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Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
Bulletin 22 New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
A Division of the OFFICE OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS
Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
by Vincent L. Morgan and Spencer G. Lucas
(based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger)
Bulletin 22 New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
A Division of the OFFICE OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS
Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
by Vincent L. Morgan and Spencer G. Lucas
(based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger)
The Granger Papers Project and New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
Ph. Martinez C. Eastham. Ph. EDITORIAL BOARD Spencer G. Jennifer K. Rodriguez. drawn by John R. Vice-president William F.D. Emerita Jared F.D. therefore reproducible without permission. Ph. Hafner. Director.STATE OF NEW MEXICO Office of Cultural Affairs J. Gavin. Fax (505) 841-2866 Published as Public Domain. Gary S. Officer NEW MEXICO MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENCE Adrian P. Doherty. Albuquerque. Lavas (source: The Granger Papers Project). Trevathan.D. President Wenda R. ex officio John T.D. Lucas. Johnson. Mary B. Herman Mauney Gerald P.. Ph. Burks.S. ex officio Adrian P. Morgan. Ph. G. John P. NM 87104 Telephone (505) 841-2800. Heckert.. Ph. Jojola Imogene Lindsay. 1801 Mountain Road NW. Edson Way. Ph. State of New Mexico.D. Hunt. Emerita M.D. Source credit requested. Ackerman. Ph. Hunt. Lowell R. Governor. Howard Monica Y..D. Ph. Ph. M. Managing Editors David J. Ray Ziler Cover image: Arsinoitherium zitteli. . Andrew B.D.D.. Director BOARD OF TRUSTEES Gary E.D. Original Printing ISSN 1524-4156 Published by Authority of the State of New Mexico Available from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. Secretary Bruce A.D. Ph. Frey. Black. Esq.
camels.. Morgan and Spencer G. Lucas (based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger) CONTENTS PREFACE THE FAYUM LAKE MOERIS Life with Moeris Bahr Yusuf Memphis. and the end ANCIENT VERTEBRATES IN THE FAYUM Arsinoitherium zitteli Andrews Moeritherium Palaeomastodon Basilosaurs FAYUM FOSSIL COLLECTING PRIOR TO 1907 The British The Germans An American in waiting Backers of an overseas expedition To collect a fossil TO EGYPT PARTIES TO AN EXPEDITION The work party: Walter Granger and George Olsen The escort party: Osborn and family Walter Granger George Olsen Cenozoic connection THE EXPEDITION “Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip.Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. 1907. G. 1907 Vincent L.” TABLE 1.. Chronological synopsis of Granger’s 1907 Notes EPILOGUE Anna Granger and Henry Osborn Post-1907 Fayum The source for Notes Fossils. W.and automobiles Aftermath of the 1907 Fayum expedition ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES REFERENCES AND RESOURCES Sources for Figures References Institutional Archives Interviews-Apropos Communication Supplemental Bibliography 1 3 4 4 7 7 7 8 9 9 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 18 18 19 19 19 40 44 46 47 47 49 49 51 66 66 66 68 68 68 .
SUPPLEMENT.APPENDIX A .ORIGINAL. 7 MARCH 1908 69 142 144 . 1907 APPENDIX C . NOTES FROM DIARY–FAYUM TRIP APPENDIX B . V. N.REPORT ON THE EXPEDITION TO THE FAYUM. 3594. EGYPT. 132. THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS.
Map of Northern Egypt showing location of Fayum (after Bown & Kraus. 1988). .FIGURE 1.
View of the American Museum of Natural History’s south side at 77th street in 1907. 1857-1935. 1872-1941. Henry Fairfield Osborn.FIGURE 2. Lord Cromer. FIGURE 4. FIGURE 3. . Theodore Roosevelt was President of the United States when he provided the 1907 American Museum expedition to the Fayum of Egypt with a letter of introduction to the British administrator of Egypt. FIGURE 5. Walter Granger.
such as resolving a desert fox’s lingering. and bears witness to the ferocity of a khamsine (sandstorm). Notes ends that myth: Osborn (and his family) camped in the Fayum for two weeks and then left. It provides a remarkable glimpse into the daily routine of a fossil hunt. together with the weather and other matters. he credits the Fayum expedition with awakening his interest in proboscideans (elephants and their kindred). however. Simpson would be pleased to know that his lingering curiosity would eventually be resolved by Walter Granger himself. NM 87104 2 Abstract––Organized and executed by the American Museum of Natural History’s Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Elwyn L. heralds the arrival of the American mail. and neither did Osborn after 1907. Despite housing Granger’s “Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. George Gaylord Simpson (19021984). S. discovered in 1977 among a collection of his and his wife’s papers stored in a family attic. place it in 1906-07 . President Theodore Roosevelt. who wrote in his 1974 autobiography. arrival of the American mail.-A. Simons. Expedition member Walter Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip (Notes) found in 1977 provides a rare firsthand account of the 1907 Fayum expedition. and helped the AMNH’s Department of Vertebrate Paleontology gain foothold on the international stage. introduces us to the relatively unknown. and the ferocity of an oncoming khamsine (sandstorm). 1). but highly distinguished junior colleague of Osborn’s and Granger’s. This was gradually transformed into the smaller. 1907. this expedition was America’s first fossil hunt on a continent an ocean’s span away and it carried the full weight of institutional backing and a personal blessing by President Theodore Roosevelt (Fig. It provides a remarkable glimpse into the daily routine of a fossil hunt. LUCAS2 (based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger) 1 The Granger Papers Project. and usually do so incorrectly. and in his pseudoautobiography .000 square kilometers in the Libyan Desert. Colbert (1905-2001) . Little can be found in the popular literature today about the pioneering American vertebrate fossil-collecting expedition to the Fayum in 1907. glossy 1995 salute to 125 years of expedition and discovery declares that its Fayum expedition occurred in “1907-8” ! Confusion and scant subsequent mention of the 1907 Fayum expedition was not lost on a slightly acerbic. 2) Department of Vertebrate Paleontology curator. V.) onward. and executed by the Department’s chief fossilhunter. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin No. The region incorporates archaeological sites dating from the late Paleolithic to the late Roman and Christian periods (circa 8000 B. The few historians who have mentioned it merely note it. Durham. acquainting us with personalities.L. the sudden appearance of the unknown collector Richard Markgraf (1856-1916). Edwin H. nocturnal interest in glue brushes. Egypt.” a post-OsbornGranger American Museum of Natural History fares no better: its large. Organized by the American Museum of Natural History’s (Fig. 22.G. He did. quirks and difficulties. whereas the entire expedition lasted nearly six months. is the only firsthand and daily account of this “forgotten” 1907 expedition Simpson inquired of. and Lucas. 3). a vast salt-water lake lay at the heart of the region. It apprises us of intervening events--such as the comings and goings of people and camel caravans. for it was sacred to the crocodile god Sobek. 1907 VINCENT L. he never published further on it. S. or what role was played by the 1907 American expedition. The Greeks called the capital city of the Fayum Crocodilopolis.C. Scanty treatment of it can be found in popular literature today. 1 Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. The region flourished from the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 B. The expedition lasted six months. once-fertile depression covering 12. or had written for him. The dearth of published material on this 1907 Fayum expedition is puzzling. While Granger did write a formal expedition report (see Appendix B)..D. Concession to the Improbable: It is odd that when Osborn wrote. Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935) (Fig. 4). Recent Fayum collector. 1801 Mountain Road NW. Bown and Mary J. Richard Markgraf. He was still working on an enormous monograph on that subject when he died . who was worshipped there . . But. . but most of the surviving archaeological remains date to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. Notes also acquaints us with personalities. 641).C. PREFACE The Fayum region consists of a large. camp life and other matters. apprises us of intervening events such as the comings and goings of people and camel caravans. mention of the Fayum expedition was completely omitted. MORGAN1 and SPENCER G. and illuminates this event considerably. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. 1907. relating methodology and the finds for each day together with the weather. Few outside the profession (and perhaps within it) know the history of Fayum fossil-hunting. NH 03824. Nevertheless. in the ensuing years this expedition became little known. Albuquerque. linked to the Nile by a river arm known as the Bahr Yusuf (Joseph’s Canal) . achieved considerable success. relating methodology and the finds for each day. Thomas M. quirks and difficulties. an account of the activities of his American Museum department [vertebrate paleontology] for 1904-08. write a couple of popular articles about it at the time (1907). Simons’ colleagues. as does a onetime Osborn/Granger assistant. Few outside the profession (and few within it) know the history of Fayum fossil-hunting. It records camp life.. Kraus. Walter Granger (1872-1941) (Fig. 16 Valentine Hill Road. this expedition was America’s first fossil hunt to the Old World and carried the personal blessing by U. or that the 1907 American expedition was a pioneering one. 6). located about 60 kilometers southwest of Cairo (Fig. fresh-water Lake Moeris. 2002. Osborn did play an obvious and vital role.Morgan. Austrian freelance collector. Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip (Notes) (Fig. Until the Paleolithic period. . states it occurred in 1906 . 5). Most of the few previously published references to the 1907 expedition that do exist infer that Henry Osborn was with it the entire time (January to June). Indeed Notes amplifies and clarifies the event considerably. Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip.
.2 FIGURE 6. Notes is handwritten in pen and ink on one side each of seventy-two 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheets of lined paper. 1907 (Notes). The first page of Walter Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip.
as the experienced Granger noted wryly after a dragoman mishandled a matter affecting the comfort of Osborn's assemblage in the Fayum: “Friend Mickawi is apparently just learning that he hasn't an ordinary tourist party on his hands . mudstone. about 50-60 meters thick. The oldest exposed rocks are the Birket Qurun Formation. Granger had been leading the Museum's vertebrate fossil-hunting expeditions since 1898 and. In general. whenever Osborn visited him on site. Without Osborn.” THE FAYUM Sixty-five kilometers off in the Egyptian desert southwest of Cairo. because nothing more was required of him. 1908). Osborn went to Egypt. son and daughter in tow. Indeed.” Indeed. the fossils of the Qasr el Sagha Formation represent both marine animals. it was always the same: a short stay to familiarize and photo-op. the Fayum is a geological depression that at its deepest point is nearly 40 meters below sea level. but no “real fieldwork. to make introductions. The depositional setting of the Fayum rocks in which Granger collected was a coastal plain on the southern shore of Tethys that had periodically documented a strandline migration of the retreating sea. Consequently. luxuriant plants and trees dominated the landscape. Cairo off to the northeast (reproduced from Baedeker. early crocodiles and proto-elephants roamed the shores and frolicked in the water. such as the primitive proboscideans  Barytherium and Moeritherium . about 45-26 million years ago . . as he would for the next three. when marine embayments retreated across the landscape to be overrun by rivers flowing to the Tethyan coast. Osborn's visits to the field typically involved a degree of pageantry. and they yield fossil shells of marine invertebrates and highly significant fossils of early whales. with his wife. He required nothing more. 8). the 1907 Fayum expedition would not have occurred. Beadnell (1874-1944) (and Osborn) called the "fluvio- FIGURE 7. to be seen. the name of one of these early whales is the basis for long reference to the Birket Qurun beds by geologists and paleontologists as the "Zeuglodon zone" (Fig. Once filled with tropical life on a coastal plain. to visit the Fayum. The overlying beds of the Qasr el Sagha Formation are about 200 m thick and consist of sandstone. huge snakes dwelled and slithered among 3 the rushes and palms. having done so for the past decade. and the temporary attention of the nation's paleontologists. Terrain map of the Fayum. the expedition would not have received funding. 7). highlevel entree to the Egyptian authorities and their special generosity would not have been gained. Without Osborn. The Birket Qurun beds represent just such an inundation. such as the early whales and a primitive seacow (Eosiren). they record a complex regression of the sea.even if it was not as encompassing as he fostered. thrived. limestone and shale deposited in a mixture of shallow marine and riverine environments. the blessing of the President of the United States. It is a geomorphic feature unique to Africa (Fig. and to pose for photographs. The AMNH expedition focused upper Eocene beds that British geologist H. They represent marine deposits of the Tethys seaway which separated Africa from Eurasia during the Eocene-Oligocene . L. and strange bihorned beasts. The Fayum depression exposes a section more than 500 meters thick of sedimentary rocks that were mostly deposited during the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene in age. J. found nowhere else on earth. and terrestrial animals. Without Osborn. He was confident to leave the expedition’s work in the hands of Granger.
west and south also lie desert. America had not yet mounted expeditions to search for fossils beyond its own shores. Whole nations were involved--fossil hunting was a matter of national pride that opened the geopolitical sphere while the Americans had merely to trek past their own Mississippi River to work huge new fossil fields. is the southwest terminus of a string of sandstone beds that stretches from the Fayum all the way back to Cairo. conglomerate. The Americans had found rich new and untapped fields of information for paleontology. commercial. Marsh (1832-1899) and Edward D. The ancient lake “phiom” refers to is “Moeris. Not only was this desert forbidding and hot. Dahshur and Lisht to the east.” These successions are marked by distinguishable fluctuations in volumes of water and shoreline occupied (Fig. the American fossil-hunters could make out the pyramids at Giza. although the expedition also went down into the Qasr el Sagha Formation and up to the lower Oligocene beds. Life took sustenance from Moeris and the lush environs it enabled.. lay fossilized tree trunks-." the token of its past. From the escarpment near their campsite on a clear day.. Osborn” (reproduced from Osborn. Fayum. Beneath this still-life lay silent riches. and to the west they knew lay a valley they called Zeuglodon--the valley of the fossil whales. the only clue to how the Fayum had achieved its earlier great vitality now lies in the sand--a natural east-west cut through which floodwaters of the ancient pre-Nile rivers 20 kilometers away once coursed westward to fill and sustain the Fayum basin. phiom. After Beadnell. North of Birket Qurun (Lake of the Horn) (Fig." These were later termed the lower sequence of the Gebel Qatrani or Qatrani Formation . on the cyclical growing seasons enabled by the waters of Moeris. they saw the Qatrani Hills that led to the Libyan Plateau. But how? Along the north of the Fayum today arcs a huge. Germany searched in the Near East. material important to the gatherers because it would help advance the study of evolution. Fayyum. such as shifts in the FIGURE 8. Saqqara. 9). now transcribed as Jebel Qatrani Formation. Fayum.000 square kilometers of the desert-bound Fayum depression (Fig. their documentation of fossils from this upper sequence became critical to the direction of future fieldwork . mudstone and limestone. Andrews (1866-1924) that were the primary collecting objective of the 1907 AMNH expedition. The earliest humans in the recorded history of the Fayum basin based their existence. of course. colonialism aided the cause: England searched in India. With vital and continuous sustenance from the waters and soils of the Nile Valley. caused by evaporation and replenishment by seasonal flooding in the Nile valley.” which once nurtured an amazing variety of life. “Fig. and both had more recently eyed areas in North Africa. nearly vertical escarpment called Jebel Qatrani (Tar Ridge). marine series (beds). Feiyum). As the century turned in 1900. Life with Moeris For thousands of years. 89 -. Lake Moeris and its prehistoric predecessors dominated the 12.. Abusir. at 35 meters above sea level and about eight kilometers northwest of Dimé. European institutions. Sometimes a simple haze obstructed these views.. a fortified position that once served as a point of departure for Fayumbased caravans negotiating oases in the Libyan Desert to the north. of course. LAKE MOERIS "Fayum" comes from the Greek. But the Europeans had nearly always felt the need to look well beyond their own borders. it was dangerous. at the northern edge of the Fayum and 28 meters above sea level. As much as 340 m thick. the lower sequence of the Jebel Qatrani Formation is a complex pile of sandstone.g. Faiyûm. this oasis became a huge and thriving nugget of life in the sand.visible proof of a vastly different earlier life. Along the edge of this plateau. Pronounced "fei-'yoom" and spelled variously over time (e. It is at this southwest terminus that the 1907 American Fayum expedition camped and collected (Fig. For some. lie the ruins of Qasr el Sagha (Temple of the Goldsmith). .4 Strewn about the camp sited on a bed of crusted desert sand with stark rock exposures. To the north. the waters of the Moeris sustaining a seasonal rhythm to life forms of all sorts. Sometimes extreme winds from the southwest called khamsines would blow across the landscape with such force that flying sand particles blocked the views entirely. Andrews. 1921).Section through the Eocene and Oligocene . Natural changes in the lake levels were. These beds yield the remarkable fossil assemblage of mammals first described by British paleontologist Charles W. To the Fayum's east. Granger. they could gaze upon the remnant agricultural bowl of the Fayum. the work of betterknown early American vertebrate fossil collectors such as Othniel C. an uncompleted religious temple. 9) for nearly six months upon arriving in late January. American institutions headed out West in earnest to find and collect specimens worthwhile to pack into their laboratories and exhibit halls for study and display. the opening of the American West had already reset vertebrate paleontology's newest frontier and sparked new eagerness to gain knowledge. the terrain rises sharply and dramatically to a plateau 164 meters above sea level. in particular. mostly deposited by rivers. meaning "lake. Indeed. lie the ruins of Dimé. Indeed. But other natural events caused dramatic non-seasonal fluctuations as well. The waters of an ancient freshwater lake once lapped within an ancient quay nearby. Just beyond Qasr el Sagha. who collected in the Argentine Patagonia in the late 1890s. Cope (1840-1897) having already made a significant impact worldwide. The prehistoric Fayum lakes existed in stages that take the names of “Moeris. 10). before it rises another 183 meters to the Libyan Desert. In fact. which ascends to the Libyan Desert . To the south. cultural and religious practices. The Fayum of Egypt was such a place . 10). other fossilized testaments of the flora and fauna from the tropical life of the ancient Fayum. the Fayum once cradled Egypt's largest cultivated area. Seven meters higher. but for one privatelyfunded exception--John Bell Hatcher (1861-1904). their agricultural. had sought to solidify their own importance by gaining territorially far-reaching vertebrate fossil collections and stratigraphical studies. Paleontologists and institutions throughout the world took note.
A. (3) upper Fluvio-marine Palaeomastodon beds (lower Oligocene) (reproduced from Osborn. B.5 A B FIGURE 9. . with the (1) lower marine Zeuglodon beds (middle Eocene). Map of the Fayum. (2) middle Qasr-el-Sagha Moeritherium beds (upper Eocene). Stratigraphic chart .section showing the lowering levels of the ancient Lake Moeris. 1936). and of the sea. of the brackish Birket-el-Qurun.
FIGURE 10. Map of Fayum indicating extent of earlier lakes: 1. Maximum extent of Premoeris Lake; 2. Maximum extent of Protomoeris Lake; 3. Maximum extent of Moeris Lake (reproduced from Wendorf and Schild, 1976).
carving rivers of the Nile valley, earthquakes, and, perhaps, even the whims of El Niño . The ancient Lake Moeris known to historical accounts was the last stage in a long series of stages that began much earlier. Each stage reflected a cycle of noticeable expansion and contraction in lake level, and each can be documented by physical evidence of their shorelines (Figs. 10 and 11). Paleomoeris marked the first stage and ran from prehistory to 7,000 B.C. Its water level fluctuated from between 11 and 15.5 meters above sea level. Premoeris was the second stage and lasted a thousand years from 6,500 B.C. to 5,500 B.C. The lake's level during Premoeris began 10.5 meters above sea level, rose to 28 meters and then fell back again. The shoreline, of course, extended beyond that of Paleomoeris. Protomoeris followed Premoeris in 5,500 B.C. and lasted to 4,500 B.C. During the time of Protomoeris, the lake rose 24.5 meters above sea level before falling back to 8 meters above in 4,800 B.C. These are
the stages assigned by scientists to compose the history of the Moeris lakes, each being based on measurable shoreline remnants left by distinct major and natural fluctuations in the lake's level . But, none of these stages ended the way Lake Moeris would. Lake Moeris, the final stage, began in 4,000 B.C. with recorded history and lasted until 500 B.C., at about the time humans sought to regulate the sometimes devastating fluctuations affecting its level. Moeris averaged 13.5 meters above sea level when this stage began and had declined only 3 meters when Herodotus visited it sometime after 449 B.C. . Humans came to occupy the Fayum basin because they could live well off the lake and the agriculture it enabled. But seasonal and sporadic flooding in the Nile sometimes caused extremes in Lake Moeris that threatened the humans. So they sought a way to control it. Lowering the lake artificially by means of carefully draining it when necessary was one way, and the way that was decided upon and implemented by the humans. The result was that an average and predictable
ebb and flow in Lake Moeris’ level was effected with only minor fluctuations of about 2.5 meters caused by seasonal flooding from the Nile and by evaporation. A constant and happy life with Moeris was thus made feasible. Humans had harnessed Moeris into a manageable, cyclical rhythm provider. Seasonal floodwaters now became regarded as godsent, each new season was celebrated annually with religious symbolism. Every aspect of life in the Fayum became more securely tied to the more predictable waters of Moeris. Humans flourished as a result, this goddess of nature now tamed. But, as human presence and endeavor broadened within the Fayum, demands increased. More productivity was needed not only to sustain life, but to drive a now-flourishing inter-Mediterranean nation commerce. Bahr Yusuf The humans had also enlarged the natural cut that conveyed excess floodwaters and rich sediments from the Nile valley across the desert to the Fayum basin to enable navigation between the Nile River and Lake Moeris. This new water route was named Bahr Yusuf (Joseph’s Canal) after the Biblical-era architect who designed it (Fig. 10). When Bahr Yusuf allowed water-borne traffic in and out of the Fayum, it enabled the Fayum’s goods to travel up the Nile into the Mediterranean Sea and to ports all around. The Fayum's commerce boomed as it tapped directly into the flow of commerce between Egypt and its world trading partners. Almost instantly, at the Bahr Yusuf's mouth on the Nile River, arose a vibrant city of commerce called Memphis. Memphis, and the end For a time, Memphis rivaled all others as the finest city in Egypt. A line of foreign rulers that began with the Persians in 525 B.C. chose to govern from Memphis. Alexander the Great, who defeated the Persian King Darius III in 332 B.C., also seated his Ptolemaic rule at Memphis and, thus, also kept part of his army in Egypt. Fair-featured, blonde and red-haired children that appeared in Memphis and the Fayum in the years thereafter were known as the children of Iskander--of Alexander . As the Fayum’s population and Mediterranean commerce surged, the pressure increased for more land to be devoted to agriculture. None was readily available. Irrigating sections in the desert seemed laborious and uncertain, if not unfeasible. It was Alexander’s successor, Ptolemy I, Soter, ruler from 323 to 285 B.C., who believed he had the solution. Soter decided to drain Lake Moeris sufficiently to retract its shoreline
7 enough to expose needed land for cultivation. But to accomplish this, the lake had to be lowered to a level not previously attempted by humans during their earlier flood control projects. Soter implemented his plan, and it seemed to work initially; new land was created by lowering Lake Moeris. But the ultimate consequence was devastating; Lake Moeris began to dry up, and there was no way to stop it. By lowering Moeris as he did, Soter also dramatically reduced the lake’s surface area. While Moeris was probably doomed anyway, the Nile River slowly entrenching into its own valley so that it would soon stop flooding into the Bahr Yusuf, Soter had prematurely put Moeris at the mercy of the sun. The sun burned upon the lake as it always had, but now, though there was less surface area of Moeris to burn, the volume of Moeris had diminished significantly. Evaporation accelerated, and the lake slowly began to shrink. Over the years, the evaporation became more effective. Annual intake from flooding in the Nile Valley was no longer sufficient to offset evaporation’s gradual effect. As each cycle passed, both Moeris and the Nile eventually fell below the level of the Bahr Yusuf canal. Lake Moeris' link to the Nile was now lost and Moeris ultimately vanished. With it went the Fayum’s immense bustle of life and commerce and, by 1,000 A.D., even the city of Memphis was gone. Evaporation continued to lower the lake: by 280 B.C. it fell from 22 meters to 2 meters below sea level. The lake was at that level through Ptolemy's rule. But, by 200 A.D., it was down another 5 to 7 meters below sea level and, by the 13th century, it was at 44 meters below sea level, nearly at the actual bottom of the Fayum basin itself (Fig. 11). This is where its successor, Lake Qurun (Birket Qurun), sits today in the northwest corner of this once vast and rich area (Fig. 10). The brackish waters of Qurun are one-tenth the size of Lake Moeris. A small agricultural area now borders Qurun to the south. The rest of the Fayum is reclaimed by desert. This is where evidence of its ancient life now lies mostly buried beneath the sand . ANCIENT VERTEBRATES IN THE FAYUM In the ancient Fayum, 26-45 million years ago (mya), a coastal plain met the east-west shoreline of the Tethys Sea (Fig. 12). The lush tropical plain and warm ocean waters teemed with life. This variety of ancient life could not be sustained in the environmental conditions that characterize this area today: the rocks and fossils of the Fayum describe a tropical paradise lost long ago (Figs. 13 and 14).
FIGURE 11. Fluctuations in levels of Lake Moeris summarized (reproduced from Wendorf and Schild, 1976).
8 and flora of North Africa . An assemblage of fossil birds, for example, indicates they were trapped in deposits formed in slow water current conditions with their associated freshwater vegetation. The avian fauna, very similar to that found in tropical swamp and river areas of Central Africa, indicate that during the late Eocene and early Oligocene, the Fayum was a subtropical to tropical lowland coastal plain with seasonal rainfall. It contained one or more slow-flowing, swampy rivers heavily overgrown with papyrus, reeds, and floating plants like Salvinia and water lilies. Terrestrial vegetation in the ancient Fayum included liana vines, tall trees, and mangroves. The once-tropical, heavily-forested nature of the ancient Fayum, as indicated by its geology and its assemblage of fauna, is confirmed by the type of environments occupied elsewhere today by similar plant and mammal species. Indeed, the modern environment most comparable to that of the ancient Fayum is a zone of swamp land, forest and grassland that bounds the northwest portion of Uganda's Lake Victoria . The Fayum fossils show that the faunas of the region were highly unusual and without immediate comparison elsewhere. Approximately 20 orders of ancient mammals are known to be preserved as fossils in the Paleogene strata of the Fayum Depression. These fossils provide key insights into many aspects of mammalian evolution. Included are ancestral "stock" forms upon which were built the important lineages from which some later African mammals developed. Other forms were evolutionary experiments in the Fayum that ended abruptly without leaving any descendants. The fossil mammals include anthracotheres, arsinoitheres, creodonts, giant hyracoids, proboscideans, barytheres, basilosaurs, sirenians, rodents, bats, elephant shrews, insectivores (including the Ptolemaiida), marsupials, and parapithecid, propliopithecid and tarsiid primates [24(A)]. Non-mammal fossils include giant constrictor boöids, sea snakes, turtles, crocodilians, lizards, sharks and skates, lung fish, teleost (bony) fishes, many birds, a wide range of plants as well as trace fossils of social insects [24(B)]. Many of the Fayum's fossil mammals appear to be native African in origin, including some of the early primates, macroscelidians, tenrecoid insectivores, ptolemaiids, proboscideans, arsinoitheres and, possibly, sirenians . The most unusual members are among the larger mammals, many of which were very archaic and probably native to the Fayum. Some of the better known are Arsinoitherium zitteli, Moeritherium lyonsi, Palaeomastodon, and the basilosaurs. These large mammals were of particular interest to Henry Osborn: his desire to collect fossils of them gave impetus to the American Museum’s Fayum expedition. Arsinoitherium zitteli Andrews The giant subungulate Arsinoitherium zitteli from the late Eocene was a 3.4 meter long quadruped that stood taller than the largest rhinoceros of modern times (Figs. 14A and 15). Its large skull featured a huge pair of bony horns growing upon the snout side-by-side rather than in an anteroposterior line, as occurs in some rhinoceri. Although outwardly rhinoceros-like in appearance, Arsinoitherium was not related to that line. Instead, it is classified as one of the largest of the few known representatives of the order Embrithopoda--an evolutionary dead-end with no known ancestors or descendants. The precise placement of this order is not yet known, but it is generally positioned closest to the proboscideans and their relatives, the tiny rock hyrax, or to the perissodactyls . Arsinoitherium probably inhabited the Fayum's marshy areas and the surrounding low jungle and thick forest vegetation. It was heavilybuilt and slow-moving. Its dentition consisted of 44 high-crowned teeth that formed a continuous series from molars to incisors, these being primitive in construction though suitable for coping with a diet of the low foliage that grew around the margins of swamps and forests. Other remains of this unusual group of mammals have been found north of Tethys in Romania and Turkey, so they were not limited to the
FIGURE 12. Osborn’s map depicts the world as he reconstructed it during the time of the Fayum, correctly portraying separation of Africa from Eurasia by a seaway (Tethys, called “Mediterranean” by Osborn). However, other aspects of the map are now known to be incorrect (for example, existence of Central America) and Middle Eocene is too old an age designation for the Fayum fossil beds. Osborn’s caption is over-stated as well, given that the 1907 Fayum expedition was the Museum’s first exploration beyond American shores.
In the late Eocene to early Oligocene, about 34-30 mya, when dense tropical plant life proliferated throughout the Fayum, strange animals roamed throughout a haven of lakes, swamps and slow-moving rivers as they fed or harbored in trees, grasses, papyrus, reeds and floating vegetation. Of the many forms of prehistoric life that variously existed in the ancient Fayum, the Fayum’s mammals were among the most unique on earth. Some were forerunners of today’s mammals, such as the elephant and the whale. Some evolved no further, such as the bizarre, laterally bihorned Arsinoitherium (Fig. 14A). Fossil remnants of Fayum vertebrates, as well as of its trees, plants and other life forms, remain the principal record of the Paleogene fauna
FIGURE 13. Ancient Fayum proboscideans as restored by Margaret Flinsch in 1932 under the direction of Osborn. Palaeomastodon (upper left), Phiomia (upper right) and Moeritherium (in water, center) were all critical to understanding the origin and evolution of the proboscideans.
are closely related to each other. Philadelphos. There was evidently no perceptible trunk.) Fayum. 16A). living not unlike a hippopotamus or tapir during the early Oligocene. The genus Palaeomastodon (including Phiomia).” (Drawings by John R. Palaeomastodon stood up to 2. Lavas. The generic name comes from the Greek-born. also once known as the "Dawn Elephant" because it was believed to have been the direct ancestor to later proboscideans (Figs. Short. but the first discovery of moeritheres was in the Fayum. The nasal bones of Palaeomastodon were retracted up on a bulbous skull (Fig. Ancient Fayum mammals as restored by John R. thick legs terminated in broad feet with flat hooves. These animals are now known elsewhere in Northern Africa. Philadelphos. The upper . pig-like animal that stood about 1 meter high at the shoulder. but there was a highly mobile upper lip similar to that of a tapir. a Paleomastodon. Several closely-related species have been found from localities north of Lake Moeris. marshes and coastal plain. Moeritherium was a heavily-built. bilophodont teeth. deified his sister. Egyptian princess Arsinöe. hoping to gain acceptance of their marriage by his Egyptian and Greek subjects). B. D. stout. whose name also predominated a number of religious centers within the Fayum oasis (Ptolemy II. 14D). from late Eocene to early Oligocene deposits in the Fayum. Lavas in 1995. from which the animal derives its generic name. There were two downward projecting tusks from the upper jaw.4 meters high at the shoulder. and a set of simple. boar-like tusks. 13 and 14C). Both sets of second incisors in both jaws were enlarged into short. as well as two horizontal tusks protruding from the lower jaw. and their distant descendants possibly include modern elephants. Moeritherium Another large Fayum mammal was Moeritherium. C. two Arsinoitherium zitteli. A. as well. Palaeomastodon The Paleogene Fayum sediments have also produced important proboscideans more advanced than the Moeritherium--the earliest mastodons. Both were much larger animals than Moeritherium.9 A B C D FIGURE 14. and had long legs and an elephantlike skeleton (Fig. Now it is considered to be from an aberrant line very close to the true main lineage of proboscideans (which still remains unknown). sister-wife of Egypt’s foreign ruler pharaoh Ptolemy II. a Moeritherium. suggesting the presence of a trunk. two “Phiomia. Moeritherium possibly frequented thickets at the edges of the Fayum's lake.
