Chapter 6: LEARNING

Learning - A relatively permanent change in behaviour brought about by experience. Classical Conditioning Classical Conditioning A type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response. also called Pavlovian or respondent conditioning. Neutral Stimulus – a stimulus that, before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest. Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) - Stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned. Unconditioned Response(UCR) – A response that is natural and needs no training. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) – A once neutral stimulus that have been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused only by the unconditioned stimulus. Conditioned Response (CR) – A response that, after conditioning, follows a previously natural stimulus . Applying Conditioning Principles to Human Behaviour: Studied by John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner. * Classical Conditioning may lead to development of phobias or can account to pleasant experiences. (ex: how people develop phobias or how people have particular fondness in a certain smell of a perfume ) Extinction- a basic phenomenon of learning that occurs when a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears. Spontaneous recovery- the re-emergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest with no further conditioning. Generalization and Discrimination

Stimulus generalization – the process that occurs when a conditioned response follows a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus; the more similar the two stimuli are, the more likely generalization is to occur. - when a person may expect a similar occurrence when faced with a comparable situation in the future because of a previous unpleasant experience. Stimulus Discrimination - The process that occurs if two stimuli are sufficiently distinct from one another that one evokes a conditioned response but the other does not; the ability to differentiate between stimuli. Challenging Basic Assumptions: John Garcia – found that some organisms, (like humans) were biologically prepared to quickly learn to avoid foods that smelled or tasted like something made them sick.

Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning A learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favourable or unfavourable consequences. is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behaviour. also called as instrumental conditioning. “operant” emphasizes the point : the organism operates on its environment to produce a desirable result. Edward L. Thorndike – observed the behavior of cats trying to escape from homemade puzzle boxes. |>> law of effect basically states that “responses that produce a satisfying effect in a particular situation become more likely to occur again in that situation, and responses that produce a discomforting effect become less likely to occur again in that situation.” Burrhus Frederic Skinner/B.F. Skinner (1904–1990) - formulated a more detailed analysis of operant conditioning based on reinforcement, punishment, and extinction.

|>> Skinner box - a chamber with a highly controlled environment that was used to study operant conditioning processes with laboratory animals. Reinforcement- the process by which a stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behaviour will be repeated. Reinforcer - any stimulus that increases the probability that a preceding behaviour will occur again. (ex. Bonuses, toys, money) Positive reinforcer - a stimulus added to the environment that brings about an increase in a preceding response. ( rewards ) Negative reinforcer - an unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increase in the probability that a preceding response will be repeated in the future. ( loud volume ) Punishment - a stimulus that decreases the probability that previous behaviour will occur again. Positive punishment – weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus. ( ex: spanking a child for misbehaving ) Negative punishment removal of something pleasant. ( ex: being grounded ) Schedules of reinforcement : - different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behaviour. Continuous reinforcement schedule - reinforcing of a behaviour every time it occurs Partial (or intermittent) reinforcement schedule - reinforcing o a behaviour some but not all of the time. Fixed ratio schedule - a schedule in which reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made. Variable-ratio schedule – a schedule by which reinforcement occurs after a varying number of responses rather than after a fixed number. Fixed-interval schedule - a schedule that provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed, making overall rates of response relatively low.

Variable-interval schedule - a schedule by which the time between reinforcements varies around some average rather than being fixed. Shaping - the process of teaching a complex behaviour by rewarding closer and closer approximations of the desired behaviour. - (ex: lions jumping through hoops, dolphins rescuing lost divers at sea) Biological Constraints / built-in limitations - acts to prevent or inhibit an organism from learning a behaviour. Behaviour modification - a formalized technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviours and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones. Cognitive Approaches to Learning: Cognitive learning theory - an approach to the study of learning that focuses on the thought processes that underlie learning. Latent learning - learning in which a new behaviour is acquired but is not demonstrated until some incentive is provided for displaying it. Observational learning- learning by observing/watching the behaviour of another person, or model.

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Chapter 7 : MEMORY

Memory - is the process by which we encode, store, and retrieve information. it is built on three basic processes– encoding, storage, and retrieval. Encoding- initial recording of information Storage- information saved for future use Retrieval- recovery of stored information Sensory Memory- the initial, momentary storage of information, lasting only as instant. • E.g. A momentary flash of lightning leaves a sensory visual memory , a fleeting but exact replica of the stimulus that fades rapidly. • Short-term Memory- memory that holds information for fifteen to twenty-five seconds. • Chunk- a meaningful grouping of stimuli that can be stored as a unit in short-term memory. - Chunk can be individual letters or numbers, permitting us to hold a seven- digit phone number in short term memory. (George Miller) - But a chunk also may consist of larger categories, such as words or other meaningful units. Rehearsal- the repetition of information that has entered short-term memory.

