. was kept out of Notes. These fossil quarries were located at the top of the lower fossil wood zone. an ancient basalt quarrymen's road once paved the entire way over 10 kilometers to a quay located at the shore of Lake Moeris. Jan. Granger referred to this trenching technique as "stripping" . Walter Granger began Notes that day : “Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. 21 Apr. crusted desert surface to allow wind to erode the loose sand beneath. 8). Lyons of the Survey Dept. The Fayum deposits are now considered to be one of the most important single Cenozoic fossil deposits ever discovered. 1907. it is also without immediate comparison elsewhere: the 1. tour Cairo Depart Cairo.
Ordered these supplies from Fleurent. Jan. Mon. to be shipped to Tamia. Prof. Mus.-- FIGURE 28. O. the nearest Ry. is now dealing with one Mickawi Ali. Ferrar . O. H. He is to report at the museum and be placed at our disposal for the Fayum trip. Offered to do us all service possible.--fine fellow. such as the S. Spoke of Cape to Cairo Ry [Railway] as good magazine material but of not much practical use. This week is the "Feast of Ramadan" (Mohammedan Christmas) and many public places. point to the bone beds . 27-Mr. Night still cool. of about 40˚. Capt. D. Lyons has sent up to Helouan for one Daoud Mohammed.'s party is to start from Mena House and go up along Pyramid Field  (Figs. Plan is to hire camels here and send them on to Tamia. FIGURE 27. fine lot of antelopes. Fri. Principal visit to the Zoological Gardens at Giza. Admission to garden is 1/2 piaster and it is much frequented by natives who appear to constitute four fifths of the attendance. Took tea with Mr. Cromer very cordial--quiet & unpretentious man (Fig. to remain during the period of Prof. under govt. Sat. Sun.  to Lord Cromer's  in forenoon. primates and cats--mostly outdoor cages. One adult and two young Arsinoitherium skulls.M. are closed to the public. a sheikh. Jan. Talked principally of conditions in Egypt. 28). 6 Soudan elephants (young). Olsen. 29 and 30). 28-To the Geol.20 and vertebrates from the Fayum. 26-Drove with Prof. Preparation work excellent.--beautiful grounds with abundance of semitropical vegetation--well laid out and with splendid collection of animals and birds. is negotiating with Cook's for an outfit. Daoud Mohammed arrives and is placed at our disposal. set in attractive patterns.'s stay in the desert. Done by man sent in from British Museum. 25-Still negotiating with Cook's for outfit. In afternoon Olsen and I take in town. Lord Cromer (reproduced from The Illustrated London News). Fayum. O. personally. Prof. D. Also Talba. and Mr. Flicks & Co. principally African. We hire 12 at 75¢ per . in the morning with Prof. chief chemist of the S. Mentioned having been with Grant before Vicksburg . He is to go to the Fayum with us as guide. W. Olsen and I are invited to join the party. museum. control. a dragoman with a pocketfull of letters of recommendation and a cunning look in his eye. has failed to make arrangements with Cook's for his personal outfit. O. Olsen and I spent most of day in sightseeing. very fine. Lucas . Ferrar and I work on list of provisions and outfit needed for the working party. Jan. Street view of the Shepheard’s Hotel in downtown Cairo. called at hotel in forenoon. Beadnell's  Chief native assistant . Lyon's field staff. Prof. T. a member of Capt. O. Hoped. of whom we are to hire camels. Jan. with temperature at 6: A. O. Mr. that coal and gold would never be found in Egypt because of the smoke and the bad European element sure to follow. A rather unique feature of the garden is the walks which are made of small smooth desert pebbles--black and white.
4--camp in the desert. 29-Prof. Buckhart  at Reisner's. Jan. These men are skilled and will be of great service. They are to proceed at once to Tamia. Andrews  of the British Museum. 32). now most filled with sand. Camp ready. Olsen and I spent the moonlight evening about the pyramids and Sphynx. Work just begun. 1-Camp about a mile beyond Dashur Pyramids tonight. Mickawi and his caravan is camped alongside the Cairo road near here and will probably get wet. Met Herr Müller  who is excavating at Abusir under Dr. Reisner's  house near the 3rd Pyramid. Have 5 round sleeping tents. Invited to his house and are shown over the pyramid. Quibell is to furnish us with ten men for our excavation work. [Limestone and marble] sheathing for 1st & 2nd [pyramids came] from Mokkatam Hills. A party of “Cedric” people camped near us tonight--paid us a visit. Sun. Also an interesting Coptic temple or place of worship. Said that probably the stone for all three pyramids came from quarry close by. I was invited along. Also a cooking outfit left in the museum by Dr. They also offer to make our packing cases and ship out to us as we order them. We find this hotel in some ways more attractive than Shepheard's and more reasonable in rates. Ferrar has 8 camels and three tents. and discourse upon the marvels of the monuments. Daoud with the boxes of supplies joins him there and then proceeds to the easterly bone pits to await us. Quibell . invited to dinner. Feb. Start early and reach Lisht Pyramids (northern one) for lunch. showed us over his excavations at the eastern base of the 3rd Pyramid . Ferrar is to have camels and tents of his own. Trail from the Sphynx leads along the edge of Nile valley to Abusir Pyramids where we took luncheon (Fig. Late start from Tamia. Regular course dinner. Mr. The Survey people are most generous. one of the museum attendants. Our window overlooks the Nile valley with Cairo on the opposite side--a really wonderfull view. Came out here to the Mena House this afternoon late (Fig. This advancing of money is necessary in hiring these people. Mr. Showed us the quarry. Tomorrow we are to go over the Sakkara ruins with Mr. Full enjoyment of this though is prevented by persistent natives who try to force donkeys and camels on us. Reached here at Sundown. 33). Mon. After lunch Dr. Spent part of the morning under the lee of Cheops talking to the natives who had plenty of leisure today because the storm kept the tourists away. Tried the camels for the first time--don't think I had a good one. Two other caravans waiting to pose also--quite the thing. Started from Mena House at 10: o'clock with caravan--13 camels and 5 donkeys. so Ferrar says. Weird music by our camel men at Sakkara this morning. Lunch at Sakkara and a rapid ride on to camp. without assistance. 31-Camp tonight on the edge of the Nile bottom at Sakkara. Lythgoe photographed caravan this morning just as we started (Fig. Spent entire forenoon at Sakkara where Mr. Work done by French excavation previously careless & not very successful. Wed. Daoud will take three or four other men out with him as laborers. Couldn't fight him off--no baksheesh though . Tea and then Dr. I was up early and climbed Cheops before breakfast. 31). Weather comfortable in daytime but too cool at night. a large green mess tent. Saw Meidum Pyramid to the south as we crossed desert. Lunch in desert about half way to Tamia and in sight of the Fayum . Met the [railway] Station agent (Hanna Mikhail) and the mamour [chief official] of the province who inquired after our welfare. Feb. He and his wife and two assists. Forwarded £10 to Talba and £5 to Daoud. it seems . rugs on the floor and interior of the tent decorated with Koran verses in colored cloth. Rain ceased before day light this morning. Ali Mohammed. [Depart Cairo and travel via pyramids to Fayum] 21 Thurs. Have had a most interesting day. is loaned to us and is to be our cook. They are to come out after we are settled in camp. O's party to Dr. . Sat. Tomorrow we strike across the narrow strip of desert and enter the Fayûm. water tanks. Met Dr. 2-Awakened before sunrise this morning by wailing of women up in a cemetery near our camp--professional mourners. day (15 piasters). with two waiters. Visited all of the important tombs and an enormous excavation made by Quibell where several cultures are shown in stratigraphic form. Caravan on way though pyramid field. Feb. Jan. O. tools. Quibell met us and accompanied us over part of his excavations (Fig. Found that Daoud had left with Talba and camels for the desert on the 3rd. Tomb chamber very low and filled with water . R. Buckhart's direction. We camped near Lythgoe's house. Lythgoe  of Metropolitan Museum who is conducting explorations here joined us after lunch. Jan. Feb. Mr. We are to start from Mena House on the 31st. and offer tents. 30). 30-A moderate sandstorm has been on all day and this evening it has changed to a heavy rainstorm.FIGURE 29. This is most convenient for us. Ferrar's caravan has just joined us. etc. has completed arrangements with Mickawi Ali for an outfit. mostly along the Nile bottom. Very imposing! Photographed at the Sphynx by a professional from Cairo. Intensely interesting conversation on Egyptian Antiquities and the work being done. Is like a great inverted pyramid. Tues. 3-Camped tonight just on the outskirts of Tamia . Mr. We are to start in the morning if the weather permits. Fri. from the village back of camp. One young Arab went part way up and a second one insisted on going all way up with me. Elliot Smith  came out from town and conducted Prof.
1908) . A map showing the pyramid fields route the AMNH party traveled beginning with Giza at the upper left (reproduced from Baedeker.22 FIGURE 30.
23 FIGURE 31. FIGURE 32. . 1908). Map of the pyramid field at Giza also showing the Mena House Hotel at far right (reproduced from Baedeker. Visiting Quibell’s excavation at Sakkara.
Feb. B. Interesting ride through desert all day. Ferrar's men neglected to get water at ditch and have been sent back tonight to fill the tanks. Feb. Wed. . Bones are very soft and crumbly. Daoud has two old men from Tamia and three younger men from Helouan and Ali the cook. [At camp in Fayum. down to the quarries this A. Ferrar has telegraphed for 8 more fanitas  from the S. Caravan left the cultivation near the eastern end of the Lake [Birket] and struck north across the desert. Met Daoud's camels between last night's camp and Qasr-el-Sagha--returning to Tamia for water.M. Hired two donkeys from him and are to use Ferrar's outfit until camp is reached. of camp. A. The Fayûm cultivation is in sight So. Osborns’ camp in Fayum.24 FIGURE 33. with American flag posted at dining tent. One fellow brought me a fine palate of Saghatherium  broken into many pieces. 1907. Photograph of Lythgoe photographing the American Museum party departing the pyramid field for the Fayum on February 3. 5-In permanent camp at Easterly bone pits (Fig. collecting fossils] Tues. 6-Prof. Reached this camp about 5 P.. The men have already uncovered two or three fairly good specimens in the quarry (Fig. They are careless workmen and have been badly trained-rip bones out as soon as discovered. Osborn's party is camped a short half mile up the wady  from us. also the lake. found tents up and men at work in one of the two quarries. D. We have three tents and good outfit. Olsen and I left Mickawis' outfit today. Locals working in quarry. Started the men at work moving surface sand and began taking up the bones they have already uncovered . 34B). Gum [arabic] is almost useless and the shellac we brought does A B FIGURE 34. O. 34A). Took several 5 x 7 plates of the caravan.M.
Josephine Butte = Tel Markgraf (Markgraf’s Hill). Question of wages settled. New fanitas should be here in a few days.--best layers appear to be worked out. found first prospect. Fri. I have been in misery for two days. 35) . and Ferrar prospect to the westward. The original expedition camp was at Quarry A. 1995). Had no shelter for them and they were obliged to sleep in one of Ferrar's tents. There are alternating layers of clay and loose sand. After much argument we sign agreement to pay : Daoud & Ali--12 pt. We also located turtle shell and Arsinoitherium limb bones. With Daoud as guide. M. Others--8 " " " " } Sat. His donkeys can get water at pools 2 miles below here. L. Invited to the upper camp for dinner. written communication. Bown to V. each per day } Every other Friday off and Ibrahim Salim--10 pt. Mr. 1) published the position of quarries A and B. Feb. Feb. Mr. possibly poor spirits . A. Feb. the bones are in the sand--only certain layers (Fig. Ferrar Butte = Tel Homar (Donkey Hill). They appear to be having trouble at the upper camp  over water. and Fairfield Butte = Tel Taleb (Fox Hill). Quarries A. Friend Mickawi is apparently just learning that he hasn't an ordinary tourist party on his hands. 7-Olsen at work in Quarry A. 9-Olsen took the 12 Quft men today and began work on the north end of Quarry B. Am making fairly good progress with Arabic. The strata are so uneven and irregular that it is difficult to follow them. Hassin (boy)--5 " " " " } Ali (from Quft) to be to 9 pt. Two large quarries here. Feb. Quarry B seems more barren than A and bones Josephine Butte Fairfield Butte A B C Lyon’s Butte Ferrar Butte Qasr Qurun and Alexandria Trail Dimé FIGURE 35.--an Ancodon jaw . Our triangulation of Granger’s landmarks known today as follows: Lyon’s Butte = Tel Akgrab (Scorpion Hill).not dissolve well. Bown and Kraus. O. O. Thurs. His water preparations were ridiculous. Daoud showed us where the fine adult skull of Arsinoitherium in Cairo was found. 8-The worst feature of this camp is the fleas. (After figure 1C. W. Locations determined from Granger’s Notes (T. Quibell men show more skill and care than those from Helouan. .. Both Olsen and I in the quarry A all day. W. Stripping by Daoud and his men continued in Quarry A. Holroyd (1999. B and C are also shown. Holroyd. We call them Quarries A & B. Have been obliged to send down for 3 fanitas of our water (Fig. fig. The first indication of this order of mammals in the Fayum. one on either side of the draw. 1988). 10-Strong wind with considerable dust in the air. Prof. Twelve men from Mr. Quibell's men speak no English. Quibell arrived about Sunset from Tamia. Work on the Quarries. Olsen appears to be immune. Native method of work is 25 exasperating--dislike to use shovels but prefer to carry out dirt in baskets on their heads. has ordered 1/2 cake (1 1/2 lbs.. Overcoats still comfortable in the evening. O. Sun. Ferrar suggests Keating's Powder and Prof. Discovered rodent incisors. Camels in tonight with new fanitas. Daoud and Ali very little. Prof. Quarry promises fairly well. D. " " " } one sheep per month. 36). Ferrar and I walked westward toward other bone pits.--A the westerly one (Fig. Morgan. 2002) that she located them too far to the southeast. but points out (P. 37).--slow progress--have requested more shovels from S.) from Cairo. At Ferrar's suggestion we sent two camels back to Giza. Still having trouble with shellac--shall have to order some from Cairo. if work warrants.
14-Prof. with Ferrar went in search of westerly bone pits.E. B. That which we brought from Museum is not good--have written FIGURE 36. 17-The German prospector called on Osborn today. mentioned employment to him but he says he is under agreement with Fraas. of Lyon's and Fairfield Butte 2 m. to the Eastward to see the Middle Eocene locality beyond Qasrel-Sagha. We shall call this quarry "C. O. Returned to Q. Prof. vert. stripping all day--we take lunch and water and return in evening. Josephine Butte 1/2 m. to make arrangements. I am to see his collection tomorrow. H. East of camp. 19-Went with Daoud to Markgraf's camp and then under Markgraf's guidance to the westerly bone pits of Beadnell (Fig. 11-Intermittent showers in afternoon--men worked only in forenoon. Saw the German who had just uncovered a good Arsinoitherium jaw.--we need shellac badly. Tues. 38). Prof. are in very poor condition--one good rodent jaw just found. O. Olsen has begun to find good bones in Quarry B. They are Abas Abdulla. Speaks Arabic well.O. Brought us eggs and live chickens--the latter we turn loose with hobbles on and they remain about camp because there is no where else to go. O. All good landmarks . Camel loaded with fantasses and other supplies. pointed out location of all of his important finds which I plotted . Prof. A few bones in the upper end. Feb. W. Daoud prospected in forenoon--reports "timsah" (crocodile) jaws. Feb. Feb. Feb. the other half to be paid by the leader of their party. Feb." The sand is white--also the bones fragmentary. Olsen continues to find bones in the south end of Q. and party got off about 10: o'clock-took photographs of our entire working party--including camel men. Abdulla Mohammed & Mohammed Mohammed. O.--probably from yesterday's wind. Up to Osborn's camp in the evening. they are not creodonts but Ancodon. Ferrar has left his tent with us[--]also a drawing table which was much needed.--well-preserved white bone-apparently from gypsum layers. About 2 miles west of camp. has decided to send the three Helouan men back. for Zeuglodon Valley to be gone several days (Fig. O. became worried and we all returned to camp with her. Someone camped in the wady East of quarry attracted attention and Mrs. B.. & Josephine visited Quarry C before lunch.--one of the Quft men claims to have been robbed of £2 last night by one of his fellows . Mon.26 (Fig. hoping to make arrangement for his employment. O. The three Helouan men have been paid off and leave tomorrow morning for home. Feb. O. 12-Weather pleasant--Olsen's outfit stopped work on north end of Quarry B and moved over to extreme south end--uncovered several badly preserved bones and a jaw of a young Arsinoitherium with good teeth. on north side and a good lower jaw of a new genus of creodont and two good jaws of "far" (mouse) in S. Sun. O. Is apparently a prospector of some experience. 35). O. Prof. O. Mr. In quarry A the men stopped stripping and began prospecting . 35) . O.--nothing especially good. 20-Olsen began a heavy stripping today in Quarry B. lives in a tiny tent with bare necessities. [O. He is a Mr. Find him very agreeable. corner of quarry.'s party back from Zeuglodon Valley this evening. Megalohyrax & Geniohyus. Talba and camels in tonight. Fri. Air seems full of fine dust. Mrs. down [to quarry] both morning and afternoon.] has termed Lyon's Butte. N. Tues.. Wed. of camp. A fossil packing case sits on the ground behind it. Weather beautiful today. Feb. Still at Quarry C which appears to be pretty well worked out. With Daoud's men I went over to an old bone pit of Beadnell's near what Prof..E. Feb. Ferrar has loaned us one of his tents for the Quft men. Herr M. Lunch at upper camp. Some of his finest skulls were broken in transit. Daoud with Prof. C. The Keating's Powder has arrived. Herr M. Markgraf --has done considerable work here for Prof. Talba in with camels late tonight. Olsen in Q. Started taking out bones in Quarry C. and Daoud started this A. Wed.M. but hard. O. Herr Markgraf called over to camp this evening. has two camels and two men. Ferrar adjusts by promise to pay one half the loss if the man works well. Feb. Ferrar Butte 2 m. Helouan men returned with camels this morning.--still uncovering bones but they are not well preserved--a Palaeomastodon jaw frag't. 15-Mrs. Olsen to lunch with Mrs. Olsen in Q.--was obliged to send one of his men to camp for insubordination. O. 16-Prof. Mon. 13-Osborn's camels returned this morning from Tamia. O. B but in soft state of preservation. [Meeting Richard Markgraf ] Sat. Feb.F. E. Prof. O's party went to Dime´ today. They are worse than useless. Fraas . Saw his collection from the upper level. Had lunch with Mrs. 18-Tonight we are lonesome. Expressed a willingness to work for us. I worked with the Helouan men all day in Q. Jr.--the two latter are brothers of Daoud and Ali. Have written Prof. Mickawi rode over to find out who he was--returned saying he was a German prospector. The two old men from Tamia are better workers and much more careful.--he knew the name of it. in fairly good condition though. Says he has a quarry of creodonts in an upper level . C in afternoon. Good Ars. Thurs. Mr. I went with Daoud in morning to gum a lower jaw of Tomistoma which he found yesterday 1 m. Shall try and get Prof. Ferrar.
Another view of quarrywork. Quarrywork. C. . B. A.27 A B C FIGURE 37. Collecting a fossil turtle pocketed in the sand.
Seems to penetrate and harden well. Ferrar and Daoud at lunch during Zeuglodon Valley trip.Reis } Ali Achmed . Hassan & Massaout. Olsen and I went to the top of Gebel-el-Qatrani back of camp (Fig. Markgraf uses hot glue for hardening bones. Last night the natives were talking all night in anticipation of their pay today. Markgraf called in the evening--brought over a palate of Saghatherium minus which he thought was a rodent . Feb. Everything is "faloos. they require careful watching. Aside from our fanitas of water. Olsen continues to find bones in quarry B. Could see Giza Pyramids. Hamid Said. Feb. 26-Today I opened up the pits S-West of quarry A. Camels returned from Tamia this A. They also found a good palate of Palaeomastodon palate not far from north end of Quarry B and near camel trail. 20. with £50. to Prof. He has found nothing new since the skull. Achmed Abid } Machmud Mohammed. Feb. Did not get down to the bone layer in the new quarry. B.--about 15 miles round trip. Daoud's men eat dry bread brought from their homes together--with onions. Names of our native workmen are-Daoud Mohammed Reis Abas Abdulla } of Helouan. his wife is dead and a small daughter is being brought up in Italy. have to use English. Has the Arab collect dead brush and boil the glue and applies while hot & thin. Collected ants for Prof. A. They bed them down near the 3rd tent and sleep among them to keep warm. Feb. Suliman Salim } Salim Halil. it is almost their sole food. found some fairly good jaws of Arsinoitherium and smaller things. I worked on Arsinoitherium skull and Palaeomastodon palate. Fri. Sun. Fairfield. . faloos. The 12 men from Quft occupy one tent but Daoud allows one or two favored ones to sleep in his tent with Ali. His men are working well now. He was a violinist and came to Egypt on account of his health--has some lung or throat affection. It is then laid on a piece of sheet iron placed on rocks with a fire underneath--fuel is tamarisk stumps brought out by camel men from East end of Birket. Makes his headquarters in Cairo but has recently purchased land in Sinnoures and will set out date & orange trees this spring. Today Daoud and Ali prospecting North-East of camp found a young Arsinoitherium skull horn cones and occiput missing. and crew chief Daoud Mohammed. German. They were overruled. is then rolled out on a board with a broom handle very thin and 18 inches across. He was glad to get rid of the men for a few days. Feb. Men did not like being docked half-day's pay. 25-Quite a heavy sandstorm from the north last night. The excitement of pay day is still on them (Fig. Objected seriously. Found Gazelle tracks but saw no animals. Thurs. Wheeler .M. Rare (and damaged) photo of Henry Osborn in dirty field clothes as he displays a fossil tree remnant found during a three-day side trip to Zeuglodon Valley with son Fairfield. Tues." I went over and found he had a fine skull of Palaeomastodon--incisors and arcus gone but otherwise excellent. asking that he send some out from Cairo.2nd Reis } From Quft. He is a native of Austria. O. Ali won't allow the camel men to sleep in the cook tent and the other tents are full. guide Hartley Ferrar. 40). Mohammed Mohammed } Hassan } Tamia Mass[a]out } Ibrahim Salim . 21-This afternoon Markgraf's native came over to camp saying that he had found a "ras. Ali Mohammed Cook Abdulla Mohammed } Discharged. Wed. B today. Camels in tonight. Watched the Quft men make their bread this evening. 23-Olsen began prospecting in Quarry B today. His camels go to Sinnoures instead of Tamia. O. The flour (apparently whole wheat) is mixed with salt and water to thick batter. We allow two of them to leave the quarry 1/2 hour earlier in the evening to do the cooking. Olsen and I have a great time talking with him. The skull was an isolated specimen--just north of his tent in the bottom of the wady. have been singing all day except when they stop to talk over money matters. Letter from Prof. Great excitement.28 A B FIGURE 38. 1/2 mile. 27-Work in new quarry again--no bones yet. Mon. Gave Daoud £1/2 for the skull." Sat. tonight they are boisterous again. When cooked the bread is tough and leathery but not bad to the taste. Took most of Olsen's men leaving him only the old men who do careful work. We find him very agreeable. 39). Hassin Mohammed (boy)} Ibrahim Etman } Have written to White Star Lines at Naples relinquishing our staterooms on the “Celtic” Mar. say they are never docked by Quibell. they bring alfalfa to feed on overnight. Mohammed Hassin } Halil Mohammed. Feb. 35). Feb. The camel men seem to be lower caste. A party of them walked to the Birket to wash and buy fish from the fishermen in there. Talba does not send out all 10 camels at once but runs them in two relays (Fig. 24-Herr Markgraf over to dinner this evening. Olsen at stripping in Q. possibly t'b. 22-First holiday and pay day to the natives. Weather continues fine. Arabic and sign language but manage to get along.
Mar. judging from its tracks.jaw and good Megalohyrax jaw besides several good vertebra. Shall abandon it. carried off a gum brush which we found away out in the desert . Caught a Jerboa near the tent last night. 3-Cold.29 A B FIGURE 39. with bank book and £50. Have 100 recorded specimens to date with ten more still to be taken up. Galmier and some brown shellac sent by Lucas which appears to be all right. Sat. Olsen found badly preserved Palaeomastodon jaws just outside the tent door. The bones in Quarry B which are in clay  are badly crushed and very rotten. with strong wind all day & slight rain in evening. Olsen still in quarry B. Mar. Continued stripping in new quarry. has been annoying Olsen lately in quarry B. O. 28-Another heavy sandstorm last night. etc. Time to begin the day he entered the desert. Thurs. It comes at night and tips over cans and bottles and last night FIGURE 40. Lucas' shellac seems to be a success.00 initial expense of assembling his outfit and entering the desert. These officers' tents are poor affairs in cold windy weather--there are too many openings for the cold wind to get in through. A. “Dr. B. Camels left before sunrise--Hassan went in with them--to see a "sick brother”. agrees to Markgraf's employment on his terms viz: $60 per month salary--$4. Spent most of this day receiving & labelling specimens & writing. 5-Pleasant--very little wind.-. Supplies in from Cairo--including a case of St. northeast of camp. Men at stripping in quarry B all day-found good Ars. 4-Four camels in tonight. Olsen has not been able to take up any but the best preserved bones--gum arabic is useless almost. Today has been very raw. Olsen” tending to native workers. Prof. A fox. Tues.) Ibrahim. O. Hassin and Olsen.M. (l. regarding Markgraf's employment by next mail. prospecting. Markgraf brought down his fossils and came again in the . We are sadly in need of this. Mar. Fri. Mon. 2-Three camels in tonight. some of the bushes are about to blossom.--worthless though.00 per day expenses allowed and $20. Camels moving supplies and equipment. O. Mar. 1-Worked down to the bone layer in new quarry and found it barren-shall put in one more day here and then transfer the men back to quarry B where Olsen needs more stripping done. found a fine pair of Ars. Feb. in afternoon. Worked in new quarry with three men but found nothing--is apparently exhausted. gave him three days off. Letter from Prof.-r. Herr Markgraf moved his tent over near camp today--on a hill just back of quarry A. We hope to hear from Prof. Visited Herr M. The damp nights and the two slight rains recently have freshened up what little vegetation there is here. Mar.-. Sun.--too much flying sand. Daoud. Men did not work after 9: A.Jaws--1/2 m.
