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Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
Bulletin 22 New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
A Division of the OFFICE OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS
Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
by Vincent L. Morgan and Spencer G. Lucas
(based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger)
Bulletin 22 New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
A Division of the OFFICE OF CULTURAL AFFAIRS
Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip, 1907
by Vincent L. Morgan and Spencer G. Lucas
(based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger)
The Granger Papers Project and New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science
Secretary Bruce A. Lavas (source: The Granger Papers Project). Ph. Hafner. Director BOARD OF TRUSTEES Gary E. Frey. Albuquerque. Esq.D.. Ph. Andrew B.STATE OF NEW MEXICO Office of Cultural Affairs J. EDITORIAL BOARD Spencer G. NM 87104 Telephone (505) 841-2800. Doherty.. Morgan. Ph.D.D. Ph. Heckert. Rodriguez. State of New Mexico.D. Ph.D. Jennifer K. Fax (505) 841-2866 Published as Public Domain.. Emerita M.D. Jojola Imogene Lindsay. therefore reproducible without permission. Martinez C. Source credit requested. Black. Hunt.D. Officer NEW MEXICO MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY AND SCIENCE Adrian P. ex officio John T. President Wenda R. Managing Editors David J.D. Lowell R. Original Printing ISSN 1524-4156 Published by Authority of the State of New Mexico Available from the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. Herman Mauney Gerald P.S.D. Ph. Mary B. Governor. G. Gavin.D. Burks. Ph. Ph. Emerita Jared F. . Lucas. Ph. Gary S. M. 1801 Mountain Road NW.. Vice-president William F. Ph. Director. Ph. Eastham. Johnson. ex officio Adrian P. Ackerman. John P. drawn by John R. Ray Ziler Cover image: Arsinoitherium zitteli. Howard Monica Y. Hunt. Edson Way. Trevathan.D.
1907. and the end ANCIENT VERTEBRATES IN THE FAYUM Arsinoitherium zitteli Andrews Moeritherium Palaeomastodon Basilosaurs FAYUM FOSSIL COLLECTING PRIOR TO 1907 The British The Germans An American in waiting Backers of an overseas expedition To collect a fossil TO EGYPT PARTIES TO AN EXPEDITION The work party: Walter Granger and George Olsen The escort party: Osborn and family Walter Granger George Olsen Cenozoic connection THE EXPEDITION “Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip.and automobiles Aftermath of the 1907 Fayum expedition ACKNOWLEDGMENTS NOTES REFERENCES AND RESOURCES Sources for Figures References Institutional Archives Interviews-Apropos Communication Supplemental Bibliography 1 3 4 4 7 7 7 8 9 9 11 11 11 12 12 13 13 14 15 15 15 16 18 18 19 19 19 40 44 46 47 47 49 49 51 66 66 66 68 68 68 . Lucas (based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger) CONTENTS PREFACE THE FAYUM LAKE MOERIS Life with Moeris Bahr Yusuf Memphis. Chronological synopsis of Granger’s 1907 Notes EPILOGUE Anna Granger and Henry Osborn Post-1907 Fayum The source for Notes Fossils. W. G. Morgan and Spencer G.. 1907 Vincent L.” TABLE 1. camels.Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip..
3594. 132. N. EGYPT.SUPPLEMENT. THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS. 1907 APPENDIX C . V.REPORT ON THE EXPEDITION TO THE FAYUM. 7 MARCH 1908 69 142 144 .APPENDIX A .ORIGINAL. NOTES FROM DIARY–FAYUM TRIP APPENDIX B .
1988). . Map of Northern Egypt showing location of Fayum (after Bown & Kraus.FIGURE 1.
Lord Cromer. Theodore Roosevelt was President of the United States when he provided the 1907 American Museum expedition to the Fayum of Egypt with a letter of introduction to the British administrator of Egypt.FIGURE 2. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 5. Henry Fairfield Osborn. FIGURE 4. 1857-1935. Walter Granger. View of the American Museum of Natural History’s south side at 77th street in 1907. 1872-1941. .
Elwyn L. Little can be found in the popular literature today about the pioneering American vertebrate fossil-collecting expedition to the Fayum in 1907. 1907. He did. 4). Simpson would be pleased to know that his lingering curiosity would eventually be resolved by Walter Granger himself. glossy 1995 salute to 125 years of expedition and discovery declares that its Fayum expedition occurred in “1907-8” ! Confusion and scant subsequent mention of the 1907 Fayum expedition was not lost on a slightly acerbic. .G.” a post-OsbornGranger American Museum of Natural History fares no better: its large. for it was sacred to the crocodile god Sobek. whereas the entire expedition lasted nearly six months. achieved considerable success. and the ferocity of an oncoming khamsine (sandstorm). located about 60 kilometers southwest of Cairo (Fig.C.000 square kilometers in the Libyan Desert. this expedition was America’s first fossil hunt to the Old World and carried the personal blessing by U. 1907. Nevertheless. Most of the few previously published references to the 1907 expedition that do exist infer that Henry Osborn was with it the entire time (January to June). place it in 1906-07 . write a couple of popular articles about it at the time (1907). 6). This was gradually transformed into the smaller. 641). The few historians who have mentioned it merely note it. quirks and difficulties. and Lucas. LUCAS2 (based on the expedition diary and photographs of Walter Granger) 1 The Granger Papers Project. The Greeks called the capital city of the Fayum Crocodilopolis. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science. Walter Granger (1872-1941) (Fig. The region flourished from the Middle Kingdom (2055-1650 B. discovered in 1977 among a collection of his and his wife’s papers stored in a family attic. The expedition lasted six months. Simons. Colbert (1905-2001) . Organized by the American Museum of Natural History’s (Fig. 2002. It apprises us of intervening events--such as the comings and goings of people and camel caravans. Until the Paleolithic period. and neither did Osborn after 1907. The dearth of published material on this 1907 Fayum expedition is puzzling. the sudden appearance of the unknown collector Richard Markgraf (1856-1916). and bears witness to the ferocity of a khamsine (sandstorm). Notes also acquaints us with personalities. acquainting us with personalities. S. relating methodology and the finds for each day together with the weather. quirks and difficulties. and helped the AMNH’s Department of Vertebrate Paleontology gain foothold on the international stage. It records camp life. Albuquerque. once-fertile depression covering 12. Kraus.. Edwin H. 5). .D. George Gaylord Simpson (19021984). Recent Fayum collector. nocturnal interest in glue brushes. in the ensuing years this expedition became little known. 2) Department of Vertebrate Paleontology curator. who was worshipped there .C. but most of the surviving archaeological remains date to the Ptolemaic and Roman periods. fresh-water Lake Moeris. or that the 1907 American expedition was a pioneering one. apprises us of intervening events such as the comings and goings of people and camel caravans. Notes ends that myth: Osborn (and his family) camped in the Fayum for two weeks and then left. 22. heralds the arrival of the American mail. NM 87104 2 Abstract––Organized and executed by the American Museum of Natural History’s Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Austrian freelance collector. Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip (Notes) (Fig. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin No. and executed by the Department’s chief fossilhunter. and in his pseudoautobiography . But. such as resolving a desert fox’s lingering. Osborn did play an obvious and vital role. 16 Valentine Hill Road. who wrote in his 1974 autobiography. 1). Egypt. 3). It provides a remarkable glimpse into the daily routine of a fossil hunt. Indeed Notes amplifies and clarifies the event considerably. or had written for him. an account of the activities of his American Museum department [vertebrate paleontology] for 1904-08. introduces us to the relatively unknown. MORGAN1 and SPENCER G. relating methodology and the finds for each day. NH 03824. and illuminates this event considerably. While Granger did write a formal expedition report (see Appendix B). President Theodore Roosevelt.Morgan.) onward. It provides a remarkable glimpse into the daily routine of a fossil hunt. states it occurred in 1906 . this expedition was America’s first fossil hunt on a continent an ocean’s span away and it carried the full weight of institutional backing and a personal blessing by President Theodore Roosevelt (Fig. Despite housing Granger’s “Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. The region incorporates archaeological sites dating from the late Paleolithic to the late Roman and Christian periods (circa 8000 B. Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. or what role was played by the 1907 American expedition. Durham.-A. Henry Fairfield Osborn (1857-1935) (Fig. a vast salt-water lake lay at the heart of the region. He was still working on an enormous monograph on that subject when he died . 1801 Mountain Road NW. and usually do so incorrectly. linked to the Nile by a river arm known as the Bahr Yusuf (Joseph’s Canal) . V. 1907 VINCENT L. he never published further on it. PREFACE The Fayum region consists of a large. arrival of the American mail. as does a onetime Osborn/Granger assistant. mention of the Fayum expedition was completely omitted. Few outside the profession (and perhaps within it) know the history of Fayum fossil-hunting. camp life and other matters. Expedition member Walter Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip (Notes) found in 1977 provides a rare firsthand account of the 1907 Fayum expedition. Scanty treatment of it can be found in popular literature today. together with the weather and other matters. S. Few outside the profession (and few within it) know the history of Fayum fossil-hunting. Concession to the Improbable: It is odd that when Osborn wrote. Richard Markgraf.L. Simons’ colleagues. however. is the only firsthand and daily account of this “forgotten” 1907 expedition Simpson inquired of. he credits the Fayum expedition with awakening his interest in proboscideans (elephants and their kindred). Bown and Mary J. . Thomas M. but highly distinguished junior colleague of Osborn’s and Granger’s.. 1 Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip.
The first page of Walter Granger’s Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. . 1907 (Notes). Notes is handwritten in pen and ink on one side each of seventy-two 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheets of lined paper.2 FIGURE 6.
The oldest exposed rocks are the Birket Qurun Formation. 7).” THE FAYUM Sixty-five kilometers off in the Egyptian desert southwest of Cairo. but no “real fieldwork. the name of one of these early whales is the basis for long reference to the Birket Qurun beds by geologists and paleontologists as the "Zeuglodon zone" (Fig. They represent marine deposits of the Tethys seaway which separated Africa from Eurasia during the Eocene-Oligocene . He required nothing more. the expedition would not have received funding. to make introductions. having done so for the past decade. The AMNH expedition focused upper Eocene beds that British geologist H. The depositional setting of the Fayum rocks in which Granger collected was a coastal plain on the southern shore of Tethys that had periodically documented a strandline migration of the retreating sea. J. Terrain map of the Fayum. son and daughter in tow. mudstone. such as the early whales and a primitive seacow (Eosiren). huge snakes dwelled and slithered among 3 the rushes and palms. Granger had been leading the Museum's vertebrate fossil-hunting expeditions since 1898 and. to be seen.” Indeed. Osborn went to Egypt. and the temporary attention of the nation's paleontologists. because nothing more was required of him. Without Osborn. the Fayum is a geological depression that at its deepest point is nearly 40 meters below sea level. with his wife. Indeed. In general. Cairo off to the northeast (reproduced from Baedeker. found nowhere else on earth. and strange bihorned beasts. It is a geomorphic feature unique to Africa (Fig. Osborn's visits to the field typically involved a degree of pageantry. and to pose for photographs. whenever Osborn visited him on site. luxuriant plants and trees dominated the landscape. about 50-60 meters thick. Once filled with tropical life on a coastal plain. they record a complex regression of the sea. The Birket Qurun beds represent just such an inundation. 8). Without Osborn. He was confident to leave the expedition’s work in the hands of Granger. the blessing of the President of the United States. thrived. Consequently. highlevel entree to the Egyptian authorities and their special generosity would not have been gained. the fossils of the Qasr el Sagha Formation represent both marine animals. and they yield fossil shells of marine invertebrates and highly significant fossils of early whales. Beadnell (1874-1944) (and Osborn) called the "fluvio- FIGURE 7.even if it was not as encompassing as he fostered. and terrestrial animals. the 1907 Fayum expedition would not have occurred. . when marine embayments retreated across the landscape to be overrun by rivers flowing to the Tethyan coast. The overlying beds of the Qasr el Sagha Formation are about 200 m thick and consist of sandstone. as the experienced Granger noted wryly after a dragoman mishandled a matter affecting the comfort of Osborn's assemblage in the Fayum: “Friend Mickawi is apparently just learning that he hasn't an ordinary tourist party on his hands . it was always the same: a short stay to familiarize and photo-op. The Fayum depression exposes a section more than 500 meters thick of sedimentary rocks that were mostly deposited during the late middle Eocene to early Oligocene in age. as he would for the next three. Without Osborn. 1908). to visit the Fayum. about 45-26 million years ago . early crocodiles and proto-elephants roamed the shores and frolicked in the water. such as the primitive proboscideans  Barytherium and Moeritherium . L. limestone and shale deposited in a mixture of shallow marine and riverine environments.
These beds yield the remarkable fossil assemblage of mammals first described by British paleontologist Charles W. it was dangerous. Dahshur and Lisht to the east. although the expedition also went down into the Qasr el Sagha Formation and up to the lower Oligocene beds.” which once nurtured an amazing variety of life. marine series (beds). Feiyum). To the north. their agricultural. Paleontologists and institutions throughout the world took note. the lower sequence of the Jebel Qatrani Formation is a complex pile of sandstone. lie the ruins of Qasr el Sagha (Temple of the Goldsmith). mostly deposited by rivers. mudstone and limestone. caused by evaporation and replenishment by seasonal flooding in the Nile valley.000 square kilometers of the desert-bound Fayum depression (Fig. which ascends to the Libyan Desert . other fossilized testaments of the flora and fauna from the tropical life of the ancient Fayum. conglomerate. Marsh (1832-1899) and Edward D. at 35 meters above sea level and about eight kilometers northwest of Dimé.. of course.. Fayum. is the southwest terminus of a string of sandstone beds that stretches from the Fayum all the way back to Cairo. Not only was this desert forbidding and hot. The Fayum of Egypt was such a place .g. Faiyûm. Sometimes a simple haze obstructed these views. Whole nations were involved--fossil hunting was a matter of national pride that opened the geopolitical sphere while the Americans had merely to trek past their own Mississippi River to work huge new fossil fields. But other natural events caused dramatic non-seasonal fluctuations as well. they saw the Qatrani Hills that led to the Libyan Plateau. the American fossil-hunters could make out the pyramids at Giza. Indeed. Life with Moeris For thousands of years. 10). But the Europeans had nearly always felt the need to look well beyond their own borders. The earliest humans in the recorded history of the Fayum basin based their existence. The waters of an ancient freshwater lake once lapped within an ancient quay nearby. Indeed." These were later termed the lower sequence of the Gebel Qatrani or Qatrani Formation . lay fossilized tree trunks-.. Fayum. But how? Along the north of the Fayum today arcs a huge. the only clue to how the Fayum had achieved its earlier great vitality now lies in the sand--a natural east-west cut through which floodwaters of the ancient pre-Nile rivers 20 kilometers away once coursed westward to fill and sustain the Fayum basin. America had not yet mounted expeditions to search for fossils beyond its own shores. who collected in the Argentine Patagonia in the late 1890s. Sometimes extreme winds from the southwest called khamsines would blow across the landscape with such force that flying sand particles blocked the views entirely.” These successions are marked by distinguishable fluctuations in volumes of water and shoreline occupied (Fig. and both had more recently eyed areas in North Africa.Section through the Eocene and Oligocene . 9). before it rises another 183 meters to the Libyan Desert. “Fig. cultural and religious practices. the work of betterknown early American vertebrate fossil collectors such as Othniel C. Osborn” (reproduced from Osborn. Beneath this still-life lay silent riches.4 Strewn about the camp sited on a bed of crusted desert sand with stark rock exposures. the terrain rises sharply and dramatically to a plateau 164 meters above sea level.visible proof of a vastly different earlier life. the Fayum once cradled Egypt's largest cultivated area. a fortified position that once served as a point of departure for Fayumbased caravans negotiating oases in the Libyan Desert to the north. Along the edge of this plateau. the opening of the American West had already reset vertebrate paleontology's newest frontier and sparked new eagerness to gain knowledge. Cope (1840-1897) having already made a significant impact worldwide. in particular. material important to the gatherers because it would help advance the study of evolution. meaning "lake. Life took sustenance from Moeris and the lush environs it enabled. The Americans had found rich new and untapped fields of information for paleontology. their documentation of fossils from this upper sequence became critical to the direction of future fieldwork . With vital and continuous sustenance from the waters and soils of the Nile Valley. colonialism aided the cause: England searched in India. 9) for nearly six months upon arriving in late January.. lie the ruins of Dimé. Andrews (1866-1924) that were the primary collecting objective of the 1907 AMNH expedition. on the cyclical growing seasons enabled by the waters of Moeris. 1921). In fact. From the escarpment near their campsite on a clear day. As the century turned in 1900. European institutions. LAKE MOERIS "Fayum" comes from the Greek. Just beyond Qasr el Sagha. Natural changes in the lake levels were. now transcribed as Jebel Qatrani Formation. this oasis became a huge and thriving nugget of life in the sand. the waters of the Moeris sustaining a seasonal rhythm to life forms of all sorts. North of Birket Qurun (Lake of the Horn) (Fig. an uncompleted religious temple. at the northern edge of the Fayum and 28 meters above sea level. Abusir. they could gaze upon the remnant agricultural bowl of the Fayum. commercial. As much as 340 m thick. Seven meters higher. Granger. It is at this southwest terminus that the 1907 American Fayum expedition camped and collected (Fig. Andrews. To the Fayum's east. had sought to solidify their own importance by gaining territorially far-reaching vertebrate fossil collections and stratigraphical studies. nearly vertical escarpment called Jebel Qatrani (Tar Ridge). Fayyum. 10). After Beadnell. such as shifts in the FIGURE 8. but for one privatelyfunded exception--John Bell Hatcher (1861-1904). phiom. The ancient lake “phiom” refers to is “Moeris." the token of its past. 89 -. west and south also lie desert. Pronounced "fei-'yoom" and spelled variously over time (e. For some. The prehistoric Fayum lakes existed in stages that take the names of “Moeris. Germany searched in the Near East. . of course. and to the west they knew lay a valley they called Zeuglodon--the valley of the fossil whales. American institutions headed out West in earnest to find and collect specimens worthwhile to pack into their laboratories and exhibit halls for study and display. Lake Moeris and its prehistoric predecessors dominated the 12. To the south. Saqqara.
1936). with the (1) lower marine Zeuglodon beds (middle Eocene). A. Map of the Fayum. (3) upper Fluvio-marine Palaeomastodon beds (lower Oligocene) (reproduced from Osborn. (2) middle Qasr-el-Sagha Moeritherium beds (upper Eocene). . and of the sea.5 A B FIGURE 9. Stratigraphic chart . B. of the brackish Birket-el-Qurun.section showing the lowering levels of the ancient Lake Moeris.
FIGURE 10. Map of Fayum indicating extent of earlier lakes: 1. Maximum extent of Premoeris Lake; 2. Maximum extent of Protomoeris Lake; 3. Maximum extent of Moeris Lake (reproduced from Wendorf and Schild, 1976).
carving rivers of the Nile valley, earthquakes, and, perhaps, even the whims of El Niño . The ancient Lake Moeris known to historical accounts was the last stage in a long series of stages that began much earlier. Each stage reflected a cycle of noticeable expansion and contraction in lake level, and each can be documented by physical evidence of their shorelines (Figs. 10 and 11). Paleomoeris marked the first stage and ran from prehistory to 7,000 B.C. Its water level fluctuated from between 11 and 15.5 meters above sea level. Premoeris was the second stage and lasted a thousand years from 6,500 B.C. to 5,500 B.C. The lake's level during Premoeris began 10.5 meters above sea level, rose to 28 meters and then fell back again. The shoreline, of course, extended beyond that of Paleomoeris. Protomoeris followed Premoeris in 5,500 B.C. and lasted to 4,500 B.C. During the time of Protomoeris, the lake rose 24.5 meters above sea level before falling back to 8 meters above in 4,800 B.C. These are
the stages assigned by scientists to compose the history of the Moeris lakes, each being based on measurable shoreline remnants left by distinct major and natural fluctuations in the lake's level . But, none of these stages ended the way Lake Moeris would. Lake Moeris, the final stage, began in 4,000 B.C. with recorded history and lasted until 500 B.C., at about the time humans sought to regulate the sometimes devastating fluctuations affecting its level. Moeris averaged 13.5 meters above sea level when this stage began and had declined only 3 meters when Herodotus visited it sometime after 449 B.C. . Humans came to occupy the Fayum basin because they could live well off the lake and the agriculture it enabled. But seasonal and sporadic flooding in the Nile sometimes caused extremes in Lake Moeris that threatened the humans. So they sought a way to control it. Lowering the lake artificially by means of carefully draining it when necessary was one way, and the way that was decided upon and implemented by the humans. The result was that an average and predictable
ebb and flow in Lake Moeris’ level was effected with only minor fluctuations of about 2.5 meters caused by seasonal flooding from the Nile and by evaporation. A constant and happy life with Moeris was thus made feasible. Humans had harnessed Moeris into a manageable, cyclical rhythm provider. Seasonal floodwaters now became regarded as godsent, each new season was celebrated annually with religious symbolism. Every aspect of life in the Fayum became more securely tied to the more predictable waters of Moeris. Humans flourished as a result, this goddess of nature now tamed. But, as human presence and endeavor broadened within the Fayum, demands increased. More productivity was needed not only to sustain life, but to drive a now-flourishing inter-Mediterranean nation commerce. Bahr Yusuf The humans had also enlarged the natural cut that conveyed excess floodwaters and rich sediments from the Nile valley across the desert to the Fayum basin to enable navigation between the Nile River and Lake Moeris. This new water route was named Bahr Yusuf (Joseph’s Canal) after the Biblical-era architect who designed it (Fig. 10). When Bahr Yusuf allowed water-borne traffic in and out of the Fayum, it enabled the Fayum’s goods to travel up the Nile into the Mediterranean Sea and to ports all around. The Fayum's commerce boomed as it tapped directly into the flow of commerce between Egypt and its world trading partners. Almost instantly, at the Bahr Yusuf's mouth on the Nile River, arose a vibrant city of commerce called Memphis. Memphis, and the end For a time, Memphis rivaled all others as the finest city in Egypt. A line of foreign rulers that began with the Persians in 525 B.C. chose to govern from Memphis. Alexander the Great, who defeated the Persian King Darius III in 332 B.C., also seated his Ptolemaic rule at Memphis and, thus, also kept part of his army in Egypt. Fair-featured, blonde and red-haired children that appeared in Memphis and the Fayum in the years thereafter were known as the children of Iskander--of Alexander . As the Fayum’s population and Mediterranean commerce surged, the pressure increased for more land to be devoted to agriculture. None was readily available. Irrigating sections in the desert seemed laborious and uncertain, if not unfeasible. It was Alexander’s successor, Ptolemy I, Soter, ruler from 323 to 285 B.C., who believed he had the solution. Soter decided to drain Lake Moeris sufficiently to retract its shoreline
7 enough to expose needed land for cultivation. But to accomplish this, the lake had to be lowered to a level not previously attempted by humans during their earlier flood control projects. Soter implemented his plan, and it seemed to work initially; new land was created by lowering Lake Moeris. But the ultimate consequence was devastating; Lake Moeris began to dry up, and there was no way to stop it. By lowering Moeris as he did, Soter also dramatically reduced the lake’s surface area. While Moeris was probably doomed anyway, the Nile River slowly entrenching into its own valley so that it would soon stop flooding into the Bahr Yusuf, Soter had prematurely put Moeris at the mercy of the sun. The sun burned upon the lake as it always had, but now, though there was less surface area of Moeris to burn, the volume of Moeris had diminished significantly. Evaporation accelerated, and the lake slowly began to shrink. Over the years, the evaporation became more effective. Annual intake from flooding in the Nile Valley was no longer sufficient to offset evaporation’s gradual effect. As each cycle passed, both Moeris and the Nile eventually fell below the level of the Bahr Yusuf canal. Lake Moeris' link to the Nile was now lost and Moeris ultimately vanished. With it went the Fayum’s immense bustle of life and commerce and, by 1,000 A.D., even the city of Memphis was gone. Evaporation continued to lower the lake: by 280 B.C. it fell from 22 meters to 2 meters below sea level. The lake was at that level through Ptolemy's rule. But, by 200 A.D., it was down another 5 to 7 meters below sea level and, by the 13th century, it was at 44 meters below sea level, nearly at the actual bottom of the Fayum basin itself (Fig. 11). This is where its successor, Lake Qurun (Birket Qurun), sits today in the northwest corner of this once vast and rich area (Fig. 10). The brackish waters of Qurun are one-tenth the size of Lake Moeris. A small agricultural area now borders Qurun to the south. The rest of the Fayum is reclaimed by desert. This is where evidence of its ancient life now lies mostly buried beneath the sand . ANCIENT VERTEBRATES IN THE FAYUM In the ancient Fayum, 26-45 million years ago (mya), a coastal plain met the east-west shoreline of the Tethys Sea (Fig. 12). The lush tropical plain and warm ocean waters teemed with life. This variety of ancient life could not be sustained in the environmental conditions that characterize this area today: the rocks and fossils of the Fayum describe a tropical paradise lost long ago (Figs. 13 and 14).
FIGURE 11. Fluctuations in levels of Lake Moeris summarized (reproduced from Wendorf and Schild, 1976).
8 and flora of North Africa . An assemblage of fossil birds, for example, indicates they were trapped in deposits formed in slow water current conditions with their associated freshwater vegetation. The avian fauna, very similar to that found in tropical swamp and river areas of Central Africa, indicate that during the late Eocene and early Oligocene, the Fayum was a subtropical to tropical lowland coastal plain with seasonal rainfall. It contained one or more slow-flowing, swampy rivers heavily overgrown with papyrus, reeds, and floating plants like Salvinia and water lilies. Terrestrial vegetation in the ancient Fayum included liana vines, tall trees, and mangroves. The once-tropical, heavily-forested nature of the ancient Fayum, as indicated by its geology and its assemblage of fauna, is confirmed by the type of environments occupied elsewhere today by similar plant and mammal species. Indeed, the modern environment most comparable to that of the ancient Fayum is a zone of swamp land, forest and grassland that bounds the northwest portion of Uganda's Lake Victoria . The Fayum fossils show that the faunas of the region were highly unusual and without immediate comparison elsewhere. Approximately 20 orders of ancient mammals are known to be preserved as fossils in the Paleogene strata of the Fayum Depression. These fossils provide key insights into many aspects of mammalian evolution. Included are ancestral "stock" forms upon which were built the important lineages from which some later African mammals developed. Other forms were evolutionary experiments in the Fayum that ended abruptly without leaving any descendants. The fossil mammals include anthracotheres, arsinoitheres, creodonts, giant hyracoids, proboscideans, barytheres, basilosaurs, sirenians, rodents, bats, elephant shrews, insectivores (including the Ptolemaiida), marsupials, and parapithecid, propliopithecid and tarsiid primates [24(A)]. Non-mammal fossils include giant constrictor boöids, sea snakes, turtles, crocodilians, lizards, sharks and skates, lung fish, teleost (bony) fishes, many birds, a wide range of plants as well as trace fossils of social insects [24(B)]. Many of the Fayum's fossil mammals appear to be native African in origin, including some of the early primates, macroscelidians, tenrecoid insectivores, ptolemaiids, proboscideans, arsinoitheres and, possibly, sirenians . The most unusual members are among the larger mammals, many of which were very archaic and probably native to the Fayum. Some of the better known are Arsinoitherium zitteli, Moeritherium lyonsi, Palaeomastodon, and the basilosaurs. These large mammals were of particular interest to Henry Osborn: his desire to collect fossils of them gave impetus to the American Museum’s Fayum expedition. Arsinoitherium zitteli Andrews The giant subungulate Arsinoitherium zitteli from the late Eocene was a 3.4 meter long quadruped that stood taller than the largest rhinoceros of modern times (Figs. 14A and 15). Its large skull featured a huge pair of bony horns growing upon the snout side-by-side rather than in an anteroposterior line, as occurs in some rhinoceri. Although outwardly rhinoceros-like in appearance, Arsinoitherium was not related to that line. Instead, it is classified as one of the largest of the few known representatives of the order Embrithopoda--an evolutionary dead-end with no known ancestors or descendants. The precise placement of this order is not yet known, but it is generally positioned closest to the proboscideans and their relatives, the tiny rock hyrax, or to the perissodactyls . Arsinoitherium probably inhabited the Fayum's marshy areas and the surrounding low jungle and thick forest vegetation. It was heavilybuilt and slow-moving. Its dentition consisted of 44 high-crowned teeth that formed a continuous series from molars to incisors, these being primitive in construction though suitable for coping with a diet of the low foliage that grew around the margins of swamps and forests. Other remains of this unusual group of mammals have been found north of Tethys in Romania and Turkey, so they were not limited to the
FIGURE 12. Osborn’s map depicts the world as he reconstructed it during the time of the Fayum, correctly portraying separation of Africa from Eurasia by a seaway (Tethys, called “Mediterranean” by Osborn). However, other aspects of the map are now known to be incorrect (for example, existence of Central America) and Middle Eocene is too old an age designation for the Fayum fossil beds. Osborn’s caption is over-stated as well, given that the 1907 Fayum expedition was the Museum’s first exploration beyond American shores.
In the late Eocene to early Oligocene, about 34-30 mya, when dense tropical plant life proliferated throughout the Fayum, strange animals roamed throughout a haven of lakes, swamps and slow-moving rivers as they fed or harbored in trees, grasses, papyrus, reeds and floating vegetation. Of the many forms of prehistoric life that variously existed in the ancient Fayum, the Fayum’s mammals were among the most unique on earth. Some were forerunners of today’s mammals, such as the elephant and the whale. Some evolved no further, such as the bizarre, laterally bihorned Arsinoitherium (Fig. 14A). Fossil remnants of Fayum vertebrates, as well as of its trees, plants and other life forms, remain the principal record of the Paleogene fauna
FIGURE 13. Ancient Fayum proboscideans as restored by Margaret Flinsch in 1932 under the direction of Osborn. Palaeomastodon (upper left), Phiomia (upper right) and Moeritherium (in water, center) were all critical to understanding the origin and evolution of the proboscideans.
These animals are now known elsewhere in Northern Africa. deified his sister. and their distant descendants possibly include modern elephants. Both sets of second incisors in both jaws were enlarged into short. D. two “Phiomia. Moeritherium Another large Fayum mammal was Moeritherium. 16A). Palaeomastodon stood up to 2. a Moeritherium. Philadelphos. are closely related to each other. Moeritherium possibly frequented thickets at the edges of the Fayum's lake. Now it is considered to be from an aberrant line very close to the true main lineage of proboscideans (which still remains unknown). There was evidently no perceptible trunk.9 A B C D FIGURE 14. as well as two horizontal tusks protruding from the lower jaw. marshes and coastal plain.” (Drawings by John R. whose name also predominated a number of religious centers within the Fayum oasis (Ptolemy II. hoping to gain acceptance of their marriage by his Egyptian and Greek subjects). bilophodont teeth. Philadelphos. The nasal bones of Palaeomastodon were retracted up on a bulbous skull (Fig. sister-wife of Egypt’s foreign ruler pharaoh Ptolemy II. A. 14D). There were two downward projecting tusks from the upper jaw. and a set of simple. boar-like tusks. B. suggesting the presence of a trunk. Moeritherium was a heavily-built. living not unlike a hippopotamus or tapir during the early Oligocene. C.4 meters high at the shoulder. Ancient Fayum mammals as restored by John R. The upper . The generic name comes from the Greek-born. but the first discovery of moeritheres was in the Fayum. from late Eocene to early Oligocene deposits in the Fayum. Several closely-related species have been found from localities north of Lake Moeris. Lavas in 1995. and had long legs and an elephantlike skeleton (Fig. as well. Palaeomastodon The Paleogene Fayum sediments have also produced important proboscideans more advanced than the Moeritherium--the earliest mastodons. stout. Short.) Fayum. a Paleomastodon. The genus Palaeomastodon (including Phiomia). two Arsinoitherium zitteli. Both were much larger animals than Moeritherium. also once known as the "Dawn Elephant" because it was believed to have been the direct ancestor to later proboscideans (Figs. but there was a highly mobile upper lip similar to that of a tapir. 13 and 14C). Lavas. thick legs terminated in broad feet with flat hooves. pig-like animal that stood about 1 meter high at the shoulder. Egyptian princess Arsinöe. from which the animal derives its generic name.
Prozeuglodon atrox. “Phiomia” wintoni. B. Skeleton of Arsinoitherium zitteli. Lavas. C. Protosiren. Skulls of: A. Apterodon macronagthus.10 FIGURE 15. and F. D. Moeritherium.) .) A B “Phiomia” wintoni Moeritherium C D Prozeuglodon atrox E F Protosiren Apterodon macronagthus Ptolemaia grangeri FIGURE 16. E. (Drawing by John R. Ptolemaia grangeri. Lavas. (Drawings by John R.
