Weld Joints

(a) Butt joint

(b) Corner joint

(c) T joint

(d) Lap joint

(e) Edge joint

FIGURE 12.1 Examples of welded joints.

Ease of Maintenance

Design Variability

Large Parts

Visual Inspection 2 3 2 1 1 1 1 3

Small Parts

Tolerances

Strength

Relibility

Method Arc welding 1 2 3 1 Resistance welding 1 2 1 1 Brazing 1 1 1 1 Bolts and nuts 1 2 3 1 Riveting 1 2 3 1 Fasteners 2 3 3 1 Seaming, crimping 2 2 1 3 Adhesive bonding 3 1 1 2 Note: 1, very good; 2, good; 3, poor.

3 3 3 2 1 2 3 3

1 3 1 1 1 2 1 2

2 3 3 1 3 2 3 3

Cost 2 1 3 3 2 3 1 2

TABLE 12.1 Comparison of various joining methods.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

General Summary
Joining Process Shielded metal arc Submerged arc Gas metal arc Gas tungsten arc Flux-cored arc Oxyfuel Operation Manual Automatic Semiautomatic or automatic Manual or automatic Semiautomatic or automatic Manual Advantage Portable and flexible High deposition Works with most metals Works with most metals High deposition Portable and flexible Works with most metals Skill Level Required High Low to medium Low to high Low to high Low to high High Medium to high Welding Position All Flat and horizontal All All All All All Current Type ac, dc ac, dc dc ac, dc dc – – Distortion∗ 1 to 2 1 to 2 2 to 3 2 to 3 1 to 3 2 to 4 3 to 5 Cost of Equipment Low Medium Medium to high Medium Medium Low High

Electron Semiautomatic beam, laser or automatic beam ∗ 1, highest; 5, lowest

TABLE 12.2 General characteristics of joining processes.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Oxyfuel Gas Welding
2100°C (3800°F) 1260°C (2300°F) Outer envelope (small and narrow) Acetylene feather

Inner cone 3040 to 3300°C (5500 to 6000°F) (a) Neutral flame

Outer envelope

Inner cone (pointed) (b) Oxidizing flame

Bright luminous inner cone

Blue envelope

(c) Carburizing (reducing) flame

Gas mixture

Filler rod Molten weld metal Base metal (d)

Welding torch Flame Solidified weld metal

FIGURE 12.2 Three basic types of oxyacetylene flames used in oxyfuel gas welding and cutting operations: (a) neutral flame; (b) oxidizing flame; (c) carburizing, or reducing, flame. (d) The principle of the oxyfuel gas welding operation.
Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

Pressure Gas Welding
C2H2 + O2 mixture Torch withdrawn Torch Flame heating of surfaces Upsetting force Clamp (a) (b)

FIGURE 12.3 Schematic illustration of the pressure gas welding process; (a) before, and (b) after. Note the formation of a flash at the joint, which can later be trimmed off.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials, 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008, Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7

1 87 4. Pearson Education ISBN No.3 Approximate specific energy required to melt a unit volume of commonly welded materials.3-9.6 133-137 14.2 59 2.9 42 9.8 112 6.Heat Transfer in Welding Material Aluminum and its alloys Cast irons Copper Bronze (90Cu-10Sn) Magnesium Nickel Steels Stainless steels Titanium Specific Energy.9 41 7.3 204 Heat input H VI =e l v Welding speed VI v=e uA TABLE 12. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.8 142 9. u J/mm3 BTU/in3 2.3 128-146 9. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.1-10. 0-13-227271-7 .

About one-half of all large-scale industrial welding operations use this process.Shielded Metal Arc Welding Welding machine AC or DC power source and controls Work cable Arc Electrode holder Electrode Work Base metal Electrode cable Weld metal Arc Solidified slag Coating Electrode Shielding gas FIGURE 12. 7 5 1 4 FIGURE 12. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.5 A weld zone showing the build-up sequence of individual weld beads in deep welds. 5th ed.4 (a) Schematic illustration of the shielded metal arc welding process. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Pearson Education ISBN No. (b) Schematic illustration of the shielded metal arc welding operation. 0-13-227271-7 2 6 8 3 .

