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M C L C

MC LC ................................................................................................................................................................1 LI M U ..........................................................................................................................................................3 CHNG 1 : TNG QUAN V H THNG THNG TIN DI NG S .........................................................4 CHNG 1 ..............................................................................................................................................................5 TNG QUAN V THNG TIN DI NG S ......................................................................................................5 1.1. GII THIU ...........................................................................................................................................5 1.2. H THNG THNG TIN DI NG TH H 1....................................................................................5 1.2.1. Nguyn l FDMA ..........................................................................................................................5 1.2.2. Nhiu giao thoa knh ln cn .........................................................................................................9 1.3. H THNG THNG TIN DI DNG TH H 2.................................................................................. 10 1.3.1. a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA. ...................................................................... 10 1.3.2. a truy cp phn chia theo m CDMA. ....................................................................................... 16 1.4. SO SNH DUNG LNG H THNG FDMA,TDMA,CDMA ........................................................ 22 1.5. H THNG THNG TIN DI NG TH H BA . ............................................................................ 23 CHNG 2 ............................................................................................................................................................ 27 CC CNG NGH TRUYN DN V TUYN W-CDMA.............................................................................. 27 2.1. CNG NGH TRI PH W- CDMA .................................................................................................. 27 2.1.1. Nguyn l tri ph chui trc tip (DS-CDMA) .......................................................................... 27 2.1.2. M tri ph v ng b m tri ph ............................................................................................. 29 2.1.3. Cu hnh chc nng ca my pht v my thu v tuyn .............................................................. 30 2.1.4. ng dng cc u im ca cng ngh W-CDMA trong cc h thng di ng ............................ 30 2.2. CC CNG NGH TRUYN DN C BN TRONG W- CDMA ................................................... 34 2.2.1. n nh m tri ph hai lp v iu ch tri ph ......................................................................... 34 2.2.2. Tm nhn ................................................................................................................................... 38 2.2.3. Truy nhp ngu nhin ................................................................................................................... 42 2.2.4. Cc cng ngh tho mn cc yu cu v cht lng khc nhau trong truyn dn a tc ... 42 2.2.5. Phn tp a dng .......................................................................................................................... 52 CHNG 3 ............................................................................................................................................................ 60 CU TRC MNG TRUY NHP V TUYN .................................................................................................. 60 3.1. CC C IM CA W-CDMA ....................................................................................................... 60 3.1.1. Hiu sut s dng tn s cao ........................................................................................................ 60 3.1.2. D qun l tn s .......................................................................................................................... 60 3.1.3. Cng sut pht ca my di ng thp ........................................................................................... 60 3.1.4. S dng cc ti nguyn v tuyn mt cch c lp trong ng ln v ng xung ................ 61 3.1.5. Nhiu tc s liu...................................................................................................................... 61 3.1.6. Ci thin cc gii php chng hiu ng pha inh nhiu tia .......................................................... 61 3.1.7. Gim t l gin on tn hiu ....................................................................................................... 62 3.2. CC C TNH K THUT C BN CA W-CDMA ................................................................... 62 3.3. CU TRC CA MNG TRUY NHP V TUYN ........................................................................ 63 3.4. CC CNG NGH THEN CHT TRONG W-CDMA ...................................................................... 65 3.4.1. S dng ch khng ng b gia cc BS v phn chia m ng xung ............................... 65 3.4.2. Truyn dn OVSF ........................................................................................................................ 66 3.4.3. Cu trc hoa tiu .......................................................................................................................... 66

3.4.4. Phng php truy nhp gi .......................................................................................................... 66 3.4.5. Cc m Turbo ............................................................................................................................... 67 3.4.6. TPC .............................................................................................................................................. 67 3.4.7. Phn tp truyn dn ...................................................................................................................... 68 3.5. K THUT THU PHT SONG CNG (HAI CHIU ) PHN CHIA THEO THI GIAN (TDD) V K THUT THU PHT SONG CNG PHN CHIA THEO TN S (FDD) ................................................ 68 KT LUN ............................................................................................................................................................ 69 THUT NG VIT TT ...................................................................................................................................... 71

LI M U
Ra i vo nhng nm 40 ca th k XX, thng tin di ng c coi nh l mt thnh tu tin tin trong lnh vc thng tin vin thng vi c im cc thit b u cui c th truy cp dch v ngay khi ang di ng trong phm vi vng ph sng. Thnh cng ca con ngi trong lnh vc thng tin di ng khng ch dng li trong vic m rng vng ph sng phc v thu bao khp ni trn ton th gii, cc nh cung dch v, cc t chc nghin cu pht trin cng ngh di ng ang n lc hng ti mt h thng thng tin di ng hon ho, cc dch v a dng, cht lng dch v cao. 3G - H thng thng tin di ng th h 3 l ci ch trc mt m th gii ang hng ti. T thp nin 1990, Lin minh Vin thng Quc t bt tay vo vic pht trin mt nn tng chung cho cc h thng vin thng di ng. Kt qu l mt sn phm c gi l Thng tin di ng ton cu 2000 (IMT-2000). IMT-2000 khng ch l mt b dch v, n p ng c m lin lc t bt c ni u v vo bt c lc no. c nh vy, IMT-2000 to iu kin tch hp cc mng mt t v/hoc v tinh. Hn th na, IMT-2000 cng cp n Internet khng dy, hi t cc mng c nh v di ng, qun l di ng (chuyn vng), cc tnh nng a phng tin di ng, hot ng xuyn mng v lin mng.. Cc h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 c xy dng theo tiu chun GSM, IS-95, PDC, IS-38 pht trin rt nhanh vo nhng nm 1990. Trong hn mt t thu bao in thoi di ng trn th gii, khong 863,6 triu thu bao s dng cng ngh GSM, 120 triu dng CDMA v 290 triu cn li dng FDMA hoc TDMA. Khi chng ta tin ti 3G, cc h thng GSM v CDMA s tip tc pht trin trong khi TDMA v FDMA s chm dn vo qun lng. Con ng GSM s ti l CDMA bng thng rng (WCDMA) trong khi CDMA s l cdma2000. Ti Vit Nam, th trng di ng trong nhng nm gn y cng ang pht trin vi tc tng i nhanh. Cng vi hai nh cung cp dch v di ng ln nht l Vinaphone v Mobifone, Cng Ty Vin thng Qun i (Vietel), S-fone v mi nht l Cng ty c phn Vin thng H Ni v Vin Thng in Lc tham gia vo th trng di ng chc hn s to ra mt s cnh tranh ln gia cc nh cung cp dch v, em li mt s la chn phong ph cho ngi s dng. V vy, cc nh cung cp dch v di ng Vit Nam khng ch s dng cc bin php cnh tranh v gi c m cn phi n lc tng cng s lng dch v v nng cao cht lng dch v chim lnh th phn trong nc . iu c ngha rng hng ti 3G khng phi l mt tng lai xa Vit
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Nam. Trong s cc nh cung cp dch v di ng Vit Nam, ngoi hai nh cung cp dch v di ng ln nht l Vinaphone v Mobifone, cn c Vietel ang p dng cng ngh GSM v cung cp dch v di ng cho phn ln thu bao di ng Vit Nam. V vy khi tin ln 3G, chc chn hng p dng cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn WCDMA xy dng h thng thng tin di ng th h 3 phi c xem xt nghin cu. Xut pht t tng mun tm hiu cng ngh W-CDMA v mng W-CDMA em thc hin n: Trnh by nguyn l hot ng ca h thng thng tin a truy nhp phn chia theo m bng rng (WCDMA). i su phn tch c im ca qu trnh x l bng rng trong h thng WCDMA . .
n ny em trnh by gm 3 chng vi cc ni dung chnh sau :

Chng 1 : Tng quan v h thng thng tin di ng s Chng ny gii thiu tng quan v qu trnh pht trin ca h thng thng tin di ng v s cn thit ca vic xy dng h thng thng tin di ng th 3 . Chng 2 : Cc cng ngh truyn dn v tuyn W-CDMA Chng ny trnh ny v cc cng ngh truyn dn v tuyn W-CDMA v ng dng ca n trong cc h thng di ng . Chng 3 : Cu trc mng truy nhp v tuyn

CHNG 1 TNG QUAN V THNG TIN DI NG S


1.1. GII THIU
Ra i u tin vo cui nm 1940, n nay thng tin di ng tri qua nhiu th h.Th h khng dy th 1 l th h thng tin tng t s dng cng ngh a truy cp phn chia phn chia theo tn s (FDMA).Th h th 2 s dng k thut s vi cng ngh a truy cp phn chia theo thi gian (TDMA) v phn chia theo m (CDMA).Th h th 3 ra i nh gi s nhy vt nhanh chng v c dung lng v ng dng so vi cc th h trc , v c kh nng cung cp cc dch v a phng tin gi l th h ang c trin khai mt s quc gia trn th gii. Qu trnh pht trin ca cc h thng thng tin di ng trn th gii c th hin s pht trin ca h thng in thoi t ong (CMTS : Cellular Mobile Telephone System) v nhn tin (PS : Paging System) tin ti mt h thng chung ton cu trong tng lai.

1.2.

H THNG THNG TIN DI NG TH H 1

Phng php n gin nht v truy nhp knh l a truy nhp phn chia tn s . H thng di ng th h 1 s dng phng php a truy nhp phn chia theo tn s (FDMA) v ch h tr cc dch v thoi tng t v s dng k thut iu ch tng t mang d liu thoi ca mi ngi s dng .Vi FDMA , khch hng c cp pht mt knh trong tp hp c trt t cc knh trong lnh vc tn s. S bo hiu ca h thng FDMA kh phc tp, khi MS bt ngun hot ng th n d sng tm n knh iu khin dnh ring cho n. Nh knh ny, MS nhn c d liu bo hiu gm cc lnh v knh tn s dnh ring cho lu lng ngi dng . Trong trng hp nu s thu bao nhiu hn so vi cc knh tn s c th, th mt s ngi b chn li khng c truy cp. 1.2.1. Nguyn l FDMA Trong phng php a truy nhp ny rng bng tn cp pht cho h thng B Mhz c chia thnh n bng tn con, mi bng tn con c n nh cho mt knh ring c rng bng tn l B/n MHz (hnh 1.1). Trong dng a truy nhp ny cc my v tuyn u cui pht lin tc mt s sng mang ng thi trn cc tn s khc nhau. Cn m bo cc khong bo v gia tng knh b sng mang chim phng nga s khng hon thin ca cc b lc v cc b dao ng. My thu ng xung hoc ng ln chn sng mang cn thit theo tn s ph hp.
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Nh vy FDMA l phng thc a truy nhp m trong mi knh c cp pht mt tn s c nh. m bo FDMA tt tn s phi c phn chia v quy hoch thng nht trn ton th gii.
on bo v B/n MHZ

...

2 Nhiu knh ln cn

3 B MHZ

Hnh 1.1. FDMA v nhiu giao thoa knh ln cn m bo thng tin song cng tn hiu pht thu ca mt my thu bao phi hoc c pht hai tn s khc nhau hay mt tn s nhng khong thi gian pht thu khc nhau. Phng php th nht c gi l ghp song cng theo tn s (FDMA/FDD, FDD: Frequency Division Duplex) cn phng php th hai c gi l ghp song cng theo thi gian (FDMA/TDD, TDD: Time Division Duplex). Phng php th nht c m t hnh 1.2. Trong phng php ny bng tn dnh cho h thng c chia thnh hai na: mt na thp (Lower Half Band) v mt na cao (Upper Half Band). Trong mi na bng tn ngi ta b tr cc tn s cho cc knh (xem hnh 1.2a) . Trong hnh 1.2a cc cp tn s na bng thp v na bng cao c cng ch s c gi l cp tn s thu pht hay song cng, mt tn s s c s dng cho my pht cn mt tn s c s dng cho my thu ca cng mt knh, khong cch gia hai tn s ny c gi l khong cch thu pht hay song cng. Khong cch gn nht gia hai tn s trong cng mt na bng c gi l khong cch gia hai knh ln cn (x), khong cch ny phi c chn ln i vi mt t s tn hiu trn tp m cho trc (SNR: Signal to Noise Ratio) hai knh cnh nhau khng th gy nhiu cho nhau. Nh vy mi knh bao gm mt cp tn s: mt tn s bng tn thp v mt tn s bng tn cao m bo thu pht song cng. Thng thng ng pht i t trm gc (hay b pht p) xung trm u cui (thu trm u cui) c gi l ng xung, cn ng pht i t trm u cui n trm gc (hay trm pht p) c gi l ng ln. Khong cch gia hai tn s
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ng xung v ng ln l Y nh thy trn hnh v. Trong thng tin di dng tn s ng xung bao gi cng cao hn tn s ng ln suy hao ng ln thp hn ng xung do cng sut pht t my cm tay khng th ln. Trong trong thng tin v tinh th tu thuc vo h thng, tn s ng xung c th thp hoc cao hn tn s ng ln, chng hn cc h thng s dng cc trm thng tin v tinh mt t ln ngi ta thng s ng tn s ng ln cao hn ng xung, ngc li cc h thng thng tin v tinh (nh di ng chng hn) do trm mt t nh nn tn s ng ln c s dng thp hn tn s ng xung.
Na bng thp f1 f2 f3 fn-1 fn f0 f1 f2 Na bng cao f3 fn-1 fn

MS1

f1
MS2 Trm gc

f2
MS3

f3

K hiu

x: Khong cch tn s gia hai knh ln cn y: Khong cch tn s thu pht B: Bng thng cp pht cho h thng f0: Tn s trung tm fi: Tn s ng xung fi: Tn s ng ln Hnh 1.2. Phn b tn s v phng php FDMA/FDD
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Trong phng php th hai (FDMA/TDD) c my thu v my pht c th s dng chung mt tn s (nhng phn chia theo thi gian) khi ny bng tn ch l mt v mi knh c th chn mt tn s bt k trong bng tn (phng php ghp song cng theo thi gian: TDD). Phng php ny c m t hnh 1.3. Hnh 1.3 cho thy knh v tuyn gi trm gc v my u cui ch s dng mt tn s fi cho c pht v thu. Tuy nhin pht thu lun phin, chng hn trc tin trm gc pht xung my thu u cui khe thi gian c k hiu l Tx, sau n ngng pht v thu tn hiu pht i t trm u cui khe thi gian c k hiu l Rx, sau n li pht khe Tx ...

a)

f1

f2

f3

fn-1

fn

...

...

b)
MS1 RX TX RX TX f1

RX MS2

TX

RX

TX

f2

Trm gc

MS3

RX

TX

RX

TX

f3

K hiu x: Khong cch tn s gia hai knh ln cn B: Bng thng cp pht cho h thng fi: Tn s chung cho c ng xung v ng ln Hnh 1.3. Phn b tn s v phng php FDMA/TDD
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1.2.2. Nhiu giao thoa knh ln cn T hnh 1.1 ta thy rng ca knh b chim dng bi mt s sng mang cc tn s khc nhau. Cc sng mang ny c pht i t mt trm gc n tt c cc my v tuyn u cui nm trong vng ph ca anten trm ny. My thu ca cc my v tuyn u cui phi lc ra cc sng mang tng ng vi chng, vic lc s c thc hin d dng hn khi ph ca cc song mang c phn cch vi nhau bi mt bng tn bo v rng. Tuy nhin vic s dng bng tn bo v rng s dn n vic s dng khng hu qu rng bng tn ca knh. V th phi thc hin s dung ha gia k thut v tit kim ph tn. D c chn mt gii php dung ha no i na th mt phn cng sut ca sng mang ln cn vi mt sng mang cho trc s b thu bi my thu c iu hng n tn s ca sng mang cho trc ni trn. iu ny dn n nhiu do s giao thoa c gi l nhiu knh ln cn (ACI: Adjacent Channel Interference). Dung lng truyn dn ca tng knh (tc bit Rb) xc nh rng bng tn iu ch (Bm) cn thit nhng phi c thm mt khong bo v trnh nhiu giao thoa gia cc knh ln cn nn Bm < B/n. Do vy dung lng thc t ln hn dung lng cc i nhn c bi mt k thut iu ch cho trc.V vy hiu sut s dng tn s thc s s l n/B knh lu lng trn MHz. Trong cc h thng in thoi khng dy FDMA in hnh ca chu u hiu sut s dng tn s thc ca cc h thng in thoi khng dy l 20 knh/Mhz cn i vi in thoi khng dy s l 10 knh/MHz. V mt kt cu, FDMA c nhc im l mi sng mang tn s v tuyn ch truyn c mt Erlang v th nu cc trm gc cn cung cp N Erlang dung lng th phi cn N b thu pht cho mi trm. Ngoi ra cng phi cn kt hp tn s v tuyn cho cc knh ny. tng hiu sut s dng tn s c th s dng FDMA kt hp vi ghp song cng theo thi gian (FDMA/TDD). phng php ny mt my thu pht ch s dng mt tn s v thi gian pht thu lun phin (hnh 1.3). Phng php FDMA t nhy cm vi s phn tn thi gian do truyn lan sng, khng cn ng b v khng xy ra tr do khng cn x l tn hiu nhiu, v vy gim tr hi m.