Hanna Affiudi dined with us because he is a Copt. Mar. 15-Today Markgraf sent in his first batch of fossils from the Westerly pits. Daoud brought in a good Megalohyrax jaw.--will be gone ten days and with good luck probably longer. [Markgraf departs area] Thurs. Had tea with Mr. Hamid Said and Achmed Abid. Went to the Geological Museum and saw Capt. Tues. Also a fine large skull of Tomistoma. [Granger to Cairo] Sat. [Granger returns to Fayum] Wed. Ali Achmed. Mar. Met Daoud at El Wasta and reached Tamia late in the afternoon where Mr. Train for Edwa left at 2: P. Had another row over the day's pay deducted for stormy weather and no work. The Omdah of the village  was introduced and sat aside while we ate.M. We have a very good collection of small things in comparison. Took photographs of the men at work in Quarry B. Prospected some in the middle Eocene and brought home a small collection of shells--principally Ostrea. Staraselski  and me. Abdulla is probably after letters of recommendation. [Collecting progresses in Fayum] Thurs. Lucas. Fri. Got shaved at Edwa by a native barber--terrible experience. Have been obliged to paste most of Markgraf's fossils. Took up Palaeomastodon palate today--Olsen has been finding good material in Quarry B. Mar. Hassan returned--says his "brother" is better. 13-Reached camp at 8:20 tonight after a long hot trip through the desert-Mr. they show more skill than the other men at uncovering and work without being watched. Two large packing cases came from S. Mar. Wed. Was in Shepheard's yesterday and it seems very lonesome there. Wonderful experiences this morning riding Eastward through the desert toward the rising sun. Olsen and I did very little prospecting and nothing of interest found. found where he purchased his shellac and ordered a quantity.--the best yet. Have settled down to heavy work in quarry B today with entire force. We find that it keeps us very busy pasting up bones fast enough to keep ahead of the workmen. Ali went along to look after him. Saw the effects of the bite today--one of the camel flies which Markgraf has been telling us about. Sat. 16-George caught his fox last night--a little fellow about the size of the American Kit fox. Ibrahim threatened to leave with his men and I told him to go ahead--they wrangled over the matter a half hour in their tent & finally returned & agreed to remain. Cairo is beginning to be deserted by tourists. transferred at Edwa to the State Ry. line between El Fayûm & El Wasta after wait of 1 1/2 hour. We are bothered but little from mosquitoes but the house flies are growing annoying . A fine pair of Palaeomastodon lower jaws turned up in the quarry today. The camel was bitten on the tip of the tail as we were leaving the last camel and the blood flowed out in a tiny stream. He joins me at El Wasta on Tuesday. Visited Cook's for mail. and who is one of the influential men of the town. Mar. then rode until one when Tamia reached. Leave for Tamia tomorrow. D. He may come out to camp with me for a few days. Mar. Converse met me--too late to start for camp and Hanna Affiudi  has promised to keep us overnight. also Ibrahim and the boy. There is a very good skull of Moeritherium. The Quft men sing a good deal but I have seen none of them pray. rode untill sunrise then walked untill nine. 8-Holiday--men did not care to repeat the trip to the lake today. Hassan is the only one of our men who prays in public--about five times a day he spreads his bournouse out and mumbles to Allah. Sun.. Mar. 7-Markgraf pulled out for the western pit today. Men at work in Quarry B stripping. Lyons thinks the flies are confined to the lake borders and do not get up in the desert. Men eating with their fingers. 17-- . Abdulla. Took another good look at their Fayûm collection. Fri. Markgraf lost a camel from the bites of these flies two years ago. Swiss Papeterie  and Fleurents on business. Four camels & Talba in this evening. Mon. Our record book shows about 200 specimens. Achmed was the larger one and we are glad to get rid of him. 9-Left camp with Daoud this morning at 3:30. Mar. Olsen doctored his hand up.30 evening to help label them. Daoud stays in Cairo tonight and goes up to Helouan tomorrow to see his family--which includes a new "bînt" [baby girl] which he hasn't seen yet. Olsen has a trap set tonight for his fox which still pays nightly visits to the quarry. He says they are particularly bad in April and that the camels are all taken away from the region of the lake. Converse pretty nearly all in from camel riding. over sleeping sheep and goats and around buffaloes and cows to Abdulla's house near the canal. with a lantern. Mar. Paid Ibrahim and his men their 2 weeks wages so that they can send their money home by Talba tomorrow. Mr. Nights are still cold--my heavy ulster is very comfortable this evening. Hamid had been seriously ill. They uncover the fossils rather more rapidly than we can prepare them--and it does not do to leave the men alone in the quarry for any length of time. gave a dinner tonight to Converse. piloted us down through the narrow lanes of the village. Sun. Olsen and I started for it but found it too far. Lyons there. Hassan and Massaout have opened up small prospects at south end of the Quarry B hill from which they are getting some well preserved jaws. 11-Finished shopping today and visited the Ethnological Museum. Hanna Affiudi. 10--weather murky. Olsen and I busy all afternoon and evening pasting up bones and labelling. I have decided to go into Cairo tomorrow. We need more shellac and there are several matters which I can attend to better than by mail. Ali tried to take him out of the trap and was bitten severely. Converse  called in this evening. Mar. Changed cars again at El Wasta and reached Cairo at 8:30. two lower jaws and a few skeleton bones. apparently with stomach trouble. After the meal the remnants of the feast were eaten by the native guests all sitting on the floor around an immense circular brass platter. Daoud. Came to the Eden Palace Hotel--this is a much cheaper place than Shepheard's but not clean enough. 12-Left Cairo at 7:30. I do not think the tough bread which the Quft men eat is good for them--several of them have complained of stomach trouble. Cooler toward evening with strong wind. A turkey had been prepared and three or four other meat courses followed with rice and other fixings and cigarettes in between courses. Olsen's fox carried off his bait last night. Mar. Mar. 6-Warmest day yet--just a bit uncomfortable at noon. Went as far as Birket-el-Qurun beds. 14-Three of the Quft men left early this morning for home. one of the natives who came out to see Osborn.--Markgraf is to start westward tomorrow to open up quarries where he has obtained Palaeomastodon and Moeritherium skulls.
with present for Hassin and money for sheep for men. Mar. Spring seems to be on here now. Sun. So much so that we are obliged to . Wendell's sheep. Tues. Mar. Olsen and I are kept very busy preparing specimens. Mon. Started removing part of Beadnell's old dump to uncover a strip of bone layer which runs under it.skulls here for Fraas. and Mr. we have seen two or three snakes. We find it is not practicable to set the men at large stripping--the sandstorms undo much of the work. Took out 15 good specimens from quarry B today. cheese & tea--his usual diet) and returned to camp in afternoon.'s Century article . He thinks he is about dead. His men report that he has good Palaeomastodon jaws. found all specimens by trenching  in pockets of fossiliferous sand. two good Creodont jaws. I walked westward to Markgraf's camp--found his 3 Palaeomastodon jaws very fine. Wishes to return on account of family matters. Fri. There is a species of quail seen occasionally and one of them came into our tent during a windstorm one day. Took up work in Quarry A again this afternoon. beginning to be comfortable at night without an overcoat. O & Mr. Mar. O. All remained in camp. Weather splendid. Markgraf sent in for some tinned goods today--his camels are not in yet. Shall let him take this occasion to go to Helouan to see his family and to do some errands for us in Cairo. The men are gorging themselves tonight on Mr. Wed. Sent negatives of quarry in to Diradime by Mr. Mar. Camels in tonight with American mail. 31 excellent runners. Converse has taken up sleeping quarters in the cook tent because ours is too open and windy. A new stripping finished today. Mr. prospecting. The general condition of the atmosphere now is becoming more hazy each day. fine pair Ars. He has had a bad cold from sleeping on the ground. All at work in quarry B. Daoud. and March the air has been clear but we can barely see the cultivation in the Fayum today. Sat. Tues. 19-Two camels in tonight. Saw storks flying northward to Europe today. More good creodont material from Quarry A.-. 26-Still splendid weather with nights cool but getting warmer. Found Pterodon and Palae-. Converse. Markgraf returned part way with me and pointed out the Moeritherium quarry where he got our material. 18-Fine weather continues--also the flies. Talba came in tonight with camels and Mr. Mar. Markgraf sent over his Palaeomastodon jaws. 24-Daoud and Hassan are attending to the cooking now that Ali is laid up. Mr. Granger and Hassin. I took camera and with Daoud went in as far as Qasr-el-Sagha to get photographs for Prof. Took camera to Garat-el-Esh and secured photographs of Middle Eocene escarpment . Wed. More storks today. He is one of our best workmen. Converse left us today. Daoud and I prospected westward in the afternoon and pasted the Ars. Mar. 30-Rather hard sandstorm last night. Dew is heavy at night. Letters from Prof. Took lunch with him (native bread. 27-Olsen in quarry B east--the Quft men in A stripping. 3 camels in tonight. The new Q. Thurs. Fri. Halil Mohammed goes back to Quft tomorrow. found elephant humerus near Fairfield Butte. During Feby. 29-Busy pasting bones all day. Talba is to bring sheep back for the men. Converse has not enjoyed his stay very thoroughly but dare say he will remember the experiences for some time. Mar. skull out west of camp. He is working 1 mile East of the trail from Qasr-Qurun  to Alexandria. It is surprising what a variety of life one can find here upon careful search and it seems remarkable that anything can live. Mar. This afternoon we organized races--with prizes.jaws. Fear Mr. The cook tent caught fire in the wind today and Ali burned both hands badly putting it out. Wendell . B East has turned some good bones already. Good success in quarry A again. There are a few beetles and millions of house flies. Antelope of at least two species leave tracks in the wadies every morning. Mar. Saw Daoud's Arsinoithere skull today--is the back stop and worth saving. Have several good jaws in Quarry A uncovered yesterday. Little Hassin has been taught to cut burlap strips and mix paste and helps some (Fig. Mon. Mar. Mar. Much of the British material came from here. Both hands are all bandaged up tonight and he is helpless. W. 41) . Men have started stripping at the extreme southern end of the quarry." Several good bones have been taken from here by Beadnell. 25-Weather perfect. 28-All hands in the quarries. & for Edibles for ourselves.Weather very comfortable today--all hands busy in quarry B. Lizards are fairly common. Thurs. 21-All busy in Quarry B. Ali goes in tomorrow and will have his hands treated. Ali went in with the camels this morning. Mar. Converse goes back tomorrow. Letters to Prof. 22-Pay day & holiday. Wendell. Olsen and I too busy pasting and recording specimens to get out. and they are growing worse. Full time and no docking of pay this fortnight so everything went smoothly. Olsen in Quarry B East. The men are FIGURE 41. Quft men in quarry A.--two or three species of Raptores and several small Passeres complete the list of birds .-. Several new plants have sprung up in favorable wadies and there are more birds moving about. Daoud reports part of Ars. Mar. Sat. 23-Very windy today and work in the quarries uncomfortable.skull. 20-Mr. Olsen has set his men to opening up a prospect on east side of quarry B hill which we shall call "quarry B east.'s sheep and Olsen and I will be sure to get greasy mutton soup for the next three days.
M. Later Daoud confided that the mother was not dead--only very sick. 12-Uncomfortable between 10: & 4: [--]a cool breeze occasionally but mostly dead calm. Camels have just arrived. This morning the beds and everything in the tents were covered with a thick layer of fine sand. Apr. We have decided to send all but two of Quibell's men back to Quft on Friday. 16E) in the wady 1/2 mile below camp. and will go on to Cairo . Several good vertebrae and limb bones from quarry also. 3-Today Olsen found another Creodont skull--1/2 sheared off by erosion but the other half is perfect. have a good chance of finding more of it tomorrow. Olsen will keep Machmud and I Ibrahim Mohammed as personal assistants--they are the most capable men of that outfit. 10-Pleasant--a bit too warm during middle of day. Could not trace it. from the first one. Olsen and I at work packing and pasting.jaws from same place. Mon. D. The other day Mr. Tues. Two camels came in with box of alcohol and shellac from S. Our heavy sandstorms are all from the north and all come at night. Thurs. Ali returned and brought a bag of oranges. Remained in camp all day packing boxes & labelling. The weather is not excessively hot yet but still uncomfortable--about like a hot day in Wyoming. Thurs. In afternoon Olsen went to upper level and found several fragty. Worked on Crocodile skull again and took up Ars. 11-Clear--too warm from 12: to 3:. Wendell's money. Talba travels at night now--when he can to avoid the heat of the day. Apr. Fri. 5-Cooler today--sky overcast. The Quft men left at midnight. they are particularly bad when pasting bones. Apr. Flies very bad through lack of any breeze. Went to the Birket and looked over a small stretch of Middle Eocene on way back--no success. Daoud found fine large Crocodilus skull today--near the Creodont skulls. Got up at 5 and packed two more cases--sent four in by camels. Wheeler. Wed. Apr. Apr. The day winds are mostly So-West. Wed.-. Sat. Another sheep tonight and a "fantasia" to celebrate the departure of the Quft men. due him to date. Have given him a check for the Amt.-E. Camels in tonight. Olsen worked in upper beds and found good Ancodon jaw. Blew down the Quft mens' tent. In Quarry A. 6-Very hot today--a terrific wind is on tonight and it is impossible to keep a candle lit. Four camels in tonight with the 8 cases ordered recently from S. Apr. 4-Another hot day. Sat. Natives in quarry B north where they find some good bones. 9-Pleasant--not too warm. Apr. Tues. Daoud found the fox with trap somewhere So.-. Brought back Moeritherium jaw and many flint implements. Took only 1/2 bottle water and came home very dry. Machmud and Ibr. nothing more being found. Wendell's sheep escaped into the desert when it arrived and was untied and the whole troop chased it for a half hour and finally shot it. & Machmud will remain.--quick execution. Daoud and all Arabs except Ibrahim went to Dimé. He brought in a few more bones but none of special interest. It was impossible to face the wind and everything was black as pitch. Camels should have been in yesterday and we had only one fanitas of water left--too close a margin in this weather. Apr. 7-Fine day--cool north breeze. These exposures have been pretty thoroughly examined and not much of value is left. 31-Markgraf arrived with his outfit today and is camped with us this evening. Men found back and top of Ars. Have prepared skin & skeleton for museum. given them a bonus and letters of recommendation to Ibrahim and they seem contented and all are apparently glad to get back home. Labels arrived also from Swiss Papeterie. Apr. of the skull in quarry. has lower jaws which is the first association of parts we have seen except a string of four small vertebrae in quarry B . tore up the cook tent and would have taken our own if we had not been up every half hour to strengthen the ropes and keep the walls tied up. This means another piaster a day for the other three men--but they are the pick of all our men and are worth it. Comfortable in shirt sleeves this evening. B--north with with balance of men--found missing fragment from back of Ars. Last night occurred our worst sandstorm. Camels returned to Tamia and Talba is to have others here tomorrow night. The paste draws the flies and with both hands engaged they have a free swing at one's face. Markgraf left this morning for Sinnoures. The flies are getting to be the greatest nuisance. Last night's storm lasted from about 9 untill 4. Found it about 100 yds. Apr. Apr. Six will suffice from now on. Sun. Packed two cases before supper. . things. Sun. Fri. a regular corker. Yesterday Olsen and I spent the forenoon in the Middle Eocene collecting invertebrates but finding no good vertebrates. Worked on Crocodile skull with Ibrahim.-. Finished up work in quarry B. 8-Olsen caught his fox last night but it pulled the pin and got away with the trap. the heat would not be so bad without them. Ibrahim Salim and five of his men go in tonight late.skull. have paid them up to the 7th. An hour or so later she grew better (only a little sick) and finally an offer of an extra piastre a day cured her entirely and both Ibrahim M. Camels in tonight. Olsen in q. Strong wind again tonight. George is after another fox in the quarry. Mohammed were to remain.-found jaw and vertebrae of Moeritherium. Comes up every night as the other one did. B north. 2-I spent a few hours in the Middle Eocene below Garat-el-Esh. Mar. 13-Warm--but not too hot. Apr. of quarry. Today is our first hot day--much too warm for comfort in the middle of the day and not cold tonight. Fox was dead. Hassan & Massaout uncovered several good bones-including a fine palate of Palaeomastodon.32 cover our bones up. Strong wind at bed time. but a letter from Quft arrived tonight for one of the men (one can read) and brought the news that Ibrahim's mother was dead and so he wanted to return and Machmud didn't wish to remain alone. 1-Olsen began prospecting today for the first time and celebrated by finding a very beautiful skull of Apterodon (Fig. Natives all in quarry A. Discharged two camels last night. Mon. purchased with Mr. D. Part of the sheep was in the pot ten minutes after it was taken down alive from the camel. Olsen found more fragts. Collected a good series of ants for Prof. Apr. The men came out twice and readjusted the chunks of fossil wood on the guy ropes . 9: P.skull in q.
Ibrahim & Machmud we walked to the Birket.humerus of Markgraf's--took the camera.-west wind.-. I went west and pasted Ars. Both Olsen and I worked in upper beds today. I worked on bones at camp most of day. 20-A very comfortable day after the heat of yesterday--the cool north wind blew all night. Mon. Tues.-. Atmosphere began to be hazy about 10. .humerus left by Markgraf.palate. o'clock. Camped below the temple  (Fig. Sun.[--]brought American mail. Apr. 33 Fri. Apr.skulls.-. 15-Hot again. Hassan & Massaout at work prospecting--no success. 42). Olsen in upper beds. stopping on the way at Dime´ to look on the ruins and take photographs FIGURE 42. Apr.-. Sent in two more cases of fossils. 18-Pretty warm and close today.in Q.-. It is now (9: P. This Southerly wind is no good--only the north winds are cool now. Apr. Olsen had returned earlier from upper beds. Daoud and men prospecting found half of a Moeritherium skull. B. Took photographs of gebel. Camels came in the forenoon. The hot sand was moving freely by this time but the wind was fortunately at our backs. Apr. Spent the afternoon with Olsen up East along the Middle Eocene escarpment where Daoud says the Barytherium came from--we found the hills pretty well scoured.) very comfortable again. 16-Weather comfortable again--brought in Ars. There has been a very noticeable decrease in the number and the energy of the flies since the Khamsine of Sunday. Olsen in Q. Weather cool and comfortable. Are planning now to break this camp on the 21st and go to Qasr-elSagha for a few days before going in to Tamia. 43). Apr. Apr. preventing good photographs. B and we decided to take only the palate. Thurs. Natives wrapped our water bottles in wet burlap which afforded some relief. Reached camp at 1:o'clock about used up. so he says. I realized a Khamsine was on and packed up the turtle and started for camp. [Break camp. 17-Camels in with Amer. Took photos of camp and temple. 19-The only hot day I have ever seen! Weather conditions were not unusual in the morning. At 6: P. Shipped off four more boxes by camels--worked on Crocodile and two Ars. 44). Apr. A packing case for transporting the fossil out of the Fayum by camel sits behind him.-. Daoud collecting “elephant” humerus he found near Fairfield Butte. Apr. Mon. Daoud & I spent day prospecting & collected the Elephant humerus (Fig.--Straw "tibbin" and dry beans or peas. Perspiration runs off one in the tent this evening. 21-Broke camp and moved in to Qasr-el-Sagha (Fig. having travelled all night. Olsen in upper beds today. Spent afternoon lying in bottom of tent--suffocated with sand and scorched with heat.Three camels came in about 7:30. There is some green feed up at the head of this wady and his camels have been up there most of the day. By noon the air was full of dust and the wind strong and hot. growing hotter and with strong So-west wind. We rather regret breaking the camp and closing the work. taking up Ars. 22-Today with Daoud. the wind died down suddenly and after a few moments of calm a cool north breeze sprung up causing hundreds of tiny whirlwinds as it came in contact with the So. move to Qasr-el-Sagha] Sun. After breakfast I went with Daoud and Ibrahim to the west to collect the small turtle skull and the Ars. Talba is using dry feed for his camels now. The alfalfa is about gone in the Fayûm by this time. Olsen cleaned up old Ars. Wed. but days like yesterday are not pleasant and are liable to recur at any time now. very uncomfortable.M. Mail.M. 14-Hazy with warm So-west wind. Shy on candles tonight--Fleurent’s box did not come out yesterday.skull from up west. Sat. Spent the day packing up and labeling the remaining specimens.
Collected Moeritherium jaws and weathered skulls of Tomistoma and Zeuglodon. Scott's Pension  opposite Eshekeih Gardens. Apparently he is in the field again . 27-At the museum this morning I met Dr. and she and Hassan brought it up to us this evening and Hassan made her come in the tent. Tues. Museum tonight. Apr. Dr. and Olsen got good turtle--all from 1 mile west of Temple. Hume has unpacked all duplicate material of Arsinoitherium FIGURE 43. Had tea with Mr. The method of capture is to select a small bay and creep up with great caution and suddenly rush across the entrance of the bay with one end of the long gill net. Several fish jumped over the net and escaped. Cost us 6 piasters. etc . We decided it would be necessary to go into Cairo as our working clothes had all been given away to the natives and we needed new tents since the old ones are all seriously damaged by sandstorms. O. Fri. He generously offered new tents and whatever supplies we need for the second trip. Left Tamia at 10: A. Apr. Lucas. Came through in fine shape. Called at the S. Got our fossil cases out of storage at Abdulla's this morning and had them weighed & shipped as luggage on our train--Daoud and Ali sitting on them all the way and watching after their transfer. saying to continue work in Fayum . Called at the museum and found it closed. Hume . Sat.) on camels with crew at Qasr el Sagha relocating their camp on April 21. Hassan and Massaout have gone to their homes. Met a caravan of several hundred camels being driven in to the Cairo "Sukh" from the Oases to the south. . We are to go in to Tamia tomorrow. Lyons.M. We also need hot weather clothing-helmets. Hassan's wife baked a (?)pudding for us--terribly greasy affair. [To Tamia] Wed. Food almost entirely gone this evening--barely enough for breakfast. Apr. Apr. Apr. at Giza and saw Capt. The fish come up into the shallow water along the shore in great numbers. 84 fish about 8 inches long were caught. [Resupplying in Cairo] Thurs. Most of the fish caught here are shipped daily to Cairo. Saw Markgraf's trail near camp today where he had passed recently with his outfit. Lunch and transfer at Medínet-el-Fayum with time enough to look about the place a trifle and Cairo at 8:20 this evening.34 (Figs. The weather is fairly comfortable here but pretty hot during middle of day. Two or three naked natives then enter from the shore side and by great splashing & commotion drive the fish into the net in their attempt to reach the open lake. The owners--five stalwart Arabs in white robes and long barreled rifles--brought up the rear of the caravan. 25-Cairo. Our tent is pitched near the [railway] Station tonight. Have paid off Ibrahim and Machmud and they leave early in the morning for Quft. 23-Camels in late this afternoon with American mail. At the lake we found native fisherman and engaged them to run in their net for us. He leaves for England on May 4th. Our leaving is now a necessity. Very hot during middle of day. 26-Official Sunday. 24-Left Qasr-el-Sagha this morning and reached Tamia by three--lunch at Cafe in Tamia. D. 45 and 46). Olsen (l.) and Granger (r. Quartered at Mrs. Our cases are on the front steps where they were delivered last night. Our camp outfit was loaded on the camels and ready to start for Cairo and Olsen and I were ready to take the train when I was handed a cable-gram from Prof. Olsen and I each buried a piece of the pudding in the sand and gave the balance of it to Daoud and Ali. Ali informs us that the grub is about exhausted--the fish will help out though. Daoud & Ali have gone up to Helouan over the day. Daoud and Ali are to hire truck men and deliver the cases at the Geol. Collected invertebrates from the Lake Moeris sediment.
Worker’s tent at Qasr el Sagha. Fantasses lie in the foreground. the worker at left pouring water from one.35 A B FIGURE 44. Settting up camp below temple ruins at Qasr el Sagha on April 21. . B. A.
.36 FIGURE 45. Work party members at Dimé during visit on April 22nd. FIGURE 46. Birket Qurun from the north shore.
