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Published by Aloke Banerjee
gradually varied flow examples
gradually varied flow examples

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# Hydraulics

Prof. B.S. Murty

23.4 Classification of Gradually Varied Flow Profiles
It is important to systematically classify the water surface profiles in a channel before computation of flow profiles is carried out. Such classification helps to get an overall understanding of how the flow depth varies in a channel. It also helps to detect any mistakes made in the flow computation. It may be recalled here that
F2 = αQ 2 T gA 3

( 23.9 )

where F = Froude number. Substitution of Equations (23.8) and (23.9) in Equation (23.7) leads to

dy = dx

S0 -

n 2Q2 A 2 R 4/3 1 − F2

( 23.10 )

For a specified value of Q, both F and Sf are functions of the depth, y. In fact, both F and Sf will decrease as y increases. Recalling the definitions for the normal depth, y n , and the critical depth, y c , the following inequalities can be stated
Sf > S0 Sf < S0 F>1 F<1 when when when when y < yn y > yn y < yc y > yc

( 23.11)

( 23.12 )

A gradually varied flow profile is classified based on the channel slope, and the magnitude of flow depth, y in relation to y n and y c . The channel slope is classified based on the relative magnitudes of the normal depth, y n and the critical depth, y c . • • • • • y n > yc : yn < yc : yn = yc : S0 =0 S0 <0 : : "Mild slope" (M) "Steep slope" (S) "Critical slope" (C) "Horizontal slope" (H) "Adverse slope" (A)

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

horizontal. For example. respectively.1 2 Yc Yn 3 NDL CDL Bed (a) Mild Channel 1 Yc Yn 2 3 CDL NDL Bed (b) Steep Channel NDL: Normal depth line CDL: Critical depth line Figure 23. C. H and A profiles.2 shows these zones for a mild and a steep channel. steep. M stands for a mild channel and 1 stands for zone-1. y c . y is greater than the critical depth. S.Hydraulics Prof. Flow profiles associated with mild. and adverse slopes are designated as M. it is designated as M1 profile. Flow profiles are finally classified based on (i) the channel slope and (ii) the zone in which they occur. critical. B. The space between the CDL and the NDL is designated as zone-2. Slope is termed as "unsustainable" when S0 ≤ 0 since uniform flow conditions can never occur in such a channel.S. Here. The space above the channel bed can be divided into three zones depending upon the inequality defined by equations (23.2: Profile Classification The space above both the CDL and the NDL is designated as zone-1.12). Murty It may be noted here that slope is termed as "sustainable" slope when S0 > 0 because flow under uniform conditions can occur for such a channel. The space between the channel bed and CDL/NDL (whichever is lower) is designated as zone-3.11) and (23. It may be noted that an M1 profile indicates a subcritical flow since flow depth.3). if the water surface lies in zone-1 in a channel with mild slope (Figure 23. Zone . Figure 23. Indian Institute of Technology Madras .

an S2 profile (Figure 23.4: S2 Profile Table 23. y is lower than y c . CDL S2 Water Surface NDL Bed Figure 23.e.3 None A2 A3 None Horizontal S0 = 0 H2 H3 M1 Mild 0<S0<Sc = 0 M2 M3 Critical S0 = Sc > 0 C1 C2 y > yc y < yc y > yn > yc yn > y > yc yn > yc> y y > yc = yn Subcritical Supercritical Subcritical Subcritical Supercritical Subcritical uniform Indian Institute of Technology Madras Relative position of y Type of Flow y > yc y < yc Subcritical Supercritical . a channel slope is described as critical slope when critical conditions occur for uniform flow i.4) indicates the water surface lies in zone-2 in a steep channel. Murty M1 Water Surface NDL CDL Bed Figure 23.2 zone .1 zone .S. In this table.3: M1 Profile Similarly. Table 23.Hydraulics Prof. when y n = yc .1 presents types of flow profiles in prismatic channels. It may be noted that a S2 profile indicates a supercritical flow since flow depth.1: Types of Flow Profiles (Sc: Critical Slope) Slope Adverse S0 = 0 Profile Designation zone . B.