H thng thng tin di ng th h 1s dng phng php a truy cp n gin. Tuy nhin h thng khng tho mn nhu cu ngy cng tng ca ngi dng v c dung lng v tc . V cc khuyt im trn m ngui ta a ra h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 u im hn th h 1v c dung lng v cc dch v c cung cp. 1.3. H THNG THNG TIN DI DNG TH H 2

Cng vi s pht trin nhanh chng ca thu bao c v s lng v cht lng, h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 c a ra p ng kp thi s lng ln cc thu bao di ng da trn cng ngh s . Tt c h thng thng tin di ng th h 2 s dng iu ch s .V chng s dng 2 phng php a truy cp : a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian (Time Division Multiple Access TDMA). a truy nhp phn chia theo m (Code Division Multiple Access- CDMA). 1.3.1. a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian TDMA. Vi phng php truy cp TDMA th nhiu ngi s dng mt sng mang v trc thi gian c chia thnh nhiu khong thi gian nh dnh cho nhiu ngi s dng sao cho khng c s chng cho. Ph quy nh cho lin lc di ng c chia thnh cc di tn lin lc, mi di tn lin lc ny dng chung cho N knh lin lc, mi knh lin lc l mt khe thi gian trong chu k mt khung. Cc thu bao khc dng chung knh nh ci xen thi gian, mi thu bao c cp pht cho mt khe thi gian trong cu trc khung . a. Nguyn l TDMA Hnh 1.4 cho thy hot ng ca mt h thng theo nguyn l a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian. Cc my u cui v tuyn pht khng lin tc trong thi gian TB. S truyn dn ny c gi l cm. S pht i mt cm c a vo mt cu trc thi gian di hn c gi l chu k khung, tt c cc my u cui v tuyn phi pht theo cu trc ny. Mi sng mang th hin mt cm s chim ton b rng ca knh v tuyn c mang bi tn s sng mang fi.

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TB MS1

fi
Trm gc TB

MS2

fi
TB

MS3

fi

TB MSn

fi

K hiu TSi : khe thi gian ginh cho ngi s dng i TB : thi gian ca mt cm TF : thi gian ca mt khung Hnh 1.4 Nguyn l TDMA Phng php va nu trn s dng cp tn s song cng cho TDMA c gi l a truy nhp phn chia theo thi gian vi ghp song cng theo tn s TDMA/ FDD (FDD: Frequency Division Duplexing). Trong phng php ny ng ln (t my u cui n trm gc) bao gm cc tn hiu a truy nhp theo thi gian (TDMA) c pht i t cc my u cui n trm gc, cn ng xung (t trm gc n my u cui) l tn hiu ghp knh theo thi gian (TDM: Time Division Multiplexing) c pht i t trm gc cho cc my u cui, (xem hnh 1.5a). c th phn b tn s thng minh hn, phng php TDMA/TDD (TDD: Time Division Multiplexing) c s dng. Trong phng php ny c hai ng ln v ng xung u s dng chung mt tn s, tuy nhin phn chia ng pht v ng thu cc khe thi gian pht v thu c pht i cc khang thi gian khc nhau (xem hnh 1.5b)

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TDMA/FDD

a) f1
TB TB TB TB

TB MS1

f1
Trm gc TB

MS2

f1
TB

MS3

f1

MSn

TB

f1

b)
MS1 TX MS2 TB MS3

TDMA/TDD
Trm gc

RX

TB

TB

TB

fi

TX : trm gc pht Rx : trm gc thu


MSn

Hnh 1.5. Cc phng php a truy nhp: a) TDMA/FDD; b) TDMA/TDD b. To cm Qu trnh to cm c m t hnh 1.6. My pht ca trm gc nhn thng tin dng lung c s hai lin tc c tc bit Rb t giao tip ngi s dng. Thng tin ny phi c lu gi cc b nh m v c ghp thm thng tin iu khin b
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sung to thnh mt cm bao gm thng tin ca ngi s dng v thng tin iu khin b sung .

Lung ca cc ngi s dng

1
Ghp knh (TDMA) v iu ch R
b

2
Z

Lung s cn pht n ngi s dng 1 Lung s cn pht n ngi s dng 2 Lung s cn pht n ngi s dng 3

Cu trc cm (tc R)
Tc Rb

Cc b m

Tc Rb

B ghp khung TDMA

B iu ch

Tc Rb

nh thi TDMA

K hiu Ri= tc bit ca ngi s dng (bps)

R= tc k hiu iu ch cho sng mang


TS= rng khe thi gian , Tb= rng cm , TF= rng khung = Khong trng bo v , = thng tin b sung

Hnh 1.6. Qu trnh to cm mt h thng v tuyn TDMA

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Sau cm c t vo khe thi gian TB tng ng b ghp khung TDMA. Gia cc cm c th c cc khong trng trnh vic chng ln cc cm ln `nhau khi ng b khng c tt. u ra ca b ghp khung TDMA ta c lung ghp c tc iu ch R a n b iu ch. Tc iu ch R iu ch cho sng mang c xc nh nh sau: R = Rb(TF/TB) [bps] trong TB thi gian ca cm, cn TF l thi gian ca mt khung. Gi tr R ln khi thi gian ca cm nh v v th thi gian chim (TB/TF) cho mt knh truyn dn thp. Chng hn nu Rb= 10kbit/s v (TF/TB) = 10, iu ch xy ra tc 100kbit/s. Lu rng R l tng dung lng ca mng o bng bps. T kho st trn c th thy rng v sao dng truy nhp ny lun lun lin quan n truyn dn s: n d dng lu gi cc bit trong thi gian mt khung v v nhanh chng gii phng b nh ny trong khong thi gian mt cm. Khng d dng thc hin dng x l ny cho cc thng tin tng t. Mi cm ngoi thng tin lu lng cn cha thng tin b sung nh: 1) u cha: Thng tin khi phc sng mang (CR: Carrier Recovery) v ng b ng h bit ca my thu (BTR: Bit Timing Recovery). T duy nht (UW : Unique Word) cho php my thu xc nh khi u ca mt cm. UW cng cho php gii quyt c s khng r rng v pha (khi cn thit) trong trng hp gii iu ch nht qun. Khi bit c khi u ca cm, tc bit v xy ra s khng r rng pha my thu c th xc nh c cc bit i sau t duy nht. Nhn dng knh (CI: Channel Identifier). Cc thng tin ni trn c th c t ring r v tp trung u cm hay c th kt hp vi nhau hay phn b nhiu ch trong mt s khung (trng hp cc t ng b khung phn b). (1.1)

2) Bo hiu v iu khin 3) Kim tra ng truyn

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Trong mt s h thng cc thng tin b sung trn c th c t cc knh dnh ring. c. Thu cm Qu trnh x l my thu ca my v tuyn u cui 3 c cho hnh 1.7. Phn x l khung TDMA s iu khin vic m cng cho cm cn thu trong khe thi gian TS3 dnh cho my u cui ny. My thu xc nh khi u ca mi cm (hoc mi khung) bng cch pht hin t duy nht, sau n ly ra lu lng dnh cho mnh t khung TDMA. (Lu rng mt s h thng nh ng b chung trong mng nn my thu c th xc nh ngay c khe thi gian dnh cho n m khng cn t duy nht). Lu lng ny c thu nhn khng lien tc vi tc bit l R. khi phc li tc bit ban u Rb dng mt lung s lin tc, thong tin c lu gi b m trong khong thi gian ca khung ang xt v c c ra t b nh m ny tc Rb trong khong thi gian ca khung sau. iu quan trng xc nh c ni dung ca cm ni trn l trm thu phi c kh nng pht hin c t duy nht khi u ca mi cm (hoc mi khung). B pht hin t duy nht xc nh mi tng quan gia cc chui bit u ra ca b pht hin bit ca my thu, chui ny c cng di nh t duy nht v l mu ca t duy nht c lu gi b nh ca b tng quan. Ch c cc chui thu to ra cc nh tng quan ln hn mt ngng th c gi li nh l cc t duy nht

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3
Z

My u cui 3

Gii iu ch

Ca m ti TS3

B m Tc Rb t

nh thi TDMA

Hnh 1.7. Qu trnh thu cm trong TDMA d. ng b TDMA vn ng b rt quan trng. ng b cho php xc nh ng v tr ca cm cn ly ra my thu hay cn pht i my pht tng ng. Nu cc my u cui l my di ng th ng b cn phi xt n c v tr ca my ny so vi trm gc. V vn ng b chng ta s xt cc h thng a truy nhp v tuyn c th. So vi FDMA, TDMA cho php tit kim tn s v thit b thu pht hn. Tuy nhin nhiu h thng nu ch s dng mt cp tn s th khng m bo dung lng ca mng. V th TDMA thng c s dng kt hp vi FDMA cho cc mng i hi dung lng cao. Nhc im cu TDMA l i hi ng b tt v thit b phc tp hn FDMA khi cn dung lng truyn dn cao, ngoi ra do i hi x l s phc tp nn xy ra hin tng hi m. 1.3.2. a truy cp phn chia theo m CDMA. Vi phng php a truy cp CDMA s dng k thut tri ph cho nn nhiu ngi s dng c th chim cng knh v tuyn ng thi tin hnh cc cuc gi m khng s gy nhiu ln nhau.Nhng ngi s dng ni trn c phn bit vi nhau nh dng mt m c trng khng trng vi bt k ai.Knh v tuyn CDMA c
16

dng li mi cell trong ton mng, v nhng knh ny cng c phn bit nhau nh m tri ph gi ngu nhin (Pseudo Noise - PN). a. c im ca CDMA: -Di tn tn hiu rng hng MHz. -S dng k thut tri ph phc tp. -K thut tri ph cho php tn hiu v tuyn s dng c cng trng rt nh v chng fading hiu qu hn FDMA, TDMA.. -Vic cc thu bao MS trong cell dng chung tn s khin cho thit b truyn dn v tuyn n gin, vic thay i k hoch tn s khng cn vn , chuyn giao tr thnh mm, iu khin dung lng cell rt linh hot. CDMA l phng thc a truy nhp m mi knh c cung cp mt cp tn s v mt m duy nht. y l phng thc a truy nhp mi, phng thc ny da trn nguyn l tri ph. Tn ti ba phng php tri ph: Tri ph theo chui trc tip (DS: Direct Sequency). Tri ph theo nhy tn (FH: Frequency Hopping). Tri ph theo nhy thi gian. (TH: Time Hopping).

b. Cc h thng thng tin tri ph Trong cc h thng thng tin thng thng rng bng tn l vn quan tm chnh v cc h thng ny c thit k s dng cng t rng bng tn cng tt. Trong cc h thng iu ch bin song bin, rng bng tn cn thit pht mt ngun tn hiu tng t gp hai ln rng bng tn ca ngun ny. Trong cc h thng iu tn rng bng tn ny c th bng vi ln rng bng tn ngun ph thuc vo ch s iu ch. i vi mt tn hiu s, rng bng tn cn thit c cng gi tr vi tc bit ca ngun. rng bng tn chnh xc cn thit trong trng hp ny ph thuc v kiu iu ch (BPSK , QPSK v.v...). Trong cc h thng thng tin tri ph (vit tt l SS: Spread Spectrum) rng bng tn ca tn hiu c m rng, thng thng hng trm ln trc khi c pht. Khi ch c mt ngi s dng trong bng tn SS, s dng bng tn nh vy khng c hiu qu. Tuy nhin mi trng nhiu ngi s dng, cc ngi s dng ny c th dng chung mt bng tn SS (tri ph) v h thng tr nn s dng bng tn c hiu sut m vn duy tr c cc u im cu tri ph. Mt h thng thng tin s c coi l SS nu:

17

Tn hiu c pht chim rng bng tn ln hn rng bng tn ti thiu cn thit pht thng tin. Tri ph c thc hin bng mt m c lp vi s liu.

Hnh 1.8 cho thy s khi chc nng cu mt h thng thng tin SS in hnh cho hai cu hnh: v tinh v mt t. Ngun tin c th s hay tng t. Nu ngun l tng t th trc ht n phi c s ho bng mt s bin i tng t vo s nh: iu xung m hay iu ch delta. B nn tn hiu loi b hay gim d thng tin ngun s. Sau u ra c m ho bi b lp m hiu chnh li (m ho knh) a vo cc bit d cho vic pht hin hay sa li c th xy ra khi truyn dn tn hiu qua knh v tuyn. Ph ca tn hiu cn pht c tri rng n rng bng tn cn thit sau b iu ch s chuyn ph ny n di tn c cp cho truyn dn. Sau tn hiu iu ch c khuych i, c pht qua knh truyn dn, knh ny c th l di t hoc v tinh. Knh ny c th gy ra cc gim cht lng nh: nhiu, tp m v suy hao cng sut tn hiu. Lu rng i vi SS th cc b nn/gin v m ho/ gii m hiu chnh li (m ho/ gii m knh) l tu chn. Ngoi ra cng cn lu rng v tr cu cc chc nng tri ph v iu ch c th i ln. Hai chc nng ny thng c kt hp v thc hin mt khi. Ti phi thu my thu khi phc li tn hiu ban u bng cch thc hin cc qu trnh ngc vi pha pht: gii iu ch tn hiu thu, gii tri ph, gii m v gin tn hiu nhn c mt tn hiu s. Nu ngun l tng t th tn hiu s ny c bin i vo tng t bng mt b bin i s/ tng t.

18

u vo s

Khuch i giao din ng s Khuch i giao din ng tng t

Nn s liu

M ha knh Ngun chui gi tp m tri ph

u vo tng t

iu ch (BPSK, QPSK)

Khuch i cng sut Knh v tinh Knh truyn dn suy hao v tuyn Knh truyn dn suy hao v tuyn Pht p v tinh Nhiu

Bin i AD

Song mang

Knh mt t My pht My thu Cc chc nng ty chn Nhiu

Tp m

Tp m

Song mang u ra s Khuch i giao din ng s Khuch i cng sut

Knh truyn dn suy hao v tuyn

Nhiu Tp m

Nn s liu

Gii m knh Chui gi tp m gii tri ph

Gii iu ch

u ra tng t

Khuch i giao din ng tng t

Bin i AD

ng b chui Gi tp m

Hnh 1.8. S khi ca mt h thng thng tin s in hnh vi tri ph (cu hnh h thng mt t v v tinh) C ba kiu h thng SS c bn: chui trc tip (DSSS: Direct-Sequence Spreading Spectrum), nhy tn (FHSS: Frequency-Hopping Spreading Spectrum) v nhy thi gian (THSS: Time-Hopping Spreading Spectrum) (hnh 1.9, 1.10 v 1.11). Cng c th nhn c cc h thng lai ghp t cc h thng ni trn. H thng DSSS t c tri ph bng cch nhn tn hiu ngun vi mt tn hiu gi ngu nhin c tc chip (Rc=1/Tc, Tc l thi gian mt chip) cao hn nhiu tc bit (Rb=1/Tb, Tb l thi gian mt bit) ca lung s cn pht. H thng FHSS t c tri ph bng cch nhy tn s mang trn mt tp (ln) cc tn s. Mu nhy tn c dng gi ngu nhin. Tn s trong khong thi gian ca mt chip Tc gi nguyn khng i. Tc nhy tn c th nhanh hoc chm. Trong h thng nhy tn nhanh, nhy tn c thc hin tc

19

cao hn tc bit ca bn tin, cn h thng nhy tn chm th ngc li.