Skeleton of Arsinoitherium zitteli. Apterodon macronagthus.) A B “Phiomia” wintoni Moeritherium C D Prozeuglodon atrox E F Protosiren Apterodon macronagthus Ptolemaia grangeri FIGURE 16. Lavas. and F. B. C. “Phiomia” wintoni. E. Protosiren. Skulls of: A. (Drawing by John R. (Drawings by John R. Moeritherium.) . Lavas. Prozeuglodon atrox. Ptolemaia grangeri.10 FIGURE 15. D.
the first recorded Fayum fossil find was of tree remnants described by Arthur Bedford Orlebar (1810-1866) in 1845 and 1846 . Andrews and Beadnell each published initial papers on their finds in 1901 and followed them with comprehensive studies in 1905 and 1906. and was a small seal-like animal with a typical basilosaur-like skull. and others. even though Dames placed the whale in a new species. the British geologist Hugh J. Progression through water was probably by a combination of paddling the hind limbs and undulating the spine up and down. incidentally. The Fayum finds provided a key link between ungulates and modern cetaceans (whales lack external hind limbs though they retain vestigial ones as embryos). stationed with the Egyptian Geological Survey in Cairo. two other ancestral whales were found in Pakistan that provide evidence on the position of the basilosaurs within the cetacean lineage. they have always been restored showing whale-like flippers. an amphibious. a sea-cow (Eosiren). not paddles . In 1990. L. and on how and when their terrestrial ancestors returned to the oceans. and the giant hyracoid Megalohyrax. but shows adaptations for swimming more akin to the latter. a huge boa snake more than 9 meters in length (Gigantophis). foot. But. 18) led them to discover. in 1877. In 1994. At a point higher in the escarpment. The first Fayum vertebrate fossil find was an archaeocete whale collected by the German geologist Georg Schweinfurth (1836-1925) in 1879.11 jaw tusks may have evolved from the much shorter tusks of a Moeritherium-like ancestor. The fossils were assigned to British Museum of Natural History paleontologist Charles W. a remote ancestral proboscidean (Barytherium). because it retains ancestral features of parts of the vertebral column and pelvic girdle from the former. Basilosaurs The most important marine mammals from the Fayum are undoubtedly the basilosaurs. Hugh J. while the British military ruled Egypt . was also the first to describe (in 1884) the so-called "Berlin Specimen" of the Archaeopteryx found near Blumenberg. It shows adaptations more suited to swimming than those of Ambulocetus. Modern whales were descended from land-dwelling. Their efforts. Beadnell soon located fossil mammals and reported them to his director. German paleontologist Wilhelm B. L. also known as the zeuglodont whales (and technically called protocete archaeocetes) (Fig. Dames (1843-1898) of Berlin's Museum of Natural History published on Schweinfurth's find in 1883 and again in 1894. Dames. Dorudon (=Zeuglodon) osiris. a fossil sea-snake (Pterosphenus). a Basilosaurus skeleton with external hind limbs and individual pelvic limb. Beadnell. Beadnell (Fig. FAYUM FOSSIL COLLECTING PRIOR TO 1907 Although Fayum fossils may have been known to the ancient Egyptians . and until recently. who joined Beadnell in 1901 for further fieldwork in the Fayum. Over 240 skeletons of the whale-sized Basilosaurus are known. 16C). The Archaeocetes (the group which includes the basilosaurs) now thus appear to fall in line somewhere between Ambulocetus and the modern toothed (Odontoceti) and baleen (Mysticeti) whales. however. The results FIGURE 17. The Eocene whale Rodhocetus also was found in Pakistan later in 1994 . 1874-1944. and may have been used as copulatory guides or to aid movement through shallow water. Germany. the hyracoids Saghatherium and Geniohyus. undertook to explore and map the eastern and northern border areas of the Fayum Depression. More recent discoveries of early whales in Pakistan are also of forms with feet. were remarkable. The tiny legs of the basilosaurs may have been derived from mesonychids. Captain (later Sir) Henry G. 17). and thus appears to lie between Ambulocetus and Basilosaurus. . Ambulocetus natans was older than Basilosaurus. marsh-dwelling proto-elephant (Moeritherium). among others. from 1901 to 1904 north of Birket Qurun (Fig. Lyons (1864-1944). hoofed ungulates. It had wellformed fore and hind limbs and it may have been able to move on land as well as swim (which is assumed to be the main means of locomotion). it attracted little interest. This latter site they termed a "fossil-wood zone" because it was distinguished by the fossil evidence of an earlier. Andrews. the primitive mastodon-like Phiomia. Exploration of the fossil-wood zone by Beadnell and Andrews produced more fossils of land mammals such as the two-horned Arsinoitherium. ancient land vegetation that once edged the stream course in the Eocene . These three whale fossil types have supplied much-needed information on the chronology of cetacean evolution. and toe bones was described for the first time. Beadnell and Andrews found a fossil of a Palaeomastodon. The British In 1898.
take American fossil-hunting overseas . L. he eventually met Markgraf. . Markgraf left collecting in the Mokattam Hills to explore west of Cairo with Fraas’ colleague. Switzerland. were soon recognized by the King of Württemberg (who ruled from Stuttgart): the Order of the Crown was conferred upon him in 1904. by a FIGURE 18. and seemingly indomitable. Among the fossils they found were excellent specimens of Arsinoitherium and Basilosaurus isis. Because of their significant presence in and familiarity with Egypt. Fraas had planned to journey on to eastern and southern Africa. together with the Stuttgart's Consul in Egypt Teodore Wanner (1875-1955). Egypt . The honor recognized that Markgraf's splendid collection brought national pride to the Kingdom of Württemberg. Markgraf was a former mason and musician from Bohemia. Born rich. He headed to the same area at the northern edge of the Fayum where Schweinfurth. and Stuttgart’s natural history museum in particular. The larger studies. later. He would need local hospitality and assistance to facilitate his effort. Osborn (Fig. as he had the British earlier. Osborn entered into paleontology as a professional hobby. In 1903. British. 19) set out yet again from his small farm in the eastern Fayum village of Sennoures (Sennourés or Senûres) to head northwest in search for fossils. Fraas. the English-speaking British were the logical choice to give it. They reached the Fayum on March 11. 1906). whose poor health forced him to relocate to a different climate. he continued the tutoring through correspondence. An American in waiting Osborn's eagerness to go to Egypt was tempered. and other paleontologists in Frankfurt . and Hans Georg Stehlin (1870-1941) of Basel. that certain groups of fossil mammals found in North America. and eventually honored by the King of Württemberg . Ernst Stromer (1871-1952). He bought a small farm in the village Sennoures on the eastern edge of the oasis and began venturing seasonally to the northern sector of the Fayum to collect Mesozoic and Cenozoic specimens for Fraas in Stuttgart. The British reports on fossils from the Fayum confirmed earlier published speculation in 1899 by Tycho Tullberg (1842-1920) of Uppsala. however. who was collecting artifacts in the Mokattam Hills. The Germans Granger’s expedition narrative Notes suggests that. and wait for the British to finish their work in the Fayum. He also had a keen eye for opportunity and talent . to become president of the Museum. Osborn was thus anxious to inspect the Fayum himself and. 1906. he was held in great esteem by German and. their presence via Richard Markgraf in 1907 was unexpected by the Americans (and perhaps the British). 1907. such as the Zeuglodontia. and that Markgraf had accomplished it all under particularly difficult economic and physical conditions . As Fraas and Markgraf became better acquainted. by so doing. 3) was curator of the Museum's relatively new Department of Vertebrate Paleontology and destined. but could not. erudite monographs each.” Fraas was delayed in reaching Egypt through a series of mishaps. Beadnell (reproduced from Andrews. While he remained in Cairo. Markgraf was so enchanted by the Fayum that he eventually settled there. Cross section of the strata exposed in the Fayum depression. and the Germans. Well-suited to a lonely rigor of working in the desert. When Fraas returned to Germany. One area they visited was the British localities in the north section of the Fayum near the Jebel Qatrani escarpment . Nevertheless. as Osborn mulled over his forthcoming Fayum expedition. were Beadnell's 1905 Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt and Andrews' 1906 A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayum. It is not clear whether Osborn was aware of and politely waiting for Fraas to complete his expedition work. Both works fascinated paleontologists around the globe. For the duration of his short career. Fraas and Markgraf finally departed for the Fayum through the Giza pyramid field in early March with three Bedouins and a string of camels. and a German businessman in Cairo named Gustav Metz also began to provide for Markgraf financially . as he saw it. where they spent 10 days exploring and collecting in the upper Eocene strata of the Qasr el Sagha Formation and in the Oligocene strata of the Jebel Qatrani Formation. Sweden. Fraas decided he might put Markgraf's skills to use by tutoring him in the collection of vertebrate fossils. one of whom was the illustrious and supremely ambitious Henry Fairfield Osborn presiding at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. and called the “1906 German Expedition to the Fayum. the lone and sickly Austrian artifacts-cum-fossil-collectorand-dealer Markgraf (Fig. his wife died and Markgraf had to leave their infant daughter behind in the care of others. Metz and Fraas's brother Victor. He had to bide his time. followed by Osborn in 1900. very well-connected. Markgraf became an avid and excellent fossil collector for hire. J. Markgraf's work for Fraas. Sirenia and Proboscidea. The venture was financed by Wanner. Schlosser in Munich.12 Markgraf’s interest in collecting fossils and antiquities first drew the attention of German paleontologist Eberhard Fraas (1862-1915) during a visit to Egypt in 1897 . in 1908. despite German publications on Fayum fossil finds in the early 1900s. French and American paleontologists. Upon confirming reports from the British. FIGURE 19. Sadly. Beadnell and Andrews had collected. north of Birket el Qurun drawn by H. Eberhard Fraas returned to Egypt in early 1906 for a short expedition into the Fayum with Markgraf . would surely also be found in Africa . Richard Markgraf at his camp in the Fayum on May 14.
Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913). George Olsen  (Figs. and it may have been Morgan (“Uncle Pierpont”) who persuaded Osborn to come back from Princeton in 1890 to join the AMNH (and Columbia University) and create a department of vertebrate paleontology (DVP) . Jr.. Lythgoe (1868-1934) of New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art was also preparing for its first pyramid expedition to Egypt. In addition to natural history. Lyons. Simply walking around to prospect for fossils was arduous. no vegetation. Jesup “was a lover of science and. Henry Osborn’s family and socio-economic ties were magnificent. here to explore thoroughly the zone from which the extensive collections have been obtained by the Egyptian Survey Department through Mr. Old Testament landscapes. French and Americans . British Consular agent. no shelter. Proboscidea . a co-founder and significant patron of the American Museum of Natural History in 1869.S. Indeed. who later served as U. Uncle Pierpont was also interested in ancient history. Beadnell and by the British Museum. I am sorry to say. (1832-1878) were fellow co-founders in 1868 of the American Museum of Natural History . the New York City lawyer handling incorporation by the AMNH in 1869 was Joseph H. 20A and 39B). 1907. Morgan and Theodore Roosevelt. Osborn and Choate would serve as honorary pallbearers at J. As one author described it.” and donkeys and camels with crew to handle them. Granger seems to have been completely unaware of Markgraf’s existence. Fraas. Granger wrote “[Markgraf] is apparently a prospector of some experience. I am just hurrying off for Egypt--the north of Africa. primarily for Osborn’s prospective and monumental monograph.. in 1891. Choate (1832-1917). He was also 13 very well-connected. facilitate the work of the party .professional obligation to delay his effort until others already there were finished.” and “--[Markgraf] has done considerable work here for Prof. Letters of introduction to Lord Cromer.C. However. Lucretia. secure an outfit there. ambassador to Britain’s Court of St. especially of the smaller fauna. and to Capt.000 to the department annually and later set up a large publication fund. H. Sr. fossil collecting in the Fayum promised to be particularly trying. to secure a collection of these extremely interesting forms. the American industrialist. who was about to visit New York and wanted to meet with Osborn. Morgan nephew. In short. was essential to sustaining desert work. Backers of an overseas expedition Through the generosity of President Jesup this expedition was made possible. was now also its president (since 1881). In his entries following that moment (Notes.” Despite the length of his delay. he wrote to South African paleontologist Robert Broom (1866-1951). The single-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius). he would become drawn repeatedly to Egypt by “his fascination with sacred places and objects--from the rituals and pageantry of contemporary Islam to remnants of Coptic Christianity. Morgan had taken a particularly strong. Perhaps the common man theme arose from his own humble beginnings. as 1907 loomed and nephew Osborn was finalizing his plans for the Fayum fossil expedition funded largely by AMNH president Jesup. married another J.. He later explained that while the discoveries by Beadnell and Andrews created the temptation to go to the desert at once. Adding to the mix. in particular. 16 and 17). J. would. although Osborn then continued to maintain a direct role in matters at the DVP.. life-long interest in Egypt (“my beloved Egypt”) after making an impromptu trip there with his family in 1871 . Thereafter. Osborn’s failure to also note the German presence in the Fayum is not explained. placing a fullscale expedition into the northwestern part of it in 1907 still required an interpreter-guide. Arthur M. In 1913. a sister of Osborn’s wife. Andrews. as well as an American Museum trustee. Josephine Adams Perry. On January 4. Henry Osborn was a nephew of Morgan’s. Jesup was not a mere businesssman-turnedidealist now finding ways to spend his time and money. and the ancient religious cultures of the pharaohs” . But. The sun baked during the day. The two New York City museum expeditions would meet briefly at the Lisht pyramids in early February. Further. This was an expedition that held interest beyond North Africa’s vertebrate paleontology. and Theodore Roosevelt.. It may reflect the politics of the situation--the British rule over Egypt at that point--as well as Markgraf’s already established presence in the Fayum as the resident freelance collector working for paying clients such as the Germans and eventually the British. prior to meeting him in the Fayum on February 16. To collect a fossil Game as he sounded (“I am going into the Fayum desert to see what I can find”). Entrepreneurs Jesup and Morgan back in New York City surely were content to know that their city’s prime museums were finally present in Egypt. Henry Osborn had not worked a fossil out of the ground since his student days at Princeton. Although the Fayum was a world-renowned tourist attraction boasting a light railway system in addition to roads . the American president (1901-1909). Indeed. and did not intend to do so in the Fayum .. 1907. Conditions in the desert environment beyond the northern shore of Lake Qurun were rigorous--no natural water. it was hoped. P. particularly the Arsinoitherium and the proboscideans Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. and then retired to devote his life largely to his passion for science and education. just rocks and sand. 1907. The plans for the trip as mapped out by Professor Osborn were for the party to proceed from New York to Cairo.. The . The Americans would not be slipping into the Fayum so unceremoniously as had Markgraf and Fraas. Morgan also helped elevate Osborn to the presidency of the AMNH in 1908 . Morgan’s funeral . at the highest level of American society and power. Junius Spencer Morgan . (1858-1919). James. Feb. the wellearned prior claims of the English precluded any thought of our visiting this region so long as the English exploration continued . so I shall not see you. G. had dedicated himself to bringing science to the common man” . P. and had longstanding ties to two key and devoted American Museum patrons. introduced in Egypt by conquering Persian general Cambyses in 524 B. and go directly to the fossil bearing Eocene deposits in the north of the Fayum depression. through his wealth. Morgan contributed $16. According to one biographer. The chief object of the expedition was. Director General of the Survey Department. called “dragoman. Osborn veritably preened as the moment neared. as the American Museum party gradually made its way through the pyramid fields and into the Fayum . of course. He had made a large fortune in railroad supplies and banking. funded largely by Morgan . It was thought also that careful prospecting would bring to light new forms. and Osborn had already selected the men to do it: Walter Granger and his field assistant. and would serve him very well for most of his tenure at the American Museum from 1890 to 1933 . I am going into the Fayum desert to see what I can find . through Dr. Morris Ketchum Jesup (1830-1908). though the nights were cool.
the third musketeer of American expansionism--came to call the ‘large policy’ of American assertiveness abroad. Osborn. B.” Only within the past decade had a North American fossil-hunter even ventured to hunt in South America. This also was a chance for Osborn to stand with the Europeans in obtaining significant and varied fossil collections for study and display. the Fayum’s ancient fauna typically lay hidden beneath the sand. of course. Paris’s Muséum Nationale d’Histoire Naturelle. he was from the upper economic. a fossil-collecting expedition was an excellent vehicle for stating American presence abroad in 1907. fossil-hunters Walter Granger and George Olsen boarded the British luxury ocean liner S. After they arrived. The Americans would eventually even adopt one excavation technique from Richard Markgraf: sandlensing. however. Brown made a modest collection. he agreed to let Osborn in on it. which only Henry Osborn seems to have appreciated at the time . London's Natural History Museum. and he was a friend of Roosevelt’s . Hartley T. and New York’s American Museum of Natural History were all now engaged in the hunt for fossils worldwide.) Olsen.” . Granger. 1907. That policy could take many forms. the various continents were necessary playing fields in pursuit of that study. After some effort. Cedric docked at New York City's harbor and made ready for their journey to Egypt (Fig. Roosevelt quickly joined with Mahan in the “cause of naval preparedness and what they--along with Cabot Lodge. As Osborn wrote afterward: Through correspondence with Dr. Unlike the large chunks of fossilized ancient trees that rested upon the surface. A. a fossil still promised to be in such delicate condition that it required great care in handling. the larger context for which was expansionism. reciprocity. The fundamentals of expansionism fit Osborn’s trade--the globalizing of American scientific fieldwork and study. 21). he ran a department specializing in fieldwork. January 5th. and then left him on his own. Olaf A. also serves to show how truly remarkable and commendable Hatcher’s initiative to Patagonia was. it was at least a two-day trip by camel to Tamia for help. Osborn was. the American reach across an ocean's span to hunt for fossils while so many lay uncollected in their own backyard may have seemed amazing. supremely well-positioned to help facilitate American expansionism. But Hatcher spurned him--they had a history of personality differences. to Patagonia three times from 1896 to 1899 .-r. to the third and final of Hatcher's expeditions. the United States had just discovered a fossil treasure in its own backyard.] Andrews I learned how very fragile some of our finds were likely to be.S. But the rationale was sound. and competing prides of nation-states. The American Museum's 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt was not Osborn's first attempt to collect outside North America. Hatcher and Peterson showed Brown a few old sites. Tinned food was the regimen when fresh was gone. Furthermore. Chunks of fossil wood seen at Olsen’s and Ferrar’s feet anchor the tent ropes. To Europeans forced to search well outside their own borders for fossils. Excavation and collection required skill. he was able attach one of his newest collectors. But once found. Stuttgart's Naturkunde. [Charles W. water of the Birket Qurun nearby was unpotable: suitable water for drinking had to hauled in by camel every few days. however. Never before had North American fossil-hunters ventured off to hunt for fossils in the “Old World. Great expectations were thus placed on Osborn's overseas campaign. TO EGYPT On Saturday morning. Ferrar on February 17. Osborn had finally found a way to turn his comparatively young department of vertebrate paleontology into a major player on the international stage. Peterson (18651933). as Hatcher did with his brother-in-law.. and how difficult it would prove to take them out of the sand without breakage. The distinction between Hatcher's Patagonia expeditions and the American Museum's Fayum expedition is that the latter was institutionally sponsored and carried the blessing of Theodore Roosevelt as President of the United States. By 1899. It was therefore evident that technical skill would figure largely in our success . Barnum Brown (1873-1963). Osborn quickly dispatched Brown to sail to Argentina with Hatcher and Peterson in late 1898.14 A B FIGURE 20. At main camp in the Fayum: (l. Daoud Mohammed. as Hatcher's venture was drawing to a close. Ibrahim Salim. or scraping and sweeping to loosen the thin crust of hardened or concreted sand and pebbles to let the wind blow away the loose sand underneath it and reveal any fossils that lay below . patience and some ingenuity. Learning of Hatcher’s plans. social and political crust of American society. Scientific enterprise in earth’s natural history on a global basis thus made perfect sense. 1907. had to self-finance his hunt for fossils in Argentina. but returned with little new to science . The American Museum would not return to Patagonia until George Gaylord Simpson’s more successful expeditions there beginning in 1930 . It was the launching pad for placing AMNH and American paleontology . 1907. Geopolitically. If one became seriously ill or injured. Hatcher was a well-known American fossil-hunter who. 1660-1783 . despite his position as curator of vertebrate paleontology at Princeton University. Osborn tried to become involved. Huge fossil fields all over the American West were being opened as American paleontologists scrambled to explore rich new sites while their European counterparts watched enviously. Granger with quarry workers and camel men in May. A pivotal point for Teddy Roosevelt’s assessment of America’s place in the world occurred in 1890 when he happened to read Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s book The Influence of Sea Power upon History. This distinction..
to bring forth the remains of the elephants. migration and distribution. the two-horned monster of Eocene Africa. He countered the thought that mammals had migrated to Africa from Europe and Asia with speculation that. of course. foreign field campaigner. Fairfield (1887-1969) (Fig. and the Osborn family member party led by Osborn who also. but Osborn felt Africa held great promise in furthering study of mammalian diversity. named after our own Uinta Mountains! How it pleased the fancy to take a caravan of camels. indeed. Messrs. why should not further discoveries be made in the Fayum by dint of very energetic search and the prolonged training gained by our young explorers in the deserts of the Rocky Mountains region?  The escort party: Osborn and family Henry Osborn also boarded the S.15 Fossil discoveries in Africa were relatively scant. . and perhaps most important. Third. 1907. Ferrar departed from the desert. daughter Josephine (1884-1967) and son. 20B). who chose as assistants. from Granger’s hometown newspaper. Second.S. animals which were the gift of our Western American plains. He wanted to expand his department’s program of study. Osborn. Cedric that Saturday morning of January 5th. leaving Mr. The Rutland Herald. the excitement of this most likely successful foreign exploit was stimulating. Granger in charge . On February 18th Professor Osborn with his personal party and Mr. and eventual wielder of the “Big Stick. Though FIGURE 21. Walter Granger and George Olsen of the department staff. As Osborn later wrote: Now that many of the great extinct animals in the American Museum paleontological collections had proved to be of remote African origin. The work party: Walter Granger and George Olsen The Granger-Olsen work party consisted of the two AMNH men overseeing native workers hired to assist with digging and removing sand. Granger and his crew would focus on the dramatic escarpment Jebel Qatrani that ascends from the Fayum to the Libyan Desert. which were the gift of Africa to all other continents? Moreover. but does not detail (as he would in Notes). Roosevelt was a staunch supporter of the American Museum. escorted the work party. collecting fossils and packing fossils in boxes to be taken by camel to the railroad station at Tamia (Fig. as well as specimens of the unique Arsinoitherium.” A little overseas demonstration of American skill in rugged scientific fieldwork in the western desert of northern Africa wouldn't hurt at all. 22). and with the advance work essentially having been already done by the British. along with his wife Lucretia (1858-1930). and returned to Cairo. Osborn wished to obtain exhibitable specimens of extinct proboscideans. the majestic mammoths and mastodons! What a temptation to bring back the great Arsinoitherium. He also wanted to show off his fossil collectors and he wanted to demonstrate that his reach extended abroad easily and naturally. it was no surprise that Osborn was able to solicit his good friend Roosevelt to attach America's prestige to his venture. it was the opposite: mammals from Africa had spread to Europe. Osborn wanted to expand the reach and scope of his young department. and raise it to a higher level. The boxes would then be transported to Cairo by train where they would be stored until repacked by Granger and Olsen for shipment back to New York. the fact that the 1907 American Museum Fayum contingent was actually two parties: the work party ultimately led by Granger. to place beside their American descendants. Osborn thought fossil discoveries in Africa would shed further and revisionary light on Africa’s role in the origin and evolution of mammals. 1907. Asia and North America. and perhaps a Zeuglodon. So. to rival its four-horned American contemporary Uintatherium. Granger’s formal expedition report states. Clipping dated January 5. on the international scene. Osborn's exploit would be America's as well. PARTIES TO AN EXPEDITION The expedition was under the leadership of Professor Henry F. an ardent expeditioner. what temptation to secure some of the diminutive ancestors. With Museum support. Mr. Granger took charge of the work in the field upon Professor Osborn's departure from the desert .
Granger’s wife. There were great unexplored regions in Asia. and returned to New York. In Notes.-r. but Osborn denied her request . Fayum. the stakes were high. from the plains of Kansas and Nebraska. certainly the most paradoxical in structure of all quadrupeds. Anna was not to be denied again and subsequently accompanied Walter on a combined business and vacation trip to Europe in 1911-12 and spent nearly a decade with him in China while he participated in the famed Central Asiatic Expeditions of the 1920s. As Osborn depicted it: In the year 1899. and appearing in the Lower Miocene period. and ultimately put Walter at risk. and North America by animals originating in Africa. unknown. 23). of the invasion of Europe. Anna Deane Granger (1874-1952) (Fig. the bluffs. Asia. namely. though they traveled from Cairo into the Fayum together. . but I held that this absence was not proof of the absence of life in Eocene Africa. Anna Deane Granger (1874-1952) at age 23 in 1897. to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Ferrar. Following the initial suggestions of Huxley. it was varied and encompassed much of the west. paleontology had advanced to such a point that the origin of many families was known. Anna loved travel and. the history of China was unknown. as will be explained later. and few seemed to have in mind the possibility of a reversed current. Though his experience was only in the American West. both in Europe and North America. was that this matter would fester during the 1907 Egypt expedition. dragoman Mickawi. She even camped with him during his winter collecting seasons in warlord-torn Sichuan and Yunnan provinces . they had separate guides. and on into the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. In discussing the matter. that no discoveries had been made there except in the later period during which its Mediterranean shore had become part of Europe. I ventured a prophecy which placed the original home of the elephants and of several other great groups in Africa. that it had no early fossil mammal history. fully formed as if from the sky or by fiat of the Creator. In the year 1900. I admitted that Africa was the 'Dark Continent' of paleontology. upon invitation. that arrangement was reached only as they prepared to depart Cairo on January 31st. most writers were talking of the invasion of Africa from the north by animals of European or Asiatic origin. Lucretia. the two parties were to intermingle. because geological records are proverbially as incomplete as torn chapters of a book. Walter Granger was already known as an experienced and prodigious collector of both mammal and dinosaur fossils. and many writers were looking to the Orient for an answer to this question. guide Hartley T. but FIGURE 23. had been to Europe once or twice on her own . or his own party not to be appendixed by a comparative stranger: Walter and Anna were recently married. The Osborn family party. for this venture to Egypt. Fairfield. 1907: l. At the time it seemed a curious fact that this possible theater of evolution of mammals had not been sufficiently considered.16 there remained in doubt the group of elephants. basins and badlands of Wyoming and Colorado.” Osborn and family left the Fayum after two weeks. the Colorado Plateau at Four Corners. in 1903. Perhaps Osborn’s refusal came because he wanted Granger and Olsen to concentrate exclusively on the Museum's work in the Fayum. by 1907. and the chances are always against the burial of land FIGURE 22. on February 18th. Perhaps Osborn regarded Anna’s presence as unacceptable in some other regard . Granger terms the party the "Osborn party" and refers to their Fayum bivouac as the “upper camp. Josephine. Indeed. Walter Granger By 1907. No one knew whence they came nor how their remarkable characters had evolved. Nevertheless. outfitters and schedules. Nevertheless. Worse for the moment. Granger and Olsen would remain in the Fayum for another three and a half months. and her resentment would simmer for the rest of her life . had asked Osborn for permission to accompany the expedition group to Egypt. Henry. Osborn's refusal hurt Anna deeply.
of the antelopes. as man is driven out. supported by kinds of reasoning familiar enough to paleontologists since the days of Darwin. Allen (1838-1921). confidante to Jefferson and Aaron Burr during the raucous 1790s . Until the fall of 1890. Wortman (1856-1926) and Olaf Peterson. Dr. Granger also signed on as a part-time janitor. and hippopotami. almost breathlessly: Along such lines ran the prophecy. and that prominent among the quadrupeds were the mastodons. for the collection. Whereas Osborn was better suited to life in the halls and laboratory of the Museum. Massachusetts. of the Sirenia. Chapman was the first to take Granger out on a Museum field trip . 1890. or sea-cows. perhaps. Vermont. taxidermists together in Rutland. which is where Walter was born on November 7. the single activity Granger treasured from his youth was to be out-of-doors in the study of nature. I described this African 'Garden of Eden' as the probable nursery not only of the elephants. Granger's other early mentors at the museum were ornithologist Frank A. Relatives on Walter’s mother's side--Haynes and Perry--fought in the Battle of Bennington in August of 1778. however. Vermont. As well as eventually making excellent and prodigious collections of vertebrate fossils for the American Museum. Wortman was his mentor now. that. Walter Willis Granger was born to an insurance man Charles Granger and his wife Ada Haynes Granger in rural Vermont. that part-time work was available for Walter if he wanted it. when the trans-Mediterranean land routes were formed. Osborn. and Granger was at the ready. among larger quadrupeds. but great history. But his background was dramatically different from Osborn’s. inquired “How about that African trip? Do let me know” . Chapman (1864-1945) and mammalogist Joel A. scientific study and evolutionary placement of vertebrate fossils. He began making expeditions to the American West in 1894. The family had no great wealth. His mother was the daughter of a family doctor in Middletown (Springs). Charles telegraphed Walter immediately. of Randolph Center. Walter Granger had never ventured so far from the woods and mountains near Rutland. if controversial. Osborn continued. who came to Boston. giraffes. In addition to Richardson. In science as in love it is well to be audacious. if not always his approach. Vermont. while he was in New York on business. a fellow Vermonter. 25). would come together naturally for such a dynamic purpose. Granger transferred to the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology  and began the study and collecting of fossils full time (Fig. he also donned a suit and tie for work as a Museum floor guide. They could trace his paternal ancestry to Launcelot Granger. and. together with department chair. Granger would share Osborn’s absorbing passion. driven out. They began their employment at the American Museum of Natural History in the same year. Granger-who had not finished high school--started with a part-time job in taxidermy with Jenness Richardson. 1901. of course. display. On some evenings and Sunday afternoons. a Postmaster General under Jefferson and Madison and a mutual. as well as of numerous smaller animals. Once at the Museum in New York City (Fig. He began collecting with them in his spare time. that there seemed to be evidence in Europe of three such chief waves of life from Africa. Mr. the problem of the origin of the elephants might be solved . their expeditions began occurring in 1887. 24). So I became convinced of the probability that Africa in early geological times was a great center of independent evolution. Granger traveled and camped in 1894 with the Museum’s new fossil collectors Jacob L. from the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. after its long isolation by the sea. Thus. to leave no doubt as to my faith. A distant relation from that line was Gideon Granger. Granger made his first American West expedition in 1894 to trap mammals and collect birds. Richardson knew of Walter's taxidermy skills and deep interest in nature when they were FIGURE 24. He joined the Museum in 1890 as part-time taxidermist and part-time maintenance man. 1872. and another part-time job with the Museum's custodial department. if the paleontology of Africa could become known. or rock conies. In short. Vermont. His father Charles was the son of preacher Calvin Granger. and his wife Maria Morgan Granger. by surplus population. and joined the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology full time in 1895. Allen was the first to publish the results of Granger's fieldwork in mammalogy and excerpts from his field notes . but of the Hyracoidea. from England in 1654.17 animals in such a manner as to be preserved for future record. Among his duties were to refill the kerosene lamps posted in and around the Museum and clean and trim lamp wicks. Wortman and Granger went out again in 1895--Peterson was gone. Field trips and observations were his forte. It is intriguing that two men--Osborn and Granger--of such diverse backgrounds. ancestors of the great family of elephants. so Granger filled in for him. Osborn was obviously primed. became wholly immersed in paleontology immediately. he soon envisioned field trips to the American West. and. Walter heeded the call and left Vermont on a train for New York City just as his senior year of high school commenced. successive waves of animals migrated northward and poured into Europe and Asia. and became interested in their work almost instantly . Jenness Richardson was a family acquaintance who advised Granger's father Charles. In the following year. as others in Mammalogy were doing. Granger also became a . it seemed probable that many of the animals which suddenly appeared in Europe without any known previous ancestry there would prove to have originated in Africa . The Mammalogy Department was actually the first branch of the Museum to make field trips. To afford this opportunity financially. A postcard sent to him by a friend on November 27. Granger at work in the Taxidermy Department of the American Museum of Natural History in 1892. Henry Osborn.
and everything becomes relative to base level in the Fayum. records. cooking. but little time recorded. Olsen was especially good at excavating small mammal fossils--detailed and exacting work. “The strata are so uneven and irregular that it is difficult to follow them. with a walrus-like mustache. It laid the basis for new conceptions and more adequate knowledge of the beginning of the Age of Mammals and resulted in the most remarkable series of primitive mammal remains that has yet been assembled . about 30 to 40 million years old. Mantled with an alluvium that combines extremes of soil maturity because of extensive erosion and deposition. Granger and Olsen centered their efforts on the two quarries (A and B) that were opened a few years earlier by the British paleontologist Andrews. FIGURE 25. collect and preserve. He was scheduled to assume Granger's work of collecting of Pleistocene fossil vertebrates in Sichuan Province during the mid-1920s. camels. the Fayum of Egypt and the Gobi Desert (Fig. Olsen eventually took up laboratory preparation of the fossils as well . Walter Granger on an Eocene expedition to the American West in 1905. close by. drovers. this work nevertheless was and remains of the utmost importance. Wyoming's Bighorn Basin. It was George Olsen who found the first whole fossilized dinosaur eggs for scientific study. in the Fayum Granger and Olsen had the support (expedition and camp equipment. were different and more rigorous: the weather was harsh. Many of these determinations have withstood the scrutiny of time and modern techniques . the Willwood Formation exemplified a temporal continuum. . and moderate literacy. There are alternating layers of clay and loose sand.) of the British-run Egyptian Geological Survey. supplies. A gap there is not really an evolutionary gap. He was a stocky man of Danish descent. Overshadowed in the public eye by later Asiatic collecting. Three hundred and forty meters of an eroded section in the Fayum can represent 20 million years. for example. For Granger. the Fayum does not expose a continuous stratigraphic section. Cenozoic deposits around the world are typically fossiliferous. preparator--Olsen was both collector and preparator. 1939. and the fossils were difficult to find. George Olsen was the only person to collect with Granger in three of Granger's four major locations over a lifetime: the American West. as well as a large work crew. As Granger described it in Notes on (Feb.5 million years. The Fayum's deposits lay within the Oligocene and Eocene Epochs of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. He joined the American Museum's Department of Vertebrate Paleontology in 1901 as a collector and preparator. so the Fayum deposits held promise. etc.18 The 1907 Fayum expedition lasted as long as those Granger had been making to the American West since 1894. By 1907. they were less occupied with typical American West tasks such as protracted physical labor. particularly the delicate ones. In the descending levels of paleontology that existed then--scientist. in the rock strata of one of Granger's more favorite locations. The strata are riddled with unconformities. Deposition distorts time--much sediment. Within the Willwood Formation of that basin. Quarry C.” Erosion cuts out time. the site was remote desert sand. 6). and diagrams of the fossil locations he worked. 26). fossil packing cases. He also methodically identified and correlated geological characteristics and circumstances to the fossils he was collecting. it is merely time unexplained. On the other hand. junior colleague (and subsequent vis major in American vertebrate paleontology) George Simpson wrote: [Granger] obtained large collections from almost every known early Tertiary formation of the West. Ancient fossil mammals still barely known to science would be found there. George Olsen Olsen was a veteran of collecting expeditions to the American West with Granger. caring for horses and equipment. the time controls placed on each fossil he collected from there were very precise. the bones are in the sand--only certain layers. collector. Other than the raw and natural beauty of the place. 770 meters of strata clearly represent a mere 3. but his opportunity was lost as warlord battling intensified throughout that area of the Yangtze River basin. at the Mongolian Flaming Cliffs (Bayn Dzak) in 1923. He almost made it to Granger's fourth. time cannot be evaluated because there is no geological level with which to equate it. and keeping supplied with water and provisions. Cenozoic connection Reflecting on Granger's career following his death in 1941. George Olsen retired on pension in 1935 and died from cancer on November 7. Gaps exist everywhere. which itself is laced with areas of massive erosion and deposition. Time is better represented. The physical conditions. He would later accompany Granger abroad again--for the famed Central Asiatic Expeditions to the Gobi Desert during the 1920s. however. the remote mountain winter camp in China's Sichuan Province. Like Granger. transporting fossils out of the desert. So. Olsen was already a veteran of Granger’s collecting expeditions to the American West. pioneer in keeping extensive and detailed field notes. there is little succor for collectors in the Fayum. He was an excellent field worker in fossil reptiles and mammals. Granger and Olsen would open a third site. but find little in it.