flow is subcritical. y → yc . y > y n . • → ∞. denominator is positive. flow is uniform.5 Variation of Flow Depth Qualitative observations about various types of water surface profiles can be made and the profile can be sketched without performing any computations. The following analysis helps to know (i) whether the depth increases or decreases with distance. numerator approaches zero. it cannot be assumed that accelerations in the vertical direction are negligible. This is achieved by considering the signs of the numerator and the denominator in Equation (23. This means that the theory of gradually varied flow should breakdown in such a situation because pressure is no Indian Institute of Technology Madras . denominator tends to zero. consider the following general points: • • • • • • y > y c . numerator is zero. it is assumed that the water surface profile approaches the CDL at a very steep slope. and (ii) how the profile approaches the upstream and downstream limits. numerator is positive.10). denominator is negative. y < yc .Hydraulics Prof. F>1 . It may be noted that when the water surface slope is very steep. Flow tends to critical conditions. As dy dx As dy dx y → y n (y tends to y n ). F → 1. y = y n . Murty y = yc = yn C3 S1 Steep S0 > Sc > 0 S2 S3 yc = yn > y y > yc> yn yc > y > yn yc > yn > y critical Supercritical Subcritical Supercritical Supercritical 23. Sf → S0 . the surface profile appraches normal depth asymptotically. → 0. Therefore. B. Sf < S0 . First. F<1 . Sf → S0 . y < y n . Sf = S0 .S. numerator is negative. flow is supercritical. Sf > S0 . It is not possible to have a vertical water-surface profile. water surface profile approaches the critical depth vertically.

Therefore. In other words. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . B. as y keeps increasing dy tends to S0 and the water surface becomes horizontal.5.10) can be gy3 where q = flow rate per unit width. Thus equation (23. depth becomes very large. as y approaches the normal depth. For a wide channel. y>y n >yc .Hydraulics Prof. For example. It can be seen from the above equation that dy →∞ dx as y → 0 . y n . Water surface profile becomes horizontal as flow dx q2 . consider an M1 profile. Sf → 0. The sketch of an M1 profile is shown in Figure 23. hydraulic mean radius R ≈ h and F2 = simplified to 3 10/3 2 2 dy gy ( S0 y -q n ) = dx y10/3 ( gy3 -q 2 ) dy → S0 .10) is not valid whenever flow depth is close to the critical depth. Equation (23. For an M1 profile. Murty longer hydrostatic in those regions. F → 0. water surface profile tends to become vertical as the flow depth tends to zero. The qualitative characteristic of any type of water-surface profile may be studied using the points discussed earlier. y > yc implies that F<1 and y > y n implies that Sf < S0 . it approaches asymptotically.S. As y → ∞. On the downstream side. On the dx upstream side. dy S0 -Sf + = = =+ + dx 1-F2 This means that flow depth increases with distance x.

Consider an S2 profile. The sketch of an M2 profile is shown in Figure 23. On the downstream side.6: Sketch of an M2 profile Now. Murty ApproachesNDL asymptotically becomes horizontal Water Surface NDL CDL Bed Figure 23. as y increases toward y C . dy S0 -Sf + Ve = = = − Ve −Ve dx 1-F2 This means that flow depth decreases with distance x. Indian Institute of Technology Madras . as the flow depth decreases and approaches the CDL. it approaches vertically. y > y n implies that Sf < S0 . On the other hand. it approaches CDL almost vertically. consider an M2 profile. Water Surface NDL CDL Bed Figure 23. y c > y > y n . y < yc implies that F>1 and the denominator is negative. On the upstream side as the depth increases and approaches the normal depth. The sketch of an S2 profile is shown in Figure 23. In an S2 profile.S. On the upstream side. y > yc implies that F<1 and the denominator is positive.7. as y decreases towards y n it approaches NDL asymptotically. it approaches asymptotically.5: Sketch of an M1 profile x Similarly.Hydraulics Prof. On the downstream side. y n >y>yc . Therefore. Therefore. y<y n implies that Sf > S0 . dy S0 -Sf − Ve = = = − Ve + Ve dx 1-F2 This means that flow depth decreases with distance x. B. In an M2 profile.6.

Hydraulics Prof. other water surface profiles can be sketched. The profiles are shown in dashed lines as they approach the CDL and the channel bed to indicate that gradually varied flow assumption is not valid in those regions. B. Murty Water Surface CDL NDL Bed Figure 23.7: Sketch of an S2 profile Proceeding in a similar manner. MILD Zone -1 NDL CDL M1 M2 CRITICAL NDL / CDL C1 C2 STEEP CDL NDL S1 S2 S3 NDL C3 M3 Zone -2 NDL CDL Zone -3 NDL CDL Indian Institute of Technology Madras .S. These sketches are shown in Figure 23.8.

B.8: Water Surface Profiles Indian Institute of Technology Madras .Hydraulics Prof. Murty HORIZONTAL CDL CDL NONE ADVERSE CDL Bed NONE A2 H2 H3 A3 Figure 23.S.

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