Tb=Tn Tb=Tn

Trong : Tb = thi gian mt bit ca lung s cn pht Tn = Chu k ca m gi ngu nhin dng cho tri ph Tc = Thi gian mt chip ca m tri ph Hnh 1.9 Tri ph chui trc tip (DSSS)

fn
fn-1 fn-2

f3 f2 f1

Tc

2Tc

Hnh 1.10 tri ph nhy tn (FHSS)

20

khe thi gian pht (k bit)

Mt khung

Tf

2Tf

3Tf

T=Tf/M, trong M l s khe thi gian trong mt khung Hnh 1.11. Tri ph nhy thi gian (THSS) Trong h thng THSS mt khi cc bit s liu c nn v c pht ngt qung trong mt hay nhiu khe thi gian trong mt khung cha mt s lng ln cc khe thi gian. Mt mu nhy thi gian s xc nh cc khe thi gian no c s dng truyn dn trong mi khung. Lc u cc k thut SS c s dng trong cc h thng thng tin ca qun s. tng lc u l lm cho tn hiu c pht ging nh tp m i vi cc my thu khng mong mun bng cch gy kh khn cho cc my thu ny trong vic tch v ly ra c bn tin. bin i bn tin vo tn hiu ta tp m, ta s dng mt m c "coi l" ngu nhin m ho cho bn tin. Ta mun m ny ging ngu nhin nht. Tuy nhin my thu ch nh phi bit c m ny, v n cn to ra chnh m ny mt cch chnh xc v ng b vi m c pht ly ra bn tin (gii m). V th m "gi nh" ngu nhin phi l xc nh. Nn ta phi s dng m gi ngu nhin (hay m gi tp m). M gi ngu nhin phi c thit k c rng bng ln hn nhiu so vi rng bng cu bn tin. Bn tin trn c bin i bi m sao cho tn hiu nhn c c rng ph gn bng rng ph ca tn hiu gi ngu nhin. C th coi s bin i ny nh mt qu trnh "m ho". Qu trnh ny c gi l qu trnh tri ph. Ta ni rng my pht bn tin c tri ph bi m gi ngu nhin. My thu phi gii tri ph ca tn hiu thu c tr li rng ph bng rng ph ca bn tin.

21

Hin ny phn ln cc quan tm v cc h thng SS l cc ng dng a truy nhp m nhiu ngi s dng cng chia s mt rng bng tn truyn dn. Trong h thng DSSS tt c cc ngi s dng cng dng chung mt bng tn v pht tn hiu ca h ng thi. My thu s dng tn hiu gi ngu nhin chnh xc ly ra tn hiu mong mun bng cch gii tri ph. Cc tn hiu khc xut hin dng cc nhiu ph rng cng sut thp ta tp m. cc h thng FHSS v THSS mi ngi s dng c n nh mt m gi ngu nhin sao cho khng c cp my pht no s dng cng tn s hay cng khe thi gian, nh vy cc my pht s trnh c xung t. Nh vy FH v TH l cc kiu h thng trnh xung t, trong khi DS l kiu h thng ly trung bnh. Cc m tri ph c th l cc m gi tp m (PN code) hoc cc m c to ra t cc hm trc giao. 1.4. SO SNH DUNG LNG H THNG FDMA,TDMA,CDMA

Trong FDMA v TDMA, tng bng tn Bt c chia thnh M knh truyn dn, mi knh c rng bng tn tng ng l Bc. V th dung lng v tuyn cho FDMA v TDMA c xc nh nh sau: Kmax= trong (1.1)

Kmax l s ngi s dng cc i trong mt , M=Bt/Bc tng s knh tn s hay s knh tng ng, Bt l tng bng tn c cp pht, Bc l knh v tuyn tng ng cho mt ngi s dng , i vi h thng TTD FDMA th Bc= bng thng knh v tuyn cn i vi TDMA th Bc= bng thng knh v tuyn/ s khe thi gian (chng hn i vi TDMA AMPS Bc=30kHz cn i vi TDMA GSM Bc= 100kHz/8TS=25kHz), N l kch thc cm bng ( N=7 i vi FDMA AMPS, N=3 i vi TDMAGSM, C l cng sut

trung bnh sng mang v I l cng sut nhiu. Kmax= f= trong Gp l li x l, h s iu khin cng sut hon ho Ebr/N'0 l t s tn hiu trn tp m cng nhiu,
22

(1.2) (1.3)

l tha s tch cc ting, l li phn on , f l tha s ti s dng tn s, l h s nhiu n t cc khc, Bt l tng bng thng c cp pht Bc bng thng ca mt knh CDMA = Ta s so snh dung lng ca ba h thng FDMA, TDMA v CDMA trong tng bng tn cp pht Bt = 12,5MHz. Ta s dng (1.1) tnh s ngi s dng ng thi cc i trn mt cho FDMA v TDMA. Vi N=7, KmaxFDMA=59 ngi/. Vi N=4, KmaxTDMA = 125 ngi/. i vi IS-95 CDMA, vi Bc=1,25 (cho CDMA IS=95), Ebr/N'0=6dB (E/N'0=100,6= 3,98); Gp=128; =0,5, =2,25 v =0,6 S dng phng trnh (1.2) ta c KmaxCDMA=920ngi/. Nh vy dung lng h thng CDMA gp: 920:59=15,6 ln FDMA v gp:920:125=7,36 ln TDMA. Chnh nh cho dung lng cao hn cc h thng FDMA v TDMA nn CDMA c chn cho cc h thng thng tin di ng th h ba. 1.5. H THNG THNG TIN DI NG TH H BA .

W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access - truy cp a phn m bng rng) l cng ngh 3G hot ng da trn CDMA v c kh nng h tr cc dch v a phng tin tc cao nh video, truy cp Internet, hi tho hnh... WCDMA nm trong di tn 1920 MHz -1980 MHz, 2110 MHz - 2170 MHz. W-CDMA gip tng tc truyn nhn d liu cho h thng GSM bng cch dng k thut CDMA hot ng bng tn rng thay th cho TDMA. Trong cc cng ngh thng tin di ng th h ba th W-CDMA nhn c s ng h ln nht nh vo tnh linh hot ca lp vt l trong vic h tr cc kiu dch v khc nhau c bit l dch v tc bit thp v trung bnh. W-CDMA c cc tnh nng c s sau : - Hot ng CDMA bng rng vi bng tn 5MHz. - Lp vt l mm do tch hp c tt c thng tin trn mt sng mang. - H s ti s dng tn s bng 1. - H tr phn tp pht v cc cu trc thu tin tin.
23

Nhc im chnh ca W-CDMA l h thng khng cp php trong bng TDD pht lin tc cng nh khng to iu kin cho cc k thut chng nhiu cc mi trng lm vic khc nhau. H thng thng tin di ng th h ba W-CDMA c th cung cp cc dch v vi tc bit ln n 2MBit/s. Bao gm nhiu kiu truyn dn nh truyn dn i xng v khng i xng, thng tin im n im v thng tin a im. Vi kh nng , cc h thng thng tin di ng th h ba c th cung cp d dng cc dch v mi nh : in thoi thy hnh, ti d liu nhanh, ngoi ra n cn cung cp cc dch v a phng tin khc.
KBit/s 2M
Truyn hnh hi ngh (Cht lng cao) Y t t xa a phng tin di ng Qung b

Truy nhp c s d liu

Cc dch v phn phi thng tin

384
Truyn hnh hi ngh (Cht lng thp)

Truy nhp Interne t

Mua hng theo Catalog Video Bo in t Th ting

Video theo yu c u

Truyn hnh di ng

64

Karaoke

Tin tc
ISDN

Truyn thanh di ng

32
m thoi hi ngh

WWW

16 9.6 2.4 1.2


i xng in thoi

Th in t

Xut bn in t

D bo thi tit
H.nh

Thng tin

S liu

FTP

Th in t

FAX

lu lng

Ting

Khng i xng im n im

a phng a im

Hnh 1.12 Cc dch v a phng tin trong h thng thng tin di ng th h ba Cc nh khai thc c th cung cp rt nhiu dch v i vi khch hng, t cc dch v in thoi khc nhau vi nhiu dch v b sung cng nh cc dch v khng
24

lin quan n cuc gi nh th in t, FPT Cng trnh nghin cu ca cc nc chu u cho W-CDMA bt u t n CODIT (Code Division Multiplex Testbed : Phng th nghim a truy cp theo m) v FRAMES (Future Radio Multiplex Access Scheme : K thut a truy cp v tuyn trong tng lai) t u thp nin 90. Cc d n ny tin hnh th nghim cc h thng W-CDMA nh gi cht lng ng truyn. Theo cc chuyn gia trong ngnh vin thng, ng ti 3G ca GSM l WCDMA. Nhng trn con ng , cc nh khai thc dch v in thoi di ng phi tri qua giai on 2,5G. Th h 2,5G bao gm nhng g? l: d liu chuyn mch gi tc cao (HSCSD), dch v v tuyn gi chung GPRS v Enhanced Data Rates for Global Evolution (EDGE). Cng ngh thng tin di ng s th h ba W-CDMA. Cng ngh ny lin quan n nhng ci tin ang c thc hin trong lnh vc truyn thng khng dy cho in thoi v d liu thng qua bt k chun no trong nhng chun hin nay. u tin l tng tc bit truyn t 9.5Kbps ln 2Mbps. Khi s lng thit b cm tay c thit k truy cp Internet gia tng, yu cu t ra l phi c c cng ngh truyn thng khng dy nhanh hn v cht lng hn. Cng ngh ny s nng cao cht lng thoi, v dch v d liu s h tr vic gi ni dung video v multimedia n cc thit b cm tay v in thoi di ng. Cc h thng thng tin di ng s hin nay ang giai on chuyn t th h 2.5G sang th h 3 (3 - Generation). p ng nhu cu ngy cng tng v cc dch v thng tin di ng, ngay t u nhng nm u ca thp k 90 ngi ta tin hnh nghin cu hoch nh h thng thng tin di ng th h ba. ITU -R ang tin hnh cng tc tiu chun ha cho h thng thng tin di ng ton cu IMT-2000. chu u ETSI ang tin hnh tiu chun ha phin bn ny vi tn gi l UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunnication System). H thng mi ny s lm vic di tn 2GHz. N s cung cp nhiu loi hnh dch v bao gm cc dch v thoi v s liu tc cao, video v truyn thanh. Tc cc i ca ngi s dng c th ln n 2Mbps. Ngi ta cng ang tin hnh nghin cu cc h thng v tuyn th h th t c tc ln n 32Mbps. H thng thng tin di ng th h ba c xy dng trn c s IMT 2000 vi cc tiu ch sau : - S dng di tn quy nh quc t 2GHz vi ng ln c di tn 18852025MHz v ng xung c di tn 2110-2200MHz.
25

- L h thng thng tin di ng ton cu cho cc loi hnh thng tin v tuyn, tch hp cc mng thng tin hu tuyn v v tuyn, ng thi tng tc vi mi loi dch v vin thng. - H thng thng tin di ng 3G s dng cc mi trng khai thc khc nhau. - C th h tr cc dch v nh : Mi trng thng tin nh o (VHE Vitual Home Environment) trn c s mng thng minh, di ng c nhn v chuyn mch ton cu; m bo chuyn mng quc t; m bo cc dch v a phng tin ng thi cho thoi, s liu chuyn mch theo knh v s liu chuyn mch theo gi. - D dng h tr cc dich v mi xut hin. Cc h thng thng tin di ng th h hai pht trin thng dng nht hin nay l : GSM, cdmaOne (IS-95), TDMA (IS-136), PDC. Trong qu trnh thit k h thng thng tin di ng th h ba, cc h thng th h hai c c quan chun ha ca tng vng xem xt a ra cc xut tng ng thch hp vi mi vng.

26

CHNG 2 CC CNG NGH TRUYN DN V TUYN W-CDMA


2.1. CNG NGH TRI PH W- CDMA 2.1.1. Nguyn l tri ph chui trc tip (DS-CDMA)

Tri ph chui trc tip (DS) c s dng cho h thng di ng CDMA th h th hai ca M, h thng CDMA-WLL ca Nht v hin ang c s dng trong cc h thng di ng th h th ba W-CDMA. Trong cc h thng tri ph DS, mt s liu bng gc dng nh phn lng cc in hnh c tc k hiu (1/Ts) s c nhn vi mt chui nh phn lng cc gi ngu nhin c tc "chip " (1/Tc) ln hn nhiu so vi tc k hiu (Ts = NTc). Nh minh ho khi qut trong hnh 2.1, hiu qu ca qu trnh ny l tri rng rng bng tc thi ca dng sng theo h s N, vi cng mt mc cng sut tn hiu lm cho mt ph cng sut ca tn hiu tr nn kh thp v " ging nh tp m ". Trong hnh 2.3, trnh by mt ph RF n bin, cng sut tn hiu c biu th l PS = A1W = A0B, chng t rng mt ph cng sut ca tn hiu tri ph gim i mt h s A1/A0 = B/W =1/ N so vi mc khi khng tri ph. Ti pha my thu, "qu trnh gii tri ph" (nhn vi cng mt chui nh phn c dng tri ph pha my pht) v gii iu ch s khi phc li c s liu bng gc nguyn thu, cho php my thu lc b phn ln nhiu bng rng. Gi s rng b lc u vo my thu nhn tn hiu cn thu c rng bng W Hz ( nh hnh 2.3), th my thu cng thu c cc nhiu trong rng bng ny. Trong hnh ny, gi thit rng mc nhiu l N0 c th tng i ln so vi mc thu lm cho t s SNR ca tn hiu RF l (SNR)RF = A1 /N0 < 1. Nhng sau khi tri ph, rng bng ca tn hiu cn thu gim n gi tr ban u B, trong khi rng bng ca nhiu vn l W. Nh vy, qu trnh lc i vi rng bng tn tn hiu c th c s dng loi b cng sut nhiu trong SNR ca s liu bng gc. (SNR)Bng gc = = =N = .(SNR)RF (2.1)