The form and whereabouts of such a diary are not known. collecting fossils Meeting Richard Markgraf Markgraf departs area Granger to Cairo Granger returns to Fayum Collecting in Fayum Camp moved to Qasr-el-Sagha Party returns to Cairo Resupply in Cairo Party returns to Fayum Collecting in Fayum To Qasr-el-Sagha and Cairo Granger in Cairo hospital Last days in Cairo Depart for USA [Arrive Egypt. About a hundred native porters (Cook's & independent) to handle baggage . 24 Apr. Lyons of the Survey Dept. Gibraltar. Fayum of Egypt (1907). Quarrying in the Fayum meant removing layer upon layer of sand from a crater-like basin until a fossil was reached. Granger’s collecting sites world wide: A. and Naples.-6 Mar. Markgraf. THE EXPEDITION Professor Osborn and Messrs. this A. C. Significant remnants of this Old Kingdom road exist today. Went with Osborn & Lyons to the Geological Museum (Branch of the Survey Department). D. Not only is the fauna of the region highly unusual. W. and it is the oldest surviving flagstone pavement known . African coast in sight at Sunrise. Night quite cool and overcoat very comfortable. reaching Alexandria after an uneventful voyage on January 23rd. 31 Jan.-4 Feb. was kept out of Notes. Passengers were landed first and baggage was late in following. an ancient basalt quarrymen's road once paved the entire way over 10 kilometers to a quay located at the shore of Lake Moeris. Notes from Diary--Fayum Trip. These fossil quarries were located at the top of the lower fossil wood zone.S.” TABLE 1. Jan. Thurs. Granger and Olsen departed from New York on the S. Small museum with fine display of invertebrates . 21 Apr. tour Cairo] Wed. arrange fieldwork.M. Gobi Basin (1922-1930). if any. Special train did not leave for Cairo until 3:30 P. Granger referred to this trenching technique as "stripping" . 23-30 Jan.-20 Apr. Genoa. G. Every one anxious to get his aboard the special train first. Cairo was reached the same day. The following table summarizes Notes by dates annotated by subheadings. which is about 52 meters thick (Fig.900 square kilometer area of the Fayum of prehistoric times contains one of the most complete faunal assemblages of Paleogene mammals found anywhere on the African continent. 9-12 Mar. 1907. Chronological synopsis of Notes. via Azores. The wind would reveal whether a fossil was lying at the bottom of the shallow concavity it eroded. Have just had a particularly cold spell so they tell us. crusted desert surface to allow wind to erode the loose sand beneath. infers that a diary existed from which material was extracted to create Notes. 5-15 Feb. The next five days were consumed in preparation . From this cap at the point of Widan el Faras (Ears of the Mare).19 A B D C FIGURE 26. 14 Mar.  called on Prof. it is also without immediate comparison elsewhere: the 1. Jan. "Cedric" on January 5th. 16 Feb. Thus. The original of Granger’s Notes is handwritten in pen and ink on one side each of seventy-two 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheets of lined paper. Greatest confusion--regular bedlam. O. tour Cairo Depart Cairo. Granger and Olsen prospected as well.S. 13 Mar. Granger and Olsen made the serendipitous acquaintance of the freelance collector. It was from Richard Markgraf that they learned about sandlensing--breaking the hardened. Dawn broke as the S. Cedric steamed across the Mediterranean Sea. it is also not known what material.M. 23-Weather pleasant. 25-30 Apr. arrange fieldwork. Arrived Cairo after Six & went to Shepheard Hotel (Fig. 8). on Wednesday. Anchored in Alexandria harbor at about 9 o'clock. Walter Granger began Notes that day : “Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. Strolled about streets in evening. travel via pyramids to Fayum At camp in Fayum. meaning they canvassed the desert's surface by foot looking for rock outcrops and other visual hints of fossils. Beyond the quarry site. China (1921-1927). The title. January 23. bound for Alexandria. American West (1894-1941). 27) . B. 8). early in the expedition. 1 May 2–28 May 29 May 30 May-8 June 9-13 June 14 June Arrive Egypt. the terrain rose sharply more than 80 meters to the upper fossil wood zone and another 76 meters to the basalt cap of the Libyan Desert (Fig. The Fayum deposits are now considered to be one of the most important single Cenozoic fossil deposits ever discovered. 7-8 Mar. Baggage was dumped from lighter on pier and passengers obliged to select their own and employ the natives to take it to train. 24-Capt.
Plan is to hire camels here and send them on to Tamia. such as the S. Flicks & Co. very fine. O. One adult and two young Arsinoitherium skulls. Prof. Olsen. D. to be shipped to Tamia. chief chemist of the S. of whom we are to hire camels. O. and Mr. Done by man sent in from British Museum. Jan. point to the bone beds . personally. Cromer very cordial--quiet & unpretentious man (Fig. Jan. A rather unique feature of the garden is the walks which are made of small smooth desert pebbles--black and white. Sun. primates and cats--mostly outdoor cages. Street view of the Shepheard’s Hotel in downtown Cairo. control. with temperature at 6: A. the nearest Ry. of about 40˚. principally African. set in attractive patterns. 26-Drove with Prof. Ordered these supplies from Fleurent. Also Talba. to remain during the period of Prof.'s party is to start from Mena House and go up along Pyramid Field  (Figs. Fri. Preparation work excellent. Prof. Mus. has failed to make arrangements with Cook's for his personal outfit. Mentioned having been with Grant before Vicksburg . Took tea with Mr.-- FIGURE 28. Night still cool. Sat.--beautiful grounds with abundance of semitropical vegetation--well laid out and with splendid collection of animals and birds.  to Lord Cromer's  in forenoon. W. In afternoon Olsen and I take in town. Mon. He is to go to the Fayum with us as guide. museum. Hoped. called at hotel in forenoon. Jan. 25-Still negotiating with Cook's for outfit. a sheikh. Lyon's field staff. 27-Mr. Lucas . O. a member of Capt. O. Talked principally of conditions in Egypt. under govt. Capt. Spoke of Cape to Cairo Ry [Railway] as good magazine material but of not much practical use. in the morning with Prof. Olsen and I spent most of day in sightseeing. 28-To the Geol. Lyons has sent up to Helouan for one Daoud Mohammed. is negotiating with Cook's for an outfit. 6 Soudan elephants (young). Mr. H. that coal and gold would never be found in Egypt because of the smoke and the bad European element sure to follow. Principal visit to the Zoological Gardens at Giza. Ferrar and I work on list of provisions and outfit needed for the working party. Daoud Mohammed arrives and is placed at our disposal. Fayum.--fine fellow. FIGURE 27. D. Jan. 29 and 30). Admission to garden is 1/2 piaster and it is much frequented by natives who appear to constitute four fifths of the attendance. Prof. He is to report at the museum and be placed at our disposal for the Fayum trip. O. is now dealing with one Mickawi Ali. Lord Cromer (reproduced from The Illustrated London News). Ferrar . Offered to do us all service possible. 28).'s stay in the desert. This week is the "Feast of Ramadan" (Mohammedan Christmas) and many public places.20 and vertebrates from the Fayum.M. are closed to the public. fine lot of antelopes. Olsen and I are invited to join the party. O. a dragoman with a pocketfull of letters of recommendation and a cunning look in his eye. T. Beadnell's  Chief native assistant . We hire 12 at 75¢ per .
33). [Depart Cairo and travel via pyramids to Fayum] 21 Thurs. O. showed us over his excavations at the eastern base of the 3rd Pyramid . day (15 piasters). O's party to Dr. Saw Meidum Pyramid to the south as we crossed desert. He and his wife and two assists. This is most convenient for us. Tues. Feb. Also a cooking outfit left in the museum by Dr. 29-Prof. Have had a most interesting day. has completed arrangements with Mickawi Ali for an outfit. Quibell . one of the museum attendants. 2-Awakened before sunrise this morning by wailing of women up in a cemetery near our camp--professional mourners.FIGURE 29. This advancing of money is necessary in hiring these people. Started from Mena House at 10: o'clock with caravan--13 camels and 5 donkeys. Came out here to the Mena House this afternoon late (Fig. Tomb chamber very low and filled with water . water tanks. Met Dr. Weather comfortable in daytime but too cool at night. Invited to his house and are shown over the pyramid. We are to start from Mena House on the 31st. with two waiters. Elliot Smith  came out from town and conducted Prof. now most filled with sand. Spent entire forenoon at Sakkara where Mr. Mr. Feb. Tomorrow we strike across the narrow strip of desert and enter the Fayûm. They are to come out after we are settled in camp. Two other caravans waiting to pose also--quite the thing. invited to dinner. We camped near Lythgoe's house. R. Said that probably the stone for all three pyramids came from quarry close by. it seems . Feb. Ferrar's caravan has just joined us. Showed us the quarry. Our window overlooks the Nile valley with Cairo on the opposite side--a really wonderfull view. Weird music by our camel men at Sakkara this morning. 31-Camp tonight on the edge of the Nile bottom at Sakkara. Forwarded £10 to Talba and £5 to Daoud. Ferrar is to have camels and tents of his own. I was up early and climbed Cheops before breakfast. Mr. Lythgoe  of Metropolitan Museum who is conducting explorations here joined us after lunch. We are to start in the morning if the weather permits. Reisner's  house near the 3rd Pyramid. Spent part of the morning under the lee of Cheops talking to the natives who had plenty of leisure today because the storm kept the tourists away. Quibell is to furnish us with ten men for our excavation work. Full enjoyment of this though is prevented by persistent natives who try to force donkeys and camels on us. Ali Mohammed. Lythgoe photographed caravan this morning just as we started (Fig. tools. Feb. Found that Daoud had left with Talba and camels for the desert on the 3rd. Daoud with the boxes of supplies joins him there and then proceeds to the easterly bone pits to await us. Sat. Quibell met us and accompanied us over part of his excavations (Fig. They also offer to make our packing cases and ship out to us as we order them. Late start from Tamia. . Lunch in desert about half way to Tamia and in sight of the Fayum . Mon. Very imposing! Photographed at the Sphynx by a professional from Cairo. Fri. 3-Camped tonight just on the outskirts of Tamia . Have 5 round sleeping tents. from the village back of camp. They are to proceed at once to Tamia. is loaned to us and is to be our cook. Met the [railway] Station agent (Hanna Mikhail) and the mamour [chief official] of the province who inquired after our welfare. mostly along the Nile bottom. We find this hotel in some ways more attractive than Shepheard's and more reasonable in rates. Intensely interesting conversation on Egyptian Antiquities and the work being done. Sun. without assistance. Olsen and I spent the moonlight evening about the pyramids and Sphynx. and discourse upon the marvels of the monuments. Also an interesting Coptic temple or place of worship. Tea and then Dr. Tried the camels for the first time--don't think I had a good one. rugs on the floor and interior of the tent decorated with Koran verses in colored cloth. Mr. A party of “Cedric” people camped near us tonight--paid us a visit. Jan. The Survey people are most generous. and offer tents. etc. Ferrar has 8 camels and three tents. Jan. Buckhart  at Reisner's. 30). 31). These men are skilled and will be of great service. One young Arab went part way up and a second one insisted on going all way up with me. Reached here at Sundown. I was invited along. Start early and reach Lisht Pyramids (northern one) for lunch. After lunch Dr. Wed. Caravan on way though pyramid field. Is like a great inverted pyramid. Andrews  of the British Museum. so Ferrar says. Mickawi and his caravan is camped alongside the Cairo road near here and will probably get wet. [Limestone and marble] sheathing for 1st & 2nd [pyramids came] from Mokkatam Hills. Mr. Work just begun. Camp ready. Tomorrow we are to go over the Sakkara ruins with Mr. Rain ceased before day light this morning. Daoud will take three or four other men out with him as laborers. Buckhart's direction. 4--camp in the desert. Met Herr Müller  who is excavating at Abusir under Dr. 32). Regular course dinner. 30-A moderate sandstorm has been on all day and this evening it has changed to a heavy rainstorm. Lunch at Sakkara and a rapid ride on to camp. 1-Camp about a mile beyond Dashur Pyramids tonight. a large green mess tent. Trail from the Sphynx leads along the edge of Nile valley to Abusir Pyramids where we took luncheon (Fig. Couldn't fight him off--no baksheesh though . Work done by French excavation previously careless & not very successful. Jan. Visited all of the important tombs and an enormous excavation made by Quibell where several cultures are shown in stratigraphic form.
1908) . A map showing the pyramid fields route the AMNH party traveled beginning with Giza at the upper left (reproduced from Baedeker.22 FIGURE 30.
Map of the pyramid field at Giza also showing the Mena House Hotel at far right (reproduced from Baedeker.23 FIGURE 31. FIGURE 32. Visiting Quibell’s excavation at Sakkara. . 1908).
Olsen and I left Mickawis' outfit today. Photograph of Lythgoe photographing the American Museum party departing the pyramid field for the Fayum on February 3. D. B. Ferrar's men neglected to get water at ditch and have been sent back tonight to fill the tanks.M. 6-Prof. Interesting ride through desert all day. A. Ferrar has telegraphed for 8 more fanitas  from the S. with American flag posted at dining tent. Feb. 34A).M.. Bones are very soft and crumbly. Caravan left the cultivation near the eastern end of the Lake [Birket] and struck north across the desert. found tents up and men at work in one of the two quarries. Wed. Took several 5 x 7 plates of the caravan. Feb. of camp. 34B). Met Daoud's camels between last night's camp and Qasr-el-Sagha--returning to Tamia for water. Osborns’ camp in Fayum. 5-In permanent camp at Easterly bone pits (Fig. . Reached this camp about 5 P. Daoud has two old men from Tamia and three younger men from Helouan and Ali the cook. They are careless workmen and have been badly trained-rip bones out as soon as discovered. down to the quarries this A. The men have already uncovered two or three fairly good specimens in the quarry (Fig. collecting fossils] Tues. Gum [arabic] is almost useless and the shellac we brought does A B FIGURE 34. 1907. The Fayûm cultivation is in sight So.24 FIGURE 33. Hired two donkeys from him and are to use Ferrar's outfit until camp is reached. also the lake. Locals working in quarry. We have three tents and good outfit. [At camp in Fayum. Osborn's party is camped a short half mile up the wady  from us. O. Started the men at work moving surface sand and began taking up the bones they have already uncovered . One fellow brought me a fine palate of Saghatherium  broken into many pieces.
Josephine Butte = Tel Markgraf (Markgraf’s Hill). 36). 35) . W. Camels in tonight with new fanitas. Am making fairly good progress with Arabic. We also located turtle shell and Arsinoitherium limb bones. The original expedition camp was at Quarry A. They appear to be having trouble at the upper camp  over water. 1) published the position of quarries A and B. A. fig. Question of wages settled. 1988). " " " } one sheep per month. At Ferrar's suggestion we sent two camels back to Giza. possibly poor spirits . 9-Olsen took the 12 Quft men today and began work on the north end of Quarry B. His water preparations were ridiculous. Ferrar suggests Keating's Powder and Prof.--slow progress--have requested more shovels from S. Still having trouble with shellac--shall have to order some from Cairo. Hassin (boy)--5 " " " " } Ali (from Quft) to be to 9 pt. 37). Discovered rodent incisors. Our triangulation of Granger’s landmarks known today as follows: Lyon’s Butte = Tel Akgrab (Scorpion Hill). Overcoats still comfortable in the evening. Ferrar Butte = Tel Homar (Donkey Hill). Feb. and Ferrar prospect to the westward. 7-Olsen at work in Quarry A.--A the westerly one (Fig. Mr. Friend Mickawi is apparently just learning that he hasn't an ordinary tourist party on his hands. After much argument we sign agreement to pay : Daoud & Ali--12 pt. Morgan. Daoud showed us where the fine adult skull of Arsinoitherium in Cairo was found. New fanitas should be here in a few days. B and C are also shown. Both Olsen and I in the quarry A all day. but points out (P. The strata are so uneven and irregular that it is difficult to follow them.. (After figure 1C.not dissolve well. Bown and Kraus. The first indication of this order of mammals in the Fayum. O. I have been in misery for two days. His donkeys can get water at pools 2 miles below here. Daoud and Ali very little. Holroyd. W. Stripping by Daoud and his men continued in Quarry A. Bown to V. Had no shelter for them and they were obliged to sleep in one of Ferrar's tents. 2002) that she located them too far to the southeast. L. Two large quarries here. Feb.--an Ancodon jaw . Feb. Mr. We call them Quarries A & B. Work on the Quarries. Invited to the upper camp for dinner. Quarry promises fairly well. Quarries A. Thurs. D. With Daoud as guide. Have been obliged to send down for 3 fanitas of our water (Fig. and Fairfield Butte = Tel Taleb (Fox Hill). There are alternating layers of clay and loose sand. Olsen appears to be immune. Ferrar and I walked westward toward other bone pits. the bones are in the sand--only certain layers (Fig. Others--8 " " " " } Sat. Quibell men show more skill and care than those from Helouan. Feb. has ordered 1/2 cake (1 1/2 lbs. Quarry B seems more barren than A and bones Josephine Butte Fairfield Butte A B C Lyon’s Butte Ferrar Butte Qasr Qurun and Alexandria Trail Dimé FIGURE 35. Holroyd (1999. Sun. Quibell's men speak no English. Prof. . each per day } Every other Friday off and Ibrahim Salim--10 pt. 10-Strong wind with considerable dust in the air. M.--best layers appear to be worked out. 8-The worst feature of this camp is the fleas. Quibell arrived about Sunset from Tamia. one on either side of the draw. O. Twelve men from Mr. Locations determined from Granger’s Notes (T. written communication. 1995). Native method of work is 25 exasperating--dislike to use shovels but prefer to carry out dirt in baskets on their heads. O.) from Cairo. Fri. found first prospect.. Prof. if work warrants.
Says he has a quarry of creodonts in an upper level .--he knew the name of it. Megalohyrax & Geniohyus. Feb.M. Ferrar adjusts by promise to pay one half the loss if the man works well. 11-Intermittent showers in afternoon--men worked only in forenoon. I went with Daoud in morning to gum a lower jaw of Tomistoma which he found yesterday 1 m. B. 18-Tonight we are lonesome. for Zeuglodon Valley to be gone several days (Fig. Camel loaded with fantasses and other supplies. C. O. Someone camped in the wady East of quarry attracted attention and Mrs. Prof. Air seems full of fine dust. Sun. O. they are not creodonts but Ancodon. They are Abas Abdulla. Prof. Speaks Arabic well.'s party back from Zeuglodon Valley this evening. Feb. I am to see his collection tomorrow. East of camp. Fraas . W. Ferrar Butte 2 m. O.--one of the Quft men claims to have been robbed of £2 last night by one of his fellows . Olsen has begun to find good bones in Quarry B. 12-Weather pleasant--Olsen's outfit stopped work on north end of Quarry B and moved over to extreme south end--uncovered several badly preserved bones and a jaw of a young Arsinoitherium with good teeth. Prof. Herr M. Thurs. [O. Some of his finest skulls were broken in transit. Mrs. A fossil packing case sits on the ground behind it. Ferrar.. 13-Osborn's camels returned this morning from Tamia. Shall try and get Prof. Feb. [Meeting Richard Markgraf ] Sat. Returned to Q. & Josephine visited Quarry C before lunch. Feb. Tues. Saw his collection from the upper level. N. Olsen to lunch with Mrs. and Daoud started this A. Talba and camels in tonight. Ferrar has left his tent with us[--]also a drawing table which was much needed. 35).--we need shellac badly. Olsen continues to find bones in the south end of Q.E.26 (Fig. Abdulla Mohammed & Mohammed Mohammed. 17-The German prospector called on Osborn today. became worried and we all returned to camp with her. has decided to send the three Helouan men back. vert.O. Talba in with camels late tonight. and party got off about 10: o'clock-took photographs of our entire working party--including camel men. O. O.E. pointed out location of all of his important finds which I plotted . Had lunch with Mrs. Mickawi rode over to find out who he was--returned saying he was a German prospector. with Ferrar went in search of westerly bone pits. We shall call this quarry "C. B. of camp. They are worse than useless. stripping all day--we take lunch and water and return in evening. The two old men from Tamia are better workers and much more careful. mentioned employment to him but he says he is under agreement with Fraas. Mr. 14-Prof. the other half to be paid by the leader of their party. Mr. but hard. Markgraf --has done considerable work here for Prof. Prof.] has termed Lyon's Butte.--was obliged to send one of his men to camp for insubordination. 16-Prof. Helouan men returned with camels this morning. Mon. E. Mon. Tues. 19-Went with Daoud to Markgraf's camp and then under Markgraf's guidance to the westerly bone pits of Beadnell (Fig. Wed. Prof. Saw the German who had just uncovered a good Arsinoitherium jaw. O. of Lyon's and Fairfield Butte 2 m. Have written Prof. corner of quarry. 35) . C in afternoon. Still at Quarry C which appears to be pretty well worked out.--still uncovering bones but they are not well preserved--a Palaeomastodon jaw frag't. I worked with the Helouan men all day in Q. Brought us eggs and live chickens--the latter we turn loose with hobbles on and they remain about camp because there is no where else to go. Feb. In quarry A the men stopped stripping and began prospecting . A few bones in the upper end. O. Feb. to the Eastward to see the Middle Eocene locality beyond Qasrel-Sagha. O. O. Olsen in Q." The sand is white--also the bones fragmentary. Ferrar has loaned us one of his tents for the Quft men. on north side and a good lower jaw of a new genus of creodont and two good jaws of "far" (mouse) in S. Olsen in Q.. Feb. Weather beautiful today. in fairly good condition though. 20-Olsen began a heavy stripping today in Quarry B.--nothing especially good. Daoud prospected in forenoon--reports "timsah" (crocodile) jaws.--probably from yesterday's wind. Feb. Jr. Daoud with Prof. Up to Osborn's camp in the evening. O's party went to Dime´ today. O. Fri. Feb. With Daoud's men I went over to an old bone pit of Beadnell's near what Prof. H. Lunch at upper camp. Herr M.F. Find him very agreeable. About 2 miles west of camp. has two camels and two men. O. All good landmarks . Wed.. Herr Markgraf called over to camp this evening. Good Ars.--well-preserved white bone-apparently from gypsum layers. are in very poor condition--one good rodent jaw just found. O. hoping to make arrangement for his employment. Josephine Butte 1/2 m. That which we brought from Museum is not good--have written FIGURE 36. Is apparently a prospector of some experience. lives in a tiny tent with bare necessities. He is a Mr. Started taking out bones in Quarry C. B but in soft state of preservation. O. Feb. The Keating's Powder has arrived. 38). Expressed a willingness to work for us.--the two latter are brothers of Daoud and Ali. O. down [to quarry] both morning and afternoon. The three Helouan men have been paid off and leave tomorrow morning for home. to make arrangements. 15-Mrs.
27 A B C FIGURE 37. A. B. Collecting a fossil turtle pocketed in the sand. Another view of quarrywork. . C. Quarrywork.
faloos. 25-Quite a heavy sandstorm from the north last night. Tues. Fri. Feb. Feb. Ali won't allow the camel men to sleep in the cook tent and the other tents are full. and crew chief Daoud Mohammed. tonight they are boisterous again. Today Daoud and Ali prospecting North-East of camp found a young Arsinoitherium skull horn cones and occiput missing. The flour (apparently whole wheat) is mixed with salt and water to thick batter. Mohammed Mohammed } Hassan } Tamia Mass[a]out } Ibrahim Salim . Olsen at stripping in Q. guide Hartley Ferrar. it is almost their sole food. He was a violinist and came to Egypt on account of his health--has some lung or throat affection. Mon. Wed. Last night the natives were talking all night in anticipation of their pay today. Markgraf called in the evening--brought over a palate of Saghatherium minus which he thought was a rodent . Ali Mohammed Cook Abdulla Mohammed } Discharged.--about 15 miles round trip. B. Feb.M. 27-Work in new quarry again--no bones yet. A. 20. Ferrar and Daoud at lunch during Zeuglodon Valley trip. Seems to penetrate and harden well. His men are working well now. Camels in tonight. Hassan & Massaout. they bring alfalfa to feed on overnight. Rare (and damaged) photo of Henry Osborn in dirty field clothes as he displays a fossil tree remnant found during a three-day side trip to Zeuglodon Valley with son Fairfield. Collected ants for Prof. Found Gazelle tracks but saw no animals. German. A party of them walked to the Birket to wash and buy fish from the fishermen in there. His camels go to Sinnoures instead of Tamia. Mohammed Hassin } Halil Mohammed. Olsen continues to find bones in quarry B. 40). Did not get down to the bone layer in the new quarry. The 12 men from Quft occupy one tent but Daoud allows one or two favored ones to sleep in his tent with Ali. They bed them down near the 3rd tent and sleep among them to keep warm. We find him very agreeable. Achmed Abid } Machmud Mohammed.Reis } Ali Achmed . say they are never docked by Quibell.2nd Reis } From Quft. have been singing all day except when they stop to talk over money matters. Talba does not send out all 10 camels at once but runs them in two relays (Fig. they require careful watching. Feb. Olsen and I have a great time talking with him. have to use English. Hamid Said." I went over and found he had a fine skull of Palaeomastodon--incisors and arcus gone but otherwise excellent. 22-First holiday and pay day to the natives. . Wheeler . Sun. We allow two of them to leave the quarry 1/2 hour earlier in the evening to do the cooking. 1/2 mile. Great excitement. Took most of Olsen's men leaving him only the old men who do careful work. The skull was an isolated specimen--just north of his tent in the bottom of the wady. Aside from our fanitas of water. 24-Herr Markgraf over to dinner this evening. O. Could see Giza Pyramids. asking that he send some out from Cairo. The camel men seem to be lower caste. Everything is "faloos. He is a native of Austria. B today. Olsen and I went to the top of Gebel-el-Qatrani back of camp (Fig. Fairfield. Daoud's men eat dry bread brought from their homes together--with onions. Weather continues fine. found some fairly good jaws of Arsinoitherium and smaller things. Feb. Markgraf uses hot glue for hardening bones. Feb. Suliman Salim } Salim Halil. Men did not like being docked half-day's pay.28 A B FIGURE 38. The excitement of pay day is still on them (Fig. Makes his headquarters in Cairo but has recently purchased land in Sinnoures and will set out date & orange trees this spring. They also found a good palate of Palaeomastodon palate not far from north end of Quarry B and near camel trail. Has the Arab collect dead brush and boil the glue and applies while hot & thin. Feb. Names of our native workmen are-Daoud Mohammed Reis Abas Abdulla } of Helouan. 39). possibly t'b." Sat. 26-Today I opened up the pits S-West of quarry A. Thurs. Letter from Prof. 35). When cooked the bread is tough and leathery but not bad to the taste. Camels returned from Tamia this A. It is then laid on a piece of sheet iron placed on rocks with a fire underneath--fuel is tamarisk stumps brought out by camel men from East end of Birket. He has found nothing new since the skull. to Prof. Gave Daoud £1/2 for the skull. his wife is dead and a small daughter is being brought up in Italy. I worked on Arsinoitherium skull and Palaeomastodon palate. 21-This afternoon Markgraf's native came over to camp saying that he had found a "ras. O. with £50. Objected seriously. 23-Olsen began prospecting in Quarry B today. He was glad to get rid of the men for a few days. Watched the Quft men make their bread this evening. They were overruled. is then rolled out on a board with a broom handle very thin and 18 inches across. Arabic and sign language but manage to get along. Hassin Mohammed (boy)} Ibrahim Etman } Have written to White Star Lines at Naples relinquishing our staterooms on the “Celtic” Mar.
It comes at night and tips over cans and bottles and last night FIGURE 40. A fox. Tues.--too much flying sand. Supplies in from Cairo--including a case of St. Today has been very raw. Markgraf brought down his fossils and came again in the . prospecting. has been annoying Olsen lately in quarry B. Camels left before sunrise--Hassan went in with them--to see a "sick brother”. some of the bushes are about to blossom.) Ibrahim. O. Mar. Daoud. O. Caught a Jerboa near the tent last night. with strong wind all day & slight rain in evening. Mar. Sat. Mar. Continued stripping in new quarry. carried off a gum brush which we found away out in the desert .00 per day expenses allowed and $20. We hope to hear from Prof. Spent most of this day receiving & labelling specimens & writing. Letter from Prof. Lucas' shellac seems to be a success. 5-Pleasant--very little wind. Prof. The damp nights and the two slight rains recently have freshened up what little vegetation there is here.--worthless though. with bank book and £50. “Dr. Time to begin the day he entered the desert. Olsen” tending to native workers.29 A B FIGURE 39. Feb. Shall abandon it. in afternoon. judging from its tracks.M. Galmier and some brown shellac sent by Lucas which appears to be all right. Men at stripping in quarry B all day-found good Ars. Men did not work after 9: A. 2-Three camels in tonight. etc. gave him three days off. Mar. Visited Herr M. Olsen found badly preserved Palaeomastodon jaws just outside the tent door. northeast of camp. agrees to Markgraf's employment on his terms viz: $60 per month salary--$4. 4-Four camels in tonight.jaw and good Megalohyrax jaw besides several good vertebra. Herr Markgraf moved his tent over near camp today--on a hill just back of quarry A. Hassin and Olsen. We are sadly in need of this. Thurs. Sun. Olsen has not been able to take up any but the best preserved bones--gum arabic is useless almost. regarding Markgraf's employment by next mail.00 initial expense of assembling his outfit and entering the desert.-r. Mon. These officers' tents are poor affairs in cold windy weather--there are too many openings for the cold wind to get in through. (l.-. Have 100 recorded specimens to date with ten more still to be taken up. The bones in Quarry B which are in clay  are badly crushed and very rotten. Olsen still in quarry B.Jaws--1/2 m. 28-Another heavy sandstorm last night. found a fine pair of Ars. O. 1-Worked down to the bone layer in new quarry and found it barren-shall put in one more day here and then transfer the men back to quarry B where Olsen needs more stripping done. Worked in new quarry with three men but found nothing--is apparently exhausted. 3-Cold. Mar. Fri. A. Camels moving supplies and equipment.-. B.
Fri. [Granger returns to Fayum] Wed. Got shaved at Edwa by a native barber--terrible experience. Mar. Markgraf lost a camel from the bites of these flies two years ago. Visited Cook's for mail. 7-Markgraf pulled out for the western pit today. over sleeping sheep and goats and around buffaloes and cows to Abdulla's house near the canal. He says they are particularly bad in April and that the camels are all taken away from the region of the lake. Converse  called in this evening. Our record book shows about 200 specimens. gave a dinner tonight to Converse. Met Daoud at El Wasta and reached Tamia late in the afternoon where Mr. After the meal the remnants of the feast were eaten by the native guests all sitting on the floor around an immense circular brass platter. [Markgraf departs area] Thurs. Wonderful experiences this morning riding Eastward through the desert toward the rising sun. Mar. Daoud. We have a very good collection of small things in comparison. Hassan returned--says his "brother" is better. There is a very good skull of Moeritherium.--Markgraf is to start westward tomorrow to open up quarries where he has obtained Palaeomastodon and Moeritherium skulls.M. 16-George caught his fox last night--a little fellow about the size of the American Kit fox. Fri. Also a fine large skull of Tomistoma. Mon. Cairo is beginning to be deserted by tourists. 10--weather murky. one of the natives who came out to see Osborn.--the best yet. Olsen and I busy all afternoon and evening pasting up bones and labelling. Olsen and I started for it but found it too far. He may come out to camp with me for a few days. Mar. Lyons there. Lyons thinks the flies are confined to the lake borders and do not get up in the desert.30 evening to help label them. Leave for Tamia tomorrow. line between El Fayûm & El Wasta after wait of 1 1/2 hour. Men eating with their fingers. 15-Today Markgraf sent in his first batch of fossils from the Westerly pits. Mar. We need more shellac and there are several matters which I can attend to better than by mail. two lower jaws and a few skeleton bones. Took another good look at their Fayûm collection. Four camels & Talba in this evening. Two large packing cases came from S. We find that it keeps us very busy pasting up bones fast enough to keep ahead of the workmen. Mar. A fine pair of Palaeomastodon lower jaws turned up in the quarry today. Olsen has a trap set tonight for his fox which still pays nightly visits to the quarry. [Granger to Cairo] Sat. Hanna Affiudi dined with us because he is a Copt. Daoud brought in a good Megalohyrax jaw. Converse met me--too late to start for camp and Hanna Affiudi  has promised to keep us overnight. Sat. Came to the Eden Palace Hotel--this is a much cheaper place than Shepheard's but not clean enough. I have decided to go into Cairo tomorrow. Converse pretty nearly all in from camel riding. Prospected some in the middle Eocene and brought home a small collection of shells--principally Ostrea. The Quft men sing a good deal but I have seen none of them pray. Had another row over the day's pay deducted for stormy weather and no work. Train for Edwa left at 2: P. Mar. Ibrahim threatened to leave with his men and I told him to go ahead--they wrangled over the matter a half hour in their tent & finally returned & agreed to remain. Went as far as Birket-el-Qurun beds. Swiss Papeterie  and Fleurents on business. found where he purchased his shellac and ordered a quantity. Ali tried to take him out of the trap and was bitten severely. Sun. 12-Left Cairo at 7:30. Hamid had been seriously ill. Men at work in Quarry B stripping. Olsen doctored his hand up. Ali Achmed. [Collecting progresses in Fayum] Thurs. they show more skill than the other men at uncovering and work without being watched. He joins me at El Wasta on Tuesday. 14-Three of the Quft men left early this morning for home. Was in Shepheard's yesterday and it seems very lonesome there. Olsen's fox carried off his bait last night. The camel was bitten on the tip of the tail as we were leaving the last camel and the blood flowed out in a tiny stream. They uncover the fossils rather more rapidly than we can prepare them--and it does not do to leave the men alone in the quarry for any length of time. Mar. Ali went along to look after him.--will be gone ten days and with good luck probably longer. I do not think the tough bread which the Quft men eat is good for them--several of them have complained of stomach trouble. 17-- . Mar. Lucas. Abdulla is probably after letters of recommendation. Daoud stays in Cairo tonight and goes up to Helouan tomorrow to see his family--which includes a new "bînt" [baby girl] which he hasn't seen yet. Mr. Hassan is the only one of our men who prays in public--about five times a day he spreads his bournouse out and mumbles to Allah. Mar. Abdulla. Had tea with Mr. 9-Left camp with Daoud this morning at 3:30. Nights are still cold--my heavy ulster is very comfortable this evening. Went to the Geological Museum and saw Capt. Have settled down to heavy work in quarry B today with entire force. 13-Reached camp at 8:20 tonight after a long hot trip through the desert-Mr. Mar. D. 8-Holiday--men did not care to repeat the trip to the lake today.. 6-Warmest day yet--just a bit uncomfortable at noon. also Ibrahim and the boy. 11-Finished shopping today and visited the Ethnological Museum. Hanna Affiudi. Cooler toward evening with strong wind. Mar. Mar. then rode until one when Tamia reached. Took up Palaeomastodon palate today--Olsen has been finding good material in Quarry B. We are bothered but little from mosquitoes but the house flies are growing annoying . with a lantern. Olsen and I did very little prospecting and nothing of interest found. piloted us down through the narrow lanes of the village. Hassan and Massaout have opened up small prospects at south end of the Quarry B hill from which they are getting some well preserved jaws. Achmed was the larger one and we are glad to get rid of him. Saw the effects of the bite today--one of the camel flies which Markgraf has been telling us about. Changed cars again at El Wasta and reached Cairo at 8:30. Paid Ibrahim and his men their 2 weeks wages so that they can send their money home by Talba tomorrow. Wed. A turkey had been prepared and three or four other meat courses followed with rice and other fixings and cigarettes in between courses. Have been obliged to paste most of Markgraf's fossils. apparently with stomach trouble. Took photographs of the men at work in Quarry B. The Omdah of the village  was introduced and sat aside while we ate. rode untill sunrise then walked untill nine. Staraselski  and me. Hamid Said and Achmed Abid. and who is one of the influential men of the town. Tues. Sun. transferred at Edwa to the State Ry.