[Return to Fayum] Wed. We spent most of today in the Middle Eocene but without success. The slightest exertion brings on perspiration. 28-Talba reached Giza with the outfit last night and showed up at the museum this morning. Sun. Dr. They are already harvesting the wheat along the Nile and the date trees are in full bloom. Eggs are laid in sand scratched up a trifle and both sexes incubate . Tues. I have engaged five camels and shall take two tents and eight fanitas. I slept under two blankets last night. Sun.belonging to the Survey Dept. Weather not uncomfortable today--a north East breeze most of the time. He shares an apartment with eight other Oxford and Cambridge men out on the Shoubra Road--native servants and everything very comfortable. Mon. Hume says that the S. Thurs. The streets here in Cairo are pretty quiet during the noontime. Ferrar is in from the Eastern Desert but we have not seen him yet. Abdulla is green but willing. There is but little to do except to pack the few specimens we find and read or write. There is no object in remaining longer at this . conditions turn] Thurs. Talba expects to reach Tamia on Wednesday. We shall explore the eastern end of the Fluvio-Marine bench from this camp. Spent the afternoon in the Middle Eocene beds here--not much success. Stopped at the Canal for an hour or so and I visited Kom Ushim . Talba only half fancies the idea of returning to the desert. Fri. May 2-Came out to Qasr-el-Sagha this forenoon. Shall send him in tomorrow if the camels come out. Numerous prospects but the bones are much broken up and very soft. They rigged up a sort of double basket on a camel and Daoud was put in on one side and Ali got in the other side to balance it. A very few good specimens have apparently been taken from this locality--judging from the prospect holes. May 9-All hands prospecting morning and evening--nothing noteworthy found. Tues. to Matarieh where we saw the Obelisk of Heliopolis. We find the weather some hotter than when we left the desert but still the heat today has not been dangerous. Took in Antiquities Museum again. Stored our cases in the Museum today where they will remain untill we return from the Fayum. D. Olsen and I spent the day in the upper beds but found nothing of value. May 1-Came out from Cairo today--Staraselsky is kindly keeping us overnight--his rooms here at the power plant are very cool. 29-Mr. The nights are still comfortable. The adult birds are kept a pair in each yard and many were breeding. Fri. Most of this duplicate material has been donated to [the Egyptian] National Museum. are to come out to us again on the 11th. Apr. Wed. out here alone. does not attempt to do much work after April but that with care we should have no difficulty--only discomfort on Khamsine days and gradually increasing hotter days. Daoud is ill tonight. Daoud and Ali came out with us and Talba has arrived with the outfit. In the afternoon we went. others beginning to lay. The weather continues good but grows a little warmer each day. [Collecting resumed. Scott. Mon. May 8-Another scorcher of a day with almost no breeze. Camels returned to Tamia last night. Sat. Our energy is at pretty low ebb from 11: untill 3:. May 3-Daoud is worse tonight--has been very sick all day. I went back with him and laid out the things which he is to start back with tomorrow. Spent another full day in the upper beds but with no more success than before . May 4-Daoud goes in to Tamia tonight and Ali will go along with him and return as soon as he gets him to Helouan under a doctor's care. The Virgén's Tru and the Ostrich Farm with 1400 ostrich of all ages. We purchased hot weather clothes today including helmets and sun shields. Found a good creodont jaw today--the only good specimen we have seen thus far on this trip.--some incubating. with Olsen. Hassan has a job which he can't leave for a few days and Massaout won't come alone. The farm is a series of yards arranged around a central building. They seem pleased to be with us again and we are glad to have them out. 30-Had dinner at Ferrar's flat tonight. Met an outfit of two camels and a native belonging to some hunters who are up in the Gebel after gazelles. Hassan and Massaout can not come out for the present. May 10--still hot More prospecting with only moderate success. May 11-Camels in late tonight.--he is a sick man. We shall have to hire them both. They should get to Tamia by Sunrise. Shall move to the upper bench as soon as the camels come out. Prospected morning and evening but found little. May 7-Camels came out today early and in the afternoon moved us up to the Fluvio-Marine bench about 2 miles East of Fairfield Butte. This portion of the bench seems to have been more thoroughly explored than to the westward. Olsen and I spent the day in the upper beds again with no more success. May 6-One camel came out today bringing Hassan & Massaout. under the guidance of Mrs. Markgraf back. Very hot from 12 to 3 o'clock today and we remained in the tent. Ali returned with the camels today and reports that Daoud reached Helouan safely and is taking the baths. I begin to see the value of these thick stone walls. he seems very forlorn. We find that by taking down part of the wall of the tent we can make it fairly comfortable at noon--especially if there is any breeze blowing. A wonderful Museum but they have to learn about cases and labels . Our strength is sapped by this heat and we can do little but be in the tent and keep quiet. and offered me such bones as we might need to supplement our own--have selected several vertebrae. Sat. Apr. A native named Abdulla came out tonight and will look after camp while Ali is away. May 5-Ali left with Daoud about midnight last night. though. It appears that Abdulla returned tonight to his home. We have been feeding him from our provisions but he needs a physician's care. making it excessively hot for four hours in the middle of the day. Apparently 37 visceral trouble of some sort. Saw where two specimens had been collected. In most of the old prospects the specimens have been left--not being worth taking up. I doubt if Daoud will be able to return to the desert again. Very hot and dusty travelling today. Apr. Very hot coming across the low stretch of desert.
though. Wed. We move to Alexandria Trail tomorrow. Thurs. and March. Thurs. Letters to Prof. Some success at prospecting today but none at trenching. All hands prospecting in afternoon. Camels all left for Tamia this morning. In afternoon moved Eastward to Ferrar Butte where Markgraf got two Arsinoitherium skulls. we drank almost none. Heavy wind tonight with much sand. In afternoon Hassan & Massaout prospected south of camp 1/2 mile or so where Olsen has found some fairly promising prospects including a Tomistoma skull and a fairly good turtle. Daoud returned today in apparent good health. There has been no rain of consequence since Jan. The natives are all wearing shoes now. though. Either the heat or the winds have driven the flies pretty well out of the desert. Sat. May 21-In the afternoon the north Easterly winds blew warm at times--rather less wind this evening than usual. thank goodness. He called on us this evening--is working for Dr. May 15-Every day hot now. H & M still trenching. The air at noontime is perfectly arid. Fri. Shall stay here three or four days and then go in to Qasr-el-Sagha and then on to Tamia. Markgraf has adopted our method of pasting bones and is much pleased with it. The sand gets so hot in the middle of the day that it is uncomfortable to walk in. Camel men say that Markgraf has left the desert. Others prospecting with same result. At one point where it goes down a wide wady I counted 75 parallel paths--nearly all showing fresh tracks. May 22-Warmest day this month--so far. The comparative abundance of vegetation has apparently brought them down from the Gebel. The plants nearly all have short roots and they appear to derive their moisture from the surface rather than from subterranean dampness in the western [American] states. May 16-Set Hassan and Massaout at work trenching on some sand lenses near camp . May 17-Had Markgraf down to dinner this evening--said “good bye”. Worked on Moeritherium jaws with Hassan and Massaout in forenoon--nothing further developed. Olsen and I prospecting. Olsen and I prospecting and the old men still at the quarry where they find a few good bones of Arsinoitherium. Spent morning up west of Alexandria Trail-no success. Camels went in to Tamia last night. Weather very hot during the day time and we consume a great deal of water. He expects to remain but a short time longer in the desert. Talba and two camels in from Tamia. Heavy fog bank over gebel in the morning and cool wind all forenoon. Uncovered a half ulna of Arsinoitherium--outlook discouraging. May 24-Very cool and fine in morning with fog hanging over Gebel again. The old men still digging trenches--Olsen prospecting to the South where he found a soft and badly weathered skull of Arsinoitherium--no good. The northeast wind brings the moisture. Tues. Galmier left. . but excessively hot during noon period--the worst yet. Saw Markgraf's trail and found his camp on the edge of the bench just above our camp. About 50 yards wide at this point. The Fayum is not visible from here now. Mon. He has the same outfit which he had when in here before. These pits are about a mile East of the Alexandria Trail. I stayed in camp. Talba returned from Qasr Qurun with 4 fanitas after dark. They appear to do their feeding at night and return to the Gebel to seek shelter during the day. left again in the afternoon for Qasr Qurun to return with water tomorrow. 31st but the dews at night are as heavy as one sees in New England. May 19-Regulation weather. Sun. camped directly at the excavation. Pitched our tents just below the old place and up on the flat where the sand is smoother and harder. Prospected some in afternoon and set H & M [Hassan & Massaout] to work trenching--no good results from either effort. O. May 14-Called up at Markgraf's camp this evening and took photographs of his camp. saying that it requires too long to harden . Fri. None of us has seen an animal this trip although Daoud reported having seen some two or three times in Feby. it is apparently a very important trail although we have seen no camels on it yet. Moved to western bone pits in forenoon. Sat. Hassan & Massaout digging trenches all day. May 20--Regulation weather. May 18-Regulation weather. H & M trenching all day. chiefly on account of sore ankles due to poisoned flea bites. Markgraf says it is at its maximum now. Took photograph of camp in evening. to return immediately. We find gazelle tracks in the wadies every morning now--many of them. The camel men tell us that Markgraf is camped on the upper bench-a half hour from here. Sent short report to Prof. Olsen on Turtle and Crocodile. H & M trenching-no success. The vegetation has sprung up in the desert to a surprising extent. Hassan and Massaout have opened up a prospect in Quarry B Hill. Case from Fleurent's with water &c arrived by camels. I found good maxilla of Moeritherium. Northeast wind not comfortable in afternoon. Talba is due any day now. May 25-Another comfortable day.38 camp and tomorrow we shall move to the old pits. We have no trouble in sleeping. He will not use shellac. This is Markgraf's method of collecting and has yielded him some of his best material. Only one bottle of St. Mon. Worked on Moeritherium jaws. May 13-Olsen and I took a long walk to the westward today and came back along the upper bench. May 12-This forenoon we moved out to our old camping ground at the easterly pits. with another half case from Fleurent's. Took photographs of Moeritherium Quarry & camp. also Talba on camel (Figs. May 23-Coolest day this month. This trail passes up over the top of the Gebel at this point. 47 and 48). I found good turtle near camp & Olsen has a few jaw frag'ts. Three camels in from Tamia--cablegram from Prof. Camels in tonight and are to return on the 18th to move us westward to the Alexandria Trail where Markgraf found our Palaeomastodon jaws. Spent the forenoon in a fruitless search out to westward beyond the Alexandria Trail. Fraas now and has a poorly preserved Palaeomastodon skull and a badly crushed skull of Megalohyrax from the upper beds. Tues. Sun. The air has been hazy since we returned from Cairo. Camels return to old camp at the pits tonight and will go on to Tamia tomorrow. O. and home. Wed. O. I returned to old Moeritherium quarry--found on same level and not far from Beadnell's working a very fair pair of jaws. but. They are as bad as ever in the cultivation but here they have ceased to be the nuisance they were. cool nights. In Feby. Olsen has been in the upper beds today and had some success-finding several jaws. Markgraf expects to go in as soon as his camels return.
Sun. May 26-Both Olsen & I spent forenoon in upper beds with no success beyond a few frag't'y jaws. Fogbank on Gebel again this morning and extra heavy dew the past two nights. Bits of wood lying out are covered with large drops of water in the early morning. The early morning is delightful but by 7: o'clock the heat comes and it is not agreeable again untill 10: o'clock in the evening. Ankles still bother me. Mon. May 27-Heavy fog again. Busy today taking up small specimens--nothing
39 important. H & M keep at the trenching, have opened up many favorable looking places but they yield nothing. Tues. May 28-All five camels in tonight. We leave early tomorrow morning for the Temple. Very hot today. Daoud brought in a good Pterodon jaw from East somewhere. Finished up the few specimens we had out and are packed up ready to move. [Break camp, move to Qasr-el-Sagha--redux] Wed. May 29-Qasr-el-Sagha--moved in here from Ferrar Butte this forenoon and have stopped to give the camels a rest and to take photographs of Widanel-Faras and the petrified wood. Start for Tamia at two in the morning. Extremely hot today and almost no breeze and we were glad to reach the Temple and huddle up on the shady side of it. Have one tent up tonight-for Olsen & me. Saw a fine gazelle just as we were coming down from the bench back of the temple. It was not wild and watched our caravan untill we were out of sight. [In Cairo, Granger hospitalized] Thurs. May 30-Cairo.--arrived at 8:30 and came to Mrs. Scott's. Reached Tamia early and packed up in time to get away on 2: o'clock train. Extremely hot and dusty on railroad. We find Cairo very comfortable this evening. Fri. May 31-Lunch with Ferrar at his apartment today. Ankles still bothering me and I have not been about much. Museum closed today. Sat. June 1-Saw a physician today and he informed me that my ankles would not heal unless I went flat on my back for a week or so. He recommended the German Deaconess Hospital and I came around here this afternoon and have been put to bed . It is very quiet, cool and comfortable here. Have a room with one other patient as companion. An Englishman of the Signal Dept. of the State Ry's. Sun. June 2-Khamsine wind blowing today and the air outside full of dust. Dr. called and looked me over--thinks I may get out in a week or ten days . Olsen called after three o'clock when visitors are admitted. He has begun repacking our cases with Daoud and Ali to assist. Museum closes at 1: P.M. now, hot weather schedule. All Banks and public offices close at this hour. Stores close from 12 to 3, when the streets are almost deserted. Mon. June 3-Khamsine still at it. Olsen & Daoud called & brought letters from home. Tues. June 4-Was allowed out on the porch this afternoon for a while--weather pleasant again. Ferrar called with Olsen. Olsen reports that packing of bones is going on very satisfactorily. He is to call here every afternoon. Health is fine and ankles healing rapidly. Wed. June 5-Out on porch all afternoon. Big mail from Naples today, letters from home & the Museum. Thurs. June 6-Ferrar called again. Have walked about a little today in the room & on porch. Very hot during middle of day.
FIGURE 47. Standing (l.-r.) Ali (cook), Granger, Daoud; seated (l.-r.) Hassan, Massaout. This photograph taken during second trip to Fayum, for which Granger acquired a sun helmet.
FIGURE 48. Talba, the camel drover, on May 23.
40 Fri. June 7-Dr. in this A.M. and promises to let me out tomorrow. Olsen has made provisional booking today on steamer (N.D.L.) leaving Port Said for Naples on June 14th. Many natives in the hospital this afternoon to see their relatives who are in the wards on the first floor. Sat. June 8-Out of hospital this afternoon. Olsen & Ferrar called in carriage & we drove home, stopping at N.D.L. office to make final booking. Weather very cool and comfortable today. Dinner out on the sidewalk this evening. Cairo begins to wake up about Sundown and at 8: o'clock the whole European element is dining either on the sidewalk or out in the street in front of the various restaurants. [Last days in Cairo] Sun. June 9-Went around to the Museum this A.M. Helped Olsen label & tag the cases which are all packed in fine shape. Dr. Hume will arrange to ship out cases for us along with those which the S. D. is sending out. Settled up with Daoud, Ali and Talba today. Called to Museum for additional deposit. Went to Citadel in evening . Mon. June 10-Finished up labelling etc at the Museum this A.M. To Old Cairo  with Olsen & Mrs. Scott in afternoon. Tues. June 11-Went out to Giza this morning and settled up with Survey Dept. Mr. Humphreys now Acting Director. Goodbyes to Ferrar who sails tomorrow. Wed. June 12-Came up to Fechn on afternoon train to visit Dr. Hansen . Return to Cairo in morning. Thurs. June 13-Left Dr. Hansen's early this morning after a pleasant evening. Regret not being able to stay longer. Good bye to Dr. Hume at the Museum this afternoon. [Depart for U.S.] Fri. June 14-Port Said--weather delightfully cool here this evening. Left Cairo at 8: this A.M. Ali came to station to see us off. Hot and dusty but extremely interesting trip on the Railroad. Put up at Eastern Exchange Hotel . An interesting place with verandas around the house on each floor and doors from each room out on to them. Our boat, the “Bayern” is in the [Suez] Canal and is due here at 4: in the morning . Sat. June 15-Up at 4: this morning. Passed through the Customs inspection office and were rowed out, with our baggage, to the “Bayern”. Got under way about 7 o'clock and three hours later were out of sight of land (Fig. 49). [End of Notes] EPILOGUE Granger and Olsen sailed to Naples and then transhipped to the S.S. Prinzess Irene for the 14-day journey to New York (Fig. 50). When they arrived in June with their cargo of fossil crates, their accomplishment was evident . The expedition had been a success indeed and, four years later, would be touted as one of the most significant events in that decade of American paleontology . Yet, a glance at a history book, or a query to the general public, will confirm that it is an event the story
FIGURE 49. Olsen (l., standing) and Granger (r., seated) near the bow of the S.S. Bayern, Granger seated to rest his ankles.
and significance of which remains mostly unknown. Granger published nothing on the 1907 Fayum expedition . He barely mentioned it other than to note it as one of the locations of his many expeditions. The underlying narrative for Osborn's Century article (Fig. 51), of course, was Granger’s Notes, which Osborn edited for his own use: several pages of Notes show Osborn's trademark editing, bracketing and underlining with a red pencil-crayon by which whole portions of Granger’s material are underscored, and missing first names and titles are filled in (Fig. 52) . Thus, while Granger's Notes supplied the essence of Osborn's Century Magazine account, Osborn happily embellished and framed the display for his own benefit. The result is that, until the recent discovery and study of Granger's Notes, an inaccurate and incomplete rendition has existed of the 1907 Fayum expedition . While George Olsen was also in the Fayum for the entire expedition, he is not known to have kept his own account. He was a field assistant, not a trained paleontologist. Nor was he much of a writer; a review of letters Olsen wrote from Asia during the Central Asiatic Expeditions reveals that he was not especially prolific or literate--though he was charming . Osborn's handling of the 1907 expedition was predictable. He was not a collector, but an overseer. Having assessed the field situation with Granger, Osborn had already come home and had much to talk about. He quickly moved to publish and publicize his bold and pioneering expedition. By mid-April, while Granger and Olsen were still working in the Fayum, Osborn was attending the April 16-18, 1907, meeting of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. to present a talk
FIGURE 50. S.S. Prinzess Irene bounding through the Azores enroute to the United States.
FIGURE 51. Title page from Osborn’s 1907 narrative of the Fayum expedition in The Century Magazine.
42 entitled "Exploration in the Upper Eocene of the Fayum Desert," with hand-colored lantern slides . Osborn's Academy lecture coincided with his election to a three year term as a member of the Academy's council, as well as his occupation of three committee seats at the Academy: the Committee on Geology and Paleontology; the Committee on Biology; and the Committee on Election of Foreign Associates . Such prominence within the Academy was excellent positioning for Osborn, his department, and the Museum: the Academy was chartered by Congress in 1863 to provide scientific advice to the United States Government . Granger and Olsen returned to New York on July 3rd, 1907, with nearly 550 field-catalogued specimens, including several taxa new to science . They collected a considerable amount of new data on a geological region north of Birket Qurun and prepared a map showing the locations of the important finds made in the Fayum. They did some work also for other scientists such as collecting ants, gathering flint implements from Dimé, and obtaining invertebrate fossils from the Qasr el Sagha beds. Granger also took photographs to illustrate the geology and topography of the region, the different methods employed for collecting and transporting the fossils, and the various campsites occupied by the expedition. The 1907 collection of vertebrate fossils was important for its quantity of archaic and ancestral types as well as its reflection of great differences from the fauna typically found elsewhere in Africa. It was the first collection of fossils from the Fayum to be reposited anywhere in the United States. According to one American successor to the work in the Fayum, in addition to the finding of a small, intriguing, anthropoideanlike fossil piece of skull Granger labeled as "possible primate," [p]erhaps the primary contributions to paleontological knowledge made by [the] expedition were the recovery of the first rodents from the African Oligocene and the discovery of the upper fossil wood horizon . Unlike Osborn, whose primary interest was to collect large specimens suitable for display at the American Museum, Granger also searched diligently for the many smaller fossil specimens and pieces which contribute much to the progress of paleontological study. The anthropoidlike skull bone and the humble Oligocene rodent discovery would be among them. The Fayum finds quickly became considered among the most important made in vertebrate paleontology in a decade. At a meeting of the Geological Society of America in late December, 1911, the newly-formed paleontology section--the Paleontology Society--held a Symposium on Ten Years' Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology. The Paleontological Society, spawned in 1908, remained for a time within the older and larger Geological Society of America which was formed in 1889 . The session began without ambiguity: The discovery of the Fayum fauna is the most important find of the last decade in vertebrate paleontology. It has added a new and most remarkable type of giant quadruped, primitive stages in the evolution of the Proboscidea, Sirenia, and Cetacea, a wide variety of Hyracoidea, besides Carnivora, Rodents, and if Doctor [Max] Schlosser is correct, the earliest known Anthropoid Primates . Paleontologists were excited. Germany's Professor Max Schlosser and his postulation about the anthropoid primate promised significant advances in the study of evolution . While each Symposium speaker rose to proceed through his topic that winter's day in Washington, D.C., Walter Granger was in Europe, with Anna, visiting paleontologists and touring institutions. Osborn sent Granger over to study Europe's collections and exhibits, to confer with
its scientists and to arrange a fossil exchange program with the American Museum . When he arrived in Germany in early January, Granger conferred at length with his Fayum research colleagues, and Markgraf's mentors, Eberhard Fraas and Max Schlosser of Stuttgart and Munich, respectively . Granger carried fossil samples with him, as well as an extended list of fossils the Museum had available for exchange. In Europe, as he noted those he wished to obtain, he inaugurated the exchange program by leaving three fossils with the British Museum, two with the Paris Museum, five with Lyons University, eight with Professor Charles Déperet, and so on. When Osborn made substantially the same European tour a year later, his advance work was already done. The interplay between Osborn's approach to collecting, and Granger's, continued after the Department engaged Markgraf to continue collecting for them in the Fayum. On April 23, 1908, Osborn wrote to Markgraf that while he was pleased with the 1907 collection, he yearned for "more perfect" skulls of Arsinoitherium, Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. Osborn added that he realized "how very difficult it will be to secure this material...[but] I trust you will be fortunate in finding these specimens for us sooner or later." Before he sent his letter, however, Osborn appended a page with the following: P. S. Mr. Granger reminds me to ask you especially to keep your eyes open for small objects, which may be of very great importance, especially as they may have been overlooked by previous explorers . In correspondence during 1912, Granger congratulated Markgraf on specimens he collected for Professor Eberhard Fraas; Granger had seen them while visiting with Fraas in Munich that winter. Granger then added: I still have hopes that you will some day find a good skull of Arsinoitherium for us. If you have good skulls of any of the Syreniens [sic] I think Prof. Osborn would be willing to purchase them, in fact I think that any good skull material from the Fayum you could sell at the Museum if the price is right . The American Museum's association with Markgraf continued until his death from pulmonary tuberculosis (consumption) in January, 1916 , although by early 1915 the Museum was advising Markgraf that due to the war, it could no longer afford to buy material from him . Except for the solo work of Richard Markgraf until his death in 1916, paleontological expeditions to the Fayum ceased for a significant period of time after 1907. Important Fayum material was thereafter lost in the carnage of the World Wars, the Germans having been one of the three nations to explore the Fayum in any substantive way. Much of Markgraf's work thus was lost. The 1907 Fayum expedition activated an intense interest in the study of proboscideans by Osborn. This study would last for the rest of his life as he, Granger, and others labored on a huge tome entitled Proboscidea: A monograph of the discovery, evolution, migration and extinction of the mastodons and elephants of the world (Fig. 53). It was published in 1936, a year after Osborn's death. Work resumed in the Fayum in 1947 when Wendell Phillips entered the desert with the University of California Pan-African Expedition specifically to search for more fossil evidence of the anthropoid primate, Propliopithecus, found 40 years before . They were unsuccessful in that quest, although they returned with a fair collection of Fayum fossil vertebrates. Another 14 years would pass before a series of expeditions, begun in 1961 by Yale University, ignited an ongoing, methodic study of the Fayum . The Fayum Depression remains a fossil trove today. Research now
Other examples will be found in Appendix A.43 FIGURE 52. Henry Osborn’s annotation of the fifth page of Granger’s Notes. .
She may have hoped to go with him to Middletown Springs. I also desire especially to secure a skull of Moeritherium showing the anterior portion with the teeth preserved. and the dangerous potential it posed to Expedition members. Did you find some good things in the last days ? Those were Granger's tents that Markgraf sighted at Qasr el Sagha on April 23rd. On April 22nd. As a result. The desert's conditions had become hostile as khamsine season approached.. They had returned their equipment to the Egyptian Geological Survey. letter in part as follows: Up to the present time we have not secured a fine skull of Arsinoitherium. or $200. break camp. and depart from the Fayum by April 21st and reach Tamia by April 25th. to be repacked for shipment overseas. Thus she wrote to Osborn seeking to confirm that Granger's work there would cease when planned and that the expedition would return to America when planned .44 focuses on how and when the earliest relatives of man (Anthropoidea) lived. Paleontologists currently studying the Fayum vertebrates have uncovered the remains of some of the earliest higher primates in the world . provided it reached us in good condition. urgency--at least as to finding those specified fossils--really was not the essence of the matter. George H. Writing from Cairo in February shortly after leaving the Fayum. and return to America. He was assessing his situation daily. thus. I should be willing to pay a handsome price for it. of his authority. Osborn declared: the work of the American Museum has been established by Professor Osborn on a two or three months' footing or as long as the weather is tolerably cool [emphasis added] . he released most of his native workers. 54). apparently. Sherwood. if not the heart. that the expedition remained in the desert until June 12 “when it was interrupted by the severe heat of the summer” . His phrasing also indicates that. By April 5th. and was also soliciting the opinions of Markgraf and British staff in Cairo who were experienced in the challenges of staying in the desert much longer. To Osborn he wrote: As you can see from my finds I diligently tried to fulfill your wishes and searched all over the localities known to me with which I just finished the 31st of March and hope you will be completely satisfied with my efforts . for some reason. Twenty days later Markgraf sent a letter to Granger in New York. could not let Granger’s plans stand. Anna’s concerns for Granger’s safety would rise again during the Central Asiatic Expeditions from 1921 to 1930 in China and Mongolia. Granger and Olsen are now prospecting diligently and will probably remain in the field some time longer and they may find one. 1907. Alpheus Haynes. . Granger had already reduced his operation as April set in. Osborn. had projected a relatively short duration for the expedition. They had discarded their torn tents and tattered work-clothes. She would have been aware of his standing plans and arrangements to leave the Fayum." Entries in Granger's diary over the weeks leading up to April 25th indicate that he realized that the challenges presented by staying any longer would soon outweigh his diminishing fossil finds. hedged on whether his sudden cablegram ordering Granger and Olsen back into the Fayum would be heeded. Thus Osborn. Unfortunately. it was not. as did Osborn’s wife (and children). Recent interviews. Osborn responded to Markgraf's April 4. and wrote back to essentially tell her so. on July 29 . I desire also the anterior portion of the skull of Palaeomastodon with the upper tusks preserved . Nevertheless. he recorded "Have written to White Star Lines at Naples relinquishing our staterooms on the 'Celtic' [for] Mar. and cut the number of caravan camels from eight to six. Markgraf's own correspondence with Osborn and Granger (whom he thought was already back in New York) also confirms that a shorter timetable was envisioned. surely came as tart surprise for Granger and Olsen as they stood at the Tamia train station thinking they were on their final departure from the desert. before returning for the Seventh International Congress of Zoology hosted by the Museum in August  (Fig. Something else appears to have caused Osborn’s abrupt action. noting in conclusion . and that he would have kept her apprised of his activities and plans. himself. They had given their native assistants their final pay and released them. a rather ignoble turn of events took place. Osborn apparently perceived Anna's contact as a meddlesome and encroaching one: her inquiry about her husband’s health and plans constituting an intolerable assault upon the perimeter. In 1925. On February 25th. I hope you may come across one in your prospecting which you will dispose of to us.. Their entire fossil collection awaited them in Cairo. fully expecting Granger to be there--they had said their goodbyes in the Fayum on May 17th. Burned once over her wish to accompany the expedition to Egypt. she sent three letters and some newsclippings to Department of Vertebrate Paleontology Curator W. This seems to me a gap in our collections which must be filled sooner or later. Anna apparently sought assurance that Granger’s plan to return was on schedule--and if. As we now know. Henry Osborn knew fully of Granger's aim to conclude the expedition. as well as his increasing concern about flea bites .” she wrote in one letter . perhaps out West. she probably also felt quite left out of matters at this point. as we now know. If not. [sic] marks.. He inquired: For two days now I am again in the desert and during my walk here I spotted two tents near Qasr el Sagha which probably were yours. Anna Granger and Henry Osborn Osborn's cablegram of April 25. despite the manner of his cablegram to Granger. Osborn believed she was intrusive. if not too assertive. as noted earlier. Osborn would later report. Matthew duly forwarded Anna’s material (except for one letter he said was missing) to AMNH Acting Director. For a complete skull of Moeritherium with teeth preserved I would be willing to pay $50. She would have looked forward to his return and made plans to be with him. however. and Egypt. Also under study is why and how the ancestors of whales left land for life in the ocean (many skeletal remains of the Basilosaurus found in the Fayum deposits bear evidence of vestigial hind limbs). reveal that Walter and Anna Granger would have regularly corresponded while Walter was in Egypt. D. it makes one feel pretty serious. as well as correspondence surviving from other years and events in their marriage. she thought he needed to get out of the desert for his own safety anyway. Osborn. though these questions are being answered not by the Fayum material but by older material from Pakistan. “When the older missionary folk (people who have lived through the Boxer time) scent danger. Matthew in New York to express her concern about the brewing political and military situation in China. Vermont for the extensive festivities planned to celebrate the 100th birthday of his great-uncle. say $60 or 240 marks. 20. and aware that conditions in the Fayum were deteriorating. Granger had already once extended his stay in the Fayum. Messers. 1907. .