27

a.Pha pht ca h thng

Ph RF

PS=A1W=A0B A0 W A1 f -B 0 B f0 f

Ts 1/B Dng sng s liu iu ch song mang Tc = NTs 1/W

Dng sng tri ph

b.Pha thu ca h thng

Gii tri ph v gii iu ch

Lc

Dng sng s liu c khi phc

Nhiu

Ph tn hiu sau gii iu ch

W N0 A1 f f0 -B 0 B

Hnh 2.1 H thng tri ph DS-CDMA Mt li x l N = W/B = t s ca tc chp / tc k hiu v cn c gi l h s tri ph (SF) th hin mc chng nhiu bng rng s t c nh s dng qu trnh trn (nhn) v lc (tng quan). Nu thu c mt bn sao b tr ca tn hiu cn thu (tc l mt thnh phn sng trong hiu ng nhiu tia ), qu trnh trn bi cc sng tri ph my thu khng lm gim rng bng tn ca tn hiu ny nu hm tng quan ca dng sng tri ph c cc thuc tnh mong mun nht nh tho
28

mn bi cc chui gi ngu nhin. Nh vy, h thng tri ph DS thu c mt li x l chng nhiu do hin tng nhiu tia t tn hiu cn thu cng nh chng hin tng jamming hoc nhiu t nhng thu bao khc. Kh nng ny ca h thng tri ph DS tch ra tn hiu cn thu v kh nhiu do hin tng nhiu tia c khai thc bi mt k thut thu gi l " rake", k thut ny s thu cc tia sng n my thu qua nhiu ng khc nhau (multipath) s dng cc mch pht chui PN c cc thi gian tr khc nhau, sp xp li cc tia sng ny theo thi gian v sau kt hp chng thu c mt li phn tp. 2.1.2. M tri ph v ng b m tri ph C mt s yu cu nht nh i vi cc m tri ph, trong c bit quan trng l yu cu: nh t tng quan phi nhn (t cc i ti mt im) khi ng b (dch thi = 0) v phi t cc tiu ti cc im khc ( khi dch thi khc 0 v khi xt mi tng quan gia cc m khc nhau mi thi im). Mt loi m p ng c yu cu ny l m Gold, cu trc ca b m ny c trnh by trong hnh 2.3, y cng chnh l cu trc b m ngu nhin c s dng ng xung ca W-CDMA. Cc chui m ny c chu k bng hm m 2n (n 3), trong cc s 0 s c thay bng cc s "-1" v c gi l cc m Gold trc giao. C mt loi m khc cng l m trc giao l m Walsh, m ny c to ra bi cc ma trn Hadamard ( tham kho ti liu cng ngh CDMA ca d n JICA-PTTC1 ). S cc t m Walsh v cc t m Gold trc giao bng vi di ca mi t m v bng vi h s tri ph (SF) ca loi m . Do , s cc m tri ph c th c s dng trong mt s b gii hn v khng th m rng dung lng h thng. c th s dng cng cc chui m trc giao lp li trong mi , hai lp m tri ph c s dng bng vic kt hp tri ph bng cc m trc giao vi tri ph bng cc m ngu nhin (c di ln hn). ly ra c cc s liu tin tc, thu di ng ch cn thc hin vic ng b m tri ph vi hai qu trnh l tm nhn v bm ng b, trong qu trnh bm ng b duy tr nh thi ng b trong khong 1 chip so vi ng b tm nhn c. B gii tri ph c th l mt b tng quan trt. Trong W-CDMA, b tng quan trt thng c s dng, trong khi MF thng c s dng trong bc u tin ca qu trnh tm nhn ba bc c cp phn 2.2.2. bm ng b, vng kho tr (DLL) thng c s dng, trong vic xc nh li nh thi ( ng cong S) theo tham chiu ti nh tng quan c thc hin bng cch dch nh thi ng b ca cc m tri ph bng ( thng thng, = 1/2 di chip) v iu chnh nh thi ca bn sao m tri ph gim thiu li nh thi. Trong mi trng thng tin di ng
29

a ng, cng sut thu v thi gian tr thay i rt khc nhau trong mi ng truyn. mi trng nh vy, vic tm nhn ng truyn thng da trn thng tin v tr cng sut tn hiu . 2.1.3. Cu hnh chc nng ca my pht v my thu v tuyn a. Cc chc nng phn pht Cc chc nng ca phn pht c m t di y. Sau khi m ho, gn cc m sa li v x l an xen, tn hiu thoi v s liu c iu ch phn tri ph. Sau tn hiu c iu ch trc giao v gi i trn sng mang pht n my pht v tuyn

S liu pht

M ha

Gn cc m sa li an xen

iu ch tri ph

iu ch trc giao

My pht RF

Hnh 2.2 Cc chc nng phn pht trong h thng DS-CDMA b. Cc chc nng phn thu Tn hiu thu c gii iu ch trc giao sau khi bin i tn s v loi b tp m. Tip theo, tn hiu thu c a n phn x l tng hp qut (rake synthesizing), sa li v gii xen k, sau n phn gii m knh thu li tn hiu ban u.
S liu thu (t my thu v tuyn) Gii iu ch trc giao Gii tri ph Kt hp tn hiu thu rake Sa li an xen Gii m knh

Hnh 2.3 Cc chc nng phn thu trong h thng DS-CDMA 2.1.4. ng dng cc u im ca cng ngh W-CDMA trong cc h thng di ng

a. iu chnh cng sut pht (TPC) H thng W-CDMA cung cp chc nng iu khin cng sut hai chiu, chiu i (t BS ti my di ng ) v chiu v ( t my di ng ti BS ) nng cao dung lng, m bo dch v thoi cht lng cao v cc li ch khc. Mc ch ca vic iu khin cng sut pht my di ng l iu khin cng sut pht sao cho tn hiu pht ca tt c cc my di ng trong cng mt vng phc v c th c thu vi mt cng
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(cng sut) danh nh ti my thu ca BS. Khi cng sut pht ca tt c cc my di ng trong vng phc v c iu khin nh vy th tng cng sut thu ti my thu ca BS bng cng sut thu danh nh nhn vi s my di ng. Cn phi ti u ho cc li ch ca h thng W-CDMA bng cch tng s lng cc cuc gi ng thi trong mt bng tn cho trc. Dung lng h thng c tng ln ti a khi tn hiu pht ca my di ng c thu bi BS c t s tn hiu trn nhiu mc yu cu ti thiu nh vic iu khin cng sut pht my di ng. Cht lng thng tin ca my di ng s gim nu tn hiu ca my di ng c thu bi BS qu yu. Nu tn hiu ca my di ng qu kho th cht lng thng tin ca my di ng s c ci thin nhng nhiu ti cc my di ng khc cng s dng mt knh s tng ln lm cho cht lng cuc gi ca cc thu bao khc s gim nu nh dung lng ti a khng gim. b. Kh nng ti s dng tn s Tt c cc BS u ti s dng knh bng rng trong h thng W-CDMA. Tng lng nhiu trong tn hiu ca my di ng thu nhn t BS l tng lng nhiu gy ra bi cc my di ng khc trong cng BS v lng nhiu gy ra bi cc my di ng cc BS ln cn. Ni cch khc, mi tn hiu ca mt my di ng gy nhiu ti tt c cc tn hiu ca cc my di ng khc. Tng lng nhiu t tt c cc my di ng trong cc BS ln cn th bng mt na tng lng nhiu t cc my di ng trong cng mt BS. Hiu sut ti s dng tn s ca BS v hng l khong 65%. Hnh 2.4 miu t nhiu t cc BS ln cn theo %. Lng nhiu t mi BS trong vng ngoi vi th nht tng ng vi 6% tng lng nhiu. Nh vy tng lng nhiu t vng ngoi vi th nht l 6 ln 6%, tc l 36 %, tng lng nhiu do vng th hai v cc vng ngoi l nh hn 4%. Trong trng hp anten BS c nh hng ( tc l anten sc t 120o ) c s dng th lng nhiu trung bnh gim xung 1/3 v mi anten kim sot t i ch cn 1/3 s lng my di ng trong mt BS. Do , dung lng c cung cp bi ton b h thng tng ln xp x 3 ln.

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Hnh 2.4 Nhiu t cc BS ln cn c. Cung cp linh hot cc dch v vi tc truyn dn thay i Nh cc k thut iu chnh cng sut pht (TPC) v m ha ngun a tc m h thng W-CDMA c mt s tng quan linh hot gia s thu bao v cp dch v. V d, ngi s dng h thng c th tng tng s knh kh dng nu chp nhn t s li bt cao. Nh chc nng ny m c th trnh c vic tc nghn cuc gi do tc nghn knh trong khi chuyn giao. Trong h thng TDMA s v h thng tng t th cuc gi s c n nh ti ng truyn khc hoc s xy ra tc nghn cuc gi trong trng hp tc nghn knh khi chuyn giao. Nhng trong h thng W-CDMA th c th tho mn thm s cuc gi bng cch chp nhn tng t l li bt cho ti khi cuc gi khc hon thnh. H thng W-CDMA cng s dng cp dch v cung cp dch v cht lng cao (tc truyn dn cao ) theo gi thnh dch v v n nh cng sut (dung lng ) cao hn cho ngi s dng dch v cao cp. C th cung cp th t u tin cao hn khi chuyn giao cho ngi s dng dch v cao cp so vi ngi s dng dch v thng thng. d. Thu hiu qu cc tn hiu a ng nh k thut thu RAKE Cc my thu trong W-CDMA s dng k thut thu phn tp nhiu anten (thu RAKE). Trong k thut ny, khi thu RAKE c b iu khin a ng tch ra dng sng PN nh s dng cc b tng quan song song. My di ng s dng ba b tng quan, cn BS s dng bn b tng quan. Nh , khi thu RAKE s tm thu tn hiu qua mi ng, t hp v gii iu ch tt c cc tn hiu thu c. Hin tng pha inh c th xy ra trong mi tn hiu thu nhng khng c s tng quan gia cc ng thu. V
32

vy, t hp ca cc tn hiu thu c c tin cy rt cao, v kh nng xy ra hin tng pha inh ng thi trong tt c cc tn hiu thu l cc k thp. Nhiu b tch tng quan cho php thng tin ng thi vi hai BS qu trnh chuyn giao mm c s tham gia (h tr) ca my di ng c th thc hin c. e. Chuyn giao mm (phn tp trm gc) c s tham gia ca my di ng Nh miu t trong hnh 2.5, c BS ban u v BS mi cng tham gia vo vic chuyn giao cuc gi i vi chuyn giao mm. Vic chuyn giao cuc gi theo trnh t: BS ban u, c hai BS v BS mi. Lc ny lm ti thiu ho s gin on cuc gi v lm cho ngi s dng khng nhn thy trng thi chuyn giao. Nh vy, trong khi h thng tng t v h thng TDMA s chp nhn hnh thc chuyn giao " ct trc khi ni " th phng php chuyn giao mm ca h thng W-CDMA chn hnh thc " ni trc khi ct". Sau khi thit lp cuc gi, my di ng tip tc tm tn hiu ca BS ln cn so snh cng tn hiu ca ln cn vi cng tn hiu ca ang s dng. Nu cng tn hiu t ti mt mc nht nh no , tc l my di ng di chuyn sang vng phc v ca mt BS mi v qu trnh chuyn giao c th bt u. My di ng gi bn tin iu khin ti MSC thng bo v cng tn hiu v s hiu ca BS mi. Sau , MSC thit lp mt ng truyn mi gia my di ng v BS mi v bt u qu trnh chuyn giao trong khi vn gi ng truyn ban u. Trong trng hp my di ng ang trong mt vng chuyn giao gia hai BS th cuc gi c tr gip bi c hai BS sao cho qu trnh chuyn giao c th c thc hin m khng c hin tng "ping- pong" gia chng. BS ban u ngng tr gip cho cuc gi khi kt ni cuc gi vi BS mi c thc hin thnh cng.

33

Hnh 2.5 ng truyn trong qu trnh chuyn giao mm 2.2. CC CNG NGH TRUYN DN C BN TRONG W- CDMA

W-CDMA chim mt rng bng tn khong 5 MHz bng cch ng dng cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn DS-CDMA vi cc c tnh cp trn. rng bang tn ln hn to cho W-CDMA c kh nng phn chia v kt hp cc tn hiu thu truyn lan qua cc knh pha inh nhiu tia, gip ci thin cht lng thu nh phn tp thi gian RAKE. Chnh nh bng thng rng m W-CDMA c th cho php mt s lng ln cc thu bao thng tin tc cao, v d tc 64 v 384 kbit/s (cc th nghim cho thy truyn dn s liu cht lng cao tc 2 Mbit/s cng c th thc hin c vi rng bng tn 5 MHz ). Ngoi ra, cn nhiu li ch khc ca bng thng rng m W-CDMA c th khai thc cho cc cng ngh truy nhp v tuyn c trnh by di y. 2.2.1. n nh m tri ph hai lp v iu ch tri ph

Cu hnh d b cho php h thng m rng lin tc v linh hot t mi trng truyn lan ngoi tri n trong nh v khng phi i hi mt h thng nh v ton cu (GPS) hoc bt c h thng ng b ngoi no. xy dng mt h thng cc d b nh vy, W-CDMA phi s dng n k thut n nh m tri ph hai lp. Tc l, WCDMA thc hin tri ph kp s dng mt m ngn c chu k tng tc tng ng vi di k hiu ( c gi l m phn knh trong 3 GPP v m ngn c s dng phn bit mi knh vt l ng xung) v mt m ngu nhin c chu k tng tc
34

di hn di k hiu. i vi m phn knh th cc m trc giao nh m Walsh v m Gold trc giao c ng dng. Phng php n nh m h s tri ph bin thin trc giao (OVSF) cng c chp thun m bo tnh trc giao gia cc knh vi mt SF khc nhau (tc l tc k hiu). Hnh 2.6 minh ho phng php to ra cc m OVSF. Bt u vi Cch,1,0 = (1) (SF=1), cc m OVSF c th c to ra mt cch lin tc trong lp k tip ( tc l gp i SF ) da vo quy lut c bn c biu din bi phng trnh (2.2).
Cch,8,0=(1,1,1,1,1,1,1,1) Cch,4,0=(1,1,1,1) Cch,8,1=(1,1,1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1) Cch,2,0=(1,1) Cch,8,2=(1,1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1) Cch,4,1=(1,1,-1,-1) Cch,8,3=(1,1,-1,-1,-1,-1,1,1) Cch,1,0=(1) Cch,8,4=(1,-1,1,-1,1,-1,1,-1) Cch,4,2=(1,-1,1-,1) Cch,8,5=(1,-1,1,-1,-1,1,-1,1) Cch,2,0=(-1,1) Cch,8,6=(1,-1,-1,1,1,-1,-1,1) Cch,4,3=(1,-1,-1,1) Cch,8,7=(1,-1,-1,1,-1,1,1,-1)

SF=1

SF=2

SF=4

SF=8

Hnh 2.6 Phng php to m OVSF

(2.2)

lp SF = k, s m OVSF to ra l k v trc giao c duy tr gia cc m c tng s bng k. Ngoi ra, tnh trc giao c th c m bo ngay c gia hai m OVSF trong cc lp khc nhau ch khi khng m no c ly ra t m khc ( tc l chng c mi tng quan phn cp trong cy m). V d, tnh trc giao lun c duy tr gia Cch,2,0 v Cch,4,2 khng ph thuc vo mu k hiu ca s liu tin tc. Khi m Cch,2,0 c n nh, khng mt t m no c to ra t tng thp hn ca cy m Cch,2,0 c th p dng c (y l hn ch ca vic phn chia m OVSF). ng xung, cc tn hiu pht trn cc knh t BS n MS l cc tn hiu truyn lan a ng
35

v c thi gian truyn lan khc nhau do hin tng phn x bi cc cng trnh xy dng, cc ta nh v.v... trn cc ng truyn l khc nhau. Cc knh vt l chia s cng mt ng truyn lan s c cng phng php iu ch pha v bin . V th vic s dng cc m OVSF gia cc knh ghp ( cc knh vt l) chia s chung mt ng truyn to ra kh nng m bo tnh trc giao gia cc knh ngay c khi chng khng c cng SF ( tc l tc k hiu) n chng no chng cn s dng cng ng truyn lan. y l mt cch cc k hiu qu t c cc c tnh thu cht lng cao. Hnh 2.7 cho thy cc c tnh BER trung bnh ca MS ng xung khi s dng cc m OVSF c to ra theo phng trnh (2.2) lm cc m phn knh. Hnh v minh ho cc c tnh BER trung bnh ca mt knh n c SF = 8 ( tc k hiu = 512 ks/s) v mt knh ghp tc thp c kh nng truyn dn vi SF bin thin bao gm 8 knh c SF = 64 ( tc k hiu = 64 ks/s) trong mi knh. Kiu truyn lan y l kiu hai tia (hai ng) c cng cng sut trung bnh v chu nh hng ca pha inh Rayleeeigh c lp vi nhau. Hnh v cng minh ho cc thuc tnh ca truyn dn a m trc giao trn 16 knh, trong SF = 64 v c th bin thin, cng sut nhiu l ging nhau i vi mi knh. Trong trng hp SF bin thin v truyn dn a m nh minh ho trong hnh v, khi nhiu a ng (nhiu tia) tng th Eb/N0 thu trung bnh yu cu t c BER trung bnh = 10-3 cn phi tng xp x 0,5 dB so vi mt knh n ( Eb/N0 l t s nng lng bit trn tp m nn ). Tuy nhin, cc c tnh ca truyn dn SF bin thin l rt ging vi cc c tnh ca truyn dn a m v hnh v cho thy rng tnh trc giao c m bo trong cng ng truyn khi tc truyn nhanh hn gp 8 ln ( SF= 8). Vic u tin s dng SF bin thin gip t c t s cng sut nh/trung bnh pha pht thp hn so vi phng php truyn a m v cng to ra kh nng xy dng mt cu hnh my thu RAKE mt dy ti u cui thu. Trong trng hp truyn s liu tc cao, khi khng th t c tin cy ngay c khi SF c gim xung n 4 hoc 8, lc ny phng php truyn dn a m s dng cc knh m ghp ca SF c ng dng. Cc phng php truyn dn SF bin thin v truyn dn a m to cho W-CDMA kh nng truyn tin mt cch linh hot trn mt phm vi rng t cc thng tin tc thp (bng tn thoi ) n thng tin tc cao .