Unfused flux is recovered and reused. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Submerged Arc Welding Electrode-wire reel Flux hopper Voltage and current control Unfused-flux recovery tube Wire-feed motor Electrode cable Contact tube Workpiece Weld backing Ground Voltage-pickup leads (optional) FIGURE 12. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 .6 Schematic illustration of the submerged arc welding process and equipment. Pearson Education ISBN No.

0-13-227271-7 . formerly known as MIG welding (for metal inert gas).Gas Metal Arc Welding Solid wire electrode Current conductor Travel Shielding gas Nozzle Shielding gas Arc Base metal (a) Wire guide and contact tube Solidified weld metal Molten weld metal Feed control Control system Gas out Gun control Workpiece Gun Wire Gas in Shielding-gas source Voltage control Wire-feed drive motor Contactor control (b) 110 V supply Welding machine FIGURE 12. (b) Basic equipment used in gas metal arc welding operations. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.7 (a) Gas metal arc welding process. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

Pearson Education ISBN No. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Flux-Cored Arc Welding Current-carrying guide tube Arc shield composed of vaporized and slag-forming compounds protects metal transfer through arc Solidified slag Molten slag Solidified weld metal Arc Base metal Metal droplets covered with thin slag coating forming molten puddle Insulated extension tip Powdered metal. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. This operation is similar to gas metal arc welding. deoxidizers and scavengers Molten weld metal FIGURE 12.8 Schematic illustration of the flux-cored arc welding process. 0-13-227271-7 . vapor-or gas-forming materials.

5th ed. FIGURE 12.Electrogas & Electroslag Welding Power source Control panel Drive rolls Electrode conduit Gas Wire-feed drive Wire reel Welding wire Oscillator Welding gun Water Gas Water out Welding wire Water in Fixed shoe Primary shielding gas Gas Water out Water in Gas box Supplementary shielding gas Moveable shoe Electrode lead Oscillation (optional) Consumable guide tube Work Workpiece (ground) lead Molten slag Molten weld pool Retaining shoe Water in Water out FIGURE 12. 0-13-227271-7 .10 Equipment used for electroslag welding operations.9 Schematic illustration of the electrogas welding process. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

formerly known as TIG welding (for tungsten inert gas). 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (b) Equipment for gas tungsten arc welding operations. 5th ed. Pearson Education ISBN No.11 (a) Gas tungsten arc welding process. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Gas Tungsten Arc Welding Travel Electrical conductor Tungsten electrode Gas passage Shielding gas Filler wire Molten weld metal (a) Arc Solidified weld metal Cooling-water supply Torch Filler rod Drain Workpiece Foot pedal (optional) (b) Inert-gas supply or DC welder AC FIGURE 12.

Deep and narrow welds are made by this process at high welding speeds. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.12 Two types of plasma arc welding processes: (a) transferred and (b) nontransferred. Pearson Education ISBN No.Plasma Arc Welding Tungsten electrode – Power supply + Plasma gas Shielding gas Power supply – + (a) (b) FIGURE 12. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed.

0-13-227271-7 .Weld Bead Comparisons Laser welds (a) (b) FIGURE 12. Pearson Education ISBN No. 1991. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.14 Gillette Sensor razor cartridge. 8th ed. Welding Handbook. with laser-beam welds. Source: American Welding Society. FIGURE 12.13 Comparison of the size of weld beads in (a) electron-beam or laser-beam welding with that in (b) conventional (tungsten arc) welding. 5th ed..