Working Memory- a set of temporary memory stores that actively manipulate and rehearse information  Three Distinct storage and Rehearsal Systems  Visual store  Verbal store  Episodic buffer

Long-term Memory - memory that stores information on a relatively permanent basis, although it may be difficult to retrieve. • Declarative Memory (factual information)- memory for factual information: names, faces, dates, and the like. E.g. George Washington was the first president of the United States • Procedural Memory - memory for skills and habits, such as riding a bike or hitting a baseball, sometimes referred to as non-declarative memory. E.g. Riding a Bicycle • Semantic Memory (general memory)- memory for general knowledge and facts about the world, as well as memory for the rules of logic that are used to deduce other facts. E.g. George Washington wore a wig • Episodic Memory (personal knowledge) - memory for events that occur in a particular time, place, or context. E.g. Remembering your visit to Washington’s home, Mount Vernon Semantic Networks - are mental representations of clusters of interconnected information.  RECALLING LONG-TERM MEMORIES Tip-of-the tongue phenomena – the inability to recall information that one realizes one knows- a result of the difficulty of retrieving information from long-term memory. Recall- memory task in which specific information must be retrieved. Recognition- memory task in which individuals are presented with a stimulus and asked whether they have been exposed to it in the past or to identify it from a list of alternatives. Levels of Processing Theory - the theory of memory that emphasizes the degree to which new material is mentally analyzed. Explicit Memory - intentional or conscious recollection of information Implicit Memory - memories of which people are not consciously aware, but which can affect subsequent performance and behavior

Priming - a phenomenon in which exposure to a word or concept called prime which later makes it easier to recall related information, even when there is no conscious memory of the word or concept. Flashbulb Memories - are memories centered on a specific, important, or surprising event that are so vivid it is as if they represented a snapshot of the event. Source Amnesia - occurs when an individual has a memory for some material but cannot recall where he or she encountered it before. Constructive Processes - processes in which memories are influenced by the meaning we give to events. Schemas - organized bodies of information stored in memory that bias the way new information is interpreted, stored, and recalled. Autobiographical Memories - are our recollections of circumstances and episodes from our own lives. - encompass the episodic memories we hold about ourselves.  FORGETTING: WHEN MEMORY FAILS Decay- the loss of information in memory through its nonuse. Memory trace- a physical change in the brain that occurs when new material is learned. Interference- the phenomenon by which information in memory disrupts the recall of other information. Cue-dependent forgetting- forgetting that occurs when there are insufficient retrieval cues to rekindle information that is in memory. Proactive interference- interference which information learned earlier disrupts the recall of newer material. Retroactive interference- interference in which there is difficulty in the recall of information learned earlier because of later exposure to different material

Alzheimer’s disease- illness characterized in part by severe memory problems.

Amnesia- memory loss that occurs without other mental difficulties.  Retrograde amnesia- amnesia in which memory is lost for occurrences prior to a certain event.  Anterograde amnesia- amnesia in which memory is lost for events that follow an injury.  Korsakoff’s syndrome- disease that afflicts long-term alcohoholics, leaving some abilities intact, but including hallucinations and a tendency to repeat the same story.

Chapter 8 : EMOTIONS
EMOTIONS - Feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior.  FUNCTIONS OF EMOTIONS : • Preparing us for action : Emotions act as a link between events in our environment.

Example: If we saw an angry dog charging toward us, the sympathetic division will prepare us for emergency action, which presumably would get us moving out of the dog’s way quickly. • Sharing our future behavior : Emotions promote learning that will help us make appropriate responses in the future.

Example: When we experience something unpleasant-such as a threatening dogs-teaches us to avoid similar circumstances in the future. • Helping us interact more effectively with others : We often communicate the emotions we experience through our verbal and nonverbal behaviors, making our emotions obvious to observers.

 EXPLANATIONS FOR EMOTIONS: • James-Lange Theory : Do gut reactions equal emotions?

The belief that emotional experience is a relation to bodily events occurring as a result of an external situation. William James & Carl Lange - first researchers to explore the nature of emotions. • Cannon-Bard Theory : Physiological reactions as the result of emotions


The belief that physiological arousal and emotional experience are produced simultaneously by the same nerve stimulus. Walter Cannon & Philip Bard • Schachter-Singer Theory : Emotions as labels


This belief that emotions are determined jointly by a non-specific kind of physiological arousal and its interpretation based on environmental cues. Schachter and Singer

Facial-affect program : Activation of a set of nerve impulses that make the face display the appropriate expression. Six primary emotions: • • • • • • Happiness Anger Sadness Surprise Disgust Fear

Display rules : Guidelines that govern the appropriateness of showing emotion nonverbally Facial-feedback hypothesis : The hypothesis that facial express one not only reflect emotional experience but also help determine how people experience and label emotions.