He thinks he is about dead. 28-All hands in the quarries. 41) . Mar. Antelope of at least two species leave tracks in the wadies every morning. Wishes to return on account of family matters. Daoud. 31 excellent runners. More storks today. Olsen and I are kept very busy preparing specimens.-. Lizards are fairly common. During Feby. Full time and no docking of pay this fortnight so everything went smoothly. Wendell . Saw Daoud's Arsinoithere skull today--is the back stop and worth saving. Daoud and I prospected westward in the afternoon and pasted the Ars. Spring seems to be on here now. Olsen in Quarry B East. Ali went in with the camels this morning. Started removing part of Beadnell's old dump to uncover a strip of bone layer which runs under it. 27-Olsen in quarry B east--the Quft men in A stripping. Sat. Found Pterodon and Palae-. Mar. The men are gorging themselves tonight on Mr. The general condition of the atmosphere now is becoming more hazy each day. Much of the British material came from here. The men are FIGURE 41." Several good bones have been taken from here by Beadnell. Markgraf sent over his Palaeomastodon jaws. O & Mr.Weather very comfortable today--all hands busy in quarry B. Converse has not enjoyed his stay very thoroughly but dare say he will remember the experiences for some time. Wendell's sheep. Dew is heavy at night. 26-Still splendid weather with nights cool but getting warmer. B East has turned some good bones already. W. Converse. Sun. 18-Fine weather continues--also the flies. two good Creodont jaws. Mar. Fri. found elephant humerus near Fairfield Butte. 23-Very windy today and work in the quarries uncomfortable. beginning to be comfortable at night without an overcoat. Sent negatives of quarry in to Diradime by Mr. So much so that we are obliged to . 22-Pay day & holiday. and Mr. There are a few beetles and millions of house flies. O. Letters to Prof. He is one of our best workmen. I took camera and with Daoud went in as far as Qasr-el-Sagha to get photographs for Prof. prospecting. The new Q. All remained in camp. Letters from Prof.--two or three species of Raptores and several small Passeres complete the list of birds . More good creodont material from Quarry A. 29-Busy pasting bones all day. Converse goes back tomorrow. Mr. Daoud reports part of Ars. Converse left us today. Mar. and they are growing worse. All at work in quarry B. Ali goes in tomorrow and will have his hands treated. Sat. Mar. with present for Hassin and money for sheep for men. found all specimens by trenching  in pockets of fossiliferous sand. This afternoon we organized races--with prizes. A new stripping finished today. Took up work in Quarry A again this afternoon. 24-Daoud and Hassan are attending to the cooking now that Ali is laid up. Saw storks flying northward to Europe today. I walked westward to Markgraf's camp--found his 3 Palaeomastodon jaws very fine. Mar. we have seen two or three snakes. Wed. 25-Weather perfect. Men have started stripping at the extreme southern end of the quarry. Mr. There is a species of quail seen occasionally and one of them came into our tent during a windstorm one day.jaws.skull. Mon.'s sheep and Olsen and I will be sure to get greasy mutton soup for the next three days. Markgraf sent in for some tinned goods today--his camels are not in yet. Markgraf returned part way with me and pointed out the Moeritherium quarry where he got our material. 21-All busy in Quarry B. Thurs. Mar. Mar. skull out west of camp. Little Hassin has been taught to cut burlap strips and mix paste and helps some (Fig. Quft men in quarry A. 30-Rather hard sandstorm last night. Talba came in tonight with camels and Mr. Halil Mohammed goes back to Quft tomorrow. Fear Mr. Shall let him take this occasion to go to Helouan to see his family and to do some errands for us in Cairo. Camels in tonight with American mail. Granger and Hassin. Tues. Mar. Took lunch with him (native bread. The cook tent caught fire in the wind today and Ali burned both hands badly putting it out. Mar. Talba is to bring sheep back for the men. Both hands are all bandaged up tonight and he is helpless. We find it is not practicable to set the men at large stripping--the sandstorms undo much of the work. Mar.-. & for Edibles for ourselves. 19-Two camels in tonight. It is surprising what a variety of life one can find here upon careful search and it seems remarkable that anything can live. Several new plants have sprung up in favorable wadies and there are more birds moving about. Mon. Olsen and I too busy pasting and recording specimens to get out. Good success in quarry A again. Weather splendid. He is working 1 mile East of the trail from Qasr-Qurun  to Alexandria. Mar.skulls here for Fraas. fine pair Ars. Converse has taken up sleeping quarters in the cook tent because ours is too open and windy. Tues. 20-Mr. cheese & tea--his usual diet) and returned to camp in afternoon. Thurs. 3 camels in tonight. He has had a bad cold from sleeping on the ground. and March the air has been clear but we can barely see the cultivation in the Fayum today. Have several good jaws in Quarry A uncovered yesterday. Mar. Wendell. Olsen has set his men to opening up a prospect on east side of quarry B hill which we shall call "quarry B east.'s Century article . Fri. Took out 15 good specimens from quarry B today. His men report that he has good Palaeomastodon jaws. Took camera to Garat-el-Esh and secured photographs of Middle Eocene escarpment . Wed.
Daoud found the fox with trap somewhere So. B north. Talba travels at night now--when he can to avoid the heat of the day. purchased with Mr. Discharged two camels last night. . Mon. This means another piaster a day for the other three men--but they are the pick of all our men and are worth it. Camels should have been in yesterday and we had only one fanitas of water left--too close a margin in this weather. Strong wind again tonight. Markgraf left this morning for Sinnoures. Part of the sheep was in the pot ten minutes after it was taken down alive from the camel. they are particularly bad when pasting bones. Thurs. Flies very bad through lack of any breeze. Have given him a check for the Amt. Olsen found more fragts. Finished up work in quarry B. 12-Uncomfortable between 10: & 4: [--]a cool breeze occasionally but mostly dead calm. Natives in quarry B north where they find some good bones. Apr. Last night's storm lasted from about 9 untill 4. An hour or so later she grew better (only a little sick) and finally an offer of an extra piastre a day cured her entirely and both Ibrahim M. Daoud and all Arabs except Ibrahim went to Dimé. Wed. have a good chance of finding more of it tomorrow. 11-Clear--too warm from 12: to 3:. 31-Markgraf arrived with his outfit today and is camped with us this evening. Apr. Took only 1/2 bottle water and came home very dry.-. Sun. Wendell's sheep escaped into the desert when it arrived and was untied and the whole troop chased it for a half hour and finally shot it. B--north with with balance of men--found missing fragment from back of Ars. Sat. nothing more being found. Apr. The men came out twice and readjusted the chunks of fossil wood on the guy ropes . Comes up every night as the other one did. Mon. The paste draws the flies and with both hands engaged they have a free swing at one's face. Tues. tore up the cook tent and would have taken our own if we had not been up every half hour to strengthen the ropes and keep the walls tied up. Olsen in q. We have decided to send all but two of Quibell's men back to Quft on Friday. 7-Fine day--cool north breeze. but a letter from Quft arrived tonight for one of the men (one can read) and brought the news that Ibrahim's mother was dead and so he wanted to return and Machmud didn't wish to remain alone. and will go on to Cairo . 9: P. Camels in tonight. Collected a good series of ants for Prof. Machmud and Ibr. Apr. Olsen will keep Machmud and I Ibrahim Mohammed as personal assistants--they are the most capable men of that outfit. due him to date. Yesterday Olsen and I spent the forenoon in the Middle Eocene collecting invertebrates but finding no good vertebrates.jaws from same place. Several good vertebrae and limb bones from quarry also. Worked on Crocodile skull again and took up Ars. Men found back and top of Ars.-. 2-I spent a few hours in the Middle Eocene below Garat-el-Esh. Apr. The flies are getting to be the greatest nuisance. of quarry. Camels in tonight. things. 3-Today Olsen found another Creodont skull--1/2 sheared off by erosion but the other half is perfect. Ibrahim Salim and five of his men go in tonight late. The weather is not excessively hot yet but still uncomfortable--about like a hot day in Wyoming. & Machmud will remain. have paid them up to the 7th. Have prepared skin & skeleton for museum. Apr. 8-Olsen caught his fox last night but it pulled the pin and got away with the trap. Mar. Apr. The other day Mr. These exposures have been pretty thoroughly examined and not much of value is left. Natives all in quarry A. Later Daoud confided that the mother was not dead--only very sick. Olsen and I at work packing and pasting. Comfortable in shirt sleeves this evening. Apr. Could not trace it. George is after another fox in the quarry. D. given them a bonus and letters of recommendation to Ibrahim and they seem contented and all are apparently glad to get back home. The day winds are mostly So-West. Apr. Fox was dead. the heat would not be so bad without them. In Quarry A. Blew down the Quft mens' tent. Tues. Remained in camp all day packing boxes & labelling. It was impossible to face the wind and everything was black as pitch.M. Apr. 1-Olsen began prospecting today for the first time and celebrated by finding a very beautiful skull of Apterodon (Fig.--quick execution. 10-Pleasant--a bit too warm during middle of day. Fri. Got up at 5 and packed two more cases--sent four in by camels. of the skull in quarry. Apr. 4-Another hot day. from the first one. has lower jaws which is the first association of parts we have seen except a string of four small vertebrae in quarry B .-E. Strong wind at bed time. Hassan & Massaout uncovered several good bones-including a fine palate of Palaeomastodon. 6-Very hot today--a terrific wind is on tonight and it is impossible to keep a candle lit. The Quft men left at midnight. Went to the Birket and looked over a small stretch of Middle Eocene on way back--no success. Apr. Last night occurred our worst sandstorm. 16E) in the wady 1/2 mile below camp. Mohammed were to remain.-found jaw and vertebrae of Moeritherium.skull in q. Wed. Sun. Thurs. Four camels in tonight with the 8 cases ordered recently from S.-. Two camels came in with box of alcohol and shellac from S. In afternoon Olsen went to upper level and found several fragty. a regular corker. 13-Warm--but not too hot. Olsen worked in upper beds and found good Ancodon jaw. D. Wendell's money. This morning the beds and everything in the tents were covered with a thick layer of fine sand.32 cover our bones up. Six will suffice from now on. Today is our first hot day--much too warm for comfort in the middle of the day and not cold tonight. Packed two cases before supper. Apr. Camels have just arrived. Brought back Moeritherium jaw and many flint implements. Found it about 100 yds. Fri. 9-Pleasant--not too warm. Sat.skull. Another sheep tonight and a "fantasia" to celebrate the departure of the Quft men. Worked on Crocodile skull with Ibrahim. Ali returned and brought a bag of oranges. He brought in a few more bones but none of special interest. Our heavy sandstorms are all from the north and all come at night. Wheeler. Camels returned to Tamia and Talba is to have others here tomorrow night. Labels arrived also from Swiss Papeterie. Daoud found fine large Crocodilus skull today--near the Creodont skulls. 5-Cooler today--sky overcast.
Both Olsen and I worked in upper beds today. 22-Today with Daoud. We rather regret breaking the camp and closing the work.M. Olsen in upper beds. At 6: P. Apr. Sent in two more cases of fossils.) very comfortable again.-. [Break camp.in Q. growing hotter and with strong So-west wind. Sat. Natives wrapped our water bottles in wet burlap which afforded some relief. very uncomfortable. Perspiration runs off one in the tent this evening. 44). The alfalfa is about gone in the Fayûm by this time. Shipped off four more boxes by camels--worked on Crocodile and two Ars. Took photographs of gebel. 21-Broke camp and moved in to Qasr-el-Sagha (Fig. Ibrahim & Machmud we walked to the Birket. There has been a very noticeable decrease in the number and the energy of the flies since the Khamsine of Sunday. Spent afternoon lying in bottom of tent--suffocated with sand and scorched with heat.skulls. having travelled all night. Apr. Daoud & I spent day prospecting & collected the Elephant humerus (Fig. There is some green feed up at the head of this wady and his camels have been up there most of the day. 15-Hot again. Olsen cleaned up old Ars.[--]brought American mail.Three camels came in about 7:30. Mon. B. Hassan & Massaout at work prospecting--no success. Daoud and men prospecting found half of a Moeritherium skull. A packing case for transporting the fossil out of the Fayum by camel sits behind him. . Sun. Apr. taking up Ars.--Straw "tibbin" and dry beans or peas. Atmosphere began to be hazy about 10. 19-The only hot day I have ever seen! Weather conditions were not unusual in the morning. 17-Camels in with Amer.humerus of Markgraf's--took the camera. I worked on bones at camp most of day. Camped below the temple  (Fig. Olsen in Q. stopping on the way at Dime´ to look on the ruins and take photographs FIGURE 42. Apr.-. Spent the afternoon with Olsen up East along the Middle Eocene escarpment where Daoud says the Barytherium came from--we found the hills pretty well scoured.skull from up west. By noon the air was full of dust and the wind strong and hot. the wind died down suddenly and after a few moments of calm a cool north breeze sprung up causing hundreds of tiny whirlwinds as it came in contact with the So. I realized a Khamsine was on and packed up the turtle and started for camp. 43).humerus left by Markgraf. B and we decided to take only the palate. Took photos of camp and temple. Mon. 16-Weather comfortable again--brought in Ars. Thurs. 20-A very comfortable day after the heat of yesterday--the cool north wind blew all night. Spent the day packing up and labeling the remaining specimens.-. preventing good photographs. 42).-. Reached camp at 1:o'clock about used up. Olsen had returned earlier from upper beds. Apr. Olsen in upper beds today. Are planning now to break this camp on the 21st and go to Qasr-elSagha for a few days before going in to Tamia. Camels came in the forenoon.palate. Daoud collecting “elephant” humerus he found near Fairfield Butte. so he says.-. move to Qasr-el-Sagha] Sun. 33 Fri.M. Apr. I went west and pasted Ars. Wed. It is now (9: P. Mail.-. Talba is using dry feed for his camels now. Apr. Apr.-west wind. The hot sand was moving freely by this time but the wind was fortunately at our backs. After breakfast I went with Daoud and Ibrahim to the west to collect the small turtle skull and the Ars. o'clock. 18-Pretty warm and close today. Weather cool and comfortable. Tues. 14-Hazy with warm So-west wind. Apr. Shy on candles tonight--Fleurent’s box did not come out yesterday. This Southerly wind is no good--only the north winds are cool now. but days like yesterday are not pleasant and are liable to recur at any time now.
) on camels with crew at Qasr el Sagha relocating their camp on April 21. Fri. [To Tamia] Wed. Collected invertebrates from the Lake Moeris sediment. O. Two or three naked natives then enter from the shore side and by great splashing & commotion drive the fish into the net in their attempt to reach the open lake. Called at the museum and found it closed. etc . Apr. 25-Cairo. Scott's Pension  opposite Eshekeih Gardens. We decided it would be necessary to go into Cairo as our working clothes had all been given away to the natives and we needed new tents since the old ones are all seriously damaged by sandstorms. Olsen and I each buried a piece of the pudding in the sand and gave the balance of it to Daoud and Ali. Ali informs us that the grub is about exhausted--the fish will help out though. Have paid off Ibrahim and Machmud and they leave early in the morning for Quft. and she and Hassan brought it up to us this evening and Hassan made her come in the tent. Daoud and Ali are to hire truck men and deliver the cases at the Geol. Dr. The weather is fairly comfortable here but pretty hot during middle of day. Left Tamia at 10: A. 26-Official Sunday. Daoud & Ali have gone up to Helouan over the day. Our leaving is now a necessity. Collected Moeritherium jaws and weathered skulls of Tomistoma and Zeuglodon. Very hot during middle of day. 45 and 46). Several fish jumped over the net and escaped. Museum tonight. Our camp outfit was loaded on the camels and ready to start for Cairo and Olsen and I were ready to take the train when I was handed a cable-gram from Prof. 24-Left Qasr-el-Sagha this morning and reached Tamia by three--lunch at Cafe in Tamia. Quartered at Mrs. Apparently he is in the field again . 27-At the museum this morning I met Dr. Lunch and transfer at Medínet-el-Fayum with time enough to look about the place a trifle and Cairo at 8:20 this evening. The fish come up into the shallow water along the shore in great numbers. Lucas. We also need hot weather clothing-helmets. and Olsen got good turtle--all from 1 mile west of Temple. Apr. Hassan's wife baked a (?)pudding for us--terribly greasy affair. Hume has unpacked all duplicate material of Arsinoitherium FIGURE 43. Had tea with Mr. Tues. Cost us 6 piasters.M. Apr. Our cases are on the front steps where they were delivered last night. Sat. The method of capture is to select a small bay and creep up with great caution and suddenly rush across the entrance of the bay with one end of the long gill net. Apr. Apr. Got our fossil cases out of storage at Abdulla's this morning and had them weighed & shipped as luggage on our train--Daoud and Ali sitting on them all the way and watching after their transfer. 84 fish about 8 inches long were caught. Came through in fine shape. The owners--five stalwart Arabs in white robes and long barreled rifles--brought up the rear of the caravan. Called at the S.34 (Figs. D. saying to continue work in Fayum . Saw Markgraf's trail near camp today where he had passed recently with his outfit. 23-Camels in late this afternoon with American mail. at Giza and saw Capt.) and Granger (r. Olsen (l. Food almost entirely gone this evening--barely enough for breakfast. Hassan and Massaout have gone to their homes. He generously offered new tents and whatever supplies we need for the second trip. He leaves for England on May 4th. Hume . We are to go in to Tamia tomorrow. At the lake we found native fisherman and engaged them to run in their net for us. Met a caravan of several hundred camels being driven in to the Cairo "Sukh" from the Oases to the south. Lyons. Our tent is pitched near the [railway] Station tonight. [Resupplying in Cairo] Thurs. Most of the fish caught here are shipped daily to Cairo. .
. Settting up camp below temple ruins at Qasr el Sagha on April 21. A. B. Fantasses lie in the foreground. Worker’s tent at Qasr el Sagha.35 A B FIGURE 44. the worker at left pouring water from one.
FIGURE 46.36 FIGURE 45. . Birket Qurun from the north shore. Work party members at Dimé during visit on April 22nd.
Olsen and I spent the day in the upper beds again with no more success. Hassan has a job which he can't leave for a few days and Massaout won't come alone. Thurs. In most of the old prospects the specimens have been left--not being worth taking up. We find the weather some hotter than when we left the desert but still the heat today has not been dangerous. May 11-Camels in late tonight. Apr. The nights are still comfortable. Prospected morning and evening but found little. Camels returned to Tamia last night. 29-Mr. though. Wed. [Collecting resumed. A very few good specimens have apparently been taken from this locality--judging from the prospect holes. Talba only half fancies the idea of returning to the desert. Apparently 37 visceral trouble of some sort. D. Scott. May 1-Came out from Cairo today--Staraselsky is kindly keeping us overnight--his rooms here at the power plant are very cool. May 10--still hot More prospecting with only moderate success. Ferrar is in from the Eastern Desert but we have not seen him yet. Markgraf back. Spent the afternoon in the Middle Eocene beds here--not much success. May 5-Ali left with Daoud about midnight last night. Sat. I begin to see the value of these thick stone walls. A wonderful Museum but they have to learn about cases and labels . [Return to Fayum] Wed. and offered me such bones as we might need to supplement our own--have selected several vertebrae. Sun. with Olsen. Very hot from 12 to 3 o'clock today and we remained in the tent. Tues. Numerous prospects but the bones are much broken up and very soft. The slightest exertion brings on perspiration. out here alone. 30-Had dinner at Ferrar's flat tonight. I doubt if Daoud will be able to return to the desert again. Mon. Apr. Sun. They are already harvesting the wheat along the Nile and the date trees are in full bloom. Hassan and Massaout can not come out for the present. Eggs are laid in sand scratched up a trifle and both sexes incubate . Fri. Daoud and Ali came out with us and Talba has arrived with the outfit. May 7-Camels came out today early and in the afternoon moved us up to the Fluvio-Marine bench about 2 miles East of Fairfield Butte. They rigged up a sort of double basket on a camel and Daoud was put in on one side and Ali got in the other side to balance it. It appears that Abdulla returned tonight to his home. There is but little to do except to pack the few specimens we find and read or write. I went back with him and laid out the things which he is to start back with tomorrow. Most of this duplicate material has been donated to [the Egyptian] National Museum. Tues. Stored our cases in the Museum today where they will remain untill we return from the Fayum. Fri. Our energy is at pretty low ebb from 11: untill 3:. We shall have to hire them both. making it excessively hot for four hours in the middle of the day. Saw where two specimens had been collected. May 3-Daoud is worse tonight--has been very sick all day. Ali returned with the camels today and reports that Daoud reached Helouan safely and is taking the baths.--some incubating. he seems very forlorn. We have been feeding him from our provisions but he needs a physician's care. The farm is a series of yards arranged around a central building. Shall move to the upper bench as soon as the camels come out. Hume says that the S. does not attempt to do much work after April but that with care we should have no difficulty--only discomfort on Khamsine days and gradually increasing hotter days. In the afternoon we went. I have engaged five camels and shall take two tents and eight fanitas. Our strength is sapped by this heat and we can do little but be in the tent and keep quiet. The adult birds are kept a pair in each yard and many were breeding.--he is a sick man. Weather not uncomfortable today--a north East breeze most of the time. Very hot and dusty travelling today. Sat. We purchased hot weather clothes today including helmets and sun shields. Stopped at the Canal for an hour or so and I visited Kom Ushim . The streets here in Cairo are pretty quiet during the noontime. others beginning to lay. May 8-Another scorcher of a day with almost no breeze. They seem pleased to be with us again and we are glad to have them out. Apr. Olsen and I spent the day in the upper beds but found nothing of value. May 2-Came out to Qasr-el-Sagha this forenoon.belonging to the Survey Dept. Daoud is ill tonight. We shall explore the eastern end of the Fluvio-Marine bench from this camp. He shares an apartment with eight other Oxford and Cambridge men out on the Shoubra Road--native servants and everything very comfortable. We find that by taking down part of the wall of the tent we can make it fairly comfortable at noon--especially if there is any breeze blowing. Found a good creodont jaw today--the only good specimen we have seen thus far on this trip. to Matarieh where we saw the Obelisk of Heliopolis. 28-Talba reached Giza with the outfit last night and showed up at the museum this morning. Talba expects to reach Tamia on Wednesday. We spent most of today in the Middle Eocene but without success. May 6-One camel came out today bringing Hassan & Massaout. Very hot coming across the low stretch of desert. The Virgén's Tru and the Ostrich Farm with 1400 ostrich of all ages. Spent another full day in the upper beds but with no more success than before . Mon. This portion of the bench seems to have been more thoroughly explored than to the westward. Took in Antiquities Museum again. under the guidance of Mrs. May 9-All hands prospecting morning and evening--nothing noteworthy found. The weather continues good but grows a little warmer each day. A native named Abdulla came out tonight and will look after camp while Ali is away. There is no object in remaining longer at this . Abdulla is green but willing. I slept under two blankets last night. are to come out to us again on the 11th. Dr. May 4-Daoud goes in to Tamia tonight and Ali will go along with him and return as soon as he gets him to Helouan under a doctor's care. Shall send him in tomorrow if the camels come out. Met an outfit of two camels and a native belonging to some hunters who are up in the Gebel after gazelles. They should get to Tamia by Sunrise. conditions turn] Thurs.
Case from Fleurent's with water &c arrived by camels. Olsen has been in the upper beds today and had some success-finding several jaws. it is apparently a very important trail although we have seen no camels on it yet. also Talba on camel (Figs. In Feby. Sat. We find gazelle tracks in the wadies every morning now--many of them. to return immediately. 47 and 48). The plants nearly all have short roots and they appear to derive their moisture from the surface rather than from subterranean dampness in the western [American] states. I stayed in camp. cool nights. The camel men tell us that Markgraf is camped on the upper bench-a half hour from here. Wed. He expects to remain but a short time longer in the desert. This trail passes up over the top of the Gebel at this point. Fri. Spent morning up west of Alexandria Trail-no success. Talba and two camels in from Tamia. May 12-This forenoon we moved out to our old camping ground at the easterly pits. May 25-Another comfortable day. O. Sat. All hands prospecting in afternoon. The air has been hazy since we returned from Cairo. 31st but the dews at night are as heavy as one sees in New England. This is Markgraf's method of collecting and has yielded him some of his best material.38 camp and tomorrow we shall move to the old pits. The old men still digging trenches--Olsen prospecting to the South where he found a soft and badly weathered skull of Arsinoitherium--no good. and March. May 13-Olsen and I took a long walk to the westward today and came back along the upper bench. Markgraf has adopted our method of pasting bones and is much pleased with it. H & M trenching-no success. Some success at prospecting today but none at trenching. May 16-Set Hassan and Massaout at work trenching on some sand lenses near camp . Took photographs of Moeritherium Quarry & camp. May 23-Coolest day this month. Spent the forenoon in a fruitless search out to westward beyond the Alexandria Trail. In afternoon Hassan & Massaout prospected south of camp 1/2 mile or so where Olsen has found some fairly promising prospects including a Tomistoma skull and a fairly good turtle. Others prospecting with same result. Mon. About 50 yards wide at this point. saying that it requires too long to harden . These pits are about a mile East of the Alexandria Trail. May 20--Regulation weather. Worked on Moeritherium jaws with Hassan and Massaout in forenoon--nothing further developed. H & M trenching all day. There has been no rain of consequence since Jan. Thurs. Took photograph of camp in evening. Hassan and Massaout have opened up a prospect in Quarry B Hill. None of us has seen an animal this trip although Daoud reported having seen some two or three times in Feby. Camels all left for Tamia this morning. Wed. Sent short report to Prof. They are as bad as ever in the cultivation but here they have ceased to be the nuisance they were. Markgraf says it is at its maximum now. The comparative abundance of vegetation has apparently brought them down from the Gebel. Fri. Heavy fog bank over gebel in the morning and cool wind all forenoon. and home. May 14-Called up at Markgraf's camp this evening and took photographs of his camp. but excessively hot during noon period--the worst yet. Pitched our tents just below the old place and up on the flat where the sand is smoother and harder. O. Olsen on Turtle and Crocodile. Camels in tonight and are to return on the 18th to move us westward to the Alexandria Trail where Markgraf found our Palaeomastodon jaws. The air at noontime is perfectly arid. He called on us this evening--is working for Dr. Daoud returned today in apparent good health. Olsen and I prospecting. Tues. The sand gets so hot in the middle of the day that it is uncomfortable to walk in. Moved to western bone pits in forenoon. I found good maxilla of Moeritherium. though. with another half case from Fleurent's. The Fayum is not visible from here now. Tues. Uncovered a half ulna of Arsinoitherium--outlook discouraging. left again in the afternoon for Qasr Qurun to return with water tomorrow. Worked on Moeritherium jaws. O. but. camped directly at the excavation. We have no trouble in sleeping. May 18-Regulation weather. we drank almost none. Only one bottle of St. Saw Markgraf's trail and found his camp on the edge of the bench just above our camp. Talba is due any day now. In afternoon moved Eastward to Ferrar Butte where Markgraf got two Arsinoitherium skulls. Northeast wind not comfortable in afternoon. Letters to Prof. Three camels in from Tamia--cablegram from Prof. Camel men say that Markgraf has left the desert. Shall stay here three or four days and then go in to Qasr-el-Sagha and then on to Tamia. I returned to old Moeritherium quarry--found on same level and not far from Beadnell's working a very fair pair of jaws. May 21-In the afternoon the north Easterly winds blew warm at times--rather less wind this evening than usual. He will not use shellac. chiefly on account of sore ankles due to poisoned flea bites. Sun. At one point where it goes down a wide wady I counted 75 parallel paths--nearly all showing fresh tracks. I found good turtle near camp & Olsen has a few jaw frag'ts. Thurs. Camels went in to Tamia last night. Hassan & Massaout digging trenches all day. May 15-Every day hot now. He has the same outfit which he had when in here before. H & M still trenching. The natives are all wearing shoes now. Either the heat or the winds have driven the flies pretty well out of the desert. Mon. thank goodness. though. The northeast wind brings the moisture. . Prospected some in afternoon and set H & M [Hassan & Massaout] to work trenching--no good results from either effort. Sun. Galmier left. We move to Alexandria Trail tomorrow. Fraas now and has a poorly preserved Palaeomastodon skull and a badly crushed skull of Megalohyrax from the upper beds. May 17-Had Markgraf down to dinner this evening--said “good bye”. They appear to do their feeding at night and return to the Gebel to seek shelter during the day. Olsen and I prospecting and the old men still at the quarry where they find a few good bones of Arsinoitherium. Weather very hot during the day time and we consume a great deal of water. The vegetation has sprung up in the desert to a surprising extent. Heavy wind tonight with much sand. Camels return to old camp at the pits tonight and will go on to Tamia tomorrow. May 19-Regulation weather. May 24-Very cool and fine in morning with fog hanging over Gebel again. Talba returned from Qasr Qurun with 4 fanitas after dark. May 22-Warmest day this month--so far. Markgraf expects to go in as soon as his camels return.
Sun. May 26-Both Olsen & I spent forenoon in upper beds with no success beyond a few frag't'y jaws. Fogbank on Gebel again this morning and extra heavy dew the past two nights. Bits of wood lying out are covered with large drops of water in the early morning. The early morning is delightful but by 7: o'clock the heat comes and it is not agreeable again untill 10: o'clock in the evening. Ankles still bother me. Mon. May 27-Heavy fog again. Busy today taking up small specimens--nothing
39 important. H & M keep at the trenching, have opened up many favorable looking places but they yield nothing. Tues. May 28-All five camels in tonight. We leave early tomorrow morning for the Temple. Very hot today. Daoud brought in a good Pterodon jaw from East somewhere. Finished up the few specimens we had out and are packed up ready to move. [Break camp, move to Qasr-el-Sagha--redux] Wed. May 29-Qasr-el-Sagha--moved in here from Ferrar Butte this forenoon and have stopped to give the camels a rest and to take photographs of Widanel-Faras and the petrified wood. Start for Tamia at two in the morning. Extremely hot today and almost no breeze and we were glad to reach the Temple and huddle up on the shady side of it. Have one tent up tonight-for Olsen & me. Saw a fine gazelle just as we were coming down from the bench back of the temple. It was not wild and watched our caravan untill we were out of sight. [In Cairo, Granger hospitalized] Thurs. May 30-Cairo.--arrived at 8:30 and came to Mrs. Scott's. Reached Tamia early and packed up in time to get away on 2: o'clock train. Extremely hot and dusty on railroad. We find Cairo very comfortable this evening. Fri. May 31-Lunch with Ferrar at his apartment today. Ankles still bothering me and I have not been about much. Museum closed today. Sat. June 1-Saw a physician today and he informed me that my ankles would not heal unless I went flat on my back for a week or so. He recommended the German Deaconess Hospital and I came around here this afternoon and have been put to bed . It is very quiet, cool and comfortable here. Have a room with one other patient as companion. An Englishman of the Signal Dept. of the State Ry's. Sun. June 2-Khamsine wind blowing today and the air outside full of dust. Dr. called and looked me over--thinks I may get out in a week or ten days . Olsen called after three o'clock when visitors are admitted. He has begun repacking our cases with Daoud and Ali to assist. Museum closes at 1: P.M. now, hot weather schedule. All Banks and public offices close at this hour. Stores close from 12 to 3, when the streets are almost deserted. Mon. June 3-Khamsine still at it. Olsen & Daoud called & brought letters from home. Tues. June 4-Was allowed out on the porch this afternoon for a while--weather pleasant again. Ferrar called with Olsen. Olsen reports that packing of bones is going on very satisfactorily. He is to call here every afternoon. Health is fine and ankles healing rapidly. Wed. June 5-Out on porch all afternoon. Big mail from Naples today, letters from home & the Museum. Thurs. June 6-Ferrar called again. Have walked about a little today in the room & on porch. Very hot during middle of day.
FIGURE 47. Standing (l.-r.) Ali (cook), Granger, Daoud; seated (l.-r.) Hassan, Massaout. This photograph taken during second trip to Fayum, for which Granger acquired a sun helmet.
FIGURE 48. Talba, the camel drover, on May 23.
40 Fri. June 7-Dr. in this A.M. and promises to let me out tomorrow. Olsen has made provisional booking today on steamer (N.D.L.) leaving Port Said for Naples on June 14th. Many natives in the hospital this afternoon to see their relatives who are in the wards on the first floor. Sat. June 8-Out of hospital this afternoon. Olsen & Ferrar called in carriage & we drove home, stopping at N.D.L. office to make final booking. Weather very cool and comfortable today. Dinner out on the sidewalk this evening. Cairo begins to wake up about Sundown and at 8: o'clock the whole European element is dining either on the sidewalk or out in the street in front of the various restaurants. [Last days in Cairo] Sun. June 9-Went around to the Museum this A.M. Helped Olsen label & tag the cases which are all packed in fine shape. Dr. Hume will arrange to ship out cases for us along with those which the S. D. is sending out. Settled up with Daoud, Ali and Talba today. Called to Museum for additional deposit. Went to Citadel in evening . Mon. June 10-Finished up labelling etc at the Museum this A.M. To Old Cairo  with Olsen & Mrs. Scott in afternoon. Tues. June 11-Went out to Giza this morning and settled up with Survey Dept. Mr. Humphreys now Acting Director. Goodbyes to Ferrar who sails tomorrow. Wed. June 12-Came up to Fechn on afternoon train to visit Dr. Hansen . Return to Cairo in morning. Thurs. June 13-Left Dr. Hansen's early this morning after a pleasant evening. Regret not being able to stay longer. Good bye to Dr. Hume at the Museum this afternoon. [Depart for U.S.] Fri. June 14-Port Said--weather delightfully cool here this evening. Left Cairo at 8: this A.M. Ali came to station to see us off. Hot and dusty but extremely interesting trip on the Railroad. Put up at Eastern Exchange Hotel . An interesting place with verandas around the house on each floor and doors from each room out on to them. Our boat, the “Bayern” is in the [Suez] Canal and is due here at 4: in the morning . Sat. June 15-Up at 4: this morning. Passed through the Customs inspection office and were rowed out, with our baggage, to the “Bayern”. Got under way about 7 o'clock and three hours later were out of sight of land (Fig. 49). [End of Notes] EPILOGUE Granger and Olsen sailed to Naples and then transhipped to the S.S. Prinzess Irene for the 14-day journey to New York (Fig. 50). When they arrived in June with their cargo of fossil crates, their accomplishment was evident . The expedition had been a success indeed and, four years later, would be touted as one of the most significant events in that decade of American paleontology . Yet, a glance at a history book, or a query to the general public, will confirm that it is an event the story
FIGURE 49. Olsen (l., standing) and Granger (r., seated) near the bow of the S.S. Bayern, Granger seated to rest his ankles.
and significance of which remains mostly unknown. Granger published nothing on the 1907 Fayum expedition . He barely mentioned it other than to note it as one of the locations of his many expeditions. The underlying narrative for Osborn's Century article (Fig. 51), of course, was Granger’s Notes, which Osborn edited for his own use: several pages of Notes show Osborn's trademark editing, bracketing and underlining with a red pencil-crayon by which whole portions of Granger’s material are underscored, and missing first names and titles are filled in (Fig. 52) . Thus, while Granger's Notes supplied the essence of Osborn's Century Magazine account, Osborn happily embellished and framed the display for his own benefit. The result is that, until the recent discovery and study of Granger's Notes, an inaccurate and incomplete rendition has existed of the 1907 Fayum expedition . While George Olsen was also in the Fayum for the entire expedition, he is not known to have kept his own account. He was a field assistant, not a trained paleontologist. Nor was he much of a writer; a review of letters Olsen wrote from Asia during the Central Asiatic Expeditions reveals that he was not especially prolific or literate--though he was charming . Osborn's handling of the 1907 expedition was predictable. He was not a collector, but an overseer. Having assessed the field situation with Granger, Osborn had already come home and had much to talk about. He quickly moved to publish and publicize his bold and pioneering expedition. By mid-April, while Granger and Olsen were still working in the Fayum, Osborn was attending the April 16-18, 1907, meeting of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. to present a talk
FIGURE 50. S.S. Prinzess Irene bounding through the Azores enroute to the United States.