Beadnell. and others. and toe bones was described for the first time. Basilosaurs The most important marine mammals from the Fayum are undoubtedly the basilosaurs. but shows adaptations for swimming more akin to the latter. At a point higher in the escarpment. the first recorded Fayum fossil find was of tree remnants described by Arthur Bedford Orlebar (1810-1866) in 1845 and 1846 . was also the first to describe (in 1884) the so-called "Berlin Specimen" of the Archaeopteryx found near Blumenberg. 1874-1944. and thus appears to lie between Ambulocetus and Basilosaurus. not paddles . The results FIGURE 17. even though Dames placed the whale in a new species. Hugh J. It shows adaptations more suited to swimming than those of Ambulocetus. an amphibious. Beadnell (Fig. The Archaeocetes (the group which includes the basilosaurs) now thus appear to fall in line somewhere between Ambulocetus and the modern toothed (Odontoceti) and baleen (Mysticeti) whales. . Andrews and Beadnell each published initial papers on their finds in 1901 and followed them with comprehensive studies in 1905 and 1906. foot. among others. a huge boa snake more than 9 meters in length (Gigantophis). they have always been restored showing whale-like flippers. L. German paleontologist Wilhelm B. Dorudon (=Zeuglodon) osiris. Progression through water was probably by a combination of paddling the hind limbs and undulating the spine up and down. FAYUM FOSSIL COLLECTING PRIOR TO 1907 Although Fayum fossils may have been known to the ancient Egyptians . while the British military ruled Egypt . stationed with the Egyptian Geological Survey in Cairo. It had wellformed fore and hind limbs and it may have been able to move on land as well as swim (which is assumed to be the main means of locomotion). ancient land vegetation that once edged the stream course in the Eocene . Andrews. and on how and when their terrestrial ancestors returned to the oceans. Germany.11 jaw tusks may have evolved from the much shorter tusks of a Moeritherium-like ancestor. undertook to explore and map the eastern and northern border areas of the Fayum Depression. Lyons (1864-1944). two other ancestral whales were found in Pakistan that provide evidence on the position of the basilosaurs within the cetacean lineage. from 1901 to 1904 north of Birket Qurun (Fig. a fossil sea-snake (Pterosphenus). This latter site they termed a "fossil-wood zone" because it was distinguished by the fossil evidence of an earlier. because it retains ancestral features of parts of the vertebral column and pelvic girdle from the former. Dames. and until recently. The tiny legs of the basilosaurs may have been derived from mesonychids. The fossils were assigned to British Museum of Natural History paleontologist Charles W. Captain (later Sir) Henry G. But. Dames (1843-1898) of Berlin's Museum of Natural History published on Schweinfurth's find in 1883 and again in 1894. and may have been used as copulatory guides or to aid movement through shallow water. In 1994. also known as the zeuglodont whales (and technically called protocete archaeocetes) (Fig. the hyracoids Saghatherium and Geniohyus. however. Their efforts. it attracted little interest. The Eocene whale Rodhocetus also was found in Pakistan later in 1994 . marsh-dwelling proto-elephant (Moeritherium). 18) led them to discover. in 1877. were remarkable. Over 240 skeletons of the whale-sized Basilosaurus are known. The Fayum finds provided a key link between ungulates and modern cetaceans (whales lack external hind limbs though they retain vestigial ones as embryos). Modern whales were descended from land-dwelling. Exploration of the fossil-wood zone by Beadnell and Andrews produced more fossils of land mammals such as the two-horned Arsinoitherium. hoofed ungulates. More recent discoveries of early whales in Pakistan are also of forms with feet. who joined Beadnell in 1901 for further fieldwork in the Fayum. a remote ancestral proboscidean (Barytherium). incidentally. the primitive mastodon-like Phiomia. Beadnell soon located fossil mammals and reported them to his director. The first Fayum vertebrate fossil find was an archaeocete whale collected by the German geologist Georg Schweinfurth (1836-1925) in 1879. and was a small seal-like animal with a typical basilosaur-like skull. In 1990. Beadnell and Andrews found a fossil of a Palaeomastodon. a Basilosaurus skeleton with external hind limbs and individual pelvic limb. 16C). L. These three whale fossil types have supplied much-needed information on the chronology of cetacean evolution. 17). the British geologist Hugh J. The British In 1898. Ambulocetus natans was older than Basilosaurus. and the giant hyracoid Megalohyrax. a sea-cow (Eosiren).
their presence via Richard Markgraf in 1907 was unexpected by the Americans (and perhaps the British). The larger studies. and other paleontologists in Frankfurt . They reached the Fayum on March 11. Nevertheless. Osborn (Fig. For the duration of his short career. he continued the tutoring through correspondence. FIGURE 19. Switzerland. together with the Stuttgart's Consul in Egypt Teodore Wanner (1875-1955). by so doing. and eventually honored by the King of Württemberg . whose poor health forced him to relocate to a different climate. He bought a small farm in the village Sennoures on the eastern edge of the oasis and began venturing seasonally to the northern sector of the Fayum to collect Mesozoic and Cenozoic specimens for Fraas in Stuttgart. J. Well-suited to a lonely rigor of working in the desert. the lone and sickly Austrian artifacts-cum-fossil-collectorand-dealer Markgraf (Fig. and called the “1906 German Expedition to the Fayum. Fraas decided he might put Markgraf's skills to use by tutoring him in the collection of vertebrate fossils. Richard Markgraf at his camp in the Fayum on May 14. Upon confirming reports from the British. Eberhard Fraas returned to Egypt in early 1906 for a short expedition into the Fayum with Markgraf . and Stuttgart’s natural history museum in particular. as he saw it. Fraas had planned to journey on to eastern and southern Africa. Cross section of the strata exposed in the Fayum depression. When Fraas returned to Germany. Fraas and Markgraf finally departed for the Fayum through the Giza pyramid field in early March with three Bedouins and a string of camels. Beadnell (reproduced from Andrews. 1906). 1907. He also had a keen eye for opportunity and talent . where they spent 10 days exploring and collecting in the upper Eocene strata of the Qasr el Sagha Formation and in the Oligocene strata of the Jebel Qatrani Formation. and the Germans. Among the fossils they found were excellent specimens of Arsinoitherium and Basilosaurus isis. despite German publications on Fayum fossil finds in the early 1900s. Sweden. British. Markgraf was so enchanted by the Fayum that he eventually settled there. who was collecting artifacts in the Mokattam Hills. One area they visited was the British localities in the north section of the Fayum near the Jebel Qatrani escarpment . He would need local hospitality and assistance to facilitate his effort. the English-speaking British were the logical choice to give it. French and American paleontologists. Markgraf's work for Fraas. and Hans Georg Stehlin (1870-1941) of Basel. Metz and Fraas's brother Victor. 1906. and that Markgraf had accomplished it all under particularly difficult economic and physical conditions . . He headed to the same area at the northern edge of the Fayum where Schweinfurth. In 1903. The British reports on fossils from the Fayum confirmed earlier published speculation in 1899 by Tycho Tullberg (1842-1920) of Uppsala. and a German businessman in Cairo named Gustav Metz also began to provide for Markgraf financially . were Beadnell's 1905 Topography and Geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt and Andrews' 1906 A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayum. that certain groups of fossil mammals found in North America. and seemingly indomitable. L. Schlosser in Munich. and wait for the British to finish their work in the Fayum. Because of their significant presence in and familiarity with Egypt. Both works fascinated paleontologists around the globe. Sadly. later. take American fossil-hunting overseas . He had to bide his time. he eventually met Markgraf. very well-connected. but could not. Fraas. erudite monographs each. Osborn was thus anxious to inspect the Fayum himself and. The honor recognized that Markgraf's splendid collection brought national pride to the Kingdom of Württemberg. one of whom was the illustrious and supremely ambitious Henry Fairfield Osborn presiding at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City. would surely also be found in Africa . north of Birket el Qurun drawn by H. he was held in great esteem by German and. 19) set out yet again from his small farm in the eastern Fayum village of Sennoures (Sennourés or Senûres) to head northwest in search for fossils. Beadnell and Andrews had collected. While he remained in Cairo. As Fraas and Markgraf became better acquainted. in 1908. were soon recognized by the King of Württemberg (who ruled from Stuttgart): the Order of the Crown was conferred upon him in 1904. An American in waiting Osborn's eagerness to go to Egypt was tempered. as Osborn mulled over his forthcoming Fayum expedition. to become president of the Museum. 3) was curator of the Museum's relatively new Department of Vertebrate Paleontology and destined. his wife died and Markgraf had to leave their infant daughter behind in the care of others. The venture was financed by Wanner. Sirenia and Proboscidea. The Germans Granger’s expedition narrative Notes suggests that. such as the Zeuglodontia. followed by Osborn in 1900. Ernst Stromer (1871-1952). by a FIGURE 18.” Fraas was delayed in reaching Egypt through a series of mishaps. Markgraf was a former mason and musician from Bohemia. as he had the British earlier. Osborn entered into paleontology as a professional hobby. however.12 Markgraf’s interest in collecting fossils and antiquities first drew the attention of German paleontologist Eberhard Fraas (1862-1915) during a visit to Egypt in 1897 . Born rich. Egypt . It is not clear whether Osborn was aware of and politely waiting for Fraas to complete his expedition work. Markgraf became an avid and excellent fossil collector for hire. Markgraf left collecting in the Mokattam Hills to explore west of Cairo with Fraas’ colleague.
British Consular agent. Henry Osborn’s family and socio-economic ties were magnificent. Letters of introduction to Lord Cromer. Backers of an overseas expedition Through the generosity of President Jesup this expedition was made possible. Morgan nephew. Osborn and Choate would serve as honorary pallbearers at J. (1832-1878) were fellow co-founders in 1868 of the American Museum of Natural History . The . it was hoped. and go directly to the fossil bearing Eocene deposits in the north of the Fayum depression. I am sorry to say. Arthur M. Lyons. 20A and 39B). ambassador to Britain’s Court of St. Morgan had taken a particularly strong. as well as an American Museum trustee. According to one biographer. 1907. no shelter. Indeed. so I shall not see you. Lucretia. the American industrialist. a sister of Osborn’s wife.S. Morgan’s funeral . Jesup “was a lover of science and. had dedicated himself to bringing science to the common man” . In his entries following that moment (Notes. (1858-1919). was now also its president (since 1881). On January 4. Granger seems to have been completely unaware of Markgraf’s existence. This was an expedition that held interest beyond North Africa’s vertebrate paleontology. particularly the Arsinoitherium and the proboscideans Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. The single-humped camel (Camelus dromedarius).” Despite the length of his delay. and did not intend to do so in the Fayum . here to explore thoroughly the zone from which the extensive collections have been obtained by the Egyptian Survey Department through Mr. I am going into the Fayum desert to see what I can find . Jesup was not a mere businesssman-turnedidealist now finding ways to spend his time and money. The sun baked during the day. Andrews. Director General of the Survey Department. He later explained that while the discoveries by Beadnell and Andrews created the temptation to go to the desert at once. Morris Ketchum Jesup (1830-1908). just rocks and sand. Uncle Pierpont was also interested in ancient history. 1907. He was also 13 very well-connected.. Morgan also helped elevate Osborn to the presidency of the AMNH in 1908 . was essential to sustaining desert work. as 1907 loomed and nephew Osborn was finalizing his plans for the Fayum fossil expedition funded largely by AMNH president Jesup. However. in particular. As one author described it. as the American Museum party gradually made its way through the pyramid fields and into the Fayum . Feb. and it may have been Morgan (“Uncle Pierpont”) who persuaded Osborn to come back from Princeton in 1890 to join the AMNH (and Columbia University) and create a department of vertebrate paleontology (DVP) . Morgan contributed $16. who later served as U. funded largely by Morgan . Choate (1832-1917). Proboscidea . Fraas. I am just hurrying off for Egypt--the north of Africa. facilitate the work of the party . and the ancient religious cultures of the pharaohs” .. to secure a collection of these extremely interesting forms. James. Sr. in 1891. he would become drawn repeatedly to Egypt by “his fascination with sacred places and objects--from the rituals and pageantry of contemporary Islam to remnants of Coptic Christianity. fossil collecting in the Fayum promised to be particularly trying. the American president (1901-1909). Lythgoe (1868-1934) of New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art was also preparing for its first pyramid expedition to Egypt. Simply walking around to prospect for fossils was arduous. Although the Fayum was a world-renowned tourist attraction boasting a light railway system in addition to roads . He had made a large fortune in railroad supplies and banking. would. Osborn veritably preened as the moment neared. no vegetation.. married another J. life-long interest in Egypt (“my beloved Egypt”) after making an impromptu trip there with his family in 1871 . secure an outfit there. J. Adding to the mix. Osborn’s failure to also note the German presence in the Fayum is not explained.000 to the department annually and later set up a large publication fund. and would serve him very well for most of his tenure at the American Museum from 1890 to 1933 . It may reflect the politics of the situation--the British rule over Egypt at that point--as well as Markgraf’s already established presence in the Fayum as the resident freelance collector working for paying clients such as the Germans and eventually the British. and Theodore Roosevelt.professional obligation to delay his effort until others already there were finished. The Americans would not be slipping into the Fayum so unceremoniously as had Markgraf and Fraas. of course. and to Capt.” and “--[Markgraf] has done considerable work here for Prof. Conditions in the desert environment beyond the northern shore of Lake Qurun were rigorous--no natural water. Granger wrote “[Markgraf] is apparently a prospector of some experience. Beadnell and by the British Museum.” and donkeys and camels with crew to handle them. Perhaps the common man theme arose from his own humble beginnings. Henry Osborn had not worked a fossil out of the ground since his student days at Princeton. George Olsen  (Figs. the wellearned prior claims of the English precluded any thought of our visiting this region so long as the English exploration continued . In addition to natural history.C. and had longstanding ties to two key and devoted American Museum patrons. through his wealth. Indeed. In 1913. French and Americans .. P. 16 and 17). 1907. a co-founder and significant patron of the American Museum of Natural History in 1869. at the highest level of American society and power. Thereafter. Entrepreneurs Jesup and Morgan back in New York City surely were content to know that their city’s prime museums were finally present in Egypt. placing a fullscale expedition into the northwestern part of it in 1907 still required an interpreter-guide. But. the New York City lawyer handling incorporation by the AMNH in 1869 was Joseph H. To collect a fossil Game as he sounded (“I am going into the Fayum desert to see what I can find”). especially of the smaller fauna. introduced in Egypt by conquering Persian general Cambyses in 524 B. who was about to visit New York and wanted to meet with Osborn. The two New York City museum expeditions would meet briefly at the Lisht pyramids in early February. It was thought also that careful prospecting would bring to light new forms. Josephine Adams Perry. G. In short. The plans for the trip as mapped out by Professor Osborn were for the party to proceed from New York to Cairo. prior to meeting him in the Fayum on February 16. primarily for Osborn’s prospective and monumental monograph. Old Testament landscapes. and then retired to devote his life largely to his passion for science and education. Jr. and Osborn had already selected the men to do it: Walter Granger and his field assistant. Pierpont Morgan (1837-1913). he wrote to South African paleontologist Robert Broom (1866-1951). Morgan and Theodore Roosevelt. through Dr.. although Osborn then continued to maintain a direct role in matters at the DVP. called “dragoman. Junius Spencer Morgan .. H. P. though the nights were cool. The chief object of the expedition was. Further.. Henry Osborn was a nephew of Morgan’s.
Daoud Mohammed. But Hatcher spurned him--they had a history of personality differences. This also was a chance for Osborn to stand with the Europeans in obtaining significant and varied fossil collections for study and display. 1660-1783 .” Only within the past decade had a North American fossil-hunter even ventured to hunt in South America. Excavation and collection required skill. 21). Peterson (18651933). also serves to show how truly remarkable and commendable Hatcher’s initiative to Patagonia was. After some effort. he was from the upper economic. Unlike the large chunks of fossilized ancient trees that rested upon the surface. Granger. Osborn quickly dispatched Brown to sail to Argentina with Hatcher and Peterson in late 1898. Osborn. B. The American Museum's 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt was not Osborn's first attempt to collect outside North America. social and political crust of American society. Roosevelt quickly joined with Mahan in the “cause of naval preparedness and what they--along with Cabot Lodge.] Andrews I learned how very fragile some of our finds were likely to be. Never before had North American fossil-hunters ventured off to hunt for fossils in the “Old World. but returned with little new to science . patience and some ingenuity. however. Great expectations were thus placed on Osborn's overseas campaign. If one became seriously ill or injured. to the third and final of Hatcher's expeditions. he agreed to let Osborn in on it. But the rationale was sound. Brown made a modest collection. Ferrar on February 17. This distinction. he was able attach one of his newest collectors. Granger with quarry workers and camel men in May. Osborn had finally found a way to turn his comparatively young department of vertebrate paleontology into a major player on the international stage. Scientific enterprise in earth’s natural history on a global basis thus made perfect sense. A pivotal point for Teddy Roosevelt’s assessment of America’s place in the world occurred in 1890 when he happened to read Captain Alfred Thayer Mahan’s book The Influence of Sea Power upon History.. Hatcher and Peterson showed Brown a few old sites. he ran a department specializing in fieldwork. Hartley T. reciprocity.S. To Europeans forced to search well outside their own borders for fossils. to Patagonia three times from 1896 to 1899 . By 1899. which only Henry Osborn seems to have appreciated at the time . As Osborn wrote afterward: Through correspondence with Dr.) Olsen. the third musketeer of American expansionism--came to call the ‘large policy’ of American assertiveness abroad. Huge fossil fields all over the American West were being opened as American paleontologists scrambled to explore rich new sites while their European counterparts watched enviously. Geopolitically. or scraping and sweeping to loosen the thin crust of hardened or concreted sand and pebbles to let the wind blow away the loose sand underneath it and reveal any fossils that lay below . and he was a friend of Roosevelt’s .14 A B FIGURE 20. But once found. Hatcher was a well-known American fossil-hunter who. the American reach across an ocean's span to hunt for fossils while so many lay uncollected in their own backyard may have seemed amazing. the United States had just discovered a fossil treasure in its own backyard. and New York’s American Museum of Natural History were all now engaged in the hunt for fossils worldwide. Ibrahim Salim. London's Natural History Museum. Cedric docked at New York City's harbor and made ready for their journey to Egypt (Fig.” . and then left him on his own. A. Paris’s Muséum Nationale d’Histoire Naturelle. however.. Chunks of fossil wood seen at Olsen’s and Ferrar’s feet anchor the tent ropes. At main camp in the Fayum: (l.-r. TO EGYPT On Saturday morning. After they arrived. Furthermore. had to self-finance his hunt for fossils in Argentina. the Fayum’s ancient fauna typically lay hidden beneath the sand. That policy could take many forms. [Charles W. The distinction between Hatcher's Patagonia expeditions and the American Museum's Fayum expedition is that the latter was institutionally sponsored and carried the blessing of Theodore Roosevelt as President of the United States. January 5th. Stuttgart's Naturkunde. supremely well-positioned to help facilitate American expansionism. as Hatcher did with his brother-in-law. The Americans would eventually even adopt one excavation technique from Richard Markgraf: sandlensing. the various continents were necessary playing fields in pursuit of that study. water of the Birket Qurun nearby was unpotable: suitable water for drinking had to hauled in by camel every few days. Osborn was. Osborn tried to become involved. It was therefore evident that technical skill would figure largely in our success . The fundamentals of expansionism fit Osborn’s trade--the globalizing of American scientific fieldwork and study. 1907. Tinned food was the regimen when fresh was gone. as Hatcher's venture was drawing to a close. and competing prides of nation-states. 1907. Olaf A. Barnum Brown (1873-1963). the larger context for which was expansionism. Learning of Hatcher’s plans. of course. it was at least a two-day trip by camel to Tamia for help. The American Museum would not return to Patagonia until George Gaylord Simpson’s more successful expeditions there beginning in 1930 . and how difficult it would prove to take them out of the sand without breakage. a fossil still promised to be in such delicate condition that it required great care in handling. fossil-hunters Walter Granger and George Olsen boarded the British luxury ocean liner S. a fossil-collecting expedition was an excellent vehicle for stating American presence abroad in 1907. It was the launching pad for placing AMNH and American paleontology . despite his position as curator of vertebrate paleontology at Princeton University. 1907.
daughter Josephine (1884-1967) and son. and the Osborn family member party led by Osborn who also. and returned to Cairo. Third. along with his wife Lucretia (1858-1930). On February 18th Professor Osborn with his personal party and Mr. He countered the thought that mammals had migrated to Africa from Europe and Asia with speculation that. 20B). from Granger’s hometown newspaper. 1907. animals which were the gift of our Western American plains. Osborn wanted to expand the reach and scope of his young department. to rival its four-horned American contemporary Uintatherium. but does not detail (as he would in Notes). why should not further discoveries be made in the Fayum by dint of very energetic search and the prolonged training gained by our young explorers in the deserts of the Rocky Mountains region?  The escort party: Osborn and family Henry Osborn also boarded the S. the two-horned monster of Eocene Africa. 22). escorted the work party. Asia and North America. PARTIES TO AN EXPEDITION The expedition was under the leadership of Professor Henry F. The work party: Walter Granger and George Olsen The Granger-Olsen work party consisted of the two AMNH men overseeing native workers hired to assist with digging and removing sand. it was the opposite: mammals from Africa had spread to Europe. the excitement of this most likely successful foreign exploit was stimulating. He also wanted to show off his fossil collectors and he wanted to demonstrate that his reach extended abroad easily and naturally. and eventual wielder of the “Big Stick. of course. Granger in charge . . Clipping dated January 5. Walter Granger and George Olsen of the department staff. named after our own Uinta Mountains! How it pleased the fancy to take a caravan of camels. As Osborn later wrote: Now that many of the great extinct animals in the American Museum paleontological collections had proved to be of remote African origin. With Museum support.” A little overseas demonstration of American skill in rugged scientific fieldwork in the western desert of northern Africa wouldn't hurt at all. and raise it to a higher level. Granger’s formal expedition report states. Osborn. and perhaps most important. The boxes would then be transported to Cairo by train where they would be stored until repacked by Granger and Olsen for shipment back to New York. on the international scene. as well as specimens of the unique Arsinoitherium.S. The Rutland Herald.15 Fossil discoveries in Africa were relatively scant. leaving Mr. and perhaps a Zeuglodon. Roosevelt was a staunch supporter of the American Museum. Though FIGURE 21. the majestic mammoths and mastodons! What a temptation to bring back the great Arsinoitherium. collecting fossils and packing fossils in boxes to be taken by camel to the railroad station at Tamia (Fig. which were the gift of Africa to all other continents? Moreover. Mr. Osborn's exploit would be America's as well. Granger took charge of the work in the field upon Professor Osborn's departure from the desert . Ferrar departed from the desert. what temptation to secure some of the diminutive ancestors. but Osborn felt Africa held great promise in furthering study of mammalian diversity. He wanted to expand his department’s program of study. the fact that the 1907 American Museum Fayum contingent was actually two parties: the work party ultimately led by Granger. Granger and his crew would focus on the dramatic escarpment Jebel Qatrani that ascends from the Fayum to the Libyan Desert. it was no surprise that Osborn was able to solicit his good friend Roosevelt to attach America's prestige to his venture. Osborn thought fossil discoveries in Africa would shed further and revisionary light on Africa’s role in the origin and evolution of mammals. migration and distribution. indeed. Messrs. to bring forth the remains of the elephants. 1907. Second. to place beside their American descendants. and with the advance work essentially having been already done by the British. Fairfield (1887-1969) (Fig. foreign field campaigner. who chose as assistants. an ardent expeditioner. Osborn wished to obtain exhibitable specimens of extinct proboscideans. So. Cedric that Saturday morning of January 5th.
of the invasion of Europe. Perhaps Osborn’s refusal came because he wanted Granger and Olsen to concentrate exclusively on the Museum's work in the Fayum. but I held that this absence was not proof of the absence of life in Eocene Africa. Osborn's refusal hurt Anna deeply. from the plains of Kansas and Nebraska. Anna loved travel and. Nevertheless. Granger and Olsen would remain in the Fayum for another three and a half months. on February 18th. or his own party not to be appendixed by a comparative stranger: Walter and Anna were recently married. Fairfield. as will be explained later. the Colorado Plateau at Four Corners. As Osborn depicted it: In the year 1899. Asia. and ultimately put Walter at risk. certainly the most paradoxical in structure of all quadrupeds. In Notes. She even camped with him during his winter collecting seasons in warlord-torn Sichuan and Yunnan provinces . for this venture to Egypt. Granger terms the party the "Osborn party" and refers to their Fayum bivouac as the “upper camp. upon invitation. most writers were talking of the invasion of Africa from the north by animals of European or Asiatic origin. they had separate guides. I admitted that Africa was the 'Dark Continent' of paleontology. both in Europe and North America. and appearing in the Lower Miocene period. Worse for the moment. Henry. and her resentment would simmer for the rest of her life . but FIGURE 23. and few seemed to have in mind the possibility of a reversed current.16 there remained in doubt the group of elephants. dragoman Mickawi. Anna Deane Granger (1874-1952) at age 23 in 1897. Granger’s wife. was that this matter would fester during the 1907 Egypt expedition. outfitters and schedules. namely. and North America by animals originating in Africa. Nevertheless. Walter Granger was already known as an experienced and prodigious collector of both mammal and dinosaur fossils. Lucretia. and many writers were looking to the Orient for an answer to this question. because geological records are proverbially as incomplete as torn chapters of a book. fully formed as if from the sky or by fiat of the Creator. 1907: l. by 1907.” Osborn and family left the Fayum after two weeks. the bluffs. the two parties were to intermingle. the history of China was unknown. the stakes were high. though they traveled from Cairo into the Fayum together. in 1903. Anna Deane Granger (1874-1952) (Fig. In discussing the matter. guide Hartley T. basins and badlands of Wyoming and Colorado. paleontology had advanced to such a point that the origin of many families was known. that no discoveries had been made there except in the later period during which its Mediterranean shore had become part of Europe. had asked Osborn for permission to accompany the expedition group to Egypt. There were great unexplored regions in Asia. Following the initial suggestions of Huxley. to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Walter Granger By 1907. and on into the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico. and returned to New York. it was varied and encompassed much of the west. that arrangement was reached only as they prepared to depart Cairo on January 31st. Ferrar. No one knew whence they came nor how their remarkable characters had evolved. Though his experience was only in the American West. unknown. Perhaps Osborn regarded Anna’s presence as unacceptable in some other regard . had been to Europe once or twice on her own . Indeed. and the chances are always against the burial of land FIGURE 22. . Josephine. In the year 1900. that it had no early fossil mammal history. Fayum.-r. Anna was not to be denied again and subsequently accompanied Walter on a combined business and vacation trip to Europe in 1911-12 and spent nearly a decade with him in China while he participated in the famed Central Asiatic Expeditions of the 1920s. 23). The Osborn family party. but Osborn denied her request . I ventured a prophecy which placed the original home of the elephants and of several other great groups in Africa. At the time it seemed a curious fact that this possible theater of evolution of mammals had not been sufficiently considered.
and another part-time job with the Museum's custodial department. Granger traveled and camped in 1894 with the Museum’s new fossil collectors Jacob L. taxidermists together in Rutland. It is intriguing that two men--Osborn and Granger--of such diverse backgrounds. 1872. as well as of numerous smaller animals. Walter heeded the call and left Vermont on a train for New York City just as his senior year of high school commenced. He began collecting with them in his spare time. and became interested in their work almost instantly . They could trace his paternal ancestry to Launcelot Granger. among larger quadrupeds. They began their employment at the American Museum of Natural History in the same year. which is where Walter was born on November 7. Granger's other early mentors at the museum were ornithologist Frank A. display. as man is driven out. But his background was dramatically different from Osborn’s. the problem of the origin of the elephants might be solved . if not always his approach. and that prominent among the quadrupeds were the mastodons. Charles telegraphed Walter immediately. In short. for the collection. Granger-who had not finished high school--started with a part-time job in taxidermy with Jenness Richardson. confidante to Jefferson and Aaron Burr during the raucous 1790s . he soon envisioned field trips to the American West. and his wife Maria Morgan Granger. if the paleontology of Africa could become known. to leave no doubt as to my faith. supported by kinds of reasoning familiar enough to paleontologists since the days of Darwin. perhaps. 24). Granger transferred to the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology  and began the study and collecting of fossils full time (Fig. it seemed probable that many of the animals which suddenly appeared in Europe without any known previous ancestry there would prove to have originated in Africa . Vermont. Relatives on Walter’s mother's side--Haynes and Perry--fought in the Battle of Bennington in August of 1778. and hippopotami. As well as eventually making excellent and prodigious collections of vertebrate fossils for the American Museum. Walter Willis Granger was born to an insurance man Charles Granger and his wife Ada Haynes Granger in rural Vermont. that part-time work was available for Walter if he wanted it. as others in Mammalogy were doing. Field trips and observations were his forte. Dr. their expeditions began occurring in 1887. he also donned a suit and tie for work as a Museum floor guide. Wortman (1856-1926) and Olaf Peterson. of the antelopes. 1890. 25). of Randolph Center. Allen (1838-1921). Once at the Museum in New York City (Fig. however. became wholly immersed in paleontology immediately. He joined the Museum in 1890 as part-time taxidermist and part-time maintenance man. Walter Granger had never ventured so far from the woods and mountains near Rutland. Granger also signed on as a part-time janitor. when the trans-Mediterranean land routes were formed. who came to Boston. of course. the single activity Granger treasured from his youth was to be out-of-doors in the study of nature. a Postmaster General under Jefferson and Madison and a mutual. giraffes. Among his duties were to refill the kerosene lamps posted in and around the Museum and clean and trim lamp wicks. So I became convinced of the probability that Africa in early geological times was a great center of independent evolution. from England in 1654. Whereas Osborn was better suited to life in the halls and laboratory of the Museum. To afford this opportunity financially. and Granger was at the ready. or sea-cows. if controversial. after its long isolation by the sea. Wortman was his mentor now. successive waves of animals migrated northward and poured into Europe and Asia. Until the fall of 1890. but great history. Osborn continued. Henry Osborn. The family had no great wealth. Allen was the first to publish the results of Granger's fieldwork in mammalogy and excerpts from his field notes . Vermont. and joined the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology full time in 1895. I described this African 'Garden of Eden' as the probable nursery not only of the elephants. so Granger filled in for him. In addition to Richardson. a fellow Vermonter. Wortman and Granger went out again in 1895--Peterson was gone. that. that there seemed to be evidence in Europe of three such chief waves of life from Africa. Thus. His mother was the daughter of a family doctor in Middletown (Springs). driven out. by surplus population. Vermont. Massachusetts. Osborn. On some evenings and Sunday afternoons. Granger at work in the Taxidermy Department of the American Museum of Natural History in 1892. A distant relation from that line was Gideon Granger. of the Sirenia. Osborn was obviously primed. Granger would share Osborn’s absorbing passion. Chapman (1864-1945) and mammalogist Joel A. but of the Hyracoidea. and. together with department chair. In the following year. ancestors of the great family of elephants. and. would come together naturally for such a dynamic purpose. Richardson knew of Walter's taxidermy skills and deep interest in nature when they were FIGURE 24. A postcard sent to him by a friend on November 27. His father Charles was the son of preacher Calvin Granger. He began making expeditions to the American West in 1894.17 animals in such a manner as to be preserved for future record. Chapman was the first to take Granger out on a Museum field trip . In science as in love it is well to be audacious. inquired “How about that African trip? Do let me know” . Jenness Richardson was a family acquaintance who advised Granger's father Charles. scientific study and evolutionary placement of vertebrate fossils. The Mammalogy Department was actually the first branch of the Museum to make field trips. almost breathlessly: Along such lines ran the prophecy. Mr. 1901. while he was in New York on business. Granger made his first American West expedition in 1894 to trap mammals and collect birds. Vermont. Granger also became a . or rock conies. from the Department of Vertebrate Paleontology.
preparator--Olsen was both collector and preparator. with a walrus-like mustache. this work nevertheless was and remains of the utmost importance. George Olsen was the only person to collect with Granger in three of Granger's four major locations over a lifetime: the American West. particularly the delicate ones. there is little succor for collectors in the Fayum. but little time recorded. the Willwood Formation exemplified a temporal continuum. drovers. the Fayum does not expose a continuous stratigraphic section. Olsen eventually took up laboratory preparation of the fossils as well . On the other hand. caring for horses and equipment. Gaps exist everywhere. By 1907. but find little in it. the site was remote desert sand. and diagrams of the fossil locations he worked. the time controls placed on each fossil he collected from there were very precise. collect and preserve. cooking. It laid the basis for new conceptions and more adequate knowledge of the beginning of the Age of Mammals and resulted in the most remarkable series of primitive mammal remains that has yet been assembled . records. and moderate literacy. supplies. He would later accompany Granger abroad again--for the famed Central Asiatic Expeditions to the Gobi Desert during the 1920s. the Fayum of Egypt and the Gobi Desert (Fig. Olsen was especially good at excavating small mammal fossils--detailed and exacting work. Deposition distorts time--much sediment. As Granger described it in Notes on (Feb. Other than the raw and natural beauty of the place. Cenozoic connection Reflecting on Granger's career following his death in 1941. Mantled with an alluvium that combines extremes of soil maturity because of extensive erosion and deposition. camels. Quarry C. 1939. in the Fayum Granger and Olsen had the support (expedition and camp equipment. The physical conditions. however. George Olsen retired on pension in 1935 and died from cancer on November 7. Within the Willwood Formation of that basin. Walter Granger on an Eocene expedition to the American West in 1905. He was a stocky man of Danish descent. in the rock strata of one of Granger's more favorite locations. FIGURE 25. pioneer in keeping extensive and detailed field notes. close by.5 million years. time cannot be evaluated because there is no geological level with which to equate it. There are alternating layers of clay and loose sand. etc. A gap there is not really an evolutionary gap. and the fossils were difficult to find. the remote mountain winter camp in China's Sichuan Province. Cenozoic deposits around the world are typically fossiliferous. collector.) of the British-run Egyptian Geological Survey. So. He was an excellent field worker in fossil reptiles and mammals. George Olsen Olsen was a veteran of collecting expeditions to the American West with Granger. and everything becomes relative to base level in the Fayum. for example. Many of these determinations have withstood the scrutiny of time and modern techniques . He was scheduled to assume Granger's work of collecting of Pleistocene fossil vertebrates in Sichuan Province during the mid-1920s. at the Mongolian Flaming Cliffs (Bayn Dzak) in 1923.18 The 1907 Fayum expedition lasted as long as those Granger had been making to the American West since 1894. and keeping supplied with water and provisions. it is merely time unexplained.” Erosion cuts out time. transporting fossils out of the desert. Overshadowed in the public eye by later Asiatic collecting. so the Fayum deposits held promise. were different and more rigorous: the weather was harsh. Like Granger. Three hundred and forty meters of an eroded section in the Fayum can represent 20 million years. as well as a large work crew. 770 meters of strata clearly represent a mere 3. “The strata are so uneven and irregular that it is difficult to follow them. 6). The strata are riddled with unconformities. He also methodically identified and correlated geological characteristics and circumstances to the fossils he was collecting. He almost made it to Granger's fourth. the bones are in the sand--only certain layers. about 30 to 40 million years old. He joined the American Museum's Department of Vertebrate Paleontology in 1901 as a collector and preparator. The Fayum's deposits lay within the Oligocene and Eocene Epochs of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era. junior colleague (and subsequent vis major in American vertebrate paleontology) George Simpson wrote: [Granger] obtained large collections from almost every known early Tertiary formation of the West. Wyoming's Bighorn Basin. . It was George Olsen who found the first whole fossilized dinosaur eggs for scientific study. which itself is laced with areas of massive erosion and deposition. Time is better represented. Granger and Olsen would open a third site. but his opportunity was lost as warlord battling intensified throughout that area of the Yangtze River basin. Ancient fossil mammals still barely known to science would be found there. Granger and Olsen centered their efforts on the two quarries (A and B) that were opened a few years earlier by the British paleontologist Andrews. 26). they were less occupied with typical American West tasks such as protracted physical labor. fossil packing cases. Olsen was already a veteran of Granger’s collecting expeditions to the American West. For Granger. In the descending levels of paleontology that existed then--scientist.
this A.-20 Apr. and it is the oldest surviving flagstone pavement known . it is also not known what material. the terrain rose sharply more than 80 meters to the upper fossil wood zone and another 76 meters to the basalt cap of the Libyan Desert (Fig. collecting fossils Meeting Richard Markgraf Markgraf departs area Granger to Cairo Granger returns to Fayum Collecting in Fayum Camp moved to Qasr-el-Sagha Party returns to Cairo Resupply in Cairo Party returns to Fayum Collecting in Fayum To Qasr-el-Sagha and Cairo Granger in Cairo hospital Last days in Cairo Depart for USA [Arrive Egypt. Night quite cool and overcoat very comfortable. 13 Mar. tour Cairo] Wed. 21 Apr. Significant remnants of this Old Kingdom road exist today. From this cap at the point of Widan el Faras (Ears of the Mare). D. African coast in sight at Sunrise.M. Greatest confusion--regular bedlam. Genoa.-4 Feb. 24-Capt. Markgraf. 25-30 Apr. American West (1894-1941). O. Gibraltar. Arrived Cairo after Six & went to Shepheard Hotel (Fig.-6 Mar. Special train did not leave for Cairo until 3:30 P. The next five days were consumed in preparation . 8). 24 Apr. The Fayum deposits are now considered to be one of the most important single Cenozoic fossil deposits ever discovered. infers that a diary existed from which material was extracted to create Notes.900 square kilometer area of the Fayum of prehistoric times contains one of the most complete faunal assemblages of Paleogene mammals found anywhere on the African continent.S. The original of Granger’s Notes is handwritten in pen and ink on one side each of seventy-two 8 1/2 x 11 inch sheets of lined paper. Anchored in Alexandria harbor at about 9 o'clock. early in the expedition. Granger’s collecting sites world wide: A. Thus. Dawn broke as the S. 14 Mar. crusted desert surface to allow wind to erode the loose sand beneath.S. Granger referred to this trenching technique as "stripping" . Thurs. About a hundred native porters (Cook's & independent) to handle baggage . 1907. Chronological synopsis of Notes. Quarrying in the Fayum meant removing layer upon layer of sand from a crater-like basin until a fossil was reached. The following table summarizes Notes by dates annotated by subheadings. Strolled about streets in evening. Granger and Olsen made the serendipitous acquaintance of the freelance collector. Gobi Basin (1922-1930). and Naples. travel via pyramids to Fayum At camp in Fayum. These fossil quarries were located at the top of the lower fossil wood zone. an ancient basalt quarrymen's road once paved the entire way over 10 kilometers to a quay located at the shore of Lake Moeris. "Cedric" on January 5th. THE EXPEDITION Professor Osborn and Messrs. Have just had a particularly cold spell so they tell us. Granger and Olsen prospected as well. Every one anxious to get his aboard the special train first. bound for Alexandria. Notes from Diary--Fayum Trip. Jan. 27) . Lyons of the Survey Dept. if any. 5-15 Feb.  called on Prof. meaning they canvassed the desert's surface by foot looking for rock outcrops and other visual hints of fossils. Walter Granger began Notes that day : “Notes From Diary–Fayum Trip. It was from Richard Markgraf that they learned about sandlensing--breaking the hardened. Passengers were landed first and baggage was late in following. The title. Cairo was reached the same day. The form and whereabouts of such a diary are not known. Granger and Olsen departed from New York on the S.M. 9-12 Mar. Baggage was dumped from lighter on pier and passengers obliged to select their own and employ the natives to take it to train. W.” TABLE 1. B. 23-30 Jan. 7-8 Mar. C. it is also without immediate comparison elsewhere: the 1. Small museum with fine display of invertebrates .19 A B D C FIGURE 26. which is about 52 meters thick (Fig. Beyond the quarry site. 8). The wind would reveal whether a fossil was lying at the bottom of the shallow concavity it eroded. arrange fieldwork. via Azores. January 23. 23-Weather pleasant. on Wednesday. was kept out of Notes. Not only is the fauna of the region highly unusual. tour Cairo Depart Cairo. China (1921-1927). 31 Jan. 1 May 2–28 May 29 May 30 May-8 June 9-13 June 14 June Arrive Egypt. Went with Osborn & Lyons to the Geological Museum (Branch of the Survey Department). G. Cedric steamed across the Mediterranean Sea. reaching Alexandria after an uneventful voyage on January 23rd. Fayum of Egypt (1907). 16 Feb. arrange fieldwork. Jan.