36

Hnh 2.7 Cc c tnh BER trung bnh ng xung s dng cc m OVSF Hnh 2.8 minh ho qu trnh iu ch tri ph cho knh vt l ring (DPCH) ng ln trong W-CDMA. DPCH bao gm knh s liu vt l ring (DPDCH) c ghp vo cc thnh phn ng pha (I) v knh iu khin vt l ring (DPCCH) c ghp vo cc thnh phn pha vung gc (Q). DPDCH cha cc bt tin m ho knh v DPCCH cha cc bt hoa tiu c tnh knh, cc bt TPC ng xung, cc bt ch th kt hp khun dng truyn ti (TFCI) v cc bt thng tin phn hi (FBI) c s dng iu khin phn tp pht ng xung. Qu trnh tri ph ca cc m phn knh c thc hin bng cch s dng cc m OVSF khc nhau cho mi chui s liu c sp xp trn mt phng pha I/Q. Qu trnh tri ph phc hp c thc hin trn chui s liu tri ph knh I/Q bng cch s dng hai m ngu nhin c to ra bi phng php dch thi gian, theo phng trnh (2.3), SI = DICI DQCQ SQ = DICQ - DQCI (2.3) Trong phng trnh (2.3), DI(Q) l thnh phn I ( hoc Q) ca chui s liu tri ph bng cc m phn knh, ngc li CI(Q) l thnh phn I ( hoc Q) ca m ngu nhin, GDPDCH v GDPCCH biu din li x l tng ng ca cc knh ca cc knh DPDCH v DPCCH. Li ch ca tri ph phc hp l khi bin ca DPCCH khc vi bin ca DPDCH (tc l GDPDCH GDPCCH ) th n c th gim c bn gi tr cng sut nh so vi phng php thc hin tri ph trn cc knh I v Q c lp vi nhau, trong khi t
37

s cng sut nh trn cng sut trung bnh vn khng i. Trong phng php iu ch tri ph QPSK, s dch pha ca chip s liu sau tri ph trn mt phng pha I/Q ( tc l s dch pha sau cng ca sng mang khi iu ch) c th thay i 1800 so vi tn hiu gc. Trong trng hp dch pha nh vy, nh hng ca mo phi tuyn trong khi khuych i (AMP) cng sut tng, 3GPP qui nh s dng phng php iu ch pha lai ghp (HPSK) gim kh nng dch pha 1800 nh vy v dn ti gim nh hng ca mo phi tuyn trong khi khuych i cng sut.

Hnh 2.8 S khi qut qu trnh tri ph phc 2.2.2. Tm nhn

Trong W-CDMA, khi thit lp mt ng truyn v tuyn gia BS v MS, u tin MS s thit lp ng b m tri ph ng xung v sau gii m tin tc knh qung (BCH) nm trong knh vt l iu khin chung c bn (P-CCPCH) ng xung. Cc tn hiu c pht trn mt knh truy nhp ngu nhin (RACH) ng ln theo mt nh thi pht xc nh trc. Sau , BS thit lp ng b m tri ph ng ln v gii m tin tc RACH, thit lp ng truyn v tuyn c ng ln v ng xung. Ngay sau khi bt ngun hoc trc khi bc vo qu trnh chuyn giao mm hay khi trong ch thu khng lin tc ( ch ch ), MS cn tm ra c suy hao ng truyn nh nht. Qu trnh ny s tm ra mt vi mt m ngu nhin knh hoa tiu chung (CPICH) c cng sut thu ln nht ng xung. Qu trnh ny c gi l qu trnh tm nhn v n lin quan n vic tm ra cc yu cu thit lp ng truyn v tuyn. Mi khi ng truyn v tuyn c thit lp bng cch thit lp ng b m tri ph ng xung, MS s pht RACH ti mt thi im xc nh trc c tham chiu vi nh thi ng xung, nh vy BS c th nhanh chng thit lp ng b m tri ph bt chp di ca m tri ph, n gin bng cch tch nh thi qu trnh ng b m tri ph trong khong thi gian khng c nh ( khong thi gian ca ca s tm kim ng ln ) c xc nh bi thi gian tr truyn lan. C ba ch tm nhn : th nht l ch tm nhn ban u l ch tm nhn cc yu cu
38

thit lp ng truyn v tuyn khi MS bt ngun, th hai l ch tm nhn ch chuyn giao trc khi thc hin chuyn giao mm v cui cng l ch tm nhn cc yu cu thit lp ng truyn v tuyn trong trng hp thu khng lin tc ch ch. Ni chung, vic ng b cc m tri ph yu cu tch ra mc tng quan trong qu trnh tnh ton nh thi i vi di ( s chip) ca mi v mi m tri ph tm v tch ra cc im ng b. ng xung, s cc m ng b l mt b m c gi tr ln , 512, m bo n nh cc m ngu nhin mt cch linh hot. Do , trong qu trnh tm nhn ban u, MS cn x l tm kim lin tip trn 512 loi m ngu nhin tm ra m ngu nhin ca c suy hao ng truyn nh nht yu cu thit lp ng truyn v tuyn, thng thng l mt qu trnh cc k tn thi gian. Ngc li, mt h thng ng b gia cc BS c th thc hin tm nhn nhanh chng bng cch p dng mt loi m ngu nhin ti mi nh qu trnh dch thi nhng khong thi gian nht nh. Vi tng nh vy, phng php tm nhn ba bc c xut m bo tm nhn nhanh chng trong cc h thng BS d b. Trong 3 GPP, nhiu thay i c a ra trong phng php to ra m ng b (SC). a. Phng php tm nhn theo ba bc
Bt u tm nhn

PSC

Bc 1: tch nh thi thu SCH

Yes SSC Bc 2 : Tch nhm m ngu nhin v tch nh thi m ngu nhin Bc 3 Nhn dng m ngu nhin Kim tra ng b ln th 2 No

Kim tra (kim tra ng b v.v . .)

No

Kt thc tm nhn

Hnh 2.9 Lu tm nhn theo 3 bc

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Hnh 2.9 trnh by lu hot ng ca qu trnh tm nhn theo ba bc, cho php tm ra cn thit lp ng truyn v tuyn. b. Tm nhn ln cn trong thi gian thng tin ch tch cc Qu trnh tm nhn ln cn trong thi gian thng tin ch tch cc din ra trc khi thc hin chuyn giao mm v n khc vi qu trnh tm nhn ban u. Tuy nhin, cng ging nh trong trng hp tm nhn ban u, qu trnh tm nhn theo ba bc cng c th c p dng trong trng hp ny. Da trn nh thi thu v cng sut thu trn knh CPICH, qu trnh ny cho php tm ra c ln cn c cng sut thu ln th hai v m ngu nhin ca . Nu khng tm c nh vy sau mt s ln tm kim xc nh trc th qu trnh tm nhn ba bc s c thc hin. Trong qu trnh tm nhn ln cn ch tch cc, mc d s tham gia vo qu trnh ny l nh hn (khong 20) s trong qu trnh tm nhn ban u, nhng nhiu t knh chung v DPCH t ngun chuyn giao c nh hng cc k ln i vi qu trnh tm ra c cng sut thu ln th hai. Do , qu trnh tm nhn ln cn ny chim nhiu thi gian tm nhn hn qu trnh tm nhn ban u khi phi tn rt nhiu thi gian x l trung bnh trong mi bc c gng lm gim nh hng ca nhiu. c. Tm nhn ln cn trong ch ri Trong ch thu khng lin tc ( ch ri), mt thut ton c s dng t c qu trnh tm nhn nhanh hn phng php tm nhn ba bc. Hnh 2.10 trnh by mt v d v pha nh thi pht tng i ca cc m ngu nhin. (k) l m qua ng truyn v tuyn hin ang c thit lp, cn cc xung quanh (k) c biu din bng 1(k) , 2(k) v.v lch nh thi pht ca cc m ngu nhin CPICH gia (k) v cc ln cn c biu din bng kl, kl v.v Trc khi chuyn n ch chuyn giao mm, MS s o lch nh thi ca m ngu nhin pht bi CPICH gia ngun chuyn giao v ch chuyn giao v thng bo ti ngun chuyn giao. Thng thng, ti v tr m MS o lch nh thi ca cc m ngu nhin CPICH gia cc lin quan n MS chnh l v tr m ti lch gia mc thu CPICH ca hin ang thit lp ng truyn v tuyn v cc ln cn rt xung di nng chuyn giao. V th, do nhng chnh lch v thi gian tr truyn lan, nh thi thu ca m ngu nhin gia cc c ch nh o bi MS cng thay i. khc phc vn ny, (k)s tnh lch trung bnh v nh thi m ngu nhin CPICH vi i(k) da trn s liu thu wc t nhiu MS, xc nh lch nh thi m ngu nhin trung bnh gia (k) v i(k)
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II(k)

k1
II(k)1
M 1

k2
II
(k) 2

M 2

...
II(k)Ncell-1

kNcell-1

...
M Ncell-1

Hnh 2.10 Tng quan nh thi pht ca cc m ngu nhin ng xung Hnh 2.11 minh ha lu hot ng ca qu trnh tm nhn tc cao MS trong ch ri. Trong ch ri, MS thc hin tm nhn thng qua qu trnh tm ra mt c CPICH vi mc thu ln nht v thu knh tm gi (PCH) t theo cch khng lin tc. Nh PCH, MS thu nhn thng tin lin quan n loi m ngu nhin cu (k)hoc i(k)( gi tr cc i ca i= 20) cng nh thng tin lin quan n lch trong nh thi m ngu nhin CPICH gia (k) v i(k). Khi loi m ngu nhin ca ln cn cn tm v nh thi thu trung bnh CPICH ti MS l bit th qu trnh tm nhn ln cn c th c thc hin rt nhanh ( trng hp ny tng ng vi trng hp pha ca m cn tm bit bi h thng ng b gia cc BS).
Thu CCPCH Thu cc thng tin t cc ln cn Bng m ngu nhin dch nh thi tng i gia cc m ngu nhin

o cng sut tn hiu thu c t cc trong khu vc chuyn giao Nhn din M ngu nhin nh thi tn hiu thu ca c cng sut thu cc i

Thng bo ti UTRAN M ngu nhin nhn din v nh thi tn hiu thu ( ng k nh v)

Hnh 2.11 Thut ton tm nhn tc cao trong ch ri


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2.2.3.

Truy nhp ngu nhin

Khi thit lp mt ng truyn v tuyn, MS thit lp ng truyn v tuyn ng xung thng qua qu trnh tm nhn v pht RACH ca ng ln ( tng ng vi knh vt l l knh truy nhp ngu nhin vt l -PRACH). Qu trnh pht PRACH bao gm vic s dng ALOHA chia khe thi gian: MS bt u pht PRACH t mt s dch thi nh trc, 15 trong s c thit lp nhng khong c di 5120 chip trong 2 khung v tuyn c gi l cc khe truy nhp. Trong iu khin truy nhp ngu nhin, lp cao hn s la chn nhm knh con t cc nhm dch v truy nhp ngu nhin c th s dng c bi lp dch v truy nhp tng ng (ASC) v s dng mt k hiu ngu nhin c la chn t cc khe truy nhp. 2.2.4. Cc cng ngh tho mn cc yu cu v cht lng khc nhau trong truyn dn a tc .

a. Kim sot li C hai phng php sa li l: m ha knh ( sa li thun-FEC) v yu cu pht li t ng (ARQ). Trong W-CDMA, s dng phng php m ha knh (FEC) do c bng thng rng nh qu trnh tri ph tn hiu bng cc m ngu nhin, vic s dng phng php ny c th lm tng thm li x l (so vi li x l sau khi tri ph). C ba loi m kim sot li c s dng trong W-CDMA l : m khi tuyn tnh hay c th l m CRC, m xon v m turbo. Trong m CRC c s dng pht hin li, cn hai m cn li c s dng sa li (m ha knh). Trong phn ny ta s xt nguyn l c bn ca cc loi m trn v cc ng dng ca chng trong WCDMA. Cc m kim tra bt d theo chu k (CRC) H thng W-CDMA s dng m CRC ch th cht lng ca mi khung pht (trong cha mt khi bt thng tin). CRC l mt trong s cc m khi ph bin nht. i vi CRC, cc bt thng tin c x l nh mt s nh phn di. S ny c chia bi mt s nguyn t duy nht cng l s nh phn v phn d c ni vo cc bt thng tin nh cc bt d. Khi thu c mt khung, my thu thc hin cng mt php chia s dng cng mt c s nguyn t v so snh s d thu c vi s d nhn c trong khung. V d, s dng c s nguyn t l (1, 0, 1, 1). Phng php ny c th c hiu r rng hn nu chng ta biu din cc bt nh phn ( hoc mt s nh phn ) di dng a thc. V d, cc bt nh phn hoc s (1, 0, 1, 1) c th c biu din bi a thc: g(x) = x3 + x + 1
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trong mi s hng trong a thc tng ng vi mi bt trong s nh phn. a thc g(x) l mt a thc nguyn t. Gi s chng ta cn to ra mt m khi CRC (n, k) c th l m ( 7,4 ) tc l k= 4 hay t bn tin bn bt (v d: 1, 0, 1, 0) ta cn to ra mt t m n = 7 bt trong c 4 bt tin cho v ba bt thm vo ( bt d). thc hin vic ny, trc ht chng ta chuyn i bn tin thnh dng a thc ca n; tc l: m(x) = x3 + x Sau , chng ta dch bn tin i (n- k) v tr. iu ny c th c thc hin rt d dng di dng a thc bng cch nhn a thc ca bn tin m (x) vi xn-k. Trong trng hp ny, (n - k) = (7 - 4) = 3, nh vy chng ta nhn m (x) vi x3: x3m(x) = x6 + x4 Lu rng a thc ny tng ng vi (1, 0, 1, 0, 0, 0, 0). Cc bt d c th thu c bng vic chia x3m (x) cho g(x), hoc: x6 + x4 = (x3 + 1)(x3 + x + 1) + (x + 1) trong (x6 + x4) l x3m(x), (x3 + 1) l thng s, (x3 + x + 1) l a thc sinh g(x) v (x+1) l s d. a thc d (x + 1) biu din cc bt d ni thm vo bn tin (cc bt d tng ng vi a thc d ny l: 0, 1, 1) v chng ta c t m CRC l 1010011. Nh vy, s bt d thm vo bn tin s bng s m cao nht ca a thc sinh. Trong h thng W-CDMA, cc a thc sinh c th c s dng l: gCRC24(x) =x24+x23+x6+x5 +x+1 gCRC16(x) =x16+x12+x5 +1 gCRC12(x) =x12+x11+x3+x2 +x+1 gCRC8(x) =x8+x7+x4+x3 +x+1 Cc a thc sinh ny c p dng ring vi mi khung s liu tc khc nhau. Cc m xon Cc m khi c gi l cc m khng c s ghi nh, vi ngha l t m hoc cc bt d thm vo ch l mt hm ca khi bt hin ti. Tri li, cc m xon hot ng c s ghi nh. i vi cc m xon, cc bt sau khi m ho l cc hm ca cc bt thng tin v cc hm ca di gii hn (constraint length). c bit, mi bt sau khi m ho ( ti u ra ca b m ho xon) l mt t hp tuyn tnh ca mt s bt thng tin trc . ng truyn xung (trm gc ti my di ng) trong W-CDMA s dng m xon t l 1/2 ( mt bt u vo cho ra hai bt u ra) v di gii hn K = 9. Hnh 2.12 trnh by s m ho xon cho ng truyn xung. Ban u, tt c cc thanh ghi c gi tr l 0. Khi cc bt bn tin mi c a vo t bn tri, cc bt c r nhnh cc tng khc nhau v c cng li b cng m un hai. Gi tr ca tng l gi tr u ra ca b m ho xon. Lu rng do y l mt
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b m ho xon t l 1/2 nn hai bt c to ra i vi mi chu k xung nhp. Mt chuyn mch o trng thi s thay i trng thi trn c hai im u ra i vi mi chu k xung nhp u vo, do , tc u ra gp hai ln tc u vo. a thc sinh cho hai bt u ra y'i v y"i (c trnh by trong hnh 2.12 ) cng c th c vit l: g(x) = x8+x7+x5+x3+x2+x+1 g(x) = x8+ x4+ x3 + x2 + 1 H thng W- CDMA s dng mt h thng m ho xon khc trn ng truyn ln ( my di ng ti trm gc). V my di ng c mt cng sut pht hn ch nn i khi ng truyn ln c th l ng truyn b gii hn. Do vy, mt m xon hiu sut cao hn c t l 1/3 v di gii hn K= 9 c s dng. Trong trng hp ny, ba bt c to ra i vi mi bt u vo v tc u ra gp ba ln tc u vo. Hnh 2.13 trnh by s m ho xon cho ng truyn v .

