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10. Hydraulic Turbines
10. HYDRAULIC TURBINES
(This section is taken mainly from White)
10.1 Introduction Hydraulic turbines extract energy from water which has a high head. There are basically two types, reaction and impulse, the difference being in the manner of head conversion. In reaction turbines the water fills the blade passages and the head change or pressure drop occurs within the impeller. They can be of radial, axial or mixed flow types. In impulse turbines the high head is first converted through a nozzle into a high velocity jet which strikes the blades at one position as they pass by. Reaction turbines are smaller because water fills all the blades at one time. 10.2 Reaction Turbines Reaction turbines are low-head, high-flow devices. The flow is opposite to that in a pump (from volute to eye of impeller after transferring most of the energy of the water to the impeller) but a difference is the important role stationary guide vanes play. Purely radial and mixed flow designs are called Francis turbines. At even lower heads an axial flow, propeller turbine is more compact. It can be fixed bladed but better efficiency is obtained over an operating range by using adjustable vanes, in the Kaplan turbine. configurations are shown in Fig. 10.1. Various impeller
Fig. 10.1 Reaction turbines: (a) Francis, radial type; (b) Francis, mixed-flow; (c) propeller axial-flow; (d) performance curves for a Francis turbine, n = 600 rpm, D = 0.686 m, Nsp = 29 (from White).
the vanes must be adjusted to a new angle α2 so that w2 still follows the blade surface. Fig.3 Simple Radial Turbine Theory The Euler turbomachine equations derived in Chapter 9 for pumps also apply to turbines if we reverse the flow direction and reshape the blades. Consideration of angular momentum as for pumps (Chapter 9) gives an idealised formula for the power P extracted by the runner: P T Q r2Vt 2 r1Vt 1 Q u2V2 cos 2 u1V1 cos 1 where Vt2 and Vt1 are the absolute inlet and outlet circumferential velocity components of the flow. 10. 10-2 . They bring the inlet flow to the blades at angle α and absolute velocity V2 for minimum ‘shock’ or directional miss-match loss.MECH7350 Rotating Machinery 10. the outer blade angle should be set at β2 to accommodate the relative velocity w2.2 Inlet and outlet velocity diagrams for an idealised radial-flow reaction turbine runner (from White). The absolute inlet flow normal velocity Vn2 = V2sinα2 is proportional to the flow rate Q. Again assume one-dimensional frictionless flow through the blades. After vectorially adding in the runner tip speed u2 = ωr2. Hydraulic Turbines 10. Fig.2 shows a radial turbine runner. Adjustable inlet guide vanes are essential for good efficiency. If the flow rate changes and the runner speed u2 is constant. 10.
The efficiency is the output brake horsepower divided by the available water horsepower ρgQH. CH and CP defined as for a pump (Chapter 9 in Module A).1 shows typical performance curves for a Francis radial turbine. n will be low and the high pressure is confined to the small nozzle which converts the head to an atmospheric pressure jet of high velocity Vj. is found by eliminating the diameter between CH and CP. It is called the power specific speed N sp .3) Like pumps.2)) not only would a reaction turbine require too high a speed but also the high pressure in the runner would require a massive casing thickness.1) Fig.4 Power Specific Speed Turbine parameters are similar to those of a pump. independent of size. The buckets have an elliptic split-cup shape and are called Pelton wheels. but the dependent variable is the output brake horsepower which depends on the inlet flow rate Q. The impulse turbine in Fig.e.2) 5/4 In lazy but common form this is written as: N sp rpm bhp H ft 1/ 2 5/4 (10. the functional relationships are written with CP as the independent variable: CH gH CH CP 2 2 n D CQ Q CQ C P nD3 bhp gQH CP (10.5 Impulse Turbines For high head (typically above 250 m) and relatively low power (i. N sp CP 1/ 2 n bhp 1/ 1/ 2 CH 2 5/4 g gH (10. The jet strikes the buckets and imparts a momentum change. 10. available head H. The maximum efficiency point is called normal power. A parameter that compares the output power with the available head.3 is ideal for this situation. 10.10. Since Nsp is low. If we neglect viscous and roughness effects. . impeller speed n and diameter D. low Nsp from (10. 10. turbines of large size are generally more efficient. The dimensionless forms are CQ.
i. Noting that u1 = u2 = u. 10. Pw u2Vt H T Q 2 u1V1 t 1 Pw gQ 1 g uV 2 t2 uV 1 t1 together with the velocity diagram in Fig. A bucket angle β = 180 gives maximum power but is physically impossible because water must clear the next bucket. 165 and 1 – cosβ o o 1. (b) top view of bucket.966 or only . In practice.3 Impulse turbine: (a) side view of wheel and jet.4) where u = 2πnr is the bucket linear velocity and r is the pitch radius. A simple analysis uses the Euler turbomachinery equation in Chapter 9.Fig.3. or distance to the jet centreline. (c) typical velocity diagram (from White). we substitute the absolute exit and inlet tangential velocities into the turbine power relation: P Q u1Vt1 u2Vt 2 Q uV j uu j V u cos or P Qu V j u 1 cos (10.e.. 2 percent less than maximum power. 10.
From (10.4) the theoretical power of an impulse turbine is a maximum when dP/du = 0. . or .
5) By combining (10. o Fig.98 (10. diameter = 0.94). Pelton wheel. Since there are 2 to 8 percent nozzle losses.47. o Fig.61 m (from White).92 Cv 0.1) and (10.6) plotted for an ideal turbine (β = 180 .4 shows (10. o Cv = 1.6): solid curve = ideal.0. 10. 10. mechanical friction.0) and for typical working conditions (β = 160 . An impulse turbine is not quite as efficient as the Francis or propeller turbines at their BEPs. dashed curve = actual. o .6) = peripheral velocity factor 2 gH Maximum efficiency occurs at 1 Cv 2 0. β = 180 . a velocity coefficient Cv is used: V j Cv 2 gH 1/ 2 0.u * 2 n* r 1 Vj 2 For a perfect nozzle. backsplashing and nonuniform bucket flow reduce this to about 80 percent.94. the entire available head would be converted to jet velocity 1/ 2 2 V j 2 gH .4 Efficiency of an impulse turbine calculated from (10. The latter case predicts ηmax = 85 percent but windage. open circles = data. Cv = 1.5) the theoretical impulse turbine efficiency becomes: 2 1 cos where u 1/ 2 Cv (10. Cv = 0. Cv = 0. β = 160 .
and the importance of the power specific speed Nsp as a selection tool for designers. . 10.5 shows the optimum efficiency of the three types of turbines.Fig.
10. It can occur at turbine outlets where the pressure is lowest. Rapid shutdown of the turbine. 10. and the operating response is a change in the flow rate by adjustment of a gate valve or needle valve (Fig. 10. as would be required after loss of load from the driven machine. 10. As shown in Fig. Fig. More detail of a Pelton wheel turbine is shown in Fig. The demand for power also varies from light to heavy.6.7. 10.6 Some Practical Considerations Cavitation must be avoided in hydraulic turbines. 10.3). all three turbines achieve fairly uniform efficiency as a function of the level of power being extracted. The water power available to a turbine may vary due to either head or flow rate changes. cannot be effected by rapid . Especially effective is the adjustable-blade (Kaplan-type) propeller turbine.Fig.5 Optimum efficiency of turbine designs (from White).6 Efficiency versus power level for various turbine designs at constant speed and head (from White). both of which are common in hydroelectric plants.
A warning device indicates that the slipping device is operating. The runner resembles a ship’s propeller whose blades (typically four to six in number) are adjustable in pitch to present the optimum angle of attack to the water flow. The ring is rotated by hydraulic rams or servomotors. Large axial thrusts are handled by admitting some high-pressure water to the underside of the machine and by using a thrust bearing (usually of the tilting-pad type).7 Pelton wheel turbine (from MPSP). Fig. 10. The angle of these vanes can be varied to control machine output and the water is uniformly distributed to them by a spiral casing. the remainder can be moved normally. Some form of slipping device is incorporated so that if a foreign body jams between two vanes.8 shows a typical large Francis turbine in which water is fed radially to the runner from guide vanes which are disposed around the full circumference. the other end of the crank being located in a regulating ring.closure of the spear (needle valve) due to water hammer effects. The blades are most conveniently adjusted by means of a lever arm within the hub. 10.9 shows details of a large Kaplan turbine through which the water flow is essentially axial. . Shutdown is effected by inserting into the jet either a cut-off to destroy its kinetic energy or a deflector to direct the jet away from the bucket. The jet is then cut off at a suitably safe rate. Fig. The loads on the guide vanes can be very large. 10. The guide vanes are moved by cranks attached to the end of one of the spindles. Fig.
An advantage of the combined unit is the reduction of equipment and installation costs. Fig. whilst pumping. 10. the performed by the same runners.10. or a reversible pump-turbine. . It is effectively a Francis turbine whose runner geometry is a compromise between the optimum for pumping and generation. driving the runner in the opposite direction. and pumped from the lower to the higher lake to store potential energy at periods of low demand. the generator acts as a motor. water is run through a turbine when peak electricity generation is needed. turbine output is absorbed by the generator. Separate pumps and turbines can be used.7 Pumped-Storage Pumped-storage involves operations between two lakes. Such a machine enables both pumping and turbining to be During generation.8 A large Francis turbine (from MPSP).
.Fig.9 A large Kaplan turbine showing detail of the hub mechanism for varying blade angle (from MPSP). 10.