Done by man sent in from British Museum. O. Principal visit to the Zoological Gardens at Giza. W. point to the bone beds . O. of whom we are to hire camels. personally. Talked principally of conditions in Egypt. Lyon's field staff. very fine. Spoke of Cape to Cairo Ry [Railway] as good magazine material but of not much practical use. a sheikh. Jan. Fri. control. 6 Soudan elephants (young). of about 40˚. Jan. Prof. fine lot of antelopes. such as the S. Sun. 26-Drove with Prof.20 and vertebrates from the Fayum. This week is the "Feast of Ramadan" (Mohammedan Christmas) and many public places. primates and cats--mostly outdoor cages. to be shipped to Tamia. Capt. He is to report at the museum and be placed at our disposal for the Fayum trip.'s stay in the desert. and Mr. principally African. D. under govt. is now dealing with one Mickawi Ali. 25-Still negotiating with Cook's for outfit. Street view of the Shepheard’s Hotel in downtown Cairo. Took tea with Mr. Daoud Mohammed arrives and is placed at our disposal. Jan. H. Mus. Admission to garden is 1/2 piaster and it is much frequented by natives who appear to constitute four fifths of the attendance. 27-Mr. Mon. O. Night still cool. Mentioned having been with Grant before Vicksburg . O. in the morning with Prof. Olsen. Lord Cromer (reproduced from The Illustrated London News). Olsen and I are invited to join the party. has failed to make arrangements with Cook's for his personal outfit. Olsen and I spent most of day in sightseeing. O. Ordered these supplies from Fleurent. Lyons has sent up to Helouan for one Daoud Mohammed. Prof. that coal and gold would never be found in Egypt because of the smoke and the bad European element sure to follow. O. set in attractive patterns. a dragoman with a pocketfull of letters of recommendation and a cunning look in his eye. 29 and 30). the nearest Ry. Lucas .--beautiful grounds with abundance of semitropical vegetation--well laid out and with splendid collection of animals and birds. is negotiating with Cook's for an outfit. museum. Fayum. Beadnell's  Chief native assistant . FIGURE 27. One adult and two young Arsinoitherium skulls. 28-To the Geol. Also Talba. He is to go to the Fayum with us as guide. Sat. A rather unique feature of the garden is the walks which are made of small smooth desert pebbles--black and white. Mr.M. with temperature at 6: A. D.'s party is to start from Mena House and go up along Pyramid Field  (Figs. Offered to do us all service possible. Hoped. a member of Capt. Ferrar .  to Lord Cromer's  in forenoon.--fine fellow. Preparation work excellent. to remain during the period of Prof. Flicks & Co. Plan is to hire camels here and send them on to Tamia. called at hotel in forenoon. Ferrar and I work on list of provisions and outfit needed for the working party. Jan. In afternoon Olsen and I take in town. Cromer very cordial--quiet & unpretentious man (Fig. Prof. 28).-- FIGURE 28. We hire 12 at 75¢ per . chief chemist of the S. T. are closed to the public.
Tomb chamber very low and filled with water . Jan. Ferrar has 8 camels and three tents. Also an interesting Coptic temple or place of worship. Rain ceased before day light this morning. 31). now most filled with sand. Tried the camels for the first time--don't think I had a good one. Trail from the Sphynx leads along the edge of Nile valley to Abusir Pyramids where we took luncheon (Fig. and discourse upon the marvels of the monuments. We are to start in the morning if the weather permits. Spent part of the morning under the lee of Cheops talking to the natives who had plenty of leisure today because the storm kept the tourists away. Lythgoe photographed caravan this morning just as we started (Fig. Our window overlooks the Nile valley with Cairo on the opposite side--a really wonderfull view. Wed. One young Arab went part way up and a second one insisted on going all way up with me. Olsen and I spent the moonlight evening about the pyramids and Sphynx. 1-Camp about a mile beyond Dashur Pyramids tonight. We are to start from Mena House on the 31st. Intensely interesting conversation on Egyptian Antiquities and the work being done. without assistance. They are to come out after we are settled in camp. 31-Camp tonight on the edge of the Nile bottom at Sakkara. He and his wife and two assists. Ferrar's caravan has just joined us. a large green mess tent. Buckhart  at Reisner's. Late start from Tamia. This advancing of money is necessary in hiring these people. Visited all of the important tombs and an enormous excavation made by Quibell where several cultures are shown in stratigraphic form. Quibell is to furnish us with ten men for our excavation work. mostly along the Nile bottom. 29-Prof. Found that Daoud had left with Talba and camels for the desert on the 3rd. After lunch Dr. Mr. Weird music by our camel men at Sakkara this morning. Fri. Feb. The Survey people are most generous. Sat. O's party to Dr. Quibell . Daoud with the boxes of supplies joins him there and then proceeds to the easterly bone pits to await us. Invited to his house and are shown over the pyramid. Ali Mohammed. Regular course dinner. [Limestone and marble] sheathing for 1st & 2nd [pyramids came] from Mokkatam Hills. from the village back of camp. Mr. Buckhart's direction. day (15 piasters). Camp ready. Tomorrow we are to go over the Sakkara ruins with Mr. is loaned to us and is to be our cook. . R. Lythgoe  of Metropolitan Museum who is conducting explorations here joined us after lunch. Full enjoyment of this though is prevented by persistent natives who try to force donkeys and camels on us. Tea and then Dr. showed us over his excavations at the eastern base of the 3rd Pyramid . Tues. and offer tents. Very imposing! Photographed at the Sphynx by a professional from Cairo. Met the [railway] Station agent (Hanna Mikhail) and the mamour [chief official] of the province who inquired after our welfare. 33). Feb. Work just begun. They also offer to make our packing cases and ship out to us as we order them. Start early and reach Lisht Pyramids (northern one) for lunch. water tanks. has completed arrangements with Mickawi Ali for an outfit. Forwarded £10 to Talba and £5 to Daoud. Daoud will take three or four other men out with him as laborers. Met Dr. Couldn't fight him off--no baksheesh though . We camped near Lythgoe's house. rugs on the floor and interior of the tent decorated with Koran verses in colored cloth. Spent entire forenoon at Sakkara where Mr. O. 4--camp in the desert. I was up early and climbed Cheops before breakfast. Caravan on way though pyramid field. 2-Awakened before sunrise this morning by wailing of women up in a cemetery near our camp--professional mourners. Said that probably the stone for all three pyramids came from quarry close by. etc. Quibell met us and accompanied us over part of his excavations (Fig. Two other caravans waiting to pose also--quite the thing. Elliot Smith  came out from town and conducted Prof. Mr. We find this hotel in some ways more attractive than Shepheard's and more reasonable in rates. one of the museum attendants. Work done by French excavation previously careless & not very successful. Have had a most interesting day. 3-Camped tonight just on the outskirts of Tamia . Is like a great inverted pyramid. 32). I was invited along. tools. Lunch in desert about half way to Tamia and in sight of the Fayum . This is most convenient for us. Lunch at Sakkara and a rapid ride on to camp. Also a cooking outfit left in the museum by Dr. Came out here to the Mena House this afternoon late (Fig. Tomorrow we strike across the narrow strip of desert and enter the Fayûm. with two waiters. They are to proceed at once to Tamia. Feb. 30). [Depart Cairo and travel via pyramids to Fayum] 21 Thurs. These men are skilled and will be of great service. A party of “Cedric” people camped near us tonight--paid us a visit. Mickawi and his caravan is camped alongside the Cairo road near here and will probably get wet. Have 5 round sleeping tents. Mr. Jan.FIGURE 29. Reisner's  house near the 3rd Pyramid. invited to dinner. Met Herr Müller  who is excavating at Abusir under Dr. Showed us the quarry. Ferrar is to have camels and tents of his own. Mon. Started from Mena House at 10: o'clock with caravan--13 camels and 5 donkeys. 30-A moderate sandstorm has been on all day and this evening it has changed to a heavy rainstorm. it seems . Jan. Feb. so Ferrar says. Reached here at Sundown. Andrews  of the British Museum. Saw Meidum Pyramid to the south as we crossed desert. Weather comfortable in daytime but too cool at night. Sun.
22 FIGURE 30. A map showing the pyramid fields route the AMNH party traveled beginning with Giza at the upper left (reproduced from Baedeker. 1908) .
1908). Map of the pyramid field at Giza also showing the Mena House Hotel at far right (reproduced from Baedeker.23 FIGURE 31. Visiting Quibell’s excavation at Sakkara. FIGURE 32. .
Osborn's party is camped a short half mile up the wady  from us. collecting fossils] Tues. Bones are very soft and crumbly. The men have already uncovered two or three fairly good specimens in the quarry (Fig. A. Wed. of camp.M. Locals working in quarry. down to the quarries this A. Interesting ride through desert all day. They are careless workmen and have been badly trained-rip bones out as soon as discovered. Ferrar's men neglected to get water at ditch and have been sent back tonight to fill the tanks. with American flag posted at dining tent. O. Feb. Started the men at work moving surface sand and began taking up the bones they have already uncovered . 1907. Photograph of Lythgoe photographing the American Museum party departing the pyramid field for the Fayum on February 3. B. Caravan left the cultivation near the eastern end of the Lake [Birket] and struck north across the desert. The Fayûm cultivation is in sight So. Took several 5 x 7 plates of the caravan. Ferrar has telegraphed for 8 more fanitas  from the S. Met Daoud's camels between last night's camp and Qasr-el-Sagha--returning to Tamia for water. 5-In permanent camp at Easterly bone pits (Fig.. Daoud has two old men from Tamia and three younger men from Helouan and Ali the cook. 34A). We have three tents and good outfit.24 FIGURE 33. Hired two donkeys from him and are to use Ferrar's outfit until camp is reached. Reached this camp about 5 P. 6-Prof. . [At camp in Fayum. Gum [arabic] is almost useless and the shellac we brought does A B FIGURE 34. also the lake. D. Osborns’ camp in Fayum.M. One fellow brought me a fine palate of Saghatherium  broken into many pieces. Olsen and I left Mickawis' outfit today. found tents up and men at work in one of the two quarries. 34B). Feb.
written communication. Thurs. Feb.. O. 1988). Prof. Two large quarries here. 36).--an Ancodon jaw . Both Olsen and I in the quarry A all day. . We also located turtle shell and Arsinoitherium limb bones. each per day } Every other Friday off and Ibrahim Salim--10 pt. Morgan. Friend Mickawi is apparently just learning that he hasn't an ordinary tourist party on his hands. 1) published the position of quarries A and B. Fri. A. O. L. Locations determined from Granger’s Notes (T.--slow progress--have requested more shovels from S. Work on the Quarries. Mr. the bones are in the sand--only certain layers (Fig. has ordered 1/2 cake (1 1/2 lbs. possibly poor spirits . Hassin (boy)--5 " " " " } Ali (from Quft) to be to 9 pt. and Fairfield Butte = Tel Taleb (Fox Hill). Overcoats still comfortable in the evening. Mr.) from Cairo. 9-Olsen took the 12 Quft men today and began work on the north end of Quarry B. Bown to V. M. Feb. one on either side of the draw. Have been obliged to send down for 3 fanitas of our water (Fig. There are alternating layers of clay and loose sand. At Ferrar's suggestion we sent two camels back to Giza.--A the westerly one (Fig. Daoud and Ali very little. " " " } one sheep per month. and Ferrar prospect to the westward. Ferrar Butte = Tel Homar (Donkey Hill). Discovered rodent incisors. W. 2002) that she located them too far to the southeast. With Daoud as guide. Ferrar suggests Keating's Powder and Prof. Feb.. Feb. 35) . but points out (P. We call them Quarries A & B. Native method of work is 25 exasperating--dislike to use shovels but prefer to carry out dirt in baskets on their heads. Daoud showed us where the fine adult skull of Arsinoitherium in Cairo was found. if work warrants.not dissolve well. (After figure 1C. Ferrar and I walked westward toward other bone pits. Quarry B seems more barren than A and bones Josephine Butte Fairfield Butte A B C Lyon’s Butte Ferrar Butte Qasr Qurun and Alexandria Trail Dimé FIGURE 35. His donkeys can get water at pools 2 miles below here. I have been in misery for two days. Sun. Twelve men from Mr. Olsen appears to be immune. Prof. Invited to the upper camp for dinner. Am making fairly good progress with Arabic. D. 1995). Bown and Kraus. Quarries A. Quibell arrived about Sunset from Tamia. They appear to be having trouble at the upper camp  over water. found first prospect. Our triangulation of Granger’s landmarks known today as follows: Lyon’s Butte = Tel Akgrab (Scorpion Hill). After much argument we sign agreement to pay : Daoud & Ali--12 pt. The original expedition camp was at Quarry A. O. New fanitas should be here in a few days. W. 37). 10-Strong wind with considerable dust in the air.--best layers appear to be worked out. Quibell men show more skill and care than those from Helouan. The strata are so uneven and irregular that it is difficult to follow them. Stripping by Daoud and his men continued in Quarry A. Others--8 " " " " } Sat. 8-The worst feature of this camp is the fleas. Josephine Butte = Tel Markgraf (Markgraf’s Hill). Quibell's men speak no English. 7-Olsen at work in Quarry A. The first indication of this order of mammals in the Fayum. His water preparations were ridiculous. Quarry promises fairly well. fig. Holroyd. Question of wages settled. Holroyd (1999. Had no shelter for them and they were obliged to sleep in one of Ferrar's tents. B and C are also shown. Camels in tonight with new fanitas. Still having trouble with shellac--shall have to order some from Cairo.
19-Went with Daoud to Markgraf's camp and then under Markgraf's guidance to the westerly bone pits of Beadnell (Fig. In quarry A the men stopped stripping and began prospecting . Ferrar adjusts by promise to pay one half the loss if the man works well. B. Some of his finest skulls were broken in transit. and Daoud started this A. Weather beautiful today. Lunch at upper camp. with Ferrar went in search of westerly bone pits. Wed. Feb. Shall try and get Prof. & Josephine visited Quarry C before lunch. [O. Talba and camels in tonight. Helouan men returned with camels this morning. Have written Prof. O. corner of quarry. [Meeting Richard Markgraf ] Sat. has decided to send the three Helouan men back. Air seems full of fine dust. A few bones in the upper end.--the two latter are brothers of Daoud and Ali. Someone camped in the wady East of quarry attracted attention and Mrs. East of camp. mentioned employment to him but he says he is under agreement with Fraas. 20-Olsen began a heavy stripping today in Quarry B.--we need shellac badly. O.--still uncovering bones but they are not well preserved--a Palaeomastodon jaw frag't. Find him very agreeable. stripping all day--we take lunch and water and return in evening. Feb. Olsen in Q. Thurs. Prof. W. Daoud with Prof. Ferrar. Mon. O's party went to Dime´ today. Speaks Arabic well. Mr.--nothing especially good. 13-Osborn's camels returned this morning from Tamia.--one of the Quft men claims to have been robbed of £2 last night by one of his fellows . Herr M. Herr Markgraf called over to camp this evening. Mr. Ferrar has left his tent with us[--]also a drawing table which was much needed.--probably from yesterday's wind.E. They are Abas Abdulla. on north side and a good lower jaw of a new genus of creodont and two good jaws of "far" (mouse) in S. H. O. Ferrar Butte 2 m. Megalohyrax & Geniohyus. 18-Tonight we are lonesome. O. Mickawi rode over to find out who he was--returned saying he was a German prospector. Feb. Camel loaded with fantasses and other supplies.. vert. became worried and we all returned to camp with her. they are not creodonts but Ancodon. but hard. O. I went with Daoud in morning to gum a lower jaw of Tomistoma which he found yesterday 1 m. With Daoud's men I went over to an old bone pit of Beadnell's near what Prof. I am to see his collection tomorrow.. Good Ars. Abdulla Mohammed & Mohammed Mohammed. Tues. Started taking out bones in Quarry C. Talba in with camels late tonight. Olsen has begun to find good bones in Quarry B. O. All good landmarks . O. Feb. The Keating's Powder has arrived. O. N.O. Prof.'s party back from Zeuglodon Valley this evening. Josephine Butte 1/2 m.. That which we brought from Museum is not good--have written FIGURE 36. A fossil packing case sits on the ground behind it. Mrs. has two camels and two men. Up to Osborn's camp in the evening." The sand is white--also the bones fragmentary. Olsen to lunch with Mrs. down [to quarry] both morning and afternoon. hoping to make arrangement for his employment. Mon.] has termed Lyon's Butte. About 2 miles west of camp. 35).26 (Fig. Feb. Fraas . Feb. in fairly good condition though. Herr M. Markgraf --has done considerable work here for Prof. 12-Weather pleasant--Olsen's outfit stopped work on north end of Quarry B and moved over to extreme south end--uncovered several badly preserved bones and a jaw of a young Arsinoitherium with good teeth. They are worse than useless. Sun. C. Saw his collection from the upper level.--was obliged to send one of his men to camp for insubordination. and party got off about 10: o'clock-took photographs of our entire working party--including camel men. Says he has a quarry of creodonts in an upper level . to make arrangements. pointed out location of all of his important finds which I plotted . 17-The German prospector called on Osborn today. of camp. Returned to Q. the other half to be paid by the leader of their party. O. 35) . lives in a tiny tent with bare necessities. for Zeuglodon Valley to be gone several days (Fig. Still at Quarry C which appears to be pretty well worked out. B. Daoud prospected in forenoon--reports "timsah" (crocodile) jaws. 14-Prof. Fri. 16-Prof. Had lunch with Mrs. are in very poor condition--one good rodent jaw just found. O. B but in soft state of preservation. Expressed a willingness to work for us. O. O. The two old men from Tamia are better workers and much more careful. Brought us eggs and live chickens--the latter we turn loose with hobbles on and they remain about camp because there is no where else to go. 11-Intermittent showers in afternoon--men worked only in forenoon. Prof.F. Jr. Olsen in Q. Is apparently a prospector of some experience. Feb. Olsen continues to find bones in the south end of Q. The three Helouan men have been paid off and leave tomorrow morning for home. Feb.M. 38). E. Prof. He is a Mr. O. Feb. I worked with the Helouan men all day in Q. Wed. Saw the German who had just uncovered a good Arsinoitherium jaw. 15-Mrs. Tues.--well-preserved white bone-apparently from gypsum layers. Feb. of Lyon's and Fairfield Butte 2 m. We shall call this quarry "C. Prof. O. Ferrar has loaned us one of his tents for the Quft men. to the Eastward to see the Middle Eocene locality beyond Qasrel-Sagha.--he knew the name of it. C in afternoon.E.
Quarrywork. C. Another view of quarrywork. . A.27 A B C FIGURE 37. Collecting a fossil turtle pocketed in the sand. B.
faloos. 21-This afternoon Markgraf's native came over to camp saying that he had found a "ras. Olsen at stripping in Q. Makes his headquarters in Cairo but has recently purchased land in Sinnoures and will set out date & orange trees this spring. and crew chief Daoud Mohammed. Could see Giza Pyramids. It is then laid on a piece of sheet iron placed on rocks with a fire underneath--fuel is tamarisk stumps brought out by camel men from East end of Birket." I went over and found he had a fine skull of Palaeomastodon--incisors and arcus gone but otherwise excellent.M. Mohammed Mohammed } Hassan } Tamia Mass[a]out } Ibrahim Salim . He was glad to get rid of the men for a few days. 40). He has found nothing new since the skull. . They also found a good palate of Palaeomastodon palate not far from north end of Quarry B and near camel trail. Feb. Mon. Feb. Fairfield. Weather continues fine. to Prof. possibly t'b. Watched the Quft men make their bread this evening. Letter from Prof. Markgraf called in the evening--brought over a palate of Saghatherium minus which he thought was a rodent . O." Sat. B. it is almost their sole food. Has the Arab collect dead brush and boil the glue and applies while hot & thin. Feb. The excitement of pay day is still on them (Fig. Ali won't allow the camel men to sleep in the cook tent and the other tents are full. 23-Olsen began prospecting in Quarry B today. Olsen and I have a great time talking with him. German. 22-First holiday and pay day to the natives. Aside from our fanitas of water. Seems to penetrate and harden well.Reis } Ali Achmed . Did not get down to the bone layer in the new quarry. Fri. 27-Work in new quarry again--no bones yet. Suliman Salim } Salim Halil. Olsen continues to find bones in quarry B. found some fairly good jaws of Arsinoitherium and smaller things. Sun. Rare (and damaged) photo of Henry Osborn in dirty field clothes as he displays a fossil tree remnant found during a three-day side trip to Zeuglodon Valley with son Fairfield. We find him very agreeable. He is a native of Austria. Achmed Abid } Machmud Mohammed. O. Ferrar and Daoud at lunch during Zeuglodon Valley trip. B today. Camels returned from Tamia this A. Thurs. Tues. Arabic and sign language but manage to get along. Ali Mohammed Cook Abdulla Mohammed } Discharged. 39). A party of them walked to the Birket to wash and buy fish from the fishermen in there.--about 15 miles round trip. Feb. They were overruled. Found Gazelle tracks but saw no animals. Collected ants for Prof. Wed. 25-Quite a heavy sandstorm from the north last night.2nd Reis } From Quft. His men are working well now. say they are never docked by Quibell. Mohammed Hassin } Halil Mohammed. 20. with £50. Names of our native workmen are-Daoud Mohammed Reis Abas Abdulla } of Helouan. Men did not like being docked half-day's pay. Olsen and I went to the top of Gebel-el-Qatrani back of camp (Fig. The camel men seem to be lower caste. Hassin Mohammed (boy)} Ibrahim Etman } Have written to White Star Lines at Naples relinquishing our staterooms on the “Celtic” Mar. they require careful watching.28 A B FIGURE 38. Talba does not send out all 10 camels at once but runs them in two relays (Fig. Last night the natives were talking all night in anticipation of their pay today. Feb. 24-Herr Markgraf over to dinner this evening. they bring alfalfa to feed on overnight. Took most of Olsen's men leaving him only the old men who do careful work. His camels go to Sinnoures instead of Tamia. have to use English. We allow two of them to leave the quarry 1/2 hour earlier in the evening to do the cooking. The 12 men from Quft occupy one tent but Daoud allows one or two favored ones to sleep in his tent with Ali. Great excitement. Objected seriously. When cooked the bread is tough and leathery but not bad to the taste. Hamid Said. 26-Today I opened up the pits S-West of quarry A. The flour (apparently whole wheat) is mixed with salt and water to thick batter. Feb. have been singing all day except when they stop to talk over money matters. Today Daoud and Ali prospecting North-East of camp found a young Arsinoitherium skull horn cones and occiput missing. Hassan & Massaout. Markgraf uses hot glue for hardening bones. Daoud's men eat dry bread brought from their homes together--with onions. Gave Daoud £1/2 for the skull. 35). They bed them down near the 3rd tent and sleep among them to keep warm. Everything is "faloos. The skull was an isolated specimen--just north of his tent in the bottom of the wady. asking that he send some out from Cairo. Wheeler . 1/2 mile. guide Hartley Ferrar. his wife is dead and a small daughter is being brought up in Italy. is then rolled out on a board with a broom handle very thin and 18 inches across. tonight they are boisterous again. Feb. Camels in tonight. A. I worked on Arsinoitherium skull and Palaeomastodon palate. He was a violinist and came to Egypt on account of his health--has some lung or throat affection.
Caught a Jerboa near the tent last night. 4-Four camels in tonight. Olsen found badly preserved Palaeomastodon jaws just outside the tent door.) Ibrahim. Worked in new quarry with three men but found nothing--is apparently exhausted. The damp nights and the two slight rains recently have freshened up what little vegetation there is here. Camels moving supplies and equipment. Men at stripping in quarry B all day-found good Ars. Sat. found a fine pair of Ars.00 per day expenses allowed and $20.--worthless though. Prof. Visited Herr M. Today has been very raw. We are sadly in need of this. some of the bushes are about to blossom. Galmier and some brown shellac sent by Lucas which appears to be all right. Time to begin the day he entered the desert. The bones in Quarry B which are in clay  are badly crushed and very rotten. 28-Another heavy sandstorm last night. Lucas' shellac seems to be a success. Hassin and Olsen. Olsen” tending to native workers. A.--too much flying sand. O. B.-r. Feb. Tues. Supplies in from Cairo--including a case of St. Mar. carried off a gum brush which we found away out in the desert .00 initial expense of assembling his outfit and entering the desert. 1-Worked down to the bone layer in new quarry and found it barren-shall put in one more day here and then transfer the men back to quarry B where Olsen needs more stripping done. Mar. Fri. Mar. Herr Markgraf moved his tent over near camp today--on a hill just back of quarry A. prospecting.-. Daoud. gave him three days off. in afternoon. regarding Markgraf's employment by next mail.jaw and good Megalohyrax jaw besides several good vertebra. Have 100 recorded specimens to date with ten more still to be taken up. Shall abandon it. with strong wind all day & slight rain in evening. “Dr. Letter from Prof. Markgraf brought down his fossils and came again in the . We hope to hear from Prof. 3-Cold. These officers' tents are poor affairs in cold windy weather--there are too many openings for the cold wind to get in through. O. Camels left before sunrise--Hassan went in with them--to see a "sick brother”.-. Continued stripping in new quarry. Sun. agrees to Markgraf's employment on his terms viz: $60 per month salary--$4. Mon. O. with bank book and £50. Olsen still in quarry B.Jaws--1/2 m. northeast of camp. (l.29 A B FIGURE 39. judging from its tracks. etc. Thurs. Spent most of this day receiving & labelling specimens & writing. 2-Three camels in tonight. Olsen has not been able to take up any but the best preserved bones--gum arabic is useless almost. 5-Pleasant--very little wind. It comes at night and tips over cans and bottles and last night FIGURE 40. Mar. Mar.M. has been annoying Olsen lately in quarry B. Men did not work after 9: A. A fox.
The Omdah of the village  was introduced and sat aside while we ate. Came to the Eden Palace Hotel--this is a much cheaper place than Shepheard's but not clean enough. Mar. Olsen's fox carried off his bait last night. Also a fine large skull of Tomistoma. Olsen and I started for it but found it too far. Train for Edwa left at 2: P. transferred at Edwa to the State Ry. Mar. Converse  called in this evening. Cooler toward evening with strong wind. they show more skill than the other men at uncovering and work without being watched. Olsen and I did very little prospecting and nothing of interest found. Mar. Our record book shows about 200 specimens. Hanna Affiudi. A fine pair of Palaeomastodon lower jaws turned up in the quarry today. 8-Holiday--men did not care to repeat the trip to the lake today. Hanna Affiudi dined with us because he is a Copt. Mar. Olsen has a trap set tonight for his fox which still pays nightly visits to the quarry. Lyons thinks the flies are confined to the lake borders and do not get up in the desert. apparently with stomach trouble. Fri. Took another good look at their Fayûm collection. Olsen doctored his hand up. 16-George caught his fox last night--a little fellow about the size of the American Kit fox. Mon. Lucas. Went as far as Birket-el-Qurun beds. 13-Reached camp at 8:20 tonight after a long hot trip through the desert-Mr. Visited Cook's for mail. also Ibrahim and the boy. Leave for Tamia tomorrow. Olsen and I busy all afternoon and evening pasting up bones and labelling. Lyons there. I have decided to go into Cairo tomorrow. Mar. Sun.M. Abdulla is probably after letters of recommendation. We find that it keeps us very busy pasting up bones fast enough to keep ahead of the workmen. Fri. Mar. Wed. The Quft men sing a good deal but I have seen none of them pray. Got shaved at Edwa by a native barber--terrible experience.30 evening to help label them. We have a very good collection of small things in comparison. Two large packing cases came from S. Paid Ibrahim and his men their 2 weeks wages so that they can send their money home by Talba tomorrow. Have settled down to heavy work in quarry B today with entire force. 7-Markgraf pulled out for the western pit today. Had tea with Mr. Four camels & Talba in this evening. 17-- . Prospected some in the middle Eocene and brought home a small collection of shells--principally Ostrea. [Collecting progresses in Fayum] Thurs. Saw the effects of the bite today--one of the camel flies which Markgraf has been telling us about. Sun. and who is one of the influential men of the town. rode untill sunrise then walked untill nine. A turkey had been prepared and three or four other meat courses followed with rice and other fixings and cigarettes in between courses. 15-Today Markgraf sent in his first batch of fossils from the Westerly pits. Hamid had been seriously ill. Daoud. Met Daoud at El Wasta and reached Tamia late in the afternoon where Mr. D. one of the natives who came out to see Osborn. Sat. Staraselski  and me. Hamid Said and Achmed Abid. 9-Left camp with Daoud this morning at 3:30. Daoud brought in a good Megalohyrax jaw. We are bothered but little from mosquitoes but the house flies are growing annoying . 12-Left Cairo at 7:30.--the best yet. Have been obliged to paste most of Markgraf's fossils. Mar. There is a very good skull of Moeritherium. We need more shellac and there are several matters which I can attend to better than by mail. Swiss Papeterie  and Fleurents on business. [Markgraf departs area] Thurs. gave a dinner tonight to Converse. Abdulla. Took photographs of the men at work in Quarry B. 14-Three of the Quft men left early this morning for home. Hassan and Massaout have opened up small prospects at south end of the Quarry B hill from which they are getting some well preserved jaws. Men at work in Quarry B stripping. Changed cars again at El Wasta and reached Cairo at 8:30. Took up Palaeomastodon palate today--Olsen has been finding good material in Quarry B. They uncover the fossils rather more rapidly than we can prepare them--and it does not do to leave the men alone in the quarry for any length of time. two lower jaws and a few skeleton bones. Wonderful experiences this morning riding Eastward through the desert toward the rising sun. Tues. Had another row over the day's pay deducted for stormy weather and no work. Hassan returned--says his "brother" is better. Mar. Was in Shepheard's yesterday and it seems very lonesome there. Mar. Cairo is beginning to be deserted by tourists. After the meal the remnants of the feast were eaten by the native guests all sitting on the floor around an immense circular brass platter. over sleeping sheep and goats and around buffaloes and cows to Abdulla's house near the canal. 10--weather murky. with a lantern. He says they are particularly bad in April and that the camels are all taken away from the region of the lake. Mr. 6-Warmest day yet--just a bit uncomfortable at noon. Mar.--Markgraf is to start westward tomorrow to open up quarries where he has obtained Palaeomastodon and Moeritherium skulls. line between El Fayûm & El Wasta after wait of 1 1/2 hour. Ali went along to look after him. Mar. Hassan is the only one of our men who prays in public--about five times a day he spreads his bournouse out and mumbles to Allah. Markgraf lost a camel from the bites of these flies two years ago. The camel was bitten on the tip of the tail as we were leaving the last camel and the blood flowed out in a tiny stream. Converse met me--too late to start for camp and Hanna Affiudi  has promised to keep us overnight. Daoud stays in Cairo tonight and goes up to Helouan tomorrow to see his family--which includes a new "bînt" [baby girl] which he hasn't seen yet. [Granger to Cairo] Sat. [Granger returns to Fayum] Wed. Nights are still cold--my heavy ulster is very comfortable this evening. Mar. then rode until one when Tamia reached. He joins me at El Wasta on Tuesday. 11-Finished shopping today and visited the Ethnological Museum. Ali tried to take him out of the trap and was bitten severely.--will be gone ten days and with good luck probably longer. He may come out to camp with me for a few days. Went to the Geological Museum and saw Capt. Achmed was the larger one and we are glad to get rid of him. Ali Achmed. Converse pretty nearly all in from camel riding. Ibrahim threatened to leave with his men and I told him to go ahead--they wrangled over the matter a half hour in their tent & finally returned & agreed to remain.. Men eating with their fingers. piloted us down through the narrow lanes of the village. I do not think the tough bread which the Quft men eat is good for them--several of them have complained of stomach trouble. found where he purchased his shellac and ordered a quantity.