Skulls of North American Gomphotherium (upper) and Egyptian Phiomia (=Palaemastodon according to some workers)(lower). compared and contrasted by Osborn in his monumental monograph (1936) on the Proboscidea.45 FIGURE 53. .
which I. I should like to do so provided Professor Osborn can make it possible. Markgraf was able to find little of much interest to the Museum. Granger’s letters so that she will not feel that her information and implied advice have been neglected . Perhaps the most intriguing exchange about Markgraf’s continued work in the Fayum after 1907 was between Osborn and Granger. those particular specimens in the Oligocene occur very seldom here. and why the AMNH of Osborn never returned. despite considerable effort. The Museum declined and. since I did not know that they were wanted in N. For this second trip. sold partly to the British Museum and partly to France and Germany. a year later.. Two years later. As you yourself know. This consequence was most pungent: Osborn’s decision had endangered the well-being of his best collector. Osborn and the Museum could hardly justify the very result she’d warned against--infirmity to Granger. By 1912. They collected little of additional significance. more easily utilized instead . I had. Participants in the Seventh International Congress of Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History on August 27. I submit Mrs. he advised Granger that In reference to the fossils which are desired by your Museum. 1915. very fine specimens of Zeuglodonts and Syrenen [sic]. in response to Osborn’s inquiry. Matthew’s comment suggests a post-Fayum expedition assessment by the Museum that Anna’s tangle with Osborn in 1907. as he did several months earlier over whether she could travel with the Fayum expedition. I regret to say that I am unable to get any more skulls of Arsinoitherium and Palaeomastodon. Markgraf was dead. Markgraf exchanged letters with Matthew. Matthew’s advising Markgraf that the Museum could no longer afford to pay him. return to the Fayum. Markgraf could have been. and wrote about a proposed new search as follows: In regard to Professor Osborn’s wish regarding my collecting further for small forms such as Schlosser has described. 1907. etc. in January. The 1907 Fayum expedition. all been collected.46 FIGURE 54.. and these have. If I should find any more good specimens of them. 1908. The place from which most of these small things come from is almost exhausted. But. because of World War I. were discovered on the surface. but Anna won the war.Y. . in the past winter. Post-1907 Fayum The American Museum’s use of Markgraf in the Fayum continued after 1907 until the Museum encountered financial strain in early 1915. Thus. Osborn may have won a battle in April. but two--as Granger noted when he wrote in his expedition report “Six camels were engaged for this second trip (emphasis added)” . 1907. and actually was. recall their workers. I will let you know . Only the place from which Pliopithecus teeth and rodents came will possibly yield further specimens. Osborn's directive to Granger and Olsen to return to the Fayum was rash and absurd. which lasted through Markgraf’s death in early 1916. reestablish camp and work under worsened weather conditions. also the place where the Ancodus was found might be further considered . On April 27. The few that have been found up to now.. Granger replied as follows: Dear Professor Osborn: Herr Markgraf’s offer seems reasonable.. He is apt to find enough material to pay the expenses and if he should be fortunate enough to secure a good skull I would suggest awaiting its arrival here before setting a value upon . in reality. should thereafter sensitize the Museum to her concerns. before the Museum could act to acquire it. a bittersweet conclusion which may help to explain why the pioneering and essentially successful 1907 Fayum Expedition has remained littlementioned since. Granger and Olsen were forced to re-equip completely in Cairo. by reason of much searching. and the poisonous effect of Granger’s flea bites finally incapacitated him sufficiently to land him in a Cairo hospital bed for two weeks. although some of what he did find went elsewhere. Osborn and Granger (behind Osborn’s right shoulder) are at front left. given the consequent hospitalization of Granger in Cairo. became not one. I cannot undertake this work on my own account because it is too risky.
June 3--. As Granger and Olsen sailed home.” and “Mon. 45 hp racing engine capable of 60 mph (peaking at 1250 rpm). four-wheeled. One purpose of this paper is to place the matter on the table for further inquiry. None of Walter and Anna Grangers' private correspondence from this expedition is known to exist either. addressed only the expedition portion of Granger’s record (diary) of the entire trip. we know that by March 13th. we do know that Notes was created in time for Osborn to use it to prepare his article for the October. it is also recognized that Granger’s title refers to the Fayum Trip. when he obviously began to write on more damaged. two-stroke Contal tri-car. Five cars entered for the contest: Borghese's. except by letter. was a veteran of Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition to the Antarctic from 1901 to 1904 where. driven by Georges Cormier. therefore. 15 years later. Writing for Science in 1907. with Jean Bizac as mechanic.it. driven by Auguste Pons. The expeditioners were free to roam about the Gobi in their motorcars and collect fossils as they wished because they were resupplied on location by successive rotations of camel caravan. including Henry Osborn. with Edgardo Longono as passenger. Thus. Thereafter. noting rather graphically that Markgraf’s camel bled after being bitten and that Markgraf once lost a camel due to flea bites. Letters to Prof. although Anna’s correspondence with Osborn still exists. with Jean du Taillis as passenger. Gibraltar. including stops at the Azores.. I think it would be profitable to us to have him continue in the field untill [sic] June. as the ancient Persians brought camels to Egypt to abet the consolidation of their political influence. May 24--. He may have kept his diary in that form-letters to Anna... fleas and bites. O.. an identical de Dion-Bouton.. We need. Granger used the least damaged blank sheets until May 13. For example. paper. More to the point. driven by Victor Collignon. Fossils. and the 6 hp.. The five automobiles fully loaded with gear and occupants took it on without road maps. He corresponded regularly while he was in Egypt (e. of course. keeping the camp supplied. Ernest Shackelton experimented with a home-made. Keeping a separate diary thus would have been redundant. of course. Granger was a prolific correspondent throughout his life. Very respectfully. co-driver Ettore Guizzardi and journalist Luigi Barzini. a three to four days' round journey . Ferrar. George Olsen. exactly the procedure Granger used in the Fayum for his 1907 expedition. a 10. This suggests Notes was created in the field.. Osborn stated that the party [would] only succeed through thorough. The car had two brake handles: one to the rear drums and one to the transmission. the campsites in the Gobi were as wide-ranging as the reach of the motor vehicles and the preplanned." Edward Wilson recorded that the vehicle was "rigged up by putting two rum barrels on axles and a frame work. as does Granger’s with Osborn. The Prince's entry was an Itala 35/45. Their experience in the Fayum in 1907 clearly impressed Osborn and Granger with the power and potential camels played in enabling a party to work long term at a remote desert work site and send out a succession of fossil boxes weighing as much as 400 pounds each. this is also roughly the way he'd done things--with horse. Absent the camels. and Naples.. 1907. likely maintained contemporaneously with letters written to Anna. across Mongolia and Siberia. summer-long. the 10hp. well-distributed rendezvous sites of car and humped beast.and is certainly .000mile test of the world's latest technological marvel--the automobile. He caravanned boxes of fossils from the desert to the railroad station in Tamia where they were transported to Cairo by rail for repacking and shipment to New York. If Markgraf is willing. That was the only information Osborn needed to prepare his Century Magazine article: the excerpted Notes. the Central Asiatic Expeditions employed them to consummate their claim on the Gobi's fossils. 2-cylinder de Dion-Bouton. Italy's Prince Scipione Luigi Marcantanio Francesco Rodolfo Borghese 47 (Prince Borghese) readied his crew. the word “trip” apparently referring to the entire journey from New York City harbor and back. emptied and then reloaded with fossils for transport back to Kalgan. This suggests that the water damage occurred on April 4. A well-travelled caravan route lined with telegraph poles guided them from Kalgan toward Urga. and no Granger Fayum diary is known to exist. Genoa. sail powered "go-cart. Unlike Granger's limited selection of campsites in the Fayum. This then also suggests that Notes is a fairly complete (unabridged) account of the Fayum expedition. among other things. Boxes of supplies were brought out from Kalgan. camels.4 liter. and home. Some of the Fayum fossils are very easily prepared and others take much time.. because that is what led her to contact Osborn seeking assurance that Granger would depart the Fayum as planned (knowing he had already delayed his departure once). We know Granger conveyed his concern to Anna. issue of Century Magazine. the 15 hp four-cylinder Spyker. the cost of preparation should have a large influence over its value. While we may never know all the answers. once the Gobi portion of the American Museum’s Central Asiatic Expeditions (1921-1930) commenced in 1922. as it would Walter Granger. The motorists and the camel drovers kept predetermined rendezvous.. This is..g. I think that any material which Markgraf secures would be worth the boxing and shipping charges to us. The purpose of the Fayum trip was to accomplish the Fayum expedition. However. the 1907 Fayum expedition's guide. limb material of Palaeomastodon and a good pelvis of Arsinoitherium.. gas or repair stations. wagon and rail--since his early days of fossil-collecting in the American West. The source for Notes What was the diary from which Notes was taken? Notes gives few clues. an open-topped car hand built over a slightly-reinforced auto chassis loaded with four on the floor behind a huge 7. These Expeditions were feasible because they combined motor car with camel. especially. for the first international motor marathon. The fossil boxes were then taken on to Peking by rail and there they were repacked for shipment by boat to New York.. but not after (Fig. driven by Charles Goddard. Concerning when Notes was actually written. The initial segment of the race crossed Mongolia--including the Gobi Desert--on a direct line from Kalgan to Urga. systematic and prolonged search and excavation. four-cylinder. and others. 55). Olsen & Daoud called & brought letters from home”). A train of eight camels is constantly moving to and fro. The race that summer ran from Peking to Paris.. but dried. Walter Granger  Whether Granger’s final remark was meant to needle Osborn is something we may never know. Hartley T. She would have been ravenous for a constant stream of such correspondence: her husband was to be away in a foreign land for months and essentially out of touch. It is possible that Granger’s diary was constituted through his letters to Anna. with Octave Foucault as mechanic. or even a true automobile road. paleontology-oriented expeditions to the Gobi Desert during the 1920s as a part of the Central Asiatic Expeditions in which Granger played a key role. it is noted that water damage along the right edges of the original blurred the ink up through the April 4 entry. Borghese won by 21 days . “Fri.and automobiles One little-recognized aspect of the American Museum's 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt is the groundwork it laid for its five highlypublicized. Granger was quite concerned about flies. one-cylinder.
. An example of deterioration and water damage found on many pages of Granger’s Notes.48 FIGURE 55.
As he had noted earlier. Metasinopa fraasii and Hyaenodon brachycephalus . quite simply. So. John Lavas and Dana Redington for their close readings of earlier versions of this paper. 1907. and two weeks in the hospital post fieldwork--surely this dampened Granger’s enthusiasm for a return trip. Gerhard Maier. he knew that any well-searched fossil field can and will produce new and significant fossils. Osborn went on to describe the new creodonts Pterodon leptognathus. His postdoctoral student H. Furthermore. the newly recovered Fayum mammal taxa. were not Osborn’s main interest. Osborn well understood the significance of the fossils that had been collected. as well as for her usual underlying research wizardry. The Notes reveal a physically exhausting and mentally trying field expedition: Tough living conditions and logistical difficulties in an inhospitable desert. though not recognized as such by Osborn) Apidium phiomensa. there were mutiple reasons why the AMNH never returned. Osborn variously described the collection made in the Fayum by the 1907 Expedition as "about 550" (1908) or "about 500" (1909) specimens. David Love. Divya Mehta. U. that he had met his match in Egypt. may have not desired to return to Egypt. Therefore. the impetus to return "from a purely museum standpoint" may have been gone. Gratitude is also expressed those who facilitated access to archived material at Agate National Fossil Monument. judging from his correspondence and from passages such as the following: ‘The finding of the two heads of Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon was the chief object of our expedition from the purely museum standpoint” (Osborn. There probably was no second AMNH expedition simply because there did not appear to be a good chance of discovering enough new and interesting material to justify the expense of one. Osborn stressed that "the writer [Osborn] is especially indebted to Mr. Universität Tübingen . the rodents Phiomys andrewsi and Metaphiomys beadnelli and the anthropoid primate (a monkey. the exhibition goals of the expedition apparently were met—two fine proboscidean skulls and other materials worthy of display. To this end. A collection of ~500 identifiable fossils that includes complete skulls for exhibition and five new genera and eight new species and the first fossil rodents from an entire continent must be regarded as a paleontological success . American Research Center. to discover new mammal fossils.” . why didn’t the AMNH go back again to the Fayum? The answer must be conjectural. If so. Therefore. fossils difficult to extract. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS VLM thanks Katherine Morgan. S. Rupert Wild. His lifelong bibliography  indicates that Osborn published little (and therefore little researched) on mammals such as rodents and creodonts. Chris Beard. The best explanation of why there were no subsequent AMNH Fayum expeditions is pluralistic: much as there were multiple reasons why the expedition occurred in the first place. Kathy Kentner. G. John Fleagle. Osborn acknowledged a heavy debt of gratitude to Granger. Matsumoto worked up much of the proboscidean and hyracoid material years later . Helen Morgan. the striking similarities between vast. S. Still recovering upon his return home. but also for valuable advice in the preparation of this contribution" . Also. those flea bites had killed a camel. Caran Redington. All evidence suggests clearly that Osborn’s motives for the AMNH Fayum Expedition were multiple: to place his DVP on the world stage. Kenneth Rose. questioned the efficacy of another expedition. 827). His own post-expedition writing recalls an understandable hope for discovering new kinds of fossils in the Fayum as one of the motivations behind the 1907 Expedition. Granger’s Notes has several entries that indicate various quarries and localities were being worked out. ominously. though significant. Anna may have also made it clear that he wasn’t going abroad again without her-and he never did. Amy Chew. In 1909. Like any experienced paleontologist. Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre. Phillipe Taquet.the first wheeled vehicle the Antarctic has ever seen. to secure proboscidean and other fossils for study and exhibition and to shed further light on Africa’s role in the evolution of Paleogene mammals. if not already so. Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde. Anna may also have played a persuasive role. He recalled that Granger "remained in charge [after Osborn’s departure from the field] until June 14.. Lakhina. the key phrase here is "from the purely museum standpoint. This suggests that Osborn was not merely moved to organize the 1907 Fayum Expedition to search for proboscidean fossils and/or fossils for exhibition. In his technical reports. Olsen’s own natural immunity and Keating’s Powder notwithstanding. New York Public Library." which is anobvious and important contextual qualifier for Osborn’s statement. Michael Walkowiak.. Furthermore. Osborn may ultimately have been disappointed. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology (American Museum of Natural History). Donald Russell. and Osborn himself continued to come back to the Fayum proboscideans throughout his research life . Walter Granger not only for the careful manner in which this material has been worked up. the 1907 Expedition’s success was in part responsible for the lack of a continued program. Eden Volohonsky. Aftermath of the 1907 Fayum expedition Osborn published the main scientific results of the 1907 AMNH Expedition in two articles . Thomas Bown. Boston Public Library. Andras Zboray. He. Daniela Möbius. consolidate and transport. barren and remote expanses of snow and ice to the equally barren and remote expanses of deserts and badlands were factored in to finally find a way . Part of the answer. this was the only time in Granger’s life that he required hospitalization. He stated that "the hope that exceptionally careful methods of search might result in a substantial addition to the Fayûm fauna was realized by the discovery of three of the smaller kinds of mammals which had hitherto escaped the eyes of collectors. However. Simons  argued that "primarily he [Osborn] appears to have wanted materials for exhibition. So far as we know. But it also clear that Granger’s last-minute return to the Fayum for more collecting did not produce much. Ted Finch. Tom Dubois. although an objective assessment of the scientific results of the expedition indicates success. John Larson. John Lavas. a fractious and at times rebellious local field crew. Katherine Morgan is also thanked for her close review of this version of the paper. we believe. John Lavas is thanked for his excellent line art renderings. a mercenary Markgraf. phiomensis. Ingo Rafuss. p. Krister Linde. may have lain in Granger himself. the question arises: if the 1907 expedition was so successful. at least. or. this veteran of thirteen rugged American West expeditions may have been easily convinced. In 1908. Granger simply could not protect himself from the nasty consequences of the flea bites. However. Penny Colman and Don Kron (regretfully misspelled in our NMMNH&S Bulletin 19) also were especially helpful to the research or understanding of this event. representing especially the Rodentia and members of the two other mammalian orders which are not determinable at present" . and he published the new taxa. of course. The concept. National Archives. Institut und Museum Geologie und Paläontologie. and displayed energy and skill in the work of collection" . was to get around faster and further. he described the following new taxa: the bizarre "insectivore" Ptolemaia lyonsi. because neither Osborn nor Granger 49 nor any direct participant in the 1907 Expedition ever explained the lack of a followup. Thomas Bown. Rainger (quoted earlier) recognized this broader scientific motivation behind the 1907 Fayum expedition in Osborn’s evident interest in Africa as a center of mammalian evolution during the Paleogene. P.
Geological Library. Hilda Haight and Kent Kicza for their various quick. it has placed many a needed research item right at the fingertips. rescues. bicycle ride. sometimes embarrassing. VLM and SGL express deep appreciation to Pat Holroyd. The American Research Center in Egypt graciously permitted VLM to present on this topic at their 52nd Annual Meeting held at Brown University in April. The Granger Papers Project launched an abridged. .50 and University of Uppsala. VLM thanks Justin Mayrand." In that regard. or modem click away. witty and effective computer software and hardware upgrade recommendations. VLM thanks SGL for joining in this paper. repair work and other. website version of Granger’s Notes called "Faiyum Diary--Forgotten Expedition to a Lost World. In 1997. 2001. Barry Kues and David Rains Wallace for so generously giving their time and expertise to provide close and constructive reviews of the manuscript which led to this publication. Finally. VLM is also thankful for the University of New Hampshire's Dimond Library: a mere moment's walk.
265-266.. 2) that it occurred in “1906-07. Egypt: Stratigraphy. M. Concession to the Improbable. 81. 21 March 1907. p. 1923. Evolution and geographic distribution of the Proboscidea: Moeritheres. v. Zoogeographical relations of North Africa in the upper Eocene: Proceedings International Zoological Congress. Bown. _____. Mitchell. 29 March 1907. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. 802 p. Osborn also returned often to the Fayum proboscideans in subsequent articles and monographs published throughout his career: _____. p. Archaeological work in Egypt: The Nation. n. Evolution. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum. 1921. 1992.” 4. L. eds. phylogeny and classification of the Mastodontoidea: Geological Society of America Bulletin. _____. _____. Simons also holds (p. v. p. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 139.. Palaeomastodon the ancestor of the long-jawed mastodons. 6. J. S. and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Egypt. _____. 1. D.. The Age of Mammals in Europe. 1988. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. Fayum Province.. _____. M. G. only: Proceedings of the U. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. Rexner. New York: Henry N. and new ones are issued nearly every day it seems. v. deinotheres and mastodonts: Journal of Mammalogy. N. Ironically. 622). phylogeny and classification of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. Inc... _____. 603-632. 1988. 271-272 (also The NY Evening Post. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. 1938. and Kraus. and paleoenvironments: University of Michigan. 1921. 415-424. In both. 513-516 and Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: Discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History: The Century Magazine. Gingerich. 94) states: In 1907 Osborn was able to convince Jesup to sponsor an expedition to the Fayûm of Egypt. 6. 320-321 (also The [NY] Evening Post. The Genesis of British Egyptology.51 NOTES [Citations to archival sources researched in the 1990s may be affected by subsequent system changes (e. Deinotheroidea. age. 21 March 1907. 1921. M. J. and Klein... AMNH. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayûm desert: The Century Magazine. p. G. Osborn makes clear that the expedition occurred in 1907. p. 805-1675 p. The feeding habits of Moeritherium and Paleomastodon: Nature. n. Hewison. T. p. 7. xxiv. p. 4 p. 3594. National Museum. 7 March 1908. 1968. R. v.. n. A History of Egyptian Archaeology. Abrams. The Fayum primate forest revisited: Journal of Human Evolution. generic and specific stages of evolution of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. p. Mastodontoidea: New York. v. Crowell Company. 448-455. 273-302. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. 84. Fayum Depression. 1996. But note an opposite assessment by Rainger in An Agenda for Antiquity where he (p. _____. M. Eighteen principles of adaptation in allomiometron and aristogenes: Palaeobiologica. H. 1995. p. particularly extinct elephants. in Shoshani. p. 35-54. Kappelman. 327-332. p. New York: Walker and Company. Asia and North America. Colonising Egypt. we relied primarily on the works of: Bratton. v. 11. p. The Proboscidea: Evolution and palaeocology of elephants and their relatives. 740. Papers on Paleontology. 74. 1922.1934. S. Tiffney. F. _____. R. 4 April 1907. J. 24. Notes. v. 64. 1967. no. D. Morgan. This and other translations of field locations are taken from the “Glossary” of Bown and Kraus. _____. 2001. 32. p.. Africa was another major center of adaptive radiation and therefore important for his work on the evolution and geographical distribution of mammals. p. Kraus. p. Simons and Wood. 222. Tombs and Hieroglyphs: the story of Egyptology..g. Wing. _____. _____. 10 April 1907. Colbert. Thompson. 635 p. C.. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. p. J. _____. 2179. Mertz. T. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1919. 9. B. Hunting the two million year old elephant: The Illustrated London News Supplement. A monograph of the discovery.” which is provided in Appendix B. American Museum of Natural History. v.. Bown and Kraus. Bown. v. Stegodontoidea. 17-35.. B. Temples. and Vondra. II. 60. 1982. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. n. A monograph of the discovery. n. Inc. v. 1988. 815-835 (also editorial abstract: Nature. p. American Museum of Natural History. 139-140. 17 October 1907. 1-60+4. The Fayûm expedition of the American Museum: Science. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. 1988.. 10. p. _____. H. New Series. 3.. p. p. 6 February 1907. For our cursory treatment throughout. v. session VII. 513-516. p. New subfamily. 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 84. The evolution. 1925. T. L. Proboscidea. Egypt. Final conclusions on the evolution. p. 1936. 30. July. evolution. v. 1964.. Migrations and affinities of the fossil proboscideans of North and South America and Africa: American Naturalist.1912. 1981. _____. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. v. L. Massachusetts. P.. D. 1942. v. _____. 4). 231-234. J. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. 1996)]. 9. n. p. p. 132. for example. J. According to Osborn. 2. 84 p. Princeton: Princeton University Press. evolution. American Museum of Natural History: 125 years of expedition and discovery. 15491906. 7. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world.. 5.. and Tassy. 15. p. as does Granger’s “Report on the Expedition To The Fayûm. E. n. phylogeny. The age of the Fayum primates as determined by paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy: Journal of Human Evolu- . E. 265-272. v. Fleagle. F. I. L. 6. 99. p. Cambridge. Adaptive radiations and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings National Academy of Science. Proboscidea. _____. n.. _____. J.. 1988. 76. Simons. 1971. Simpson is likely referring to Osborn’s two popular publications: The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639)(1907) p. 26. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. p. 25. See. Elephantoidea: New York. 1907.. New York: The MacMillan Company.. 2177. _____. spurred support for his efforts to expand the size and scope of his department’s activities. Fayum Depression. v.. 6 p. Moeritherioidea. and Wortham. Linnean classification and the phylogenetic classification of the Proboscidea: Palaeontologica Hungarica. p.. New York: Coward-McCann. 1. 1992. 25 March 1908. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. 56. 177-184. G. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. 9 September 1909. 1968. 8. 10. v. 815-835. Norell to V.. His promise to bring back new and unique specimens of large African animals. Osborn actually published directly on the 1907 Fayum expedition itself as follows: _____. v. M. Oxford: Oxford University Press. _____. v. The American Museum expedition to the Fayûm desert: The Nation. 14). DVP. The Fayoum. 1923. Waterfield. Scores of delightful resource works exist on the history of Egypt. 29 July 1909. _____. New York: Thomas Y. P. 74. 1921. 639. Fayum Depression.