B cng modul 2

B cng modul 2

Hnh 2.12 M ho xon trong h thng W- CDMA ( ng truyn xung )

B cng modul 2

B cng modul 2

B cng modul 2

Hnh 2.13 M ho xon trong h thng W-CDMA ( ng truyn ln ) tham chiu, a thc sinh cho ba bt u ra y'i , y"i, v y"'i l:
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g'(x) = x8+x7+x6+x5+x3+x2+1 g"(x) = x8+x7+x4 +x3+x+1 g"'(x) = x8+x5+x2+x+1 M Turbo Hnh 2.14 trnh by mt v d v cu hnh ca mt b m ho v gii m Turbo. B m ho Turbo bao gm hai b m ho xon theo phng php qui RSC1 v RSC2 v mt b an xen Turbo bn trong b m ho Turbo. My thu s a vo b gii m Turbo (ti to) cc knh an xen n t u ra ca b thu RAKE quyt nh mm (y1, y2, y3). Trong thut ton gii m lp ca b gii m Turbo th b gii m 1 s tnh ton thng tin ra Le theo y1 , y2 v Le phn hi. Tip theo, b gii m 2 s xc nh thng tin ra Le theo y1, y3 v Le ng thi phn hi Le v b gii m 1 lp li qu trnh trn. Sau m php lp, chui s liu pht s c khi phc bi mt ngng quyt nh (quyt nh cng) theo t l lga gn ng (LLR) L(bk). LLR cho ra bt gii m bk. L(bk) c biu din bi phng trnh sau: L(bk) = ln [P (bk= +1)/ P(bk = -1)] Trong phng trnh ny, P (bk= +1) v P(bk = -1) l cc xut tng ng bk= +1 v bk = -1 . Trong W-CDMA, m ho knh s dng m xon cho truyn s liu tc thp v tn hiu thoi cn m turbo wc s dng cho truyn s liu tc cao 64 kbit/s hoc 384 kbit/s .
Sau m tng tc

bk RSC1 an xen RSC2 B m ha Turbo

x1 y1

Gii an xen

Gii m 2

x2 x3

y2

Gii m 1

Gii an xen an xen

(a)

(b) B gii m Turbo

Hnh 2.14 Cu hnh ca b m ho Turbo ARQ Trong phng php truyn lu lng s liu chuyn mch gi, kim sot li c bit bi ARQ l mt iu kin tin quyt v cn phi m bo truyn khng c li. Ngoi ra, n cn phi c s dng kt hp vi mt FEC ( gii m sa li bng FEC trc khi pht hin li bng ARQ). Hnh 2.16 minh ho nguyn l ca ARQ lai ghp. ARQ c s dng trong iu khin ng truyn v tuyn (RLC) theo 3GPP l ARQ lai ghp dng c bn I ( mt k thut truyn li m trong s liu ca cc gi c
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pht li l ging nh gi gc). Ti im pht, ARQ dng c bn I p dng m ho pht hin li v FEC vi chui tn hiu tin tc pht. Ti im thu, gi tin thu s c gii m sa li, sau khi cc li c pht hin bi cc m pht hin li. Nu tm thy bt c li no, gi tin c li s b b i v yu cu truyn li c phn hi ti my pht. Qu trnh ny c lp li n khi khng pht hin c li no na v n to ra kh nng truyn khng c li. Theo cch ny, ARQ dng c bn I s dng FEC kt hp vi ARQ thc hin gii m sa li u tin cho pht hin li, nh c th gim t l li gi tin v ci thin cc c tnh truyn dn. b. Phi hp tc Phi hp tc c ngha l lp hoc chch b cc k hiu knh truyn ti (TrCH) t c tc k hiu nh nhau cho cc knh c tc bt khc nhau cc cu hnh v tuyn khc nhau. Lp cao hn (trong cu trc giao thc) s n nh thuc tnh phi hp tc cho tng knh truyn ti. Thuc tnh ny l bn c nh v ch c th thay i theo thng bo ca lp cao. Thuc tnh phi hp tc c s dng tnh s bt cn lp hoc trch b. Trong W-CDMA, ta s xt qu trnh trch b i vi m Turbo lm v d cho phi hp tc . Trch b phi hp tc p dng ring r cho y v y. Trch b khng p dng cho x nn cn tch ring cc chui bit x, y v y. Chc nng phn tch bt s trong sut i vi cc TrCH khng c m ha, cc knh TrCH m ha xon v cc knh m ha Turbo c lp. Qu trnh phn tch bt v thu thp c minh ha hnh 2.15.
M ha knh r = 1/3 Phn tch bit 111110101 11x11010x Thut ton phi hp tc 11x11010x

Hnh 2.15 Trch b cc knh TrCH c m ha Turbo c. iu chnh cng sut pht nhanh da trn php o SIR Tc dng ca iu chnh ( iu khin) cng sut pht Vic iu chnh cng sut l rt cn thit mt h thng W-CDMA hot ng tt v tt c cc thu bao W-CDMA u chia s cng mt bng tn v tuyn nh vic s dng cc m tp m gi ngu nhin v do mi thu bao c xem nh tp m ngu nhin i vi cc thu bao khc. Qu trnh iu chnh cng sut c thc hin gii quyt bi ton "xa-gn" v tng ti a dung lng. iu chnh cng sut tc l cng sut pht t mi thu bao c iu chnh sao cho cng sut thu ca mi thu bao trm
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gc l bng nhau (nu khng k n cc loi tp m khc m ch xt n suy hao truyn lan v tuyn th qu trnh iu chnh cng sut s iu chnh thu bao xa trm gc s pht cng sut ln hn thu bao gn trm gc). iu chnh cng sut trn ng truyn v Thm d truy nhp Mt vn cn phi gii quyt ngay trong vic iu chnh cng sut l cng sut pht ban u ca my di ng. Trc khi my di ng thit lp lin h vi trm gc, my di ng khng th c iu chnh cng sut bi trm gc. Nh vy, cu hi t ra l khi my di ng mi bt u th truy nhp vo trm gc th mc cng sut no my di ng nn s dng pht yu cu ca n ? thi im ny, trm gc vn cha to ra s lin lc vi thu bao di ng v trm gc khng bit v tr ca thu bao di ng. C hai la chn: la chn th nht l my di ng c th th truy nhp ti trm gc vi mt cng sut cao. Cng sut cao nh vy s lm tng kh nng trm gc thu c yu cu truy nhp ca my di ng. Tuy nhin, nhc im ca vic pht cng sut khi u cao l cng sut ny s gy nhiu ti cc thu bao khc hin ang c qun l trong . La chn th hai l my di ng c th yu cu truy nhp trm gc vi mt cng sut pht thp. Cng sut thp nh vy s lm gim kh nng trm gc thu c yu cu truy nhp ca my di ng. Nhng u im l my di ng ny s khng gy nhiu nhiu ti cc thu bao khc. Gii php c chn l khi my di ng mi bt u th truy nhp h thng n pht mt chui cc thm d truy nhp. Cc thm d truy nhp l mt chui mc cng sut pht tng dn. My di ng pht thm d truy nhp u tin ca n mt mc cng sut tng i thp, sau n i mt p ng phn hi t trm gc. Nu sau mt khong thi gian tu my di ng khng thu c mt bn tin xc nhn t trm gc th my di ng pht thm d truy nhp th hai vi mt cng sut hi cao hn. Qu trnh ny s lp li cho n khi my di ng thu c bn tin xc nhn phn hi t trm gc. Ngoi ra, my di ng cn s dng mc cng sut n thu c t trm gc c tnh cng sut ban u ca n. Ni cch khc, nu my di ng nhn c mt tn hiu mnh t trm gc th n cho rng trm gc gn v nh vy n s pht khi u vi mt mc cng sut tng i thp. Nu my di ng nhn c mt tn hiu yu t trm gc th n cho rng trm gc xa v nh vy n s pht khi u vi mt mc cng sut tng i cao. Vng iu khin m Qu trnh m t trn c gi l qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m, ch l mt qu trnh hot ng iu khin my di ng v khng lin quan g n trm gc. Qu trnh iu khin theo vng m ny din ra lin tc sau khi trm gc xc nhn yu cu truy nhp ca my di ng v sau khi my di ng bt u pht trn mt
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knh lu lng. Sau khi mt cuc gi c thit lp v khi my di ng di chuyn trong phm vi , suy hao ng truyn gia my di ng v trm gc s lin tc thay i. Kt qu l cng sut thu ti my di ng s thay i v hot ng iu chnh cng sut theo vng m s lin tc gim st cng sut thu ca my di ng pr v s tip tc iu chnh cng sut pht ca my di ng. Mt ch quan trng l qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m nh m t trn da trn s c tnh suy hao ng truyn i. Qu trnh iu chnh cng sut ny c s dng b cho nhng thay i chm v cc nh hng ca hiu ng che chn (log-normal), trong c mt s tng quan gia cc suy hao trn ng truyn i v ng truyn v. Tuy nhin, do cc ng truyn i v v thng s dng cc tn s khc nhau (FDD), qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m l khng v qu chm b cho hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh. Lu rng hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh l ph thuc vo tn s v xy ra trn mi khong na bc sng. Ni cch khc, do hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh l ph thuc vo tn s, chng ta khng th s dng qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m ( trong gi thit suy hao trn ng truyn hng i bng vi suy hao ng truyn hng v ) b cho hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh. Vng iu khin khp kn Qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn c s dng b cho nhng dao ng v cng sut do hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh. N l mt vng iu khin khp kn trong lin quan n c trm gc v my di dng. Mi khi my di ng chim mt knh lu lng v bt u thng tin vi trm gc, qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn s hot ng cng vi qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m. Trong qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp, trm gc lin tc gim st ng truyn v v o cht lng ng truyn. Nu cht lng ng truyn nhn c xu th trm gc s ra lnh cho my di ng, qua ng truyn i, tng cng sut. Nu cht lng ng truyn l qu tt th c ngha l cng sut trn ng truyn v vt mc, trong trng hp ny, trm gc s ra lnh cho my di ng gim cng sut. V mt nguyn l, t l li khung (FER) c th dng ch th v cht lng ng truyn. Nhng v cn mt thi gian di cho trm gc tch lu cc bt tnh ton FER nn Eb/N0 ( hoc SIR) c s dng lm thng tin ch th cht lng ng truyn v. Qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn trn ng truyn v nh sau: - Trm gc lin tc gim st Eb/N0 trn ng truyn v - Nu Eb/N0 l qu cao ( tc l nu n vt qu mt ngng nht nh) th trm gc ra lnh cho my di ng gim cng sut pht.
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Nu Eb/N0 l qu thp ( tc l nu n rt xung di mt ngng nht nh) th trm gc s ra lnh cho my di ng tng cng sut pht. Trm gc gi cc lnh iu chnh cng sut ti my di dng qua ng truyn i. Cc lnh iu chnh cng sut c t trong dng cc bt iu chnh cng sut (PCBs). Lng cng sut ca my di ng tng v gim trn mi PCB thng l +1 dB v -1 dB. V qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn l chng li pha inh Rayleigh nhanh nn p ng ca my di ng vi cc lnh iu chnh cng sut ny cn phi rt nhanh. V l do ny, cc PCB c gi trc tip trn knh lu lng. Thc t l cc bt c Rt trm (Robbed) ra khi knh lu lng gi cc PCB ny. C ba im b sung cho qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn. - Cc bt iu chnh cng sut khng c bo v chng li. Do cc PCB c ghp vo knh lu lng hng i sau b m ho xon. V th, cc PCB khng c bo v chng li. iu ny c thc hin gim tr c hu khi gii m v tch ra cc bt bo v chng li. Cn nh l iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn c s dng chng li hin tng pha inh Rayleigh nhanh; cc PCB khng c bo v chng li my di ng c th nhanh chng thu li PCB v iu chnh cng sut pht ca n cho ph hp. Hu qu l xc sut li bt i vi knh ph iu chnh cng sut c th cao hn so vi knh lu lng nu khng c s d phng c bit. - iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn c mt vng trong v mt vng ngoi. n y chng ta mi ch m t vng trong ca qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng kn. Tin ca qu trnh iu khin vng trong l c tn ti mt ngng SIR c xc nh trc bi cc quyt nh tng gim cng sut c to ra. Do chng ta lun c duy tr mt FER c th chp nhn c v do trong mt mi trng di ng khng c s tng quan mt-mt gia FER v Eb/N0, nn gi tr ngng Eb/N0 cn phi c iu chnh ng duy tr mt FER c th chp nhn c. Vic iu chnh ngng Eb/N0 ny ( s dng bi iu chnh cng sut vng trong) c xem nh vng ngoi ca qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn (xem hnh 2.16). Qu trnh iu khin vng ngoi khng c qui nh theo tiu chun v mi nh sn xut c s h tng t do thc hin cc thut ton iu chnh cng sut vng ngoi ca chnh h. Lu rng cc thut ton ny hu nh lun l c quyn ca nh sn sut . -

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Hnh 2.16 Vng iu khin trong v vng iu khin ngoi im cui cng lin quan ti s iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn trong qu trnh chuyn giao mm. Trong qu trnh chuyn giao mm mt my di ng duy tr lin lc vi hai hoc ba trm gc khi n chuyn tip gia chng. Trong thi gian chuyn giao mm, my di ng thu cc lnh iu chnh cng sut t hai hoc ba trm gc v cc lnh ny c th c s xung t (tc l, mt trm gc c th yu cu my di ng tng cng sut trong khi cc trm gc khc li c th yu cu my di ng gim cng sut). Trong tnh hung ny, my di ng tun theo qui lut sau: nu bt c mt trm gc no ra lnh cho my di ng gim cng sut, th my di ng s gim cng sut. My di ng s ch tng cng sut nu tt c cc trm gc lin quan n qu trnh chuyn giao mm ra lnh cho my di ng tng cng sut. Qu trnh thc hin vng iu khin m v vng iu khin khp kn Cng sut pht ca my di ng l mt hm ca qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m v vng khp kn ca h thng. Cc hnh 2.17(a) v 2.17(b) ch ra qu trnh thc hin ca lc iu chnh cng sut ng truyn v. i vi qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng khp kn, trm gc c ton b vng iu khin ngoi v mt phn ca vng iu khin trong; my di ng c cc phn khc ca vng iu khin trong. i vi qu trnh iu chnh cng sut theo vng m, ton b phn iu khin theo vng m nm trong my di ng. Trong hnh 2.17(a), trm gc thu tn hiu ng truyn v t my di ng. u tin trm gc gii iu ch v c tnh FER ca ng truyn v. -

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Hnh 2.17 (a) Cc chc nng iu chnh cng sut ng truyn v c thc hin bi trm gc