-. 24-Daoud and Hassan are attending to the cooking now that Ali is laid up. Took up work in Quarry A again this afternoon. B East has turned some good bones already. Mr. Wed. Daoud. Sent negatives of quarry in to Diradime by Mr. Sun. Found Pterodon and Palae-. Sat. Daoud reports part of Ars. It is surprising what a variety of life one can find here upon careful search and it seems remarkable that anything can live. Olsen and I are kept very busy preparing specimens. 25-Weather perfect. Quft men in quarry A. Wendell. Shall let him take this occasion to go to Helouan to see his family and to do some errands for us in Cairo. Mar. Converse goes back tomorrow. 28-All hands in the quarries.Weather very comfortable today--all hands busy in quarry B. Olsen has set his men to opening up a prospect on east side of quarry B hill which we shall call "quarry B east. O & Mr. Mar. Olsen in Quarry B East. Good success in quarry A again. Tues. He has had a bad cold from sleeping on the ground. Converse. Took out 15 good specimens from quarry B today. 21-All busy in Quarry B. The cook tent caught fire in the wind today and Ali burned both hands badly putting it out. Fri. cheese & tea--his usual diet) and returned to camp in afternoon. Halil Mohammed goes back to Quft tomorrow. More good creodont material from Quarry A. Sat. Tues. 27-Olsen in quarry B east--the Quft men in A stripping. Took camera to Garat-el-Esh and secured photographs of Middle Eocene escarpment . fine pair Ars. Mar.skulls here for Fraas. found all specimens by trenching  in pockets of fossiliferous sand. Men have started stripping at the extreme southern end of the quarry. 22-Pay day & holiday. Little Hassin has been taught to cut burlap strips and mix paste and helps some (Fig. There are a few beetles and millions of house flies. Letters to Prof. and March the air has been clear but we can barely see the cultivation in the Fayum today. Letters from Prof. I took camera and with Daoud went in as far as Qasr-el-Sagha to get photographs for Prof.--two or three species of Raptores and several small Passeres complete the list of birds . Weather splendid. Converse left us today. Thurs. Ali went in with the camels this morning. The men are FIGURE 41. Saw Daoud's Arsinoithere skull today--is the back stop and worth saving. Talba came in tonight with camels and Mr. More storks today. 23-Very windy today and work in the quarries uncomfortable. Talba is to bring sheep back for the men. & for Edibles for ourselves. Converse has taken up sleeping quarters in the cook tent because ours is too open and windy. we have seen two or three snakes. This afternoon we organized races--with prizes. His men report that he has good Palaeomastodon jaws. 20-Mr.jaws. Both hands are all bandaged up tonight and he is helpless.-. Mar. prospecting. Mr. The men are gorging themselves tonight on Mr. So much so that we are obliged to . He is working 1 mile East of the trail from Qasr-Qurun  to Alexandria. 18-Fine weather continues--also the flies. We find it is not practicable to set the men at large stripping--the sandstorms undo much of the work.'s Century article . Mar. Camels in tonight with American mail. Wendell .'s sheep and Olsen and I will be sure to get greasy mutton soup for the next three days. Wishes to return on account of family matters. Mar. The new Q. Much of the British material came from here. Saw storks flying northward to Europe today. Fear Mr. Daoud and I prospected westward in the afternoon and pasted the Ars. Antelope of at least two species leave tracks in the wadies every morning. Wed. and they are growing worse. Several new plants have sprung up in favorable wadies and there are more birds moving about. Fri. Mon. Mar. All at work in quarry B. 31 excellent runners. Dew is heavy at night. Have several good jaws in Quarry A uncovered yesterday. found elephant humerus near Fairfield Butte. Ali goes in tomorrow and will have his hands treated. O. Wendell's sheep. Markgraf returned part way with me and pointed out the Moeritherium quarry where he got our material. There is a species of quail seen occasionally and one of them came into our tent during a windstorm one day. skull out west of camp. Mar." Several good bones have been taken from here by Beadnell. and Mr. 19-Two camels in tonight. He is one of our best workmen. Mar. with present for Hassin and money for sheep for men. W. The general condition of the atmosphere now is becoming more hazy each day. Lizards are fairly common. Mon. 30-Rather hard sandstorm last night. A new stripping finished today. Mar. Started removing part of Beadnell's old dump to uncover a strip of bone layer which runs under it. 3 camels in tonight. Spring seems to be on here now. beginning to be comfortable at night without an overcoat. 29-Busy pasting bones all day. Mar. 41) . Mar. Thurs. All remained in camp. Markgraf sent over his Palaeomastodon jaws. Mar. two good Creodont jaws.skull. During Feby. Took lunch with him (native bread. Converse has not enjoyed his stay very thoroughly but dare say he will remember the experiences for some time. Full time and no docking of pay this fortnight so everything went smoothly. Olsen and I too busy pasting and recording specimens to get out. Markgraf sent in for some tinned goods today--his camels are not in yet. I walked westward to Markgraf's camp--found his 3 Palaeomastodon jaws very fine. He thinks he is about dead. 26-Still splendid weather with nights cool but getting warmer. Granger and Hassin.
Fox was dead. & Machmud will remain. Daoud found the fox with trap somewhere So.-found jaw and vertebrae of Moeritherium. Finished up work in quarry B. Markgraf left this morning for Sinnoures. Two camels came in with box of alcohol and shellac from S. The Quft men left at midnight. Ibrahim Salim and five of his men go in tonight late. Thurs. Apr. Camels in tonight. from the first one. B north. Camels returned to Tamia and Talba is to have others here tomorrow night. In afternoon Olsen went to upper level and found several fragty.skull in q. have a good chance of finding more of it tomorrow. Camels in tonight.-. 4-Another hot day. 8-Olsen caught his fox last night but it pulled the pin and got away with the trap. Brought back Moeritherium jaw and many flint implements. We have decided to send all but two of Quibell's men back to Quft on Friday. This means another piaster a day for the other three men--but they are the pick of all our men and are worth it. 31-Markgraf arrived with his outfit today and is camped with us this evening. Apr. have paid them up to the 7th. These exposures have been pretty thoroughly examined and not much of value is left. The men came out twice and readjusted the chunks of fossil wood on the guy ropes .skull. Remained in camp all day packing boxes & labelling.M. of quarry. Hassan & Massaout uncovered several good bones-including a fine palate of Palaeomastodon. Tues. Mohammed were to remain.--quick execution.-. Olsen and I at work packing and pasting. Ali returned and brought a bag of oranges. 13-Warm--but not too hot. 6-Very hot today--a terrific wind is on tonight and it is impossible to keep a candle lit. Later Daoud confided that the mother was not dead--only very sick.jaws from same place. 1-Olsen began prospecting today for the first time and celebrated by finding a very beautiful skull of Apterodon (Fig. In Quarry A. Comes up every night as the other one did.-E. An hour or so later she grew better (only a little sick) and finally an offer of an extra piastre a day cured her entirely and both Ibrahim M. Wed. Fri. Natives all in quarry A. Apr. Apr. Last night occurred our worst sandstorm. they are particularly bad when pasting bones. Tues. He brought in a few more bones but none of special interest. Mon. D. Wheeler. Apr. Wed. Apr. Olsen found more fragts. The weather is not excessively hot yet but still uncomfortable--about like a hot day in Wyoming. Daoud and all Arabs except Ibrahim went to Dimé. 9-Pleasant--not too warm. Have prepared skin & skeleton for museum. The paste draws the flies and with both hands engaged they have a free swing at one's face. 9: P. due him to date. The day winds are mostly So-West. Worked on Crocodile skull again and took up Ars. Went to the Birket and looked over a small stretch of Middle Eocene on way back--no success. Olsen will keep Machmud and I Ibrahim Mohammed as personal assistants--they are the most capable men of that outfit. Apr. Several good vertebrae and limb bones from quarry also. given them a bonus and letters of recommendation to Ibrahim and they seem contented and all are apparently glad to get back home. Olsen worked in upper beds and found good Ancodon jaw. 7-Fine day--cool north breeze. The other day Mr. Discharged two camels last night. Six will suffice from now on. Wendell's money. Olsen in q. Wendell's sheep escaped into the desert when it arrived and was untied and the whole troop chased it for a half hour and finally shot it. Last night's storm lasted from about 9 untill 4. Natives in quarry B north where they find some good bones. and will go on to Cairo . 10-Pleasant--a bit too warm during middle of day. Collected a good series of ants for Prof. but a letter from Quft arrived tonight for one of the men (one can read) and brought the news that Ibrahim's mother was dead and so he wanted to return and Machmud didn't wish to remain alone. things. of the skull in quarry. . Strong wind again tonight.32 cover our bones up. Strong wind at bed time. Got up at 5 and packed two more cases--sent four in by camels. Apr. D. 16E) in the wady 1/2 mile below camp. Could not trace it. Apr. Apr. Mar. Have given him a check for the Amt. Yesterday Olsen and I spent the forenoon in the Middle Eocene collecting invertebrates but finding no good vertebrates. 3-Today Olsen found another Creodont skull--1/2 sheared off by erosion but the other half is perfect.-. Men found back and top of Ars. Thurs. It was impossible to face the wind and everything was black as pitch. Labels arrived also from Swiss Papeterie. Apr. 5-Cooler today--sky overcast. 2-I spent a few hours in the Middle Eocene below Garat-el-Esh. George is after another fox in the quarry. Blew down the Quft mens' tent. Worked on Crocodile skull with Ibrahim. Daoud found fine large Crocodilus skull today--near the Creodont skulls. Part of the sheep was in the pot ten minutes after it was taken down alive from the camel. Sun. has lower jaws which is the first association of parts we have seen except a string of four small vertebrae in quarry B . Sun. Took only 1/2 bottle water and came home very dry. Camels should have been in yesterday and we had only one fanitas of water left--too close a margin in this weather. Machmud and Ibr. tore up the cook tent and would have taken our own if we had not been up every half hour to strengthen the ropes and keep the walls tied up. Sat. Fri. Apr. Sat. Apr. Flies very bad through lack of any breeze. Today is our first hot day--much too warm for comfort in the middle of the day and not cold tonight. Camels have just arrived. Comfortable in shirt sleeves this evening. Our heavy sandstorms are all from the north and all come at night. Packed two cases before supper. Found it about 100 yds. Mon. a regular corker. Four camels in tonight with the 8 cases ordered recently from S. The flies are getting to be the greatest nuisance. This morning the beds and everything in the tents were covered with a thick layer of fine sand. the heat would not be so bad without them. Another sheep tonight and a "fantasia" to celebrate the departure of the Quft men. nothing more being found. B--north with with balance of men--found missing fragment from back of Ars. Talba travels at night now--when he can to avoid the heat of the day. 12-Uncomfortable between 10: & 4: [--]a cool breeze occasionally but mostly dead calm. purchased with Mr. 11-Clear--too warm from 12: to 3:.
Daoud & I spent day prospecting & collected the Elephant humerus (Fig. There is some green feed up at the head of this wady and his camels have been up there most of the day.palate. 14-Hazy with warm So-west wind. Apr. so he says. Mon. Olsen in upper beds today. 42). Took photos of camp and temple. By noon the air was full of dust and the wind strong and hot.-. Tues. Talba is using dry feed for his camels now. 19-The only hot day I have ever seen! Weather conditions were not unusual in the morning. Camped below the temple  (Fig.-. 18-Pretty warm and close today. Apr. 21-Broke camp and moved in to Qasr-el-Sagha (Fig. Apr. Apr. Daoud collecting “elephant” humerus he found near Fairfield Butte. B. but days like yesterday are not pleasant and are liable to recur at any time now. After breakfast I went with Daoud and Ibrahim to the west to collect the small turtle skull and the Ars. Daoud and men prospecting found half of a Moeritherium skull. Mon. Sun. Mail. I went west and pasted Ars. It is now (9: P. 20-A very comfortable day after the heat of yesterday--the cool north wind blew all night. taking up Ars. preventing good photographs. A packing case for transporting the fossil out of the Fayum by camel sits behind him.M. This Southerly wind is no good--only the north winds are cool now.skulls. . 44). The alfalfa is about gone in the Fayûm by this time. Apr.humerus left by Markgraf. Weather cool and comfortable. Ibrahim & Machmud we walked to the Birket. very uncomfortable.humerus of Markgraf's--took the camera. 17-Camels in with Amer. Perspiration runs off one in the tent this evening.in Q. Olsen in upper beds. Reached camp at 1:o'clock about used up.-.-. I realized a Khamsine was on and packed up the turtle and started for camp.-west wind. Apr.skull from up west. 22-Today with Daoud. 43).-. Are planning now to break this camp on the 21st and go to Qasr-elSagha for a few days before going in to Tamia. 33 Fri. Natives wrapped our water bottles in wet burlap which afforded some relief. having travelled all night. [Break camp.M. Sat.-. Apr. Apr. Spent the day packing up and labeling the remaining specimens. Apr. Olsen had returned earlier from upper beds.[--]brought American mail. We rather regret breaking the camp and closing the work. Spent the afternoon with Olsen up East along the Middle Eocene escarpment where Daoud says the Barytherium came from--we found the hills pretty well scoured. growing hotter and with strong So-west wind. Spent afternoon lying in bottom of tent--suffocated with sand and scorched with heat. Thurs. B and we decided to take only the palate. Olsen cleaned up old Ars. Both Olsen and I worked in upper beds today.) very comfortable again. Olsen in Q. Sent in two more cases of fossils. I worked on bones at camp most of day. 15-Hot again. o'clock.Three camels came in about 7:30. Atmosphere began to be hazy about 10. Hassan & Massaout at work prospecting--no success. Camels came in the forenoon. the wind died down suddenly and after a few moments of calm a cool north breeze sprung up causing hundreds of tiny whirlwinds as it came in contact with the So. 16-Weather comfortable again--brought in Ars. At 6: P. Shipped off four more boxes by camels--worked on Crocodile and two Ars. Wed. Took photographs of gebel. Shy on candles tonight--Fleurent’s box did not come out yesterday.--Straw "tibbin" and dry beans or peas. stopping on the way at Dime´ to look on the ruins and take photographs FIGURE 42. There has been a very noticeable decrease in the number and the energy of the flies since the Khamsine of Sunday. The hot sand was moving freely by this time but the wind was fortunately at our backs. move to Qasr-el-Sagha] Sun.
At the lake we found native fisherman and engaged them to run in their net for us.34 (Figs. Hume has unpacked all duplicate material of Arsinoitherium FIGURE 43.) and Granger (r. Cost us 6 piasters. 26-Official Sunday. We also need hot weather clothing-helmets. We decided it would be necessary to go into Cairo as our working clothes had all been given away to the natives and we needed new tents since the old ones are all seriously damaged by sandstorms. Fri. The fish come up into the shallow water along the shore in great numbers. He leaves for England on May 4th. O. Museum tonight. Food almost entirely gone this evening--barely enough for breakfast. Left Tamia at 10: A. Ali informs us that the grub is about exhausted--the fish will help out though. Apr. and Olsen got good turtle--all from 1 mile west of Temple. at Giza and saw Capt. Most of the fish caught here are shipped daily to Cairo. 24-Left Qasr-el-Sagha this morning and reached Tamia by three--lunch at Cafe in Tamia. Apr. Lunch and transfer at Medínet-el-Fayum with time enough to look about the place a trifle and Cairo at 8:20 this evening. Have paid off Ibrahim and Machmud and they leave early in the morning for Quft. Very hot during middle of day.) on camels with crew at Qasr el Sagha relocating their camp on April 21. saying to continue work in Fayum . Apr. Saw Markgraf's trail near camp today where he had passed recently with his outfit. Collected Moeritherium jaws and weathered skulls of Tomistoma and Zeuglodon. Collected invertebrates from the Lake Moeris sediment. Hume . Lyons. We are to go in to Tamia tomorrow. Two or three naked natives then enter from the shore side and by great splashing & commotion drive the fish into the net in their attempt to reach the open lake. The owners--five stalwart Arabs in white robes and long barreled rifles--brought up the rear of the caravan. [To Tamia] Wed. Lucas. 27-At the museum this morning I met Dr. Hassan's wife baked a (?)pudding for us--terribly greasy affair. Olsen and I each buried a piece of the pudding in the sand and gave the balance of it to Daoud and Ali. He generously offered new tents and whatever supplies we need for the second trip. Olsen (l. The weather is fairly comfortable here but pretty hot during middle of day. Met a caravan of several hundred camels being driven in to the Cairo "Sukh" from the Oases to the south. Quartered at Mrs. 45 and 46). Our cases are on the front steps where they were delivered last night. Apr. [Resupplying in Cairo] Thurs. and she and Hassan brought it up to us this evening and Hassan made her come in the tent. 84 fish about 8 inches long were caught. D. Our camp outfit was loaded on the camels and ready to start for Cairo and Olsen and I were ready to take the train when I was handed a cable-gram from Prof. Hassan and Massaout have gone to their homes. etc . Sat. Several fish jumped over the net and escaped. 25-Cairo. Called at the museum and found it closed. 23-Camels in late this afternoon with American mail. Our leaving is now a necessity. Called at the S. Apr. Got our fossil cases out of storage at Abdulla's this morning and had them weighed & shipped as luggage on our train--Daoud and Ali sitting on them all the way and watching after their transfer.M. Came through in fine shape. Had tea with Mr. Apparently he is in the field again . Our tent is pitched near the [railway] Station tonight. Dr. Daoud & Ali have gone up to Helouan over the day. Scott's Pension  opposite Eshekeih Gardens. Daoud and Ali are to hire truck men and deliver the cases at the Geol. Tues. The method of capture is to select a small bay and creep up with great caution and suddenly rush across the entrance of the bay with one end of the long gill net. .
35 A B FIGURE 44. Settting up camp below temple ruins at Qasr el Sagha on April 21. B. Fantasses lie in the foreground. A. the worker at left pouring water from one. . Worker’s tent at Qasr el Sagha.
36 FIGURE 45. Birket Qurun from the north shore. . FIGURE 46. Work party members at Dimé during visit on April 22nd.
They seem pleased to be with us again and we are glad to have them out. I went back with him and laid out the things which he is to start back with tomorrow. with Olsen. Fri. Markgraf back. though. May 4-Daoud goes in to Tamia tonight and Ali will go along with him and return as soon as he gets him to Helouan under a doctor's care. Sat. Most of this duplicate material has been donated to [the Egyptian] National Museum. There is but little to do except to pack the few specimens we find and read or write. Mon. others beginning to lay.belonging to the Survey Dept. Stored our cases in the Museum today where they will remain untill we return from the Fayum. We find that by taking down part of the wall of the tent we can make it fairly comfortable at noon--especially if there is any breeze blowing. We shall have to hire them both. The nights are still comfortable. May 5-Ali left with Daoud about midnight last night. May 11-Camels in late tonight. Apparently 37 visceral trouble of some sort. A very few good specimens have apparently been taken from this locality--judging from the prospect holes. Took in Antiquities Museum again. There is no object in remaining longer at this . The weather continues good but grows a little warmer each day. Our strength is sapped by this heat and we can do little but be in the tent and keep quiet. We find the weather some hotter than when we left the desert but still the heat today has not been dangerous. Shall move to the upper bench as soon as the camels come out. Hassan has a job which he can't leave for a few days and Massaout won't come alone. [Collecting resumed. Eggs are laid in sand scratched up a trifle and both sexes incubate . The farm is a series of yards arranged around a central building. They should get to Tamia by Sunrise. We shall explore the eastern end of the Fluvio-Marine bench from this camp. May 2-Came out to Qasr-el-Sagha this forenoon. May 8-Another scorcher of a day with almost no breeze. Found a good creodont jaw today--the only good specimen we have seen thus far on this trip. Scott. 29-Mr. May 10--still hot More prospecting with only moderate success. Daoud is ill tonight. May 9-All hands prospecting morning and evening--nothing noteworthy found. Weather not uncomfortable today--a north East breeze most of the time. Our energy is at pretty low ebb from 11: untill 3:. We have been feeding him from our provisions but he needs a physician's care. The streets here in Cairo are pretty quiet during the noontime. Apr. May 7-Camels came out today early and in the afternoon moved us up to the Fluvio-Marine bench about 2 miles East of Fairfield Butte. Numerous prospects but the bones are much broken up and very soft. making it excessively hot for four hours in the middle of the day. Olsen and I spent the day in the upper beds but found nothing of value. Camels returned to Tamia last night. I slept under two blankets last night. under the guidance of Mrs. Apr. are to come out to us again on the 11th.--some incubating. Sat. Very hot coming across the low stretch of desert. and offered me such bones as we might need to supplement our own--have selected several vertebrae. Stopped at the Canal for an hour or so and I visited Kom Ushim . The slightest exertion brings on perspiration. Very hot from 12 to 3 o'clock today and we remained in the tent. he seems very forlorn. It appears that Abdulla returned tonight to his home. May 1-Came out from Cairo today--Staraselsky is kindly keeping us overnight--his rooms here at the power plant are very cool. Shall send him in tomorrow if the camels come out. [Return to Fayum] Wed. We spent most of today in the Middle Eocene but without success. Apr. Prospected morning and evening but found little. I begin to see the value of these thick stone walls. Ferrar is in from the Eastern Desert but we have not seen him yet. Mon. A wonderful Museum but they have to learn about cases and labels . Fri. Sun. The adult birds are kept a pair in each yard and many were breeding. Wed. May 6-One camel came out today bringing Hassan & Massaout. In the afternoon we went. Hassan and Massaout can not come out for the present. Daoud and Ali came out with us and Talba has arrived with the outfit. Thurs. Met an outfit of two camels and a native belonging to some hunters who are up in the Gebel after gazelles. to Matarieh where we saw the Obelisk of Heliopolis. D. He shares an apartment with eight other Oxford and Cambridge men out on the Shoubra Road--native servants and everything very comfortable. 28-Talba reached Giza with the outfit last night and showed up at the museum this morning. Dr. Hume says that the S. I have engaged five camels and shall take two tents and eight fanitas. This portion of the bench seems to have been more thoroughly explored than to the westward. In most of the old prospects the specimens have been left--not being worth taking up. I doubt if Daoud will be able to return to the desert again. Talba expects to reach Tamia on Wednesday. May 3-Daoud is worse tonight--has been very sick all day.--he is a sick man. does not attempt to do much work after April but that with care we should have no difficulty--only discomfort on Khamsine days and gradually increasing hotter days. Saw where two specimens had been collected. Tues. 30-Had dinner at Ferrar's flat tonight. Very hot and dusty travelling today. Abdulla is green but willing. They rigged up a sort of double basket on a camel and Daoud was put in on one side and Ali got in the other side to balance it. A native named Abdulla came out tonight and will look after camp while Ali is away. Tues. conditions turn] Thurs. The Virgén's Tru and the Ostrich Farm with 1400 ostrich of all ages. Spent the afternoon in the Middle Eocene beds here--not much success. out here alone. Ali returned with the camels today and reports that Daoud reached Helouan safely and is taking the baths. Sun. Spent another full day in the upper beds but with no more success than before . Olsen and I spent the day in the upper beds again with no more success. Talba only half fancies the idea of returning to the desert. They are already harvesting the wheat along the Nile and the date trees are in full bloom. We purchased hot weather clothes today including helmets and sun shields.
Galmier left. Prospected some in afternoon and set H & M [Hassan & Massaout] to work trenching--no good results from either effort. Talba and two camels in from Tamia. There has been no rain of consequence since Jan. Mon. Worked on Moeritherium jaws with Hassan and Massaout in forenoon--nothing further developed. also Talba on camel (Figs. H & M still trenching. Spent the forenoon in a fruitless search out to westward beyond the Alexandria Trail. Case from Fleurent's with water &c arrived by camels. cool nights. though. Thurs. Either the heat or the winds have driven the flies pretty well out of the desert. Sun. saying that it requires too long to harden . O. The natives are all wearing shoes now. chiefly on account of sore ankles due to poisoned flea bites. Heavy wind tonight with much sand. Worked on Moeritherium jaws. 47 and 48). He has the same outfit which he had when in here before. Markgraf expects to go in as soon as his camels return. Northeast wind not comfortable in afternoon. I found good turtle near camp & Olsen has a few jaw frag'ts. May 12-This forenoon we moved out to our old camping ground at the easterly pits. We find gazelle tracks in the wadies every morning now--many of them. Tues. Moved to western bone pits in forenoon. May 16-Set Hassan and Massaout at work trenching on some sand lenses near camp . Markgraf has adopted our method of pasting bones and is much pleased with it. He expects to remain but a short time longer in the desert. The comparative abundance of vegetation has apparently brought them down from the Gebel. and March. though. May 24-Very cool and fine in morning with fog hanging over Gebel again. May 19-Regulation weather. He will not use shellac. The air at noontime is perfectly arid. Spent morning up west of Alexandria Trail-no success. Olsen and I prospecting and the old men still at the quarry where they find a few good bones of Arsinoitherium. Wed. Fraas now and has a poorly preserved Palaeomastodon skull and a badly crushed skull of Megalohyrax from the upper beds. but. The old men still digging trenches--Olsen prospecting to the South where he found a soft and badly weathered skull of Arsinoitherium--no good. Camels in tonight and are to return on the 18th to move us westward to the Alexandria Trail where Markgraf found our Palaeomastodon jaws. Camel men say that Markgraf has left the desert. and home. Some success at prospecting today but none at trenching. May 21-In the afternoon the north Easterly winds blew warm at times--rather less wind this evening than usual. Talba returned from Qasr Qurun with 4 fanitas after dark. Sun. This trail passes up over the top of the Gebel at this point. In afternoon moved Eastward to Ferrar Butte where Markgraf got two Arsinoitherium skulls. H & M trenching all day. Markgraf says it is at its maximum now. May 20--Regulation weather. Sat. Camels all left for Tamia this morning. In Feby. 31st but the dews at night are as heavy as one sees in New England. May 13-Olsen and I took a long walk to the westward today and came back along the upper bench. They appear to do their feeding at night and return to the Gebel to seek shelter during the day. Talba is due any day now. Thurs. Olsen has been in the upper beds today and had some success-finding several jaws. Wed. Three camels in from Tamia--cablegram from Prof. Hassan & Massaout digging trenches all day. Only one bottle of St. Letters to Prof. . Others prospecting with same result. The plants nearly all have short roots and they appear to derive their moisture from the surface rather than from subterranean dampness in the western [American] states. The air has been hazy since we returned from Cairo. The Fayum is not visible from here now. None of us has seen an animal this trip although Daoud reported having seen some two or three times in Feby. May 14-Called up at Markgraf's camp this evening and took photographs of his camp. Shall stay here three or four days and then go in to Qasr-el-Sagha and then on to Tamia. Fri. O. left again in the afternoon for Qasr Qurun to return with water tomorrow. He called on us this evening--is working for Dr. May 25-Another comfortable day. May 17-Had Markgraf down to dinner this evening--said “good bye”. Took photograph of camp in evening. Saw Markgraf's trail and found his camp on the edge of the bench just above our camp. Tues. Olsen on Turtle and Crocodile. Camels return to old camp at the pits tonight and will go on to Tamia tomorrow. We move to Alexandria Trail tomorrow. Mon. I returned to old Moeritherium quarry--found on same level and not far from Beadnell's working a very fair pair of jaws. O. but excessively hot during noon period--the worst yet. it is apparently a very important trail although we have seen no camels on it yet. At one point where it goes down a wide wady I counted 75 parallel paths--nearly all showing fresh tracks. I stayed in camp. to return immediately. About 50 yards wide at this point. Sat. May 18-Regulation weather. May 22-Warmest day this month--so far. This is Markgraf's method of collecting and has yielded him some of his best material. May 23-Coolest day this month. We have no trouble in sleeping. with another half case from Fleurent's. They are as bad as ever in the cultivation but here they have ceased to be the nuisance they were. May 15-Every day hot now. Hassan and Massaout have opened up a prospect in Quarry B Hill. Took photographs of Moeritherium Quarry & camp. Pitched our tents just below the old place and up on the flat where the sand is smoother and harder. The vegetation has sprung up in the desert to a surprising extent. Sent short report to Prof. Olsen and I prospecting.38 camp and tomorrow we shall move to the old pits. thank goodness. The sand gets so hot in the middle of the day that it is uncomfortable to walk in. we drank almost none. camped directly at the excavation. Camels went in to Tamia last night. All hands prospecting in afternoon. These pits are about a mile East of the Alexandria Trail. The camel men tell us that Markgraf is camped on the upper bench-a half hour from here. The northeast wind brings the moisture. Fri. Uncovered a half ulna of Arsinoitherium--outlook discouraging. H & M trenching-no success. Weather very hot during the day time and we consume a great deal of water. In afternoon Hassan & Massaout prospected south of camp 1/2 mile or so where Olsen has found some fairly promising prospects including a Tomistoma skull and a fairly good turtle. Daoud returned today in apparent good health. I found good maxilla of Moeritherium. Heavy fog bank over gebel in the morning and cool wind all forenoon.
Sun. May 26-Both Olsen & I spent forenoon in upper beds with no success beyond a few frag't'y jaws. Fogbank on Gebel again this morning and extra heavy dew the past two nights. Bits of wood lying out are covered with large drops of water in the early morning. The early morning is delightful but by 7: o'clock the heat comes and it is not agreeable again untill 10: o'clock in the evening. Ankles still bother me. Mon. May 27-Heavy fog again. Busy today taking up small specimens--nothing
39 important. H & M keep at the trenching, have opened up many favorable looking places but they yield nothing. Tues. May 28-All five camels in tonight. We leave early tomorrow morning for the Temple. Very hot today. Daoud brought in a good Pterodon jaw from East somewhere. Finished up the few specimens we had out and are packed up ready to move. [Break camp, move to Qasr-el-Sagha--redux] Wed. May 29-Qasr-el-Sagha--moved in here from Ferrar Butte this forenoon and have stopped to give the camels a rest and to take photographs of Widanel-Faras and the petrified wood. Start for Tamia at two in the morning. Extremely hot today and almost no breeze and we were glad to reach the Temple and huddle up on the shady side of it. Have one tent up tonight-for Olsen & me. Saw a fine gazelle just as we were coming down from the bench back of the temple. It was not wild and watched our caravan untill we were out of sight. [In Cairo, Granger hospitalized] Thurs. May 30-Cairo.--arrived at 8:30 and came to Mrs. Scott's. Reached Tamia early and packed up in time to get away on 2: o'clock train. Extremely hot and dusty on railroad. We find Cairo very comfortable this evening. Fri. May 31-Lunch with Ferrar at his apartment today. Ankles still bothering me and I have not been about much. Museum closed today. Sat. June 1-Saw a physician today and he informed me that my ankles would not heal unless I went flat on my back for a week or so. He recommended the German Deaconess Hospital and I came around here this afternoon and have been put to bed . It is very quiet, cool and comfortable here. Have a room with one other patient as companion. An Englishman of the Signal Dept. of the State Ry's. Sun. June 2-Khamsine wind blowing today and the air outside full of dust. Dr. called and looked me over--thinks I may get out in a week or ten days . Olsen called after three o'clock when visitors are admitted. He has begun repacking our cases with Daoud and Ali to assist. Museum closes at 1: P.M. now, hot weather schedule. All Banks and public offices close at this hour. Stores close from 12 to 3, when the streets are almost deserted. Mon. June 3-Khamsine still at it. Olsen & Daoud called & brought letters from home. Tues. June 4-Was allowed out on the porch this afternoon for a while--weather pleasant again. Ferrar called with Olsen. Olsen reports that packing of bones is going on very satisfactorily. He is to call here every afternoon. Health is fine and ankles healing rapidly. Wed. June 5-Out on porch all afternoon. Big mail from Naples today, letters from home & the Museum. Thurs. June 6-Ferrar called again. Have walked about a little today in the room & on porch. Very hot during middle of day.
FIGURE 47. Standing (l.-r.) Ali (cook), Granger, Daoud; seated (l.-r.) Hassan, Massaout. This photograph taken during second trip to Fayum, for which Granger acquired a sun helmet.
FIGURE 48. Talba, the camel drover, on May 23.
40 Fri. June 7-Dr. in this A.M. and promises to let me out tomorrow. Olsen has made provisional booking today on steamer (N.D.L.) leaving Port Said for Naples on June 14th. Many natives in the hospital this afternoon to see their relatives who are in the wards on the first floor. Sat. June 8-Out of hospital this afternoon. Olsen & Ferrar called in carriage & we drove home, stopping at N.D.L. office to make final booking. Weather very cool and comfortable today. Dinner out on the sidewalk this evening. Cairo begins to wake up about Sundown and at 8: o'clock the whole European element is dining either on the sidewalk or out in the street in front of the various restaurants. [Last days in Cairo] Sun. June 9-Went around to the Museum this A.M. Helped Olsen label & tag the cases which are all packed in fine shape. Dr. Hume will arrange to ship out cases for us along with those which the S. D. is sending out. Settled up with Daoud, Ali and Talba today. Called to Museum for additional deposit. Went to Citadel in evening . Mon. June 10-Finished up labelling etc at the Museum this A.M. To Old Cairo  with Olsen & Mrs. Scott in afternoon. Tues. June 11-Went out to Giza this morning and settled up with Survey Dept. Mr. Humphreys now Acting Director. Goodbyes to Ferrar who sails tomorrow. Wed. June 12-Came up to Fechn on afternoon train to visit Dr. Hansen . Return to Cairo in morning. Thurs. June 13-Left Dr. Hansen's early this morning after a pleasant evening. Regret not being able to stay longer. Good bye to Dr. Hume at the Museum this afternoon. [Depart for U.S.] Fri. June 14-Port Said--weather delightfully cool here this evening. Left Cairo at 8: this A.M. Ali came to station to see us off. Hot and dusty but extremely interesting trip on the Railroad. Put up at Eastern Exchange Hotel . An interesting place with verandas around the house on each floor and doors from each room out on to them. Our boat, the “Bayern” is in the [Suez] Canal and is due here at 4: in the morning . Sat. June 15-Up at 4: this morning. Passed through the Customs inspection office and were rowed out, with our baggage, to the “Bayern”. Got under way about 7 o'clock and three hours later were out of sight of land (Fig. 49). [End of Notes] EPILOGUE Granger and Olsen sailed to Naples and then transhipped to the S.S. Prinzess Irene for the 14-day journey to New York (Fig. 50). When they arrived in June with their cargo of fossil crates, their accomplishment was evident . The expedition had been a success indeed and, four years later, would be touted as one of the most significant events in that decade of American paleontology . Yet, a glance at a history book, or a query to the general public, will confirm that it is an event the story
FIGURE 49. Olsen (l., standing) and Granger (r., seated) near the bow of the S.S. Bayern, Granger seated to rest his ankles.
and significance of which remains mostly unknown. Granger published nothing on the 1907 Fayum expedition . He barely mentioned it other than to note it as one of the locations of his many expeditions. The underlying narrative for Osborn's Century article (Fig. 51), of course, was Granger’s Notes, which Osborn edited for his own use: several pages of Notes show Osborn's trademark editing, bracketing and underlining with a red pencil-crayon by which whole portions of Granger’s material are underscored, and missing first names and titles are filled in (Fig. 52) . Thus, while Granger's Notes supplied the essence of Osborn's Century Magazine account, Osborn happily embellished and framed the display for his own benefit. The result is that, until the recent discovery and study of Granger's Notes, an inaccurate and incomplete rendition has existed of the 1907 Fayum expedition . While George Olsen was also in the Fayum for the entire expedition, he is not known to have kept his own account. He was a field assistant, not a trained paleontologist. Nor was he much of a writer; a review of letters Olsen wrote from Asia during the Central Asiatic Expeditions reveals that he was not especially prolific or literate--though he was charming . Osborn's handling of the 1907 expedition was predictable. He was not a collector, but an overseer. Having assessed the field situation with Granger, Osborn had already come home and had much to talk about. He quickly moved to publish and publicize his bold and pioneering expedition. By mid-April, while Granger and Olsen were still working in the Fayum, Osborn was attending the April 16-18, 1907, meeting of the National Academy of Sciences in Washington, D.C. to present a talk
FIGURE 50. S.S. Prinzess Irene bounding through the Azores enroute to the United States.
FIGURE 51. Title page from Osborn’s 1907 narrative of the Fayum expedition in The Century Magazine.