Source: IIT Research Institute. 1 mm 145 155 260 330 355 Hardness (HV) Heat-affected zone Melt zone (a) (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that the grains in the solidified weld metal are perpendicular to their interface with the base metal. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0.16 Grain structure in (a) a deep weld and (b) a shallow weld. . (b) Microhardness profile across the weld bead.43 mm FIGURE 12.1 mm 0. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 12.Original structure Fusion zone (weld metal) Heat-affected zone Fusion Weld Characteristics Base metal Molten weld metal Temperature Melting point of base metal Temperature at which the base-metal microstructure is affected Original temperature of base metal (a) (b) FIGURE 12. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.17 (a) Weld bead on a cold-rolled nickel strip produced by a laser beam. 5th ed.15 Characteristics of a typical fusion weld zone in oxyfuel gas welding and arc welding processes. Note the lower hardness of the weld bead as compared with the base metal.

after exposure to a caustic solution. The weld line is at the center of the photograph. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No.Fusion Defects FIGURE 12. especially in aluminum (b) Incomplete fusion in a groove weld Incomplete fusion in fillet welds.19 Examples of various incomplete fusion in welds.18 Intergranular corrosion of a weld joint in ferritic stainless-steel welded tube. 5th ed. B is often termed !bridging" (a) (c) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Weld Weld FIGURE 12. Weld Base metal B Incomplete fusion from oxide or dross at the center of a joint. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: Courtesy of Allegheny Ludlum Corp.

0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Toe crack Longitudinal crack Underbead crack Weld Transverse crack Base metal Crater cracks FIGURE 12.19 Examples of various incomplete fusion in welds. 5th ed.Defects in Welded Joints Underfill Inclusions Crack Base metal Incomplete penetration (a) Good weld Overlap Porosity Lack of penetration (b) (c) Undercut FIGURE 12. Weld Weld Longitudinal crack Base metal (a) (b) Transverse crack Base metal Toe crack Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No.20 Examples of various defects in fusion welds.

Pearson Education ISBN No.22 Crack in a weld bead. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. due to the fact that the two components were not allowed to contract after the weld was completed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 .Weld Crack FIGURE 12. Source: Courtesy of Packer Engineering.

Residual stress Compressive Tensile Base metal FIGURE 12. Source: Courtesy of the American Welding Society. Pearson Education ISBN No. Weld (a) (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. Warping can be reduced or eliminated by proper weld design and fixturing prior to welding. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.24 Residual stresses developed in a straight butt joint.23 Distortion and warping of parts after welding. 0-13-227271-7 .Distortion in Welds Weld Weld Transverse shrinkage Weld Weld Neutral axis Angular distortion (a) Longitudinal shrinkage (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 12. caused by differential thermal expansion and contraction of different regions of the welded assembly.

showing distortion in the structure. (b) during welding.A. Pearson Education ISBN No.Distortion of Welded Structures Rigid frame Hot zone (expanded) Contraction Melt (pushed out) No shape change (a) (b) Internal (residual) tensile stress Distortion (c) FIGURE 12.25 Distortion of a welded structure. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. with weld bead placed in joint. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Source: After J. 5th ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Schey. (a) Before welding. (c) after welding.

Pearson Education ISBN No. (See also Fig.Tension-Shear Testing Root bend Longitudinal tension-shear Clamp Roller Weld Face bend Transverse tension-shear (a) (b) Side bend (c) FIGURE 12. 5th ed. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.21. (b) Wraparound bend test method. 0-13-227271-7 .26 (a) Types of specimens for tension-shear testing of welds. 2. (c) Three-point bending of welded specimens.

5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Tension-Shear Test of Spot Welds (a) 1. (c) (d) FIGURE 12. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. (d) peel test. Hole left in part Button diameter indicates quality 3.27 (a) Tension-shear test for spot welds. Raised nugget (b) 2. (c) twist test. (b) cross-tension test. 0-13-227271-7 .

(a) (b) FIGURE 12. (b) Ultrasonic seam welding using a roller.29 (a) Components of an ultrasonic welding machine for lap welds. or cladding. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.28 Schematic illustration of the roll-bonding. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed.Roll Bonding & Ultrasonic Welding Force Mass Cladding metal Base metal Coupling system Transducer DC Transducer Toolholder Roller polarization supply Rolls Tip Workpiece Anvil Direction of vibration AC Workpiece power supply FIGURE 12. process.