the proboscideans). Holroyd. mostly moeritheres and barytheres. F. v. D. 1995. Fayum depression. see Wendorf.. 133-160. A.. M.. 1988. (2) arsinoitheres (Order Embrithopoda. Sandweiss. the first known from Africa. 273. and is also spelled Gebel.htm#third. Paleoenvironment of the Earliest Hominids: New Evidence from the Oligocene Avifauna of Egypt: Science. and Swisher. Rasmussen. Heizmann. v.. R. Parapithecus. 1-20. basing it on the goddess Tithos of Greek mythology. J. 1962. in the EoceneOligocene. 25.. Herodotus: Father of history. strictly speaking. 18. eds. Tethys was an ancient seaway. J. 233. (4) hyracoids (Order Hyracoidea)--primitive ungulates. can. 24. 155-226.. L. Savage and Russell (1983) and Shoshani et al. III. 1976. (8) sirenians (Order Sirenia--sea cows). Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. p. A. D. p. Princeton: Princeton University Press. new discoveries at a range of northern African sites (especially in Libya and Algeria) have yielded equally old or older (including Paleocene) sites. For hundreds of millions of years. B. L. 1976. be called "elephants. Propliopithecus. 1988. which was then separated into the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean basins (see Tozer. E. their earliest representatives date from the Oligocene and some of which attained the size of modern boars.. 1991. and Olson. 11." Therefore. or Djebel. be referred to as elephants and their allies.. bats (Chiroptera). C. New records of terrestrial mammals from the upper Eocene Qasr el Sagha Formation. E. See generally. p. elephant shrews (Macroscelidea). L. insectivores. See. from Morocco to Egypt.gov/od/lpa/ news/tips/99/tip90902. (3) creodonts (Order Creodonta)--archaic. born in the late Precambrian or the Cambrian. the word elephant is not a synonym of proboscidean. M. M. 1996. 224 (figure 160). 2002.. and many are renowned for their fossil hominid record (especially of Australopithecus). now extinct)--large. B. 1992.. Bown. Dybas. See. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. Egypt: Palaeovertebrata. 65-70 16. Polly. propliopithecid and tarsiid primates. 1971. Gabal.. (7) (Order Cetacea) basilosaurs-ancestral whales with limb skeletons that link older land-dwelling ungulates to modern cetaceans. Reitz. H. The Fayum mammals were long the oldest known mammals from the African continent. New York: HarperCollins. L. Serie C. the gomphotheres (a group of very successful proboscideans. See. See Gagnon. Oligopithecus. Africa collided with Eurasia so that a land connection was established via the Arabian Peninsula and Asia Minor. M. In the heavily forested equatorial region of Africa. They include both marine records of mostly archeocetes and sirenians and nonmarine records. Rollins. 2000. .52 tion. H.. Bown to V. 10. T. R. 1987. Simons. see Bown and Kraus. J. 1999. including the Ptolemaiida. 1989). the supercontinent of the Permian-Triassic when all the continents were amalgamated. 1986. C.. P. and marsupials (Polyprotodonta). P.. P. 100. The Geology of Egypt. L. Fayum Province. separating Africa from Eurasia. p. A. and Simons. See. J. p. and (9) parapithecid. El Niño is now thought to have begun occurring about 5. Myres. 62. 30. (1996). Said. El Niño: Unlocking the secrets of the master weather-maker. see Cooke (1978). 15. 647-654.. 17. elephant-like forms that left no descendants and whose exact taxonomic position is uncertain (they are generally placed closest to. Fossil Birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation.. As to Lake Moeris. p. J. or in. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. As to Memphis. Gagnon (1997) presented the most recent analysis of the paleoecology of the Fayum faunas. D. see Thompson. By the time the rocks in the Fayum were deposited. For reviews and some specifics. (1978). (6) barytheres (Order Barytheria)--unusual. the Tethys sea divided the northern and southern continents. S. 152. v.000 BP onset of El Niño. about 20 million years ago. 32. rodents (Rodentia). L. Changes in El Niño frequency show up in Egypt’s Nile River: www. It includes the primitive proboscideans found in the Fayum.. C. P. 23. However. eds. E. B. Fagan. n. p. Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5. 377 p.. Northern Egypt: Journal of Geology. 12... Nr.800.. Amsterdam: Elsevier. 21. p. During the Miocene. Wendorf. Famines. and Rasmussen. L. T. The southern and eastern African sites are of Neogene age. R. 19. E. p. 2002. 1996.. and Emperors: El Nino and the fate of civilizations. or it was a vast gulf on the eastern side of Pangea. few fossil mammal localities are known. and Schild. Simons. J. rhinoceros-like ungulates that have no descendants. E. 1531-1533. beginning in the 1960s and 1970s.. Jebel means ridge or cliff. F. A. T. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. v. Egypt: Smithsonian Contributions. Tethys extended from Gibraltar to India. Only the elephantids. about 600 million years ago. Proboscidea is an order of mammals that should. such as the moeritheres and barytheres. p. Ecological diversity and community ecology in the Fayum sequence (Egypt): Journal of Human Evolution. 22. Capetta et al. K.. 495-503. Morgan..nsf. Thus ended Tethys. and Maasch. p. and Nash. Richardson. 13. New York: Warner Books. New York: Academic Press. and Kraus. and Schild. p. 175-192. Fayum mammal fossils include: (1) anthracotheres (Order Artiodactyla)--a group of hippopotamuslike ungulates (hooved). S. The fossil localities are concentrated in three regions: southern Africa. the sister and consort of Oceanus. and Aegyptopithecus. M. The famed Swiss geologist Edward Suess introduced the name in 1893. 20. New York: Academic Press. T. Olson. Floods. 1202-1204.. v. See also. and Kappelman. Science. Holroyd (written communication). 60. New age determinations for the Eocene-Oligocene sediments in the Fayum depression. in common parlance. J. 22. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. years ago. The recently discovered fossils mammal sites are equivalent in age to the Fayum record and are broadly similar. J. most of which are of Plio-Pleistocene age. he recognized four temporally distinct faunal assemblages and documented their similarity to modern mammal faunas in forest and woodland/bushland habitats.. primarily of the Miocene-Pliocene). Africa is now known to have an extensive fossil record of mammals. but later replaced by modern carnivores. D. (5) proboscideans (Order Proboscidea)--included ancestral forms that were the progenitors of the later mastodons and the modern elephants. eastern Africa (principally Kenya) and northern Africa along the Mediterranean coast. the mastodonts and the elephantids. hyaena-like hunters and scavengers who were the main predators during the Paleogene. In the Jebel Qatrani Formation. 14. 1997. D. M. the earliest known ancestors of the extinct dryopithecine apes and ultimately of the living great apes and man. including the genera Apidium. which are living Elephas and the mammoths.
predecessor of today's Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. USA. I. 1905. M. Haq. and (10) a wide range of plants and trace fossils of social insects. S. where. On the pelvis and hind-limb of Mullerornis betsilei. v. Orlebar. 1903. On some pleurodiran chelonians from the Eocene of the Fayûm. Both parents were from royalty. Orlebar. Some consider this upper zone. 152) states that “the Egyptians regarded the Fayyum depression. 368. _____. v. The First Fossil Hunters. Egypt became a British protectorate in 1882. 1904. 99. _____. _____. allies the Embrithopoda (includes the families Phenacolophidae and Arsinoitheriidae) with the Hyracoidea as suborders of an order Uranotheria. From that Institute's website. V. and Zhou. p. B. 481. and _____." was found 92 meters up the escarpment by Walter Granger in 1907. a new order of Mammalia--with description of the cranium of Ptolemaia grangeri: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. M. Sir Evelyn Baring. _____.htm). III): Geological Magazine. What we do know is that Arthur Bedford Orlebar was born in England in 1810 to Robert Charles and Charlotte Shipton Orlebar. 9.). See Mayor. 26. He then became a Member of the Examining Board for Teachers in 1855. p. Indeed. 8. Ptolemaiida. X. Fossil Mammalia from Egypt (Pt. p. v. A.2 meters long. 401. fasc. On a new species of chelonian (Podocnemis aegyptiaca) from the lower Miocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. then the Professor of Astronomy at Bombay's Elphinstone College (http://www. A. 9.. v. 10. we learn that: The Colaba Observatory was built in 1826 by the East India Company for astronomical observations and timekeeping. not to have yielded sufficient amounts of fossil-wood concentrations to truly distinguish it (T. v. Some observations on the geology of the Egyptian Desert: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. v. or history been documented. 1901. was thereupon installed as “administrator” of Egypt. _____. Research of the 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt has brought attention to A. B. Scinde & Cutch: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. On the evolution of the Proboscidea: Philosophical Transactions.. 14 leaves of plates ill. i. v. 347 p. Young Orlebar was educated at Oxford and took an interest in science. .. S. that of McKenna and Bell (1997). and Senior Inspector under the Board of Education in 1862. which were quite possibly the largest snakes ever from the Eocene. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society.. (6) sharks and skates. it appears that Orlebar finally took it upon himself. v.. D. Zalmout. (7) lungfish. _____. Khan. p. in 1854. p. financially and artistically. Fossil mammalia from Egypt (Pt. 7. Australia. 7. H. Archives. Geomagnetic and meteorological measurements were started here in 1841 by Arthur Bedford Orlebar. and the Fayyum was also said to be the place where Isis reassembled and secretly buried Osiris’s limbs. Little appears available on his life and career. (5) lizards. 92. (3) turtles.. however. v. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. See Morgan.. Gingerich. i. and Malkani. ii. 1st Quarter (Jan. _____. 1845. II): Geological Magazine. 109 et seq.. 1900. 1901. Orlebar?: The Granger Report. L. Morgan. v. 1899. 1904. a new order of ungulate mammals: Geological Magazine. 115. 1. Gingerich. v. Raza. Notes on the species of Palaeomastodon: Geological Magazine. and may have reached well over 9. I): Geological Magazine.. p. v. B. M. M.. 33. 196 B. v. 293. M. 1994. 481. with a note on the occurrence of a ratite bird in the upper Eocene beds of the Fayûm: Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 1906. New whale from the Eocene of Pakistan and the origin of cetacean swimming: Nature. _____. (8) teleost (bony) fishes (both pristid and siluroid types). (4) crocodilians. Princeton University Press. This over 165 year old building now serves as office and centre of scientific activities for the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. Orlebar's 1845 publication was supplemented in 1846 by hand-drawn figures that were not published in 1845 because of budget constraints (see. M. (2) sea snakes (Pterosphenus). or "upper fossil-wood zone. 1845. 1995). v. 8 p. II and III): Geological Magazine. 1846. The Barypoda. _____. 29. i. Notes on an expedition to the Fayûm. 8. I. 3269. Note on the gigantic land-tortoise (Testudo ammon) from the upper Eocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. 229-250.. 291. v. p. B. & Grand. known dryly in accounts heretofore as the person who first described a Fayum fossil--a tree remnant. when the British Army successfully invaded and fought nationalists at Alexandria and the Suez. _____. 1904. B. 2. 1900.in/ history. 436. v.. 844-847. British Museum Trustees. p. M. 32. with a purpose to provide support to British and other shipping activity which used Bombay as a port. Cromer’s term ended in 1907. for he also published “Observations on the Mahomedan Architecture in Cairo” (Orlebar. L. P. Arthur's mother 15th in direct line from Henry III. M.. E. W. Fossils from Egypt.iigm. 481. Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: Hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan: Science. Bown to V. Andrews. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayûm. 27. I. Orlebar obviously relished his trip to Egypt. v. I): Geological Magazine. 31. a region rich in a variety of Tertiary fossils of large and bizarre mammals. D.. p. Arthur was the second of their nine children... ii. 1902. v. Head Model School Chief Inspector in 1859.. _____. p. L. 1903. p.res. located in Bombay. with descriptions of some new mammals: Geological Magazine. Egypt. 562. p. 1904. _____. The latest opinion.” thus implying ancient knowledge of Fayum fossil bones. _____.-Edw.. 1. Further notes on the mammals of the Eocene of Egypt (Pts. _____. 6. Their individually (A-Andrews. 400.. p. p. Orlebar. Notes on some new Crocodilia from the Miocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. He died in Melbourne in 1866. p. The Beadnell-Andrews "fossil-wood zone" was later refined to "lower fossil-wood zone" when a second zone. as the origin of all life forms. p. 2. 119-139). 337. Sometime thereafter. p. Egypt: London. Orlebar's full name has never been cited. p. 6. But. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. 2000. v. 1995.. S. B-Beadnell) and jointly (C) published papers are: A. to publish the figures. Note on a Pliocene vertebrate fauna from the Wadi Natrun. C. 1903. p. Simons. _____. His connection to the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society developed through the Colaba Observatory. Mayor (2000. 2001. 163. Orlebar moved to Melbourne. Anwar. nor have his years of birth and death. 25). Arif. Who was A. (9) many birds.53 B. p. i. 1902. Earl of Cromer. 2239-2242. Egypt: Annals & Magazine of Natural History. A. 2002. and Egypt remained under British control until 1922. and Bown. 30. Royal Society of London. T. p. The Granger Papers Project. A. v. 28. Fayum non-mammal fossils include: (1) giant constrictor boöids (Gigantophis). teaching and traveling. Egypt: Geological Magazine. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. 433. 25. most closely related to the Perissodactyla. he became a School Inspector for the Victoria National Education Board. P. 1905. v. p. II): Geological Magazine. who were married in 1807. 527.
H. 34. Nr. 287.. J. 1). E. 1988. and Stromer.. 65-70. working on Cenozoic mammals and authoring a number of significant works. p. Scient. 478-488. A preliminary note on Arsinoitherium zitteli. Découvertes géologiques récentes dans la vallée du Nil et le Désert Libyen: Paris. Hans Georg Stehlin was a Swiss vertebrate paleontologist and zoologist... Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. H. 36. Gismann. 1991. The Fayum Depression: a preliminary notice of a district in Egypt containing a new Palaeogene fauna: Geological Magazine. A preliminary note on some new mammals from the upper Eocene of Egypt: Cairo. and was a co-founder of the Linnean Society (Linnesallskapet) (Nationalencyklopedin. 1991. E. Tullberg. H. For a fuller narrative of the relationship between Fraas and Markgraf. C. Nova acta R. A. 483-500) discusses the paleobiogeography of rodents and its implications for ancient land bridges. P. R. p. from 1890 to 1933. 42. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. 287. 483-500. Gesellscahft der Wissenschaften zu Upsala am 3 April 1897. Survey Department. Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. perhaps glaring. Serie C. p. 1907. 35. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906. J. E. giving Stehlin priority. if one agrees that Tullberg and Stehlin were likely to have drafted their works in advance of publication as well... p. see Heizmann. (1900). 1968. Upsal. Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. p. 66. 38. 27. Osborn would later argue that although his paper was published in 1900. 78) states that the medal was from the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. spurred support for his efforts to expand the size and scope of his department's activities. This does little to advance his cause. 1916. Durch die Wüste Die FayumExpedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Geologie und Paläontologie. 1902. 1901. 1995. P.. E. 45. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblatt für Mineralogie. and _____. 40.1900. 43... P. 1899. v. n. .. Nr. 6. Heizmann. 816. The geological and faunal relations of Europe and America during the Tertiary Period and the theory of the successive invasion of an African fauna: Science. An Agenda for Antiquity.” thus predating the other two by at least a year. A preliminary notice of a landtortoise from the upper Eocene of the Fayûm. 24 February 1907. p. 489-491) identifies an African origin for key elements of the Eocene-Miocene land-mammal faunas of Eurasia. 1900. Fossile Flora und Fauna im Fayøum: paläontologische Bedeutung des Gebel el Qatrâni (Oligozän): Papyrus 5-6. 1991. 1991. H. E. Survey Department. and _____. Högänas. 39. As to Markgraf’s collecting history. but its last section (p. 337-527) must have been drafted either in early 1899 or even earlier. 27. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. E. or more. Soc. p. 1903. 30.. and Osborn. L. However. p. 41. He also wrote several papers on Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus). Stehlin. 65-70. F. Survey Department. (Rainger. Stuttgarter Deiträge zur Naturkunde. 25 August 1912. His study of vertebrates led to the publication "Sveriges Podurider" in 1872. As to Markgraf’s farm. _____. Serie C.. 101 p. v. Rainger (1991) and Morgan and Lucas (2002). 65-70. Osborn. hystricognathous rodents and proboscideans. 1901. Stromer. to whom he was related through his mother.54 B. New Series. 30. Nr. II. A. 1991. Beadnell: Cairo. Nr. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblblatt für Mineralogie. 561-574. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. Granger. Heizmann. p. negative traits. see Notes.. Serie C. H. _____. 75-78. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Nr. 819. v. Perhaps to better match himself with his two European colleagues. 94. F.. 26. See generally. Serie C. guided the DVP and the AMNH to heights surely neither would have reached otherwise. He spent his career at the Naturhistorische Museum in Basel. p. v.important for his work on the evolution and geographical distribution of mammals. 11 (April 13). The Century Magazine. 336 p. 540-546. Survey Department. J. with translation by Krister Linde of Uppsala University). Stromer (1916) adds that Markgraf also received a medal from the government of Bavaria. E. p.. p. Tullberg made great contributions to the teaching of evolutionary theory. In prescient prose. P. J. American Museum of Natural History. Hellman (1969). Stehlin and Tullberg. 1905. p. 66. J. fn. J. This work is primarily on rodent (including lagomorph) anatomy and phylogeny. Osborn’s management and administrative prowesses and results are treated in (among others). C. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. 74. The topography and geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt: Cairo. P. Andrews. particularly extinct elephants. R. Tullberg’s priority over Stehlin and Osborn is established by his title page where its states the monograph was “Mitgetheilt [To inform] der Konigl. 1907. however. Géol. Fayum Province. Simpson (1978). II.. L. Egypt: Cairo.. Tullberg is a 514-page monograph published in two segments. 44. Markgraf correspondence file. in 1898. As one author put it (although obviously mistaken as to when the “convincing” took place): in 1907 [sic] Osborn was able to convince [American Museum president] Jesup to sponsor an expedition to the Fayum of Egypt [because] Africa was. VIII Cong. Indeed. erster Theil. see Simons. Über das System der Nagethiere. Beadnell. R. it could be argued that Stehlin's two-volume treatise published over two years (_____. 18. Despite certain. Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. E. including anthropoid primates. 1991. p. His promise to bring back new and unique specimens of large African animals. 1916. Bd. Heizmann. v. Henry Fairfield Osborn was an adroit administrator and. v. T. and Gismann (1988. Geologie und Paläontologie. He was the first Scandinavian to employ comparative anatomy.) 37. 9. W. 30. p. Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. Heizmann. it was actually drafted in 1899 (Osborn. Internat. p. and Wood. Serie C. The Century Magazine. histology and embryology.. J. Tycho Tullberg was a zoologist and professor at Uppsala University from 1882 to 1907. L. Tullberg (especially p. p. Archives. Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. 30. and Beadnell. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. E. p. 1899. 1902. G. the first 328 pages in 1899 and the remainder in 1900. 30. _____ and _____. Markgraf to W. 8. 1899-1900.
CT: Ox Bow Press. 560. See. Hatcher. Strouse.. M. Morgan: American financier. Bankers. See. 819820. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. of course. Strouse. 2000. Science. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Osborn. See also. Granger. Egypt. Strouse. Margaret Mead . 1907. 1907. Harper. 194 (“’As long as Mrs. G. p. Thomson to H. Osborn to R. p. 58. Osborn.. E. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. Morgan: American financier. F. 76. Osborn .. Agate National Fossil Monument. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker. .. Egypt. Inc. 193-206. M. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. 48.. 236 et seq. 73. p. Strouse. W. Baedeker. See. Woodbridge. 74.. L. p. Concession to the Improbable. Morgan: American financier. New York: The Natural History Press. Harold J... p. F. 68. Simons.. 63. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History.. 66. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. n. p. and T. 25. Bones & Beetles. v. society. 60. Strouse. T. Princeton was more than ready to associate itself with (if not “shanghai”) Hatcher’s 1896-1899 effort.the Fayum of Egypt in 1907.. n. H. politics.. Rose to V. p. 2000. even implying that Hatcher had received institutional funding and assistance. interest in natural history. H. Hatcher’s Patagonia exploits remained essentially hidden from public view until this narrative was culled and published 80 years later in Bone Hunters in Patagonia. 23. Stout to Morgans. Egypt and the Sudan (sixth remodelled ed. American Museum of Natural History). Bones & Beetles. 67. 28 July 1995. Archives. travel. p. 118-121. American Museum of Natural History. G. 1934. 51. W. J. 28-35.. expansion.. p. he took Granger along to do the work” (Simpson. 50. S. 54. 62.. H. 59. Trubee Davison is now the big chief. Osborn and Roosevelt shared a number of common grounds--privilege. 639.. p. H. But.. The Century Magazine. L.. to football field-sized proportions (K. 1907. and a huge seven volume report on his scientific results was published in 1903 as Reports of the Princeton University Expedition to Patagonia 1896-1899. 17-19.. Cook. Strouse. Granger. p. 145 et seq. Give Me My Father’s Body. Archives.’”). and Lucas. W. Even though Osborn collected fossils as a student at Princeton. Strouse.”) and p. Discoverers of the Lost World. Morgan: American financier. VT: Steerforth Press. The first volume of that work contains Hatcher’s exceptional narrative of the expeditions. K. South Royalton. Morgan: American financier.. G. 204 (“Dr. Archives. Cook Papers.: The last romantic. 186 et seq. n. 202 (“A lady curator . ”to. Strouse. American Museum of Natural History.. 49. Stout to Morgans. 6. 1978. New Series.... 205. v. Broom. An Agenda for Antiquity. 1997. 18721941. Granger. 57. Archives.g. Morgan: American financier. 1969. 6. p. F. Osborn is the only other colleague to visit Granger at localities on all three. 70. W. 379. 1996). F. Osborn held several ignoble beliefs based largely on a sense of his own superiority. The Granger Papers Project. 272. G. 1907. Notes. Osborn. 74. H. F. Bankers. p. Morgan: American financier.). V.”).: The last romantic.. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. Morgan: American financier.55 46. 75. 71.. New York: HarperPerennial. by Ox Bow Press in 1985. 217. Morgan. 513-516. M. Attending Marvels: A Patagonian journal. Hatcher’s large and significant fossil collection was deposited with Princeton University for study. Walter Granger. 1-58.” A. 72. B. 74. G.. n. 2000. 28 July 1995.. Africa and Asia) Granger worked in his career. Simpson. 682. D. Hellman. G. See.. Mr. p. 77. Bone Hunters in Patagonia. 53. Hellman. p. 6. especially p. The Century Magazine. K. p. See. 2-3 February 1907. 16 January 1933. 80. T. J. through the use of push brooms. 61. R. 1907. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. The Earliest Apes: Scientific American. 46-47. pp. 131). New York: Time. 558. T. L. Egypt. 816817. Stout to Morgans. T. New York: HarperPerennial. Rainger. 47. 1969... R. 55. 272. 1908.. Paleontologist: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 19. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 64. Olsen was the only person to collect with Granger on the three continents (America. v. 1907. G. p. Brands. G. G. 1985. 1907. This practice has now expanded. By then. 1984. p. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28 July 1995. J. 52. Morgan. American Museum of Natural History.. 1967. 1907. Broom correspondence file. 1907. 238. 79. Archives. p. J. 2002. 65. 69. Nevertheless. 78. 56. Osborn’s final years during the early 1930s were a bit less illustrious. 4 January 1907 (R. p. e.. Davison is not a scientific man but I understand a very good business man.. Simpson. v. Brands. The Museum suffered financially in the Depression years and came to believe that its only recourse was to become run more like a business: “I suppose you have heard before this that Professor Osborn is no longer president of the American Museum of Natural History. Explorers Club (NYC)--which also coincided neatly with the purposes of the American Museum of Natural History. Archives.. New York: BasicBooks.
. officers of the newly-formed survey. 32. Notes is edited in a manner intended to remain faithful and sensitive to Granger's time. G. after inspecting [oil seepage at] the Gebel Zeit area. a copy of the original Notes has been placed in Appendix A. v. Allen. F. G. v. 1907. p.. 97. Granger's original composition-content.. Wortman felt compelled to part company with Osborn after a series of personality clashes and took a position at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. in New Mexico. 6. In 1896 such a survey was initiated by H. H. A "preparer" or "preparator" is one who readies fossil for study and display by removing extraneous material. if they wish.) 87. 6. For fuller treatment of Walter Granger. etc.-)--remain unchanged. so that readers may confront the task.--word)." was formally called the Egyptian Survey Department of the Public Works Ministry. punctuation (e. 79-80). v.. (not further identified) to W. land rich investor living in Canandaigua. H. Allen. 1895-96.g. Gideon Granger is also thought to have attempted. Egypt. Natural History. 241-258. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1941. NH. According to Ferrar (1926. 1908. O. New York. This unfavourable report allowed the geological exploration of the country from an economic point of view to be taken systematically. p. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. See. failures to underline (e. 8. W. he owned nearly all the land that now comprises Cleveland. S.. Granger. American Museum of Natural History.. Article XV. List of mammals collected in the Black Hills region of South Dakota and in western Kansas by Mr. Walter Granger. V. Egypt: Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. 26.” The Survey. According to Hartley T. the locally based fossil-hunter Richard Markgraf continued on behalf of these . amidst a collection of Walter and Anna Grangers’ papers. H. v. Harrell. Notes was found in the attic of Granger’s youngest sister's (Mary Granger Morgan) home at Hanover.g. Lyons “had patrolled the Egyptian deserts during military operations against the Mahidi and his followers. Granger with field notes by the collector: Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History. 96. spelling (e. Notes. which was located on Shâria' Kâmel. Englewood. and Granger. 83. p. and again in 1898. Cairo. The Century Magazine. 1907. J. and Bown. He spent his final years as a cash poor. Walter W.E. Ezbekîyeh. p. restaurant.T. Notes is presented here in typeset. Canandaigua. 2002. and Bown. L. 88. Faiyum Depression.. Granger. Jefferson responded by offering to acknowledge the affair. 1907. 652. and memorabilia. 3. Therefore. Colbert to V.” “Gebel el-Qatrani”). underlining (e. L. The Granger Papers Project. Director-General of the Egyptian Survey Department upon his retirement from the Royal Engineers. p. Sometimes. 1995. Thomas Cook & Son. M. S. in 1895. it is even difficult to decide a dash from a period. J. 31. parentheticals. Arsinotherium). A.. 1895. D. cleaning and consolidating the fossil. and abbreviations (e..00 American at the time. 93. Osborn acknowledged that Wortman contributed to the Museum's eventual success: during the brief but brilliant period of eight years when Doctor Wortman laid the first field foundations of mammalian and reptilian palaeontology in the American Museum of Natural History. or about $4.. and steam laundry. A. it was re-built along the Nile River. After Wortman's death in 1926. Wyoming and Nebraska. 84. with field notes by the collector: Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History. The oldest paved road. p. Morgan. A.g. n.g. Archives. A.. p.. Granger. British geologist and member of the Egyptian Survey Department. G. with Burr.. (Osborn. leaving interpretations and judgments to be made. 1994). NY: Granger Homestead Society. as well as other areas of Egypt. and Lucas. tourist agent. Room prices started at 80 piastres (= about 80% of a British £. Paleontologist: Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.. Wortman--A Biographical Sketch. During this year. J. 1995. L. Hugh John Llewellyn Beadnell (1874-1944) (Fig. lift. Peterson's conflicts with Osborn had caused him to depart for the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh a few years earlier. see Morgan. Archives. J. Winser to J. matching fossil parts. 96. and is also sometimes quirky. p. and annotations are made in brackets [ ]. 82. Jacob Wortman and Walter Granger would become close friends. A. p 1-58. Egypt: The Ostracon. cross-outs and insertion marks have been deleted. A. 1926. “As Egypt prospered under British guidance. in August.. 817. p.56 81. 2441. 7191. 338-339 (from reprint. Walter Granger: Science. n. Hamlin. T. An Old Kingdom basalt quarry at Widan el-Faras and the quarry road to Lake Moeris in the Faiyum. “pocketfull. 259-274. Anglo-American bar. A. p. 1896. came to the conclusion that the supply of oil that might be obtained would not be sufficient to repay working. The hotel contained 350 rooms. some of which may unintentionally serve to defeat the flavor of the original. Simpson. List of mammals collected by Mr. 98. 7. Utah. 85. Ars. 89.. v.g. Osborn. 1907. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. n. 1872-1941. and Harrell. J. Peterson. Article VII. H. but it is difficult to reproduce a handwritten document accurately in typeset: the writing is sometimes hard to read. 9 March 1896. W. Walter W. Sir Henry George Lyons (1864-1944). 2). Gideon Granger. post and telegraph office. 79). flow and idiosyncrasies. p. 19. At one time.. while attempting to be helpful to the reader's comprehension. 1982. 1907. demands for permission to prospect for oil or to search for minerals of economic value became more frequent. M. word. 27 November 1901. Archives. Lyons. day and date headings have been conformed. F. to foment secession from the Colonies through land deals in Georgia. which Granger also cites as "S. T.. Ferrar (1926. 17). J. Egypt.. 90.) After the original was destroyed during the 1952 riots for liberation. in New York City for a time (E. even sharing an apartment. His discovery of mammal fossils in the Fayûm in 1900 sparked a five-year British exploration and later German (1906) and American (1907) exploration. Referring to the original Shepheard's Hotel. G. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. 1977. American Museum of Natural History. A... L. In 1899. Gideon Granger once tried to blackmail Thomas Jefferson over an affair. n. loose and albumed photographs. Thus. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. 86. 92. Archives. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. NJ.” Hence ensued closer examination of the Fayum. Ohio. 91. 1-4. Arsinoitherium). together with O. 12 March 1907 et seq. and Allen. 74. and the need for a geological survey was felt. 95. 94. (Baedeker. American Museum of Natural History.
