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PERIODIC TABLE OF ELEMENTS

E. Transitions Elements

Transitions elements are elements from group 3 to Group 12. Character: - solid with shiny surfaces - ductile - malleable - high tensile strength - high melting and boiling points - high densities - good conductors of heat and electricity (typical character of metals) How to differentiate transition metal from other metal? Three special characteristic for transition elements 1. Transition elements show different oxidation number in their compounds. 2. Transition elements form coloured ions or compounds. 3. Transition elements and their compounds are useful catalyst.
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1. Transition elements show different oxidation number in their compounds. They exhibit a wide range of oxidation states or positively charged forms. The positive oxidation states allow transition elements to form many different ionic and partially ionic compounds. All the transition elements except scandium and zinc have more than one oxidation number. For example iron. Iron have 2 oxidation number as in iron(II), Fe2+ and iron(III), Fe3+ Example: Compound Iron(II) sulphate Iron(III) chloride Copper(I) oxide Copper(II) sulphate Manganese(II) sulphate Manganese(IV) oxide Formula FeSO4 FeCl3 Cu2O CuSO4 MnSO4 MnO2 Oxidation number +2 +3 +1 +2 +2 +4

2. Transition elements form coloured ions or compounds


Do you know why the gemstones have different colour?

Gemstones

Ruby

Emerald

Sapphire

Amethyst

Transition metals solutions potassium dichromate (orange) copper(II) sulfate (blue)

cobalt(II) nitrate (red)

nickel(II) chloride (light blue) potassium permanganate (purple)

potassium chromate (yellow)


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3. Transition elements and their compounds are useful catalyst Catalyst: Chemical substance use to speed up the chemical reactions A specific catalyst is used for a specific reaction. Example Process Haber Process Contact Process Ostwald Process Hydrogenation Catalyst Iron filling, Fe Vanadium(v) oxide, V2O5 Platinum, Pt Nikel, Ni To produce Ammonia Sulphuric acid Nitric acid Margarine

Transitions elements are widely used in our daily lives. [power point]
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