FIGURE 51. Title page from Osborn’s 1907 narrative of the Fayum expedition in The Century Magazine.
42 entitled "Exploration in the Upper Eocene of the Fayum Desert," with hand-colored lantern slides . Osborn's Academy lecture coincided with his election to a three year term as a member of the Academy's council, as well as his occupation of three committee seats at the Academy: the Committee on Geology and Paleontology; the Committee on Biology; and the Committee on Election of Foreign Associates . Such prominence within the Academy was excellent positioning for Osborn, his department, and the Museum: the Academy was chartered by Congress in 1863 to provide scientific advice to the United States Government . Granger and Olsen returned to New York on July 3rd, 1907, with nearly 550 field-catalogued specimens, including several taxa new to science . They collected a considerable amount of new data on a geological region north of Birket Qurun and prepared a map showing the locations of the important finds made in the Fayum. They did some work also for other scientists such as collecting ants, gathering flint implements from Dimé, and obtaining invertebrate fossils from the Qasr el Sagha beds. Granger also took photographs to illustrate the geology and topography of the region, the different methods employed for collecting and transporting the fossils, and the various campsites occupied by the expedition. The 1907 collection of vertebrate fossils was important for its quantity of archaic and ancestral types as well as its reflection of great differences from the fauna typically found elsewhere in Africa. It was the first collection of fossils from the Fayum to be reposited anywhere in the United States. According to one American successor to the work in the Fayum, in addition to the finding of a small, intriguing, anthropoideanlike fossil piece of skull Granger labeled as "possible primate," [p]erhaps the primary contributions to paleontological knowledge made by [the] expedition were the recovery of the first rodents from the African Oligocene and the discovery of the upper fossil wood horizon . Unlike Osborn, whose primary interest was to collect large specimens suitable for display at the American Museum, Granger also searched diligently for the many smaller fossil specimens and pieces which contribute much to the progress of paleontological study. The anthropoidlike skull bone and the humble Oligocene rodent discovery would be among them. The Fayum finds quickly became considered among the most important made in vertebrate paleontology in a decade. At a meeting of the Geological Society of America in late December, 1911, the newly-formed paleontology section--the Paleontology Society--held a Symposium on Ten Years' Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology. The Paleontological Society, spawned in 1908, remained for a time within the older and larger Geological Society of America which was formed in 1889 . The session began without ambiguity: The discovery of the Fayum fauna is the most important find of the last decade in vertebrate paleontology. It has added a new and most remarkable type of giant quadruped, primitive stages in the evolution of the Proboscidea, Sirenia, and Cetacea, a wide variety of Hyracoidea, besides Carnivora, Rodents, and if Doctor [Max] Schlosser is correct, the earliest known Anthropoid Primates . Paleontologists were excited. Germany's Professor Max Schlosser and his postulation about the anthropoid primate promised significant advances in the study of evolution . While each Symposium speaker rose to proceed through his topic that winter's day in Washington, D.C., Walter Granger was in Europe, with Anna, visiting paleontologists and touring institutions. Osborn sent Granger over to study Europe's collections and exhibits, to confer with
its scientists and to arrange a fossil exchange program with the American Museum . When he arrived in Germany in early January, Granger conferred at length with his Fayum research colleagues, and Markgraf's mentors, Eberhard Fraas and Max Schlosser of Stuttgart and Munich, respectively . Granger carried fossil samples with him, as well as an extended list of fossils the Museum had available for exchange. In Europe, as he noted those he wished to obtain, he inaugurated the exchange program by leaving three fossils with the British Museum, two with the Paris Museum, five with Lyons University, eight with Professor Charles Déperet, and so on. When Osborn made substantially the same European tour a year later, his advance work was already done. The interplay between Osborn's approach to collecting, and Granger's, continued after the Department engaged Markgraf to continue collecting for them in the Fayum. On April 23, 1908, Osborn wrote to Markgraf that while he was pleased with the 1907 collection, he yearned for "more perfect" skulls of Arsinoitherium, Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. Osborn added that he realized "how very difficult it will be to secure this material...[but] I trust you will be fortunate in finding these specimens for us sooner or later." Before he sent his letter, however, Osborn appended a page with the following: P. S. Mr. Granger reminds me to ask you especially to keep your eyes open for small objects, which may be of very great importance, especially as they may have been overlooked by previous explorers . In correspondence during 1912, Granger congratulated Markgraf on specimens he collected for Professor Eberhard Fraas; Granger had seen them while visiting with Fraas in Munich that winter. Granger then added: I still have hopes that you will some day find a good skull of Arsinoitherium for us. If you have good skulls of any of the Syreniens [sic] I think Prof. Osborn would be willing to purchase them, in fact I think that any good skull material from the Fayum you could sell at the Museum if the price is right . The American Museum's association with Markgraf continued until his death from pulmonary tuberculosis (consumption) in January, 1916 , although by early 1915 the Museum was advising Markgraf that due to the war, it could no longer afford to buy material from him . Except for the solo work of Richard Markgraf until his death in 1916, paleontological expeditions to the Fayum ceased for a significant period of time after 1907. Important Fayum material was thereafter lost in the carnage of the World Wars, the Germans having been one of the three nations to explore the Fayum in any substantive way. Much of Markgraf's work thus was lost. The 1907 Fayum expedition activated an intense interest in the study of proboscideans by Osborn. This study would last for the rest of his life as he, Granger, and others labored on a huge tome entitled Proboscidea: A monograph of the discovery, evolution, migration and extinction of the mastodons and elephants of the world (Fig. 53). It was published in 1936, a year after Osborn's death. Work resumed in the Fayum in 1947 when Wendell Phillips entered the desert with the University of California Pan-African Expedition specifically to search for more fossil evidence of the anthropoid primate, Propliopithecus, found 40 years before . They were unsuccessful in that quest, although they returned with a fair collection of Fayum fossil vertebrates. Another 14 years would pass before a series of expeditions, begun in 1961 by Yale University, ignited an ongoing, methodic study of the Fayum . The Fayum Depression remains a fossil trove today. Research now
43 FIGURE 52. . Henry Osborn’s annotation of the fifth page of Granger’s Notes. Other examples will be found in Appendix A.
however. to be repacked for shipment overseas. himself. They had returned their equipment to the Egyptian Geological Survey. if not too assertive.. despite the manner of his cablegram to Granger. On April 22nd. I should be willing to pay a handsome price for it. had projected a relatively short duration for the expedition. Burned once over her wish to accompany the expedition to Egypt. She would have looked forward to his return and made plans to be with him. provided it reached us in good condition. could not let Granger’s plans stand. To Osborn he wrote: As you can see from my finds I diligently tried to fulfill your wishes and searched all over the localities known to me with which I just finished the 31st of March and hope you will be completely satisfied with my efforts . perhaps out West. Osborn responded to Markgraf's April 4. Twenty days later Markgraf sent a letter to Granger in New York. For a complete skull of Moeritherium with teeth preserved I would be willing to pay $50. As a result. or $200. He inquired: For two days now I am again in the desert and during my walk here I spotted two tents near Qasr el Sagha which probably were yours. Something else appears to have caused Osborn’s abrupt action. if not the heart. Granger had already reduced his operation as April set in. for some reason. Also under study is why and how the ancestors of whales left land for life in the ocean (many skeletal remains of the Basilosaurus found in the Fayum deposits bear evidence of vestigial hind limbs). Osborn would later report. Paleontologists currently studying the Fayum vertebrates have uncovered the remains of some of the earliest higher primates in the world . . noting in conclusion . and was also soliciting the opinions of Markgraf and British staff in Cairo who were experienced in the challenges of staying in the desert much longer. Anna Granger and Henry Osborn Osborn's cablegram of April 25. a rather ignoble turn of events took place. as well as correspondence surviving from other years and events in their marriage. as did Osborn’s wife (and children). Markgraf's own correspondence with Osborn and Granger (whom he thought was already back in New York) also confirms that a shorter timetable was envisioned. Messers. reveal that Walter and Anna Granger would have regularly corresponded while Walter was in Egypt. Osborn. On February 25th. she probably also felt quite left out of matters at this point. Sherwood. she sent three letters and some newsclippings to Department of Vertebrate Paleontology Curator W. Osborn. on July 29 . apparently." Entries in Granger's diary over the weeks leading up to April 25th indicate that he realized that the challenges presented by staying any longer would soon outweigh his diminishing fossil finds. She may have hoped to go with him to Middletown Springs. say $60 or 240 marks. Writing from Cairo in February shortly after leaving the Fayum. and that he would have kept her apprised of his activities and plans. he released most of his native workers. as we now know. She would have been aware of his standing plans and arrangements to leave the Fayum. hedged on whether his sudden cablegram ordering Granger and Olsen back into the Fayum would be heeded. Vermont for the extensive festivities planned to celebrate the 100th birthday of his great-uncle. 1907. letter in part as follows: Up to the present time we have not secured a fine skull of Arsinoitherium. [sic] marks. They had given their native assistants their final pay and released them. I desire also the anterior portion of the skull of Palaeomastodon with the upper tusks preserved . Matthew in New York to express her concern about the brewing political and military situation in China. fully expecting Granger to be there--they had said their goodbyes in the Fayum on May 17th.44 focuses on how and when the earliest relatives of man (Anthropoidea) lived. before returning for the Seventh International Congress of Zoology hosted by the Museum in August  (Fig. it was not. His phrasing also indicates that. Unfortunately. Anna’s concerns for Granger’s safety would rise again during the Central Asiatic Expeditions from 1921 to 1930 in China and Mongolia. Alpheus Haynes. Osborn declared: the work of the American Museum has been established by Professor Osborn on a two or three months' footing or as long as the weather is tolerably cool [emphasis added] . break camp. and return to America. Thus Osborn. This seems to me a gap in our collections which must be filled sooner or later. By April 5th. Did you find some good things in the last days ? Those were Granger's tents that Markgraf sighted at Qasr el Sagha on April 23rd. They had discarded their torn tents and tattered work-clothes. In 1925. and cut the number of caravan camels from eight to six. Osborn believed she was intrusive. and wrote back to essentially tell her so. D. If not. Osborn apparently perceived Anna's contact as a meddlesome and encroaching one: her inquiry about her husband’s health and plans constituting an intolerable assault upon the perimeter. urgency--at least as to finding those specified fossils--really was not the essence of the matter. Thus she wrote to Osborn seeking to confirm that Granger's work there would cease when planned and that the expedition would return to America when planned . The desert's conditions had become hostile as khamsine season approached.” she wrote in one letter . Matthew duly forwarded Anna’s material (except for one letter he said was missing) to AMNH Acting Director. Anna apparently sought assurance that Granger’s plan to return was on schedule--and if. Granger and Olsen are now prospecting diligently and will probably remain in the field some time longer and they may find one. of his authority. He was assessing his situation daily. that the expedition remained in the desert until June 12 “when it was interrupted by the severe heat of the summer” . and depart from the Fayum by April 21st and reach Tamia by April 25th. Recent interviews. and aware that conditions in the Fayum were deteriorating. As we now know. Their entire fossil collection awaited them in Cairo. I hope you may come across one in your prospecting which you will dispose of to us. Nevertheless. though these questions are being answered not by the Fayum material but by older material from Pakistan. I also desire especially to secure a skull of Moeritherium showing the anterior portion with the teeth preserved. . and the dangerous potential it posed to Expedition members. 1907. she thought he needed to get out of the desert for his own safety anyway. thus. surely came as tart surprise for Granger and Olsen as they stood at the Tamia train station thinking they were on their final departure from the desert... 54). George H. 20. Granger had already once extended his stay in the Fayum. as well as his increasing concern about flea bites . Henry Osborn knew fully of Granger's aim to conclude the expedition. he recorded "Have written to White Star Lines at Naples relinquishing our staterooms on the 'Celtic' [for] Mar. and Egypt. it makes one feel pretty serious. “When the older missionary folk (people who have lived through the Boxer time) scent danger. as noted earlier.
compared and contrasted by Osborn in his monumental monograph (1936) on the Proboscidea. .45 FIGURE 53. Skulls of North American Gomphotherium (upper) and Egyptian Phiomia (=Palaemastodon according to some workers)(lower).
Matthew’s comment suggests a post-Fayum expedition assessment by the Museum that Anna’s tangle with Osborn in 1907. 1907. For this second trip. Matthew’s advising Markgraf that the Museum could no longer afford to pay him. in the past winter.. and wrote about a proposed new search as follows: In regard to Professor Osborn’s wish regarding my collecting further for small forms such as Schlosser has described. by reason of much searching. since I did not know that they were wanted in N. Granger’s letters so that she will not feel that her information and implied advice have been neglected . a year later. I had. which lasted through Markgraf’s death in early 1916. were discovered on the surface.46 FIGURE 54. I should like to do so provided Professor Osborn can make it possible. . in January. in reality. Osborn may have won a battle in April. They collected little of additional significance. 1907. By 1912. If I should find any more good specimens of them. because of World War I. and why the AMNH of Osborn never returned. sold partly to the British Museum and partly to France and Germany. as he did several months earlier over whether she could travel with the Fayum expedition. Osborn and the Museum could hardly justify the very result she’d warned against--infirmity to Granger. Post-1907 Fayum The American Museum’s use of Markgraf in the Fayum continued after 1907 until the Museum encountered financial strain in early 1915.. he advised Granger that In reference to the fossils which are desired by your Museum. Markgraf was dead. Markgraf was able to find little of much interest to the Museum. those particular specimens in the Oligocene occur very seldom here. but Anna won the war. Two years later. The Museum declined and. a bittersweet conclusion which may help to explain why the pioneering and essentially successful 1907 Fayum Expedition has remained littlementioned since. I regret to say that I am unable to get any more skulls of Arsinoitherium and Palaeomastodon. Osborn's directive to Granger and Olsen to return to the Fayum was rash and absurd. became not one.Y. Thus. reestablish camp and work under worsened weather conditions. in response to Osborn’s inquiry. and actually was. and these have. more easily utilized instead . The few that have been found up to now. I will let you know . As you yourself know. 1908. He is apt to find enough material to pay the expenses and if he should be fortunate enough to secure a good skull I would suggest awaiting its arrival here before setting a value upon . Osborn and Granger (behind Osborn’s right shoulder) are at front left. which I. Perhaps the most intriguing exchange about Markgraf’s continued work in the Fayum after 1907 was between Osborn and Granger. very fine specimens of Zeuglodonts and Syrenen [sic].. recall their workers. Granger and Olsen were forced to re-equip completely in Cairo.. The 1907 Fayum expedition. also the place where the Ancodus was found might be further considered . despite considerable effort. etc. On April 27. The place from which most of these small things come from is almost exhausted. I submit Mrs. and the poisonous effect of Granger’s flea bites finally incapacitated him sufficiently to land him in a Cairo hospital bed for two weeks. all been collected. but two--as Granger noted when he wrote in his expedition report “Six camels were engaged for this second trip (emphasis added)” . before the Museum could act to acquire it. should thereafter sensitize the Museum to her concerns. Markgraf could have been. But. given the consequent hospitalization of Granger in Cairo. Markgraf exchanged letters with Matthew. Participants in the Seventh International Congress of Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History on August 27. although some of what he did find went elsewhere. return to the Fayum. I cannot undertake this work on my own account because it is too risky. 1915. Granger replied as follows: Dear Professor Osborn: Herr Markgraf’s offer seems reasonable. This consequence was most pungent: Osborn’s decision had endangered the well-being of his best collector. Only the place from which Pliopithecus teeth and rodents came will possibly yield further specimens.
we know that by March 13th. Keeping a separate diary thus would have been redundant.. among other things. or even a true automobile road. Olsen & Daoud called & brought letters from home”). addressed only the expedition portion of Granger’s record (diary) of the entire trip. Hartley T. including Henry Osborn. We need. the cost of preparation should have a large influence over its value. The car had two brake handles: one to the rear drums and one to the transmission. Letters to Prof. this is also roughly the way he'd done things--with horse.4 liter.. 1907. likely maintained contemporaneously with letters written to Anna. 15 years later. He may have kept his diary in that form-letters to Anna. While we may never know all the answers.and is certainly . “Fri.. Their experience in the Fayum in 1907 clearly impressed Osborn and Granger with the power and potential camels played in enabling a party to work long term at a remote desert work site and send out a succession of fossil boxes weighing as much as 400 pounds each. a 10. except by letter. four-cylinder. This then also suggests that Notes is a fairly complete (unabridged) account of the Fayum expedition. but dried. for the first international motor marathon.. driven by Auguste Pons. This is. the word “trip” apparently referring to the entire journey from New York City harbor and back. Thereafter. June 3--. the Central Asiatic Expeditions employed them to consummate their claim on the Gobi's fossils. Concerning when Notes was actually written. The source for Notes What was the diary from which Notes was taken? Notes gives few clues. However.” and “Mon. sail powered "go-cart. an open-topped car hand built over a slightly-reinforced auto chassis loaded with four on the floor behind a huge 7. with Jean Bizac as mechanic. one-cylinder. of course. the 15 hp four-cylinder Spyker. Genoa. Unlike Granger's limited selection of campsites in the Fayum. and home. Granger was a prolific correspondent throughout his life.and automobiles One little-recognized aspect of the American Museum's 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt is the groundwork it laid for its five highlypublicized. May 24--. 55). because that is what led her to contact Osborn seeking assurance that Granger would depart the Fayum as planned (knowing he had already delayed his departure once). I think it would be profitable to us to have him continue in the field untill [sic] June. George Olsen. and others. four-wheeled. Borghese won by 21 days . and the 6 hp. For example. Ferrar. camels. Italy's Prince Scipione Luigi Marcantanio Francesco Rodolfo Borghese 47 (Prince Borghese) readied his crew.. two-stroke Contal tri-car." Edward Wilson recorded that the vehicle was "rigged up by putting two rum barrels on axles and a frame work. a three to four days' round journey . Fossils. The initial segment of the race crossed Mongolia--including the Gobi Desert--on a direct line from Kalgan to Urga. These Expeditions were feasible because they combined motor car with camel. The five automobiles fully loaded with gear and occupants took it on without road maps. 45 hp racing engine capable of 60 mph (peaking at 1250 rpm). noting rather graphically that Markgraf’s camel bled after being bitten and that Markgraf once lost a camel due to flea bites.. driven by Georges Cormier. Osborn stated that the party [would] only succeed through thorough. The expeditioners were free to roam about the Gobi in their motorcars and collect fossils as they wished because they were resupplied on location by successive rotations of camel caravan. exactly the procedure Granger used in the Fayum for his 1907 expedition. A well-travelled caravan route lined with telegraph poles guided them from Kalgan toward Urga. although Anna’s correspondence with Osborn still exists. the campsites in the Gobi were as wide-ranging as the reach of the motor vehicles and the preplanned. We know Granger conveyed his concern to Anna. of course. was a veteran of Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition to the Antarctic from 1901 to 1904 where. as it would Walter Granger. Some of the Fayum fossils are very easily prepared and others take much time. we do know that Notes was created in time for Osborn to use it to prepare his article for the October. Thus. as does Granger’s with Osborn. driven by Charles Goddard. as the ancient Persians brought camels to Egypt to abet the consolidation of their political influence. and Naples. The motorists and the camel drovers kept predetermined rendezvous. fleas and bites.. it is noted that water damage along the right edges of the original blurred the ink up through the April 4 entry. issue of Century Magazine. systematic and prolonged search and excavation. As Granger and Olsen sailed home. but not after (Fig... well-distributed rendezvous sites of car and humped beast. Absent the camels. keeping the camp supplied.. the 1907 Fayum expedition's guide. She would have been ravenous for a constant stream of such correspondence: her husband was to be away in a foreign land for months and essentially out of touch. More to the point. including stops at the Azores. Very respectfully. It is possible that Granger’s diary was constituted through his letters to Anna.. Gibraltar. 2-cylinder de Dion-Bouton. Granger used the least damaged blank sheets until May 13. The purpose of the Fayum trip was to accomplish the Fayum expedition. therefore. limb material of Palaeomastodon and a good pelvis of Arsinoitherium.g. with Edgardo Longono as passenger. The Prince's entry was an Itala 35/45. That was the only information Osborn needed to prepare his Century Magazine article: the excerpted Notes...000mile test of the world's latest technological marvel--the automobile. paper. driven by Victor Collignon. wagon and rail--since his early days of fossil-collecting in the American West. it is also recognized that Granger’s title refers to the Fayum Trip. gas or repair stations.it. I think that any material which Markgraf secures would be worth the boxing and shipping charges to us. and no Granger Fayum diary is known to exist. He caravanned boxes of fossils from the desert to the railroad station in Tamia where they were transported to Cairo by rail for repacking and shipment to New York. The race that summer ran from Peking to Paris. summer-long.. an identical de Dion-Bouton. He corresponded regularly while he was in Egypt (e. across Mongolia and Siberia. O. the 10hp. when he obviously began to write on more damaged. with Octave Foucault as mechanic. once the Gobi portion of the American Museum’s Central Asiatic Expeditions (1921-1930) commenced in 1922. Granger was quite concerned about flies. Writing for Science in 1907. with Jean du Taillis as passenger. co-driver Ettore Guizzardi and journalist Luigi Barzini. The fossil boxes were then taken on to Peking by rail and there they were repacked for shipment by boat to New York. Five cars entered for the contest: Borghese's. One purpose of this paper is to place the matter on the table for further inquiry. Ernest Shackelton experimented with a home-made. This suggests Notes was created in the field. If Markgraf is willing. emptied and then reloaded with fossils for transport back to Kalgan. A train of eight camels is constantly moving to and fro. especially. None of Walter and Anna Grangers' private correspondence from this expedition is known to exist either. paleontology-oriented expeditions to the Gobi Desert during the 1920s as a part of the Central Asiatic Expeditions in which Granger played a key role. Walter Granger  Whether Granger’s final remark was meant to needle Osborn is something we may never know. Boxes of supplies were brought out from Kalgan. This suggests that the water damage occurred on April 4.
.48 FIGURE 55. An example of deterioration and water damage found on many pages of Granger’s Notes.
National Archives. as well as for her usual underlying research wizardry. So. but also for valuable advice in the preparation of this contribution" . G. Still recovering upon his return home. In his technical reports. Therefore. John Lavas is thanked for his excellent line art renderings. Like any experienced paleontologist. Penny Colman and Don Kron (regretfully misspelled in our NMMNH&S Bulletin 19) also were especially helpful to the research or understanding of this event.. In 1908. Kathy Kentner. consolidate and transport. to secure proboscidean and other fossils for study and exhibition and to shed further light on Africa’s role in the evolution of Paleogene mammals. Andras Zboray. But it also clear that Granger’s last-minute return to the Fayum for more collecting did not produce much. and two weeks in the hospital post fieldwork--surely this dampened Granger’s enthusiasm for a return trip. The concept. though not recognized as such by Osborn) Apidium phiomensa. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre. he described the following new taxa: the bizarre "insectivore" Ptolemaia lyonsi. John Lavas. that he had met his match in Egypt. Osborn stressed that "the writer [Osborn] is especially indebted to Mr. Rupert Wild. Ingo Rafuss. Divya Mehta. Tom Dubois. John Lavas and Dana Redington for their close readings of earlier versions of this paper. John Fleagle. The best explanation of why there were no subsequent AMNH Fayum expeditions is pluralistic: much as there were multiple reasons why the expedition occurred in the first place. American Research Center. S. Michael Walkowiak. His lifelong bibliography  indicates that Osborn published little (and therefore little researched) on mammals such as rodents and creodonts. this veteran of thirteen rugged American West expeditions may have been easily convinced. because neither Osborn nor Granger 49 nor any direct participant in the 1907 Expedition ever explained the lack of a followup. the question arises: if the 1907 expedition was so successful. Chris Beard. a mercenary Markgraf. His own post-expedition writing recalls an understandable hope for discovering new kinds of fossils in the Fayum as one of the motivations behind the 1907 Expedition. Universität Tübingen . Therefore. the 1907 Expedition’s success was in part responsible for the lack of a continued program. 827). though significant. Institut und Museum Geologie und Paläontologie. and he published the new taxa. or. ominously. Osborn acknowledged a heavy debt of gratitude to Granger. judging from his correspondence and from passages such as the following: ‘The finding of the two heads of Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon was the chief object of our expedition from the purely museum standpoint” (Osborn. His postdoctoral student H. the exhibition goals of the expedition apparently were met—two fine proboscidean skulls and other materials worthy of display. the newly recovered Fayum mammal taxa. Eden Volohonsky. this was the only time in Granger’s life that he required hospitalization. Walter Granger not only for the careful manner in which this material has been worked up. Osborn may ultimately have been disappointed. Gerhard Maier. U. Amy Chew. Furthermore. and Osborn himself continued to come back to the Fayum proboscideans throughout his research life . Krister Linde. He stated that "the hope that exceptionally careful methods of search might result in a substantial addition to the Fayûm fauna was realized by the discovery of three of the smaller kinds of mammals which had hitherto escaped the eyes of collectors. Osborn went on to describe the new creodonts Pterodon leptognathus. Kenneth Rose. There probably was no second AMNH expedition simply because there did not appear to be a good chance of discovering enough new and interesting material to justify the expense of one. Katherine Morgan is also thanked for her close review of this version of the paper. if not already so. at least. why didn’t the AMNH go back again to the Fayum? The answer must be conjectural. Olsen’s own natural immunity and Keating’s Powder notwithstanding. Boston Public Library. New York Public Library. Ted Finch. He. Anna may also have played a persuasive role. the impetus to return "from a purely museum standpoint" may have been gone. the striking similarities between vast. questioned the efficacy of another expedition. fossils difficult to extract. we believe. The Notes reveal a physically exhausting and mentally trying field expedition: Tough living conditions and logistical difficulties in an inhospitable desert. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS VLM thanks Katherine Morgan. S. Thomas Bown. All evidence suggests clearly that Osborn’s motives for the AMNH Fayum Expedition were multiple: to place his DVP on the world stage. David Love. the rodents Phiomys andrewsi and Metaphiomys beadnelli and the anthropoid primate (a monkey. However. to discover new mammal fossils. Rainger (quoted earlier) recognized this broader scientific motivation behind the 1907 Fayum expedition in Osborn’s evident interest in Africa as a center of mammalian evolution during the Paleogene. Gratitude is also expressed those who facilitated access to archived material at Agate National Fossil Monument. representing especially the Rodentia and members of the two other mammalian orders which are not determinable at present" . Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde.” . Osborn well understood the significance of the fossils that had been collected. may have not desired to return to Egypt. the key phrase here is "from the purely museum standpoint. This suggests that Osborn was not merely moved to organize the 1907 Fayum Expedition to search for proboscidean fossils and/or fossils for exhibition. there were mutiple reasons why the AMNH never returned.the first wheeled vehicle the Antarctic has ever seen. However. So far as we know. 1907. although an objective assessment of the scientific results of the expedition indicates success. barren and remote expanses of snow and ice to the equally barren and remote expanses of deserts and badlands were factored in to finally find a way . and displayed energy and skill in the work of collection" . Granger simply could not protect himself from the nasty consequences of the flea bites. Phillipe Taquet. If so. To this end.. Granger’s Notes has several entries that indicate various quarries and localities were being worked out. Part of the answer. Metasinopa fraasii and Hyaenodon brachycephalus . was to get around faster and further. phiomensis. Simons  argued that "primarily he [Osborn] appears to have wanted materials for exhibition. Caran Redington. quite simply. Daniela Möbius. A collection of ~500 identifiable fossils that includes complete skulls for exhibition and five new genera and eight new species and the first fossil rodents from an entire continent must be regarded as a paleontological success . Anna may have also made it clear that he wasn’t going abroad again without her-and he never did. of course. Also. were not Osborn’s main interest. Lakhina. p. John Larson. As he had noted earlier. Furthermore. may have lain in Granger himself. those flea bites had killed a camel. a fractious and at times rebellious local field crew. Helen Morgan. Osborn variously described the collection made in the Fayum by the 1907 Expedition as "about 550" (1908) or "about 500" (1909) specimens. He recalled that Granger "remained in charge [after Osborn’s departure from the field] until June 14. P. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology (American Museum of Natural History)." which is anobvious and important contextual qualifier for Osborn’s statement. Thomas Bown. Matsumoto worked up much of the proboscidean and hyracoid material years later . Donald Russell. he knew that any well-searched fossil field can and will produce new and significant fossils. Aftermath of the 1907 Fayum expedition Osborn published the main scientific results of the 1907 AMNH Expedition in two articles . In 1909.
. The American Research Center in Egypt graciously permitted VLM to present on this topic at their 52nd Annual Meeting held at Brown University in April. VLM thanks Justin Mayrand. Hilda Haight and Kent Kicza for their various quick. VLM thanks SGL for joining in this paper." In that regard. In 1997. VLM is also thankful for the University of New Hampshire's Dimond Library: a mere moment's walk. rescues.50 and University of Uppsala. it has placed many a needed research item right at the fingertips. The Granger Papers Project launched an abridged. Finally. bicycle ride. 2001. website version of Granger’s Notes called "Faiyum Diary--Forgotten Expedition to a Lost World. VLM and SGL express deep appreciation to Pat Holroyd. repair work and other. Barry Kues and David Rains Wallace for so generously giving their time and expertise to provide close and constructive reviews of the manuscript which led to this publication. Geological Library. or modem click away. sometimes embarrassing. witty and effective computer software and hardware upgrade recommendations.
DVP. 6. 1921. AMNH.. n. p. v. J. _____.. L. G. 8. and Klein. F. p.g. 635 p. For our cursory treatment throughout. 815-835 (also editorial abstract: Nature. 1921. Adaptive radiations and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings National Academy of Science. 6.. p. B. Evolution and geographic distribution of the Proboscidea: Moeritheres. v. p. 139-140. p. Egypt: Stratigraphy. E. Mertz. New York: Walker and Company. p. _____. Bown. T. J. Proboscidea.. The evolution. 84. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. G. Papers on Paleontology. 273-302. New subfamily. 4). 99. P. Osborn makes clear that the expedition occurred in 1907. Tombs and Hieroglyphs: the story of Egyptology. H. p. 1. 1938. and Tassy. The feeding habits of Moeritherium and Paleomastodon: Nature. 9. 622). _____. p. B. 805-1675 p.. v. p. A monograph of the discovery. 513-516. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28.. Simpson is likely referring to Osborn’s two popular publications: The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639)(1907) p. n. 1988. Mastodontoidea: New York. Oxford: Oxford University Press. n. Simons also holds (p. M. spurred support for his efforts to expand the size and scope of his department’s activities. 21 March 1907. Osborn also returned often to the Fayum proboscideans in subsequent articles and monographs published throughout his career: _____. 1923. 1907. 1992. 271-272 (also The NY Evening Post. The American Museum expedition to the Fayûm desert: The Nation. The Fayûm expedition of the American Museum: Science. 231-234. 1.. as does Granger’s “Report on the Expedition To The Fayûm. 17 October 1907. The Fayoum.. M.. v. J. n. 29 March 1907. 10 April 1907. no. J. Concession to the Improbable. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. _____. Inc. Linnean classification and the phylogenetic classification of the Proboscidea: Palaeontologica Hungarica. D. and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. p. Zoogeographical relations of North Africa in the upper Eocene: Proceedings International Zoological Congress. 10. 1988. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayûm desert: The Century Magazine. v. 29 July 1909. v. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. _____.. 265-272. 15491906. 603-632.. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. According to Osborn. 11. Eighteen principles of adaptation in allomiometron and aristogenes: Palaeobiologica. p. p. v. 2001. _____. 1968. 81. 32. 1942. v. and new ones are issued nearly every day it seems.1934.. Scores of delightful resource works exist on the history of Egypt. 802 p. n. P. particularly extinct elephants. _____. v. Waterfield.1912. R. Kappelman. Temples. 6. 25 March 1908.. phylogeny and classification of the Mastodontoidea: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 448-455. D. v. 1995. 4 p. 21 March 1907. session VII. we relied primarily on the works of: Bratton. 4 April 1907. Colbert. 1971. 1967. 84. _____. E. 1923. Thompson. Massachusetts. New York: The MacMillan Company. 24. 7. p. and Vondra. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. Fayum Depression. Proboscidea. Simons and Wood. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. The Genesis of British Egyptology. 1988. Final conclusions on the evolution. L. and Wortham. 15. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History.. Archaeological work in Egypt: The Nation. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. p. See.. American Museum of Natural History. p.. II. xxiv. v. and paleoenvironments: University of Michigan. Wing. 1996)]. 7. 14). _____. S. 76. The Fayum primate forest revisited: Journal of Human Evolution. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. Egypt. A History of Egyptian Archaeology. D. 222.. July. p. New York: Thomas Y. only: Proceedings of the U. M. 84 p. M. Notes. p. Kraus. evolution. 1921. 1919.. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. deinotheres and mastodonts: Journal of Mammalogy. G. n. 26. Bown. In both. Tiffney. But note an opposite assessment by Rainger in An Agenda for Antiquity where he (p. Rexner. p. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. 56. eds. 1-60+4. Egypt. p.. The Age of Mammals in Europe. Crowell Company. p. R. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Princeton: Princeton University Press. _____. 1981. v. 2) that it occurred in “1906-07. Colonising Egypt. J. New York: Coward-McCann. Elephantoidea: New York. Osborn actually published directly on the 1907 Fayum expedition itself as follows: _____. v. 30. T. J. 1968. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. p. 1982. and Kraus. _____. 94) states: In 1907 Osborn was able to convince Jesup to sponsor an expedition to the Fayûm of Egypt. evolution.. _____. 1921. 1925. Fleagle. This and other translations of field locations are taken from the “Glossary” of Bown and Kraus. Hunting the two million year old elephant: The Illustrated London News Supplement. Fayum Depression. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. J. 6 p. 74.. phylogeny and classification of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. Deinotheroidea. v. p. 10. p. v. 25. n. v. The Proboscidea: Evolution and palaeocology of elephants and their relatives. _____. 265-266. generic and specific stages of evolution of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. _____. Simons. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. New Series. T. 2177. Migrations and affinities of the fossil proboscideans of North and South America and Africa: American Naturalist. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. _____.. F. National Museum. Evolution. _____. 327-332. in Shoshani. 60. 9 September 1909. Hewison. Africa was another major center of adaptive radiation and therefore important for his work on the evolution and geographical distribution of mammals. Palaeomastodon the ancestor of the long-jawed mastodons. L. 639. N. p. 5. Norell to V. C. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. 513-516 and Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: Discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History: The Century Magazine. 1988. Moeritherioidea. 7 March 1908. for example. 132. Mitchell..” which is provided in Appendix B. American Museum of Natural History. Bown and Kraus. 740. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum. His promise to bring back new and unique specimens of large African animals. v. American Museum of Natural History: 125 years of expedition and discovery. Cambridge.. Inc. 1964. _____. Stegodontoidea. 5. n. v. p.. 815-835. 74. 1936. 2. Gingerich. 3594. phylogeny.. M. 2179. H. 64. v. 3.” 4. 139. 177-184. _____. S. Ironically.51 NOTES [Citations to archival sources researched in the 1990s may be affected by subsequent system changes (e. 6 February 1907. _____. 1996. 1988. Morgan. 17-35. New York: Henry N. The age of the Fayum primates as determined by paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy: Journal of Human Evolu- . p. _____. p.. I. 320-321 (also The [NY] Evening Post. Fayum Depression. 1922. A monograph of the discovery. age. 9. 35-54. Fayum Province. L. p. Asia and North America. 1992. Abrams. 415-424.