the weld is completed. The upset length is the distance the two pieces move inward during welding after their initial contact. (2) The part on the right is brought into contact under an axial force. (a) High pressure or low speed (b) Low pressure or high speed (c) Optimum Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. Force. If necessary. Speed Speed. Flash Force Beginning of flash Force increased Force 4. such as machining or grinding. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Friction Welding 1. (3) The axial force is increased. gth Upset len Total upset length Time FIGURE 12. (1) The part on the left is rotated at high speed. Upset length 3. flash begins to form. (4) After a specified upset length or distance is achieved. 0-13-227271-7 . the total length after welding is less than the sum of the lengths of the two pieces. the flash can be removed by secondary operations. 2. thus.30 Sequence of operations in the friction welding process. FIGURE 12.31 Shapes of the fusion zone in friction welding as a function of the force applied and the rotational speed. 5th ed. and the part on the left stops rotating.

Friction Stir Welding Shouldered non-consumable tool Probe Weld FIGURE 12. 5th ed. Source: TWI. Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 .) thick have been welded by this process. Aluminum-alloy plates up to 75 mm (3 in. Cambridge.32 The principle of the friction stir welding process. United Kingdom.

Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Current off. Pearson Education ISBN No.33 (a) Sequence in the resistance spot welding operation. 5th ed. showing weld nugget and light indentation by the electrode on sheet surfaces. Pressure released Electrodes Electrode Electrode tip Weld nugget Indentation Sheet separation Workpiece (a) Heat-affected zone Electrode (b) Workpiece (b) FIGURE 12. Current on 3. pressure on (a) 4. 0-13-227271-7 FIGURE 12.34 Two types of electrode designs for easy access in spot welding operations for complex shapes. Pressure applied 2. (b) Cross-section of a spot weld. .Resistance Spot Welding Electrodes Weld nugget Lap joint 1. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

with rolls acting as electrodes. (d) Mash seam welding.36 Schematic illustration of resistance projection welding: (a) before and (b) after. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Pearson Education ISBN No. (c) Crosssection of a roll spot weld. (b) Overlapping spots in a seam weld. Flat electrodes Sheet Force Weld nuggets Product Workpiece Projections Force (a) (b) FIGURE 12.Seam & Resistance Projection Welding Electrode wheels Electrode wheels Weld nuggets Weld Sheet Weld (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 12. The projections on sheet metal are produced by embossing operations.35 (a) Illustration of the seam welding process. 0-13-227271-7 . as described in Section 7. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.2.5.

0-13-227271-7 . used for welding bars. Stud Ceramic ferrule Workpiece (base metal) 1.37 Flash welding process for end-toend welding of solid rods or tubular parts. (a) Before and (b) after. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed. and various fasteners on metal plates.Flash & Stud Welding Arc FIGURE 12.38 Sequence of operations in stud arc welding. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. threaded rods. 4. (a) (b) Push Pull Push FIGURE 12. Pearson Education ISBN No. 2. Arc Molten weld metal Weld 3.

39 Schematic illustration of the explosion welding process: (a) constant interface clearance gap and (b) angular interface clearance gap. {\it Source:} Courtesy of DuPont Company. Pearson Education ISBN No.40 Cross-sections of explosion welded joints: (a) titanium (top) on low-carbon steel (bottom) and (b) Incoloy 800 (iron-nickelbase alloy) on low-carbon steel. an interlayer may be added that has compatibility with both metals. FIGURE 12. The wavy interfaces shown improve the shear strength of the joint. produce a much less wavy interface. such as tantalum and vanadium. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 (a) (b) . If the two metals have little metallurgical compatibility. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Explosion Welding Detonator Explosive Clad metal (flyer) Constantinterface clearance gap Base plate (a) (b) Detonator Explosive Buffer Clad metal A Angular-interface clearance gap Base plate FIGURE 12. 5th ed. Some combinations of metals.

7. Stephen and S. Superplastic forming 2. Swadling. Final structure FIGURE 12.41 Sequence of operations in diffusion bonding and superplastic forming of a structure with three flat sheets.46.Diffusion Bonding Stop off Bonding pressure 1. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: After D.J. Core sheet Gas pressure for forming Die 3. Pearson Education ISBN No. See also Fig. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Diffusion bonding Die 4. 5th ed.