Hnh 2.17 (b) Cc chc nng iu chnh cng sut ng truyn v c thc hin bi my di ng Thng tin ny trn cht lng khung ng truyn v c dn ti mt thit b tnh ngng, iu chnh ngng Eb/N0 da trn cht lng khung thu c. ng thi, trm gc cng to ra mt gi tr Eb/N0 c tnh ca ng truyn v. Sau gi tr Eb/N0 v gi tr Eb/N0 c tnh c so snh. Nu gi tr c tnh ln hn gi tr ngng th Eb/N0 ca ng truyn l cao hn gi tr cn thit duy tr mt cht lng khung tt; theo mt PCB c gi tr 1 c gi i ra lnh cho my di ng gim cng
51

sut. Nu gi tr c tnh l nh hn gi tr ngng th Eb/No ca ng truyn l thp hn gi tr cn thit duy tr mt cht lng khung tt; theo mt PCB c gi tr 0 c gi i ra lnh cho my di ng tng cng sut. Cc PCB c ghp vo knh lu lng hng i v c pht ti my di ng. V pha my di ng (xem hnh 2.17(b)), my di ng thu tn hiu ng truyn i. N khi phc PCB v da trn PCB a ra quyt nh tng cng sut ln 1 dB hoc gim cng sut i 1 dB. Vic quyt nh l s hiu chnh theo vng khp kn. S hiu chnh c kt hp vi cc gi tr vng m v kt qu sau khi kt hp c dn n my pht n c th pht mt mc cng sut ph hp. iu chnh cng sut trn ng truyn i Trong trng hp l tng, vic iu chnh cng sut l khng cn thit trong ng truyn i. L do l trm gc ang pht tt c cc knh nht qun trong cng mt bng tn RF. Tuy nhin, trong thc t, mt my di ng ring c th gn mt ngun nhiu nghim trng v phi chu mt nhiu nn ln, hoc mt my di ng c th chu mt suy hao ng truyn ln trn tn hiu tng hp thu c ngoi tp m nhit . Nh vy, vic iu chnh cng sut hng i l vn cn thit. Tuy nhin, ni chung yu cu iu chnh cng sut i vi ng truyn i l khng nghim ngt nh yu cu i vi ng truyn v. Tiu chun qui nh my di ng phi bo co phn hi ti trm gc cht lng ca ng truyn i. My di ng lin tc gim st FER ca ng truyn i v n bo co FER ny v trm gc trong mt bn tin c gi l bn tin bo co php o cng sut (PMRM). N c th gi bn tin ny theo mt trong hai cch sau: mt cch l my di ng bo co thng k PMRM vcch th hai l my di ng ch bo co PMRM khi FER vt qu mt ngng nht nh. Trm gc nhn bit cht lng ca ng truyn i, sau c th iu chnh cng sut pht ca n ti my di ng. Thut ton chnh xc ca qu trnh xc nh cng sut mt ln na li tu thuc vo cc nh sn xut cu trc h tng ring bit. Qu trnh ny hu nh lun l c quyn ca mi nh sn xut. 2.2.5. Phn tp a dng

Trong cc h thng iu ch bng hp nh h thng FM tng t s dng trong h thng di ng th h th nht th hin tng truyn lan a ng ( nhiu tia sng truyn theo cc ng khc nhau, hin tng ny cn c gi l hin tng truyn lan nhiu tia) gy ra nhiu hin tng pha inh nghim trng. Tnh nghim trng ca pha inh nhiu tia c gim i trong iu ch bng rng W-CDMA v cc tn hiu truyn qua cc ng khc nhau c thu nhn mt cch c lp. Nhng hin tng
52

pha inh vn thng xy ra trong h thng ny do khng th loi b hon ton c hin tng pha inh nhiu tia, v khi hin tng pha inh nhiu tia thng xuyn xy ra th b gii iu ch khng th x l tn hiu thu mt cch c lp. Phn tp l mt bin php tt lm gim pha inh, c ba loi phn tp l phn tp thi gian, phn tp tn s v phn tp khng gian. Phn tp thi gian c thc hin nh vic s dng phng php an xen v cc m sa li ( cp phn trc). H thng W-CDMA thc hin phn tp tn s bng cch tri nng lng tn hiu ra mt bng tn rng trong khi pha inh la chn tn s thng ch c nh hng trong mt rng bng tn 200- 300kHz. Phn tp khng gian hay phn tp theo ng truyn c th c thc hin theo ba cch sau: - Thit lp nhiu ng tn hiu (chuyn giao mm) kt ni my di ng vi hai hoc nhiu BS. - S dng mi trng truyn lan a ng nh chc nng tri ph nh my thu qut (Rake receiver ) s thu v t hp cc tn hiu pht vi cc thi gian tr pht khc nhau. - t nhiu anten ti BS. Cc loi phn tp nng cao cht lng ca h thng W- CDMA c trnh by trong hnh 2.18 v c tm tt nh sau: - Phn tp thi gian - Xen k m, m pht hin v sa li. - Phn tp tn s - Tn hiu bng rng 5MHz . - Phn tp khng gian ( phn tp theo ng truyn ) - S dng hai anten thu ti BS, my thu qut a ng (RAKE) v kt ni vi nhiu BS (chuyn giao mm).

Hnh 2.18 Cc loi phn tp trong W-CDMA


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Phn tp anten (phn tp khng gian ) c th c p dng d dng cho c cc h thng FDMA v TDMA. Phn tp theo thi gian c th c p dng i vi tt c cc h thng s c tc m truyn dn cao p ng c yu cu cho th tc sa li. Nhng cc phng php khc ch c th c p dng d dng trong h thng WCDMA. Phm vi rng ca phn tp khng gian (phn tp theo ng truyn ) c th c cung cp bi c tnh duy nht ca chui trc tip h thng W-CDMA v mc phn tp cao s em li cht lng tt hn trong mi trng nhiu di ng (EMI) ln. B iu khin a ng tch ra dng sng PN nh s dng b tng quan song song. My di ng s dng ba b tng quan, cn BS s dng bn b tng quan. My thu c b tng quan song song gi l my thu qut (my thu RAKE), n tm thu tn hiu qua mi ng, t hp v gii iu ch tt c cc tn hiu thu c. Hin tng pha inh c th xy ra trong mi tn hiu thu nhng khng c s tng quan gia cc ng thu. V vy, t hp ca cc tn hiu thu c c tin cy rt cao,v kh nng xy ra hin tng pha inh ng thi trong tt c cc tn hiu thu l cc k thp. Nhiu b tch tng quan cho php thng tin ng thi vi hai BS qu trnh chuyn giao mm c s h tr ca my di ng c th thc hin c. Phn di y s gii thiu chi tit hn v hai k thut phn tp khng gian c s dng trong W-CDMA l k thut thu RAKE v k thut chuyn giao mm. a. K thut thu RAKE

Trong cc h thng t bo W- CDMA, ng truyn t trm gc trong ti my di ng ( hng i ) s dng mt my thu qut gm cc b tng quan (Correlator) song song ( trong nhiu ti liu cn gi l finger) v ng truyn t my di ng n trm gc cng s dng mt my thu nh vy nhng c s b tng quan song song nhiu hn. Thut ng qut "n b tng quan " (n-finger ), cho bit s cc ng truyn c th c tng hp ln. Cc my thu qut lm nhim v pht hin v o cc thng s ca cc tn hiu a ng c th c s dng cho thu phn tp hoc cho cc mc ch chuyn giao v kt hp cc ng tn hiu mt cch nht qun ( tc l ng b tn hiu) sau khi gii iu ch mi tn hiu truyn theo mt ng ring ( tng hp sau khi tch sng ). Vic tch v o cc thng s ca cc tn hiu a ng c thc hin bi mt " b thu tm kim " (searcher receiver) c lp trnh so snh cc tn hiu thu vi cc phn ca cc m PN knh I v knh Q. Cc sng nhiu tia ti my thu gy ra hin tng t khuch i to thnh cc nh tng quan xy ra ti cc thi im khc nhau. Mt gi tr bin ca nh t l vi ng bao ca tn hiu trn ng truyn v thi gian ca
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mi nh lin quan ti tn hiu n u tin, nhng yu t ny em li mt php o v tr ca ng truyn. Bi vy, trong thit k tiu chun bao gi cng cp ti vic xc nh bt c ng truyn no ang tn ti. V tt c cc trm gc s dng cng cc m PN I v Q ch khc nhau v b pha ca m nn khng ch cc tn hiu a ng m cn c cc trm gc khc s c pht hin bi s tng quan ( trong mt "ca s tm kim " khc nhau ca cc thi im n) vi cc phn trong cc m tng ng vi cc trm gc c chn. Nh vy, b thu tm kim c th lu gi mt bng cc tn hiu a ng mnh v/hoc cc tn hiu trm gc c th kt hp phn tp hoc cho cc mc ch chuyn giao. hu dng, bng ny cn phi ghi thi gian n, cng tn hiu v b m PN tng ng. Trn ng truyn v, my thu ca trm gc c n nh bm theo mt my pht di ng nht nh s dng cc thi im n v chui b 0 (zero-offset ) trn knh m I v Q xc nh vic tm kim cc tn hiu di ng t cc thu bao lin lc vi trm gc . B thu tm kim ti trm gc c th nhn bit tn hiu ca my di ng cn thu bng chui b m PN di ngu nhin ho duy nht ca n, trc khi bt u qu trnh truyn dn s liu hoc thoi trn ng truyn mt on bt m u c bit c s dng cho mc ch . Khi tin hnh cuc gi, b thu tm kim c kh nng gim st cng ca cc tn hiu a ng t my di ng n trm gc v s dng nhiu hn mt ng nh vic kt hp phn tp.
B thu tng quan 1 Tr B tng hp

B thu tng quan 2

Tr

B thu tng quan 3

Tr

B thu tng quan 4

Hnh 2.19 My thu qut (Rake receiver) b. K thut chuyn giao mm

Trong mi trng thng tin di ng, khi mt thu bao di chuyn t vng ph sng ca mt trm gc ti vng ph sng ca mt trm gc khc, mt qu trnh chuyn giao xy ra chuyn tip ng thng tin t mt trm gc n trm tip theo. H thng W- CDMA h tr cc qu trnh chuyn giao khc nhau. phn ny chng ta s
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tm hiu v cc qu trnh chuyn giao ny, c bit l qu trnh chuyn giao mm (soft handoff) v chuyn giao rt mm (softer handoff) cng vi tc dng chng pha inh ca cc qu trnh chuyn giao ny. Th nht l qu trnh chuyn giao mm (soft handoff). Trong phn trc, chng ta cp ngn gn l W-CDMA s dng chuyn giao mm trong trong thi gian chuyn giao mt my di ng ng thi duy tr lin lc vi hai hoc ba trm gc. Khi my di ng di chuyn t hin ti ( ngun ) ti tip theo ( ch ), s lin lc trn knh lu lng c duy tr ng thi vi c hai . Hnh 2.20(a) v hnh 2.20(b) minh ho cc ng truyn ng thi trong thi gian chuyn giao mm. Trn ng truyn i ( xem hnh 2.20(a)), my di ng s dng my thu qut gii iu ch hai tn hiu ring bit t hai trm gc khc nhau. Hai tn hiu c kt hp to ra mt tn hiu tng hp c cht lng tt hn. Trn ng truyn v ( xem hnh 2.20(b)), tn hiu pht t my di ng c thu bi c hai trm gc. Hai thc hin gii iu ch tn hiu ring bit v gi cc khung gii iu ch phn hi v trung tm chuyn mch di ng (MSC). MSC cha mt b la chn la chn khung tt nht trong s cc khung c gi phn hi v. Th hai l qu trnh chuyn giao rt mm ( softer handoff ). Loi chuyn giao ny din ra khi mt my di ng di chuyn gia hai b la chn khc nhau trong cng mt . Trn knh hng i, my di ng thc hin cng qu trnh kt hp nh trong chuyn giao mm. Trong trng hp ny, my di ng s dng b thu qut ca n kt hp cc tn hiu thu c t hai cung (sector) khc nhau. Tuy nhin, trn ng truyn v, hai cung trong cng mt thu ng thi hai tn hiu t my di ng. Cc tn hiu c gii iu ch v kt hp trong v ch mt khung c gi tr li MSC. Th ba l qu trnh chuyn giao cng (hard handoff ). H thng W-CDMA s dng hai loi chuyn giao cng. Chuyn giao W-CDMA ti W-CDMA din ra khi my di ng ang chuyn tip gia hai sng mang W-CDMA ( tc l hai knh tri ph c tp trung cc tn s khc nhau). Qu trnh chuyn giao cng ny cng c th din ra khi my di ng chuyn tip gia hai h thng ca hai nh khai thc khc nhau. i khi qu trnh chuyn giao W-CDMA ti W-CDMA c gi l chuyn giao D ti D. Mt khc, qu trnh chuyn giao t h thng W-CDMA ti h thng tng t din ra khi mt cuc gi W-CDMA c chuyn giao ti mt mng tng t. Qu trnh ny c th xy ra khi my di ng di chuyn vo mt khu vc m c dch v tng t nhng khng c WCDMA . i khi qu trnh chuyn giao t h thng W-CDMA ti h thng tng t c gi l chuyn giao D ti A.

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(a) Chuyn giao mm gia 2 trm gc - ng truyn i

(b) Chuyn giao mm gia 2 trm gc ng truyn v Hnh 2.20 Chuyn giao mm gia hai trm gc Trc khi chng ta miu t chi tit qu trnh chuyn giao mm, cn lu mt iu rt quan trng l mi cung (sc t) trong mt h thng W-CDMA c phn bit vi mt cung khc bi knh hoa tiu ca cung . Nh trnh by trong hnh 2.21, knh hoa tiu l mt trong s bn knh lgic trn ng truyn i: Hoa tiu, tm gi, ng b v lu lng. Knh hoa tiu c nhim v nh mt " n hiu " i vi mi cung v tr gip cho my di ng trong vic tm nhn cc knh lgic khc trong cng mt cung. Khng c thng tin c cha ng trong knh hoa tiu ngoi m PN ngn vi mt chui b (chui pset) c trng c n nh cho ring cung . Lu l khi mt chui PN cng vi mt chui b n s tr thnh mt chui PN khc v chui PN b ny l trc giao vi chui PN gc. M PN c pht trn knh hoa tiu s dng c tnh ny phn bit bn thn n vi cc cung khc v cc trm gc khc. Chui b ca mt chui PN kt hp vi mt cung ring c ch nh bng thng s PILOT PN cho cung .