Polygraph or “lie detector”, is an instrument used to measure physiological responses associated with answers to questions.

Intelligence - The capacity to understand the world, think rationally, and use resources effectively when faced with challenges. g or g-factor - The single, general factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intelligence in some early theories of intelligence. Fluid intelligence - Intelligence that reflects information-processing capabilities, reasoning, and memory. Crystallized intelligence - The accumulation of information, skills, and strategies that are learned through experience and can be applied in problem-solving situations.

 Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences: 1. Musical intelligence – skills in tasks involving music. 2. Bodily kinesthetic intelligence – skills in using the whole body or various portions of it in the solution of problems or in the construction of products or displays, exemplified by dancers, athletes, actors, and surgeons. 3. Logical-mathematical intelligence – skills in problem solving and scientific thinking. 4. Linguistic intelligence – skills involved in the production and use of language. 5. Spatial intelligence – skills involving spatial configurations, such as those used by artists and architects. 6. Interpersonal intelligence – skills in interacting with others, such as sensitivity to the moods, temperaments, motivations, and intentions of others. 7. Intrapersonal intelligence - knowledge of the internal aspects of oneself, access to one’s own feelings and emotions. 8. Naturalist intelligence – ability to identify and classify patterns in nature.     Practical intelligence… Emotional intelligence… Moral intelligence… Spiritual intelligence…

Intelligence tests - Tests devised to quantify a person’s level of intelligence. Alfred Binet - A French psychologist who developed the first real intelligence tests. Mental age - The average age of individuals who achieve a particular level of performance on a test. Intelligence quotient (IQ) - A score that takes into account an individual’s mental and chronological ages. Achievement test - A test designed to determine a person’s level of knowledge in a given subject area.

Aptitude test - A test designed to predict a person’s ability in a particular area or line of work. Reliability - The property by which tests measure consistently what they are trying to measure. Validity - The property by which tests actually measure what they are supposed to measure. Norms - Standards of test performance that permit the comparison of one person’s score on a test with the scores of other individuals who have taken the same test.

Chapter 10 : MOTIVATION
Motivation – factors that direct and energize the behavior of humans and other organisms Instincts – inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learned  Motivational Approaches :

Drive-Reduction Approach – Satisfying our Needs – theories suggesting that a lack of a basic biological requirement such as water produces a drive to obtain that requirement (in this case, the thirst drive)

Drive – motivational tension, or arousal, that energizes behavior to fulfill a need Homeostasis – the body’s tendency to maintain a steady internal state • Arousal Approach – Beyond Drive Reduction – the belief that we try to maintain certain levels of stimulation and activity, increasing or reducing them as necessary Incentive Approach – Motivation’s Pull – theories suggesting that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentives Cognitive Approach – The Thoughts Behind Motivation – theories suggesting that motivation is a product of people’s thoughts and expectations – their cognitions  Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Motivational Needs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Physiological – food, water, sex, sleeping, breathing, excretion Safety – security of: body, employment, resources, family, health Love/Belonging – friendship, family, sexual intimacy Esteem – self-esteem, confidence, achievement, respect of others Self-actualization – morality, creativity, spontaneity, acceptance of facts  Application of Different Motivational Approaches Obesity – body weight that is more than 20 percent above the average for a person of a particular height  Biological Factors in the Regulation of Hunger Weight set point – the particular level of weight that the body strives to maintain Metabolism – the rate at which food is converted to energy and expended by the body  Eating Disorders

Anorexia nervosa – a severe eating disorder in which people may refuse to eat while denying their Behavior and appearance – which can become skeletonlike – are unusual

Bulimia – a disorder in which a person binges in incredibly large quantities of food and later may attempt to purge the food through vomiting or the use of laxatives  The Need for Achievement:Striving for Success Need for achievement – a stable, learned characteristic in which a person obtains a satisfaction by striving for and attaining a level of excellence Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) – used to measure a person’s need for achievement  The need for affiliation:Striving for Friendship The need for affiliation – an interest in establishing and maintaining relationships with other people  The Need for Power:Striving for Impact on Others Need for power – a tendency to seek impact, control or influence over others, and to be seen as a powerful individual

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