42 entitled "Exploration in the Upper Eocene of the Fayum Desert," with hand-colored lantern slides . Osborn's Academy lecture coincided with his election to a three year term as a member of the Academy's council, as well as his occupation of three committee seats at the Academy: the Committee on Geology and Paleontology; the Committee on Biology; and the Committee on Election of Foreign Associates . Such prominence within the Academy was excellent positioning for Osborn, his department, and the Museum: the Academy was chartered by Congress in 1863 to provide scientific advice to the United States Government . Granger and Olsen returned to New York on July 3rd, 1907, with nearly 550 field-catalogued specimens, including several taxa new to science . They collected a considerable amount of new data on a geological region north of Birket Qurun and prepared a map showing the locations of the important finds made in the Fayum. They did some work also for other scientists such as collecting ants, gathering flint implements from Dimé, and obtaining invertebrate fossils from the Qasr el Sagha beds. Granger also took photographs to illustrate the geology and topography of the region, the different methods employed for collecting and transporting the fossils, and the various campsites occupied by the expedition. The 1907 collection of vertebrate fossils was important for its quantity of archaic and ancestral types as well as its reflection of great differences from the fauna typically found elsewhere in Africa. It was the first collection of fossils from the Fayum to be reposited anywhere in the United States. According to one American successor to the work in the Fayum, in addition to the finding of a small, intriguing, anthropoideanlike fossil piece of skull Granger labeled as "possible primate," [p]erhaps the primary contributions to paleontological knowledge made by [the] expedition were the recovery of the first rodents from the African Oligocene and the discovery of the upper fossil wood horizon . Unlike Osborn, whose primary interest was to collect large specimens suitable for display at the American Museum, Granger also searched diligently for the many smaller fossil specimens and pieces which contribute much to the progress of paleontological study. The anthropoidlike skull bone and the humble Oligocene rodent discovery would be among them. The Fayum finds quickly became considered among the most important made in vertebrate paleontology in a decade. At a meeting of the Geological Society of America in late December, 1911, the newly-formed paleontology section--the Paleontology Society--held a Symposium on Ten Years' Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology. The Paleontological Society, spawned in 1908, remained for a time within the older and larger Geological Society of America which was formed in 1889 . The session began without ambiguity: The discovery of the Fayum fauna is the most important find of the last decade in vertebrate paleontology. It has added a new and most remarkable type of giant quadruped, primitive stages in the evolution of the Proboscidea, Sirenia, and Cetacea, a wide variety of Hyracoidea, besides Carnivora, Rodents, and if Doctor [Max] Schlosser is correct, the earliest known Anthropoid Primates . Paleontologists were excited. Germany's Professor Max Schlosser and his postulation about the anthropoid primate promised significant advances in the study of evolution . While each Symposium speaker rose to proceed through his topic that winter's day in Washington, D.C., Walter Granger was in Europe, with Anna, visiting paleontologists and touring institutions. Osborn sent Granger over to study Europe's collections and exhibits, to confer with
its scientists and to arrange a fossil exchange program with the American Museum . When he arrived in Germany in early January, Granger conferred at length with his Fayum research colleagues, and Markgraf's mentors, Eberhard Fraas and Max Schlosser of Stuttgart and Munich, respectively . Granger carried fossil samples with him, as well as an extended list of fossils the Museum had available for exchange. In Europe, as he noted those he wished to obtain, he inaugurated the exchange program by leaving three fossils with the British Museum, two with the Paris Museum, five with Lyons University, eight with Professor Charles Déperet, and so on. When Osborn made substantially the same European tour a year later, his advance work was already done. The interplay between Osborn's approach to collecting, and Granger's, continued after the Department engaged Markgraf to continue collecting for them in the Fayum. On April 23, 1908, Osborn wrote to Markgraf that while he was pleased with the 1907 collection, he yearned for "more perfect" skulls of Arsinoitherium, Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. Osborn added that he realized "how very difficult it will be to secure this material...[but] I trust you will be fortunate in finding these specimens for us sooner or later." Before he sent his letter, however, Osborn appended a page with the following: P. S. Mr. Granger reminds me to ask you especially to keep your eyes open for small objects, which may be of very great importance, especially as they may have been overlooked by previous explorers . In correspondence during 1912, Granger congratulated Markgraf on specimens he collected for Professor Eberhard Fraas; Granger had seen them while visiting with Fraas in Munich that winter. Granger then added: I still have hopes that you will some day find a good skull of Arsinoitherium for us. If you have good skulls of any of the Syreniens [sic] I think Prof. Osborn would be willing to purchase them, in fact I think that any good skull material from the Fayum you could sell at the Museum if the price is right . The American Museum's association with Markgraf continued until his death from pulmonary tuberculosis (consumption) in January, 1916 , although by early 1915 the Museum was advising Markgraf that due to the war, it could no longer afford to buy material from him . Except for the solo work of Richard Markgraf until his death in 1916, paleontological expeditions to the Fayum ceased for a significant period of time after 1907. Important Fayum material was thereafter lost in the carnage of the World Wars, the Germans having been one of the three nations to explore the Fayum in any substantive way. Much of Markgraf's work thus was lost. The 1907 Fayum expedition activated an intense interest in the study of proboscideans by Osborn. This study would last for the rest of his life as he, Granger, and others labored on a huge tome entitled Proboscidea: A monograph of the discovery, evolution, migration and extinction of the mastodons and elephants of the world (Fig. 53). It was published in 1936, a year after Osborn's death. Work resumed in the Fayum in 1947 when Wendell Phillips entered the desert with the University of California Pan-African Expedition specifically to search for more fossil evidence of the anthropoid primate, Propliopithecus, found 40 years before . They were unsuccessful in that quest, although they returned with a fair collection of Fayum fossil vertebrates. Another 14 years would pass before a series of expeditions, begun in 1961 by Yale University, ignited an ongoing, methodic study of the Fayum . The Fayum Depression remains a fossil trove today. Research now
Other examples will be found in Appendix A.43 FIGURE 52. . Henry Osborn’s annotation of the fifth page of Granger’s Notes.
Writing from Cairo in February shortly after leaving the Fayum. and that he would have kept her apprised of his activities and plans. I also desire especially to secure a skull of Moeritherium showing the anterior portion with the teeth preserved. and the dangerous potential it posed to Expedition members. Markgraf's own correspondence with Osborn and Granger (whom he thought was already back in New York) also confirms that a shorter timetable was envisioned. [sic] marks. Thus Osborn. apparently. Twenty days later Markgraf sent a letter to Granger in New York. Unfortunately. 20.” she wrote in one letter . On February 25th. Osborn believed she was intrusive. fully expecting Granger to be there--they had said their goodbyes in the Fayum on May 17th. and Egypt. Anna Granger and Henry Osborn Osborn's cablegram of April 25. Also under study is why and how the ancestors of whales left land for life in the ocean (many skeletal remains of the Basilosaurus found in the Fayum deposits bear evidence of vestigial hind limbs). “When the older missionary folk (people who have lived through the Boxer time) scent danger. Osborn apparently perceived Anna's contact as a meddlesome and encroaching one: her inquiry about her husband’s health and plans constituting an intolerable assault upon the perimeter. They had given their native assistants their final pay and released them. . as we now know. of his authority. 1907. He was assessing his situation daily.44 focuses on how and when the earliest relatives of man (Anthropoidea) lived. I desire also the anterior portion of the skull of Palaeomastodon with the upper tusks preserved . and wrote back to essentially tell her so. for some reason. himself. To Osborn he wrote: As you can see from my finds I diligently tried to fulfill your wishes and searched all over the localities known to me with which I just finished the 31st of March and hope you will be completely satisfied with my efforts . Osborn. Burned once over her wish to accompany the expedition to Egypt. George H. and aware that conditions in the Fayum were deteriorating. Sherwood. to be repacked for shipment overseas. This seems to me a gap in our collections which must be filled sooner or later. For a complete skull of Moeritherium with teeth preserved I would be willing to pay $50. a rather ignoble turn of events took place. Paleontologists currently studying the Fayum vertebrates have uncovered the remains of some of the earliest higher primates in the world . and depart from the Fayum by April 21st and reach Tamia by April 25th. as well as his increasing concern about flea bites . He inquired: For two days now I am again in the desert and during my walk here I spotted two tents near Qasr el Sagha which probably were yours. she sent three letters and some newsclippings to Department of Vertebrate Paleontology Curator W. though these questions are being answered not by the Fayum material but by older material from Pakistan. surely came as tart surprise for Granger and Olsen as they stood at the Tamia train station thinking they were on their final departure from the desert. had projected a relatively short duration for the expedition. They had returned their equipment to the Egyptian Geological Survey. she thought he needed to get out of the desert for his own safety anyway. The desert's conditions had become hostile as khamsine season approached. as well as correspondence surviving from other years and events in their marriage. it was not. before returning for the Seventh International Congress of Zoology hosted by the Museum in August  (Fig. Osborn declared: the work of the American Museum has been established by Professor Osborn on a two or three months' footing or as long as the weather is tolerably cool [emphasis added] . Thus she wrote to Osborn seeking to confirm that Granger's work there would cease when planned and that the expedition would return to America when planned . and cut the number of caravan camels from eight to six. She may have hoped to go with him to Middletown Springs. Henry Osborn knew fully of Granger's aim to conclude the expedition. Anna apparently sought assurance that Granger’s plan to return was on schedule--and if. despite the manner of his cablegram to Granger. noting in conclusion . Nevertheless.. on July 29 . She would have looked forward to his return and made plans to be with him. he recorded "Have written to White Star Lines at Naples relinquishing our staterooms on the 'Celtic' [for] Mar. however. say $60 or 240 marks. she probably also felt quite left out of matters at this point. His phrasing also indicates that. break camp. and return to America. if not too assertive. Granger had already reduced his operation as April set in. urgency--at least as to finding those specified fossils--really was not the essence of the matter. provided it reached us in good condition. it makes one feel pretty serious. Osborn would later report. Vermont for the extensive festivities planned to celebrate the 100th birthday of his great-uncle." Entries in Granger's diary over the weeks leading up to April 25th indicate that he realized that the challenges presented by staying any longer would soon outweigh his diminishing fossil finds. Alpheus Haynes. I should be willing to pay a handsome price for it. Recent interviews. If not. Their entire fossil collection awaited them in Cairo. Granger had already once extended his stay in the Fayum. as noted earlier. that the expedition remained in the desert until June 12 “when it was interrupted by the severe heat of the summer” . In 1925. Osborn. Matthew in New York to express her concern about the brewing political and military situation in China. D. Matthew duly forwarded Anna’s material (except for one letter he said was missing) to AMNH Acting Director. thus. By April 5th. or $200. As a result. I hope you may come across one in your prospecting which you will dispose of to us.. As we now know. Something else appears to have caused Osborn’s abrupt action. as did Osborn’s wife (and children). On April 22nd. Did you find some good things in the last days ? Those were Granger's tents that Markgraf sighted at Qasr el Sagha on April 23rd. Osborn responded to Markgraf's April 4. could not let Granger’s plans stand. and was also soliciting the opinions of Markgraf and British staff in Cairo who were experienced in the challenges of staying in the desert much longer. Messers. Anna’s concerns for Granger’s safety would rise again during the Central Asiatic Expeditions from 1921 to 1930 in China and Mongolia. he released most of his native workers. letter in part as follows: Up to the present time we have not secured a fine skull of Arsinoitherium. 54). reveal that Walter and Anna Granger would have regularly corresponded while Walter was in Egypt. They had discarded their torn tents and tattered work-clothes. if not the heart. She would have been aware of his standing plans and arrangements to leave the Fayum. perhaps out West. hedged on whether his sudden cablegram ordering Granger and Olsen back into the Fayum would be heeded. 1907. . Granger and Olsen are now prospecting diligently and will probably remain in the field some time longer and they may find one..
45 FIGURE 53. Skulls of North American Gomphotherium (upper) and Egyptian Phiomia (=Palaemastodon according to some workers)(lower). . compared and contrasted by Osborn in his monumental monograph (1936) on the Proboscidea.
return to the Fayum. Two years later. since I did not know that they were wanted in N. 1915. Markgraf exchanged letters with Matthew. became not one. Granger replied as follows: Dear Professor Osborn: Herr Markgraf’s offer seems reasonable. more easily utilized instead . in January. I submit Mrs. I should like to do so provided Professor Osborn can make it possible. Osborn and Granger (behind Osborn’s right shoulder) are at front left. Perhaps the most intriguing exchange about Markgraf’s continued work in the Fayum after 1907 was between Osborn and Granger. a bittersweet conclusion which may help to explain why the pioneering and essentially successful 1907 Fayum Expedition has remained littlementioned since. by reason of much searching. 1907. He is apt to find enough material to pay the expenses and if he should be fortunate enough to secure a good skull I would suggest awaiting its arrival here before setting a value upon .Y. Post-1907 Fayum The American Museum’s use of Markgraf in the Fayum continued after 1907 until the Museum encountered financial strain in early 1915. which I. and why the AMNH of Osborn never returned. and the poisonous effect of Granger’s flea bites finally incapacitated him sufficiently to land him in a Cairo hospital bed for two weeks. Matthew’s advising Markgraf that the Museum could no longer afford to pay him. recall their workers. Granger and Olsen were forced to re-equip completely in Cairo. although some of what he did find went elsewhere.. in the past winter. very fine specimens of Zeuglodonts and Syrenen [sic]. before the Museum could act to acquire it. They collected little of additional significance. 1908. in reality.. and these have. Matthew’s comment suggests a post-Fayum expedition assessment by the Museum that Anna’s tangle with Osborn in 1907. and actually was. all been collected. I will let you know . but Anna won the war.46 FIGURE 54. should thereafter sensitize the Museum to her concerns. 1907. despite considerable effort. I had. which lasted through Markgraf’s death in early 1916. Only the place from which Pliopithecus teeth and rodents came will possibly yield further specimens. The few that have been found up to now. Participants in the Seventh International Congress of Zoology at the American Museum of Natural History on August 27. The place from which most of these small things come from is almost exhausted. Markgraf was able to find little of much interest to the Museum. in response to Osborn’s inquiry. Osborn's directive to Granger and Olsen to return to the Fayum was rash and absurd. Markgraf was dead. This consequence was most pungent: Osborn’s decision had endangered the well-being of his best collector. Markgraf could have been. Osborn and the Museum could hardly justify the very result she’d warned against--infirmity to Granger. The Museum declined and. were discovered on the surface. For this second trip. because of World War I. and wrote about a proposed new search as follows: In regard to Professor Osborn’s wish regarding my collecting further for small forms such as Schlosser has described. but two--as Granger noted when he wrote in his expedition report “Six camels were engaged for this second trip (emphasis added)” . also the place where the Ancodus was found might be further considered . If I should find any more good specimens of them. But. a year later. On April 27.. Osborn may have won a battle in April. I regret to say that I am unable to get any more skulls of Arsinoitherium and Palaeomastodon. given the consequent hospitalization of Granger in Cairo. I cannot undertake this work on my own account because it is too risky. sold partly to the British Museum and partly to France and Germany. reestablish camp and work under worsened weather conditions. As you yourself know. those particular specimens in the Oligocene occur very seldom here. . as he did several months earlier over whether she could travel with the Fayum expedition. The 1907 Fayum expedition.. etc. Thus. By 1912. he advised Granger that In reference to the fossils which are desired by your Museum. Granger’s letters so that she will not feel that her information and implied advice have been neglected .
2-cylinder de Dion-Bouton. If Markgraf is willing. we know that by March 13th. noting rather graphically that Markgraf’s camel bled after being bitten and that Markgraf once lost a camel due to flea bites. Some of the Fayum fossils are very easily prepared and others take much time. 55). the 1907 Fayum expedition's guide. with Jean Bizac as mechanic. among other things. While we may never know all the answers. The source for Notes What was the diary from which Notes was taken? Notes gives few clues. well-distributed rendezvous sites of car and humped beast. an open-topped car hand built over a slightly-reinforced auto chassis loaded with four on the floor behind a huge 7." Edward Wilson recorded that the vehicle was "rigged up by putting two rum barrels on axles and a frame work. I think that any material which Markgraf secures would be worth the boxing and shipping charges to us. driven by Victor Collignon. O. This is. likely maintained contemporaneously with letters written to Anna. The Prince's entry was an Itala 35/45. driven by Auguste Pons.and automobiles One little-recognized aspect of the American Museum's 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt is the groundwork it laid for its five highlypublicized. the 15 hp four-cylinder Spyker. a three to four days' round journey . of course. Thereafter. This suggests Notes was created in the field. four-cylinder. 1907. the cost of preparation should have a large influence over its value. The motorists and the camel drovers kept predetermined rendezvous. A well-travelled caravan route lined with telegraph poles guided them from Kalgan toward Urga. wagon and rail--since his early days of fossil-collecting in the American West. That was the only information Osborn needed to prepare his Century Magazine article: the excerpted Notes. including stops at the Azores.. Borghese won by 21 days . limb material of Palaeomastodon and a good pelvis of Arsinoitherium. the 10hp. None of Walter and Anna Grangers' private correspondence from this expedition is known to exist either. Italy's Prince Scipione Luigi Marcantanio Francesco Rodolfo Borghese 47 (Prince Borghese) readied his crew. One purpose of this paper is to place the matter on the table for further inquiry. with Jean du Taillis as passenger. because that is what led her to contact Osborn seeking assurance that Granger would depart the Fayum as planned (knowing he had already delayed his departure once).000mile test of the world's latest technological marvel--the automobile. Their experience in the Fayum in 1907 clearly impressed Osborn and Granger with the power and potential camels played in enabling a party to work long term at a remote desert work site and send out a succession of fossil boxes weighing as much as 400 pounds each. He caravanned boxes of fossils from the desert to the railroad station in Tamia where they were transported to Cairo by rail for repacking and shipment to New York. For example. However. but not after (Fig. the campsites in the Gobi were as wide-ranging as the reach of the motor vehicles and the preplanned. Ferrar. Absent the camels. with Edgardo Longono as passenger. summer-long. I think it would be profitable to us to have him continue in the field untill [sic] June. Concerning when Notes was actually written. May 24--. More to the point. four-wheeled. camels.. fleas and bites. She would have been ravenous for a constant stream of such correspondence: her husband was to be away in a foreign land for months and essentially out of touch. George Olsen. The race that summer ran from Peking to Paris.and is certainly . it is also recognized that Granger’s title refers to the Fayum Trip. two-stroke Contal tri-car. and Naples. gas or repair stations. We need.. The purpose of the Fayum trip was to accomplish the Fayum expedition. and no Granger Fayum diary is known to exist.. we do know that Notes was created in time for Osborn to use it to prepare his article for the October.. exactly the procedure Granger used in the Fayum for his 1907 expedition.” and “Mon. Ernest Shackelton experimented with a home-made... Gibraltar. The five automobiles fully loaded with gear and occupants took it on without road maps... Unlike Granger's limited selection of campsites in the Fayum. issue of Century Magazine. the Central Asiatic Expeditions employed them to consummate their claim on the Gobi's fossils. This then also suggests that Notes is a fairly complete (unabridged) account of the Fayum expedition. and others. therefore.g. Hartley T. 45 hp racing engine capable of 60 mph (peaking at 1250 rpm). Five cars entered for the contest: Borghese's. when he obviously began to write on more damaged. as does Granger’s with Osborn.. 15 years later. Olsen & Daoud called & brought letters from home”). It is possible that Granger’s diary was constituted through his letters to Anna. or even a true automobile road. Boxes of supplies were brought out from Kalgan. emptied and then reloaded with fossils for transport back to Kalgan. sail powered "go-cart. The initial segment of the race crossed Mongolia--including the Gobi Desert--on a direct line from Kalgan to Urga. The car had two brake handles: one to the rear drums and one to the transmission. Granger was quite concerned about flies. including Henry Osborn.it. was a veteran of Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition to the Antarctic from 1901 to 1904 where. one-cylinder.. as the ancient Persians brought camels to Egypt to abet the consolidation of their political influence. as it would Walter Granger. although Anna’s correspondence with Osborn still exists. of course. Fossils. Keeping a separate diary thus would have been redundant.. driven by Charles Goddard. for the first international motor marathon. the word “trip” apparently referring to the entire journey from New York City harbor and back.. across Mongolia and Siberia. this is also roughly the way he'd done things--with horse.4 liter. The expeditioners were free to roam about the Gobi in their motorcars and collect fossils as they wished because they were resupplied on location by successive rotations of camel caravan. paper. Osborn stated that the party [would] only succeed through thorough. The fossil boxes were then taken on to Peking by rail and there they were repacked for shipment by boat to New York. and the 6 hp. a 10. keeping the camp supplied. and home. an identical de Dion-Bouton. except by letter. June 3--. Granger used the least damaged blank sheets until May 13. addressed only the expedition portion of Granger’s record (diary) of the entire trip. once the Gobi portion of the American Museum’s Central Asiatic Expeditions (1921-1930) commenced in 1922. Very respectfully. “Fri. Genoa. co-driver Ettore Guizzardi and journalist Luigi Barzini. These Expeditions were feasible because they combined motor car with camel. He corresponded regularly while he was in Egypt (e. paleontology-oriented expeditions to the Gobi Desert during the 1920s as a part of the Central Asiatic Expeditions in which Granger played a key role. Letters to Prof. Writing for Science in 1907. Granger was a prolific correspondent throughout his life. He may have kept his diary in that form-letters to Anna. systematic and prolonged search and excavation. but dried.. This suggests that the water damage occurred on April 4. driven by Georges Cormier. A train of eight camels is constantly moving to and fro. it is noted that water damage along the right edges of the original blurred the ink up through the April 4 entry. Thus. Walter Granger  Whether Granger’s final remark was meant to needle Osborn is something we may never know. We know Granger conveyed his concern to Anna. especially. with Octave Foucault as mechanic. As Granger and Olsen sailed home.
.48 FIGURE 55. An example of deterioration and water damage found on many pages of Granger’s Notes.
S. However. if not already so. p. to discover new mammal fossils. Granger simply could not protect himself from the nasty consequences of the flea bites. Osborn variously described the collection made in the Fayum by the 1907 Expedition as "about 550" (1908) or "about 500" (1909) specimens. Matsumoto worked up much of the proboscidean and hyracoid material years later . why didn’t the AMNH go back again to the Fayum? The answer must be conjectural. a fractious and at times rebellious local field crew. Krister Linde. His lifelong bibliography  indicates that Osborn published little (and therefore little researched) on mammals such as rodents and creodonts. American Research Center. those flea bites had killed a camel. Amy Chew. Gratitude is also expressed those who facilitated access to archived material at Agate National Fossil Monument. In his technical reports. The Notes reveal a physically exhausting and mentally trying field expedition: Tough living conditions and logistical difficulties in an inhospitable desert. In 1909. Thomas Bown. we believe. Chris Beard. To this end. the question arises: if the 1907 expedition was so successful. because neither Osborn nor Granger 49 nor any direct participant in the 1907 Expedition ever explained the lack of a followup. were not Osborn’s main interest. P. If so. Therefore. S. he knew that any well-searched fossil field can and will produce new and significant fossils. Aftermath of the 1907 Fayum expedition Osborn published the main scientific results of the 1907 AMNH Expedition in two articles .. Anna may have also made it clear that he wasn’t going abroad again without her-and he never did. However. or. He recalled that Granger "remained in charge [after Osborn’s departure from the field] until June 14. Boston Public Library. and two weeks in the hospital post fieldwork--surely this dampened Granger’s enthusiasm for a return trip. but also for valuable advice in the preparation of this contribution" . Osborn stressed that "the writer [Osborn] is especially indebted to Mr. There probably was no second AMNH expedition simply because there did not appear to be a good chance of discovering enough new and interesting material to justify the expense of one. Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde. and he published the new taxa. ominously. Lakhina. was to get around faster and further. Helen Morgan. and displayed energy and skill in the work of collection" . Michael Walkowiak. the impetus to return "from a purely museum standpoint" may have been gone. Kenneth Rose. representing especially the Rodentia and members of the two other mammalian orders which are not determinable at present" . John Lavas is thanked for his excellent line art renderings. at least. this veteran of thirteen rugged American West expeditions may have been easily convinced. The best explanation of why there were no subsequent AMNH Fayum expeditions is pluralistic: much as there were multiple reasons why the expedition occurred in the first place. Caran Redington. He. Anna may also have played a persuasive role. may have not desired to return to Egypt. His own post-expedition writing recalls an understandable hope for discovering new kinds of fossils in the Fayum as one of the motivations behind the 1907 Expedition. G. Thomas Bown. Simons  argued that "primarily he [Osborn] appears to have wanted materials for exhibition. Also. Daniela Möbius. As he had noted earlier.. the 1907 Expedition’s success was in part responsible for the lack of a continued program. John Larson. Penny Colman and Don Kron (regretfully misspelled in our NMMNH&S Bulletin 19) also were especially helpful to the research or understanding of this event. Ingo Rafuss. Osborn acknowledged a heavy debt of gratitude to Granger. Andras Zboray. Still recovering upon his return home. the exhibition goals of the expedition apparently were met—two fine proboscidean skulls and other materials worthy of display. may have lain in Granger himself. judging from his correspondence and from passages such as the following: ‘The finding of the two heads of Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon was the chief object of our expedition from the purely museum standpoint” (Osborn. of course. All evidence suggests clearly that Osborn’s motives for the AMNH Fayum Expedition were multiple: to place his DVP on the world stage. Osborn well understood the significance of the fossils that had been collected. to secure proboscidean and other fossils for study and exhibition and to shed further light on Africa’s role in the evolution of Paleogene mammals. Donald Russell. Tom Dubois. So far as we know. 827). The concept. this was the only time in Granger’s life that he required hospitalization. So. Osborn may ultimately have been disappointed. though significant. Metasinopa fraasii and Hyaenodon brachycephalus . consolidate and transport. he described the following new taxa: the bizarre "insectivore" Ptolemaia lyonsi. as well as for her usual underlying research wizardry. questioned the efficacy of another expedition. Olsen’s own natural immunity and Keating’s Powder notwithstanding. and Osborn himself continued to come back to the Fayum proboscideans throughout his research life . National Archives. though not recognized as such by Osborn) Apidium phiomensa. John Lavas. Part of the answer. This suggests that Osborn was not merely moved to organize the 1907 Fayum Expedition to search for proboscidean fossils and/or fossils for exhibition. David Love. phiomensis. fossils difficult to extract." which is anobvious and important contextual qualifier for Osborn’s statement. John Fleagle. Institut und Museum Geologie und Paläontologie. there were mutiple reasons why the AMNH never returned. Katherine Morgan is also thanked for her close review of this version of the paper. Phillipe Taquet. Divya Mehta. Universität Tübingen . In 1908. Eden Volohonsky. Like any experienced paleontologist. Rupert Wild. the rodents Phiomys andrewsi and Metaphiomys beadnelli and the anthropoid primate (a monkey. although an objective assessment of the scientific results of the expedition indicates success. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS VLM thanks Katherine Morgan. the striking similarities between vast. a mercenary Markgraf. Gerhard Maier. A collection of ~500 identifiable fossils that includes complete skulls for exhibition and five new genera and eight new species and the first fossil rodents from an entire continent must be regarded as a paleontological success . 1907. Ted Finch. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology (American Museum of Natural History). Kathy Kentner. the key phrase here is "from the purely museum standpoint. John Lavas and Dana Redington for their close readings of earlier versions of this paper. Indian Institute of Geomagnetism.the first wheeled vehicle the Antarctic has ever seen. quite simply. Furthermore. Furthermore. Walter Granger not only for the careful manner in which this material has been worked up. But it also clear that Granger’s last-minute return to the Fayum for more collecting did not produce much. that he had met his match in Egypt. Granger’s Notes has several entries that indicate various quarries and localities were being worked out. He stated that "the hope that exceptionally careful methods of search might result in a substantial addition to the Fayûm fauna was realized by the discovery of three of the smaller kinds of mammals which had hitherto escaped the eyes of collectors.” . His postdoctoral student H. U. barren and remote expanses of snow and ice to the equally barren and remote expanses of deserts and badlands were factored in to finally find a way . New York Public Library. Therefore. Osborn went on to describe the new creodonts Pterodon leptognathus. the newly recovered Fayum mammal taxa. Rainger (quoted earlier) recognized this broader scientific motivation behind the 1907 Fayum expedition in Osborn’s evident interest in Africa as a center of mammalian evolution during the Paleogene. Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre.
In 1997. The American Research Center in Egypt graciously permitted VLM to present on this topic at their 52nd Annual Meeting held at Brown University in April." In that regard. or modem click away. 2001. Hilda Haight and Kent Kicza for their various quick. it has placed many a needed research item right at the fingertips. VLM and SGL express deep appreciation to Pat Holroyd. witty and effective computer software and hardware upgrade recommendations. sometimes embarrassing. VLM thanks Justin Mayrand. Barry Kues and David Rains Wallace for so generously giving their time and expertise to provide close and constructive reviews of the manuscript which led to this publication. rescues. VLM thanks SGL for joining in this paper. repair work and other. Finally. Geological Library.50 and University of Uppsala. The Granger Papers Project launched an abridged. . VLM is also thankful for the University of New Hampshire's Dimond Library: a mere moment's walk. bicycle ride. website version of Granger’s Notes called "Faiyum Diary--Forgotten Expedition to a Lost World.
. _____. p. Migrations and affinities of the fossil proboscideans of North and South America and Africa: American Naturalist.. Proboscidea. p. Moeritherioidea. Mertz. Fayum Depression. 74.1912. n. 5. 3. p. 7 March 1908. Waterfield. National Museum. 1982. Osborn actually published directly on the 1907 Fayum expedition itself as follows: _____. 1992. M.. 60. 99. v. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Asia and North America. p. 603-632. _____. J.. p. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. p. American Museum of Natural History: 125 years of expedition and discovery. 1988. P. The Age of Mammals in Europe. 177-184. 4 April 1907. Osborn also returned often to the Fayum proboscideans in subsequent articles and monographs published throughout his career: _____.. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene.. The evolution. _____. 1907. p. 64. only: Proceedings of the U. _____. J. as does Granger’s “Report on the Expedition To The Fayûm. _____. 222. we relied primarily on the works of: Bratton. T. v. His promise to bring back new and unique specimens of large African animals. 327-332. 132. _____. The Proboscidea: Evolution and palaeocology of elephants and their relatives. 139. _____. 17-35. 265-272. 1995. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 21 March 1907. Temples. Egypt. A monograph of the discovery. But note an opposite assessment by Rainger in An Agenda for Antiquity where he (p.. Evolution and geographic distribution of the Proboscidea: Moeritheres. Hewison. 1988. Inc. v. 84. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. T. 1938. R. v. 1967. _____. in Shoshani. phylogeny and classification of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. In both. Thompson. v. _____. Norell to V. evolution. 1971. Kappelman. AMNH. Final conclusions on the evolution. p.. Abrams.. phylogeny. 1996)]. v. v. F. _____. D. A monograph of the discovery. 10. v. phylogeny and classification of the Mastodontoidea: Geological Society of America Bulletin. 1936. Kraus. particularly extinct elephants. 1919. New York: Thomas Y. J. session VII. 1968. Egypt.. p. B. See. p. 6. _____. Palaeomastodon the ancestor of the long-jawed mastodons. J. 9. Evolution. 139-140. Mastodontoidea: New York.g. 273-302. 805-1675 p.. 1921.” which is provided in Appendix B. xxiv. The age of the Fayum primates as determined by paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy: Journal of Human Evolu- . T. p. 415-424. DVP. 76.. D. Gingerich. and Wortham. Fayum Depression. 1988. E. 1921. B. 6. Ironically. v. 513-516. Bown. Colbert. 1. 6 p. Scores of delightful resource works exist on the history of Egypt. v. 513-516 and Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: Discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History: The Century Magazine. n. July. 622). New subfamily.. Princeton: Princeton University Press. The Fayoum. Marine mammals (Cetacea and Sirenia) from the Eocene of Gebel Mokattam and Fayum. 1923. eds. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. M.. R. 6. Fleagle. 32. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. v. Morgan. Colonising Egypt. 2179.1934. 4). 265-266. 231-234. Rexner. p. spurred support for his efforts to expand the size and scope of his department’s activities. and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. This and other translations of field locations are taken from the “Glossary” of Bown and Kraus. 1. p. Elephantoidea: New York. n. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. and paleoenvironments: University of Michigan. 2. 802 p. New York: The MacMillan Company. 81. The American Museum expedition to the Fayûm desert: The Nation. p. Bown. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. p. p. H. 29 March 1907. G. 94) states: In 1907 Osborn was able to convince Jesup to sponsor an expedition to the Fayûm of Egypt. Massachusetts. Cambridge. 3594. 11. p. Stegodontoidea. age. E. New York: Henry N. 320-321 (also The [NY] Evening Post. G. 17 October 1907. New Series. 635 p.. 84 p. Eighteen principles of adaptation in allomiometron and aristogenes: Palaeobiologica. L. 1968.51 NOTES [Citations to archival sources researched in the 1990s may be affected by subsequent system changes (e. _____. G. n. American Museum of Natural History. Simons. Archaeological work in Egypt: The Nation. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. II. 25. p. v. 26. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. D. 21 March 1907. 1996. N. 84. 639. 14). Mitchell. p. v. p. M. 15491906. Tiffney. L. Simons and Wood. According to Osborn. Simpson is likely referring to Osborn’s two popular publications: The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639)(1907) p. p. For our cursory treatment throughout. 1988. J. 1981... Osborn makes clear that the expedition occurred in 1907. 8. p. evolution. The feeding habits of Moeritherium and Paleomastodon: Nature. 1922. 24. 25 March 1908. 30. Egypt: Stratigraphy. p. deinotheres and mastodonts: Journal of Mammalogy. v. v. v. and Vondra. Deinotheroidea. L. 6 February 1907. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. 740. v.. 2177. Concession to the Improbable. I. Fayum Depression. 1992. L. _____.. 9 September 1909. 1925.. Wing. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. The Fayûm expedition of the American Museum: Science. J. n. Proboscidea. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayûm desert: The Century Magazine. no. A History of Egyptian Archaeology. v. 7. generic and specific stages of evolution of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. n. 815-835. 1988. Fayum Province. J. 5. p. 35-54. 10. Africa was another major center of adaptive radiation and therefore important for his work on the evolution and geographical distribution of mammals.. New York: Walker and Company. _____. 448-455. Bown and Kraus. Inc. M. 1923. and new ones are issued nearly every day it seems. _____. P. Crowell Company. Egypt: USGS Professional Paper 1452. Hunting the two million year old elephant: The Illustrated London News Supplement.” 4. 15. _____. _____.. for example. The Genesis of British Egyptology. 10 April 1907.. _____. 1921. 29 July 1909. Simons also holds (p. M. p. Linnean classification and the phylogenetic classification of the Proboscidea: Palaeontologica Hungarica.. and Kraus. C. New York: Coward-McCann. Adaptive radiations and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings National Academy of Science. and Klein. Papers on Paleontology. 815-835 (also editorial abstract: Nature.. 1-60+4. H. 56. p. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. 4 p. 2001. 2) that it occurred in “1906-07. n. 7. 1942. v. 1964. _____. and Tassy.. Tombs and Hieroglyphs: the story of Egyptology. 1921. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. 271-272 (also The NY Evening Post. The Fayum primate forest revisited: Journal of Human Evolution. n. F. _____.. 9. Zoogeographical relations of North Africa in the upper Eocene: Proceedings International Zoological Congress. S. p. S. American Museum of Natural History. Notes. p. 74.
D. or it was a vast gulf on the eastern side of Pangea. Savage and Russell (1983) and Shoshani et al.. and Kappelman. III. T. E. T. A. 1962. p. 377 p. 60.. p. (4) hyracoids (Order Hyracoidea)--primitive ungulates. Gagnon (1997) presented the most recent analysis of the paleoecology of the Fayum faunas. Northern Egypt: Journal of Geology.. p. 647-654. New age determinations for the Eocene-Oligocene sediments in the Fayum depression. 224 (figure 160). Nr. P.. and Kraus. see Wendorf. Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5. but later replaced by modern carnivores. In the Jebel Qatrani Formation. Holroyd. p. The Geology of Egypt. Capetta et al. Fayum depression. It includes the primitive proboscideans found in the Fayum. and Maasch. 25. E. 14. insectivores. J. R. As to Memphis. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. he recognized four temporally distinct faunal assemblages and documented their similarity to modern mammal faunas in forest and woodland/bushland habitats. Rollins. be referred to as elephants and their allies. C. v.. M. See generally. Fossil Birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. D. 1996. C. Africa collided with Eurasia so that a land connection was established via the Arabian Peninsula and Asia Minor. 495-503. the proboscideans).52 tion. 24. For hundreds of millions of years. See also. K. elephant shrews (Macroscelidea). 175-192. 2000. Herodotus: Father of history. and many are renowned for their fossil hominid record (especially of Australopithecus).. propliopithecid and tarsiid primates. Africa is now known to have an extensive fossil record of mammals. El Niño is now thought to have begun occurring about 5. L. See. L. Tethys was an ancient seaway. Oligopithecus. P. Paleoenvironment of the Earliest Hominids: New Evidence from the Oligocene Avifauna of Egypt: Science. 1971. see Cooke (1978). M. 1992. from Morocco to Egypt. eds. 1989). p.. new discoveries at a range of northern African sites (especially in Libya and Algeria) have yielded equally old or older (including Paleocene) sites. J. years ago.. Tethys extended from Gibraltar to India. p. Egypt: Palaeovertebrata. and Nash. 11. and Aegyptopithecus.. the gomphotheres (a group of very successful proboscideans. L. For reviews and some specifics. about 20 million years ago.htm#third. (3) creodonts (Order Creodonta)--archaic. 1976. M. p. . B. 62. Fagan. eds. A.. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. 152. and Schild. strictly speaking. New York: Academic Press. 32. (1978). M. mostly moeritheres and barytheres. 273.. bats (Chiroptera). They include both marine records of mostly archeocetes and sirenians and nonmarine records. Science. 30. Famines. T. By the time the rocks in the Fayum were deposited. 18. born in the late Precambrian or the Cambrian. which are living Elephas and the mammoths. 233. p. including the Ptolemaiida. the word elephant is not a synonym of proboscidean. Thus ended Tethys. about 600 million years ago. 19. P. the Tethys sea divided the northern and southern continents. or Djebel. Morgan. p.. El Niño: Unlocking the secrets of the master weather-maker. 10. see Thompson. v. In the heavily forested equatorial region of Africa. Ecological diversity and community ecology in the Fayum sequence (Egypt): Journal of Human Evolution. and marsupials (Polyprotodonta). elephant-like forms that left no descendants and whose exact taxonomic position is uncertain (they are generally placed closest to. F. F. M. hyaena-like hunters and scavengers who were the main predators during the Paleogene. 12. Bown to V. Gabal. The Fayum mammals were long the oldest known mammals from the African continent. v.nsf. The fossil localities are concentrated in three regions: southern Africa. be called "elephants. see Bown and Kraus. rodents (Rodentia). See. B. Myres. (5) proboscideans (Order Proboscidea)--included ancestral forms that were the progenitors of the later mastodons and the modern elephants. 15. 1986. 1991. Olson. Sandweiss. The southern and eastern African sites are of Neogene age.. Wendorf. J. (2) arsinoitheres (Order Embrithopoda. L. Amsterdam: Elsevier.. and is also spelled Gebel.. Simons.. Changes in El Niño frequency show up in Egypt’s Nile River: www. Bown. and Emperors: El Nino and the fate of civilizations. C. Polly. J. D. 1999. 1-20. (8) sirenians (Order Sirenia--sea cows). and Rasmussen. During the Miocene. T. Jebel means ridge or cliff. 100. New York: Warner Books. J. Fayum mammal fossils include: (1) anthracotheres (Order Artiodactyla)--a group of hippopotamuslike ungulates (hooved). and Simons.. and Olson. 13. v. basing it on the goddess Tithos of Greek mythology. Richardson. the earliest known ancestors of the extinct dryopithecine apes and ultimately of the living great apes and man.000 BP onset of El Niño. p.. beginning in the 1960s and 1970s. New records of terrestrial mammals from the upper Eocene Qasr el Sagha Formation. Chicago: Henry Regnery Company. L. H. 20. M. R. and Schild. Holroyd (written communication). or in. R. Dybas. 22. the sister and consort of Oceanus. Parapithecus. However. rhinoceros-like ungulates that have no descendants. The recently discovered fossils mammal sites are equivalent in age to the Fayum record and are broadly similar. E. S. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. J. Simons. P. H. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. the supercontinent of the Permian-Triassic when all the continents were amalgamated. the first known from Africa. in the EoceneOligocene.. Said. Princeton: Princeton University Press. 1996. J. (7) (Order Cetacea) basilosaurs-ancestral whales with limb skeletons that link older land-dwelling ungulates to modern cetaceans. E. A. 1988... in common parlance. 22. 1976. New York: Academic Press. Only the elephantids. Reitz.. The famed Swiss geologist Edward Suess introduced the name in 1893. A. (6) barytheres (Order Barytheria)--unusual. eastern Africa (principally Kenya) and northern Africa along the Mediterranean coast. See.800. most of which are of Plio-Pleistocene age. Proboscidea is an order of mammals that should. 21. 65-70 16. v. 1988. 1997. Floods. separating Africa from Eurasia. primarily of the Miocene-Pliocene). 1995. Rasmussen. (1996). S.. D. 1987. Egypt: Smithsonian Contributions. Propliopithecus. D. and (9) parapithecid.. such as the moeritheres and barytheres. can. 1202-1204.. 133-160. 23. Fayum Province. L. 2002.gov/od/lpa/ news/tips/99/tip90902. B. 1531-1533. E.." Therefore. J. few fossil mammal localities are known. 2002. including the genera Apidium. and Swisher. L.. their earliest representatives date from the Oligocene and some of which attained the size of modern boars. New York: HarperCollins. Serie C. See. See Gagnon. now extinct)--large. p. the mastodonts and the elephantids. n. p. which was then separated into the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean basins (see Tozer. 17. As to Lake Moeris. Heizmann. 155-226.
2239-2242. (5) lizards.res. 1994. v. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. with descriptions of some new mammals: Geological Magazine. and Senior Inspector under the Board of Education in 1862. Orlebar. p. M. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayûm. 1904. S. 1902. _____. 1904. who were married in 1807. (7) lungfish.. 25. Mayor (2000. v. and (10) a wide range of plants and trace fossils of social insects. T. 337. p. a new order of Mammalia--with description of the cranium of Ptolemaia grangeri: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. and Malkani. p. Haq. S. Note on a Pliocene vertebrate fauna from the Wadi Natrun. (6) sharks and skates. C. On some pleurodiran chelonians from the Eocene of the Fayûm. A. 1. (9) many birds. to publish the figures. _____. v. 28. p. 433. Young Orlebar was educated at Oxford and took an interest in science. Arif. a new order of ungulate mammals: Geological Magazine. 293. 30. He died in Melbourne in 1866. 436. Scinde & Cutch: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. B.). 109 et seq.. i. M. 1. 481. 400. then the Professor of Astronomy at Bombay's Elphinstone College (http://www. v. Orlebar's full name has never been cited. British Museum Trustees. 29. for he also published “Observations on the Mahomedan Architecture in Cairo” (Orlebar. The First Fossil Hunters. _____. Little appears available on his life and career. M... 8 p. 152) states that “the Egyptians regarded the Fayyum depression. 1903. p. . Princeton University Press. 1901. and Egypt remained under British control until 1922. 401.. 6. Origin of whales from early artiodactyls: Hands and feet of Eocene Protocetidae from Pakistan: Science. Further notes on the mammals of the Eocene of Egypt (Pts. v. 1906. He then became a Member of the Examining Board for Teachers in 1855. p. _____. E. 2002. v.. 6. p. not to have yielded sufficient amounts of fossil-wood concentrations to truly distinguish it (T. _____. Morgan. Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. The latest opinion. Earl of Cromer. L. III): Geological Magazine. 229-250. Note on the gigantic land-tortoise (Testudo ammon) from the upper Eocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. I. 3269. p. v. I. See Morgan. On the evolution of the Proboscidea: Philosophical Transactions. 527. On the pelvis and hind-limb of Mullerornis betsilei. 115. 1905.iigm. P. L. II): Geological Magazine. 347 p. i. A. 1904. it appears that Orlebar finally took it upon himself. 1903. 92. I. Australia. Anwar. Egypt: Geological Magazine. Bown to V. Arthur's mother 15th in direct line from Henry III. p. Egypt: Annals & Magazine of Natural History..htm).53 B. Orlebar. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. 2000.-Edw. _____.. where. I): Geological Magazine.. Orlebar moved to Melbourne. 25). teaching and traveling. 1st Quarter (Jan. 163. p.. B. (8) teleost (bony) fishes (both pristid and siluroid types). known dryly in accounts heretofore as the person who first described a Fayum fossil--a tree remnant. 481. p. H. p. however. 1900. 1845. p. 1899. Sir Evelyn Baring. 1902. _____. B. Fossils from Egypt. p. v. ii. or "upper fossil-wood zone. A. _____. Arthur was the second of their nine children. 9. 10. B. 8. See Mayor. when the British Army successfully invaded and fought nationalists at Alexandria and the Suez. 291. 8.. Orlebar obviously relished his trip to Egypt. 99. 1900. B-Beadnell) and jointly (C) published papers are: A.. D. which were quite possibly the largest snakes ever from the Eocene.. II and III): Geological Magazine. 2. II): Geological Magazine. most closely related to the Perissodactyla. 368. This over 165 year old building now serves as office and centre of scientific activities for the Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. as the origin of all life forms. Some consider this upper zone. predecessor of today's Indian Institute of Geomagnetism. Sometime thereafter. 7. M. nor have his years of birth and death. Egypt. located in Bombay. _____. Cromer’s term ended in 1907. _____. Notes on some new Crocodilia from the Miocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. USA. M. Both parents were from royalty. D. 27.. I): Geological Magazine. Orlebar's 1845 publication was supplemented in 1846 by hand-drawn figures that were not published in 1845 because of budget constraints (see. p.. i. The Beadnell-Andrews "fossil-wood zone" was later refined to "lower fossil-wood zone" when a second zone." was found 92 meters up the escarpment by Walter Granger in 1907. W. v. and Bown.. v. 481. Archives. v. 2001. 1845. 1901. p. Fossil mammalia from Egypt (Pt. _____. in 1854. v. 31. 844-847. 33. & Grand.” thus implying ancient knowledge of Fayum fossil bones. 1903. Fossil Mammalia from Egypt (Pt. M. v. On a new species of chelonian (Podocnemis aegyptiaca) from the lower Miocene of Egypt: Geological Magazine. Simons. v. Ptolemaiida.2 meters long. 119-139). i. Gingerich. p. Orlebar. or history been documented. Some observations on the geology of the Egyptian Desert: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. Egypt became a British protectorate in 1882. Fayum non-mammal fossils include: (1) giant constrictor boöids (Gigantophis). _____. Egypt: London. Khan. B. v. _____. and _____. What we do know is that Arthur Bedford Orlebar was born in England in 1810 to Robert Charles and Charlotte Shipton Orlebar. 2. v. 26. _____. (3) turtles. with a purpose to provide support to British and other shipping activity which used Bombay as a port. v. Gingerich. Orlebar?: The Granger Report. 1904. that of McKenna and Bell (1997). His connection to the Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society developed through the Colaba Observatory. p. 1995. v. M. and the Fayyum was also said to be the place where Isis reassembled and secretly buried Osiris’s limbs.. 1905. 32. (2) sea snakes (Pterosphenus). Who was A. _____. New whale from the Eocene of Pakistan and the origin of cetacean swimming: Nature. a region rich in a variety of Tertiary fossils of large and bizarre mammals.in/ history. A. 1846. V. 196 B. L. p. P. allies the Embrithopoda (includes the families Phenacolophidae and Arsinoitheriidae) with the Hyracoidea as suborders of an order Uranotheria. was thereupon installed as “administrator” of Egypt. fasc. p. financially and artistically. Notes on an expedition to the Fayûm. we learn that: The Colaba Observatory was built in 1826 by the East India Company for astronomical observations and timekeeping. 9. v. Notes on the species of Palaeomastodon: Geological Magazine. From that Institute's website. M. The Barypoda. Zalmout. X. and may have reached well over 9. with a note on the occurrence of a ratite bird in the upper Eocene beds of the Fayûm: Proceedings of the Zoological Society... 14 leaves of plates ill. Royal Society of London. he became a School Inspector for the Victoria National Education Board. Their individually (A-Andrews. v. (4) crocodilians. Raza. Andrews.. S. Research of the 1907 expedition to the Fayum of Egypt has brought attention to A. Head Model School Chief Inspector in 1859. v. ii. But. Preliminary note on some recently discovered extinct vertebrates from Egypt (Pt. and Zhou. p. Indeed. Geomagnetic and meteorological measurements were started here in 1841 by Arthur Bedford Orlebar. p. 562. 1995). 7. The Granger Papers Project.
R. 101 p. p. spurred support for his efforts to expand the size and scope of his department's activities. However. 45. R. 78) states that the medal was from the Bavarian Academy of Sciences. E. 1991. This does little to advance his cause. p. Henry Fairfield Osborn was an adroit administrator and. Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. J. 41. 30. H. The topography and geology of the Fayum Province of Egypt: Cairo. F. Stromer. Hellman (1969). 1901. 489-491) identifies an African origin for key elements of the Eocene-Miocene land-mammal faunas of Eurasia. E. F. p. p. J. His study of vertebrates led to the publication "Sveriges Podurider" in 1872. Fayum Province. Fossile Flora und Fauna im Fayøum: paläontologische Bedeutung des Gebel el Qatrâni (Oligozän): Papyrus 5-6. Scient. Heizmann. 1991. 43. and was a co-founder of the Linnean Society (Linnesallskapet) (Nationalencyklopedin. (Rainger. Archives. 35. Rainger (1991) and Morgan and Lucas (2002). perhaps glaring. p. . from 1890 to 1933. 66. He was the first Scandinavian to employ comparative anatomy. 30. p. 287.. _____ and _____.. Hans Georg Stehlin was a Swiss vertebrate paleontologist and zoologist. P. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. E. working on Cenozoic mammals and authoring a number of significant works. if one agrees that Tullberg and Stehlin were likely to have drafted their works in advance of publication as well.” thus predating the other two by at least a year. 75-78. with translation by Krister Linde of Uppsala University). p. Découvertes géologiques récentes dans la vallée du Nil et le Désert Libyen: Paris. Indeed. 94. fn. 1900.. A preliminary note on Arsinoitherium zitteli. 1899. giving Stehlin priority. 1991. Heizmann. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906. Egypt: Cairo. Survey Department. and _____. 1968. Nr. 30. v. E. 1). the first 328 pages in 1899 and the remainder in 1900. 1903. 30. including anthropoid primates. R. P. 561-574. 1995. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Geologie und Paläontologie.. Nr. Upsal. n. 38. p. The Century Magazine. 25 August 1912. Tycho Tullberg was a zoologist and professor at Uppsala University from 1882 to 1907. Stehlin and Tullberg. Géol. As one author put it (although obviously mistaken as to when the “convincing” took place): in 1907 [sic] Osborn was able to convince [American Museum president] Jesup to sponsor an expedition to the Fayum of Egypt [because] Africa was. A. Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. 1988. 337-527) must have been drafted either in early 1899 or even earlier. Serie C. Survey Department. 287. Bd. E. 1901.. _____. and Beadnell. L. 26. p. see Notes. Durch die Wüste Die FayumExpedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Tullberg. Nr. 40. Stehlin. J. H. 74. 44. E. Serie C. He spent his career at the Naturhistorische Museum in Basel. 1902. v. Tullberg made great contributions to the teaching of evolutionary theory.. (1900). W.. Gesellscahft der Wissenschaften zu Upsala am 3 April 1897. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. Granger. Simpson (1978).. J. E. to whom he was related through his mother. 1991. VIII Cong. Andrews. 483-500) discusses the paleobiogeography of rodents and its implications for ancient land bridges. hystricognathous rodents and proboscideans. For a fuller narrative of the relationship between Fraas and Markgraf. Geologie und Paläontologie. Nr. 1899. Über die Geschichte des Suiden-Gebisses. guided the DVP and the AMNH to heights surely neither would have reached otherwise. In prescient prose. 1907. New Series. v. 1916. 1991. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblblatt für Mineralogie. negative traits. Markgraf to W. p. _____. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. E. L. Gismann. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Beadnell. L. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906: Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Beadnell: Cairo. and Wood. J. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. Osborn. Heizmann. 1902. 816. and Osborn. Heizmann. Survey Department. The Century Magazine. 1991.) 37. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblatt für Mineralogie. Tullberg’s priority over Stehlin and Osborn is established by his title page where its states the monograph was “Mitgetheilt [To inform] der Konigl. 1905. E. histology and embryology. Perhaps to better match himself with his two European colleagues. Högänas.. His promise to bring back new and unique specimens of large African animals. 540-546. Despite certain.. Osborn’s management and administrative prowesses and results are treated in (among others). 36.. v. See generally.1900. An Agenda for Antiquity. 483-500. C. p. 11 (April 13). Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. Soc. 27. This work is primarily on rodent (including lagomorph) anatomy and phylogeny. 65-70.important for his work on the evolution and geographical distribution of mammals. Serie C. v.. 478-488. A preliminary note on some new mammals from the upper Eocene of Egypt: Cairo. 65-70. Nova acta R. p. however. v.. p. 27. J. see Heizmann.. 8. Nr. 65-70. The Fayum Depression: a preliminary notice of a district in Egypt containing a new Palaeogene fauna: Geological Magazine. H. J. p. it was actually drafted in 1899 (Osborn. P. and Stromer. erster Theil. 66. 30. p. Serie C. 1916... H. II. or more. it could be argued that Stehlin's two-volume treatise published over two years (_____. The geological and faunal relations of Europe and America during the Tertiary Period and the theory of the successive invasion of an African fauna: Science. Stromer (1916) adds that Markgraf also received a medal from the government of Bavaria.. 18. 336 p. Internat. 1899-1900. Survey Department. American Museum of Natural History. A preliminary notice of a landtortoise from the upper Eocene of the Fayûm. Osborn would later argue that although his paper was published in 1900. II. 1907. Markgraf correspondence file. As to Markgraf’s collecting history. P. in 1898. C. but its last section (p.54 B. He also wrote several papers on Carl von Linné (Carl Linnaeus). particularly extinct elephants. 819. G. p. T. and _____. 34. 39. 6. see Simons. p. 42. Über das System der Nagethiere. Stuttgarter Deiträge zur Naturkunde. Tullberg is a 514-page monograph published in two segments. 9. As to Markgraf’s farm. 24 February 1907.. and Gismann (1988. H. Abhandlungen Schweizerische Paleontologische Gesellsschaft. P. Tullberg (especially p. A. Serie C.
819820. 1907. p.g. Osborn held several ignoble beliefs based largely on a sense of his own superiority. T. p. This practice has now expanded. p. Hatcher. New York: Time.. The Century Magazine. 1907. Granger. New York: HarperPerennial.. p.”). Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. 513-516. 6. 48. G. 68.. American Museum of Natural History). 74.. 1997. . Africa and Asia) Granger worked in his career.55 46.. K. Archives. n. 4 January 1907 (R. Bankers.. 28 July 1995..” A. Archives. expansion. New Haven: Yale University Press. New York: The Natural History Press. Margaret Mead . p. 18721941. Egypt and the Sudan (sixth remodelled ed. Bone Hunters in Patagonia.. 2002. Morgan: American financier. Egypt. ”to. J. Stout to Morgans. Leipzig: Karl Baedeker. Archives. Osborn’s final years during the early 1930s were a bit less illustrious. R.). Mr. Paleontologist: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 19. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Strouse.. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. Egypt. G.. 71. Simpson.. p.. 1908. American Museum of Natural History. Notes. See.. See. Osborn. An Agenda for Antiquity. CT: Ox Bow Press. 202 (“A lady curator . H. Morgan: American financier. 78. Morgan. G. Morgan: American financier. G. J. interest in natural history. 1984. 272. 47. 204 (“Dr. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. p. Hellman. 75. Even though Osborn collected fossils as a student at Princeton. 186 et seq.. Broom correspondence file. V. he took Granger along to do the work” (Simpson. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Archives. Cook Papers. See. 2-3 February 1907. 217. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum.. 1907. Morgan: American financier. 74.. and T. T. 53. H. 28 July 1995. 1-58. 49. Explorers Club (NYC)--which also coincided neatly with the purposes of the American Museum of Natural History. 1907. 69. Olsen was the only person to collect with Granger on the three continents (America. G. 64. 52. 379. 1907. R. through the use of push brooms. Bones & Beetles. The Century Magazine. 28 July 1995. Morgan: American financier.’”). Strouse. Osborn. 205.. M. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology..the Fayum of Egypt in 1907. pp. F. W. 1985. society. South Royalton. Walter Granger.. 55. Strouse. 1934. 194 (“’As long as Mrs. Broom.. Simpson. p. Hatcher’s large and significant fossil collection was deposited with Princeton University for study. Archives. 131). travel. T. p. Agate National Fossil Monument. Osborn to R.. Granger. 17-19. 238. L. By then.. M. H. The first volume of that work contains Hatcher’s exceptional narrative of the expeditions. p. politics. 59. J. 1907. L. 1978. 560. K. American Museum of Natural History. Brands. 66. 558. Osborn is the only other colleague to visit Granger at localities on all three. 1907. W. v. 6. 272. Science. Archives. Harold J. 2000. Hellman. But. of course. New Series. 65.. p. VT: Steerforth Press. 2000. B. Morgan: American financier. 76.. v. 236 et seq.. Rose to V. T.. Strouse. Osborn. D.. 682. Morgan: American financier. G. Cook. Osborn . Morgan. Davison is not a scientific man but I understand a very good business man. p. 79. p. S. L. W. p. The Museum suffered financially in the Depression years and came to believe that its only recourse was to become run more like a business: “I suppose you have heard before this that Professor Osborn is no longer president of the American Museum of Natural History. 6. Nevertheless. p. especially p. Morgan: American financier. 816817. The Earliest Apes: Scientific American. even implying that Hatcher had received institutional funding and assistance. Strouse. Bankers. 28-35. H. J.. 1996). p. 73. Woodbridge. p. 1969. Trubee Davison is now the big chief. Harper. Princeton was more than ready to associate itself with (if not “shanghai”) Hatcher’s 1896-1899 effort. G. v. 1907. 1967. Strouse. v. and a huge seven volume report on his scientific results was published in 1903 as Reports of the Princeton University Expedition to Patagonia 1896-1899. 25. 58. 118-121. Stout to Morgans. Thomson to H. Granger. 145 et seq. 74. W. Strouse. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 1907. 70. Attending Marvels: A Patagonian journal. Egypt. American Museum of Natural History. M.. 51. n. 63. e.: The last romantic. Stout to Morgans. 1969. Discoverers of the Lost World. 77. 2000.: The last romantic. Inc. 23. n. The Granger Papers Project. by Ox Bow Press in 1985. G. 60.. 61. New York: HarperPerennial. 639. F. 50. 67. F. Strouse. G. Give Me My Father’s Body. p. Bones & Beetles... Hatcher’s Patagonia exploits remained essentially hidden from public view until this narrative was culled and published 80 years later in Bone Hunters in Patagonia. p. 72. 80. 16 January 1933. 56... 46-47. 62. p. 54. Osborn and Roosevelt shared a number of common grounds--privilege. Baedeker.. F. H. Rainger. p. New York: BasicBooks. E. Concession to the Improbable. and Lucas. See. F. See also. Brands. 193-206. n. 57. See. Simons.”) and p.. to football field-sized proportions (K.
Egypt: Journal of the American Research Center in Egypt. and Granger. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. NY: Granger Homestead Society. Thomas Cook & Son. 7191." was formally called the Egyptian Survey Department of the Public Works Ministry. 6. came to the conclusion that the supply of oil that might be obtained would not be sufficient to repay working.g. cross-outs and insertion marks have been deleted. Wortman--A Biographical Sketch. Room prices started at 80 piastres (= about 80% of a British £. Cairo. 1908. J.g. Walter W. but it is difficult to reproduce a handwritten document accurately in typeset: the writing is sometimes hard to read. 88. Colbert to V. J. T.” The Survey. Article XV. as well as other areas of Egypt. p. See. Egypt. Sir Henry George Lyons (1864-1944). M. v. 98. The oldest paved road. In 1896 such a survey was initiated by H. 74. and annotations are made in brackets [ ]. v. land rich investor living in Canandaigua. spelling (e. and abbreviations (e. 1995. n. The hotel contained 350 rooms. Archives. 31. A. Anglo-American bar. J. Simpson. After Wortman's death in 1926. Jefferson responded by offering to acknowledge the affair.. Granger. and the need for a geological survey was felt. During this year. A "preparer" or "preparator" is one who readies fossil for study and display by removing extraneous material. and Harrell. officers of the newly-formed survey. Walter W. word. Gideon Granger. matching fossil parts. 1907. Englewood. An Old Kingdom basalt quarry at Widan el-Faras and the quarry road to Lake Moeris in the Faiyum.--word). List of mammals collected in the Black Hills region of South Dakota and in western Kansas by Mr. Arsinotherium). 1941. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology.g. in New York City for a time (E. Therefore. Morgan. in August. G. Faiyum Depression. 1895-96.-)--remain unchanged.g. 84. L. while attempting to be helpful to the reader's comprehension. J. 1995. which was located on Shâria' Kâmel. American Museum of Natural History. Harrell. A. He spent his final years as a cash poor. p. A. J. Allen. Allen. 652.. punctuation (e. Lyons “had patrolled the Egyptian deserts during military operations against the Mahidi and his followers. 86.. lift. Granger with field notes by the collector: Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History. Lyons. with field notes by the collector: Bulletin of the American Museum Natural History. to foment secession from the Colonies through land deals in Georgia. 817. 8. In 1899. His discovery of mammal fossils in the Fayûm in 1900 sparked a five-year British exploration and later German (1906) and American (1907) exploration.. 94. Thus. L. and Lucas. New York. Sometimes. A. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. leaving interpretations and judgments to be made. p 1-58. S. O. p. Wortman felt compelled to part company with Osborn after a series of personality clashes and took a position at the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. restaurant. “pocketfull. p. The Granger Papers Project. if they wish.) After the original was destroyed during the 1952 riots for liberation... Director-General of the Egyptian Survey Department upon his retirement from the Royal Engineers. Osborn. Archives.. day and date headings have been conformed. and is also sometimes quirky. 27 November 1901. 96. etc.. T. 1907. Ars. 85. Winser to J. (Osborn.E. List of mammals collected by Mr.. flow and idiosyncrasies. 2).56 81. 12 March 1907 et seq. 1907.. tourist agent. 7. parentheticals. 2441. 1-4. H. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. 19. 79). and steam laundry. a copy of the original Notes has been placed in Appendix A. loose and albumed photographs. v. in 1895. 95. with Burr. 90. he owned nearly all the land that now comprises Cleveland. J. Notes was found in the attic of Granger’s youngest sister's (Mary Granger Morgan) home at Hanover.00 American at the time.g.. v. H. 1977. 96. W. Granger's original composition-content. Granger. 91. S... American Museum of Natural History. together with O. p..” “Gebel el-Qatrani”). Arsinoitherium). it is even difficult to decide a dash from a period. p. v. Ferrar (1926. L. some of which may unintentionally serve to defeat the flavor of the original. Gideon Granger is also thought to have attempted. which Granger also cites as "S. Walter Granger: Science. Jacob Wortman and Walter Granger would become close friends. 6. H. (Baedeker. 83. G. 1926. NJ. and memorabilia. n. amidst a collection of Walter and Anna Grangers’ papers.” Hence ensued closer examination of the Fayum. Hamlin. A. demands for permission to prospect for oil or to search for minerals of economic value became more frequent. For fuller treatment of Walter Granger. 259-274. According to Ferrar (1926. Natural History. 1994). it was re-built along the Nile River. G. 1872-1941. F. British geologist and member of the Egyptian Survey Department. 241-258. p. in New Mexico. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. 3.. Egypt: The Ostracon.. The Century Magazine. Article VII. At one time. Utah. Archives. V. even sharing an apartment. American Museum of Natural History. 82. 2002.T. see Morgan. p. Archives.. W. 26. Wyoming and Nebraska. L. underlining (e. A. M. 1907.. Gideon Granger once tried to blackmail Thomas Jefferson over an affair. F. 1982. Referring to the original Shepheard's Hotel. 32. Notes. cleaning and consolidating the fossil. 93. Peterson's conflicts with Osborn had caused him to depart for the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh a few years earlier. the locally based fossil-hunter Richard Markgraf continued on behalf of these .. and again in 1898. A. n. or about $4. post and telegraph office. According to Hartley T. Hugh John Llewellyn Beadnell (1874-1944) (Fig. Ohio. after inspecting [oil seepage at] the Gebel Zeit area. and Bown. n.. This unfavourable report allowed the geological exploration of the country from an economic point of view to be taken systematically. failures to underline (e. 92. 338-339 (from reprint. 79-80).) 87. “As Egypt prospered under British guidance. 97. NH. 1895. p. so that readers may confront the task. Canandaigua. 9 March 1896. Peterson. Paleontologist: Bulletin of the New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science.. D. 89. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. Walter Granger. and Bown. H. Granger. Osborn acknowledged that Wortman contributed to the Museum's eventual success: during the brief but brilliant period of eight years when Doctor Wortman laid the first field foundations of mammalian and reptilian palaeontology in the American Museum of Natural History. and Allen. 17). G. Egypt. p. 1907. p. Notes is edited in a manner intended to remain faithful and sensitive to Granger's time. (not further identified) to W. A. Notes is presented here in typeset. 1896. Ezbekîyeh.
dog carts. 1863) as a private in Company K.. 1908. Charles. Scott later wrote that Ferrar's "work threw considerable light on the structure of the vast land mass" (Scott. The pyramid field is the high desert area located along the Nile River west and south of Cairo. In 1901.5 piastres (Baedeker. New York: Lewis Historical Publishing Company. George Andrew Reisner (1867-1942). and German-led expeditions. R. Baring was succeeded by Sir Eldon Gorst. Archives. p. who laid the cornerstone. The Vermont of Today-With its Historic Background.. raised in South Africa and educated at the Oundle School and Sidney Sussex College at Cambridge. later (1924) compiled a small book of Data Miscellanea on Robert Falcon Scott's illfated British Antarctic (Terra Nova) Expedition (1910-13). as Granger will relate. Beadnell published his enduring geologic study of the area entitled “Topography and Geology of the Fayoum Province of Egypt” in 1905. Ferrar published a “Short Account of the Search for Petroleum in Egypt” for the Dominion Mining Conference (n. IV. Installed by the British military intervention into Egyptian affairs in 1882. British-. 1966. which hosts a collection of pyramids from Giza to Meidum. British anatomist at the University of Cairo. library. R. Charles William Andrews (1866-1924). it was Grant. Also known among the westerners working at the site as "Harvard Camp" (see generally. the most prominent of which was Abusîr. Inc. He died in 1932. American Civil War general (18611865). W. called Deutsche-Orient Gesellschaft. Granger. in June of 1901. Ferrar (1879-1932) (Figs. American Museum of Natural History. 108. Granger’s father.. 1908. 1907. Egypt. In 1926. A. Twelve camels were hired and ordered to proceed to Tamia in the Fayum. also served in the Civil War and fought at Gettysburg (July 1-3. from 1904 to 1914. W. and arranging for the employment of natives and camels. Present throughout this area were various American-. etc. He headed the German archaeological effort in Egypt. The British pound sterling (£) was then worth 97 piastres. 1956. equaled about 19. 90). p. Grant (1822-1885). p.. and President of the United States (1869-1877). President Theodore Roosevelt and Joseph Hodges Choate. in charge of natives under Daoud. Capt. Scott wrote "Ferrar was a conceited young ass to begin with and it took quite a time to bring him to his bearings” (Pound. German egyptologist and pyramidologist known for his explorations of many sites in Egypt. p. carriages. F. British paleontologist and member of the British Museum [of Natural History]. A number of papers were issued as their work progressed over the next few years (see note 33). 111. 531). E. Reisner is also known as discoverer of the tomb of Queen Hetep-heres. who led Harvard-MFA expeditions to Egypt for more than 40 years. Another method for entering the Fayum was via the Egyptian Light Railway. from 50-100 piastres a room (Baedeker. 1908. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Voyage of the Discovery). opened the doors. L. 12th Vermont Infantry (Stone. former American ambassador to Great Britain and a trustee of the American Museum of Natural History.S. 1908. cooking outfits. Ulysses S. and it did not reach into the northern perimeter of the Fayum where the expedition intended to camp and collect (see Fig. 928. chief chemist of the Egyptian Survey Department. At the ceremony upon completion three years later. 19A and 21). 106. who was among the first to systematically study Egyptian mummies with an x-ray device. Hayes (1822-1893). who also authored books on ancient Egyptian materials and industries. Vol. England. 1929. 104. it did not accommodate the AMNH expedition party’s desire to travel at leisure through the pyramid field. New Zealand. Baring ruled in Egypt until his resignation later in 1907. and a professor at Harvard University from 1905 to 1942. 33). Temples and Ancient . Beadnell's second exploration of the Fayum. 107. and the specialist to reach various remote points with comparative ease. 100. “Mr. 1967. also an ardent amateur geologist. Ferrar was born in Ireland. Andrews joined Egyptian Survey Department geologist Hugh J. cycles. which started in 1902 and lasted for nearly 25 years. his successor (1877-1881). p. Ferrar's trip on the Discovery. Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904. Sir Evelyn Baring. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. his Egyptian Survey Department boss. American curator of the Egyptian Department of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts from 1910 to 1942. 1901-04) (Pound. He is best known for his excavations at Giza. Granger’s expedition report states: The Survey Department placed its services at the disposal of the party. 5 millièmes Egyptian. Granger's advances were approximately (US) $50 to Talba and $25 to Daoud. Flicks was an outfitter located in the Havana House that sold tobacco and cigars (Baedeker. Hartley Ferrar left Egypt for New Zealand in 1913 where he lived the remainder of his life. as well as forensic chemistry and scientific criminal investigation. tools. [the lines of the Light Railway] enable the business man. 99. the British Consul-General in Egypt to whom Osborn and Granger presented "characteristically personal and enthusiastic" letters of introduction from U. sand carts." However.. stables.57 latter two nations until his death in 1916. loaning tents.. 1967. According to Baedeker (1908. "though of little importance to the ordinary tourist. London: Blandford Press). 74-82) held at Dunedin. 36). To his wife. Ludwig Borchardt (1863-1938). At age 22. xvi). wife of Sonofru and mother of Cheops. the nearest railway point to the fossil fields. 1907. 103. or Lord Cromer (1841-1917). 180 rooms: restaurant. Attractions and People. wine and preserved meats (Baedeker. In a somewhat eerie sequel to Hartley T. p. Alfred Lucas (1867-1945). The battle for Vicksburg was fought from 1862 to 1863. 110. E. $1 U. riding track. 109. Rutherford B. Sir Grafton Elliot-Smith (1871-1937). 101. L. lawn tennis courts. as well as an excellent firsthand account of Scott's expedition.. a narrow gauge line that networked the Delta and the Fayum. member of the geological section of the Egyptian Survey Department from 1905 to 1913. 31).S. Smith. p. he gained top honors at a science competition called the National Science Tripos and immediately signed on as geologist with Commander Robert Falcon Scott's Discovery expedition (British National Antarctic Expedition. When construction of the American Museum of Natural History began in 1874. water tanks.” remains unidentified. p. J. swimming and other baths. Dr. Hartley T. 105. Fleurents was an outfitter located in the Square Halim that sold household items. J. The Mena House Hotel was (and still is) a luxury hotel located adjacent to the pyramid field at Giza. Dr. The camp equipage and provisions were forwarded to Tamia by rail. the explorer. commander in chief of the Union Army (1864-1865).. see Diary of the 'Discovery' Expedition by Edward Wilson (Wilson. 102. Tombs. 7). Lyons. 36). title pageMoney Table). however. For further references to Ferrar.