British-. in June of 1901. For further references to Ferrar. J.. 1956. p. Alfred Lucas (1867-1945). L. 12th Vermont Infantry (Stone. 1966. American Museum of Natural History. A. library. W. 1967. wine and preserved meats (Baedeker. A number of papers were issued as their work progressed over the next few years (see note 33). President Theodore Roosevelt and Joseph Hodges Choate. equaled about 19. The Mena House Hotel was (and still is) a luxury hotel located adjacent to the pyramid field at Giza. chief chemist of the Egyptian Survey Department. Lyons. 104. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. Hayes (1822-1893).. 109. former American ambassador to Great Britain and a trustee of the American Museum of Natural History. [the lines of the Light Railway] enable the business man. 36). 1907. Flicks was an outfitter located in the Havana House that sold tobacco and cigars (Baedeker. also an ardent amateur geologist.. p. which hosts a collection of pyramids from Giza to Meidum. 31). IV. British paleontologist and member of the British Museum [of Natural History]. Charles William Andrews (1866-1924). 106. Beadnell's second exploration of the Fayum. tools. At age 22. E.” remains unidentified. cooking outfits. wife of Sonofru and mother of Cheops. In 1926. The battle for Vicksburg was fought from 1862 to 1863. as Granger will relate. who led Harvard-MFA expeditions to Egypt for more than 40 years. 7). Reisner is also known as discoverer of the tomb of Queen Hetep-heres. Ferrar (1879-1932) (Figs.57 latter two nations until his death in 1916. Dr. who also authored books on ancient Egyptian materials and industries. and the specialist to reach various remote points with comparative ease. German egyptologist and pyramidologist known for his explorations of many sites in Egypt. p. Ferrar was born in Ireland. F. In a somewhat eerie sequel to Hartley T. R. raised in South Africa and educated at the Oundle School and Sidney Sussex College at Cambridge. his successor (1877-1881). 101. 1908. p. Charles. George Andrew Reisner (1867-1942). Twelve camels were hired and ordered to proceed to Tamia in the Fayum. British anatomist at the University of Cairo. Rutherford B. xvi). Ludwig Borchardt (1863-1938). Also known among the westerners working at the site as "Harvard Camp" (see generally. who was among the first to systematically study Egyptian mummies with an x-ray device.S. a narrow gauge line that networked the Delta and the Fayum. 928. 1863) as a private in Company K. Installed by the British military intervention into Egyptian affairs in 1882. Sir Grafton Elliot-Smith (1871-1937). water tanks.. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. swimming and other baths. 107. 5 millièmes Egyptian. 1908. 111. Tombs. Scott wrote "Ferrar was a conceited young ass to begin with and it took quite a time to bring him to his bearings” (Pound. England. 100. New Zealand.S. loaning tents. Baring was succeeded by Sir Eldon Gorst. 1929. riding track. member of the geological section of the Egyptian Survey Department from 1905 to 1913. L. Fleurents was an outfitter located in the Square Halim that sold household items. Archives. 74-82) held at Dunedin. Temples and Ancient . 110. Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904. which started in 1902 and lasted for nearly 25 years. 99. and German-led expeditions. cycles. London: Blandford Press). 180 rooms: restaurant. Ferrar published a “Short Account of the Search for Petroleum in Egypt” for the Dominion Mining Conference (n. commander in chief of the Union Army (1864-1865). title pageMoney Table). The British pound sterling (£) was then worth 97 piastres. and President of the United States (1869-1877). 1901-04) (Pound. According to Baedeker (1908. 531). When construction of the American Museum of Natural History began in 1874. 108. Present throughout this area were various American-. 102. his Egyptian Survey Department boss. it was Grant. Dr. The Vermont of Today-With its Historic Background. 1907. American curator of the Egyptian Department of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts from 1910 to 1942. Hartley Ferrar left Egypt for New Zealand in 1913 where he lived the remainder of his life. also served in the Civil War and fought at Gettysburg (July 1-3. p. Granger. 90). 33). it did not accommodate the AMNH expedition party’s desire to travel at leisure through the pyramid field. lawn tennis courts. Another method for entering the Fayum was via the Egyptian Light Railway. Ferrar's trip on the Discovery. Vol. Granger's advances were approximately (US) $50 to Talba and $25 to Daoud. Smith. Hartley T. Baring ruled in Egypt until his resignation later in 1907. Ulysses S. the explorer. as well as an excellent firsthand account of Scott's expedition. He died in 1932. In 1901. E. Sir Evelyn Baring." However. 105. sand carts. Grant (1822-1885). The pyramid field is the high desert area located along the Nile River west and south of Cairo. 103. opened the doors. 1908. the nearest railway point to the fossil fields. Attractions and People. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. He is best known for his excavations at Giza. p. called Deutsche-Orient Gesellschaft. or Lord Cromer (1841-1917). Scott later wrote that Ferrar's "work threw considerable light on the structure of the vast land mass" (Scott. At the ceremony upon completion three years later. Egypt.5 piastres (Baedeker. Voyage of the Discovery). W. and it did not reach into the northern perimeter of the Fayum where the expedition intended to camp and collect (see Fig. Beadnell published his enduring geologic study of the area entitled “Topography and Geology of the Fayoum Province of Egypt” in 1905. He headed the German archaeological effort in Egypt. he gained top honors at a science competition called the National Science Tripos and immediately signed on as geologist with Commander Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition (British National Antarctic Expedition. from 1904 to 1914. Capt. “Mr. 36). To his wife. carriages. $1 U. Inc. in charge of natives under Daoud. 1967. p. Andrews joined Egyptian Survey Department geologist Hugh J. 19A and 21). see Diary of the 'Discovery' Expedition by Edward Wilson (Wilson. American Civil War general (18611865). and arranging for the employment of natives and camels. R.. etc. the most prominent of which was Abusîr. Granger’s father. who laid the cornerstone. however. the British Consul-General in Egypt to whom Osborn and Granger presented "characteristically personal and enthusiastic" letters of introduction from U. The camp equipage and provisions were forwarded to Tamia by rail. and a professor at Harvard University from 1905 to 1942. later (1924) compiled a small book of Data Miscellanea on Robert Falcon Scott's illfated British Antarctic (Terra Nova) Expedition (1910-13). Granger’s expedition report states: The Survey Department placed its services at the disposal of the party. J.. as well as forensic chemistry and scientific criminal investigation. from 50-100 piastres a room (Baedeker. "though of little importance to the ordinary tourist.. dog carts. 1908. p. stables..
but points out to us (written communication. to leave his loved ones behind in Europe. Markgraf was an Austrian violinist who apparently was forced by illness. 4 April 1907. Markgraf succeeded well in making a life in Egypt and becoming an excellent fossil-collector. 320321) 117. consult messieurs Théophile Gautier and Gaston Maspero. and an outer casing of bandages stiffened with plaster of paris. and excavator at the Lisht Pyramids. Albert Morton Lythgoe (1868-1934). 78). occupation of Egypt was resumed under the Persians.S. Egypt experienced almost continuous foreign occupation. and then indigence. W. Ottoman Turks and Mamelukes. the French and the British. The placement of localities in Figure 35 was deduced from Notes with the assistance of Dr. With only a brief return to native rule after Esarhaddon. Arab caliphates. and make no mention of his immediate family (Stromer. M. for the sadly short time he had left to live. Ancodon (or Ancodus. 1968. Osborn to R. title pageMoney Table). P. Indeed. 195 piastres. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology." 122. Morgan: American financier. until 1952. a small hyracoid from the early Oligocene. 1988.” The opportunity for a panoramic view of Cairo was much desired by visitors. It should also be very carefully packed. 131. some 1. Lythgoe had prior expedition experience in Egypt. Macedonians and Ptolmaic Greeks. The rivalry was capped when. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 24). Reisner (18671942).S. also from New York. in 1882. “Fanitas” was Granger’s word for “fantasses. 2179. n.O. (Baedeker. He seems to have accepted his lot as a loner and was well-suited to the rigors of camping and collecting in the desert. Ferrar Butte = Tel Homar (Donkey Hill). He lost his wife and gave his daughter to her grandparents for care. Markgraf. For the liveliest contemporary account of this period. p. bylined “H. where he discovered the private tombs of the Archaic Cemetery. Josephine Butte = Tel Markgraf (Markgraf’s Hill). Simons and Wood. Holroyd (1999. Granger is overlooking the Fayum depression from higher ground to the east (see Fig. Here. Granger’s climb was 137 meters at a 51° 52' angle. The shellac from Cairo was too thin. were often at odds over how best to proceed with archaeological work there. 7). title page-Money Table). Tamia was the railroad stop closest to the AMNH work area in the Fayum. Gismann. The French excavators who preceded Lythgoe at Lisht were Théophile Gautier and Gaston Maspero. Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. an itinerant mason and musician from Slavic northern Bohemia who eventually settled in Egypt to become a fossilhunter and self-described Naturalienhändler. 115. also looking for a tip. From the capture of the Nile Valley by the Assyrian king Esarhaddon in 671 B.. Morgan. Ludwig Borchardt's assistant at the excavation of the Abusîr pyramids. per Markgraf) was like a small pig-like anthracothere and is now considered a synonym of Bothriodon. 127. the British military took control over Egypt and installed Lord Cromer to govern. 1906) based on a specimen Markgraf had collected and sent to Fraas. Dr. 36 and 44B).5 meters high. 22 April 1907. and the gum arabic was too thick. 84. 123. from a British archaeologist's standpoint. He was once apprenticed to Sir William Matthews Flinders Petrie (1853-1942). 1908. Romans (including Byzantium). 116. who is credited with developing modern archaeological practices and regarded as the father of modern Egyptology. Morgan to persuade the New York Metropolitan Museum to hire Lythgoe from Boston. The English were the latest and the last. 1995). Once arrived. Davis. as he had earlier published a paper on Saghatherium (Osborn.C. Bown to V. Osborn also addressed the matter in an interesting piece. Thomas M. 120. French and English. Ferrar sent his men back to Tamia and had the telegraph sent from there.) 124. The two dominant colonial influences in Egypt. or trader in natural history specimens (Stromer. 1995). 128. Unlike the AMNH party. Cairo.58 Art. 1) earlier published the position of quarries A and B. and afterward ask for a tip. p. L. Archives. Native entrepreneurs would offer assistance to climbers. 1908. Granger’s landmarks are triangulated in Figure 35. p. because it will receive severe jolting on its journey to America. p. Presumably. 1916). Referring to the Osborn party location. James Edward Quibell (1867-1935). 129. v.) 112. Wadi is a ravine or watercourse that generally remains dry.54 meters high.F. you will probably be able to pack the skull in such a manner that it will reach us without breakage. 130. (Baedeker. stood ready to hoist the tourist wishing the ultimate view upon their shoulders. and Fairfield Butte = Tel Taleb (Fox Hill)( T. R. curator of the Egyptian Department. American Museum of Natural History. Today these buttes are known as: Lyon’s Butte = Tel Akgrab (Scorpion Hill). 114. Others have written that Markgraf was German and played the piano. 119. Walking the surface while scanning for fossils by eye. 121." (H. 1916. fig. Dr. Thus. F. 126. excavator of the Zoser complex of Sakkara. Muller. metal. Granger later refers to this process as "stripping. The last step at the top was only 0. it was Reisner’s presence in Egypt on behalf of the Boston institutions that led J. After visiting archaeological excavations by Theodore M. As Granger indicates in Notes (Feb. and go to Egypt (Strouse. The first step was the largest. Saghatherium. Granger desired a solution of proper consistency to soak in sufficiently to bind the fossil together for protection in transit. Markgraf’s natural talent for collecting fossils and antiquities first drew . Markgraf correspondence file. March 2. 125. p. 12 piastres is about 62 cents U. Granger's methodology was described by Osborn by letter to Richard Markgraf regarding an Arsinoitherium skull: "Now that you understand our method of soaking the skull with shellac solution and protecting it further by bandages applied to all parts of the surface. 557-558). For French accounts. Dr. M. Bown (written communication. other natives. box-like water containers used by the expedition (see Figs. Baksheesh (bakshish) means “tip. having worked in 1905 and 1906 as a Harvard professor with the Harvard UniversityMuseum of Fine Arts expedition at Giza led by George A. This specimen may have been of some interest to Osborn. p. Edouard Naville and others more than 300 kilometers to the south at and near Luxor once he left the Fayum. or $10 U.” the large. see Seventy Years in Archaeology by Sir William Flinders Petrie. 2002) that she inadvertently located them too far to the southeast. 113. In any event. Richard Markgraf. 118. 9.” entitled “Archaeological Work in Egypt” (The Nation.
the attention of German paleontologist Eberhard Fraas during a visit to Egypt in 1897 (see note 38). In 1903, Markgraf left his Mokattam Hills work to explore the desert west of Cairo for the first time with Fraas’ colleague, Ernst Stromer. One of the areas they visited was the British site in the northern section of the Fayum oasis near the Jebel el-Qatrani escarpment. Markgraf became so enchanted by the Fayum itself that he bought a small farm in a village called Sennoures in central Fayum (see Fig. 7). Thereafter, he traveled seasonally to the northern sector to collect Mesozoic and Paleogene specimens for Fraas in Stuttgart, Schlosser in Munich, and the natural history museum in Frankfurt. Richard Markgraf worked under very difficult, isolated conditions and, in the history of paleontology, he remains obscure despite his association with some of the finest natural history museums in the world and brief recognition when he received the Order of the Crown from the King of Württemberg in 1904 and a medal of merit from the Bavarian Academy of Science (Stromer, 1916; Gismann, 1988, p. 78). Richard Markgraf died of consumption in January, 1916, at about age 60 (Gismann, 1988, p. 78). 132. Dr. Eberhard Fraas (1862-1915), a German authority on fossil reptiles who headed the vertebrate collection at the Natural History Museum in Stuttgart, Germany. Most of Fraas's collections and papers were lost in the allied bombing of Stuttgart during World War II. Fraas first noticed Richard Markgraf's collecting skills during a visit to Egypt in 1897. Fraas had planned a journey onward to east and south Africa, but could not do so. He thus stayed in Cairo, where he met Markgraf working in the Mokattam Hills. Fraas decided he could use Markgraf's natural talent for collecting, which skills he refined by tutoring Markgraf in vertebrate fossil work, mostly through correspondence after Fraas returned to Germany. Fraas also provided for Markgraf financially, together with the Stuttgart's Consul in Egypt Teodore Wanner and a German businessman in Cairo named Gustav Metz. In early 1906, Eberhard Fraas returned to Egypt to explore the Fayum with Markgraf. This 1906 German expedition was financed by Wanner, Metz, and Fraas' brother Victor. Fraas and Markgraf departed the Giza pyramid field in early March with three Bedouins and camels, and reached the Fayum on March 11th. The party spent 10 days exploring and collecting in the upper Eocene Qasr el-Sagha Formation and in the Oligocene of the Jebel Qatrani Formation. They found, among other fossils, excellent specimens of Arsinoitherium and Basilosaurus isis (see note 37). 133. Thought to refer to the upper sequence of the Jebel Qatrani Formation (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 134. “Plotting” is transposing the precise location of each fossil find to a single map to create a blueprint showing the found fossils' history and association for that area. 135. Dr. William Morton Wheeler (1865-1937), American Museum entomologist and world authority on the natural history and biology of ants. 136. Granger’s impression also may have been caused by the lack of common language between Granger and Markgraf. Or, Markgraf may have commented on the large incisors, which indeed are rodent-like, which caused Granger to conclude that Markgraf thought it was a rodent (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 137. Probably a fennec, the long-eared Saharan fox common to the Fayum (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 138. In 1947, American paleontologist Robert Denison also recorded the presence of clay in the Fayum. On October 7, 1947, Denison wrote that
59 he observed a "sandy lense in clayey beds..." two kilometers northeast of Qasr el Sagha, on the southwest side of a ravine near base of the Qasr el Sagha series escarpment which he also diagrammed stratigraphically. On December 5, he recorded finding "... hippo remains ... in the clayey sand of the lake beds...." On December 8, at Wadi el Faregh. he noticed that "this is type of Mikheimin fm., Raml fm. in lower levels, produce in clays a few bone fragments, mostly crocodile and turtle--also wood in ss." On December 12, he noted "Collect: - Elephant lower jaw. This is definitely in lake clays [at lake beds N.W. of King's duck pond] - partly covered by clays. The associated skull, 15' off, was hardly good enough to collect. The skull is on, not in, clays - in sand which may be subaerial...." Finally, on December 14, Dension wrote "Worked S.W. of Qasr el Sagha with Cooke & Deranyigala. Concentrated on Neolithic sites 2 and 3 km. S.W. of Qasr el Sagha. These are sites T and O of CatonThompson and Gardner, 1934, The Desert Fayum, Royal Anthrop. Inst. Were able at site T to find in situ fish bones, bird & rodent bones, warthog tooth, flaked artifact, flakes, 1/2 drilled stone (spindle whorl), pottery shards & lake shells. These occurred in clayey sands which form isolated buttes rising out of similar underlying beds, and apparently formed as shoreline deposits." (Robert H. Denison, Field Notes on University of California Expedition to Fayum, Egypt, under Wendell Phillips, 1947 (copy, The Granger Papers Project)). 139. E. H. Converse, who otherwise remains unidentified. 140. Papeterie Suisse, a stationer (Baedeker, 1908, p. 36). 141. “Hannah Affiudi” seems to be the same person as “Hanna Mikhail,” whom Granger refers to as the station agent in his entry for February 4. 142. “Staraselski” remains unidentified. 143. An Omdah is chief magistrate of a commune and directly responsible to the Mamur, or chief official of the district in which the commune lies (Baedeker, 1908, p. xxviii). 144. The house flies (Musca domestica) apparently were transported into the camp as eggs on food, or as maggots in tents, etc. (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). The parasitic fleas, order Siphonaptera, normally seek warm-blooded animals, and included Granger in their depredations. 145. After collection, the fossils were soaked with shellac solution and bandaged on all surfaces. The bandage material came from anything suitable, such as burlap, clothing, even newsprint. An outer casing of bandages was impregnated with a paste made of plaster of Paris. This hardened into a cast that held a fossil together during its transport by camel and rail from the desert for repacking and shipment by boat to the American Museum in New York. 146. “Mr. Wendell,” possibly also “Mr. W.,” remains unidentified. 147. Osborn had already arranged to write a popular account of the Fayum expedition for The Century Magazine. It was not uncommon, as various authors have noted (e.g., Hellman (1969), Rainger (1991), Morgan and Lucas (2002)), for Osborn to utilize his staff liberally, and often anonymously, for his publications. Osborn duly credited Albert Lythgoe and the Egyptian Geological Survey for their photographs, but made no such attribution to Granger. 148. A fairly well-preserved Ptolemaic temple with trace ruins of the town around it, located at the western end of Birket Qurun. 149. “Trenching” meant digging a narrow and deep cut toward the cen-
60 ter of a possibly fossiliferous, saucer-like depression in the sand; if nothing was located, the site was abandoned. 150. Raptors and Passeriformes. 151. Garat el-Esh means “Hill of the Nest.” This location now is considered to be very late Eocene in age (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). “Garat” is also spelled Gar, Garat, or Qaret, and means flat-topped hill (Bown and Kraus, 1988, p. 60). 152. Markgraf's first retainer with the Museum terminated March 31, 1907 (R. Markgraf to H. F. Osborn, 4 April 1907, R. Markgraf correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 153. “Association” refers to whether fossils, or fossil parts, can be physically related to each other as parts of a single individual. The degree to which individual fossils, or a series of fossil parts are understood is based on the context in which they are found. 154. The 40 million-year old fossilized remnants of trees are revealed by the desert wind to this day. 155. Placing the camp, therefore, on one of the prehistoric shorelines of an early Moeris lake (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 156. Granger's surmise was correct, and a letter from Markgraf to Granger in New York, dated April 24, 1907, indicates that he expected Granger to be gone by then--"Did you find some good things in the last days?" (R. Markgraf correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 157. Last to know of Osborn’s decision, therefore, was Granger himself on April 25th. An Osborn letter to Markgraf dated April 22, 1907, shows that his decision had already been made by then. Yet, Osborn well knew that Granger’s plan was to conclude his expedition and break camp on April 21st, and begin his departure from the Fayum for Tamia and on to Cairo (Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). Granger also notes Osborn’s cablegram in his expedition report (see Appendix B) but, while making clear that it was unexpected, provides no explanation of it. 158. Granger’s report elaborated further: It was thought best not to recall the caravan, which had already started for Cairo but to return with the outfit and secure new tents, the old ones having been damaged by storms; and also to obtain hot weather clothing, for the weather was by this time excessively hot. In Cairo four days were spent in securing the new outfit and rehiring the camel caravan. Six camels were engaged for this second trip. Daoud and the cook were retained, as well as the two Tamia men, who had proved especially good workmen (Granger, W., 1907, Report on the Expedition To The Fayum, Egypt, 1907, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 159. The English Pension located at Shâria' el-Genaineh 8. It was “well spoken of” and a room started at 10 francs or 38.6 piastres (Baedeker, 1908, p.31).