Note that unlike tensile strength.4 Typical filler metals for brazing various metals and alloys. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. and cobalt-base alloys Stainless steels. 5th ed. sile en str TABLE 12. nickel-.42 (a) Brazing and (b) braze welding operations.43 The effect of joint clearance on tensile and shear strength of brazed joints. Base Metal Aluminum and its alloys Magnesium alloys Copper and its alloys Ferrous and nonferrous alloys (except aluminum and magnesium) Iron-. 0-13-227271-7 .Brazing & Braze Welding n Te Joint strength Base metal Torch Brass filler metal Base metal Flux Filler metal (a) (b) Sh gth ear stren gth Joint clearance FIGURE 12. copper-phosphorus Gold Nickel-silver Brazing Temperature (◦ C) 570-620 580-625 700-925 620-1150 900-1100 925-1200 Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. shear strength continually decreases as clearance increases. Pearson Education ISBN No.and cobaltbase alloys Filler Metal Aluminum-silicon Magnesium-aluminum Copper-phosphorus Silver and copper alloys. nickel. FIGURE 12.

(a) (b) FIGURE 12. 5th ed.45 Joint designs commonly used in brazing operations. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Note that the filler metal is a shaped wire.44 An application of furnace brazing: (a) before and (b) after. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Furnace Brazing & Brazed Joints Filler-metal wire Filler metal FIGURE 12.

Crimp PC board Wire (i) Crimped (j) Twisted (h) Through hole TABLE 12. Types of solders and their Solder Tin-lead Tin-zinc Lead-silver Cadmium-silver Zinc-aluminum Tin-silver Tin-bismuth Typical Application General purpose Aluminum Strength at higher than room temperature Strength at high temperatures Aluminum. 0-13-227271-7 .5 applications. Pearson Education ISBN No. corrosion resistance Electronics Electronics Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.46 Joint designs commonly used for soldering.Solder Joints (a) Flanged T (b) Flush lap (c) Flanged corner (d) Line contact Bolt or rivet (e) Flat lock seam (f) Flanged bottom (g) Gull wing FIGURE 12. 5th ed.

Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.13. (b) SEM image of a wave soldered joint on a surface-mount device.48 (a) Schematic illustration of the wave soldering process. Flux Residues Turbulent zone (oil prevents dross) Oil mixed in Turbulent zone (dross formed in air) (a) (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. Paste deposited on contact area Emulsion Contact area Copper land Copper land Plating or coating Wetted solder coat Oil or air FIGURE 12. 5th ed. Source: After V.47 Screening solder paste onto a printed circuit board in reflow soldering. See also Section 13. Pearson Education ISBN No. Solberg. 0-13-227271-7 .Soldering for Circuit Boards Squeegee Tensioned screen Screen material Paste FIGURE 12.

50 Characteristic behavior of (a) brittle and (b) tough and ductile adhesives in a peeling test. Peeling force FIGURE 12. 5th ed. and (d) strap.49 Various configurations for adhesively bonded joints: (a) single lap. (b) double lap. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 0-13-227271-7 (a) (b) . This test is similar to peeling adhesive tape from a solid surface. Pearson Education ISBN No. (c) scarf. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.Adhesive Bonding Simple Simple Single taper Single Beveled Beveled Double taper Double Radiused (a) Radiused (b) Increased thickness (c) Beveled (d) FIGURE 12.

