PHYS1413 Physics in a Nutshell Problem set 1 Due Date: 5:00 p.m.

, March 10, 2008

Answer all questions in this problem set. Please take g = 9.8 m/s2 in all numerical problems except Q17 and Q18. 1. A ship B is steaming on a straight course south-east at a uniform speed of 15 km/h. Another ship A, is a distance of 10 km due north of B and steams at a speed of 12 km/h. Find the course that A must steer in order to get as close to B as possible, and their minimum distance apart.

2.

A projectile is fired with speed

4 gh / 3 from the top of a cliff of height h, and strikes the sea at a

horizontal distance 2h from the gun. Find the two possible angles of elevation of the gun.

3.

A wedge of mass m lies on a smooth horizontal plane and a particle of mass m is in contact with a smooth inclined face of the wedge. The inclination of this face to the horizontal is 30o. The system is released from rest with the particle at a vertical height h above the horizontal plane. Find

(a) (b)

the acceleration of the wedge, the time taken by the particle to reach the horizontal plane. m

h m 30o

4.

With what force F must a man pull on a rope in order to support the platform on which he stands, if the weight of the man is W1 and that of the platform is W2? What is the maximum weight of platform that the man can support? Assume that all pulleys are massless and frictionless.

1

(a) the velocity of M is VM . Find the coefficient of restitution e. The particle M is given a velocity V along the table perpendicular to the string. Two particles each of mass m are connected by a light inextensible string and a particle of mass M is attached to the midpoint of the string. The system is at rest on a smooth horizontal table with the string just taut and in a straight line. If B is brought to rest after impact. A u 45 o B 6. Prove that. when the two end particles are about to collide. and the kinetic energy of A is unchanged. Find the velocities of A and B immediately the string becomes taut again.5. M + 2m V {2 M ( M + m)} . and B. A is projected with velocity u at 45o to AB. Spheres A and B are moving with initial velocities uA and uB respectively (see figure). Two particles A. M + 2m 1 2 (b) the speed of each of m is 2 . of equal mass are at rest on a smooth horizontal table. joined by a string which is just taut. uB 2m B uA m A 7.

ω A O α B a m P 3 . Angular velocity =ω 10. show that the system comes to instantaneous rest when m2 has fallen a distance a A m2 g a B 4am1 m2 . A smooth ring P of mass m can slide on the hoop. prove that cos α = g/ω 2a. A circular hoop rotates with uniform angular velocity ω about a vertical diameter AOB. Show that ω2 must be less than g/e and greater than g/(a+e). 2 4m12 − m2 m1 m1 9. where a is the radius of the hoop.8. An elastic string of natural length a is found to extend e when a small weight is attached to one end. By applying the principle of the conservation of energy. O being the center. Obtain also the reaction between the ring and the hoop. the other end being fixed. The system is released from rest with m2 at the middle point of AB. find the extension of the string and the inclination of the string to the vertical. If α be the angle of inclination of the radius OP to the vertical when the ring is in equilibrium with respect to the hoop. The weight is now made to describe a horizontal circle with angular velocity ω rad/s. A light inelastic string passes round small smooth pulleys A. B in the same horizontal line at a distance 2a apart. and carries masses m1 at each end and a mass m2 (< 2m1) at its middle point.

and the center of mass of the hemisphere is 3/8 its radius from the plane face. Given that the center of mass of a uniform hemisphere is located at 3 r from its plane surface. where r is the 8 radius of the hemisphere.11. 4 . find the height of the cone in terms of r. [Hint: The center of mass of the cone is 1/4 its height from the plane face. Hence. A uniform rod of mass 1. Your answer must be measured from the concentric center.0 m long. g 40o Pin (a) (b) What is the angular acceleration of the rod at the instant it is released? Use the principle of conservation of energy to determine the angular speed of the rod as it passes through the horizontal position. 2 12. The rod can pivot about a horizontal.] The solid can rest in equilibrium with . A uniform solid consist of a hemisphere of radius r and a right circular cone of base radius r fixed together so that their planes are coincident. Find the center of mass of a hollow hemisphere of inner radius b and outer radius a (without base and the curved surfaces are concentric). 13. show that a thin hollow hemisphere (without base) of radius r is located at r from the center of the curved surface. It is released from rest at an angle of 40o above the horizontal. frictionless pin through one end. r any point of the curved surface of the hemisphere in contact with a horizontal plane. If the solid can rest in equilibrium with any point of the curved surface of the hemisphere in contact with a horizontal plane.5 kg is 2.

The coefficient of static friction between the two blocks is 0. 15. The string does not slip on the pulley. each of mass M. and t. When the system is released. Two identical blocks. θ.0 kg and M = 10 kg) and a spring (k = 200 N/m) are arranged on a horizontal. are connected by a massless string over a pulley of radius R and rotational inertia I. I. frictionless surface as shown in figure. it is found that the pulley turns through an angle θ in time t and the acceleration of the blocks is constant. R. M. R.40. Two blocks (m = 1.14. What is the maximum possible amplitude of simple harmonic motion of the spring-blocks system if no slippage is to occur between the blocks. I T2 M T1 M (a) (b) (c) What is the angular acceleration of the pulley? What is the acceleration of the two blocks? What are the tensions in the upper and lower sections of the string? Express the answers in terms of M. it is not known whether there is friction between the table and the sliding block. the pulley’s axis is frictionless. g. m k M Frictionless 5 .

Useful data for question 17 and 18. m Suppose that the two springs in the figure have different spring constants k1 and k2. k m k (a) Show that the frequency of oscillation on the frictionless surface is f = (b) 1 2π 2k . what is the mechanical energy E of the ball in its orbit? What is the change ∆E in the ball’s mechanical energy? (c) End of Problem Set 1 6 . 18.16. and the astronaut is now feet “down” at the same orbital about the black hole.77 × 106 m from the center of Earth. What is its total mechanical energy? If the bowling ball is released into a circular orbit about Earth at an altitude h of 350 km. Show that the frequency f of oscillation of the block is then given by f 2 = f 12 + f 22 . please repeat part (a). (a) (b) What is the difference in the gravitational acceleration at her feet and at her head? If the Earth is now replaced by a black hole of mass Mh = 1. Two identical springs are attached to a block of mass m and to fixed supports as shown in figure.98 × 1024 kg The radius of Earth: 6.70 m floats feet “down” in an orbiting space shuttle at a distance r = 6.37 × 106 m 17.99 × 1031 kg.67 × 10−11 m3/kg⋅s2 The mass of Earth: 5. An astronaut whose height is 1.20 kg is placed on the surface of Earth at equator. where f1 and f2 are the frequencies at which the block oscillate if connected only to spring 1 or only to spring 2. Gravitational constant: 6. (a) (b) A bowling ball of mass m = 7.

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