Sandweiss. Capetta et al. the sister and consort of Oceanus. Gagnon (1997) presented the most recent analysis of the paleoecology of the Fayum faunas. In the heavily forested equatorial region of Africa. (4) hyracoids (Order Hyracoidea)--primitive ungulates. be referred to as elephants and their allies.. v. Dybas. 1976. K.. or it was a vast gulf on the eastern side of Pangea. Egypt: Smithsonian Contributions. rhinoceros-like ungulates that have no descendants. including the genera Apidium. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. and Schild. 1992. M. including the Ptolemaiida. See. 1962. about 20 million years ago. from Morocco to Egypt. 1997. It includes the primitive proboscideans found in the Fayum.." Therefore. and Kappelman. R. 24. Floods. The recently discovered fossils mammal sites are equivalent in age to the Fayum record and are broadly similar. hyaena-like hunters and scavengers who were the main predators during the Paleogene. can. Polly. D. Myres. E. P.. M. the word elephant is not a synonym of proboscidean. years ago. Tethys extended from Gibraltar to India. The fossil localities are concentrated in three regions: southern Africa. 14. Princeton: Princeton University Press. mostly moeritheres and barytheres. Fayum mammal fossils include: (1) anthracotheres (Order Artiodactyla)--a group of hippopotamuslike ungulates (hooved). 30. In the Jebel Qatrani Formation. Only the elephantids. their earliest representatives date from the Oligocene and some of which attained the size of modern boars. 1988. (6) barytheres (Order Barytheria)--unusual. eds.. eds. p. Africa collided with Eurasia so that a land connection was established via the Arabian Peninsula and Asia Minor. 32. T. and Rasmussen. J. 1999. 22. most of which are of Plio-Pleistocene age. basing it on the goddess Tithos of Greek mythology.. elephant shrews (Macroscelidea). See. Said. and Kraus... B.. the gomphotheres (a group of very successful proboscideans. 2002.. Holroyd (written communication). A. and Schild. 377 p. Jebel means ridge or cliff. Heizmann.. P. The southern and eastern African sites are of Neogene age. Oligopithecus. v. 2000. 133-160. III. (7) (Order Cetacea) basilosaurs-ancestral whales with limb skeletons that link older land-dwelling ungulates to modern cetaceans. D. propliopithecid and tarsiid primates. L. As to Memphis.. By the time the rocks in the Fayum were deposited. 21. 17. and Maasch. During the Miocene. the mastodonts and the elephantids.gov/od/lpa/ news/tips/99/tip90902. M. L. J. Propliopithecus.800. 12. Egypt: Palaeovertebrata. Serie C. new discoveries at a range of northern African sites (especially in Libya and Algeria) have yielded equally old or older (including Paleocene) sites. 100. 15. strictly speaking. primarily of the Miocene-Pliocene). 1988. and (9) parapithecid. and is also spelled Gebel. They include both marine records of mostly archeocetes and sirenians and nonmarine records.. 1996. see Bown and Kraus. New records of terrestrial mammals from the upper Eocene Qasr el Sagha Formation. p. M. J. 155-226. p. Savage and Russell (1983) and Shoshani et al. 60. (1996). which are living Elephas and the mammoths. 1991. (2) arsinoitheres (Order Embrithopoda. E. Simons. J. P. eastern Africa (principally Kenya) and northern Africa along the Mediterranean coast. 19. and Emperors: El Nino and the fate of civilizations. Nr. 1986. New age determinations for the Eocene-Oligocene sediments in the Fayum depression. (1978). F. 495-503. 10. Fagan.52 tion. New York: Warner Books.. B.. v. Proboscidea is an order of mammals that should. the supercontinent of the Permian-Triassic when all the continents were amalgamated.. 62. J. The famed Swiss geologist Edward Suess introduced the name in 1893. See. D. few fossil mammal localities are known.. Paleoenvironment of the Earliest Hominids: New Evidence from the Oligocene Avifauna of Egypt: Science. Richardson.. Wendorf. A. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. The Geology of Egypt.. p. such as the moeritheres and barytheres. see Thompson. p. C. M. C. M. Changes in El Niño frequency show up in Egypt’s Nile River: www. Ecological diversity and community ecology in the Fayum sequence (Egypt): Journal of Human Evolution. C.nsf.htm#third. For reviews and some specifics. see Wendorf. or in. L. 1-20. 1971. L. and marsupials (Polyprotodonta). (5) proboscideans (Order Proboscidea)--included ancestral forms that were the progenitors of the later mastodons and the modern elephants. but later replaced by modern carnivores. Parapithecus. J. separating Africa from Eurasia.000 BP onset of El Niño. 1976. Tethys was an ancient seaway. he recognized four temporally distinct faunal assemblages and documented their similarity to modern mammal faunas in forest and woodland/bushland habitats. Bown. However. New York: Academic Press. D. Northern Egypt: Journal of Geology. v. For hundreds of millions of years. As to Lake Moeris. p.. and Simons. See also. Holroyd. and Swisher. the Tethys sea divided the northern and southern continents. in the EoceneOligocene. 65-70 16. 224 (figure 160). 1995. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. and Nash. beginning in the 1960s and 1970s. El Niño is now thought to have begun occurring about 5. S. L. D. L. H. p. H. 233. p. El Niño: Unlocking the secrets of the master weather-maker.. 1202-1204. and many are renowned for their fossil hominid record (especially of Australopithecus). 175-192. 22. See. Olson. rodents (Rodentia). R.. Bown to V. Africa is now known to have an extensive fossil record of mammals. 23.. v. p. insectivores.. the proboscideans). T. 18. (3) creodonts (Order Creodonta)--archaic. see Cooke (1978). 152. or Djebel. 20. elephant-like forms that left no descendants and whose exact taxonomic position is uncertain (they are generally placed closest to. E. See generally. p. S. the first known from Africa. the earliest known ancestors of the extinct dryopithecine apes and ultimately of the living great apes and man. Fayum Province. 25. Gabal.. (8) sirenians (Order Sirenia--sea cows). Thus ended Tethys. See Gagnon. now extinct)--large. 1996. 13. about 600 million years ago. bats (Chiroptera).. p. T. Herodotus: Father of history. New York: HarperCollins. and Olson. J. Amsterdam: Elsevier. F. L. Fayum depression. Science. Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5. . Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. A. E. in common parlance. p. The Fayum mammals were long the oldest known mammals from the African continent. be called "elephants. which was then separated into the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean basins (see Tozer. 647-654.. B. and Aegyptopithecus. New York: Academic Press. Rasmussen. Simons. 2002. 11. born in the late Precambrian or the Cambrian. Rollins. J. 1531-1533. R. 273. Reitz. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. Fossil Birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. Morgan. E. Famines. P. 1987. n. 1989). T. A.
M. 229-250. S. 1994. 109 et seq. See Morgan. Orlebar. The latest opinion. I. 2000. Gingerich. v. 1904. A. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. II and III): Geological Magazine. On some pleurodiran chelonians from the Eocene of the Fayûm.res. D. _____. 562. I): Geological Magazine. when the British Army successfully invaded and fought nationalists at Alexandria and the Suez. p. B. Egypt became a British protectorate in 1882. (9) many birds. v. (2) sea snakes (Pterosphenus). p. 1901. and Egypt remained under British control until 1922. i. 8. Fossil mammalia from Egypt (Pt. or "upper fossil-wood zone. was thereupon installed as “administrator” of Egypt. (6) sharks and skates. 152) states that “the Egyptians regarded the Fayyum depression. financially and artistically. 1st Quarter (Jan. A.htm). 1904. 1906. Egypt. The Granger Papers Project. Zalmout.. 31. (8) teleost (bony) fishes (both pristid and siluroid types). 7. 481. A. v. 1904. Notes on an expedition to the Fayûm. M. S. Cromer’s term ended in 1907. v. 1899. H. Australia. The Barypoda. v. Arthur's mother 15th in direct line from Henry III. S. and Malkani. Gingerich. Notes on the species of Palaeomastodon: Geological Magazine. _____. L. Orlebar moved to Melbourne. which were quite possibly the largest snakes ever from the Eocene. v. The Beadnell-Andrews "fossil-wood zone" was later refined to "lower fossil-wood zone" when a second zone. 30. (5) lizards. L. Sometime thereafter. Fossil Mammalia from Egypt (Pt. p. 6. Fossils from Egypt. 337. Raza. v. Arif. 481. and may have reached well over 9. Andrews. 1902. v. Orlebar. p. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. p. i. 163. M. Young Orlebar was educated at Oxford and took an interest in science. 1995. 28. I. 115.. it appears that Orlebar finally took it upon himself. British Museum Trustees. 99. 1900. Bown to V. He died in Melbourne in 1866. 10. Some consider this upper zone.53 B. 1903. p. v. Scinde & Cutch: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. M. M. where.. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. to publish the figures.. 1. p. Orlebar obviously relished his trip to Egypt. and the Fayyum was also said to be the place where Isis reassembled and secretly buried Osiris’s limbs. _____. v.2 meters long. The First Fossil Hunters. he became a School Inspector for the Victoria National Education Board. Fayum non-mammal fossils include: (1) giant constrictor boöids (Gigantophis). USA. Their individually (A-Andrews.. Further notes on the mammals of the Eocene of Egypt (Pts. Earl of Cromer. p. 291. 26. But. v. with descriptions of some new mammals: Geological Magazine. 27. 7. and (10) a wide range of plants and trace fossils of social insects. a new order of Mammalia--with description of the cranium of Ptolemaia grangeri: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Egypt: London. Anwar. not to have yielded sufficient amounts of fossil-wood concentrations to truly distinguish it (T. X. _____.. Little appears available on his life and career. p.. This over 165 year old building now serves as office and centre of scientific activities for the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. known dryly in accounts heretofore as the person who first described a Fayum fossil--a tree remnant.iigm. nor have his years of birth and death. (4) crocodilians. and _____. T. 1845. Research of the 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt has brought attention to A.-Edw. Head Model School Chief Inspector in 1859. 32. p. v. _____. B. Egypt: Annals & Magazine of Natural History. (3) turtles.. M. v. _____. p. 1846.. C. 14 leaves of plates ill. 8 p. Ptolemaiida. i. 1900.). 25. Egypt: Geological Magazine. _____. with a note on the occurrence of a ratite bird in the upper Eocene beds of the Fayûm: Proceedings of the Zoological Society. 25). _____. p. 1. Both parents were from royalty. 29. From that Institute's website. v. we learn that: The Colaba Observatory was built in 1826 by the East India Company for astronomical observations and timekeeping. in 1854. Mayor (2000. or history been documented. ii. Princeton University Press. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. v. (7) lungfish. v. 2001. _____. p.. 92. New whale from the Eocene of Pakistan and the origin of cetacean swimming: Nature. _____. 1903. B-Beadnell) and jointly (C) published papers are: A. Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: Hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan: Science. Simons. 293.. He then became a Member of the Examining Board for Teachers in 1855. 33. i.. however. D. Notes on some new Crocodilia from the Miocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. 527. V. as the origin of all life forms. P. and Senior Inspector under the Board of Education in 1862. 8. Sir Evelyn Baring. His connection to the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society developed through the Colaba Observatory. v. Orlebar's 1845 publication was supplemented in 1846 by hand-drawn figures that were not published in 1845 because of budget constraints (see. then the Professor of Astronomy at Bombay's Elphinstone College (http://www. E. allies the Embrithopoda (includes the families Phenacolophidae and Arsinoitheriidae) with the Hyracoidea as suborders of an order Uranotheria.. Indeed. p. 196 B. 1901. 2. 2. Arthur was the second of their nine children. 9. II): Geological Magazine. B. Archives.. 368. with a purpose to provide support to British and other shipping activity which used Bombay as a port. p. _____. and Zhou. Royal Society of London. _____. & Grand. 2002. II): Geological Magazine. I): Geological Magazine. 119-139). 481. 436. 1905. I. L. Orlebar's full name has never been cited. Orlebar?: The Granger Report. p. See Mayor. p.. 347 p. predecessor of today's Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. teaching and traveling. P. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayûm. 433. ii. 1904. p. a region rich in a variety of Tertiary fossils of large and bizarre mammals. v.. B. p. On a new species of chelonian (Podocnemis aegyptiaca) from the lower Miocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. v. who were married in 1807. 1995). and Bown. . 844-847. Haq.. Khan. On the evolution of the Proboscidea: Philosophical Transactions. 3269. v. fasc. 1845. 1905. _____. for he also published “Observations on the Mahomedan Architecture in Cairo” (Orlebar. 6. B. located in Bombay. III): Geological Magazine.in/ history. p. Note on the gigantic land-tortoise (Testudo ammon) from the upper Eocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. M.” thus implying ancient knowledge of Fayum fossil bones. that of McKenna and Bell (1997). 9. Morgan. _____. W.. 1902. On the pelvis and hind-limb of Mullerornis betsilei. M. A. _____. Orlebar. Note on a Pliocene vertebrate fauna from the Wadi Natrun. v. a new order of ungulate mammals: Geological Magazine.. Who was A. 401. 2239-2242. p. What we do know is that Arthur Bedford Orlebar was born in England in 1810 to Robert Charles and Charlotte Shipton Orlebar. Geomagnetic and meteorological measurements were started here in 1841 by Arthur Bedford Orlebar." was found 92 meters up the escarpment by Walter Granger in 1907.. 400. most closely related to the Perissodactyla. Some observations on the geology of the Egyptian Desert: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1903. p.
1901. Fossile Flora und Fauna im Fayøum: paläontologische Bedeutung des Gebel el Qatrâni (Oligozän): Papyrus 5-6. He was the first Scandinavian to employ comparative anatomy. J. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. and _____. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. v. p. W. H. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906. 1988. Serie C. L. Osborn would later argue that although his paper was published in 1900. 1968... 26. Tullberg (especially p. 30. P. Archives.. In prescient prose. 18. F. 34. if one agrees that Tullberg and Stehlin were likely to have drafted their works in advance of publication as well. H. v. Markgraf correspondence file. 1905. p. E. v. P. His promise to bring back new and unique specimens of large African animals. _____. J. 1991. Heizmann.. Geologie und Paläontologie. Über das System der Nagethiere. 30. Despite certain. Nr. 39. p. 1995. 540-546. 30. Tullberg is a 514-page monograph published in two segments. 8.. Survey Department. v. As to Markgraf’s farm. Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. Heizmann.. The Fayum Depression: a preliminary notice of a district in Egypt containing a new Palaeogene fauna: Geological Magazine. 287. R. His study of vertebrates led to the publication "Sveriges Podurider" in 1872. 1899-1900. 483-500) discusses the paleobiogeography of rodents and its implications for ancient land bridges. p. 561-574. G. H. L. J.. The geological and faunal relations of Europe and America during the Tertiary Period and the theory of the successive invasion of an African fauna: Science.54 B. H. 41. F. 478-488. II. perhaps glaring. 30. 819. from 1890 to 1933. Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. 24 February 1907. 40. However. See generally. 42. 336 p. Serie C. Stromer. and Beadnell. guided the DVP and the AMNH to heights surely neither would have reached otherwise. Hellman (1969). p. with translation by Krister Linde of Uppsala University).important for his work on the evolution and geographical distribution of mammals. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblblatt für Mineralogie. 1991. (1900). Heizmann. n. E. _____. E.. Stromer (1916) adds that Markgraf also received a medal from the government of Bavaria. A preliminary notice of a landtortoise from the upper Eocene of the Fayûm. Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. J. 27. Serie C. 1902. p. Scient. and Osborn.) 37. E. fn. Markgraf to W. it could be argued that Stehlin's two-volume treatise published over two years (_____. (Rainger. E. Découvertes géologiques récentes dans la vallée du Nil et le Désert Libyen: Paris. 287.. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. A. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblatt für Mineralogie. Simpson (1978).. 65-70. Stehlin. 30. He spent his career at the Naturhistorische Museum in Basel. For a fuller narrative of the relationship between Fraas and Markgraf. 1). histology and embryology. 66. Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. 483-500. 1991. see Heizmann. Högänas. p. Geologie und Paläontologie. As one author put it (although obviously mistaken as to when the “convincing” took place): in 1907 [sic] Osborn was able to convince [American Museum president] Jesup to sponsor an expedition to the Fayum of Egypt [because] Africa was. and Wood. hystricognathous rodents and proboscideans. 65-70. Survey Department. H. Soc. and Stromer.. An Agenda for Antiquity.” thus predating the other two by at least a year. spurred support for his efforts to expand the size and scope of his department's activities. erster Theil. 35. Tycho Tullberg was a zoologist and professor at Uppsala University from 1882 to 1907. Henry Fairfield Osborn was an adroit administrator and. Gesellscahft der Wissenschaften zu Upsala am 3 April 1897.. p. Gismann. p. 1907. C. The Century Magazine. p. 45.. 94. 65-70. E. p. 6. v. Perhaps to better match himself with his two European colleagues. giving Stehlin priority. This does little to advance his cause. 1907. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde.. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. and _____. 44. 36. E. This work is primarily on rodent (including lagomorph) anatomy and phylogeny. 337-527) must have been drafted either in early 1899 or even earlier. Beadnell. 1991. 75-78. see Notes. Indeed. particularly extinct elephants. Tullberg made great contributions to the teaching of evolutionary theory. The Century Magazine. P. but its last section (p. P. Bd. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. or more. 101 p. J. Hans Georg Stehlin was a Swiss vertebrate paleontologist and zoologist. Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. 25 August 1912. 38. Serie C.. . New Series. Serie C. Nova acta R. working on Cenozoic mammals and authoring a number of significant works. see Simons. A preliminary note on Arsinoitherium zitteli. Géol. however. Survey Department. p. 1991. in 1898. C. Rainger (1991) and Morgan and Lucas (2002)... The topography and geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt: Cairo. R. v. 74. p. American Museum of Natural History. 43. Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. Osborn. it was actually drafted in 1899 (Osborn. 1902. 78) states that the medal was from the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. Granger. Nr. E. Andrews. R. Survey Department. A. J. Egypt: Cairo. E. p. Fayum Province. p. p. Osborn’s management and administrative prowesses and results are treated in (among others). 1900. L. 816. 489-491) identifies an African origin for key elements of the Eocene-Miocene land-mammal faunas of Eurasia. Tullberg. P. 1899. VIII Cong. including anthropoid primates. A preliminary note on some new mammals from the upper Eocene of Egypt: Cairo. p. T. and was a co-founder of the Linnean Society (Linnesallskapet) (Nationalencyklopedin. Durch die Wüste Die FayumExpedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Nr. to whom he was related through his mother. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. 1903. 1991. II. 9. Beadnell: Cairo. 1901. Tullberg’s priority over Stehlin and Osborn is established by his title page where its states the monograph was “Mitgetheilt [To inform] der Konigl. p. 1916.1900. Upsal. Internat. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. 1899. 1916. Heizmann. 27. negative traits. Nr. As to Markgraf’s collecting history. 11 (April 13).. 66. He also wrote several papers on Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus). and Gismann (1988. _____ and _____. J. Stuttgarter Deiträge zur Naturkunde. Nr. Stehlin and Tullberg. the first 328 pages in 1899 and the remainder in 1900.
T. p. 74. 23. K. Strouse. 50.. Archives.” A. 56. Archives. and a huge seven volume report on his scientific results was published in 1903 as Reports of the Princeton University Expedition to Patagonia 1896-1899. Nevertheless. Granger. Paleontologist: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 19.. 118-121. Archives. Hatcher’s Patagonia exploits remained essentially hidden from public view until this narrative was culled and published 80 years later in Bone Hunters in Patagonia. 69.. p. Osborn and Roosevelt shared a number of common grounds--privilege. F. 1907. Morgan: American financier. and T. 2000. Egypt. 80. R.: The last romantic. See. Harold J. 1984. p. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. G. F. M. 194 (“’As long as Mrs. 1907. T. Simpson. p. New Haven: Yale University Press. ”to. G. v. Strouse.”) and p. American Museum of Natural History. to football field-sized proportions (K. See. Princeton was more than ready to associate itself with (if not “shanghai”) Hatcher’s 1896-1899 effort. 2000. Cook.. F. Osborn’s final years during the early 1930s were a bit less illustrious. Cook Papers. 28 July 1995. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Olsen was the only person to collect with Granger on the three continents (America. J. 186 et seq. New York: BasicBooks. W.the Fayum of Egypt in 1907. 76. 79. Morgan: American financier. H. New York: The Natural History Press. 53. New York: HarperPerennial. 819820. p.. L. 46-47.. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Morgan: American financier. 28 July 1995. 1978. Osborn is the only other colleague to visit Granger at localities on all three. 17-19.). Stout to Morgans. Broom correspondence file. n. Discoverers of the Lost World. South Royalton. Osborn. 560.. F.. The Century Magazine. 66. Morgan: American financier. See. Stout to Morgans.. 1969. 513-516. 682. 16 January 1933. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. p. M. Osborn.. Hellman. 204 (“Dr. 77. H. Bone Hunters in Patagonia. 131). 58. 78. 75... Davison is not a scientific man but I understand a very good business man. society. The Granger Papers Project. J. 1907. G. 48. p. 62. 2000. 55. Osborn to R. The Earliest Apes: Scientific American. L. The first volume of that work contains Hatcher’s exceptional narrative of the expeditions. See also... Brands. 1907. Baedeker. Archives. 1907. 28 July 1995. Thomson to H.. 1907. politics. expansion. n. 1996). p. p. Walter Granger. 1907. e. G. Concession to the Improbable. 68. H. 639. Morgan. p.. Morgan: American financier. 238. 74. 61. p. Trubee Davison is now the big chief. Morgan. 2-3 February 1907. The Century Magazine. pp. 71. p. G.”). Bankers. Granger. Strouse. 1908. Bones & Beetles. 74. 49. American Museum of Natural History). G. Egypt and the Sudan (sixth remodelled ed.. W. Strouse. J.. Granger. 60. 272. Hatcher’s large and significant fossil collection was deposited with Princeton University for study. B. Rose to V. Mr. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. New Series. But. S. p.. R. D. p. Inc. and Lucas. 1-58.... Strouse. p. 25.. Science. Osborn held several ignoble beliefs based largely on a sense of his own superiority.. T. E. Margaret Mead . 65. n. Broom. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. H. 1997.. 4 January 1907 (R.55 46. he took Granger along to do the work” (Simpson. See. Give Me My Father’s Body. v.. Egypt. interest in natural history. New York: HarperPerennial. V. 1967. Notes. 73. New York: Time. by Ox Bow Press in 1985. 51. K. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. VT: Steerforth Press.. Agate National Fossil Monument. even implying that Hatcher had received institutional funding and assistance. of course. Egypt. L. especially p.. 28-35. Morgan: American financier. J. H. 18721941. p. Bankers. 205. p. Strouse. G. This practice has now expanded. 816817. 6. p. Morgan: American financier. W. 72. 202 (“A lady curator . American Museum of Natural History. through the use of push brooms. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology.’”). F. 1907. travel. n. p.. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. T. 217. 1969. Archives. By then.g. Strouse. 63. G. 1985. Harper. 236 et seq. p. Brands. Osborn . 6. v. Rainger. Morgan: American financier. Bones & Beetles. p. CT: Ox Bow Press. American Museum of Natural History. 67. 1934. Even though Osborn collected fossils as a student at Princeton.: The last romantic. See. . Explorers Club (NYC)--which also coincided neatly with the purposes of the American Museum of Natural History. Archives.. 57... M. 6. 47. 272. 193-206. Hellman. 2002. An Agenda for Antiquity. Hatcher. Attending Marvels: A Patagonian journal. Africa and Asia) Granger worked in his career. G. 1907. 52. 59. 379.. Woodbridge.. 145 et seq.. Stout to Morgans. Simons. 558. Simpson. 64.. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker. Strouse. v. 54. W. The Museum suffered financially in the Depression years and came to believe that its only recourse was to become run more like a business: “I suppose you have heard before this that Professor Osborn is no longer president of the American Museum of Natural History. Osborn. 70.
A. Ohio. M. A "preparer" or "preparator" is one who readies fossil for study and display by removing extraneous material. Utah. v. Ezbekîyeh. and memorabilia. 817. A. loose and albumed photographs. T. to foment secession from the Colonies through land deals in Georgia. and steam laundry. v. D. word. 94. 2002. Granger's original composition-content. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. in New Mexico. 32. 93. 96. Anglo-American bar. lift. 1907. Hamlin. The hotel contained 350 rooms. and Granger. 83. W..-)--remain unchanged. with field notes by the collector: Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History. S.E. T. and the need for a geological survey was felt. 1872-1941. Wyoming and Nebraska.. so that readers may confront the task. p.. Natural History. NJ. Hugh John Llewellyn Beadnell (1874-1944) (Fig. v. a copy of the original Notes has been placed in Appendix A. Granger. G.) After the original was destroyed during the 1952 riots for liberation. 96.. or about $4. 7191. 1995. L. in 1895. List of mammals collected in the Black Hills region of South Dakota and in western Kansas by Mr. L. J. even sharing an apartment. Cairo. 3. Canandaigua. 92. which was located on Shâria' Kâmel. 1907. spelling (e. W. F.) 87. 241-258. 79-80). According to Hartley T. An Old Kingdom basalt quarry at Widan el-Faras and the quarry road to Lake Moeris in the Faiyum. p. demands for permission to prospect for oil or to search for minerals of economic value became more frequent. 1994). List of mammals collected by Mr.g. 1907. V. 1926. A.g. 79). O. J. Lyons.. p... 26. leaving interpretations and judgments to be made. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. M. Arsinotherium). Paleontologist: Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. 1977. n. 1-4. and Bown. G. p. Room prices started at 80 piastres (= about 80% of a British £. but it is difficult to reproduce a handwritten document accurately in typeset: the writing is sometimes hard to read. Englewood. Wortman--A Biographical Sketch. Walter Granger.. 2). n. 1907. it is even difficult to decide a dash from a period. This unfavourable report allowed the geological exploration of the country from an economic point of view to be taken systematically. 31. 88. (Osborn. as well as other areas of Egypt. 82. Article XV. cleaning and consolidating the fossil. Jacob Wortman and Walter Granger would become close friends. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 90. S. Simpson. Egypt: Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. which Granger also cites as "S. Osborn acknowledged that Wortman contributed to the Museum's eventual success: during the brief but brilliant period of eight years when Doctor Wortman laid the first field foundations of mammalian and reptilian palaeontology in the American Museum of Natural History. New York.. “pocketfull. 1908. 1895. American Museum of Natural History. and Allen. in August. G. Arsinoitherium). 8.. Walter Granger: Science. in New York City for a time (E. Gideon Granger once tried to blackmail Thomas Jefferson over an affair. American Museum of Natural History. According to Ferrar (1926. NY: Granger Homestead Society. Granger. v. A. 6. 89. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. 12 March 1907 et seq.g. Wortman felt compelled to part company with Osborn after a series of personality clashes and took a position at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. 74. 338-339 (from reprint. Notes. the locally based fossil-hunter Richard Markgraf continued on behalf of these . tourist agent. Archives. Referring to the original Shepheard's Hotel.56 81. Archives. J. A.. and Lucas. p. 2441. failures to underline (e. amidst a collection of Walter and Anna Grangers’ papers. Ferrar (1926.. restaurant. Egypt: The Ostracon. Gideon Granger. 95. matching fossil parts. underlining (e. Allen.. Notes was found in the attic of Granger’s youngest sister's (Mary Granger Morgan) home at Hanover. Gideon Granger is also thought to have attempted.g. Thomas Cook & Son. “As Egypt prospered under British guidance. 1896. land rich investor living in Canandaigua. came to the conclusion that the supply of oil that might be obtained would not be sufficient to repay working. Faiyum Depression. H. At one time. p.g. Notes is presented here in typeset. 1982. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 98. 97. post and telegraph office. (not further identified) to W. Lyons “had patrolled the Egyptian deserts during military operations against the Mahidi and his followers.00 American at the time.. 1895-96. day and date headings have been conformed. Egypt. The Century Magazine. he owned nearly all the land that now comprises Cleveland. Egypt. J. Sir Henry George Lyons (1864-1944). NH. 9 March 1896. n. See. Peterson. L.T. Winser to J. F. Morgan. Archives. Granger. 7. officers of the newly-formed survey. Colbert to V. and is also sometimes quirky.. Walter W. He spent his final years as a cash poor. some of which may unintentionally serve to defeat the flavor of the original.” Hence ensued closer examination of the Fayum. 85. 27 November 1901. H. After Wortman's death in 1926. 19. A..” “Gebel el-Qatrani”). p 1-58. Peterson's conflicts with Osborn had caused him to depart for the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh a few years earlier. if they wish. During this year. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. J. Granger with field notes by the collector: Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History. A. Archives. His discovery of mammal fossils in the Fayûm in 1900 sparked a five-year British exploration and later German (1906) and American (1907) exploration. In 1896 such a survey was initiated by H. after inspecting [oil seepage at] the Gebel Zeit area.. In 1899. p. cross-outs and insertion marks have been deleted. 91. Harrell. Walter W. see Morgan. v. Osborn. L. and Bown. and Harrell. 17). Article VII. J. 1995.. The oldest paved road. it was re-built along the Nile River. H. Allen. while attempting to be helpful to the reader's comprehension. 84. British geologist and member of the Egyptian Survey Department. punctuation (e. Ars.. together with O. flow and idiosyncrasies. Therefore. p. (Baedeker. p. parentheticals. For fuller treatment of Walter Granger. 259-274. p. G. p. n.--word). and again in 1898.. 1941. Jefferson responded by offering to acknowledge the affair. American Museum of Natural History. 86. 1907. Thus. H. Director-General of the Egyptian Survey Department upon his retirement from the Royal Engineers. 652.. Sometimes. with Burr. and abbreviations (e. etc. Notes is edited in a manner intended to remain faithful and sensitive to Granger's time." was formally called the Egyptian Survey Department of the Public Works Ministry. A. 6. The Granger Papers Project.” The Survey. and annotations are made in brackets [ ].
p. who led Harvard-MFA expeditions to Egypt for more than 40 years. a narrow gauge line that networked the Delta and the Fayum. Dr. Flicks was an outfitter located in the Havana House that sold tobacco and cigars (Baedeker. President Theodore Roosevelt and Joseph Hodges Choate. England. Fleurents was an outfitter located in the Square Halim that sold household items. Alfred Lucas (1867-1945). 109. cycles. 1863) as a private in Company K.. p. who was among the first to systematically study Egyptian mummies with an x-ray device. dog carts. wife of Sonofru and mother of Cheops. swimming and other baths. 90). Charles.. W.. Inc. 1967. also an ardent amateur geologist. lawn tennis courts. water tanks. from 1904 to 1914. 33). in June of 1901. Hayes (1822-1893). Voyage of the Discovery). Tombs. American curator of the Egyptian Department of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts from 1910 to 1942. The camp equipage and provisions were forwarded to Tamia by rail. and arranging for the employment of natives and camels. Granger's advances were approximately (US) $50 to Talba and $25 to Daoud.. Beadnell's second exploration of the Fayum. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. L. Also known among the westerners working at the site as "Harvard Camp" (see generally. stables. 103. and President of the United States (1869-1877). 111. he gained top honors at a science competition called the National Science Tripos and immediately signed on as geologist with Commander Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition (British National Antarctic Expedition. cooking outfits. To his wife. Sir Evelyn Baring. Hartley T. 1907. He is best known for his excavations at Giza. 101.5 piastres (Baedeker.” remains unidentified. The Vermont of Today-With its Historic Background. 74-82) held at Dunedin. The Mena House Hotel was (and still is) a luxury hotel located adjacent to the pyramid field at Giza. 7). and a professor at Harvard University from 1905 to 1942. Scott wrote "Ferrar was a conceited young ass to begin with and it took quite a time to bring him to his bearings” (Pound. 1929. American Civil War general (18611865). it did not accommodate the AMNH expedition party’s desire to travel at leisure through the pyramid field. his Egyptian Survey Department boss. p. British anatomist at the University of Cairo. 180 rooms: restaurant. Sir Grafton Elliot-Smith (1871-1937). Rutherford B. 1908. and the specialist to reach various remote points with comparative ease. riding track. In a somewhat eerie sequel to Hartley T. Lyons. Grant (1822-1885). 1901-04) (Pound. as Granger will relate. former American ambassador to Great Britain and a trustee of the American Museum of Natural History. When construction of the American Museum of Natural History began in 1874. 102. also served in the Civil War and fought at Gettysburg (July 1-3. 5 millièmes Egyptian. equaled about 19. 1908. American Museum of Natural History. E. it was Grant. Temples and Ancient . The battle for Vicksburg was fought from 1862 to 1863. Hartley Ferrar left Egypt for New Zealand in 1913 where he lived the remainder of his life. 1966. He died in 1932. British paleontologist and member of the British Museum [of Natural History]. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. R. He headed the German archaeological effort in Egypt.. 107. Another method for entering the Fayum was via the Egyptian Light Railway. Ludwig Borchardt (1863-1938). Ferrar (1879-1932) (Figs.57 latter two nations until his death in 1916. W.. member of the geological section of the Egyptian Survey Department from 1905 to 1913. in charge of natives under Daoud. 100. Beadnell published his enduring geologic study of the area entitled “Topography and Geology of the Fayoum Province of Egypt” in 1905. who laid the cornerstone. sand carts. In 1901. 19A and 21). raised in South Africa and educated at the Oundle School and Sidney Sussex College at Cambridge. loaning tents. 1956. New Zealand. chief chemist of the Egyptian Survey Department. Vol. etc. Ferrar published a “Short Account of the Search for Petroleum in Egypt” for the Dominion Mining Conference (n. p. Reisner is also known as discoverer of the tomb of Queen Hetep-heres. the nearest railway point to the fossil fields. The British pound sterling (£) was then worth 97 piastres. p. commander in chief of the Union Army (1864-1865). and German-led expeditions. London: Blandford Press). 31). A. Twelve camels were hired and ordered to proceed to Tamia in the Fayum. later (1924) compiled a small book of Data Miscellanea on Robert Falcon Scott's illfated British Antarctic (Terra Nova) Expedition (1910-13)." However. opened the doors. Ferrar was born in Ireland. the most prominent of which was Abusîr. Baring ruled in Egypt until his resignation later in 1907. Ulysses S. 1908. Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904. J. Installed by the British military intervention into Egyptian affairs in 1882. 105. Present throughout this area were various American-. carriages. the explorer. see Diary of the 'Discovery' Expedition by Edward Wilson (Wilson. E. At age 22. Dr.S. wine and preserved meats (Baedeker. 1907. In 1926. 531). New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. or Lord Cromer (1841-1917). Granger’s expedition report states: The Survey Department placed its services at the disposal of the party. 1967. 928. library. 99. IV. as well as an excellent firsthand account of Scott's expedition. A number of papers were issued as their work progressed over the next few years (see note 33). tools. Scott later wrote that Ferrar's "work threw considerable light on the structure of the vast land mass" (Scott. 36). p. L. According to Baedeker (1908. from 50-100 piastres a room (Baedeker. Andrews joined Egyptian Survey Department geologist Hugh J. which started in 1902 and lasted for nearly 25 years. called Deutsche-Orient Gesellschaft. p. 110. Archives. who also authored books on ancient Egyptian materials and industries. J. At the ceremony upon completion three years later. Ferrar's trip on the Discovery. Charles William Andrews (1866-1924). $1 U. 12th Vermont Infantry (Stone. Capt. Granger. which hosts a collection of pyramids from Giza to Meidum. 104. British-. For further references to Ferrar. F. “Mr. 1908. 108. however. The pyramid field is the high desert area located along the Nile River west and south of Cairo. his successor (1877-1881). xvi). title pageMoney Table). and it did not reach into the northern perimeter of the Fayum where the expedition intended to camp and collect (see Fig. German egyptologist and pyramidologist known for his explorations of many sites in Egypt. Egypt. the British Consul-General in Egypt to whom Osborn and Granger presented "characteristically personal and enthusiastic" letters of introduction from U. Smith. 106. "though of little importance to the ordinary tourist. Granger’s father.. as well as forensic chemistry and scientific criminal investigation. Attractions and People.S. Baring was succeeded by Sir Eldon Gorst. 36). [the lines of the Light Railway] enable the business man. R. p. George Andrew Reisner (1867-1942)..
consult messieurs Théophile Gautier and Gaston Maspero. and afterward ask for a tip. Arab caliphates. Josephine Butte = Tel Markgraf (Markgraf’s Hill). 36 and 44B). or trader in natural history specimens (Stromer. Indeed. 113. With only a brief return to native rule after Esarhaddon. p. Tamia was the railroad stop closest to the AMNH work area in the Fayum. bylined “H." 122. 557-558). After visiting archaeological excavations by Theodore M. M. and go to Egypt (Strouse. 4 April 1907. Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. p. French and English. also from New York. Osborn also addressed the matter in an interesting piece. The last step at the top was only 0. until 1952. This specimen may have been of some interest to Osborn. or $10 U. where he discovered the private tombs of the Archaic Cemetery. Presumably. title pageMoney Table). As Granger indicates in Notes (Feb.O. 1908. 123. Once arrived. Dr. The shellac from Cairo was too thin. 1916. For French accounts. The first step was the largest. 1908. Bown to V. American Museum of Natural History. He seems to have accepted his lot as a loner and was well-suited to the rigors of camping and collecting in the desert. per Markgraf) was like a small pig-like anthracothere and is now considered a synonym of Bothriodon. Ludwig Borchardt's assistant at the excavation of the Abusîr pyramids. in 1882. Albert Morton Lythgoe (1868-1934). The French excavators who preceded Lythgoe at Lisht were Théophile Gautier and Gaston Maspero. Unlike the AMNH party. Walking the surface while scanning for fossils by eye. who is credited with developing modern archaeological practices and regarded as the father of modern Egyptology. curator of the Egyptian Department. 320321) 117. but points out to us (written communication. 116. P. Dr. 125. a small hyracoid from the early Oligocene. metal. Granger's methodology was described by Osborn by letter to Richard Markgraf regarding an Arsinoitherium skull: "Now that you understand our method of soaking the skull with shellac solution and protecting it further by bandages applied to all parts of the surface. 1988. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 24). Richard Markgraf. excavator of the Zoser complex of Sakkara. W. some 1. 7). Holroyd (1999. R. and Fairfield Butte = Tel Taleb (Fox Hill)( T. It should also be very carefully packed. Native entrepreneurs would offer assistance to climbers.” the large. n. Morgan to persuade the New York Metropolitan Museum to hire Lythgoe from Boston. Macedonians and Ptolmaic Greeks. Today these buttes are known as: Lyon’s Butte = Tel Akgrab (Scorpion Hill). Granger’s landmarks are triangulated in Figure 35. Saghatherium. Romans (including Byzantium). 1916). Dr.F. 22 April 1907.” entitled “Archaeological Work in Egypt” (The Nation. Osborn to R. p.) 112. for the sadly short time he had left to live. Morgan: American financier. 128. Morgan.5 meters high. 129. Here. Referring to the Osborn party location. because it will receive severe jolting on its journey to America. and the gum arabic was too thick.C. He was once apprenticed to Sir William Matthews Flinders Petrie (1853-1942). having worked in 1905 and 1906 as a Harvard professor with the Harvard UniversityMuseum of Fine Arts expedition at Giza led by George A. F. 84. to leave his loved ones behind in Europe. v. and make no mention of his immediate family (Stromer. 1) earlier published the position of quarries A and B. 118. p. stood ready to hoist the tourist wishing the ultimate view upon their shoulders. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Granger is overlooking the Fayum depression from higher ground to the east (see Fig. 2002) that she inadvertently located them too far to the southeast. The two dominant colonial influences in Egypt. 1906) based on a specimen Markgraf had collected and sent to Fraas. 114. Thus. 115. 2179. also looking for a tip. 1995). Ferrar Butte = Tel Homar (Donkey Hill)." (H. Ancodon (or Ancodus. 131. p. Granger’s climb was 137 meters at a 51° 52' angle.S. He lost his wife and gave his daughter to her grandparents for care. Markgraf correspondence file. “Fanitas” was Granger’s word for “fantasses. In any event. from a British archaeologist's standpoint. M. and an outer casing of bandages stiffened with plaster of paris. 119. Cairo. Granger desired a solution of proper consistency to soak in sufficiently to bind the fossil together for protection in transit. The English were the latest and the last. an itinerant mason and musician from Slavic northern Bohemia who eventually settled in Egypt to become a fossilhunter and self-described Naturalienhändler.) 124. you will probably be able to pack the skull in such a manner that it will reach us without breakage. Markgraf was an Austrian violinist who apparently was forced by illness. Reisner (18671942). Edouard Naville and others more than 300 kilometers to the south at and near Luxor once he left the Fayum. Muller. 9. Bown (written communication. Others have written that Markgraf was German and played the piano. occupation of Egypt was resumed under the Persians. and excavator at the Lisht Pyramids. were often at odds over how best to proceed with archaeological work there. box-like water containers used by the expedition (see Figs. The rivalry was capped when. Wadi is a ravine or watercourse that generally remains dry. Gismann.54 meters high. Ferrar sent his men back to Tamia and had the telegraph sent from there. Lythgoe had prior expedition experience in Egypt. title page-Money Table). 120. (Baedeker. 130. (Baedeker. Thomas M. 78). see Seventy Years in Archaeology by Sir William Flinders Petrie. Markgraf. The placement of localities in Figure 35 was deduced from Notes with the assistance of Dr. it was Reisner’s presence in Egypt on behalf of the Boston institutions that led J. p.” The opportunity for a panoramic view of Cairo was much desired by visitors. Markgraf succeeded well in making a life in Egypt and becoming an excellent fossil-collector. the British military took control over Egypt and installed Lord Cromer to govern. From the capture of the Nile Valley by the Assyrian king Esarhaddon in 671 B.S. Baksheesh (bakshish) means “tip. 1995). fig. the French and the British. James Edward Quibell (1867-1935). 121. Simons and Wood. 12 piastres is about 62 cents U. 126.. other natives. L.58 Art. as he had earlier published a paper on Saghatherium (Osborn. March 2. 127. For the liveliest contemporary account of this period. Markgraf’s natural talent for collecting fossils and antiquities first drew . Egypt experienced almost continuous foreign occupation. Granger later refers to this process as "stripping. and then indigence. Archives. 1968. 195 piastres. Davis. Ottoman Turks and Mamelukes.
the attention of German paleontologist Eberhard Fraas during a visit to Egypt in 1897 (see note 38). In 1903, Markgraf left his Mokattam Hills work to explore the desert west of Cairo for the first time with Fraas’ colleague, Ernst Stromer. One of the areas they visited was the British site in the northern section of the Fayum oasis near the Jebel el-Qatrani escarpment. Markgraf became so enchanted by the Fayum itself that he bought a small farm in a village called Sennoures in central Fayum (see Fig. 7). Thereafter, he traveled seasonally to the northern sector to collect Mesozoic and Paleogene specimens for Fraas in Stuttgart, Schlosser in Munich, and the natural history museum in Frankfurt. Richard Markgraf worked under very difficult, isolated conditions and, in the history of paleontology, he remains obscure despite his association with some of the finest natural history museums in the world and brief recognition when he received the Order of the Crown from the King of Württemberg in 1904 and a medal of merit from the Bavarian Academy of Science (Stromer, 1916; Gismann, 1988, p. 78). Richard Markgraf died of consumption in January, 1916, at about age 60 (Gismann, 1988, p. 78). 132. Dr. Eberhard Fraas (1862-1915), a German authority on fossil reptiles who headed the vertebrate collection at the Natural History Museum in Stuttgart, Germany. Most of Fraas's collections and papers were lost in the allied bombing of Stuttgart during World War II. Fraas first noticed Richard Markgraf's collecting skills during a visit to Egypt in 1897. Fraas had planned a journey onward to east and south Africa, but could not do so. He thus stayed in Cairo, where he met Markgraf working in the Mokattam Hills. Fraas decided he could use Markgraf's natural talent for collecting, which skills he refined by tutoring Markgraf in vertebrate fossil work, mostly through correspondence after Fraas returned to Germany. Fraas also provided for Markgraf financially, together with the Stuttgart's Consul in Egypt Teodore Wanner and a German businessman in Cairo named Gustav Metz. In early 1906, Eberhard Fraas returned to Egypt to explore the Fayum with Markgraf. This 1906 German expedition was financed by Wanner, Metz, and Fraas' brother Victor. Fraas and Markgraf departed the Giza pyramid field in early March with three Bedouins and camels, and reached the Fayum on March 11th. The party spent 10 days exploring and collecting in the upper Eocene Qasr el-Sagha Formation and in the Oligocene of the Jebel Qatrani Formation. They found, among other fossils, excellent specimens of Arsinoitherium and Basilosaurus isis (see note 37). 133. Thought to refer to the upper sequence of the Jebel Qatrani Formation (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 134. “Plotting” is transposing the precise location of each fossil find to a single map to create a blueprint showing the found fossils' history and association for that area. 135. Dr. William Morton Wheeler (1865-1937), American Museum entomologist and world authority on the natural history and biology of ants. 136. Granger’s impression also may have been caused by the lack of common language between Granger and Markgraf. Or, Markgraf may have commented on the large incisors, which indeed are rodent-like, which caused Granger to conclude that Markgraf thought it was a rodent (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 137. Probably a fennec, the long-eared Saharan fox common to the Fayum (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 138. In 1947, American paleontologist Robert Denison also recorded the presence of clay in the Fayum. On October 7, 1947, Denison wrote that
59 he observed a "sandy lense in clayey beds..." two kilometers northeast of Qasr el Sagha, on the southwest side of a ravine near base of the Qasr el Sagha series escarpment which he also diagrammed stratigraphically. On December 5, he recorded finding "... hippo remains ... in the clayey sand of the lake beds...." On December 8, at Wadi el Faregh. he noticed that "this is type of Mikheimin fm., Raml fm. in lower levels, produce in clays a few bone fragments, mostly crocodile and turtle--also wood in ss." On December 12, he noted "Collect: - Elephant lower jaw. This is definitely in lake clays [at lake beds N.W. of King's duck pond] - partly covered by clays. The associated skull, 15' off, was hardly good enough to collect. The skull is on, not in, clays - in sand which may be subaerial...." Finally, on December 14, Dension wrote "Worked S.W. of Qasr el Sagha with Cooke & Deranyigala. Concentrated on Neolithic sites 2 and 3 km. S.W. of Qasr el Sagha. These are sites T and O of CatonThompson and Gardner, 1934, The Desert Fayum, Royal Anthrop. Inst. Were able at site T to find in situ fish bones, bird & rodent bones, warthog tooth, flaked artifact, flakes, 1/2 drilled stone (spindle whorl), pottery shards & lake shells. These occurred in clayey sands which form isolated buttes rising out of similar underlying beds, and apparently formed as shoreline deposits." (Robert H. Denison, Field Notes on University of California Expedition to Fayum, Egypt, under Wendell Phillips, 1947 (copy, The Granger Papers Project)). 139. E. H. Converse, who otherwise remains unidentified. 140. Papeterie Suisse, a stationer (Baedeker, 1908, p. 36). 141. “Hannah Affiudi” seems to be the same person as “Hanna Mikhail,” whom Granger refers to as the station agent in his entry for February 4. 142. “Staraselski” remains unidentified. 143. An Omdah is chief magistrate of a commune and directly responsible to the Mamur, or chief official of the district in which the commune lies (Baedeker, 1908, p. xxviii). 144. The house flies (Musca domestica) apparently were transported into the camp as eggs on food, or as maggots in tents, etc. (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). The parasitic fleas, order Siphonaptera, normally seek warm-blooded animals, and included Granger in their depredations. 145. After collection, the fossils were soaked with shellac solution and bandaged on all surfaces. The bandage material came from anything suitable, such as burlap, clothing, even newsprint. An outer casing of bandages was impregnated with a paste made of plaster of Paris. This hardened into a cast that held a fossil together during its transport by camel and rail from the desert for repacking and shipment by boat to the American Museum in New York. 146. “Mr. Wendell,” possibly also “Mr. W.,” remains unidentified. 147. Osborn had already arranged to write a popular account of the Fayum expedition for The Century Magazine. It was not uncommon, as various authors have noted (e.g., Hellman (1969), Rainger (1991), Morgan and Lucas (2002)), for Osborn to utilize his staff liberally, and often anonymously, for his publications. Osborn duly credited Albert Lythgoe and the Egyptian Geological Survey for their photographs, but made no such attribution to Granger. 148. A fairly well-preserved Ptolemaic temple with trace ruins of the town around it, located at the western end of Birket Qurun. 149. “Trenching” meant digging a narrow and deep cut toward the cen-
60 ter of a possibly fossiliferous, saucer-like depression in the sand; if nothing was located, the site was abandoned. 150. Raptors and Passeriformes. 151. Garat el-Esh means “Hill of the Nest.” This location now is considered to be very late Eocene in age (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). “Garat” is also spelled Gar, Garat, or Qaret, and means flat-topped hill (Bown and Kraus, 1988, p. 60). 152. Markgraf's first retainer with the Museum terminated March 31, 1907 (R. Markgraf to H. F. Osborn, 4 April 1907, R. Markgraf correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 153. “Association” refers to whether fossils, or fossil parts, can be physically related to each other as parts of a single individual. The degree to which individual fossils, or a series of fossil parts are understood is based on the context in which they are found. 154. The 40 million-year old fossilized remnants of trees are revealed by the desert wind to this day. 155. Placing the camp, therefore, on one of the prehistoric shorelines of an early Moeris lake (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 156. Granger's surmise was correct, and a letter from Markgraf to Granger in New York, dated April 24, 1907, indicates that he expected Granger to be gone by then--"Did you find some good things in the last days?" (R. Markgraf correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 157. Last to know of Osborn’s decision, therefore, was Granger himself on April 25th. An Osborn letter to Markgraf dated April 22, 1907, shows that his decision had already been made by then. Yet, Osborn well knew that Granger’s plan was to conclude his expedition and break camp on April 21st, and begin his departure from the Fayum for Tamia and on to Cairo (Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). Granger also notes Osborn’s cablegram in his expedition report (see Appendix B) but, while making clear that it was unexpected, provides no explanation of it. 158. Granger’s report elaborated further: It was thought best not to recall the caravan, which had already started for Cairo but to return with the outfit and secure new tents, the old ones having been damaged by storms; and also to obtain hot weather clothing, for the weather was by this time excessively hot. In Cairo four days were spent in securing the new outfit and rehiring the camel caravan. Six camels were engaged for this second trip. Daoud and the cook were retained, as well as the two Tamia men, who had proved especially good workmen (Granger, W., 1907, Report on the Expedition To The Fayum, Egypt, 1907, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 159. The English Pension located at Shâria' el-Genaineh 8. It was “well spoken of” and a room started at 10 francs or 38.6 piastres (Baedeker, 1908, p.31).
160. Dr. William Fraser Hume (1867-1949), British geologist and head of staff at the Geological Museum in Cairo. He authored the still useful, three-volume set Geology of Egypt. 161. Granger's interest in egg-laying technique stemmed from his early dinosaur work in the American West. In 1936, writing about making the world's first find of intact dinosaur eggs and nests in the Gobi in 1923, he recalled that many times during the years I worked in the dinosaur fields [of the American West] I visualized such a happening but as the years went on it began to seem such a remote possibility that it finally took its place as another futile day dream. (Granger, W., 1936, The story of the dinosaur eggs: Natural History, v. 38, p. 21.) 162. Granger invariably studied exhibits at other museums from this standpoint because he was regularly involved with their preparation at the American Museum. Museums were essential in the development of vertebrate paleontology as a way to catalogue and assemble fossil collections (see, e.g., Rudwick, M. J. S., 1976, The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology (2nd ed.), Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, p. 10-11). 163. To the east from the east bank of Qurun, and northwest of Tamia, Kom Ushim is a mound that covers the ruins of the Roman town Karanis. 164. Some recent Fayum workers have thought that Granger and Olsen spent most of their time collecting in the quarries. Granger's diary, however, reveals that they also spent significant time collecting elsewhere (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 165. Sand lenses are saucer-shaped pockets in the sand containing small aggregations of well-preserved fossils, usually at the bottom of the pocket. This would occur after the hardened, or crusted, surface of the desert was physically broken and the wind, over time, eroded the sand and revealed fossils (D. E. Russell to Morgans, 1995; see also, Simons, E. L. and Wood, A. E., 1968, Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas, Fayum Province, Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28, p. 9). 166. Before working with Granger, Markgraf’s practice was to brush thinned, warmed glue onto a fossil while it was still in place and then let the glue dry. He then removed the fossil and shipped it off. This method did not always protect a fossil from breaking up en route. According to Granger, some of Markgraf's best finds were damaged during transport because they were not properly encased. Granger taught Markgraf to wrap his fossils in burlap soaked with paste. Once hardened, this formed a protective cast around the fossil and kept it intact during shipment. 167. The Victoria Hospital located at Shâriá Deir el-Banât (Baedeker, 1908, p. 35). 168. The Baedeker guide to Egypt listed the choices as a Dr. Murison, Dr. Wildt, or Dr. Hegi (Baedeker, 1908, p. 35). 169. The Citadel is the site of the 19th century Mohammed Ali Mosque at the fortification built in 1176 by Salah ad-Din to resist the crusaders. 170. Old Cairo is a walled city with narrow streets and cobbled alleys and maintains some of the world's oldest Christian churches. 171. “Dr. Hansen” remains unidentified. “Fechn” is “Feshn” which was also then spelled “Fachn”; Granger seems to have mixed the two spell-
61 ings into one (Baedeker, 1908, p. 201 and 206). He also spells Hansen as Hanson. 172. Located on Rue Sultan Osman (Baedeker, 1908, p. 172). 173. Granger and Olsen took the S.S. Bayern (North German Lloyd) to Naples and the S.S. Prinzess Irene (Austro-Americana Line) from Naples to New York. The Bayern’s statistics were 4576 gross tons, length 121.60 m x beam 13.71 m, two funnels, two masts, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 199-1st class, 28-2nd class and 202-'tween deck passengers. It was launched by A. G. Vulcan, Stettin on October 18, 1886 for North German Lloyd, Bremen. Its maiden voyage was to the Far East. In 1893 it was lengthened to 138.19 meters, 5034 gross tons. In November, 1909, it was sold to Pittaluga, Genoa for scrapping (T. Finch to V. L. Morgan, April, 2001). The S.S. Prinzess Irene is shown in Fig. 50. 174. Granger detailed their collection as follows: Results. Twenty-seven cases containing the fossils collected by the expedition were shipped from Cairo. The number of specimens of vertebrates recorded in the field book approximate 500, of which about 25 are reptiles, the balance mammals. A small collection of invertebrate fossils was made from the Qasr-el-Sagha Beds, and collections of Formicidae and Coeloptera were made for Professor Wheeler and Mr. Beutenmüller. About fifty 5 x 7 photographs illustrating the geology, topography, and methods of collecting, camping, etc., were taken; and in addition a series of Kodak film negatives was made by Professor Osborn, illustrating chiefly the work in the quarries. Data was collected for a new geological section of the region north of Lake Qurun, and also for a map showing the location of all important finds of fossils made by the various parties. Charts showing the development of the two principal quarries "A" and "B" were prepared. Below is a list of the more noteworthy fossils collected: Arsinoitherium No. 13506 skull of young individual (horns missing) " 13508 " " adult, teeth and horns missing " 13512 Palate with good dentition " 13514 " " " " " 13515 " " " " " 13532 Fine pair of lower jaws " 13553 Good lower jaws " 13585 " " " Numerous fragmentary jaws and skeletal bones Moeritherium 13430 Skull, lacking premaxillae and nasals 13431 Maxilla with good dentition 13432 Right half of skull 13437 Lower jaws 13443 " " (Qasr-el-Sagha beds) Palaeomastodon 13448 Skull, arches and incisors missing 13449-51 Palates 13468-71 Lower jaws Many fragmentary jaws and a small number of skeletal parts. Creodonta 13236 Apterodon, skull nearly perfect 13237 " half of skull 13240-42 Lower jaws 13253-55 Pterodon, lower jaws Several jaws of undescribed Creodonts Among the smaller forms of mammals are numerous good jaws of Saghatherium, Megalohyrax, Ancodon, Geniohyus; also jaws of ten genera of uncertain ordinal position. The reptiles include good skulls of two species of Tomistoma (5066-67, 5078) and Crocodilus (5061), together with good shells of three genera of turtles (5087, 5089, 5092). (Granger, W., 1907, Report on the Expedition To The Fayum, Egypt, 1907, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History.) 175. Matthew, W. D., 1911, African Mammals; in Bassler, R. S., 1912, Symposium on Ten Years’ Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 23, p 156. The symposium was held in Washington, D.C., on December 29, 1911. Note, also, that in his book The Age of Mammals, Osborn (1921, p. 73) stated that “for the time being North Africa becomes the storm center of mammalian palaeontology.” In 1910, Matthew published a review of Schlosser’s Preliminary Notice earlier that same year (Schlosser, M., 1910, Über einege--fossile Säugethiere aus dem Oligocän von Agypten: Zoologischen Anzeiger, Bd. XXXV, n. 15), and criticized Schlosser’s paper as rather thin on substance and detail. (Matthew, W. D., 1910, Schlosser on Fayûm Mammals: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 49, p. 700703.) 176. Even an invitation from National Geographic editor Gilbert H. Grosvenor failed to nudge Granger. On April 19, 1909, Grosvenor wrote: Mr. Walter Granger American Museum of Natural History New York, New York Dear Sir: During a conversation with Professor Osborn yesterday he stated that he thought you could prepare for the National Geographic Magazine an article describing his recent expedition to the Fayum and that he would be very pleased to have you do so if you have the time. I should be exceedingly glad if you could get up an article of about 3500 words with illustrations describing the work of the expedition and also of the country and people. The Society would pay $35. for the article and $1.25 for each picture used and we could probably use fifteen or twenty, provided they are of an interesting character. [by hand] I send you a copy of our March no. I am enclosing you Professor Osborn’s card. With regards, I am Yours very truly, s/Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Editor (W. Granger correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History.)
Archives.." Osborn.. and the most impressive these. Rainger. 179.. that. p. cites Osborn’s use of a “red crayon” to make notations. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. since the year 1908.58). 32. I (Moeritherioidea. 99). See.. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. Later (1993. without maps or charts. 1907. Here on the plains of Patagonia. Alone at Sea: The Adventures of Joshua Slocum. two years after the event and after Osborn’s own (glorifying) accounts of it in Century. p. It had been recovered from the Fayum badlands. p. Walter Granger. who noted in Patagonia that: we found ourselves in the midst of a vast plain with no permanent landmark visible in any direction. I even think Arabs (of the desert) have a true sense of direction--like animals. Professor Osborn has exercised a general supervision over all field exploration. Mastodontoidea). d) "The actual preparation of this monograph opened in the year 1907 with the author's expedition to the desert bordering the Fayum of northern Egypt. and within the circumference there appeared not even a solitary hill. that he said was collected in 1908 by Markgraf. Hellman. p. Simons earlier (1959) described the frontal bone of an anthropoid primate.. I (Moeritherioidea. and Mr. p. his [Osborn’s] recent expedition to the Fayum [which] he [Osborn] would be very pleased to have you do so if you have the time”? Who could better tout the expedition than Osborn himself? Who had better control over how Granger spent his time than Osborn himself? (While Osborn’s assumption of the presidency of the AMNH in 1908 did increase his duties. We check his course by means of 2 stars.. Andrews] was Osborn who led an expedition into the Fayum region early in the year 1907. Proboscidea: A Monograph of the Discovery. e. 184.. Spencer. Deinotherioidea. Admits he relates the pole star. that native caravanners found their way through the desert.. (Osborn. Granger.” (Osborn. Cook. he did not let go of curatorship of the DVP. also knew instinctively where he was in the open sea even while asleep with Spray's tiller lashed into perfect balance and "skippering" the boat on through the night. (See. Simons has more recently expounded that it was he who first recognized the anthropoid identity and scientific significance of AMNH 14556. Granger of the American Museum. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907.. An Agenda for Antiquity.. Egypt. oddly structured proposal is another puzzling development in the 1907 Fayum expedition story. and further research awaits those with sufficient access.” that had lain neglected for half a century. 1907 Fayum field book. Osborn might have checked with John Bell Hatcher. catalogued as AMNH 14556. by an amateur collector named Richard Markgraf. Bankers. p. In full. Simons. and e) "The first to combat this monophyletic interpretation [by C. Fayum Province. 1936. New York Evening Post and Illustrated London News (see replication at Appendix C hereto) to write about “. 1927. W.g. A. The original and eminent world-class sailor. Migration and Extinction of the Mastodons and Elephants of the World.) Before making that link between direction-finding instincts of Arabs and animals. E. Vol.. Nation. American Museum of Natural History. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 6. at the turn of the century and without modern instruments. Vol..[no reference to George Olsen]" Osborn. But. A. Bones & Beetles. Preface. 1921. I came across a small piece of forehead bone. p.. 65 and 70). Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907. p. 168. 3). F. 1968.”American Museum of Natural History. H. It worked well enough so that Osborn could put off selecting a curator to replace him for another year. Science. accompanied by Walter Granger of the mammalian paleontology staff of the American Museum. The horizon described a perfect circle. c) ".62 This strangely timed. 11. 43rd Annual Report for 1911. identified as a “possible primate... . 181.. Natural History. (Hatcher. and he took personal charge of the Fayum Expedition in 1907. 180. and could travel for days at a time without consulting that instrument. pondering whether they possessed a special. to the Fayum Desert in Northern Egypt. n. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. as on our own plains [of the American West]. F. 5. and Wood. G. 177.Arab with pack camel takes a true course across desert keeping pole star to his left. accompanied by Mr. I never have even the slightest idea as to the different directions until looking at the compass. Osborn wrote: 2/2/07 . Proboscidea: A Monograph of the Discovery. 183. inbred instinct that enabled them to navigate. Deinotherioidea. p. sixty miles southwest of Cairo. 1907.. 1969. p. In what appears to us to have evolved into a somewhat apocryphal tale. at sea. 10.. Examples are: a) “Since 1898.. 200). E.. Joshua Slocum. p. L. When asked if he guides by the stars he says no--he is going in that direction.. The Age of Mammals. Most of the new taxa. Olsen’s correspondence with Harold J. Migration and Extinction of the Mastodons and Elephants of the World.. now at the Archives of the Agate National Fossil Monument (Nebraska). with this exception. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907. assisted by Walter Granger and George Olsen. 1936. 82. Bone Hunters in Patagonia. which he guided as if still present full time. The impression was not unlike that at sea in calm weather. Evolution. 1998. New York: Doubleday). American Museum of Natural History." (Notes). 1912. Evolution. when President Jesup sent him on an expedition. Archives. writing then: . See. v. Egypt. With slight local deviation heads directly N. W. were recovered from the sites previously worked by the British and Germans. b) “Supplementary explorations by the author. Simpsonesque curiosity indeed: speculation invites. New York: The Natural History Press. The only entry Osborn made in his own 1907 Fayum field book concerned how it was. 27. 498. 289) who first identified and attached significance to this fossil. p. H. Mastodontoidea). while searching through a collection of fossils at the American Museum of Natural History. as even he acknowledged earlier (1959. Simons added: In 1956. as one scans the surrounding horizon. 39. What induced Osborn to prompt Grosvenor to invite Granger. it was clearly William K. 178.. Gregory (1922. p. 182. p. Have observed them in the mist... I seemed instinctively to know the points of the compass.
185. 123-165. The Museum already had such a program in place with institutions domestically..” In short. 187. 1964. On November 9. Osborn to R. The Granger Papers Project.That ancestors or relatives of the later Cercopithecidae [a family of Old World monkeys] were present in the Lower Oligocene of Egypt is also extremely probable from the fact that the American Museum expedition in 1907 discovered there a frontal portion of a skull which resembles closely the corresponding part of some of the smaller Cercopithecidae. which eventually received some of the Fayum fossils collected by the American Museum expedition. 189. and named by Osborn—now one of the best known early monkeys (or monkey-like primates according to some). 78. Matthew. J. M. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. L. this Table omits the expedition (formally known as the “University of California Pan-African Expedition’) by Wendell Phillips. p 156. my replacement at Cal. T. Egypt: USGS Pro- 63 fessional Paper 1452. 194. Markgraf. Museum of Paleontology. Fayum Depression. 191. v. 1993. as follows: Dear Gid: I guess this is not too informal. Markgraf correspondence file. 1911.. 516. R. 1907. at least this is how I hear you referred to by our colleagues. 21 May 1912..) 196. indeed. Simons (1959.if you want them. 10.g. G. 3. this year. p..” also. Russell. Osborn. 1947 (copy. W. 15 January 1915 (R. In a widely used textbook on primate evolution. including the University of California. See you Nov. Field. S. cover memorandum-1907: Annual Report of Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. H. Yours sincerely. 193. 23.even at this late date. The 1947 University of California expedition to the Fayum was unknown even to Simons himself until the eve of Simon’s first expedition to the Fayum. 20... Gid James. Elwyn L. W. Simons (Copies. paleontologist Donald E.. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. of Calif. sent a request in haste to Dr. made by Denison in the Fayum. DES Simons. Granger became a member of both in 1911. the fossil record of the Fayum primates is pivotal to understanding primate evolution. Archives. van der Hoof being in the Fayûm for Wendell Phillips and dear ‘ole Univ. D.. 326-339) reviews at length the fossil record of primates from the Fayum. Archives. These primates are a diverse array of prosimians and primitive anthropoids. p. Archives. 58) statement that Markgraf collected AMNH 14556 in 1908 contradicts Gregory’s (1922) statement (above) that it was collected by the 1907 American Museum Fayum expedition. Bown. D. [Russell] and I were just sitting here discussing your Fayûm project and a matter came up that seemed worth writing about -. See. American Museum of Natural History. 1 January 1908. I had assumed that you knew all about Bob Denison and V. Robert Dension and others in 1947. p.they should be in the files I started there (in the office where Gid now is) called “Mammal Location File” -. Examination of the specimen’s label may resolve that question. Morgan.. Markgraf. V. . Markgraf. R. Unfortunately. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks.” and “what-not-to do’s. Gismann. R. Maybe you don’t!? Denison made all the field notes & records. Granger to R. discovered by the 1907 AMNH expedition. 1988. M. Miami: Field Research Projects. H. and Denison. 9. He notes that “most of our knowledge of early higher primate evolution in the Old World comes from an area in Egypt known as the Fayum Depression” (p. American Museum of Natural History). Egypt. Walter Granger. 1961. p. Fleagle’s review concludes that “the fossil primates from the early Oligocene of Egypt provide our only record of Old World higher primate evolution from that entire epoch” (p. The Granger Papers Project). and Kraus. p. Field Notes on University of California Expedition to Fayum. 188. and Lucas. p. James on November 21. The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639). 2002. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. W. Savage alerted Simons as follows: Paris-November 9 Dear Elwyn: Don R. 190. 195. 83). Symposium on Ten Years’ Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. Markgraf correspondence file. 186. H. 192. The Lemur’s Legacy. Denison should be a gold mine in “what-todo’s. New York: Tarcher/ Putnam. 1988. e. Markgraf correspondence file. Notable is Apidium. especially the early evolution of anthropoids. Fleagle (1988. entry for 1961-67 et seq. I believe. Could you send them soon to Don Savage in Paris? I am leaving for Egypt this Saturday but will be in touch with Don from time to time. Gideon T. M. in Bassler. Don Savage suggests in the enclosed letter that it would be useful for he and I to have a look at the field notes and photographs.. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 26. p. Matthew to R. R. Simons’s statement (1993. R. Osborn. S. See Table 1. v. 1961. 1980. L. 58) that “neither feature [of the cercopithecid characteristics of AMNH 14556] had been previously documented in so old a fossil” thus overlooks Gregory’s (1922) publication which fully appreciated the significance of AMNH 14556 at least 34 years before Simons first saw the fossil in 1956. Fossile flora und fauna im Fayøum: paläontologische bedeutung des Gebel el Qatrâni (Oligozän): Papyrus 5-6. J. 18721941. Trail Blazers. p. H. 198. p. 340) and that “the various Fayum primates are intermediate forms that fill in many of the morphological gaps between the major radiations of extant anthropoids. 1912. F. 1993. 326-327). can probably pull the Denison records and photos out of our file and let you borrow them if you wish -. p. H. p. Finally. F. under Wendell Phillips. 197. 28 April 1908. in 1947-48 [sic]. See. p 660. Although the development of this study was slow to form thereafter (see. 14-15. A.. Paleontologist: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 19. American Museum of Natural History. African Mammals. F.