02) 0. thermosets -55 to 150 (-70 to 300) No Excellent Good 0.7) < 525 (3) Most nonporous metals or plastics -55 to 80 (-70 to 175) No Anaerobic Fair 17. MPa (103 psi) Peel strength∗ .) Substrates bonded Epoxy Poor 15-22 (2.3) 5250 (30) Most smooth. C ( F) (-70 to 250) (-250 to 175) (-100 to 250) Heat cure or mixing Yes Yes No required Solvent resistance Excellent Good Good Good Moisture resistance Good-Excellent Fair Good Poor Gap limitation.2) < 523 (3) Most Polyurethane Excellent 12-20 (1.01) (in. Typical properties and characteristics of chemically reactive structural Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. nonporous Cyanocrylate Poor 18.) Odor Mild Mild Strong Moderate Toxicity Moderate Moderate Moderate Low Flammability Low Low High Low Note: Peel strength varies widely depending on surface preparation and quality.5 (2.6 adhesives. N/m (lb/in.25 (0.025) Mild Low Low Service temperature -55 to 120 -40 to 90 -70 to 120 ◦ ◦ range.5) 1750 (10) Metals. 5th ed.60 (0.9 (2.5 (0.9) 14. TABLE 12. 0-13-227271-7 . mm None None 0.2-3. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.7-2.000 (80) Most smooth.Properties of Adhesives Impact resistance Tension-shear strength. Pearson Education ISBN No.9-4. nonporous Modified Acrylic Good 20-30 (2. glass.

(c) split. Pearson Education ISBN No. (a) Standard loop staple. (d) pin strap. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. FIGURE 12. 0-13-227271-7 . or bifurcated.51 Examples of rivets: (a) solid. (b) flat clinch staple.Rivets and Stapling Standard loop (a) Flat clinch (b) Nonmetal Metal channel (c) (d) (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 12. and (d) compression. (c) channel strap.52 Examples of various fastening methods. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 5th ed. (b) tubular.

2. 0-13-227271-7 . 5th ed. 1. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 7. 3. 4.23. FIGURE 12.54 Two examples of mechanical joining by crimping.Seams & Crimping FIGURE 12. See also Fig. Pearson Education ISBN No.53 Stages in forming a doublelock seam. (a) (b) Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed.55 Examples of spring and snap-in fasteners to facilitate assembly. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.Snap Fasteners Spring clip Nut Rod-end attachment to sheet-metal part (a) (b) (c) Push-on fastener Deflected Sheet-metal cover (d) Sheet-metal cover (e) (f) Integrated snap fasteners (g) Rigid FIGURE 12. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

J. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.) Handbook of Product Design for Manufacturing. (ed. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Bralla. McGraw-Hill. 5th ed.56 Design guidelines for welding. 1999. 2d ed.G.Design Guidelines for Welding Poor Load Load (a) (b) Good Poor Good Cut not square 90° (c) Burr Deburred edge (d) Surface to be machined (e) (f) FIGURE 12. Pearson Education ISBN No. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

57 welding. 0-13-227271-7 . Pearson Education ISBN No. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. Design guidelines for flash Moment.7. M Continuous weld Intermittent welds 3M Welds (a) (b) Weld Base metal FIGURE 12.Weld Designs Poor Good FIGURE 12.58 Weld designs for Example 12. 5th ed. Single V groove (c) Double V groove Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.

5th ed.Brazing Designs Good Poor Comments Too little joint area in shear Improved design when fatigue loading is a factor to be considered Insufficient bonding FIGURE 12. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.59 Examples of good and poor designs for brazing. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

Design for Adhesive Bonding Poor Adhesive Good Very good (a) (b) (c) Adhesive Adhesive Rivet (d) Combination joints Spot weld FIGURE 12. Pearson Education ISBN No. Note that good designs require large contact areas for better joint strength.60 Various joint designs in adhesive bonding. 5th ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.

5th ed. 2nd ed. McGraw-Hill. 1999. (ed. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials.) Handbook of Product Design for Manufacturing. J. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008.61 Design guidelines for riveting.Design for Riveting Poor Good (a) (b) (c) (d) FIGURE 12.G. Pearson Education ISBN No. 0-13-227271-7 . Source: Bralla.

note that this photo is a reverse of the one on the left. Pearson Education ISBN No. showing the oil gallery and friction welded sections.Case ® Study: Monosteel Pistons Oil gallery Friction welds (a) (b) FIGURE 12. Kalpakjian • Schmid © 2008. 5th ed.62 The Monosteel® piston. (a) Cutaway view of the piston. Manufacturing Processes for Engineering Materials. 0-13-227271-7 . (b) detail of the friction welds before the external flash is removed by machining.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful