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NOTE: Although care was taken in choosing and presenting the data in this guide, AWS cannot guarantee that it is error free. Further, this guide is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of the topic and therefore may not include all available information, including with respect to safety and health issues. By publishing this guide, AWS does not insure anyone using the information it contains against any liability or injury to property or persons arising from that use.
Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

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© 2004 by American Welding Society. All rights reserved Printed in the United States of America

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Table of Contents
Basic Safety Precautions ...........................................4 Introduction ...............................................................6 Nomenclature of Groove Joint Details......................7 Legend for Groove Details ..................................7 Legend for AWS Joint Designations ...................8 Square-groove weld (1) Butt joint (B), Corner joint (C) ..........................10 Butt joint (B) ......................................................11 T-joint (T), Corner joint (C) ..............................12 Single-V-groove weld (2) Butt joint (B) ......................................................13 Butt joint (B) ......................................................14 Corner joint (C)..................................................15 Double-V-groove weld (3) Butt joint (B) ......................................................16 Butt joint (B) ......................................................17 Single-U-groove weld (4) Copyright American Welding Society Butt joint ......................................................18 Provided by IHS under (B) license with AWS
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Single-bevel-groove weld (4) T-joint (T), Corner joint (C) .............................. 19 Butt joint (B) ..................................................... 20 Double-bevel-groove weld (5) T-joint (T), Corner joint (C) .............................. 21 Butt joint (B) ..................................................... 22 Butt joint (B), T-joint (T), Corner joint (C) ...... 23 Single-U-groove weld (6) Butt joint (B), Corner joint (C).......................... 24 Double-U-groove weld (7) Butt joint (B) ..................................................... 25 Single-J-groove weld (8) Butt joint (B) ..................................................... 26 T-joint (T), Corner joint (C) .............................. 27 Double-J-groove weld (8) Butt joint (B) ..................................................... 28 T-joint (T), Corner joint (C) .............................. 29 Metric Conversion Table ........................................ 30 Other Publications Available from AWS ............... 31
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No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS

and allied processes.`-`-`. improper grounding. Electric shock can kill. Live electrical parts should not be touched. All electrical equipment and the workpiece should be grounded. Pant legs should be worn over the outside of high-top shoes. Helmets or hand shields that provide protection for the face. Workers should wear protective clothing made of fire-resistant material. it can be avoided. cutting. and a head covering to protect the head should be used. However. The workpiece should not be mistaken for a ground connection.`. Pant cuffs. sparks.. It is used only to complete the welding circuit. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --```.`. or other places on clothing that can catch and retain molten metal or sparks should not be worn. slag. and hot work surfaces are produced by welding. and ears. In addition.Basic Safety Precautions Electrical Hazards. Faulty installation. High-top shoes or leather leggings and fire-resistant gloves should be worn. Molten metal. The workpiece lead is not a ground lead. neck. appropriate eye protection should be used. 4 Not for Resale Burn Protection.. open pockets. and incorrect operation and maintenance of electrical equipment are all sources of danger. The manufacturer’s instructions and recommended safe practices should be read and understood. A separate connection is required to ground the workpiece. These can cause burns if precautionary measures are not used.`.`--- ...

lead. manganese. Radiation. zinc. Cutting.`.`.” and “The Independent Shop’s Guide to Welding Safety and Health. Avoid breathing the air in the fume plume directly above the arc. brass. AWS also recommends a personal copy of “Arc Welding Safely. --```.” Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 5 . Make sure that gas cylinders are chained to a wall or other structural support. chromium.. cadmium.. or bronze... Do not weld in a confined area without a ventilation system. cutting. Shield others from light radiation from your welding operation. Always wear protective clothing and eye protection to protect the skin and eyes from radiation.`--- Compressed Gas Cylinders. Do not weld on piping or containers that have held hazardous materials unless the containers have been inerted properly.`.Fumes and Gases. and Allied Processes. or light radiation. infrared. Many welding.” “Safety in Welding. Keep caps on cylinders when not in use. and allied processes produce fumes and gases which may be harmful to health. Use point-of-welding fume removal when welding galvanized steel.” “Fire Safety in Welding and Cutting. Arc welding may produce ultraviolet.`-`-`.

the appropriate welding specifications for the specific material should be consulted.`-`-`.1M:2004..`. These joint details specifically apply to welded joints made in low carbon construction steels.. Submerged arc welding (SAW) is applicable for diameters greater than 24 in. The joint details conform to the design and dimensions for Prequalified Joint Details in AWS D1.Introduction This pocket handbook consists of selected welded joint details applicable to the welding of plate and shapes for structural applications. Structural Welding Code—Steel. The joint details shown in this pocket handbook are applicable for designing joints that are to be used in making complete joint penetration welds in plate and shapes.1M:2004 (or later edition) for joint dimensional tolerances that are permissible and for notes concerning application of the specific joint detail..`.. --```.`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 6 Not for Resale . (610 mm). Joints to be used for tubular connections should have a groove angle of not less than 60°.`. Several of the joint details in this pocket handbook are applicable for welding joints in tubular products.1/D1. The user should consult AWS D1. When applying the joint details in this pocket handbook to materials other than low carbon construction steels. Several of these details may be applicable for welding alloy steels as well as structural aluminum.1/D1.

Side 2 T = Base Metal Thickness α = Groove Angle (minimum) β = Bevel Angle (maximum) f = Root Face (maximum) Additional..`..`--- α α β Figure 1—Example of Details for Illustrative Purpose Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 7 .`-`-`.`..`. Side 1 S2 = Depth of Groove..Nomenclature of Groove Joint Details Legend for Groove Details Shown: R = Root Opening (maximum) S1 = Depth of Groove. But Not Illustrated: r = Groove radius (minimum) s = Spacer strip --```.

Legend for AWS Joint Designations Symbols for joint types (B) – butt joint (C) – corner joint (WP) – Welding Positions Permitted (T) – T-joint (BC) – butt or corner joint (GS) – FCAW Gas Shielding Req’d.`. (TC) – T..or corner joint (BTC) – butt..`. T-.. or corner joint (Desig.`--- (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) – – – – – single-U-groove double-U-groove single-J-groove double-J-groove flare bevel groove .`-`-`.`.) – AWS Joint Designation Symbols for base metal thickness L – limited thickness Symbols for weld types (1) – square groove (2) – single-V-groove (3) – double-V-groove (4) – single-bevel-groove (5) – double-bevel-groove U – unlimited thickness Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 8 Not for Resale --```..

. are used to differentiate between joints that would otherwise have the same joint designation. a. c.. if not shielded metal arc S – submerged arc welding G – gas metal arc welding F – flux cored arc welding Welding processes SMAW – shielded metal arc welding GMAW – gas metal arc welding SAW – submerged arc welding FCAW – flux cored arc welding SMAW --```.`. T R WP GS B-L1b 1/4 max T1/2 All — Figure 2—Example of Designations for Illustrative Purpose Not for Resale 9 Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ..g.`--- BACKGOUGE (EXCEPT B-L1-S) Welding Process GMAW FCAW B-L1b-GF 3/8 max 1/8 All Not req’d. SAW B-L1a-S 5/8 max 0 F — SAW B-L1-S 3/8 max 0 F — Welding positions F – flat H – horizontal V – vertical OH – overhead The lower case letters.`-`-`.. b. Desig... etc.Symbols for welding process.`. e.`.

`--- Welding Process SMAW Desig.Square-groove weld (1) Butt joint (B) Corner joint (C) --```.`. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 10 Not for Resale ...`-`-`..`. T1 T2 R WP GS B-L1a 1/4 max — T1 All — SMAW C-L1a 1/4 max U T1 All — GMAW FCAW B-L1a-GF 3/8 max — T1 All Not req’d.`..

`. SAW B-L1a-S 5/8 max 0 F — SAW B-L1-S 3/8 max 0 F — Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 11 --```.`-`-`.`.`--- .. T R WP GS B-L1b 1/4 max T1/2 All — GMAW FCAW B-L1b-GF 3/8 max 1/8 All Not req’d..`...Square-groove weld (1) Butt joint (B) BACKGOUGE (EXCEPT B-L1-S) Welding Process SMAW Desig.

SAW TC-L1-S 3/8 max U 0 F — TC-L1b 1/4 max U T1 /2 All — Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 12 Not for Resale ..`.Square-groove weld (1) T-joint (T) Corner joint (C) Welding Process SMAW Desig.`..`.`-`-`.. T1 T2 R WP GS --```..`--- GMAW FCAW TC-L1-GF 3/8 max U 1/8 All Not req’d.

`--- Not for Resale 13 ....`.`.`. T R α f WP GS Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS GMAW FCAW B-U2-GF U 1/8 60° 1/8 All Not req’d.. SAW B-L2c-S >1/2 to 1 0 60° 1/4 F — SAW B-L2c-S 0 60° 1/2 F — SAW B-2Lc-S 0 60° 5/8 F — B-U2 U 1/8 60° 1/8 All — > 1 to 1-1/2 >1-1/2 to 2 --```.Single-V-groove weld (2) Butt joint (B) α BACKGOUGE Welding Process SMAW Desig.`-`-`.

`.`-`-`.`. V. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 14 Not for Resale . V.. OH F... B-U2a T R α WP GS U 1/4 45° All — B-U2a U 3/8 30° — U 1/2 20° — GMAW FCAW U 3/16 30° GMAW FCAW U 3/8 30° F. OH F. Not req’d. V.. OH Required Not req’d. OH SAW 2 max 1/4 30° F — SAW U 5/8 20° F — --```.Single-V-groove weld (2) Butt joint (B) α Welding Process SMAW SMAW SMAW Desig.`--- B-U2a B-U2a-GF B-U2a-GF B-U2a-GF B-L2a-S B-U2a-S F. V. OH GMAW FCAW U 1/4 45° F.`. V.

. SAW C-U2b-S U 1/8 60° 1/4 F — --```.`..`..`-`-`.. T R α f WP GS Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 15 GMAW FCAW C-U2-GF U 1/8 60° 1/8 All Not req’d.Single-V-groove weld (2) Corner joint (C) Welding Process SMAW Desig.`.`--- C-U2 U 1/8 60° 1/8 All — .

V. OH SAW B-U3a-S U 5/8 20° 1/4 1/4 × R F Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 16 Not for Resale .`-`-`. V...`.`. T R α f s WP B-U3a U 1/4 45° 1/8 1/8 × R All SMAW B-U3a U 3/8 30° 1/8 1/8 × R F.Double-V-groove weld (3) Butt joint (B) --```.. OH SMAW B-U3a U 1/2 20° 1/8 1/8 × R F.`--- α α Welding Process SMAW Desig.`..

Not for Resale 17 For B-U3c-S only T1 SAW over 2 2-1/2 3 3-5/8 4 4-3/4 5-1/2 to 2-1/2 3 3-5/8 4 4-3/4 5-1/2 6-1/4 S1 1-3/8 1-3/4 2-1/8 2-3/8 2-3/4 3-1/4 3-3/4 Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS B-U3c-S U 0 60° 1/14 See table F — .Double-V-groove weld (3) Butt joint (B) --```.`..`--- α α Welding Process SMAW Desig.`-`-`. B-U3b T U R 1/8 α 60° f 1/8 — S1 WP All GS — GMAW FCAW B-U3-GF U 1/8 60° 1/8 — All Not req’d.`.`....

`.. All GMAW FCAW B-U4a-GF U 3/8 30° Not req’d. T R α GS WP B-U4a U 1/4 45° — All SMAW B-U4a U 3/8 30° — All GMAW FCAW B-U4a-GF U 3/16 30° Required All GMAW FCAW B-U4a-GF U 1/4 45° Not req’d. F..`--- Welding Process SMAW Desig. H SAW B-U4a-S U 3/8 30° — F SAW B-U4a-S U 1/4 45° — F Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 18 Not for Resale .`-`-`...`.`.Single-U-groove weld (4) Butt joint (B) α --```.

OH All F All F F Not for Resale 19 Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS . TC-U4a TC-U4a TC-U4a-GF TC-U4a-GF TC-U4a-GF TC-U4a-S TC-U4a-S T U U U U U U U R 1/4 3/8 3/16 3/8 1/4 3/8 1/4 α 45° 30° 30° 30° 45° 30° 45° GS — — Required Not req’d. — — WP All F...`.`. Not req’d. H.`--- Desig..`..`-`-`.Single-bevel-groove weld (4) T-joint (T) Corner joint (C) Welding Process SMAW SMAW GMAW FCAW GMAW FCAW GMAW FCAW SAW SAW --```.

`--- .....`.Single-bevel-groove weld (4) Butt joint (B) α Welding Process SMAW Desig. SAW B-U4b-S U 0 60° 1/4 F — Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 20 Not for Resale --```. T R α f WP GS B-U4b U 1/8 45° 1/8 All — GMAW FCAW B-U4b-GF U 1/8 45° 1/8 All Not req’d.`-`-`.`.`.

.`-`-`..`--- Welding Process SMAW Desig. T R α f GS WP Not for Resale 21 GMAW FCAW TC-U5-GF U 1/8 45° 1/8 Not req’d.`.`. All SAW TC-U5-S U 0 60° 1/4 — F Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS TC-U5b U 1/8 45° 1/8 — All .Double-bevel-groove weld (5) T-joint (T) Corner joint (C) --```..`..

T R f α β WP GS Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS GMAW FCAW B-U5-GF U 1/8 1/8 45° 15° All Not req’d.. B-U5a U 1/8 1/8 45° 15° All — 22 Not for Resale .`.`.`.Double-bevel-groove weld (5) Butt joint (B) --```....`--- α α β Welding Process SMAW Desig.`-`-`.

.`--- . OH B-U5b U 1/4 45° 1/8 1/8 × R All --```...`..Double-bevel-groove weld (5) Butt joint (B) T-joint (T) Corner joint (C) α α Welding Process SMAW Desig. T R α f s WP Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 23 SMAW TC-U5a U 1/4 45° 1/8 1/4 × R All SMAW TC-U5a U 3/8 30° 1/8 1/4 × R F.`.`-`-`.`.