” (A. Granger to assist him in receiving the Members of the Seventh International Congress of Zoölogy at the Museum Tuesday evening. a public dinner in the village park. Comm. see Morgan. August 27th at nine o’clock. Thus initiating the correspondence Bown and Fleagle describe (see note 202). Markgraf correspondence file. Special Collections. 19 August 1907. Despite a number of requests to the two locations where copies are known to exist. 202.1923. 1st Quarter (Jan. gave one of the addresses and presented the Deacon with the gold-headed cane. Anna and Walter became separated by. American Museum of Natural History). Special Collections. Granger and his men returned fire with an assortment of weapons from which they fired nearly 50 rounds. 203. American Museum of Natural History). 1907. perhaps. Anna obviously accepted that. W. 1907. as well as a September 10. The Granger Papers Project). (File 1214. H. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. Walter Granger did make it to the occasion: his father. F. Messers. reads without glasses and has a remarkable memory--Born within a quarter of a mile of his present home--Has voted at 20 Presidential elections--Many present from out of town. D. American Museum of Natural History. to wit: Director Bumpus trusts that it will be possible for you and Mrs. 200. New York Times. but not harmed.1. U. Matthew to G. is not contemplated. unattributed newsclipping (probably The Rutland Herald. 25 April 1907 (R. Sherwood. However. W. and August 20 (“Andrews asked to leave Mongolia because CAE exceeded its bounds”). 22 April 1907 (R. (W. C.) For fuller treatment of the 1923 events. Professor Stout’s recollection of Anna and her account the 1907 Fayum expedition came directly from Anna Granger herself--he and his wife came to know Anna. L. In fact they may have come at roughly the same time. and worried that Walter will be detailed to field work [in Sichuan Province] in the winter. File 604. 2001. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Smythe. May 30. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Charles. R. Osborn. Bown and Fleagle independently (and consistently) related their accounts as derived from copies they’d seen of correspondence between Anna and Osborn. I understand. J. Granger to Lt. Granger. 206. Archives. 1907.S Navy Yangtze Patrol gunboat U. American Museum of Natural History.. V. Frederick Smythe. addresses and the presentation of a gold-headed cane constituted the day’s programme--The Deacon spends nearly the whole day at the park--Is in good health--Works about the farm.. Markgraf to H. 1925. M. that her letters have not reached me in time to reply to her in China. Markgraf correspondence file.1. She is evidently very much disturbed and apprehensive over the situation there. Nelson and I. in part. from April 18 to September 15. Archives.1.1. But this is a place where things can happen. American Museum of Natural History). as I judge she will be coming back with the other members of the party in October . Stout.) 204. Special Collections. Granger and the CAE were in Mongolia. Anna had already experienced more CAE-related combat than any other member of the CAE ever would. 1925.S. 16 April 1923). Report of Operations for Week Ending 14 April 1923 (dtd. Her concern was heightened by the fact that two years earlier. The Granger Papers Project. A. 1925. and proceeded through the Three Gorges area. Archives. they were ambushed by bandits hiding in the cliffs of Wushan Gorge. The Granger Papers Project.) During this time. Archives. W. Anna left items for the Stouts. concluding All goes well with me. The Granger Papers Project. Bown. R. and a pair of Walter Granger’s field glasses. After several anxious days. they finally rejoined and escaped by junk down the Yangtze.S. 15). Markgraf. Markgraf correspondence file. Matthew. Osborn to R. Diaries . American Museum of Natural History). respectively. Both Walter and Anna Granger were invited by the Museum’s director to help host this meeting. Photograph memento. Not a month later. Also I imagine there may be some excitement although neither of us will take too great hazards. 10 November 1925. In gratitude.. an unfazed Granger wrote to the AMNH’s bursar. Anna was receiving sporadic assurances that Walter was fine. File 1214. Archives. with our wives. (W. American Museum of Natural History. 4 April 1907 (R. M. press release from the president of the Mongolian Republic as to why the “American Scientific Expedition” was expelled from Mongolia. including a portrait of herself as a child. U. 208. Special Collections. G. Seventh International Congress of Zoology: American Museum of Natural History. Archives. Egypt. and visit with her often during the last 10 years of her life. 205. Markgraf to W. on November 10. except for Granger and his Chinese assistants and.. 1923. National Archives. F. Granger to W. in March of 1923 during Granger’s second winter expedition to Sichuan Province. The party was shaken. but she wrote Matthew that she would “feel relieved when he is back here again. (undated). Bumpus to W. “Celebrates His 100th Birthday.64 199. The Granger Report. are looking forward to a profitable winter along the Yangtze. Fleagle and T. Granger. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. American Museum of Natural History. CAE motorman Mack Young (during a solo mission in Mongolia). American Museum of Natural History. August 27. D. Middletown Springs turns out to honor Deacon Alpheus Haynes--Concerts by the Rutland City band.1. 28 August 1925. (H. Granger to W. Simpson (date unknown). W. That. as Osborn’s cablegram was being read by Granger. Matthew’s note to Sherwood was probably written shortly after he received Anna’s September 1. 28 August 1925. 1925. Two of Anna’s letters were dated August 28 and September 1. Recall that. once they’d left the protective cover of U. Palos stationed at Wanhsien. American Museum of Natural History. Granger. D. Granger and A. Granger to F. than against the mighty flea.S. Matthew. F.” proclaimed the headline and subheadline of an undated. File 1214. Palos. Anna also sent clippings from the April 20 (“CAE in bandit-infested section of Kalgan”).S. letter. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1925. Osborn’s letter was asking Markgraf to go back into the field with . The interviewees are T. Special Collections. 201. a warlord battle for the city of Wanhsien on the Yangtze River. File 1214. 209. By 1923. asking for a letter of credit to conduct his third winter expedition to Sichuan Province. since he noted to Sherwood. File 1214. Special Collections.S. H.) Granger clearly felt better equipped to protect himself against hostile humans. 207. Archives. FossilHunter’s Guide to the Yangtze Patrol. the senior author has been unable to access that correspondence directly. Archives. Granger. some Chinese embroidery. and trapped in.
Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 217. 1908. S. W. E. 1908. Proboscidea. and the creodont was apparently considered so inconsequential. Markgraf to W. New Pterodontinae (Creodonta: Hyaenodontidae) from the late Eocene-early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. F. and 1926. Ptolemaiidae. Apidium (named for the sacred bulls of Apis) has long been recognized as a fossil monkey. A. 160 p. American Museum of Natural History). H. 3 January 1915. n. P.e. H. 222. 10. L. 219. Deinotherioidea. Fortunately (for me). F. 1997. and the American West: Nevada Humanities Committee. in Notes Granger mentions visiting some of Markgraf's quarries and had the foresight to note their approximate location.. Granger correspondence file. 265. a possibility discussed by Osborn. Holroyd (written communication. Granger to H. 19. A.. 24. I. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History. Granger. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Fayum province. C. Holroyd. Markgraf to W. 109-116. See. Osborn’s lifelong studies of the Proboscidea culminated in his massive. 1997. the AMNH crew picked up the first hyracoid and the first creodont collected from the Qasr el Sagha Formation. 172. p. A monograph of the discovery. 19. v. v. See. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 24. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. 25 August 1912. 223. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. insectivorous mammals (McKenna. p. J. K. New York: 65 Columbia University Press. ed. that it hadn't even been cataloged until I came across it amongst other uncataloged and unprepared specimens from the expedition. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. 1999. E. evolution. E. in press. W. For a superb. and Parham. . 1922. S.. p. 1907. Jim Parham and I have a paper in press at JVP [Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology*] that is able to make use of their good locality data to establish the age of the African tortoise record. See also. Markgraf correspondence file. 1) Collecting with reasonably accurate locality data. Fifty-two years of research. 415. 218. F. Osborn. an order of extinct.. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. F. Markgraf. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. H.. 2) The first discovery of terrestrial mammals in the Qasr el Sagha Formation.. Yale Quarry A = AMNH Quarry A. R. 415-424. Archives. 1909. p. 1908. p. American Museum of Natural History. For example. H. 212. p. H. H. While we can figure out where the British and German collections came from to some extent. London: Blandford Press (Ann Savours. see Peking to Paris by Luigi Barzini. 265. 219). of uncertain ordinal position. Moeritherioidea. American Museum of Natural History. 2. Classification of mammals above the species level. Archives...). Ptolemaia and Apidium. 225. P. Today. p. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. 802 p. Osborn. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. P.. Volume 1 includes extensive discussion of the Fayum proboscideans. D. See. Holroyd. even to the extent that the Yale expeditions also used the same lettering scheme (i. Markgraf correspondence file. Badlands Mary. A. Osborn. it wasn't because they were keeping good notes on the provenance of individual specimens.. Simons. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. Egypt: PaleoBios. 211. and new quarries were given successive letters in the alphabet. 1930. 2002) states: [A]s someone who has worked a little with the AMNH collections. 22 April 1907 (R. Markgraf correspondence file. Wilson. Mastodontoidea. the Pterodon partial skull). New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. Subsequent expeditions benefitted from this and built upon this framework. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene.. 1936. Akhinatenavus. thus providing some additional collecting data for specimens in the Stuttgart collection (e. and _____. Osborn suggested it might represent a new order of mammals. Osborn. Archives. Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904. H. v. reassigned Hyaenodon brachycephalus to the genus Metapterodon and created the new species Metapterodon markgrafi for an upper jaw fragment that Osborn (1909. observation and publication 1877-1929. ed. 214. Although not the first described specimens. two volume memoir on the subject published posthumously in 1936 (Osborn. fig. discussion in Morgan. Archives. and Wood. M. 213. 7) illustrated and identified as ?Metasinopa.). firsthand account of this race. 215. 210. p. 516. V. R. R.. F. here are what I would point to as important scientific contributions of the expedition (in addition to those already addressed in the Epilogue). 1921. they weren't recognized until Holroyd et al (1996). The Antiquity of African Tortoises: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Osborn was genuinely perplexed by the affinities of two of the new taxa of mammals he described from the Fayum.. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. in Tchudi. *See. Osborn to R. who also thought it might be an artiodactyl. v. H.) The importance of this record keeping continues to be uncovered. 118. 220. 226. Matthew. L. p. F. 224. v. 1909. 26. 216. v. and Bell.. Indeed. Osborn. Also. 1966. H.. Values. 26. 1924. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. F. A. for Pterodon leptognathus. F. R. Osborn. The hyracoid was mistakenly described as Moeritherium by Matsumoto (1922). 221. p.. New York: American Museum of Natural History. The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639). Ptolemaia is considered to be a member of the Pantolesta. 1968. p. Holroyd (1999) created a new genus.g. F. Osborn. Science. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Matsumoto. He named Ptolemaia after the family of the pharaoh Ptolemy and created a new family. 24. F. 1923. v. Fayum Province. The AMNH collection was the first in the Fayum where quarry names were assigned and then subsequently associated with the specimens in the museum. 265-272.Osborn’s needs in mind.
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Classification of Mammals above the Species Level. n. 10. p. _____. v. 11. 4 April 1907. S.. L. 271-272. p. D. New Series. The age of the Fayum primates as determined by paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy: Journal of Human Evolution. p. and Kraus. _____. 7. _____. v. 2000. Zoogeographical relations of North Africa in the upper Eocene: Proceedings International Zoological Congress. Science. Morgan. L.. p. fasc. New York: Warner Books. v. 1. 26. in Wendorf. 6.. Fifty-two years of research. The Fayûm Expedition of the American Museum. Kappelman.n. The evolution. 253-350. _____. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. New Series. Wortman--A Biographical Sketch: Natural History. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. deinotheres and mastodonts: Journal of Mammalogy. v. C. 175-192. _____.. and Bell. 839-850. 41. also The [NY] Evening Post. p. p. 1919. 622. Note. v. 1915. v. Matsumoto. v. 415-424. J. 35-54. J. B. p. 1981. and Schild. p. 1923.. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. and with descriptions of two new species: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Egypt: PaleoBios. S. Kappelman. phylogeny. 99. p. n. p. v. 1910. New age determinations for the Eocene-Oligocene sediments in the Fayum depression. Inc. Moeritherioidea.. p. 1986. K.. 1921. Simons. D. p. 1907.. El Niño: Unlocking the Secrets of the Master Weathermaker. 84. 1872-1941. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene.. 2. 1-58. McKenna. Washington: Government Printing Office. Fossils from Egypt. 740. New York: Academic Press. Proboscidea. v. n. 56. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. A. 26. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 139-140.. 1907. Fayum depression. 639. 1992. _____. L.. Archaeological work in Egypt: The Nation. J. _____. 1059. National Academy of Sciences. Egypt. v. Holroyd. 1922. p. Tombs and Hieroglyphs: the story of Egyptology. _____. _____. Badlands Mary. I. _____.. 1921. v. 1907. no. 1976. with description of several new species: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. n.. 513-516. Morgan. v. p. Temples. 56. 1-58. V. Palaeomastodon. _____. v. n. eds. Evolution of African Mammals: Cambridge. and Rasmussen. 1976. _____. New records of terrestrial mammals from the upper Eocene Qasr el Sagha Formation. _____. n. 2177. 647-654.. p. _____. 6 p. The Age of Mammals in Europe. and Swisher. p. Osborn. 1992. A contribution to the knowledge of Moeritherium: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 49. 21 March 1907. 263-266. 561-574. Mastodontoidea. S. 100. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. V. Matthew. Geology of the Fayum Depression. 48. S. v. 6 p. _____. Colonising Egypt.—A revision of the genera of hyracoids from the Fayûm. 6 p. v. 160 p. 50. 22. 1976. n. 2179. 14. 1996. the ancestor of the long-jawed mastodons only: Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. _____. 1921. 231-234. n.. also The NY Evening Post. 2002. and Cooke. 1922.. _____. _____. v. 22. p. p. generic and specific stages of evolution of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. p. v. _____. 327332. v. New York: Coward-McCann. G. _____. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. B. 51. 700-703. 76. p. p. Asia and North America. 2. Mitchell. Bown.. p. Deinotherioidea. v. The feeding habits of Moeritherium and Paleomastodon: Nature. J. and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 32. Eberhard Fraas: Science. Editorial abstract: Nature. 17-35. Contribution to the knowledge of fossil Hyracoidea of the Fayûm. ed.). V. in Matsumoto. _____. 233 (12 September). 2002. 495-503. Evolution and geographic distribution of the Proboscidea: Moeritheres. A monograph of the discovery. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1997. Adaptive radiations and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings National Academy of Science. J. 64. 1926. 1921. Fayum Province. Schlosser on Fayûm Mammals: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. H. 3594. p. p. Paleoenvironment of the Earliest Homonids: New Evidence from the Oligocene Avifauna of Egypt: Science. 815-835.. 1908. 448-455. 1964. New Series. 635 p. F.
1967. Mylan. p. Rollins.. v. An anthropoid frontal bone from the Fayum Oligocene of Egypt: The oldest skull fragment of a higher primate: American Museum Novitates. Simons. correspondence (vlm). Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904.. 1959. Thomas M. eds. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Fayum Province. various (vlm/krm). Princeton: Princeton University Press. Wilson. and Russell. Mammalia): Part 3. Savage. London: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. Fossil Birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. _____. 58-75. III. telephone interview (vlm). E. Tethys. _____. W..copy. Maier. John C. Egypt's Simian Spring: Natural History. S. 16 p. The early relatives of man: Scientific American. v. Tozer. Inc. Kenneth D. Holroyd. Rasmussen. L. 1964.. E. Geologie und Paläontologie.. 1984. the Oligocene mastodont genera Palaeomastodon. P.. 1996.. New York: Walker and Company. AL: University of Alabama Press. J. Russell. 6. eds. L.. G. 2441. 1995. p. Elwyn L. M. The Lemur’s Legacy. N. A. 1976. D. 1978. Nebraska) Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre (Melbourne. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblblatt für Mineralogie. 1995-1999. Court. 1984. D. Vermont) Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde (Stuttgart. 1996. Germany) University of Uppsala. M. F. 273-302. 1997 and 1999. Tobien. M. 287 (translated from the German by A. L. J. 1995. Simons.. 76.. Attending Marvels. 954-963. E. Wendorf. 2000. USA. Thompson. _____. E. where. 217. New York: Herder and Herder. and Klein. Bown. Shoshani. p. B.). 1893.. Diva. Norell. v. p. 1992. 1995 and 1996. Cronin. R. 2835. 18-20. p. _____. West. 2. v. Phiomia. 1941. E.. P. 1996. 114. E.000 BP onset of El Niño. 1995. Stout. Concession to the Improbable. Strouse. and the Eo/Oligocene paenungulate Moeritherium: Mainzer Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen. M. _____. R. The Earliest Apes: Scientific American. 2002. p. Mehta. T. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. Suess. Mammalian Paleofaunas of the World. Thetis.. and Simons. B.. and Wood.. J. The Genesis of British Egyptology. Gismann . T. Reitz. T. 377 p. and Tassy. Stegodontoidea.. 1995.. p. Pat. 548-566: in Prothero. 2001-2002. correspondence (vlm). D. What is a whale? Science.. K. Evidence from milk casein genes that cetaceans are close relatives of hippopotamid artiodactyls.. 2002 (sgl/vlm). Walter Granger. 802 p. Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5. 58-59. and Simons. Savage. p. taxonomy. Morgan. Rainger... Waterfield. E. J. _____. Elephantoidea: New York. J.. in person interview (vlm/krm).. 338339. n. evolution. The structure of the mastodont molar (Proboscidea. Sandweiss. Bown. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. 273. p. and when was it?: Geology. New Haven: Yale University Press. n. Rudwick. India) Institut und Museum Geologie und Paläontologie (Tübingen. 209-219.. Helen. and Schild. J. eds. Gerhard. Richardson. 1995-1999. Rose. The Granger Papers Project). California) Interviews-Apropos Communication: Beard. Simons. _____. _____. E. New York: Tarcher/Putnam. Are great ocean depths permanent? Natural Science. G. American Museum of Natural History. Egypt. various (vlm). and Maasch. L. R. [ ]. A. 32693273. p. April. Fleagle. 1996. 1991. H. H. p.. v. p. T. P. R.. Germany) National Archives (Washington. Eighteen principles of adaptation in allomiometron and aristogenes: Palaeobiologica. R. D.. The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology (2nd ed.. J. Abrams. S. 1968.. M. American Museum of Natural History: 125 years of Expedition and Discovery. telephone and in person interviews (vlm/krm). R. Sweden) University of California. 1988. v. E.. and Bown.. v.. D. correspondence (vlm). Thethys. Stromer. . Mark A.. Egypt: Smithsonian Contributions. 1965. R. p. K. 1993. Proboscidea. D. The EoceneOligocene transition in North Africa. 6. 1995. M. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Rexner.. New York: HarperPerennial. C. p. A monograph of the discovery. various (vlm). Said. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1967. 1994. Germany) The Granger Papers Project (Durham.68 American Museum of Natural History.). R. Dawn Ape of the Fayum: Natural History. New York: Coward-McCann. p. J. p. 805-1675 p. Fayum Province. 1942. July. correspondence.. Letters from Egypt: 1905-1908.. 1976.. ed. Inc. Simons. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. Australia) Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. p. H. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. 92. Science. R. A. New York: Time. New York: Henry N. 432 p. 1995-1998. various (vlm/krm). Hayashi. Ted. and Berggren. v. in Shoshani. Supplemental bibliography: Berta. E. American Museum of Natural History (New York City) Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (Maharashtra. 1987. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. Morgan: American financier. 1965. Pound.. Gatesy.. Museum of Paleontology (Berkeley. E. G. D. Russell. 882-884. various (vlm/krm). J. D. Tuscaloosa. 1962. 1976. 1978. a new order of Mammalia--with description of the cranium of Ptolemaia grangeri: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 6. 1-105. New York: Academic Press. Geological Library (Uppsala. _____. 1967.. G.. Wortham. 2001.. J. T. Ptolemaiida. and Arctander. 1531-1533. Scott of the Antarctic. 62. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Discoverers of the Lost World. Science. 263. Teilhard de Chardin. II. DC) Rutland Free Library (Rutland. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. Donald E. E.. 1983. Institutional Archives: Agate National Fossil Monument (Agate. n.. The earliest proboscideans: General plan. A. L. or Thetys? What. J. A. Amsterdam: Elsevier. J... Rasmussen. correspondence (vlm). Olson. Finch.. n. p. 180-181. L. 1549-1906. The Proboscidea. 1938. Christopher. 180-187. 96. New Hampshire) Universität Tübingen (Tübingen. 1-20. and Harris.. An Agenda for Antiguity.. 13. 1989. 1993.. Simpson. Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution. 17. 1916. 1966. n. E. The Geology of Egypt. and palaeoecology. London: Blandford Press (Ann Savours. L. T. 1971.
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who had kindly arranged for their transfer to the bone pits. via Azores. Quibell. having been shipped in from the desert at intervals. Later. Itinerary. Andrews. the camels sent to Giza. It was thought also that careful prospecting would bring to light new forms. etc. A small bone pit about two miles west of camp. established the permanent working camp. through Dr. in charge of natives under Daoud. The two remaining Quft men and the two from Tamia. two days previously. the caravan came to the Easterly Bone Pits. north of Birket-el-Qurun where Daoud had. scattered over the fossil field. Granger was recuperating in the hospital from a slight illness. termed "Quarry A". Olsen. awaiting the train. and also to obtain hot weather clothing. Mr. Through the generosity of President Jesup this expedition was made possible. . cooking outfits. The plans for the trip as mapped out by Professor Osborn were for the party to proceed from New York to Cairo. The following day work was begun on one of these pits. British Consular agent. was employed for six weeks. Granger and a force of five men for several days during the middle of the month. Shortly after Professor Osborn's departure. were reopened and developed sufficiently to show that they were exhausted. and several other minor pits. rendering much assistance in the organization of the camp and the management of natives. Mr. Ferrar of the Survey Department field staff accompanied the party to the Fayûm and remained about two weeks. near Luxor. which were accumulated at the Geological Museum. Osborn. Granger in charge. and on May 30th Tamia was reached. Mr. Granger and Olsen departed from New York on the S. The next five days were consumed in preparation. Accounts with the Survey Department were adjusted. after several days at this camp. and he continued prospecting until March 3lst. The material already collected was turned over to the American Museum party. men who had been employed there previously in excavation work by Mr. during which time the Moeritherium quarry was examined. The camp equipage and provisions were forwarded to Tamia by rail. two were returned immediately upon the arrival of the party in the Fayûm and two more were returned the latter part of March. which had already started for Cairo but to return with the outfit and secure new tents. here to explore thoroughly the zone from which the extensive collections have been obtained by the Egyptian Survey Department through Mr. facilitate the work of the party. Prospecting for individual surface specimens and for new quarry deposits was undertaken at once by Daoud and later on by Granger and Olsen. Composition of the Party. Later a camp was made at the old bone pits. the force of workmen was reduced by the dismissal of the three Helouan men for careless work. Gibraltar. Daoud and the cook were retained.. particularly the Arsinoitherium and the proboscideans Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. it was hoped. Twelve camels were hired and ordered to proceed to Tamia in the Fayûm. Early in April with the quarries pretty well worked out eight more of the Quft men returned to their homes. tools. S. water tanks. Six camels were engaged for this second trip. Beadnell and later were further developed by Dr. Fallaheen workmen to the number twenty. Quarantine was reached on the evening of July 3rd. and Granger and Olsen returned to Cairo May 30th. working separately from his own camp. one other man returning with him as care taker. Of the twelve camels originally sent out from Giza. Messrs. and returned to Cairo. especially of the smaller fauna. Granger and Olsen accompanied Professor Osborn's personal caravan. one of Mr. while Mr. as well as the two Tamia men. the camels and outfit going by trail. to secure a collection of these extremely interesting forms. Beadnell and by the British Museum. by way of Port Said (S. under the superintendence of Daoud Mohammed of Helouan. Mr. a cable-gram was received from Professor Osborn instructing the party to remain in the desert for further work. would. was employed at about this time through arrangements made with Professor Osborn. chiefly by Mr. 1907 By Walter Granger. who had entered the desert and was prospecting in the neighborhood independently. These bone pits were discovered and originally worked by Mr. The fossils. with seven native assistants. "Princess Irene").142 APPENDIX B Report on the Expedition To The Fayûm. termed "Quarry C" was worked by Mr.S. On the 8th twelve natives arrived in camp from Sakkarah. Director General of the Survey Department. who had proved especially good workmen. the nearest railway point to the fossil fields. Richard Markgraf. Egypt. H. While at Tamia. February 5th. the return eastward was begun. were now repacked. Two days later. Except for short periods they were worked continuously by the American Museum party from the time of its arrival until late in April. leaving eight during April. Lyons. It was thought best not to recall the caravan.S. Granger took charge of the work in the field upon Professor Osborn's departure from the desert. Transshipping at Naples (S. Qasr-el-Sagha was the next stopping place. Andrews. With this additional labor the second quarry (B) was reopened under Olsen's superintendence. and the following day Granger and Olsen returned to Cairo. working from his own camp and covering the area from the Easterly Bone Pits to the Alexandria Trail. and Naples. G. traveling southward through the Pyramid field and entering the Fayûm from the Lisht Pyramid on February 3rd. Plan of Expedition. and arranging for the employment of natives and camels. "Cedric" on January 5th. The Survey Department placed its services at the disposal of the party. The expedition was under the leadership of Professor Henry F. reaching Alexandria after an uneventful voyage on January 23rd. about the western limit of the fossil area. an independent collector residing in Cairo. "Bayern"). together with Reis Daoud and the cook remained with the outfit until camp was broken late in April. Cairo was reached the same day. and to Capt. Professor Osborn and Messrs. secure an outfit there. Shiekh Talba with five or six fellaheen conducted the camel train. Richard Markgraf. May 23rd. and go directly to the fossil bearing Eocene deposits in the north of the Fayûm depression. The first camp was made at Qasr-elSagha. Letters of introduction to Lord Cromer. in March. leaving Mr. In Cairo four days were spent in securing the new outfit and rehiring the camel caravan. leaving the Mena House on the morning of January 31st. loaning tents. Hartley T. On April 24th Tamia was reached. stopping for five days at Ferrar Butte. and from there the party moved westward to the Alexandria trail. Walter Granger and George Olsen of the department staff. and after a few days of sight-seeing Granger and Olsen left Egypt on June 15th. A few days later the party moved just above the Temple and the Upper Eocene bench where the eastern extension of the fossiliferous area was examined. On April 2lst camp was moved from the bone pits to Qasr-el-Sagha where a stay of three or four days was made in order to prospect the Middle Eocene exposures there. who chose as assistants. were employed. Ferrar departed from the desert. for the weather was by this time excessively hot. of course. On February 18th Professor Osborn with his personal party and Mr. although with only a small force part of the time. Genoa. The chief object of the expedition was. Quibell's men was taken seriously ill and was obliged to return to his home at Quft. one day. the old ones having been damaged by storms.
and with but very scanty vegetation. with the nights rather too cool without artificial heat. From the large bone pits to Lake Qurun is eight miles. Outcroppings of fossils are not often plainly visible. the chief difficulty with the natives was that they showed a strong disinclination to adopt any new methods or to accomplish any task unfamiliar to them. Markgraf. Quibell and other excavators along the Nile rendered them especially useful at this kind of work. however. Petrification has not taken place. moreover. the weather conditions underwent great change. (Condition of weather. The number of specimens of vertebrates recorded in the field book approximate 500. From the middle of March the weather began to grow warmer. brown shellac being employed almost exclusively. (Occurrence of fossils. Three groups of fellaheen were employed.) The fossiliferous portions of the Fluvio-Marine Beds are presented in two benches: a very extensive lower one.143 Work in detail. Because of the feed and water the headquarters of the caravan were made at Tamia instead of at the desert camp. and adds to the difficulty of restoration work. The round trip was made by the camels in two days. They were. The bones possess. from the village of Quft.) The entire northern portion of the Fayûm. Because of long immersion in water. coming out to camp one day. the surface pebbles helping to obscure and the wind action breaking up and grinding away the bone as fast as it is exposed. and were taught to prepare the fossils. Markgraf of the American method of pasting bones. of which about 25 are reptiles. thin carpenter's glue was made by Mr. the penetration and hardening properties are good. It was gratifying to note the adoption by Mr. and the hottest days were often preceded by heavy fog and dew in the early morning. or really lenses.) In point of preservation the bones are poor. if nothing was reached it was abandoned. a specimen is readily developed. In certain wadies a few low woody bushes grow. Seldom could a bone be lifted from its bed without thorough hardening first. with a temperature of 110˚. Once located. and returning the day following. which is strange in view of the fact that wood occurring with the bones was thoroughly silicified. Two of these men were selected by Granger and Olsen as special assistants. and on two occasions doing damage to the tents. Several of their number were hard workers and personally conscientious. (Methods of Preservation. rendered very fair service in stripping. and always interfering with the quarry work by filling of the excavation with sand and by undermining exposed specimens. Several sandstorms were experienced. After the 1st of June the heat is so intense that it is difficult to secure natives to enter the desert or drivers to furnish camels. were two aged men from Tamia who had been several seasons at the bone pits under Beadnell and Andrews. Twenty-seven cases containing the fossils collected by the expedition were shipped from Cairo. the balance mammals. Although some prospecting was done and a few specimens collected in the Middle Eocene (Qasr-el-Sagha) Beds by far the greater part of the time and energy of the party was expended on the Upper Eocene or FluvioMarine Beds. and by May the heat at midday was decidedly uncomfortable and work from eleven to three o'clock impracticable. with the usual surface pavement of smooth wind-polished pebbles. and it becomes necessary to bring water from the irrigation ditches in the vicinity of Tamia. A small collection of invertebrate fossils was made from the Qasr-el-Sagha Beds. coming usually at night. and who evinced considerable understanding as to the occurrence of the fossils and the importance of care in uncovering them. The extremely crumbly nature of the bones made very careful work necessary. where thousands of separate elements are sometimes found in small areas. twentyfive miles distant. late in May. The second group of twelve men. The most efficient native workers. however. the action which brought the quarry bones together serving to break up the skulls. the saving quality of being usually uncrushed. Their previous training under Mr. it is entirely practicable. (Preservation of fossils. The surface of these benches is barren. but it is much affected by damp weather. have undergone comparatively little chemical change. having apparently been brought together by water action. The first comprised three young men from Helouan who had been engaged at the pit previously under Beadnell. etc. The only severe Khamsine wind occurred on April 19th when the violent sand-ladened wind from the south-west blew from eleven until six p. waterless. a method which had he used it in his previous collecting for German institutions would have saved several fine skulls from destruction in transportation. they were careless and inclined to shirk and not susceptible of training. Results. Associated material was found to be extremely rare: only two instances of association were observed. the epiphyses are often detached from both limb bones and vertebrae. but nowhere and at no time is it sufficient for the permanent maintenance of camels or donkeys. at which work they showed surprising skill. Upper Egypt. is typical desert. although in every case the finer skulls were found as isolated specimens. and collections of Formicidae and Coeloptera were made for Professor Wheeler and Mr. From the time of the arrival of the party in the desert on February 5th until its final departure. (Native workmen. requiring no watching or urging. During February and part of March the days were for the most part comfortable. to conduct exploration from December to June. Markgraf. which contain a much richer fauna. and there are some advantages in this method. The bones are found usually in the bottom of the pocket. more porous ends of bones often show effects of erosion.) Here vertebrate fossils were found to occur both as isolated bones or in "quarries" or "pits". especially during April. a skull with associated lower jaws was collected and three or four small mammal vertebrae lying in series in one of the quarries were noted. Except for the pest of house flies the most comfortable month for work was March. The use of hot. of fossiliferous sand was noted. It was observed that exposure of several weeks or months to the air tended to harden even the more inferior bones. but the water there is undrinkable except for very thirsty animals. They were discharged at the end of two weeks. some twenty miles long by two or three in width. and except for the loss of animal matter. Taken as a whole. The occurrence often of small aggregations of well preserved bones in little saucer-shaped "pockets".) For the hardening of bones gum Arabic was found to be next to useless. The American Museum party worked many of these but with only very moderate success. remaining over night. Beutenmüller. it being necessary merely to scrape off the coating of pebbles and brush or dig away the loose sand. (Prospecting. Markgraf's method was after determining the location of one of these lenses to excavate a narrow trench to the center of it. The nights remained cool and damp. although where they occur in clay they are both soft and crushed and generally worthless. who has obtained many fine skulls from them. and the softer. Fossils occur in white or golden sand local in gypsum deposits. It was from such quarries that a large part of the material collected came. though. and occasionally a few bunches of grass are to be seen. and a much shorter and narrower upper one. .. These pockets have been worked with success by Mr. and in clay.m. Their work was very unsatisfactory.) Native labor is all that is procurable in Egypt. conscientious as to their day's work. lying beyond the lake and comprising the fossil field. At its best it is none too good and at the worst is most exasperating. rolling desert.
which is 11.25 inches (this Bulletin is 8. (signed) Walter Granger skull of young individual (horns missing) " " adult. The reptiles include good skulls of two species of Tomistoma (506667. were taken. Mr. whose kindly assistance and cooperation were invaluable. lower jaws Several jaws of undescribed Creodonts Among the smaller forms of mammals are numerous good jaws of Saghatherium. and also for a map showing the location of all important finds of fossils made by the various parties. 3594. APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENT. 7 March 1908. 5089. Ferrar's aid in accompanying the party to the desert and in arranging matters pertaining to the caravan and the workmen. the construction and shipment of packing cases was attended to. Ancodon. also jaws of ten genera of uncertain ordinal position.5 x 16. Below is a list of the more noteworthy fossils collected: Arsinoitherium No. H. Ferrar of the field staff. 13506 13508 13512 13514 13515 13532 13553 13585 Creodonta 13236 Apterodon. THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS. skull nearly perfect 13237 " half of skull 13240-42 Lower jaws 13253-55 Pterodon. W. Hume. teeth and horns missing Palate with good dentition " " " " " " " " Fine pair of lower jaws Good lower jaws " " " Numerous fragmentary jaws and skeletal bones Moeritherium 13430 13431 13432 13437 13443 Skull. the Museum was offered as headquarters. acknowledgements are especially due. but to Dr. arches and incisors missing Palates Lower jaws Many fragmentary jaws and a small number of skeletal parts. Every facility of the Department was extended to the party. Data was collected for a new geological section of the region north of Lake Qurun. 3594. Lucas. Price: Sixpence. illustrating chiefly the work in the quarries. G. F. T. The thanks of the Fayûm Expedition are due particularly to Capt. Chief Chemist. lacking premaxillae and nasals Maxilla with good dentition Right half of skull Lower jaws " " (Qasr-el-Sagha beds) Palaeomastodon 13448 13449-51 13468-71 Skull. and in adjusting serious difficulties which arose was most important. gratis. camping equipage was freely loaned. 5092). camping. From the cover of The Illustrated London News. The party was treated with extreme courtesy by all members of the staff of the Department. . H. and in addition a series of Kodak film negatives was made by Professor Osborn. etc. * * * * * * Respectfully submitted. and valuable assistance given in the organization of the caravan and working party of natives. Megalohyrax. Director General of the Survey Department of Egypt. Lyons. Mr. V. Acknowledgements. Geniohyus. 132. topography. A. n.144 About fifty 5 x 7 photographs illustrating the geology. Charts showing the development of the two principal quarries "A" and "B" were prepared.. 5078) and Crocodilus (5061). 132. by Inland Post. the services of an experienced native was offered. v. and to Mr.5 x 11 inches). 7 MARCH 1908 The pages hereafter are reduced reproductions of the original (copy at The Granger Papers Project). N. together with good shells of three genera of turtles (5087. and methods of collecting. Sixpence-Halfpenny.
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