160. Dr. William Fraser Hume (1867-1949), British geologist and head of staff at the Geological Museum in Cairo. He authored the still useful, three-volume set Geology of Egypt. 161. Granger's interest in egg-laying technique stemmed from his early dinosaur work in the American West. In 1936, writing about making the world's first find of intact dinosaur eggs and nests in the Gobi in 1923, he recalled that many times during the years I worked in the dinosaur fields [of the American West] I visualized such a happening but as the years went on it began to seem such a remote possibility that it finally took its place as another futile day dream. (Granger, W., 1936, The story of the dinosaur eggs: Natural History, v. 38, p. 21.) 162. Granger invariably studied exhibits at other museums from this standpoint because he was regularly involved with their preparation at the American Museum. Museums were essential in the development of vertebrate paleontology as a way to catalogue and assemble fossil collections (see, e.g., Rudwick, M. J. S., 1976, The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology (2nd ed.), Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, p. 10-11). 163. To the east from the east bank of Qurun, and northwest of Tamia, Kom Ushim is a mound that covers the ruins of the Roman town Karanis. 164. Some recent Fayum workers have thought that Granger and Olsen spent most of their time collecting in the quarries. Granger's diary, however, reveals that they also spent significant time collecting elsewhere (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 165. Sand lenses are saucer-shaped pockets in the sand containing small aggregations of well-preserved fossils, usually at the bottom of the pocket. This would occur after the hardened, or crusted, surface of the desert was physically broken and the wind, over time, eroded the sand and revealed fossils (D. E. Russell to Morgans, 1995; see also, Simons, E. L. and Wood, A. E., 1968, Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas, Fayum Province, Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28, p. 9). 166. Before working with Granger, Markgraf’s practice was to brush thinned, warmed glue onto a fossil while it was still in place and then let the glue dry. He then removed the fossil and shipped it off. This method did not always protect a fossil from breaking up en route. According to Granger, some of Markgraf's best finds were damaged during transport because they were not properly encased. Granger taught Markgraf to wrap his fossils in burlap soaked with paste. Once hardened, this formed a protective cast around the fossil and kept it intact during shipment. 167. The Victoria Hospital located at Shâriá Deir el-Banât (Baedeker, 1908, p. 35). 168. The Baedeker guide to Egypt listed the choices as a Dr. Murison, Dr. Wildt, or Dr. Hegi (Baedeker, 1908, p. 35). 169. The Citadel is the site of the 19th century Mohammed Ali Mosque at the fortification built in 1176 by Salah ad-Din to resist the crusaders. 170. Old Cairo is a walled city with narrow streets and cobbled alleys and maintains some of the world's oldest Christian churches. 171. “Dr. Hansen” remains unidentified. “Fechn” is “Feshn” which was also then spelled “Fachn”; Granger seems to have mixed the two spell-
61 ings into one (Baedeker, 1908, p. 201 and 206). He also spells Hansen as Hanson. 172. Located on Rue Sultan Osman (Baedeker, 1908, p. 172). 173. Granger and Olsen took the S.S. Bayern (North German Lloyd) to Naples and the S.S. Prinzess Irene (Austro-Americana Line) from Naples to New York. The Bayern’s statistics were 4576 gross tons, length 121.60 m x beam 13.71 m, two funnels, two masts, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 199-1st class, 28-2nd class and 202-'tween deck passengers. It was launched by A. G. Vulcan, Stettin on October 18, 1886 for North German Lloyd, Bremen. Its maiden voyage was to the Far East. In 1893 it was lengthened to 138.19 meters, 5034 gross tons. In November, 1909, it was sold to Pittaluga, Genoa for scrapping (T. Finch to V. L. Morgan, April, 2001). The S.S. Prinzess Irene is shown in Fig. 50. 174. Granger detailed their collection as follows: Results. Twenty-seven cases containing the fossils collected by the expedition were shipped from Cairo. The number of specimens of vertebrates recorded in the field book approximate 500, of which about 25 are reptiles, the balance mammals. A small collection of invertebrate fossils was made from the Qasr-el-Sagha Beds, and collections of Formicidae and Coeloptera were made for Professor Wheeler and Mr. Beutenmüller. About fifty 5 x 7 photographs illustrating the geology, topography, and methods of collecting, camping, etc., were taken; and in addition a series of Kodak film negatives was made by Professor Osborn, illustrating chiefly the work in the quarries. Data was collected for a new geological section of the region north of Lake Qurun, and also for a map showing the location of all important finds of fossils made by the various parties. Charts showing the development of the two principal quarries "A" and "B" were prepared. Below is a list of the more noteworthy fossils collected: Arsinoitherium No. 13506 skull of young individual (horns missing) " 13508 " " adult, teeth and horns missing " 13512 Palate with good dentition " 13514 " " " " " 13515 " " " " " 13532 Fine pair of lower jaws " 13553 Good lower jaws " 13585 " " " Numerous fragmentary jaws and skeletal bones Moeritherium 13430 Skull, lacking premaxillae and nasals 13431 Maxilla with good dentition 13432 Right half of skull 13437 Lower jaws 13443 " " (Qasr-el-Sagha beds) Palaeomastodon 13448 Skull, arches and incisors missing 13449-51 Palates 13468-71 Lower jaws Many fragmentary jaws and a small number of skeletal parts. Creodonta 13236 Apterodon, skull nearly perfect 13237 " half of skull 13240-42 Lower jaws 13253-55 Pterodon, lower jaws Several jaws of undescribed Creodonts Among the smaller forms of mammals are numerous good jaws of Saghatherium, Megalohyrax, Ancodon, Geniohyus; also jaws of ten genera of uncertain ordinal position. The reptiles include good skulls of two species of Tomistoma (5066-67, 5078) and Crocodilus (5061), together with good shells of three genera of turtles (5087, 5089, 5092). (Granger, W., 1907, Report on the Expedition To The Fayum, Egypt, 1907, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History.) 175. Matthew, W. D., 1911, African Mammals; in Bassler, R. S., 1912, Symposium on Ten Years’ Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 23, p 156. The symposium was held in Washington, D.C., on December 29, 1911. Note, also, that in his book The Age of Mammals, Osborn (1921, p. 73) stated that “for the time being North Africa becomes the storm center of mammalian palaeontology.” In 1910, Matthew published a review of Schlosser’s Preliminary Notice earlier that same year (Schlosser, M., 1910, Über einege--fossile Säugethiere aus dem Oligocän von Agypten: Zoologischen Anzeiger, Bd. XXXV, n. 15), and criticized Schlosser’s paper as rather thin on substance and detail. (Matthew, W. D., 1910, Schlosser on Fayûm Mammals: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 49, p. 700703.) 176. Even an invitation from National Geographic editor Gilbert H. Grosvenor failed to nudge Granger. On April 19, 1909, Grosvenor wrote: Mr. Walter Granger American Museum of Natural History New York, New York Dear Sir: During a conversation with Professor Osborn yesterday he stated that he thought you could prepare for the National Geographic Magazine an article describing his recent expedition to the Fayum and that he would be very pleased to have you do so if you have the time. I should be exceedingly glad if you could get up an article of about 3500 words with illustrations describing the work of the expedition and also of the country and people. The Society would pay $35. for the article and $1.25 for each picture used and we could probably use fifteen or twenty, provided they are of an interesting character. [by hand] I send you a copy of our March no. I am enclosing you Professor Osborn’s card. With regards, I am Yours very truly, s/Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Editor (W. Granger correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History.)
that. and further research awaits those with sufficient access. p. 99). Proboscidea: A Monograph of the Discovery. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907. oddly structured proposal is another puzzling development in the 1907 Fayum expedition story.. Bones & Beetles. Archives. p. without maps or charts. were recovered from the sites previously worked by the British and Germans. Most of the new taxa. p. Bankers. 289) who first identified and attached significance to this fossil. 178. Hellman. 200). F.Arab with pack camel takes a true course across desert keeping pole star to his left. Examples are: a) “Since 1898. But. and Wood. e. d) "The actual preparation of this monograph opened in the year 1907 with the author's expedition to the desert bordering the Fayum of northern Egypt.. L. I even think Arabs (of the desert) have a true sense of direction--like animals. and the most impressive these. p. now at the Archives of the Agate National Fossil Monument (Nebraska). New York: The Natural History Press.62 This strangely timed. which he guided as if still present full time. 180. 1998. 43rd Annual Report for 1911. sixty miles southwest of Cairo. 32. at the turn of the century and without modern instruments. with this exception. Nation. In full. The impression was not unlike that at sea in calm weather. 1968. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology.”American Museum of Natural History. p. accompanied by Mr. Migration and Extinction of the Mastodons and Elephants of the World. inbred instinct that enabled them to navigate. 6. 5. Simons earlier (1959) described the frontal bone of an anthropoid primate. p.g. Mastodontoidea). E. I seemed instinctively to know the points of the compass. 11. I (Moeritherioidea. at sea. his [Osborn’s] recent expedition to the Fayum [which] he [Osborn] would be very pleased to have you do so if you have the time”? Who could better tout the expedition than Osborn himself? Who had better control over how Granger spent his time than Osborn himself? (While Osborn’s assumption of the presidency of the AMNH in 1908 did increase his duties. Fayum Province. Vol.. Egypt. Have observed them in the mist. Gregory (1922. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum.. Preface. accompanied by Walter Granger of the mammalian paleontology staff of the American Museum. p. c) ". b) “Supplementary explorations by the author. Osborn might have checked with John Bell Hatcher. H. writing then: . Deinotherioidea. When asked if he guides by the stars he says no--he is going in that direction. and he took personal charge of the Fayum Expedition in 1907. that he said was collected in 1908 by Markgraf. Simons. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Bone Hunters in Patagonia. H.. The original and eminent world-class sailor. by an amateur collector named Richard Markgraf. as even he acknowledged earlier (1959. who noted in Patagonia that: we found ourselves in the midst of a vast plain with no permanent landmark visible in any direction. and could travel for days at a time without consulting that instrument. Walter Granger. See. Spencer. Evolution..” that had lain neglected for half a century. and e) "The first to combat this monophyletic interpretation [by C.. Simons has more recently expounded that it was he who first recognized the anthropoid identity and scientific significance of AMNH 14556. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907." Osborn. F. A. Andrews] was Osborn who led an expedition into the Fayum region early in the year 1907.) Before making that link between direction-finding instincts of Arabs and animals. 182. p.. since the year 1908. Simons added: In 1956. Archives. Deinotherioidea. p. v. 1927. In what appears to us to have evolved into a somewhat apocryphal tale. 1907. I (Moeritherioidea. Osborn wrote: 2/2/07 .” (Osborn. It worked well enough so that Osborn could put off selecting a curator to replace him for another year.. p. Simpsonesque curiosity indeed: speculation invites. catalogued as AMNH 14556.. The only entry Osborn made in his own 1907 Fayum field book concerned how it was. It had been recovered from the Fayum badlands. Joshua Slocum. p. (See. 177.. American Museum of Natural History. (Hatcher. A. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. 65 and 70).... 183. Mastodontoidea). 3). it was clearly William K.. G. 1907 Fayum field book. The Age of Mammals.. two years after the event and after Osborn’s own (glorifying) accounts of it in Century. p.. (Osborn. Granger of the American Museum. 1936. Vol. Proboscidea: A Monograph of the Discovery. while searching through a collection of fossils at the American Museum of Natural History. Natural History. as one scans the surrounding horizon. I came across a small piece of forehead bone. cites Osborn’s use of a “red crayon” to make notations. Rainger. Olsen’s correspondence with Harold J. 179. See. Later (1993. identified as a “possible primate. pondering whether they possessed a special. Here on the plains of Patagonia. New York: Doubleday). he did not let go of curatorship of the DVP. W. Granger. Cook. W. Migration and Extinction of the Mastodons and Elephants of the World. Science. 1969. We check his course by means of 2 stars. p. . 1921. 1907.. Egypt. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907.[no reference to George Olsen]" Osborn.58). With slight local deviation heads directly N. 184. 181. E. also knew instinctively where he was in the open sea even while asleep with Spray's tiller lashed into perfect balance and "skippering" the boat on through the night. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. p. 10.. An Agenda for Antiquity.." (Notes). 1936. n. New York Evening Post and Illustrated London News (see replication at Appendix C hereto) to write about “. 498.. Admits he relates the pole star. as on our own plains [of the American West]. Alone at Sea: The Adventures of Joshua Slocum. 168. Evolution. The horizon described a perfect circle.. 1912. to the Fayum Desert in Northern Egypt. Professor Osborn has exercised a general supervision over all field exploration. 39. 27. assisted by Walter Granger and George Olsen. and Mr.. and within the circumference there appeared not even a solitary hill.. when President Jesup sent him on an expedition.. 82. I never have even the slightest idea as to the different directions until looking at the compass. What induced Osborn to prompt Grosvenor to invite Granger. that native caravanners found their way through the desert. American Museum of Natural History.
H. W. p. 190. 193. F. Savage alerted Simons as follows: Paris-November 9 Dear Elwyn: Don R. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. S. Gideon T. H. Simons (Copies. Notable is Apidium. Simons (1959. 340) and that “the various Fayum primates are intermediate forms that fill in many of the morphological gaps between the major radiations of extant anthropoids. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 14-15. 58) that “neither feature [of the cercopithecid characteristics of AMNH 14556] had been previously documented in so old a fossil” thus overlooks Gregory’s (1922) publication which fully appreciated the significance of AMNH 14556 at least 34 years before Simons first saw the fossil in 1956. 26. Symposium on Ten Years’ Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. 326-327). Maybe you don’t!? Denison made all the field notes & records. entry for 1961-67 et seq. this year. American Museum of Natural History. Matthew. Granger became a member of both in 1911.even at this late date.g. M. These primates are a diverse array of prosimians and primitive anthropoids.” and “what-not-to do’s. in 1947-48 [sic]. Gid James. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology.. indeed. L. 123-165. Don Savage suggests in the enclosed letter that it would be useful for he and I to have a look at the field notes and photographs. van der Hoof being in the Fayûm for Wendell Phillips and dear ‘ole Univ.. 3. Markgraf correspondence file. See Table 1. 198. 2002. 1907. 1988. Trail Blazers. Bown... On November 9. as follows: Dear Gid: I guess this is not too informal. The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639).. Paleontologist: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 19. L. James on November 21. Markgraf correspondence file. p. p. 187. sent a request in haste to Dr. Markgraf. D.. Osborn to R. The Lemur’s Legacy. Denison should be a gold mine in “what-todo’s. Granger to R. H. and Lucas. 186. 21 May 1912. 1 January 1908. R. Fayum Depression.. 326-339) reviews at length the fossil record of primates from the Fayum. DES Simons. p. Markgraf. American Museum of Natural History. Robert Dension and others in 1947. The Granger Papers Project). Egypt: USGS Pro- 63 fessional Paper 1452. which eventually received some of the Fayum fossils collected by the American Museum expedition. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. Fossile flora und fauna im Fayøum: paläontologische bedeutung des Gebel el Qatrâni (Oligozän): Papyrus 5-6. made by Denison in the Fayum. p. Field Notes on University of California Expedition to Fayum. Gismann. Morgan. 191. cover memorandum-1907: Annual Report of Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Walter Granger. See you Nov.. 28 April 1908. 20. 1980. and named by Osborn—now one of the best known early monkeys (or monkey-like primates according to some). 18721941.” In short. Field. and Denison. p. and Kraus. M. I had assumed that you knew all about Bob Denison and V. 197. p.” also. v. 1911. Fleagle’s review concludes that “the fossil primates from the early Oligocene of Egypt provide our only record of Old World higher primate evolution from that entire epoch” (p. in Bassler. R. Could you send them soon to Don Savage in Paris? I am leaving for Egypt this Saturday but will be in touch with Don from time to time. 1912. 10. p. T. . p. V.) 196. [Russell] and I were just sitting here discussing your Fayûm project and a matter came up that seemed worth writing about -. African Mammals. R. v. H. Museum of Paleontology. R. Archives. p 156. 185. The Granger Papers Project. Archives. p 660. Markgraf correspondence file. I believe. American Museum of Natural History). at least this is how I hear you referred to by our colleagues. W. D. J. Elwyn L. 78. Matthew to R. The 1947 University of California expedition to the Fayum was unknown even to Simons himself until the eve of Simon’s first expedition to the Fayum. 1993. In a widely used textbook on primate evolution.That ancestors or relatives of the later Cercopithecidae [a family of Old World monkeys] were present in the Lower Oligocene of Egypt is also extremely probable from the fact that the American Museum expedition in 1907 discovered there a frontal portion of a skull which resembles closely the corresponding part of some of the smaller Cercopithecidae. 189. 58) statement that Markgraf collected AMNH 14556 in 1908 contradicts Gregory’s (1922) statement (above) that it was collected by the 1907 American Museum Fayum expedition. 194. Yours sincerely. especially the early evolution of anthropoids. W. Osborn. A. 516. 188. e. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. He notes that “most of our knowledge of early higher primate evolution in the Old World comes from an area in Egypt known as the Fayum Depression” (p. The Museum already had such a program in place with institutions domestically. Osborn. Archives. 1988... 192. Simons’s statement (1993. H. 23. Egypt. S. M. 9. 1961. Markgraf. 15 January 1915 (R. this Table omits the expedition (formally known as the “University of California Pan-African Expedition’) by Wendell Phillips. Examination of the specimen’s label may resolve that question. of Calif. See. R. under Wendell Phillips. 1947 (copy. 1964. Miami: Field Research Projects. paleontologist Donald E. my replacement at Cal. 1961. 83).. New York: Tarcher/ Putnam. Unfortunately. Fleagle (1988. can probably pull the Denison records and photos out of our file and let you borrow them if you wish -. 1993.they should be in the files I started there (in the office where Gid now is) called “Mammal Location File” -. F. Finally. 195. G. p. the fossil record of the Fayum primates is pivotal to understanding primate evolution. p. Although the development of this study was slow to form thereafter (see.if you want them. Russell. including the University of California. J. See. F. discovered by the 1907 AMNH expedition.
Palos stationed at Wanhsien. but she wrote Matthew that she would “feel relieved when he is back here again. Granger to assist him in receiving the Members of the Seventh International Congress of Zoölogy at the Museum Tuesday evening. letter. from April 18 to September 15. A. August 27.” proclaimed the headline and subheadline of an undated. In fact they may have come at roughly the same time. and worried that Walter will be detailed to field work [in Sichuan Province] in the winter. 1907. 203. respectively. 1st Quarter (Jan.. American Museum of Natural History). Archives. (File 1214. Special Collections. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology.. Granger. press release from the president of the Mongolian Republic as to why the “American Scientific Expedition” was expelled from Mongolia. and visit with her often during the last 10 years of her life. D. gave one of the addresses and presented the Deacon with the gold-headed cane. But this is a place where things can happen. L. Archives. Markgraf to W. H. once they’d left the protective cover of U. U. Granger to W. Granger. Nelson and I.) 204. and proceeded through the Three Gorges area. a public dinner in the village park.) For fuller treatment of the 1923 events. 25 April 1907 (R. 1925. 1907. Special Collections. Despite a number of requests to the two locations where copies are known to exist. Bown. 207. FossilHunter’s Guide to the Yangtze Patrol. that her letters have not reached me in time to reply to her in China. Archives. Anna left items for the Stouts.” (A. File 1214. American Museum of Natural History. The interviewees are T. 4 April 1907 (R. Granger. 2001. The Granger Papers Project. Simpson (date unknown). in March of 1923 during Granger’s second winter expedition to Sichuan Province. (W. unattributed newsclipping (probably The Rutland Herald. Special Collections. D. F. Osborn to R. “Celebrates His 100th Birthday. see Morgan. By 1923. F.1. as Osborn’s cablegram was being read by Granger.) During this time. W. The Granger Papers Project. including a portrait of herself as a child. Archives. Palos. Anna also sent clippings from the April 20 (“CAE in bandit-infested section of Kalgan”). (undated). Granger and his men returned fire with an assortment of weapons from which they fired nearly 50 rounds. Professor Stout’s recollection of Anna and her account the 1907 Fayum expedition came directly from Anna Granger herself--he and his wife came to know Anna. with our wives. (H. Anna and Walter became separated by. Granger and A. Bown and Fleagle independently (and consistently) related their accounts as derived from copies they’d seen of correspondence between Anna and Osborn. 1923. 209. but not harmed.1. and trapped in. May 30. C.. Seventh International Congress of Zoology: American Museum of Natural History. File 1214. 28 August 1925. they were ambushed by bandits hiding in the cliffs of Wushan Gorge. American Museum of Natural History. Anna obviously accepted that. After several anxious days. The party was shaken. 28 August 1925.1923. The Granger Papers Project. Messers. The Granger Report. 1925. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Archives. Charles.S. asking for a letter of credit to conduct his third winter expedition to Sichuan Province.1. 208. Not a month later. Smythe. 1925.64 199. 206. Stout. Frederick Smythe.1. except for Granger and his Chinese assistants and. Matthew. Fleagle and T. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. She is evidently very much disturbed and apprehensive over the situation there. Her concern was heightened by the fact that two years earlier. W. 15). 200. addresses and the presentation of a gold-headed cane constituted the day’s programme--The Deacon spends nearly the whole day at the park--Is in good health--Works about the farm. 1907. Also I imagine there may be some excitement although neither of us will take too great hazards. Matthew. 201. Granger to F.S. However. Osborn. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. M. That. American Museum of Natural History). Photograph memento. 10 November 1925. Markgraf. Diaries . The Granger Papers Project). W. on November 10. American Museum of Natural History. as I judge she will be coming back with the other members of the party in October . Archives. August 27th at nine o’clock. is not contemplated.1. Special Collections.S. Granger and the CAE were in Mongolia. Report of Operations for Week Ending 14 April 1923 (dtd. and August 20 (“Andrews asked to leave Mongolia because CAE exceeded its bounds”). Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 19 August 1907. CAE motorman Mack Young (during a solo mission in Mongolia). M. Comm. are looking forward to a profitable winter along the Yangtze. H. Two of Anna’s letters were dated August 28 and September 1. U. Osborn’s letter was asking Markgraf to go back into the field with .S. American Museum of Natural History. R. Both Walter and Anna Granger were invited by the Museum’s director to help host this meeting. to wit: Director Bumpus trusts that it will be possible for you and Mrs. W. reads without glasses and has a remarkable memory--Born within a quarter of a mile of his present home--Has voted at 20 Presidential elections--Many present from out of town. Special Collections. Egypt. perhaps. Thus initiating the correspondence Bown and Fleagle describe (see note 202). Markgraf correspondence file. Recall that. In gratitude. Archives. Bumpus to W. 22 April 1907 (R. in part. and a pair of Walter Granger’s field glasses. Granger to W. Walter Granger did make it to the occasion: his father. J. 16 April 1923).. Matthew’s note to Sherwood was probably written shortly after he received Anna’s September 1. Matthew to G. than against the mighty flea. Special Collections.S Navy Yangtze Patrol gunboat U. 1925. Anna was receiving sporadic assurances that Walter was fine. Anna had already experienced more CAE-related combat than any other member of the CAE ever would. as well as a September 10.S. American Museum of Natural History. Archives. 1925. File 1214. a warlord battle for the city of Wanhsien on the Yangtze River. File 1214. Granger.) Granger clearly felt better equipped to protect himself against hostile humans. Markgraf correspondence file. 202. concluding All goes well with me. New York Times. I understand. Middletown Springs turns out to honor Deacon Alpheus Haynes--Concerts by the Rutland City band. Sherwood. R. Markgraf correspondence file. V. American Museum of Natural History). some Chinese embroidery. Markgraf to H. since he noted to Sherwood. G. an unfazed Granger wrote to the AMNH’s bursar. D. they finally rejoined and escaped by junk down the Yangtze. (W. American Museum of Natural History). American Museum of Natural History. Granger to Lt. 205. the senior author has been unable to access that correspondence directly. File 604. National Archives. F.
M.. American Museum of Natural History. 265. 3 January 1915. Archives. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 415.e. 1968. p. it wasn't because they were keeping good notes on the provenance of individual specimens. 172. 19. Fayum Province. fig. Markgraf to W. Osborn suggested it might represent a new order of mammals. American Museum of Natural History. S. See. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. evolution. Granger correspondence file. Egypt: PaleoBios. Archives. Although not the first described specimens. 225. D. Ptolemaia and Apidium. Holroyd. Markgraf correspondence file. The AMNH collection was the first in the Fayum where quarry names were assigned and then subsequently associated with the specimens in the museum. Osborn. 220. Ptolemaiidae. Markgraf.). The hyracoid was mistakenly described as Moeritherium by Matsumoto (1922). 223. A. 1921. Moeritherioidea. and new quarries were given successive letters in the alphabet. 219. 224. p.. E. S. v. Science. Jim Parham and I have a paper in press at JVP [Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology*] that is able to make use of their good locality data to establish the age of the African tortoise record. v. 7) illustrated and identified as ?Metasinopa. 265. American Museum of Natural History. the AMNH crew picked up the first hyracoid and the first creodont collected from the Qasr el Sagha Formation. F. ed.. 1) Collecting with reasonably accurate locality data. The Antiquity of African Tortoises: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. See also. the Pterodon partial skull). p. p. p. p. F. 1997. F.. in Notes Granger mentions visiting some of Markgraf's quarries and had the foresight to note their approximate location. He named Ptolemaia after the family of the pharaoh Ptolemy and created a new family. Fortunately (for me).. 1936. for Pterodon leptognathus. Granger to H. A. 118. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. 1908. 1908. v. London: Blandford Press (Ann Savours. Osborn. Akhinatenavus. For example. who also thought it might be an artiodactyl. an order of extinct. Osborn. 219). Holroyd (1999) created a new genus. 160 p. Today. 415-424. R. See. 212. thus providing some additional collecting data for specimens in the Stuttgart collection (e. R. L. 1908. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene.). Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. 24. F. and Parham. Osborn was genuinely perplexed by the affinities of two of the new taxa of mammals he described from the Fayum.. 213. H.. F. R. 215. v. Osborn. Values. P. W. New York: American Museum of Natural History. 1909. p. 22 April 1907 (R. 109-116. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. J. Fifty-two years of research.Osborn’s needs in mind. F. 222.. and _____. 24. E. and the American West: Nevada Humanities Committee. H. v. p. C.. A monograph of the discovery. here are what I would point to as important scientific contributions of the expedition (in addition to those already addressed in the Epilogue). Volume 1 includes extensive discussion of the Fayum proboscideans. firsthand account of this race. Granger. even to the extent that the Yale expeditions also used the same lettering scheme (i. Osborn. L.. H. Fayum province. 1924. p. 217. New York: 65 Columbia University Press. Apidium (named for the sacred bulls of Apis) has long been recognized as a fossil monkey. Matsumoto. and 1926. H. 218. Markgraf correspondence file. p. Osborn. and Bell. 802 p.. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. 221. H.. that it hadn't even been cataloged until I came across it amongst other uncataloged and unprepared specimens from the expedition. 1930. 210. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Classification of mammals above the species level. in Tchudi. 2) The first discovery of terrestrial mammals in the Qasr el Sagha Formation. For a superb. Deinotherioidea. Subsequent expeditions benefitted from this and built upon this framework. 214. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. discussion in Morgan. 1923. F. 19. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Also. Markgraf to W. and Wood. Archives. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Ptolemaia is considered to be a member of the Pantolesta. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. Wilson. H. A. F. While we can figure out where the British and German collections came from to some extent. *See. two volume memoir on the subject published posthumously in 1936 (Osborn.. New Pterodontinae (Creodonta: Hyaenodontidae) from the late Eocene-early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. v. F. The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639). p. H. F. a possibility discussed by Osborn. Archives.) The importance of this record keeping continues to be uncovered. Simons. n. E. Holroyd. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. and the creodont was apparently considered so inconsequential.. K. 1999.. Holroyd (written communication. Markgraf correspondence file. 24. 211. .. Badlands Mary. reassigned Hyaenodon brachycephalus to the genus Metapterodon and created the new species Metapterodon markgrafi for an upper jaw fragment that Osborn (1909. ed. 216. 1907. H. 25 August 1912. 1909. W. Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904. I. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. observation and publication 1877-1929. 265-272. P. See. 2. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Mastodontoidea. American Museum of Natural History).g. 1997.. 10. 1922. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. H. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. of uncertain ordinal position. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 516. they weren't recognized until Holroyd et al (1996). Osborn’s lifelong studies of the Proboscidea culminated in his massive. 26. insectivorous mammals (McKenna. 226. Indeed. 26. V. see Peking to Paris by Luigi Barzini. v. P. Osborn. 2002) states: [A]s someone who has worked a little with the AMNH collections. A. R. Proboscidea. Matthew. Yale Quarry A = AMNH Quarry A. 1966. Osborn to R. in press.