.`.`. B-U6 B-U6 C-U6 C-U6 B-U6-GF C-U6-GF T U U U U U U R 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 α 45° 20° 45° 20° 20° 20° f 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 r 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 1/4 GS — — — — Not req’d. Not req’d. WP All F. OH All All 24 Not for Resale --```.`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS ..`-`-`...`.Single-U-groove weld (6) Butt joint (B) Corner joint (C) α α Welding Process GMAW GMAW SMAW SMAW SMAW SMAW FCAW FCAW Desig. OH All F.

. SMAW B-U7-S U 0 20° 1/4 1/4 F — Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 25 .Double-U-groove weld (7) Butt joint (B) --```. OH — GMAW FCAW B-U7-GF U 1/8 20° 1/8 1/4 All Not req’d.`..`.`--- α α Welding Process SMAW Desig.`-`-`.`... T R α f r WP GS B-U7 U 1/8 45° 1/8 1/4 All — SMAW B-U7 U 1/8 20° 1/8 1/4 F.

`-`-`.Single-J-groove weld (8) Butt joint (B) --```..`. T R α f r WP GS Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS GMAW FCAW B-U8-GF U 1/8 30° 1/8 3/8 All Not req’d..`--- Welding Process SMAW Desig.`. SAW B-U8-S U 0 45° 1/4 3/8 F — B-U8 U 1/8 45° 1/8 3/8 All — 26 Not for Resale .`...

`.`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 27 .`-`-`.`.`. SAW TC-U8a-S U 0 45° 1/4 3/8 F — --```. OH — GMAW FCAW TC-U8a-GF U 1/8 30° 1/8 3/8 All Not req’d.. T R α f r WP GS TC-U8a U 1/8 45° 1/8 3/8 All — SMAW TC-U8a U 1/8 30° 1/8 3/8 F.Single-J-groove weld (8) T-joint (T) Corner joint (C) α Welding Process SMAW Desig....

Double-J-groove weld (8) Butt joint (B) α α Welding Process SMAW Desig. --```.. T R α f r WP GS B-U9 U 1/8 45° 1/8 3/8 All — GMAW FCAW B-U9-GF U 1/8 30° 1/8 3/8 All Not req’d.`.`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS 28 Not for Resale ..`..`.`-`-`..

`.Double-J-groove weld (8) T-joint (T) Corner joint (C) --```.`-`-`.`. OH — GMAW FCAW TC-U9a-GF U 1/8 30° 1/8 3/8 All Not req’d.. T R α f r WP GS Not for Resale 29 SMAW TC-U9a U 1/8 30° 1/8 3/8 F. Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS TC-U9a U 1/8 45° 1/8 3/8 All — ..`...`--- α α Welding Process SMAW Desig.

145 6..205 0.452 × 102 1.119 25.3937 0.`.`--- To millimeters2 inches2 liters/minute feet3/hour millimeters inches centimeters inches meters feet kilograms pounds kilopascal (kPa) psi megapascal (MPa) psi Multiply by 6.550 × 10–3 0.937 × 10–2 2.895 0.305 3.54 0..`-`-`.450 × 102 .4 3.`.Metric Conversion Table (Commonly used conversions) To Convert From inches2 millimeters2 feet3/hour liters/minute inches millimeters inches centimeters feet meters pounds kilograms psi kPa psi MPa 30 Not for Resale Property area flow rate linear mass (weight) pressure tensile strength Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS --```.`.281 2..472 2.895 × 10–3 1..454 6.

GMAW. The Everyday Pocket Handbook for Arc Welding Steel Good electrode coverage for SMAW.0 Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 31 . tables.4 PHB-1 A3. D1.org. and FCAW.`.200 definitions. --```. Correct and nonstandard terms are both included. Title D1.aws. For more information on AWS publications go to www.. appendices.`-`-`.`. 1.Other Publications Available from AWS Order No. Structural Welding Code—Reinforcing Steel Seven succinct chapters. qualification.`.`--- D1. and inspection instructions for coated or galvanized sheet steel. Standard Welding Terms and Definitions Terms you won’t find in your regular dictionary..3 Structural Welding Code—Sheet Steel Gives allowable stresses and supplies correct techniques..1 Structural Welding Code—Steel Acknowledged worldwide as being a universal standard for assuring quality welding.. illustrations.

`.`-`-`.. Florida 33126 --```. Miami.`..550 N.W..`..`--- Copyright American Welding Society Provided by IHS under license with AWS No reproduction or networking permitted without license from IHS Not for Resale 32 . LeJeune Road.

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