It should also be very carefully packed. Presumably. 1908. As Granger indicates in Notes (Feb. Here. Saghatherium. but points out to us (written communication. From the capture of the Nile Valley by the Assyrian king Esarhaddon in 671 B. Ludwig Borchardt's assistant at the excavation of the Abusîr pyramids. 24). (Baedeker. March 2. 9. (Baedeker.S. 36 and 44B). and Fairfield Butte = Tel Taleb (Fox Hill)( T. The French excavators who preceded Lythgoe at Lisht were Théophile Gautier and Gaston Maspero. Ottoman Turks and Mamelukes. fig. Richard Markgraf. 84.54 meters high. excavator of the Zoser complex of Sakkara. Markgraf correspondence file. 128. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Once arrived. and then indigence. 1916. 120. a small hyracoid from the early Oligocene. 113. Markgraf was an Austrian violinist who apparently was forced by illness. curator of the Egyptian Department. p. M. 131.” The opportunity for a panoramic view of Cairo was much desired by visitors. Markgraf. Cairo. 4 April 1907.F. The placement of localities in Figure 35 was deduced from Notes with the assistance of Dr. W. With only a brief return to native rule after Esarhaddon. James Edward Quibell (1867-1935). also from New York. 1906) based on a specimen Markgraf had collected and sent to Fraas. Wadi is a ravine or watercourse that generally remains dry.. Morgan. Archives. Arab caliphates. P. Bown (written communication. Reisner (18671942). 1995). Josephine Butte = Tel Markgraf (Markgraf’s Hill). the French and the British. Ancodon (or Ancodus. 118. consult messieurs Théophile Gautier and Gaston Maspero.) 124. to leave his loved ones behind in Europe. 320321) 117. “Fanitas” was Granger’s word for “fantasses. The rivalry was capped when. 195 piastres. n.5 meters high. 125. and go to Egypt (Strouse. 1988. p. other natives. The English were the latest and the last. the British military took control over Egypt and installed Lord Cromer to govern. This specimen may have been of some interest to Osborn. 115. Simons and Wood. 12 piastres is about 62 cents U. L. Thus. 119. title pageMoney Table). were often at odds over how best to proceed with archaeological work there. Osborn to R. F. Indeed. R. Macedonians and Ptolmaic Greeks. Walking the surface while scanning for fossils by eye. The first step was the largest. see Seventy Years in Archaeology by Sir William Flinders Petrie. some 1. The shellac from Cairo was too thin. for the sadly short time he had left to live. 126. metal. Ferrar Butte = Tel Homar (Donkey Hill). Granger's methodology was described by Osborn by letter to Richard Markgraf regarding an Arsinoitherium skull: "Now that you understand our method of soaking the skull with shellac solution and protecting it further by bandages applied to all parts of the surface.O. Morgan to persuade the New York Metropolitan Museum to hire Lythgoe from Boston. Dr. 2179. until 1952. 1995). He was once apprenticed to Sir William Matthews Flinders Petrie (1853-1942). 1908. 1916). it was Reisner’s presence in Egypt on behalf of the Boston institutions that led J.) 112. Edouard Naville and others more than 300 kilometers to the south at and near Luxor once he left the Fayum. Thomas M. 123. Unlike the AMNH party. Morgan: American financier. 1) earlier published the position of quarries A and B. p. French and English. For French accounts. or trader in natural history specimens (Stromer. Gismann. 127. Ferrar sent his men back to Tamia and had the telegraph sent from there. and the gum arabic was too thick. and excavator at the Lisht Pyramids." (H. title page-Money Table). Baksheesh (bakshish) means “tip. Others have written that Markgraf was German and played the piano. 22 April 1907. 557-558). Dr. 129. p. from a British archaeologist's standpoint. For the liveliest contemporary account of this period. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press." 122. American Museum of Natural History. Lythgoe had prior expedition experience in Egypt.” entitled “Archaeological Work in Egypt” (The Nation.C. stood ready to hoist the tourist wishing the ultimate view upon their shoulders. Davis. Tamia was the railroad stop closest to the AMNH work area in the Fayum. having worked in 1905 and 1906 as a Harvard professor with the Harvard UniversityMuseum of Fine Arts expedition at Giza led by George A. Bown to V.S. per Markgraf) was like a small pig-like anthracothere and is now considered a synonym of Bothriodon. He seems to have accepted his lot as a loner and was well-suited to the rigors of camping and collecting in the desert. Albert Morton Lythgoe (1868-1934). p. Today these buttes are known as: Lyon’s Butte = Tel Akgrab (Scorpion Hill). 116. Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Dr. Romans (including Byzantium). 114.58 Art. and afterward ask for a tip. where he discovered the private tombs of the Archaic Cemetery. After visiting archaeological excavations by Theodore M. box-like water containers used by the expedition (see Figs. Native entrepreneurs would offer assistance to climbers. Referring to the Osborn party location. 78). 121. 7). Granger is overlooking the Fayum depression from higher ground to the east (see Fig.” the large. In any event. Granger desired a solution of proper consistency to soak in sufficiently to bind the fossil together for protection in transit. you will probably be able to pack the skull in such a manner that it will reach us without breakage. in 1882. The two dominant colonial influences in Egypt. Granger’s climb was 137 meters at a 51° 52' angle. and an outer casing of bandages stiffened with plaster of paris. as he had earlier published a paper on Saghatherium (Osborn. Holroyd (1999. 1968. v. Markgraf’s natural talent for collecting fossils and antiquities first drew . Egypt experienced almost continuous foreign occupation. Granger later refers to this process as "stripping. and make no mention of his immediate family (Stromer. who is credited with developing modern archaeological practices and regarded as the father of modern Egyptology. because it will receive severe jolting on its journey to America. an itinerant mason and musician from Slavic northern Bohemia who eventually settled in Egypt to become a fossilhunter and self-described Naturalienhändler. Osborn also addressed the matter in an interesting piece. 2002) that she inadvertently located them too far to the southeast. Markgraf succeeded well in making a life in Egypt and becoming an excellent fossil-collector. Muller. bylined “H. 130. or $10 U. M. The last step at the top was only 0. Granger’s landmarks are triangulated in Figure 35. occupation of Egypt was resumed under the Persians. p. also looking for a tip. He lost his wife and gave his daughter to her grandparents for care.
the attention of German paleontologist Eberhard Fraas during a visit to Egypt in 1897 (see note 38). In 1903, Markgraf left his Mokattam Hills work to explore the desert west of Cairo for the first time with Fraas’ colleague, Ernst Stromer. One of the areas they visited was the British site in the northern section of the Fayum oasis near the Jebel el-Qatrani escarpment. Markgraf became so enchanted by the Fayum itself that he bought a small farm in a village called Sennoures in central Fayum (see Fig. 7). Thereafter, he traveled seasonally to the northern sector to collect Mesozoic and Paleogene specimens for Fraas in Stuttgart, Schlosser in Munich, and the natural history museum in Frankfurt. Richard Markgraf worked under very difficult, isolated conditions and, in the history of paleontology, he remains obscure despite his association with some of the finest natural history museums in the world and brief recognition when he received the Order of the Crown from the King of Württemberg in 1904 and a medal of merit from the Bavarian Academy of Science (Stromer, 1916; Gismann, 1988, p. 78). Richard Markgraf died of consumption in January, 1916, at about age 60 (Gismann, 1988, p. 78). 132. Dr. Eberhard Fraas (1862-1915), a German authority on fossil reptiles who headed the vertebrate collection at the Natural History Museum in Stuttgart, Germany. Most of Fraas's collections and papers were lost in the allied bombing of Stuttgart during World War II. Fraas first noticed Richard Markgraf's collecting skills during a visit to Egypt in 1897. Fraas had planned a journey onward to east and south Africa, but could not do so. He thus stayed in Cairo, where he met Markgraf working in the Mokattam Hills. Fraas decided he could use Markgraf's natural talent for collecting, which skills he refined by tutoring Markgraf in vertebrate fossil work, mostly through correspondence after Fraas returned to Germany. Fraas also provided for Markgraf financially, together with the Stuttgart's Consul in Egypt Teodore Wanner and a German businessman in Cairo named Gustav Metz. In early 1906, Eberhard Fraas returned to Egypt to explore the Fayum with Markgraf. This 1906 German expedition was financed by Wanner, Metz, and Fraas' brother Victor. Fraas and Markgraf departed the Giza pyramid field in early March with three Bedouins and camels, and reached the Fayum on March 11th. The party spent 10 days exploring and collecting in the upper Eocene Qasr el-Sagha Formation and in the Oligocene of the Jebel Qatrani Formation. They found, among other fossils, excellent specimens of Arsinoitherium and Basilosaurus isis (see note 37). 133. Thought to refer to the upper sequence of the Jebel Qatrani Formation (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 134. “Plotting” is transposing the precise location of each fossil find to a single map to create a blueprint showing the found fossils' history and association for that area. 135. Dr. William Morton Wheeler (1865-1937), American Museum entomologist and world authority on the natural history and biology of ants. 136. Granger’s impression also may have been caused by the lack of common language between Granger and Markgraf. Or, Markgraf may have commented on the large incisors, which indeed are rodent-like, which caused Granger to conclude that Markgraf thought it was a rodent (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 137. Probably a fennec, the long-eared Saharan fox common to the Fayum (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 138. In 1947, American paleontologist Robert Denison also recorded the presence of clay in the Fayum. On October 7, 1947, Denison wrote that
59 he observed a "sandy lense in clayey beds..." two kilometers northeast of Qasr el Sagha, on the southwest side of a ravine near base of the Qasr el Sagha series escarpment which he also diagrammed stratigraphically. On December 5, he recorded finding "... hippo remains ... in the clayey sand of the lake beds...." On December 8, at Wadi el Faregh. he noticed that "this is type of Mikheimin fm., Raml fm. in lower levels, produce in clays a few bone fragments, mostly crocodile and turtle--also wood in ss." On December 12, he noted "Collect: - Elephant lower jaw. This is definitely in lake clays [at lake beds N.W. of King's duck pond] - partly covered by clays. The associated skull, 15' off, was hardly good enough to collect. The skull is on, not in, clays - in sand which may be subaerial...." Finally, on December 14, Dension wrote "Worked S.W. of Qasr el Sagha with Cooke & Deranyigala. Concentrated on Neolithic sites 2 and 3 km. S.W. of Qasr el Sagha. These are sites T and O of CatonThompson and Gardner, 1934, The Desert Fayum, Royal Anthrop. Inst. Were able at site T to find in situ fish bones, bird & rodent bones, warthog tooth, flaked artifact, flakes, 1/2 drilled stone (spindle whorl), pottery shards & lake shells. These occurred in clayey sands which form isolated buttes rising out of similar underlying beds, and apparently formed as shoreline deposits." (Robert H. Denison, Field Notes on University of California Expedition to Fayum, Egypt, under Wendell Phillips, 1947 (copy, The Granger Papers Project)). 139. E. H. Converse, who otherwise remains unidentified. 140. Papeterie Suisse, a stationer (Baedeker, 1908, p. 36). 141. “Hannah Affiudi” seems to be the same person as “Hanna Mikhail,” whom Granger refers to as the station agent in his entry for February 4. 142. “Staraselski” remains unidentified. 143. An Omdah is chief magistrate of a commune and directly responsible to the Mamur, or chief official of the district in which the commune lies (Baedeker, 1908, p. xxviii). 144. The house flies (Musca domestica) apparently were transported into the camp as eggs on food, or as maggots in tents, etc. (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). The parasitic fleas, order Siphonaptera, normally seek warm-blooded animals, and included Granger in their depredations. 145. After collection, the fossils were soaked with shellac solution and bandaged on all surfaces. The bandage material came from anything suitable, such as burlap, clothing, even newsprint. An outer casing of bandages was impregnated with a paste made of plaster of Paris. This hardened into a cast that held a fossil together during its transport by camel and rail from the desert for repacking and shipment by boat to the American Museum in New York. 146. “Mr. Wendell,” possibly also “Mr. W.,” remains unidentified. 147. Osborn had already arranged to write a popular account of the Fayum expedition for The Century Magazine. It was not uncommon, as various authors have noted (e.g., Hellman (1969), Rainger (1991), Morgan and Lucas (2002)), for Osborn to utilize his staff liberally, and often anonymously, for his publications. Osborn duly credited Albert Lythgoe and the Egyptian Geological Survey for their photographs, but made no such attribution to Granger. 148. A fairly well-preserved Ptolemaic temple with trace ruins of the town around it, located at the western end of Birket Qurun. 149. “Trenching” meant digging a narrow and deep cut toward the cen-
60 ter of a possibly fossiliferous, saucer-like depression in the sand; if nothing was located, the site was abandoned. 150. Raptors and Passeriformes. 151. Garat el-Esh means “Hill of the Nest.” This location now is considered to be very late Eocene in age (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). “Garat” is also spelled Gar, Garat, or Qaret, and means flat-topped hill (Bown and Kraus, 1988, p. 60). 152. Markgraf's first retainer with the Museum terminated March 31, 1907 (R. Markgraf to H. F. Osborn, 4 April 1907, R. Markgraf correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 153. “Association” refers to whether fossils, or fossil parts, can be physically related to each other as parts of a single individual. The degree to which individual fossils, or a series of fossil parts are understood is based on the context in which they are found. 154. The 40 million-year old fossilized remnants of trees are revealed by the desert wind to this day. 155. Placing the camp, therefore, on one of the prehistoric shorelines of an early Moeris lake (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 156. Granger's surmise was correct, and a letter from Markgraf to Granger in New York, dated April 24, 1907, indicates that he expected Granger to be gone by then--"Did you find some good things in the last days?" (R. Markgraf correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 157. Last to know of Osborn’s decision, therefore, was Granger himself on April 25th. An Osborn letter to Markgraf dated April 22, 1907, shows that his decision had already been made by then. Yet, Osborn well knew that Granger’s plan was to conclude his expedition and break camp on April 21st, and begin his departure from the Fayum for Tamia and on to Cairo (Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). Granger also notes Osborn’s cablegram in his expedition report (see Appendix B) but, while making clear that it was unexpected, provides no explanation of it. 158. Granger’s report elaborated further: It was thought best not to recall the caravan, which had already started for Cairo but to return with the outfit and secure new tents, the old ones having been damaged by storms; and also to obtain hot weather clothing, for the weather was by this time excessively hot. In Cairo four days were spent in securing the new outfit and rehiring the camel caravan. Six camels were engaged for this second trip. Daoud and the cook were retained, as well as the two Tamia men, who had proved especially good workmen (Granger, W., 1907, Report on the Expedition To The Fayum, Egypt, 1907, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History). 159. The English Pension located at Shâria' el-Genaineh 8. It was “well spoken of” and a room started at 10 francs or 38.6 piastres (Baedeker, 1908, p.31).
160. Dr. William Fraser Hume (1867-1949), British geologist and head of staff at the Geological Museum in Cairo. He authored the still useful, three-volume set Geology of Egypt. 161. Granger's interest in egg-laying technique stemmed from his early dinosaur work in the American West. In 1936, writing about making the world's first find of intact dinosaur eggs and nests in the Gobi in 1923, he recalled that many times during the years I worked in the dinosaur fields [of the American West] I visualized such a happening but as the years went on it began to seem such a remote possibility that it finally took its place as another futile day dream. (Granger, W., 1936, The story of the dinosaur eggs: Natural History, v. 38, p. 21.) 162. Granger invariably studied exhibits at other museums from this standpoint because he was regularly involved with their preparation at the American Museum. Museums were essential in the development of vertebrate paleontology as a way to catalogue and assemble fossil collections (see, e.g., Rudwick, M. J. S., 1976, The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology (2nd ed.), Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, p. 10-11). 163. To the east from the east bank of Qurun, and northwest of Tamia, Kom Ushim is a mound that covers the ruins of the Roman town Karanis. 164. Some recent Fayum workers have thought that Granger and Olsen spent most of their time collecting in the quarries. Granger's diary, however, reveals that they also spent significant time collecting elsewhere (T. M. Bown to V. L. Morgan, 1995). 165. Sand lenses are saucer-shaped pockets in the sand containing small aggregations of well-preserved fossils, usually at the bottom of the pocket. This would occur after the hardened, or crusted, surface of the desert was physically broken and the wind, over time, eroded the sand and revealed fossils (D. E. Russell to Morgans, 1995; see also, Simons, E. L. and Wood, A. E., 1968, Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas, Fayum Province, Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28, p. 9). 166. Before working with Granger, Markgraf’s practice was to brush thinned, warmed glue onto a fossil while it was still in place and then let the glue dry. He then removed the fossil and shipped it off. This method did not always protect a fossil from breaking up en route. According to Granger, some of Markgraf's best finds were damaged during transport because they were not properly encased. Granger taught Markgraf to wrap his fossils in burlap soaked with paste. Once hardened, this formed a protective cast around the fossil and kept it intact during shipment. 167. The Victoria Hospital located at Shâriá Deir el-Banât (Baedeker, 1908, p. 35). 168. The Baedeker guide to Egypt listed the choices as a Dr. Murison, Dr. Wildt, or Dr. Hegi (Baedeker, 1908, p. 35). 169. The Citadel is the site of the 19th century Mohammed Ali Mosque at the fortification built in 1176 by Salah ad-Din to resist the crusaders. 170. Old Cairo is a walled city with narrow streets and cobbled alleys and maintains some of the world's oldest Christian churches. 171. “Dr. Hansen” remains unidentified. “Fechn” is “Feshn” which was also then spelled “Fachn”; Granger seems to have mixed the two spell-
61 ings into one (Baedeker, 1908, p. 201 and 206). He also spells Hansen as Hanson. 172. Located on Rue Sultan Osman (Baedeker, 1908, p. 172). 173. Granger and Olsen took the S.S. Bayern (North German Lloyd) to Naples and the S.S. Prinzess Irene (Austro-Americana Line) from Naples to New York. The Bayern’s statistics were 4576 gross tons, length 121.60 m x beam 13.71 m, two funnels, two masts, speed 14 knots, accommodation for 199-1st class, 28-2nd class and 202-'tween deck passengers. It was launched by A. G. Vulcan, Stettin on October 18, 1886 for North German Lloyd, Bremen. Its maiden voyage was to the Far East. In 1893 it was lengthened to 138.19 meters, 5034 gross tons. In November, 1909, it was sold to Pittaluga, Genoa for scrapping (T. Finch to V. L. Morgan, April, 2001). The S.S. Prinzess Irene is shown in Fig. 50. 174. Granger detailed their collection as follows: Results. Twenty-seven cases containing the fossils collected by the expedition were shipped from Cairo. The number of specimens of vertebrates recorded in the field book approximate 500, of which about 25 are reptiles, the balance mammals. A small collection of invertebrate fossils was made from the Qasr-el-Sagha Beds, and collections of Formicidae and Coeloptera were made for Professor Wheeler and Mr. Beutenmüller. About fifty 5 x 7 photographs illustrating the geology, topography, and methods of collecting, camping, etc., were taken; and in addition a series of Kodak film negatives was made by Professor Osborn, illustrating chiefly the work in the quarries. Data was collected for a new geological section of the region north of Lake Qurun, and also for a map showing the location of all important finds of fossils made by the various parties. Charts showing the development of the two principal quarries "A" and "B" were prepared. Below is a list of the more noteworthy fossils collected: Arsinoitherium No. 13506 skull of young individual (horns missing) " 13508 " " adult, teeth and horns missing " 13512 Palate with good dentition " 13514 " " " " " 13515 " " " " " 13532 Fine pair of lower jaws " 13553 Good lower jaws " 13585 " " " Numerous fragmentary jaws and skeletal bones Moeritherium 13430 Skull, lacking premaxillae and nasals 13431 Maxilla with good dentition 13432 Right half of skull 13437 Lower jaws 13443 " " (Qasr-el-Sagha beds) Palaeomastodon 13448 Skull, arches and incisors missing 13449-51 Palates 13468-71 Lower jaws Many fragmentary jaws and a small number of skeletal parts. Creodonta 13236 Apterodon, skull nearly perfect 13237 " half of skull 13240-42 Lower jaws 13253-55 Pterodon, lower jaws Several jaws of undescribed Creodonts Among the smaller forms of mammals are numerous good jaws of Saghatherium, Megalohyrax, Ancodon, Geniohyus; also jaws of ten genera of uncertain ordinal position. The reptiles include good skulls of two species of Tomistoma (5066-67, 5078) and Crocodilus (5061), together with good shells of three genera of turtles (5087, 5089, 5092). (Granger, W., 1907, Report on the Expedition To The Fayum, Egypt, 1907, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History.) 175. Matthew, W. D., 1911, African Mammals; in Bassler, R. S., 1912, Symposium on Ten Years’ Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, v. 23, p 156. The symposium was held in Washington, D.C., on December 29, 1911. Note, also, that in his book The Age of Mammals, Osborn (1921, p. 73) stated that “for the time being North Africa becomes the storm center of mammalian palaeontology.” In 1910, Matthew published a review of Schlosser’s Preliminary Notice earlier that same year (Schlosser, M., 1910, Über einege--fossile Säugethiere aus dem Oligocän von Agypten: Zoologischen Anzeiger, Bd. XXXV, n. 15), and criticized Schlosser’s paper as rather thin on substance and detail. (Matthew, W. D., 1910, Schlosser on Fayûm Mammals: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History, 49, p. 700703.) 176. Even an invitation from National Geographic editor Gilbert H. Grosvenor failed to nudge Granger. On April 19, 1909, Grosvenor wrote: Mr. Walter Granger American Museum of Natural History New York, New York Dear Sir: During a conversation with Professor Osborn yesterday he stated that he thought you could prepare for the National Geographic Magazine an article describing his recent expedition to the Fayum and that he would be very pleased to have you do so if you have the time. I should be exceedingly glad if you could get up an article of about 3500 words with illustrations describing the work of the expedition and also of the country and people. The Society would pay $35. for the article and $1.25 for each picture used and we could probably use fifteen or twenty, provided they are of an interesting character. [by hand] I send you a copy of our March no. I am enclosing you Professor Osborn’s card. With regards, I am Yours very truly, s/Gilbert H. Grosvenor, Editor (W. Granger correspondence file, Archives, Department of Vertebrate Paleontology, American Museum of Natural History.)
The original and eminent world-class sailor.62 This strangely timed. With slight local deviation heads directly N. Andrews] was Osborn who led an expedition into the Fayum region early in the year 1907. Bones & Beetles. 1907. Osborn wrote: 2/2/07 . Simons added: In 1956. What induced Osborn to prompt Grosvenor to invite Granger.. Granger of the American Museum. 1968. while searching through a collection of fossils at the American Museum of Natural History. Walter Granger. Natural History. It had been recovered from the Fayum badlands. since the year 1908. with this exception. 179... I never have even the slightest idea as to the different directions until looking at the compass. by an amateur collector named Richard Markgraf. that native caravanners found their way through the desert. Hellman. pondering whether they possessed a special. as on our own plains [of the American West]. Deinotherioidea. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. Osborn might have checked with John Bell Hatcher. p. We check his course by means of 2 stars. G. Cook. p. and Wood. and the most impressive these. 184. 6. p.. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907. and he took personal charge of the Fayum Expedition in 1907.” (Osborn. and Mr. New York: The Natural History Press. A. L.g.. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. Simons earlier (1959) described the frontal bone of an anthropoid primate. p. Egypt. 27. Simons.. n. 181. Most of the new taxa. A. 3). But. 200). accompanied by Mr... 1927.Arab with pack camel takes a true course across desert keeping pole star to his left. Archives... Mastodontoidea).. and within the circumference there appeared not even a solitary hill. See. that. v. 10. Rainger. were recovered from the sites previously worked by the British and Germans. 43rd Annual Report for 1911. inbred instinct that enabled them to navigate. 32. p. p. Here on the plains of Patagonia. 180. E. as even he acknowledged earlier (1959. New York Evening Post and Illustrated London News (see replication at Appendix C hereto) to write about “. Spencer. 168.. See. It worked well enough so that Osborn could put off selecting a curator to replace him for another year. I (Moeritherioidea. when President Jesup sent him on an expedition. The only entry Osborn made in his own 1907 Fayum field book concerned how it was. assisted by Walter Granger and George Olsen. and further research awaits those with sufficient access. 1907. and could travel for days at a time without consulting that instrument. Mastodontoidea). e. Simons has more recently expounded that it was he who first recognized the anthropoid identity and scientific significance of AMNH 14556. 183. The Age of Mammals.. 182. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. oddly structured proposal is another puzzling development in the 1907 Fayum expedition story. also knew instinctively where he was in the open sea even while asleep with Spray's tiller lashed into perfect balance and "skippering" the boat on through the night. p. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Proboscidea: A Monograph of the Discovery. 5. (Osborn. Joshua Slocum. I seemed instinctively to know the points of the compass. 178. 289) who first identified and attached significance to this fossil. The impression was not unlike that at sea in calm weather. it was clearly William K. who noted in Patagonia that: we found ourselves in the midst of a vast plain with no permanent landmark visible in any direction. Alone at Sea: The Adventures of Joshua Slocum.. American Museum of Natural History. Egypt. sixty miles southwest of Cairo.. Granger. .. p. Archives. identified as a “possible primate.. p. W. W. d) "The actual preparation of this monograph opened in the year 1907 with the author's expedition to the desert bordering the Fayum of northern Egypt. without maps or charts.” that had lain neglected for half a century. Have observed them in the mist. New York: Doubleday). now at the Archives of the Agate National Fossil Monument (Nebraska). Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907.. I came across a small piece of forehead bone.58). catalogued as AMNH 14556. two years after the event and after Osborn’s own (glorifying) accounts of it in Century. Later (1993. p. b) “Supplementary explorations by the author. his [Osborn’s] recent expedition to the Fayum [which] he [Osborn] would be very pleased to have you do so if you have the time”? Who could better tout the expedition than Osborn himself? Who had better control over how Granger spent his time than Osborn himself? (While Osborn’s assumption of the presidency of the AMNH in 1908 did increase his duties. Olsen’s correspondence with Harold J. p. as one scans the surrounding horizon. 99). F. at sea. I (Moeritherioidea. The horizon described a perfect circle. Vol. Bankers.) Before making that link between direction-finding instincts of Arabs and animals. 39. Evolution. p. Admits he relates the pole star. 1907 Fayum field book. he did not let go of curatorship of the DVP." Osborn. 82. p. American Museum of Natural History. (Hatcher. Examples are: a) “Since 1898.. H. When asked if he guides by the stars he says no--he is going in that direction.. H.”American Museum of Natural History. Bone Hunters in Patagonia. An Agenda for Antiquity. at the turn of the century and without modern instruments. Preface. In full. Fayum Province. 1969. Proboscidea: A Monograph of the Discovery.[no reference to George Olsen]" Osborn. Science." (Notes). 1921. (See. Nation. In what appears to us to have evolved into a somewhat apocryphal tale. Simpsonesque curiosity indeed: speculation invites. 1912. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907. p. that he said was collected in 1908 by Markgraf. Migration and Extinction of the Mastodons and Elephants of the World. Professor Osborn has exercised a general supervision over all field exploration. 11. 1998. Vol. accompanied by Walter Granger of the mammalian paleontology staff of the American Museum. cites Osborn’s use of a “red crayon” to make notations. F. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. E. I even think Arabs (of the desert) have a true sense of direction--like animals. Migration and Extinction of the Mastodons and Elephants of the World. 1936.. c) ". Deinotherioidea. Gregory (1922.... writing then: .. and e) "The first to combat this monophyletic interpretation [by C. 65 and 70). Evolution. 177. 498. 1936. to the Fayum Desert in Northern Egypt. which he guided as if still present full time.
58) statement that Markgraf collected AMNH 14556 in 1908 contradicts Gregory’s (1922) statement (above) that it was collected by the 1907 American Museum Fayum expedition. R. p 660.g. 194. Bown. Trail Blazers. Matthew. W.” In short. J. in Bassler. made by Denison in the Fayum. 123-165. T. indeed. 1993. 1964. p 156. D. 193. Finally. van der Hoof being in the Fayûm for Wendell Phillips and dear ‘ole Univ. Markgraf correspondence file. Gideon T. p. Fossile flora und fauna im Fayøum: paläontologische bedeutung des Gebel el Qatrâni (Oligozän): Papyrus 5-6. The 1947 University of California expedition to the Fayum was unknown even to Simons himself until the eve of Simon’s first expedition to the Fayum. J. 21 May 1912. The Museum already had such a program in place with institutions domestically. Examination of the specimen’s label may resolve that question. The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639). 340) and that “the various Fayum primates are intermediate forms that fill in many of the morphological gaps between the major radiations of extant anthropoids. DES Simons. Field Notes on University of California Expedition to Fayum. 58) that “neither feature [of the cercopithecid characteristics of AMNH 14556] had been previously documented in so old a fossil” thus overlooks Gregory’s (1922) publication which fully appreciated the significance of AMNH 14556 at least 34 years before Simons first saw the fossil in 1956. as follows: Dear Gid: I guess this is not too informal. 189. Yours sincerely. p. Robert Dension and others in 1947. especially the early evolution of anthropoids.” also. 1912. 78.. Savage alerted Simons as follows: Paris-November 9 Dear Elwyn: Don R.they should be in the files I started there (in the office where Gid now is) called “Mammal Location File” -. See. Denison should be a gold mine in “what-todo’s. M. 326-327).. 1961. in 1947-48 [sic]. James on November 21.. The Granger Papers Project). Matthew to R. American Museum of Natural History. p. G. Don Savage suggests in the enclosed letter that it would be useful for he and I to have a look at the field notes and photographs. 10. A. Symposium on Ten Years’ Progress in Vertebrate Paleontology: Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. H.. 188. Museum of Paleontology. 191. 1947 (copy. H. Fleagle (1988. 195. and named by Osborn—now one of the best known early monkeys (or monkey-like primates according to some). 190. Osborn. cover memorandum-1907: Annual Report of Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Archives. 197. Archives. p.. Morgan. On November 9. Simons (Copies. M. 9. Egypt: USGS Pro- 63 fessional Paper 1452. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 2002. 198. and Denison. Miami: Field Research Projects. 1988. H. Although the development of this study was slow to form thereafter (see. See you Nov. Simons (1959. of Calif. F. Unfortunately. See Table 1. Granger became a member of both in 1911. 187. Elwyn L. 20. 83). R. American Museum of Natural History. I believe. v. 3. p. Gismann. Markgraf. Archives. New York: Tarcher/ Putnam. this Table omits the expedition (formally known as the “University of California Pan-African Expedition’) by Wendell Phillips. M. which eventually received some of the Fayum fossils collected by the American Museum expedition. Russell. He notes that “most of our knowledge of early higher primate evolution in the Old World comes from an area in Egypt known as the Fayum Depression” (p. e. under Wendell Phillips.. the fossil record of the Fayum primates is pivotal to understanding primate evolution. S. can probably pull the Denison records and photos out of our file and let you borrow them if you wish -. Could you send them soon to Don Savage in Paris? I am leaving for Egypt this Saturday but will be in touch with Don from time to time. 28 April 1908. 1988. L. In a widely used textbook on primate evolution.even at this late date. Maybe you don’t!? Denison made all the field notes & records. V. 326-339) reviews at length the fossil record of primates from the Fayum. F. this year. Gid James. p. 192. W. H.. 185. p. discovered by the 1907 AMNH expedition. Notable is Apidium. 26.” and “what-not-to do’s. I had assumed that you knew all about Bob Denison and V. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology.. 18721941. 1961. v. American Museum of Natural History). Markgraf correspondence file. Granger to R. Osborn to R. S. at least this is how I hear you referred to by our colleagues. . p. 186. 1 January 1908. paleontologist Donald E. 516. Fayum Depression. Bulletin of the Geological Society of America. and Lucas. Markgraf correspondence file. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. 23. p.. 15 January 1915 (R.. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Simons’s statement (1993. 1911. African Mammals. 1993. These primates are a diverse array of prosimians and primitive anthropoids. The Lemur’s Legacy. entry for 1961-67 et seq. p.if you want them. D. 1980. Markgraf. 1907. sent a request in haste to Dr. F. Fleagle’s review concludes that “the fossil primates from the early Oligocene of Egypt provide our only record of Old World higher primate evolution from that entire epoch” (p. Paleontologist: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 19. L. Field.) 196. my replacement at Cal. The Granger Papers Project. W. R. including the University of California. R.. Walter Granger. Osborn. H. 14-15. R. Egypt. p. See. Markgraf. [Russell] and I were just sitting here discussing your Fayûm project and a matter came up that seemed worth writing about -. and Kraus.That ancestors or relatives of the later Cercopithecidae [a family of Old World monkeys] were present in the Lower Oligocene of Egypt is also extremely probable from the fact that the American Museum expedition in 1907 discovered there a frontal portion of a skull which resembles closely the corresponding part of some of the smaller Cercopithecidae.