89. 8. 1988. Osborn. B. G. J. S. H. 1978. E. The Century Magazine. F. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. 1903.. The Granger Papers Project). Prehistory of the Nile Valley. p. Proboscidea. and Vondra. FIGURES 12 and 51. 4. v. 1982. 513. CT: Ox Bow Press. M. K. eds. H... FIGURE 8. 470. Proboscidea: in Maglio. Dunedin. A. F.. map at p.. Sudre. 75-78 (translated from the German by the author-copy. FIGURE 13. 30 and 31. Simons. 548 pp. Gheerbrant.. 1992. Cooke. V. p. Raza. 231. The oldest paved road. The Granger Papers Project). 635 p. Evolution of African Mammals: Cambridge. Tiffney. S. 36-49. K. 1907. and Fleagle. 11. K. Hatcher.. New York: BasicBooks. T. Egypt and the Sudan (sixth remodelled ed. 71-91. A. and Cooke. Bown. K. FIGURE 18. p. 186 (=our 7). M. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker. 1901. Notes on an expedition to the Fayûm. Floods. El Khasab. P. G. E. C. n. Todralestidae (Proteutheria. and paleoenvironments: University of Michigan.. 6. 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New Series. Revision of Palaeomastodon and Moeritherium: American Museum Novitates. Mertz. Final conclusions on the evolution. Wortman--A Biographical Sketch: Natural History. New Series. Osborn. 327332. E. Zoogeographical relations of North Africa in the upper Eocene: Proceedings International Zoological Congress. Milk dentition of the hyracoid Saghatherium from the upper Eocene of Egypt. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1907. 49. 639. p. 1906. 1907. 1923. Northern Egypt: Journal of Geology. 5. Badlands Mary. C. _____. p.. Fifty-two years of research. Science. The Century Magazine. generic and specific stages of evolution of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates.. Holroyd. 4. J. New York: The MacMillan Company. E. 10. The American Museum expedition to the Fayûm desert: The Nation. Eberhard Fraas: Science. v. Values. 35-54. v. 1921. n. 100.... New York: . 97-140. _____. v. V. National Academy of Sciences. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. v. p. Science. p. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. Fayum depression. B. 622. Linnean classification and the phylogenetic classification of the Proboscidea: Palaeontologica Hungarica. _____. p. Fossils from Egypt. Scinde & Cutch: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 22. abstract: "Hunting the two million year old elephant:" The Illustrated London News Supplement. p. p. Tombs and Hieroglyphs: the story of Egyptology.. in Wendorf. Mastodontoidea. S. 1992. S. 67 _____. Asia and North America. 1988. 48. p.n. _____. _____. 1-58. 2002. 1-18. G. p. Archaeological work in Egypt: The Nation. 51. Migrations and affinities of the fossil proboscideans of North and South America and Africa: American Naturalist. ed. The First Fossil Hunters: Paleontology in Greek and Roman Times. L. p.. 1996.. p. p. J. B.. D. T. v. 64. C. v. n. 17 October 1907. 1921. 1992. 1921. 1922. 1925. Evolution and geographic distribution of the Proboscidea: Moeritheres. A. v.. F. 109116. 99. Some observations on the geology of the Egyptian Desert: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. W. 11. and Lucas. phylogeny and classification of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. 1919. F. S. Matsumoto. p. v. p. p. M. J. _____. 1900. 84. M. p. _____. Adaptive radiations and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings National Academy of Science. Revision of Palaeomastodon and Moeritherium: American Museum Novitates. New York: Columbia University Press. Mitchell. n. 2000. 14 leaves of plates ill. 1872-1941. 1910. 652-653. v. 1907. 1926. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. New subfamily. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. _____. p. n. 265-272. 50. 1921. _____. and Swisher. and Rasmussen.. Evolution of African Mammals: Cambridge. 1997. p. the ancestor of the long-jawed mastodons only: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 6 p. p. p. v. 17-35.. New Series. _____. New York: Academic Press.. _____. 26. Princeton: Princeton University Press. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1846. Colonising Egypt. 2. p. M. 175-192. Geology of the Fayum Depression. Classification of Mammals above the Species Level. _____. 7... Temples. 25. 1921. Note. in Tchudi. 14.. L. Contribution to the knowledge of fossil Hyracoidea of the Fayûm. _____.. _____. Nash. 571-572. phylogeny and classification of the Mastodontoidea: Geological Society of America Bulletin. Schlosser on Fayûm Mammals: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.. _____. B. 700-703. D. p. v. Harvard University Press. v. 1930. 1. T. and the American West: Nevada Humanities Committee. and Bell. J. 1908. A revision of Palaeomastodon. p. A monograph of the discovery. Editorial abstract: Nature. Paleoenvironment of the Earliest Homonids: New Evidence from the Oligocene Avifauna of Egypt: Science. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 21 March 1907. 815-835. 1976. 740. 561-574. p. 635 p. with description of several new species: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. and with descriptions of two new species: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. The geological and faunal relations of Europe and America during the Tertiary Period and the theory of the successive invasions of the African fauna: Science. 647-654. Egypt. 229-250. v. 76.. 415-424. p. A. M. 231-234. Deinotherioidea. and Cooke.. I. L. 513-516. 139-140. S. 4 April 1907. 1845.. v. 151-153. 19. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907. dividing it into two genera. H. Morgan. Olson. The Age of Mammals in Europe. 2179.from the late Eocene-early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. Bown. p. deinotheres and mastodonts: Journal of Mammalogy. Kappelman. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. New York: Coward-McCann. Egypt: PaleoBios. 21 March 1907. p. 26. Paleontologist: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 19. 1922. Mayor. 2. also The [NY] Evening Post. 6. Inc. _____. L. Cambridge. 1915. _____.
Supplemental bibliography: Berta. Nebraska) Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre (Melbourne. Rexner. 17. Kenneth D. R. R. Sweden) University of California. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. American Museum of Natural History (New York City) Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (Maharashtra. Australia) Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. v. R. 180-181. and Harris. T. J. 432 p.. 1984. p. Shoshani. 1995.. and Bown. Germany) The Granger Papers Project (Durham.. ed. AL: University of Alabama Press.. eds. Norell.. 2835.. Bown. and when was it?: Geology.. Museum of Paleontology (Berkeley. Tuscaloosa. 377 p. 1964. Fayum Province. New Hampshire) Universität Tübingen (Tübingen. J. correspondence. 882-884.. The Geology of Egypt. v. E. S. Discoverers of the Lost World. D. The early relatives of man: Scientific American. taxonomy. J. 16 p. _____. New Haven: Yale University Press. 58-75.. New York: Henry N. telephone and in person interviews (vlm/krm).. Simons. New Haven: Yale University Press. T. Inc. _____. E. _____. eds. 1984. Rainger. Mammalia): Part 3. Fleagle. An anthropoid frontal bone from the Fayum Oligocene of Egypt: The oldest skull fragment of a higher primate: American Museum Novitates. where. A monograph of the discovery. A. p. Suess. Strouse.. p. J. Vermont) Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde (Stuttgart. E.000 BP onset of El Niño.. New York: HarperPerennial. Reitz. p. 1976. Mylan. R. .. various (vlm/krm). Thompson. Stout. 32693273. American Museum of Natural History: 125 years of Expedition and Discovery. Gatesy. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. E. correspondence (vlm). 58-59.. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. telephone interview (vlm). 2002.. J. D. Letters from Egypt: 1905-1908. T.. 1978.. B. J. 1988. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. E. 1996. 338339. 1967. John C. J. Amsterdam: Elsevier. and Simons.. 1994. D.). _____. 263. 62. various (vlm/krm). The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology (2nd ed. Pat. Phiomia.. India) Institut und Museum Geologie und Paläontologie (Tübingen. 1992. and Russell. eds. J. G. and Arctander. P. v.. p. Germany) University of Uppsala..... 273. Savage. Donald E. 1997 and 1999. in Shoshani. and palaeoecology.. p.. Concession to the Improbable. Science. Thomas M. 1942. and Schild. Christopher. E. Evidence from milk casein genes that cetaceans are close relatives of hippopotamid artiodactyls. 1995. and Maasch. 1965. 1-105. M. 114. 1962. Wendorf. 1987.. 805-1675 p. What is a whale? Science. 1941.. 1995-1999. D. p. T. American Museum of Natural History. E. in person interview (vlm/krm). An Agenda for Antiguity. various (vlm). Rasmussen. Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5. D. Diva. Mammalian Paleofaunas of the World. 1968. Thethys. Tethys. K. Institutional Archives: Agate National Fossil Monument (Agate. Cronin. 1966. N. L. n. E. Maier.. 1996. 1531-1533. D. G. 1991. Ted. Thetis. various (vlm/krm). S. L.. The EoceneOligocene transition in North Africa. p. K. R. Simons. Princeton: Princeton University Press. July.. p. 1-20. Dawn Ape of the Fayum: Natural History. n... 1993. a new order of Mammalia--with description of the cranium of Ptolemaia grangeri: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 180-187. 1989. v. Teilhard de Chardin. Abrams. 2002 (sgl/vlm). R. 1983. G. 1993. 96.. New York: Tarcher/Putnam. _____. 1967. 2001. 1995-1998. Russell. correspondence (vlm). Simons. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblblatt für Mineralogie. The Lemur’s Legacy. Stromer.. p. P. DC) Rutland Free Library (Rutland. The Earliest Apes: Scientific American. p. and Simons.. Simons. Walter Granger. 1549-1906. R. Court. The earliest proboscideans: General plan. v. 1976. R. II. Science. New York: Walker and Company. Tozer. Elwyn L. [ ]. M.. n. E. Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. p.. 287 (translated from the German by A. p. Germany) National Archives (Washington. Waterfield. L. and the Eo/Oligocene paenungulate Moeritherium: Mainzer Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen. _____. West. Scott of the Antarctic. J.. p. 802 p. T. various (vlm). Wilson. Mehta. Inc. Egypt's Simian Spring: Natural History.. 1995. 18-20. correspondence (vlm). 1995-1999. Fayum Province. Simpson. The Genesis of British Egyptology. 6. and Tassy.copy. 954-963. D. the Oligocene mastodont genera Palaeomastodon. J. 2441. April. 13. Rudwick. Are great ocean depths permanent? Natural Science. 1995. New York: Herder and Herder. Ptolemaiida. The Proboscidea. Attending Marvels. p. Rasmussen. Richardson. Elephantoidea: New York. Finch. W.. H. M. New York: Academic Press. 1971. E. 6. Morgan: American financier. G. 217. M. Russell. E. Sandweiss. California) Interviews-Apropos Communication: Beard. London: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Savage. Stegodontoidea... L. L. 548-566: in Prothero..68 American Museum of Natural History.. III. p. Molecular Biology and Evolution. v. _____. 6. p. Pound. 1893. A. L. and Wood. Egypt: Smithsonian Contributions. R. v. and Berggren. 1965. 1996. n. Bown. Rose. Helen. T. v. B. 76.. _____. Eighteen principles of adaptation in allomiometron and aristogenes: Palaeobiologica. 92. 1959. M. 1967. Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904. Proboscidea. 1938. J. E. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Hayashi. J... Olson. n. P. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. USA. London: Blandford Press (Ann Savours. 2001-2002.. evolution. 2000. or Thetys? What. E. The Granger Papers Project). 1978. H. Gerhard. 1996. New York: Time. A. Rollins. p. Said. 1916. 1976. Mark A. Tobien. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. _____. and Klein. 1995 and 1996. L. D.. Egypt. Geologie und Paläontologie. Geological Library (Uppsala. 273-302. 209-219. Oxford: Oxford University Press. M.). 2. correspondence (vlm). 1995. Morgan. Fossil Birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. Holroyd. Wortham. A. C. Gismann . F. H. New York: Coward-McCann. A. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. The structure of the mastodont molar (Proboscidea.
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and after a few days of sight-seeing Granger and Olsen left Egypt on June 15th. who had kindly arranged for their transfer to the bone pits. "Cedric" on January 5th. Qasr-el-Sagha was the next stopping place. Itinerary. S. The expedition was under the leadership of Professor Henry F. Professor Osborn and Messrs. and from there the party moved westward to the Alexandria trail. men who had been employed there previously in excavation work by Mr. near Luxor. Cairo was reached the same day. after several days at this camp. who had entered the desert and was prospecting in the neighborhood independently. Quibell. While at Tamia. Quibell's men was taken seriously ill and was obliged to return to his home at Quft. Of the twelve camels originally sent out from Giza. Early in April with the quarries pretty well worked out eight more of the Quft men returned to their homes. facilitate the work of the party. with seven native assistants. here to explore thoroughly the zone from which the extensive collections have been obtained by the Egyptian Survey Department through Mr. two days previously. one day. and Granger and Olsen returned to Cairo May 30th. for the weather was by this time excessively hot. which had already started for Cairo but to return with the outfit and secure new tents. The plans for the trip as mapped out by Professor Osborn were for the party to proceed from New York to Cairo. and several other minor pits. chiefly by Mr. stopping for five days at Ferrar Butte. leaving Mr. Plan of Expedition. it was hoped. "Bayern"). together with Reis Daoud and the cook remained with the outfit until camp was broken late in April. as well as the two Tamia men. established the permanent working camp. Granger and Olsen accompanied Professor Osborn's personal caravan. particularly the Arsinoitherium and the proboscideans Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. Andrews. during which time the Moeritherium quarry was examined. which were accumulated at the Geological Museum. working from his own camp and covering the area from the Easterly Bone Pits to the Alexandria Trail. of course. by way of Port Said (S. through Dr. in March. 1907 By Walter Granger. was employed for six weeks. the return eastward was begun. G. Accounts with the Survey Department were adjusted. The material already collected was turned over to the American Museum party. Shiekh Talba with five or six fellaheen conducted the camel train. In Cairo four days were spent in securing the new outfit and rehiring the camel caravan. to secure a collection of these extremely interesting forms. and also to obtain hot weather clothing. Walter Granger and George Olsen of the department staff. and to Capt. The Survey Department placed its services at the disposal of the party. leaving the Mena House on the morning of January 31st. On April 24th Tamia was reached. The two remaining Quft men and the two from Tamia. Transshipping at Naples (S. who chose as assistants. Director General of the Survey Department. was employed at about this time through arrangements made with Professor Osborn. Egypt. were reopened and developed sufficiently to show that they were exhausted. Messrs. the camels and outfit going by trail. and returned to Cairo. water tanks. who had proved especially good workmen. Beadnell and by the British Museum. the force of workmen was reduced by the dismissal of the three Helouan men for careless work. the camels sent to Giza. etc. and arranging for the employment of natives and camels. H. leaving eight during April. Mr. Quarantine was reached on the evening of July 3rd. On the 8th twelve natives arrived in camp from Sakkarah. awaiting the train. secure an outfit there. It was thought best not to recall the caravan. via Azores. The following day work was begun on one of these pits. The next five days were consumed in preparation. two were returned immediately upon the arrival of the party in the Fayûm and two more were returned the latter part of March. working separately from his own camp. A few days later the party moved just above the Temple and the Upper Eocene bench where the eastern extension of the fossiliferous area was examined. tools. Richard Markgraf. Andrews. On February 18th Professor Osborn with his personal party and Mr. loaning tents. Through the generosity of President Jesup this expedition was made possible. It was thought also that careful prospecting would bring to light new forms.S. reaching Alexandria after an uneventful voyage on January 23rd. The camp equipage and provisions were forwarded to Tamia by rail. termed "Quarry C" was worked by Mr. a cable-gram was received from Professor Osborn instructing the party to remain in the desert for further work. With this additional labor the second quarry (B) was reopened under Olsen's superintendence. Mr. although with only a small force part of the time. Fallaheen workmen to the number twenty. traveling southward through the Pyramid field and entering the Fayûm from the Lisht Pyramid on February 3rd. These bone pits were discovered and originally worked by Mr. and Naples. The first camp was made at Qasr-elSagha. February 5th. cooking outfits. Granger and Olsen departed from New York on the S. one other man returning with him as care taker. Hartley T. having been shipped in from the desert at intervals. an independent collector residing in Cairo.142 APPENDIX B Report on the Expedition To The Fayûm. Twelve camels were hired and ordered to proceed to Tamia in the Fayûm. Six camels were engaged for this second trip. Mr. and on May 30th Tamia was reached. The fossils. . A small bone pit about two miles west of camp. and he continued prospecting until March 3lst. Osborn. were employed. May 23rd. Letters of introduction to Lord Cromer. and the following day Granger and Olsen returned to Cairo. and go directly to the fossil bearing Eocene deposits in the north of the Fayûm depression. Ferrar departed from the desert. Two days later. Granger in charge. Shortly after Professor Osborn's departure. Granger was recuperating in the hospital from a slight illness. north of Birket-el-Qurun where Daoud had. The chief object of the expedition was. Later. Lyons. the nearest railway point to the fossil fields. the old ones having been damaged by storms. Granger and a force of five men for several days during the middle of the month. rendering much assistance in the organization of the camp and the management of natives. Composition of the Party. Granger took charge of the work in the field upon Professor Osborn's departure from the desert. especially of the smaller fauna. Gibraltar. Mr. Beadnell and later were further developed by Dr. about the western limit of the fossil area. Daoud and the cook were retained. "Princess Irene"). Genoa. in charge of natives under Daoud. one of Mr. Later a camp was made at the old bone pits. Prospecting for individual surface specimens and for new quarry deposits was undertaken at once by Daoud and later on by Granger and Olsen. Richard Markgraf. termed "Quarry A". under the superintendence of Daoud Mohammed of Helouan. were now repacked.S. scattered over the fossil field. Except for short periods they were worked continuously by the American Museum party from the time of its arrival until late in April. British Consular agent. Ferrar of the Survey Department field staff accompanied the party to the Fayûm and remained about two weeks. would. Olsen.. On April 2lst camp was moved from the bone pits to Qasr-el-Sagha where a stay of three or four days was made in order to prospect the Middle Eocene exposures there. the caravan came to the Easterly Bone Pits. while Mr.
The only severe Khamsine wind occurred on April 19th when the violent sand-ladened wind from the south-west blew from eleven until six p. and it becomes necessary to bring water from the irrigation ditches in the vicinity of Tamia. the chief difficulty with the natives was that they showed a strong disinclination to adopt any new methods or to accomplish any task unfamiliar to them. the action which brought the quarry bones together serving to break up the skulls. the surface pebbles helping to obscure and the wind action breaking up and grinding away the bone as fast as it is exposed. the epiphyses are often detached from both limb bones and vertebrae. (Preservation of fossils.) The entire northern portion of the Fayûm. The bones possess. remaining over night. (Occurrence of fossils. and always interfering with the quarry work by filling of the excavation with sand and by undermining exposed specimens. The second group of twelve men. they were careless and inclined to shirk and not susceptible of training. Their work was very unsatisfactory. and except for the loss of animal matter. It was gratifying to note the adoption by Mr. if nothing was reached it was abandoned. is typical desert. however. Outcroppings of fossils are not often plainly visible. have undergone comparatively little chemical change.) Native labor is all that is procurable in Egypt. Associated material was found to be extremely rare: only two instances of association were observed. at which work they showed surprising skill. Results. Markgraf. although where they occur in clay they are both soft and crushed and generally worthless. Because of the feed and water the headquarters of the caravan were made at Tamia instead of at the desert camp. where thousands of separate elements are sometimes found in small areas. rolling desert.. though. From the large bone pits to Lake Qurun is eight miles. a method which had he used it in his previous collecting for German institutions would have saved several fine skulls from destruction in transportation.143 Work in detail. From the middle of March the weather began to grow warmer. During February and part of March the days were for the most part comfortable. They were discharged at the end of two weeks. moreover. The most efficient native workers. a specimen is readily developed. Once located. Seldom could a bone be lifted from its bed without thorough hardening first. Petrification has not taken place. it is entirely practicable. although in every case the finer skulls were found as isolated specimens. the balance mammals. rendered very fair service in stripping. (Native workmen. After the 1st of June the heat is so intense that it is difficult to secure natives to enter the desert or drivers to furnish camels. a skull with associated lower jaws was collected and three or four small mammal vertebrae lying in series in one of the quarries were noted. The use of hot. Taken as a whole. and there are some advantages in this method. and were taught to prepare the fossils. and adds to the difficulty of restoration work. Although some prospecting was done and a few specimens collected in the Middle Eocene (Qasr-el-Sagha) Beds by far the greater part of the time and energy of the party was expended on the Upper Eocene or FluvioMarine Beds. From the time of the arrival of the party in the desert on February 5th until its final departure. it being necessary merely to scrape off the coating of pebbles and brush or dig away the loose sand. Because of long immersion in water. thin carpenter's glue was made by Mr. Beutenmüller. Markgraf's method was after determining the location of one of these lenses to excavate a narrow trench to the center of it. Markgraf. and a much shorter and narrower upper one. and the softer. and the hottest days were often preceded by heavy fog and dew in the early morning. The first comprised three young men from Helouan who had been engaged at the pit previously under Beadnell. (Methods of Preservation. and who evinced considerable understanding as to the occurrence of the fossils and the importance of care in uncovering them.m. (Condition of weather. The American Museum party worked many of these but with only very moderate success. which is strange in view of the fact that wood occurring with the bones was thoroughly silicified. twentyfive miles distant. The round trip was made by the camels in two days. These pockets have been worked with success by Mr. of fossiliferous sand was noted. of which about 25 are reptiles. with the usual surface pavement of smooth wind-polished pebbles. and collections of Formicidae and Coeloptera were made for Professor Wheeler and Mr. and in clay. coming usually at night. In certain wadies a few low woody bushes grow. were two aged men from Tamia who had been several seasons at the bone pits under Beadnell and Andrews. It was from such quarries that a large part of the material collected came.) For the hardening of bones gum Arabic was found to be next to useless. (Prospecting. They were. Three groups of fellaheen were employed. Several sandstorms were experienced. The occurrence often of small aggregations of well preserved bones in little saucer-shaped "pockets". brown shellac being employed almost exclusively. The number of specimens of vertebrates recorded in the field book approximate 500. late in May. who has obtained many fine skulls from them. conscientious as to their day's work. and returning the day following. The bones are found usually in the bottom of the pocket. the saving quality of being usually uncrushed. and by May the heat at midday was decidedly uncomfortable and work from eleven to three o'clock impracticable. The nights remained cool and damp. The surface of these benches is barren. to conduct exploration from December to June. lying beyond the lake and comprising the fossil field. the weather conditions underwent great change. and with but very scanty vegetation. with the nights rather too cool without artificial heat. but the water there is undrinkable except for very thirsty animals. Quibell and other excavators along the Nile rendered them especially useful at this kind of work. coming out to camp one day. which contain a much richer fauna. etc. and on two occasions doing damage to the tents. Markgraf of the American method of pasting bones.) Here vertebrate fossils were found to occur both as isolated bones or in "quarries" or "pits". The extremely crumbly nature of the bones made very careful work necessary. but nowhere and at no time is it sufficient for the permanent maintenance of camels or donkeys. however. At its best it is none too good and at the worst is most exasperating. Upper Egypt. with a temperature of 110˚. and occasionally a few bunches of grass are to be seen. the penetration and hardening properties are good. waterless. from the village of Quft. having apparently been brought together by water action. requiring no watching or urging. or really lenses. some twenty miles long by two or three in width. especially during April. but it is much affected by damp weather.) The fossiliferous portions of the Fluvio-Marine Beds are presented in two benches: a very extensive lower one. Fossils occur in white or golden sand local in gypsum deposits. Two of these men were selected by Granger and Olsen as special assistants. Twenty-seven cases containing the fossils collected by the expedition were shipped from Cairo. Their previous training under Mr. Several of their number were hard workers and personally conscientious.) In point of preservation the bones are poor. more porous ends of bones often show effects of erosion. It was observed that exposure of several weeks or months to the air tended to harden even the more inferior bones. A small collection of invertebrate fossils was made from the Qasr-el-Sagha Beds. . Except for the pest of house flies the most comfortable month for work was March.
camping. 132. Ancodon. together with good shells of three genera of turtles (5087. and in adjusting serious difficulties which arose was most important. topography. the Museum was offered as headquarters. and methods of collecting. which is 11. camping equipage was freely loaned. 132. Chief Chemist. 3594. THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS. 7 MARCH 1908 The pages hereafter are reduced reproductions of the original (copy at The Granger Papers Project). W. Acknowledgements. Lucas. H. etc.5 x 16. lower jaws Several jaws of undescribed Creodonts Among the smaller forms of mammals are numerous good jaws of Saghatherium. Director General of the Survey Department of Egypt. APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENT. From the cover of The Illustrated London News. teeth and horns missing Palate with good dentition " " " " " " " " Fine pair of lower jaws Good lower jaws " " " Numerous fragmentary jaws and skeletal bones Moeritherium 13430 13431 13432 13437 13443 Skull. Mr. Charts showing the development of the two principal quarries "A" and "B" were prepared. the construction and shipment of packing cases was attended to. 7 March 1908. n. lacking premaxillae and nasals Maxilla with good dentition Right half of skull Lower jaws " " (Qasr-el-Sagha beds) Palaeomastodon 13448 13449-51 13468-71 Skull. whose kindly assistance and cooperation were invaluable. v. and to Mr. Hume. 5089. 13506 13508 13512 13514 13515 13532 13553 13585 Creodonta 13236 Apterodon. Below is a list of the more noteworthy fossils collected: Arsinoitherium No.5 x 11 inches). N. Megalohyrax. illustrating chiefly the work in the quarries. The thanks of the Fayûm Expedition are due particularly to Capt. and also for a map showing the location of all important finds of fossils made by the various parties. A. F. H.144 About fifty 5 x 7 photographs illustrating the geology. The reptiles include good skulls of two species of Tomistoma (506667. (signed) Walter Granger skull of young individual (horns missing) " " adult. Every facility of the Department was extended to the party. acknowledgements are especially due. were taken.25 inches (this Bulletin is 8. also jaws of ten genera of uncertain ordinal position. Geniohyus. and valuable assistance given in the organization of the caravan and working party of natives. G. arches and incisors missing Palates Lower jaws Many fragmentary jaws and a small number of skeletal parts. 5092). the services of an experienced native was offered. Ferrar of the field staff. Ferrar's aid in accompanying the party to the desert and in arranging matters pertaining to the caravan and the workmen. The party was treated with extreme courtesy by all members of the staff of the Department. Data was collected for a new geological section of the region north of Lake Qurun. gratis. Price: Sixpence.. Mr. Lyons. * * * * * * Respectfully submitted. but to Dr. skull nearly perfect 13237 " half of skull 13240-42 Lower jaws 13253-55 Pterodon. by Inland Post. T. and in addition a series of Kodak film negatives was made by Professor Osborn. 5078) and Crocodilus (5061). Sixpence-Halfpenny. V. 3594. .
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