By 1923. Professor Stout’s recollection of Anna and her account the 1907 Fayum expedition came directly from Anna Granger herself--he and his wife came to know Anna. 205. Archives. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Messers. Both Walter and Anna Granger were invited by the Museum’s director to help host this meeting. Osborn’s letter was asking Markgraf to go back into the field with . The interviewees are T. reads without glasses and has a remarkable memory--Born within a quarter of a mile of his present home--Has voted at 20 Presidential elections--Many present from out of town. 4 April 1907 (R. Bumpus to W. But this is a place where things can happen. Matthew. in March of 1923 during Granger’s second winter expedition to Sichuan Province.. D. 1925. 201. That. Granger to assist him in receiving the Members of the Seventh International Congress of Zoölogy at the Museum Tuesday evening.1. In fact they may have come at roughly the same time. Report of Operations for Week Ending 14 April 1923 (dtd. FossilHunter’s Guide to the Yangtze Patrol. 1907. from April 18 to September 15. 19 August 1907. (undated). American Museum of Natural History. Archives. M. Photograph memento. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. 28 August 1925. some Chinese embroidery. a warlord battle for the city of Wanhsien on the Yangtze River. in part. Archives. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. American Museum of Natural History). Anna left items for the Stouts. The Granger Papers Project. (W. 2001. Simpson (date unknown).. Special Collections. as I judge she will be coming back with the other members of the party in October . Osborn to R. Archives. Archives. R.S Navy Yangtze Patrol gunboat U. August 27. Granger and A. H. to wit: Director Bumpus trusts that it will be possible for you and Mrs. 209. Granger to F. W. F. than against the mighty flea. G. After several anxious days. W. J. Granger and his men returned fire with an assortment of weapons from which they fired nearly 50 rounds. Granger. Markgraf correspondence file. and a pair of Walter Granger’s field glasses. The Granger Papers Project. F. asking for a letter of credit to conduct his third winter expedition to Sichuan Province. Thus initiating the correspondence Bown and Fleagle describe (see note 202). a public dinner in the village park. but not harmed. D. see Morgan.) Granger clearly felt better equipped to protect himself against hostile humans. Seventh International Congress of Zoology: American Museum of Natural History. is not contemplated. Osborn. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. File 604. (W. on November 10. U. American Museum of Natural History. Archives. Special Collections. R. American Museum of Natural History. 207. and August 20 (“Andrews asked to leave Mongolia because CAE exceeded its bounds”). Special Collections. Diaries . they were ambushed by bandits hiding in the cliffs of Wushan Gorge. and visit with her often during the last 10 years of her life. Granger. H. Markgraf correspondence file. Also I imagine there may be some excitement although neither of us will take too great hazards. D. However.. as well as a September 10. Sherwood. 202. 15). and worried that Walter will be detailed to field work [in Sichuan Province] in the winter. 28 August 1925.. Granger. Frederick Smythe. L. American Museum of Natural History). 208. Anna also sent clippings from the April 20 (“CAE in bandit-infested section of Kalgan”). Granger and the CAE were in Mongolia.) For fuller treatment of the 1923 events. Report on the Expedition To The Fayum. Palos. Fleagle and T.1. once they’d left the protective cover of U. Special Collections. Markgraf to W. CAE motorman Mack Young (during a solo mission in Mongolia). 203. Special Collections. A. Middletown Springs turns out to honor Deacon Alpheus Haynes--Concerts by the Rutland City band. American Museum of Natural History. The party was shaken. Charles. American Museum of Natural History. Despite a number of requests to the two locations where copies are known to exist. concluding All goes well with me. (H. 1925. August 27th at nine o’clock. they finally rejoined and escaped by junk down the Yangtze. File 1214. Comm.1. Archives. American Museum of Natural History). 1925. Not a month later. 206. Matthew. C.1.S. 1925. In gratitude.” proclaimed the headline and subheadline of an undated. The Granger Papers Project.) 204. File 1214. with our wives. Markgraf. as Osborn’s cablegram was being read by Granger.” (A. Anna was receiving sporadic assurances that Walter was fine. National Archives. Granger.S. 1st Quarter (Jan. 22 April 1907 (R. Walter Granger did make it to the occasion: his father. New York Times. (File 1214. May 30. F. Nelson and I. 10 November 1925. Matthew to G. I understand. including a portrait of herself as a child. File 1214. 16 April 1923). Bown.64 199. U. Markgraf to H. Archives. the senior author has been unable to access that correspondence directly. gave one of the addresses and presented the Deacon with the gold-headed cane. Stout. 1907.S. Two of Anna’s letters were dated August 28 and September 1. Matthew’s note to Sherwood was probably written shortly after he received Anna’s September 1. Granger to W. 1907.1. Anna obviously accepted that. She is evidently very much disturbed and apprehensive over the situation there. 25 April 1907 (R.1923. Recall that. Granger to W. Palos stationed at Wanhsien. and proceeded through the Three Gorges area. are looking forward to a profitable winter along the Yangtze. 200.S. but she wrote Matthew that she would “feel relieved when he is back here again. W. Anna and Walter became separated by. except for Granger and his Chinese assistants and. W. 1923. The Granger Report. perhaps. unattributed newsclipping (probably The Rutland Herald. since he noted to Sherwood. V. M. and trapped in. that her letters have not reached me in time to reply to her in China. letter. American Museum of Natural History). Bown and Fleagle independently (and consistently) related their accounts as derived from copies they’d seen of correspondence between Anna and Osborn. Markgraf correspondence file. Special Collections. 1925. an unfazed Granger wrote to the AMNH’s bursar. Her concern was heightened by the fact that two years earlier. American Museum of Natural History. Granger to Lt. The Granger Papers Project). addresses and the presentation of a gold-headed cane constituted the day’s programme--The Deacon spends nearly the whole day at the park--Is in good health--Works about the farm. respectively. File 1214. “Celebrates His 100th Birthday.S. Smythe.) During this time. Anna had already experienced more CAE-related combat than any other member of the CAE ever would. press release from the president of the Mongolian Republic as to why the “American Scientific Expedition” was expelled from Mongolia. Egypt.
F. 217. Egypt: PaleoBios. New York: American Museum of Natural History. American Museum of Natural History). 218. 118. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. n. Markgraf to W. 1921. M. Moeritherioidea. F. p. P. 10. A. the AMNH crew picked up the first hyracoid and the first creodont collected from the Qasr el Sagha Formation. Ptolemaia is considered to be a member of the Pantolesta. 415.. Proboscidea. C. and the American West: Nevada Humanities Committee. See. 516. Markgraf correspondence file. Volume 1 includes extensive discussion of the Fayum proboscideans. p.. New Pterodontinae (Creodonta: Hyaenodontidae) from the late Eocene-early Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. p. New York: 65 Columbia University Press.). Fayum Province. 212. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas.. *See. American Museum of Natural History. R. fig. Granger correspondence file. H. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. in press. 24. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. I. F. . 160 p. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. p. Osborn. A. Science. See. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. R. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1909. F. and the creodont was apparently considered so inconsequential. P. 415-424. 1997. Today. S.. p. F. American Museum of Natural History. 7) illustrated and identified as ?Metasinopa. Values. in Tchudi. Osborn. 3 January 1915... The Fayum Expedition of the American Museum: Science 25 (639). Osborn’s lifelong studies of the Proboscidea culminated in his massive. 226. an order of extinct. New carnivorous mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. 221. For a superb. see Peking to Paris by Luigi Barzini. 25 August 1912. Ptolemaia and Apidium. here are what I would point to as important scientific contributions of the expedition (in addition to those already addressed in the Epilogue). 1999. 1968. v. R. 802 p. the Pterodon partial skull). Akhinatenavus. 24. For example. Osborn. S. p. and Parham.e. and new quarries were given successive letters in the alphabet. Archives. Subsequent expeditions benefitted from this and built upon this framework. Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904. v. H. L.. 222. 22 April 1907 (R. Apidium (named for the sacred bulls of Apis) has long been recognized as a fossil monkey. 2) The first discovery of terrestrial mammals in the Qasr el Sagha Formation. 172. 1909. evolution. Granger. 1923. The AMNH collection was the first in the Fayum where quarry names were assigned and then subsequently associated with the specimens in the museum. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. K. 1) Collecting with reasonably accurate locality data. 26. H. Matthew. London: Blandford Press (Ann Savours. 24. W. Osborn. R. While we can figure out where the British and German collections came from to some extent. 219).. Markgraf to W.. Fortunately (for me). it wasn't because they were keeping good notes on the provenance of individual specimens. 1966. 265-272. A. 219. Wilson. 2002) states: [A]s someone who has worked a little with the AMNH collections. Granger to H. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. D. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. 224. firsthand account of this race.Osborn’s needs in mind. 109-116. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Archives. 1997. Yale Quarry A = AMNH Quarry A. 220. 216. P. Archives. observation and publication 1877-1929. p.. F. Markgraf correspondence file. 26. 214.g. even to the extent that the Yale expeditions also used the same lettering scheme (i. 1907. Fayum province. E. E. v. 210.. V. Mastodontoidea. Matsumoto. 1922. thus providing some additional collecting data for specimens in the Stuttgart collection (e. He named Ptolemaia after the family of the pharaoh Ptolemy and created a new family. Holroyd (written communication. ed. discussion in Morgan. 19. 1908. 2. Osborn suggested it might represent a new order of mammals.. 19. v. two volume memoir on the subject published posthumously in 1936 (Osborn. 215. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. Markgraf. F. Osborn. See also. Deinotherioidea. H. 211. Department of Vertebrate Paleontology.. 223. F.) The importance of this record keeping continues to be uncovered. H.. Holroyd.. Archives. H. See. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. 265. J. 1908. 1930. v. p.). reassigned Hyaenodon brachycephalus to the genus Metapterodon and created the new species Metapterodon markgrafi for an upper jaw fragment that Osborn (1909. The hyracoid was mistakenly described as Moeritherium by Matsumoto (1922). for Pterodon leptognathus. insectivorous mammals (McKenna. and _____. 213.. F. American Museum of Natural History.. Osborn. Fifty-two years of research. and Bell. Also. A monograph of the discovery. v. E. that it hadn't even been cataloged until I came across it amongst other uncataloged and unprepared specimens from the expedition. v. F. a possibility discussed by Osborn. Classification of mammals above the species level. Holroyd (1999) created a new genus. Jim Parham and I have a paper in press at JVP [Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology*] that is able to make use of their good locality data to establish the age of the African tortoise record. Markgraf correspondence file. who also thought it might be an artiodactyl. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. Simons. p. Osborn to R. p. Indeed. 1924. 1936. Osborn was genuinely perplexed by the affinities of two of the new taxa of mammals he described from the Fayum. H. ed. of uncertain ordinal position. 225. and 1926. 1908. p. in Notes Granger mentions visiting some of Markgraf's quarries and had the foresight to note their approximate location. and Wood. Ptolemaiidae. L. Osborn. W. they weren't recognized until Holroyd et al (1996). The Antiquity of African Tortoises: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. H. Holroyd. Badlands Mary. H. A. Although not the first described specimens. 265.
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P. 231. 486 p. S... 1983. H. eds.. A Descriptive Catalogue of the Tertiary Vertebrata of the Fayûm. M.. Todralestidae (Proteutheria. _____. J. with descriptions of some new mammals: Geological Magazine (extract). New Mexico Museum of Natural History. 29. T. R. New York: American Museum Press. NY: Granger Homestead Society.66 REFERENCES AND RESOURCES Sources for Figures: FIGURES 1 and 35. The Granger Papers Project. v. VT: Steerforth Press. Stuttgarter Deiträge zur Naturkunde. Osborn. Osborn. “Map of the Fayûm”-p. 1980. Kraus. 32. J. p. 30. Peking to Paris. Coppens. New York: The MacMillan Company. 337-343. New York: The Library Press.. H. E. Serie C. P. Raza. W. K.. F. Haq. 447. Geology and paleoenvironment of the Oligocene Gebel Qatrani Formation and adjacent rocks. slipcover image. 1A (=our 1) and 1C (=our 35). H. Les mammifères Paléocènes du bassin d’Ouarzazate (Maroc) II. G.. 1903. T. E. p. Durch die Wüste Die Fayum-Expedition von Eberhard Fraas im Jahre 1906. 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New age determinations for the Eocene-Oligocene sediments in the Fayum depression. 1976. 495-503. v. 21 March 1907. 6 p. Inc. S. 1. and the American West: Nevada Humanities Committee. New York: The MacMillan Company.. p. 233 (12 September). p. Cambridge. 22. Egypt: Palaeovertebrata. Egypt: PaleoBios. 2002. 76. 8 p. 19. 2. v. 64. New fossil mammals from the Fayûm Oligocene. F. Walter Granger. 56. p. v. A contribution to the knowledge of Moeritherium: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 1930. 265-272. v. The age of the Fayum primates as determined by paleomagnetic reversal stratigraphy: Journal of Human Evolution. H. 1926. B. Eberhard Fraas: Science. Temples. 4 April 1907. n.. Morgan. _____. Classification of Mammals above the Species Level. n. B. Prehistory of the Nile Valley. 231-234. The Fayûm Expedition of the American Museum. p. _____. p. J. 271-272. Some observations on the geology of the Egyptian Desert: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1923. p. p. 700-703. H. Kappelman. H. v. 622. 1845. Evolution. 51. 1-18. n. 10.. 160 p. 139-140. 1846. 448-455. Holroyd. 253-350. p. _____. Mertz. 99. v. 1921. _____. J. M. p. Northern Egypt: Journal of Geology. p. T. Palaeomastodon. Archaeological work in Egypt: The Nation. observation and publication 1877-1929. n. _____.. v. v. The evolution. New Series.. New York: Warner Books. S. Morgan. 24. 639. _____. _____. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Paleontologist: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 19. p. T. 1. v. 1907. Nash. S.. n. Zoogeographical relations of North Africa in the upper Eocene: Proceedings International Zoological Congress. 132. _____. El Niño: Unlocking the Secrets of the Master Weathermaker. _____. session VII. p. Asia and North America. p. Fossils from Egypt. 4. Adaptive radiations and classification of the Proboscidea: Proceedings National Academy of Science. L. and Schild. p. n. 1912. dividing it into two genera. C. 100. D. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Matthew. v. _____. Colonising Egypt. The American Museum expedition to the Fayûm desert: The Nation. v.. p. Report of the National Academy of Sciences for the Year 1907. _____. 151-153. 56. Egypt: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 81. 7 March 1908. 327332. deinotheres and mastodonts: Journal of Mammalogy. 6 p. Migrations and affinities of the fossil proboscideans of North and South America and Africa: American Naturalist. 84. v. A. The Age of Mammals in Europe. Washington: Government Printing Office. 1992. v. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. V. Scinde & Cutch: Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society. 1922. and Cooke. p. 631 p. Note. Badlands Mary. Science. Fayum depression. Hunting the ancestral elephant in the Fayum desert: discoveries of the recent African expedition of the American Museum of Natural History. A revision of Palaeomastodon. p. McKenna. 25. 1921. 263-266. 175-192. L. Mastodontoidea. p. 229-250. 1922. _____. in Tchudi. New Series. 1872-1941. _____. 6 p. 1976. Moeritherioidea. v. National Academy of Sciences. 2000. Wortman--A Biographical Sketch: Natural History. Schlosser on Fayûm Mammals: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. _____. New subfamily. 67 _____. 1059. 2. 14 leaves of plates ill. C. 1986. 1922. 5. New York: . and with descriptions of two new species: Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. I. 815-835. p. Egypt.. Contribution to the knowledge of fossil Hyracoidea of the Fayûm. Milk dentition of the hyracoid Saghatherium from the upper Eocene of Egypt. p. p. Tombs and Hieroglyphs: the story of Egyptology.. C. 1921. Proboscidea. Fifty-two years of research. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. 1-58. Bown. 1915.. 15.. 1976..—A revision of the genera of hyracoids from the Fayûm.n. M. _____. Evolution and geographic distribution of the Proboscidea: Moeritheres. Revision of Palaeomastodon and Moeritherium: American Museum Novitates. v. v. 740. n. also The NY Evening Post. 839-850. Olson. Orlebar. phylogeny and classification of the Proboscidea: American Museum Novitates. evolution. and Lucas. v. p. p. 1907.. V.. L.
1984.. Bown. and the Eo/Oligocene paenungulate Moeritherium: Mainzer Geowissenschaftliche Mitteilungen. Dawn Ape of the Fayum: Natural History. 1995-1998. The Genesis of British Egyptology.. 58-75. v. telephone and in person interviews (vlm/krm). Russell. 548-566: in Prothero. Egypt's Simian Spring: Natural History. 1996. T. Mammalia): Part 3.. California) Interviews-Apropos Communication: Beard. The early relatives of man: Scientific American. London: Blandford Press (Ann Savours. Richardson. correspondence (vlm). correspondence. E. 1-20.. and Bown. 1978. H. and when was it?: Geology. Ptolemaiida. 92.68 American Museum of Natural History.. Morgan: American financier. New York: Henry N. 1-105. Are great ocean depths permanent? Natural Science. Memphis Under the Ptolemies. New York: HarperPerennial. A. Stromer. p. 1968. 2002 (sgl/vlm). Tethys. 180-181.). Cronin. Molecular Biology and Evolution. Reitz. Germany) University of Uppsala.. p.. Prehistory of the Nile Valley... W. v. .. T. Teilhard de Chardin. John C. Evidence from milk casein genes that cetaceans are close relatives of hippopotamid artiodactyls. Shoshani. J. in person interview (vlm/krm). S. Diva.. Eighteen principles of adaptation in allomiometron and aristogenes: Palaeobiologica. Australia) Department of Vertebrate Paleontology. American Museum of Natural History. Geological Library (Uppsala.. Simpson. M... 377 p. various (vlm). R. L. DC) Rutland Free Library (Rutland. Mammalian Paleofaunas of the World. J.. p. p. M. G.. L. III. West. J. The Meaning of Fossils: Episodes in the History of Paleontology (2nd ed. [ ]. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. AL: University of Alabama Press. Egypt.. _____. 1965. Simons. 1987. Geologie und Paläontologie.. R. Morgan. An anthropoid frontal bone from the Fayum Oligocene of Egypt: The oldest skull fragment of a higher primate: American Museum Novitates. Olson. A. E. Attending Marvels. 1978.. B. R. G. telephone interview (vlm).. D. Wendorf. E. 2000. 1994. 180-187. Fleagle. The Lemur’s Legacy. 273. K. T. E. and Arctander. Thetis. _____. Fayum Province. 802 p. v. Wortham. 1997 and 1999. S. where. Wilson. E. Christopher. 1995.. Supplemental bibliography: Berta. eds. II. Rexner. Tuscaloosa. 2002. and Harris. 76. the Oligocene mastodont genera Palaeomastodon. n. and Simons. 2. E. E. Richard Markgraf† und seine Bedeutung für die Erforschung der Wirbeltierpaläontologie Ägyptens: Centralblblatt für Mineralogie. p. 58-59. Germany) National Archives (Washington. A. M. 432 p. and Tassy. 1993. p. Abrams. 62. J. Elephantoidea: New York. D. USA. The EoceneOligocene transition in North Africa. correspondence (vlm). New York: Time. 1916. Holroyd. Mark A. The earliest proboscideans: General plan. Institutional Archives: Agate National Fossil Monument (Agate. 18-20. _____. Strouse. J. a new order of Mammalia--with description of the cranium of Ptolemaia grangeri: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. E. Thompson. D. L. _____. E. L.. 1976. J. 1993. 1989. 1995-1999. American Museum of Natural History (New York City) Indian Institute of Geomagnetism (Maharashtra. p. 2001-2002. 273-302. Sandweiss. 1966. D. R. n. L. The Granger Papers Project). 6. taxonomy. London: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. M. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. Concession to the Improbable. 1995. 1996. p.. J. _____. Proboscidea. Germany) The Granger Papers Project (Durham. 6. 1992. 1967.. 17. Savage. The Geology of Egypt. April. Said. v. 1976. Thethys. 16 p. Pound. 1967. New York: Tarcher/Putnam. correspondence (vlm). Eocene-Oligocene Climatic and Biotic Evolution.. 1995. 2441. n. Phiomia. 1984. Simons. An Agenda for Antiguity. Science. Gismann .. Savage. 1967. R. evolution. and palaeoecology. C. 217. and Maasch. Rudwick. M. Science. New Haven: Yale University Press. correspondence (vlm). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. eds.. Elwyn L. 1996. H. Rollins.. July. p. 1941. 287 (translated from the German by A. 2001.. Rasmussen. Rose.. n. New York: Academic Press. or Thetys? What. 1991. Oxford: Oxford University Press. n. eds... P. American Museum of Natural History: 125 years of Expedition and Discovery.. Suess. p. Stout. E. Finch. M... _____. 1531-1533. 2835. Inc. and Schild.. p. various (vlm/krm). 263. 96. Walter Granger. 1962.. 1995-1999. The Proboscidea. p. 1976. 1938. What is a whale? Science. Court. Bown. 1964.. ed. various (vlm/krm). Rasmussen. p. and Russell. New Haven: Yale University Press. R.. in Shoshani. p. Donald E. N. New Hampshire) Universität Tübingen (Tübingen. Diary of the Discovery Expedition to the Antarctic Regions 1901-1904.. J. L. Mylan. F. T. 1995 and 1996..000 BP onset of El Niño. D. various (vlm/krm).. T. J. New York: Coward-McCann. Mehta. Russell. Vermont) Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde (Stuttgart.copy. Hayashi. J. Simons. 1893. H. 805-1675 p. Kenneth D. Tozer. 1959. Egypt: Peabody Museum Bulletin 28. R. L. Thomas M. A monograph of the discovery. 1549-1906. 1965. A. Amsterdam: Elsevier. G. Gerhard.. Pat.. R. v. and Berggren. v. 114. Maier. 1983. Letters from Egypt: 1905-1908. D. and Simons. Fossil Birds from the Oligocene Jebel Qatrani Formation. migration and extinction of the mastodonts and elephants of the world. The structure of the mastodont molar (Proboscidea. p. Simons. 1988. 954-963. E. Sweden) University of California. 882-884. 1996. 338339. _____. D. _____. Fayum Province. 13. and Wood. P.. 1995. Princeton: Princeton University Press.. Waterfield. New York: Herder and Herder. 209-219. 6. Early Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas. The Earliest Apes: Scientific American. v.. and Klein. E. B. K. Scott of the Antarctic. R. p. A.. Museum of Paleontology (Berkeley. E. J. New York: Walker and Company. T. Norell.. _____. v. Stegodontoidea. 1971. various (vlm). Rainger. G. p. Egypt: Smithsonian Contributions. Discoverers of the Lost World. Ted.). Nebraska) Australian Science and Technology Heritage Centre (Melbourne. 1995. Tobien. 1942. Inc. India) Institut und Museum Geologie und Paläontologie (Tübingen. Gatesy. Geoarchaeological evidence from Peru for a 5.. 32693273. J. P. Helen. D.
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A few days later the party moved just above the Temple and the Upper Eocene bench where the eastern extension of the fossiliferous area was examined. and on May 30th Tamia was reached. A small bone pit about two miles west of camp. The first camp was made at Qasr-elSagha. was employed for six weeks. stopping for five days at Ferrar Butte. Quarantine was reached on the evening of July 3rd. Later. "Cedric" on January 5th. Beadnell and by the British Museum. one day. Prospecting for individual surface specimens and for new quarry deposits was undertaken at once by Daoud and later on by Granger and Olsen. two days previously. north of Birket-el-Qurun where Daoud had. under the superintendence of Daoud Mohammed of Helouan. Quibell. Messrs. secure an outfit there. water tanks. Through the generosity of President Jesup this expedition was made possible. loaning tents. Cairo was reached the same day. Granger and a force of five men for several days during the middle of the month. termed "Quarry C" was worked by Mr. and from there the party moved westward to the Alexandria trail. an independent collector residing in Cairo. February 5th. men who had been employed there previously in excavation work by Mr. were reopened and developed sufficiently to show that they were exhausted. chiefly by Mr. Accounts with the Survey Department were adjusted. May 23rd. working from his own camp and covering the area from the Easterly Bone Pits to the Alexandria Trail. It was thought also that careful prospecting would bring to light new forms. the return eastward was begun. leaving the Mena House on the morning of January 31st. Shortly after Professor Osborn's departure. for the weather was by this time excessively hot. after several days at this camp. a cable-gram was received from Professor Osborn instructing the party to remain in the desert for further work. the camels sent to Giza. while Mr. awaiting the train. Richard Markgraf. Ferrar departed from the desert. one of Mr. Mr. it was hoped. of course. Except for short periods they were worked continuously by the American Museum party from the time of its arrival until late in April.. were now repacked. and Naples. The following day work was begun on one of these pits. would. near Luxor. The camp equipage and provisions were forwarded to Tamia by rail. British Consular agent. The Survey Department placed its services at the disposal of the party.S. established the permanent working camp. Ferrar of the Survey Department field staff accompanied the party to the Fayûm and remained about two weeks. Lyons. Daoud and the cook were retained. Fallaheen workmen to the number twenty. With this additional labor the second quarry (B) was reopened under Olsen's superintendence. It was thought best not to recall the caravan. Granger and Olsen departed from New York on the S. Itinerary. as well as the two Tamia men. who had kindly arranged for their transfer to the bone pits. Two days later.S. Transshipping at Naples (S. and go directly to the fossil bearing Eocene deposits in the north of the Fayûm depression. Richard Markgraf. with seven native assistants. cooking outfits. were employed. the camels and outfit going by trail. Shiekh Talba with five or six fellaheen conducted the camel train. Granger and Olsen accompanied Professor Osborn's personal caravan. These bone pits were discovered and originally worked by Mr. The chief object of the expedition was. Later a camp was made at the old bone pits. The expedition was under the leadership of Professor Henry F. Andrews. Mr. scattered over the fossil field. Hartley T. was employed at about this time through arrangements made with Professor Osborn. facilitate the work of the party. the force of workmen was reduced by the dismissal of the three Helouan men for careless work. Plan of Expedition. during which time the Moeritherium quarry was examined. Early in April with the quarries pretty well worked out eight more of the Quft men returned to their homes. 1907 By Walter Granger. Olsen. Gibraltar. Egypt. Six camels were engaged for this second trip. On the 8th twelve natives arrived in camp from Sakkarah. "Princess Irene"). Professor Osborn and Messrs. two were returned immediately upon the arrival of the party in the Fayûm and two more were returned the latter part of March. the old ones having been damaged by storms. Granger took charge of the work in the field upon Professor Osborn's departure from the desert. one other man returning with him as care taker. rendering much assistance in the organization of the camp and the management of natives. particularly the Arsinoitherium and the proboscideans Moeritherium and Palaeomastodon. Osborn. and after a few days of sight-seeing Granger and Olsen left Egypt on June 15th. The material already collected was turned over to the American Museum party. here to explore thoroughly the zone from which the extensive collections have been obtained by the Egyptian Survey Department through Mr. and he continued prospecting until March 3lst. and returned to Cairo. Beadnell and later were further developed by Dr. leaving Mr. traveling southward through the Pyramid field and entering the Fayûm from the Lisht Pyramid on February 3rd. G. "Bayern"). Qasr-el-Sagha was the next stopping place. Director General of the Survey Department. Quibell's men was taken seriously ill and was obliged to return to his home at Quft. who had proved especially good workmen. Andrews. On April 24th Tamia was reached. having been shipped in from the desert at intervals. which were accumulated at the Geological Museum. about the western limit of the fossil area. together with Reis Daoud and the cook remained with the outfit until camp was broken late in April. and the following day Granger and Olsen returned to Cairo. through Dr. Walter Granger and George Olsen of the department staff. who chose as assistants. leaving eight during April. Granger was recuperating in the hospital from a slight illness. in charge of natives under Daoud. by way of Port Said (S. and Granger and Olsen returned to Cairo May 30th. Twelve camels were hired and ordered to proceed to Tamia in the Fayûm. and also to obtain hot weather clothing. the caravan came to the Easterly Bone Pits. to secure a collection of these extremely interesting forms. via Azores. . The next five days were consumed in preparation. While at Tamia.142 APPENDIX B Report on the Expedition To The Fayûm. The plans for the trip as mapped out by Professor Osborn were for the party to proceed from New York to Cairo. On April 2lst camp was moved from the bone pits to Qasr-el-Sagha where a stay of three or four days was made in order to prospect the Middle Eocene exposures there. the nearest railway point to the fossil fields. The fossils. Granger in charge. Of the twelve camels originally sent out from Giza. The two remaining Quft men and the two from Tamia. In Cairo four days were spent in securing the new outfit and rehiring the camel caravan. tools. and to Capt. and several other minor pits. who had entered the desert and was prospecting in the neighborhood independently. etc. Composition of the Party. S. and arranging for the employment of natives and camels. termed "Quarry A". Genoa. although with only a small force part of the time. Mr. in March. On February 18th Professor Osborn with his personal party and Mr. working separately from his own camp. H. especially of the smaller fauna. Letters of introduction to Lord Cromer. reaching Alexandria after an uneventful voyage on January 23rd. Mr. which had already started for Cairo but to return with the outfit and secure new tents.
The use of hot. Several of their number were hard workers and personally conscientious. where thousands of separate elements are sometimes found in small areas. and occasionally a few bunches of grass are to be seen. and always interfering with the quarry work by filling of the excavation with sand and by undermining exposed specimens. . of which about 25 are reptiles. but it is much affected by damp weather. the action which brought the quarry bones together serving to break up the skulls. Taken as a whole. the epiphyses are often detached from both limb bones and vertebrae. and with but very scanty vegetation. They were discharged at the end of two weeks. From the middle of March the weather began to grow warmer. The second group of twelve men.) Native labor is all that is procurable in Egypt. they were careless and inclined to shirk and not susceptible of training. thin carpenter's glue was made by Mr.) The entire northern portion of the Fayûm. coming out to camp one day. Upper Egypt. conscientious as to their day's work. Two of these men were selected by Granger and Olsen as special assistants. or really lenses. From the time of the arrival of the party in the desert on February 5th until its final departure. it is entirely practicable. with the nights rather too cool without artificial heat. Results. although in every case the finer skulls were found as isolated specimens. Fossils occur in white or golden sand local in gypsum deposits. and who evinced considerable understanding as to the occurrence of the fossils and the importance of care in uncovering them. The extremely crumbly nature of the bones made very careful work necessary. although where they occur in clay they are both soft and crushed and generally worthless. having apparently been brought together by water action. (Occurrence of fossils. is typical desert. with the usual surface pavement of smooth wind-polished pebbles. The American Museum party worked many of these but with only very moderate success. from the village of Quft. Because of long immersion in water. but nowhere and at no time is it sufficient for the permanent maintenance of camels or donkeys. In certain wadies a few low woody bushes grow. at which work they showed surprising skill. and adds to the difficulty of restoration work. Petrification has not taken place. Their previous training under Mr. Markgraf's method was after determining the location of one of these lenses to excavate a narrow trench to the center of it. Although some prospecting was done and a few specimens collected in the Middle Eocene (Qasr-el-Sagha) Beds by far the greater part of the time and energy of the party was expended on the Upper Eocene or FluvioMarine Beds. were two aged men from Tamia who had been several seasons at the bone pits under Beadnell and Andrews. and there are some advantages in this method. and a much shorter and narrower upper one. and were taught to prepare the fossils. The nights remained cool and damp. Except for the pest of house flies the most comfortable month for work was March. late in May. rendered very fair service in stripping. These pockets have been worked with success by Mr. (Native workmen. twentyfive miles distant. the weather conditions underwent great change. Once located. and by May the heat at midday was decidedly uncomfortable and work from eleven to three o'clock impracticable. Seldom could a bone be lifted from its bed without thorough hardening first. and collections of Formicidae and Coeloptera were made for Professor Wheeler and Mr.) Here vertebrate fossils were found to occur both as isolated bones or in "quarries" or "pits". which is strange in view of the fact that wood occurring with the bones was thoroughly silicified. (Condition of weather. more porous ends of bones often show effects of erosion. have undergone comparatively little chemical change. and it becomes necessary to bring water from the irrigation ditches in the vicinity of Tamia. a skull with associated lower jaws was collected and three or four small mammal vertebrae lying in series in one of the quarries were noted. rolling desert. coming usually at night. lying beyond the lake and comprising the fossil field. and the softer. Because of the feed and water the headquarters of the caravan were made at Tamia instead of at the desert camp. The first comprised three young men from Helouan who had been engaged at the pit previously under Beadnell.m. some twenty miles long by two or three in width. The only severe Khamsine wind occurred on April 19th when the violent sand-ladened wind from the south-west blew from eleven until six p. remaining over night. They were. Their work was very unsatisfactory. A small collection of invertebrate fossils was made from the Qasr-el-Sagha Beds. The occurrence often of small aggregations of well preserved bones in little saucer-shaped "pockets". the balance mammals. Markgraf. though. Beutenmüller. It was from such quarries that a large part of the material collected came. Markgraf of the American method of pasting bones. Three groups of fellaheen were employed. (Methods of Preservation. Twenty-seven cases containing the fossils collected by the expedition were shipped from Cairo. however. and except for the loss of animal matter. etc. The bones possess. Outcroppings of fossils are not often plainly visible. a method which had he used it in his previous collecting for German institutions would have saved several fine skulls from destruction in transportation. Markgraf. After the 1st of June the heat is so intense that it is difficult to secure natives to enter the desert or drivers to furnish camels. (Prospecting. it being necessary merely to scrape off the coating of pebbles and brush or dig away the loose sand.143 Work in detail. and the hottest days were often preceded by heavy fog and dew in the early morning. and returning the day following. The bones are found usually in the bottom of the pocket. and in clay. the chief difficulty with the natives was that they showed a strong disinclination to adopt any new methods or to accomplish any task unfamiliar to them.) The fossiliferous portions of the Fluvio-Marine Beds are presented in two benches: a very extensive lower one. The most efficient native workers. a specimen is readily developed. During February and part of March the days were for the most part comfortable. moreover. Several sandstorms were experienced. and on two occasions doing damage to the tents. if nothing was reached it was abandoned.. the penetration and hardening properties are good. to conduct exploration from December to June. From the large bone pits to Lake Qurun is eight miles. It was gratifying to note the adoption by Mr. The surface of these benches is barren. the saving quality of being usually uncrushed. especially during April.) For the hardening of bones gum Arabic was found to be next to useless. however. the surface pebbles helping to obscure and the wind action breaking up and grinding away the bone as fast as it is exposed. Quibell and other excavators along the Nile rendered them especially useful at this kind of work. which contain a much richer fauna. requiring no watching or urging. At its best it is none too good and at the worst is most exasperating. The number of specimens of vertebrates recorded in the field book approximate 500. (Preservation of fossils. The round trip was made by the camels in two days. with a temperature of 110˚. but the water there is undrinkable except for very thirsty animals. brown shellac being employed almost exclusively. who has obtained many fine skulls from them.) In point of preservation the bones are poor. Associated material was found to be extremely rare: only two instances of association were observed. It was observed that exposure of several weeks or months to the air tended to harden even the more inferior bones. waterless. of fossiliferous sand was noted.
and in addition a series of Kodak film negatives was made by Professor Osborn. and valuable assistance given in the organization of the caravan and working party of natives. lacking premaxillae and nasals Maxilla with good dentition Right half of skull Lower jaws " " (Qasr-el-Sagha beds) Palaeomastodon 13448 13449-51 13468-71 Skull. 3594. G. The party was treated with extreme courtesy by all members of the staff of the Department. illustrating chiefly the work in the quarries. and to Mr. 132. 7 MARCH 1908 The pages hereafter are reduced reproductions of the original (copy at The Granger Papers Project). v.144 About fifty 5 x 7 photographs illustrating the geology. 5089. F. and in adjusting serious difficulties which arose was most important. gratis. Price: Sixpence. by Inland Post. Every facility of the Department was extended to the party. acknowledgements are especially due. H. but to Dr. Geniohyus. Chief Chemist. together with good shells of three genera of turtles (5087. also jaws of ten genera of uncertain ordinal position. The thanks of the Fayûm Expedition are due particularly to Capt. Data was collected for a new geological section of the region north of Lake Qurun. V. APPENDIX C SUPPLEMENT. camping equipage was freely loaned. 7 March 1908. 132. Mr. whose kindly assistance and cooperation were invaluable. THE ILLUSTRATED LONDON NEWS. N. . A. (signed) Walter Granger skull of young individual (horns missing) " " adult. Acknowledgements. Below is a list of the more noteworthy fossils collected: Arsinoitherium No. Sixpence-Halfpenny.25 inches (this Bulletin is 8. and methods of collecting. arches and incisors missing Palates Lower jaws Many fragmentary jaws and a small number of skeletal parts. etc. The reptiles include good skulls of two species of Tomistoma (506667. W.. the construction and shipment of packing cases was attended to. * * * * * * Respectfully submitted. Ferrar of the field staff. topography. Lyons. Lucas. teeth and horns missing Palate with good dentition " " " " " " " " Fine pair of lower jaws Good lower jaws " " " Numerous fragmentary jaws and skeletal bones Moeritherium 13430 13431 13432 13437 13443 Skull. camping. skull nearly perfect 13237 " half of skull 13240-42 Lower jaws 13253-55 Pterodon. which is 11.5 x 16. the Museum was offered as headquarters. 3594. were taken. Hume. From the cover of The Illustrated London News. Mr. T. Ferrar's aid in accompanying the party to the desert and in arranging matters pertaining to the caravan and the workmen. 13506 13508 13512 13514 13515 13532 13553 13585 Creodonta 13236 Apterodon. and also for a map showing the location of all important finds of fossils made by the various parties. Charts showing the development of the two principal quarries "A" and "B" were prepared. Director General of the Survey Department of Egypt. 5092). Ancodon. 5078) and Crocodilus (5061). Megalohyrax. H. n. lower jaws Several jaws of undescribed Creodonts Among the smaller forms of mammals are numerous good jaws of Saghatherium.5 x 11 inches). the services of an experienced native was offered.
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