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Hnh 2.21 Tn hiu tri ph ng truyn i trong W-CDMA Mt thut ng c bit c s dng m t SNR ca knh hoa tiu: nng lng chp trn mt nhiu hoc Ec/I0. Nng lng chp (nng lng trn mt chp) khc vi nng lng bt trong "cc chp" lin quan ti cc chui PN c tri ph. V khng c thng tin bng gc cha ng trong knh hoa tiu, nn knh hoa tiu khng c qu trnh gii tri ph v cc bt khng c khi phc. Do , m t cng tn hiu ca knh hoa tiu, t s S/N (SNR) hoc Ec/I0 c s dng. Lu rng do knh hoa tiu khng c gii tri ph nn Ec/I0 duy tr di mc 1 trong phn ln thi gian. Trong v d sau y, chng ta s xem xt qu trnh chuyn giao t ngun ti ch. Trong vic qun l qu trnh chuyn giao, my di ng lu gi trong b nh ca n bn danh sch ring ca cc sc t trong trm gc di dng cc tp danh sch. C bn loi tp danh sch l tp hot ng (active set), tp d tuyn (candidate set ), tp ln cn ( neighbor set ) v tp d (remaining set). Tp hot ng (A) cha cc knh hoa tiu ca cc sc t ang thng tin vi my di ng trn cc knh lu lng. Tp d tuyn cha cc knh hoa tiu c Ec/I0 ln lm cho chng tr thnh cc knh d tuyn ( c th chn ) cho chuyn giao.Tp ln cn (N) cha cc knh hoa tiu nm trong danh sch knh ln cn ( lng ging ) ca sct ang phc v thng tin cho my di ng. Tp d (R) cha tt c cc knh hoa tiu cn li trong h thng i vi tn s sng mang W-CDMA, tr cc knh hoa tiu ang nm trong cc tp hot ng, d tuyn v ln cn. Nh trnh by trong hnh 2.22, my di ng di chuyn t vng ph sng ca ngun A ti vng ph sng ca ch B. Sau y l mt chui cc bc trong qu trnh chuyn giao ny: - y my di ng ch ang c phc v bi A v tp hot ng ca n ch cha knh hoa tiu A. My di ng o t s Ec/I0 ca knh hoa tiu B v nhn thy n ln hn T_ADD. My di ng gi mt bn tin o cng knh hoa tiu v chuyn knh hoa tiu B t tp ln cn ti tp d tuyn.
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My di ng thu c mt bn tin iu khin chuyn giao t A. Bn tin iu khin my di ng bt u thng tin trn mt knh lu lng mi vi B. - My di ng chuyn knh hoa tiu B t tp d tuyn ti tp hot ng. Sau khi chim c knh lu lng hng i c ch nh trong bn tin iu khin chuyn giao, my di s ng gi mt bn tin hon thnh chuyn giao. Lc ny tp hot ng cha hai knh hoa tiu. - My di ng pht hin ra knh hoa tiu A hin b rt xung di ngng T_DROP. My di ng khi ng b m thi gian rt mc. - B m thi gian rt mc t n gi tr T_TDROP. My di ng s gi i mt bn tin o cng knh hoa tiu. - My di ng nhn c mt bn tin iu khin chuyn giao. Bn tin ny ch cha pset PN ca B. pset PN ca A khng c trong bn tin ny. - My di ng chuyn knh hoa tiu A t tp hot ng ti tp ln cn v n gi i mt bn tin hon thnh chuyn giao. C mt phng php khc c th kch hot qu trnh pht bn tin o cng knh hoa tiu bi my di ng. Nu cng ca mt knh hoa tiu trong tp d tuyn vt qu cng ca mt knh hoa tiu trong tp hot ng bi s so snh ngng T COMP x 0,5 dB gia tp hot ng vi tp d tuyn, th my di ng s gi bn tin o cng knh hoa tiu. -

ngun A
Ec/I0 1 knh hoa tiu (A) t trong tp hot ng

MS

ch B
2 knh hoa tiu (A&B) trong tp hot ng *

1 knh hoa tiu (B) trong tp hot ng

* My di ng trong trng thi chuyn giao Hnh 2.22 Qu trnh chuyn giao.
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CHNG 3 CU TRC MNG TRUY NHP V TUYN


3.1. CC C IM CA W-CDMA

3.1.1. Hiu sut s dng tn s cao


V nguyn tc, dung lng tim nng ca h thng c xem nh ging nhau ngay c khi cc cng ngh a truy nhp nh TDMA v FDMA c ng dng. Trong khi CDMA thng c coi l c hiu sut s dng tn s cao, iu ny nn c hiu theo ngha l trong CDMA rt d nng cao hiu sut s dng tn s. V d, CDMA c th t c mt mc hiu sut chc chn nh s dng k thut iu chnh cng sut pht chnh xc, ngc li TDMA s phi s dng n k thut phn chia knh ng cc k phc tp t c cng mc hiu sut nh vy. Vic s dng cc cng ngh c bn ca h thng CDMA theo ng cch s em li hiu sut s dng tn s cao cho h thng.

3.1.2. D qun l tn s
Do CDMA cho php cc ln cn chia s cng mt tn s nn khng cn c qui hoch tn s. Ngc li, trong cc h thng s dng FDMA v TDMA cn phi c bit ch n qui hoch tn s, c nhiu kh khn lin quan n qui hoch tn s do v tr lp t cc trm trong thc t thng dn ti vic phi xt n nhng mu truyn lan sng bt qui tc v cc c tnh a hnh phc tp. Cn phi ch rng cc qui hoch tn s khng hon chnh s lm gim hiu sut s dng tn s. CDMA khng cn c qui hoch tn s nh th.

3.1.3. Cng sut pht ca my di ng thp


Nh c qu trnh t iu chnh cng sut pht (TPC) m h thng W-CDMA c th gim c t s Eb/N0 ( tng ng vi t s tn hiu trn nhiu) mc chp nhn c, iu ny khng ch lm tng dung lng h thng m cn lm gim cng sut pht yu cu khc phc tp m v nhiu. Vic gim ny ng ngha vi gim cng sut pht yu cu i vi my di ng. N lm gim gi thnh v cho php hot ng trong mt vng rng hn vi cng sut thp khi so vi h thng TDMA hoc h thng tng t c cng cng sut. Ngoi ra, vic gim cng sut pht yu cu s lm tng vng phc v v gim s lng BS yu cu khi so vi cc h thng khc. Mt u im ln hn xut pht t qu trnh t iu chnh cng sut pht trong h thng W-CDMA l n lm gim cng sut pht trung bnh. Trong a s trng hp th mi trng truyn dn l thun li i vi W-CDMA. Trong cc h thng bng hp th cng sut
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pht cao lun lun c yu cu khc phc hin tng pha inh theo thi gian. Trong h thng W-CDMA, cng sut trung bnh c th gim v cng sut yu cu ch c pht i bi vic iu khin cng sut v cng sut pht ch tng khi xy ra pha inh. 3.1.4. S dng cc ti nguyn v tuyn mt cch c lp trong ng ln

v ng xung
Trong CDMA, rt d cung cp mt cu hnh khng i xng gia ng ln v ng xung. V d, trong cc h thng truy nhp khc nh TDMA s rt kh phn chia cc khe thi gian cho ng ln v ng xung ca mt thu bao c lp vi cc thu bao khc. Trong FDMA, rt kh thit lp cu hnh khng i xng cho ng ln v ng xung v rng bng tn sng mang ca ng ln v ng xung s phi hay i. Ngc li, trong CDMA, h s tri ph (SF) c th c thit lp c lp gia ng ln v ng xung i vi mi thu bao v nh c th thit lp cc tc khc nhau ng ln v ng xung. iu ny cho php s dng hiu qu cc ti nguyn v tuyn ngay c trong cc loi hnh thng tin khng i xng nh truy nhp Internet. Khi khng pht s liu th ti nguyn v tuyn khng b chim dng; do , nu mt thu bao ch thc hin truyn tin trn ng ln v mt thu bao khc ch thc hin truyn tin trn ng xung th cc ti nguyn v tuyn c s dng tng ng ti nguyn cho mt cp ng truyn ln v xung. Thng thng, TDMA v FDMA s phi phn chia hai cp ti nguyn v tuyn trong cc trng hp nh vy. 3.1.5. Nhiu tc s liu Bng thng rng cho php truyn dn tc cao. N cng cho php cung cp c hiu qu cc dch v khi c s kt hp cc dch v tc thp v cc dch v tc cao. V d, trong TDMA, cc tc truyn dn khc nhau c th c cung cp bng cch thay i s khe thi gian c phn chia, nhng tc thp nh tc khi ch truyn tn hiu thoi ca my di ng vn yu cu cng mc cng sut nh nh mc cng sut yu cu cho cc dch v tc cc i. 3.1.6. Ci thin cc gii php chng hiu ng pha inh nhiu tia Cng ngh thu phn tp RAKE ( thu bng nhiu anten) gip nng cao cht lng tn hiu thu bng cch tch ring cc tn hiu nhiu tia thnh cc tn hiu mt tia thu
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v kt hp li. Khi bng thng rng s ci thin gii php truyn lan sng v cng sut thu yu cu s khng cn cao v hiu qu phn tp ng truyn lm s ng truyn tng ln. iu ny gip gim cng sut pht v tng dung lng. 3.1.7. Gim t l gin on tn hiu Bng thng rng lm gia tng tc bt trong knh iu khin v to ra kh nng gim t l b gin on tn hiu thu, nh , my di ng c th thu cc tn hiu mc thp trong ch ri tit kim ngun. iu ny gip ko di thi gian ch ca pin my di ng.

3.2.

CC C TNH K THUT C BN CA W-CDMA


CDMA tri ph chui trc tip FDD 5MHz 3,84 Mc/s 200 KHz ~ 2 Mbit/s 10, 20, 40, 80 ms M Tubo, M xon ng xung :QPSK, ng ln BPSK ng xung :QPSK, ng ln HPSK 4 ~ 512 D b (cng c th s dng ch ng b) AMR (1,95 kbit/s 12,2 kbit/s)

Bng 3.1 trnh by cc c tnh k thut c bn ca W-CDMA.


Phng thc truy nhp Phng thc truyn 2 chiu rng bng thng Tc chip Khong cch sng mang Tc s liu di khung s liu M hiu chnh li Phng thc iu ch s liu Phng thc iu ch tri ph H s tri ph(SF) Phng thc ng b gia cc trm gc Phng php m ha thoi

Bng 3.1 Cc c tnh k thut c bn ca W-CDMA Ghi ch: AMR: M ha nhiu tc thch ng; BPSK: iu ch pha hai trng thi; FDD: Song cng phn chia tn s; HPSK: iu ch pha hn hp (lai); QPSK: iu ch pha bn trng thi. Ban u, Hip hi kinh doanh v cng ngh v tuyn (ARIB) v Vin tiu chun vin thng chu u (ETSI) ch trng xy dng cc h thng v tuyn tp trung trn sng mang 5 MHz v cng c th bao gm c cc sng mang 10 MHz v 20 MHz. D n i tc th h th ba ( 3GPP) tp trung hon thin cc c tnh k thut cho rng bng tn 5 MHz v xa b cc c tnh k thut cho cc bng tn khc. iu ny c th l gii l do thc t th sng mang c bng tn 5 MHz l t c tc truyn dn 2 Mbit/s mc d bng tn 20 MHz s hiu qu hn cho vic truyn s liu tc ny, ch khng phi do mc tiu ca 3GPP l hon thin cc
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c tnh k thut chi tit cng nhanh cng tt. V th, phin bn hin ti v cc c tnh k thut c a ra bi 3GPP v cc tiu chun ca ARIB v ETSI ch gii hn rng bng tn 5 MHz. Ch khng ng b (d b) c p dng gia cc BS s to ra kh nng khng cn phi ng b cht ch gia tt c cc BS v nh vy s cho php trin khai linh hot cc BS. Nh vic thit k, cng c th p dng ch ng b gia cc BS. di khung c bn l 10 ms v cng c th c cc di khc nh trong bng 3.1 do s dng k thut xen k. Phng thc iu ch s liu l iu ch pha bn trng thi (QPSK) cho ng xung v iu ch pha hai trng thi (BPSK) cho ng ln. Phng thc iu ch pha hn hp (HPSK) c p dng cho iu ch tri ph ng ln. Qu trnh tch song da trn phng php tch sng nht qun c s tr gip ca k hiu hoa tiu. i vi ng xung, cc k hiu hoa tiu c ghp theo thi gian gim thiu tr trong qu trnh iu chnh cng sut pht (TPC) v n gin ha cc mch thu trong my di ng. i vi ng ln, cc k hiu hoa tiu c tri ph bi cc m tri ph khc vi s liu v c ghp vung pha (I/Q) vi s liu. iu ny m bo cho qu trnh truyn dn l lin tc ngay c khi thc hin truyn vi tc c th thay i v gim thiu cc nh trong dng sng truyn. cng l mt cch hiu qu gim nh hng ca cc trng in t v gim cc yu cu i vi mch khuych i trong my di ng. SF bin thin c p dng thu c cc tc truyn dn khc nhau. i vi ng xung, h s trI ph bin thin trc giao ( OVSF) c ng dng. a m cng c th c s dng. Cc m xon c s dng m ha knh. i vi s liu tc cao, cc m Turbo c s dng. Phng thc k hiu hoa tiu c p dng hiu qu cho vng iu chnh cng sut nhanh khp kn trong ng xung. Ngoi ra, cc k hiu hoa tiu chung s dn g gii iu ch cc knh chung cng c th c s dng gii iu ch cc knh ring.

3.3.

CU TRC CA MNG TRUY NHP V TUYN

Hnh 3.1 minh ha cu trc h thng ca W-CDMA. Mng truy nhp v tuyn (RAN) bao gm thit b iu khin mng v tuyn (RNC) v nt B, mng ny c ni vi mng li (CN) qua giao din Iu. Theo 3GPP, RAN c xem nh mng truy nhp v tuyn mt t UMTS (UTRAN).

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Mng li (CN)

Mng truy cp v tuyn (RAN) RNS RNC

Iur

RNS RNC

Iub
Nt B Ceel

Iub
Nt B

Iub
Nt B

Iub
Nt B

UE

Hnh 3.1 Cu trc mng RNC c chc nng qun l cc ti nguyn v tuyn v iu khin nt B, v d nh n thc hin iu khin chuyn giao. Nt B l nt lgic c chc nng thu v pht v tuyn, n cn c gi l trm thu pht gc (BTS). Giao din gia nt B v RNC c gi l Iub. Giao din gia cc RNC cng c qui nh vi tn gi l Iur. y l mt giao din lgic c th thc hin u ni vt l gia cc RNC. Tuy nhin, cc phng php truyn dn lun phin c th c ng dng nh mt kt ni vt l qua mng li (CN). Nt B ph sng cho mt hoc nhiu . Nu BS c phn chia sc t bi cc anten nh hng th mi sc t cng c xem nh mt nh. Nt B c kt ni vi thit b thu bao (UE) qua giao din v tuyn. RNC c chc nng qun l cc ti nguyn v tuyn v iu khin nt B, v d nh n thc hin iu khin chuyn giao. Nt B l nt lgic c chc nng thu v pht v tuyn, n cn c gi l trm thu pht gc (BTS). Giao din gia nt B v RNC c gi l Iub. Giao din gia cc RNC cng c qui nh vi tn gi l Iur. y l mt giao din lgic c th thc hin u ni vt l gia cc RNC. Tuy nhin, cc phng php truyn dn lun phin c th c ng dng nh mt kt ni vt l qua mng li (CN). Nt B ph sng cho mt hoc nhiu . Nu BS c phn chia sc t bi cc anten nh hng th mi sc t cng c xem nh mt nh. Nt B c kt ni vi thit b thu bao (UE) qua giao din v tuyn.

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3.4.

CC CNG NGH THEN CHT TRONG W-CDMA

W-CDMA s dng cc cng ngh c bit sau y.

3.4.1. S dng ch khng ng b gia cc BS v phn chia m ng xung


Ch khng ng b (d b) c p dng khi khng cn duy tr mt qu trnh ng b chnh xc gia tt c cc BS. N c s dng nhm mc ch m bo d dng trin khai ph kn sng bi cc BS cho c mi trng truyn sng trong nh v ngoi tri. Hnh 3.2 minh ha qu trnh phn chia m tri ph ng xung cho cc h thng d b. Hai b m tri ph c s dng l : b m ngu nhin v b m phn knh. M ngu nhin l mt m c gn cho mt nhn din , m ny c di khung s liu l 10 ms (di hn m phn knh) v n x l cc tn hiu nhiu t cc khc nh tp m. M phn knh nhn bit mi thu bao v tp cc m trc giao c s dng trong mi .

Hnh 3.2 Phn chia m ng xung trong ch d b gia cc BS Ch ng b s n nh mt m tng ng vi mt m ngu nhin ti mi theo ch ghp nh thi, tc l s dng vic dch nh thi (time-shifting) cho mt mu m n. Ngc li, ch d b s n nh nhiu mu theo s cc m ngu nhin. Trong trng hp ny, cn c mt s qu trnh gip UE nhn bit c n thuc v no. H thng tun theo qu trnh ba bc, cng ngh tm nhn tc cao lm gim c bn thi gian tm kim ca UE v to ra tnh kh thi cho ch d b gia cc BS.
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3.4.2. Truyn dn OVSF


cung cp cc dch v a phng tin, cn phi c phng thc hiu qu ngay c khi c s kt hp cc dch v cc tc khc nhau, t cc tc cao n cc tc thp. i vi ng xung, m tri ph OVSF c ng dng, cc m trong b m ny c to ra trc giao vi nhau d cho SF ( tc l di m) l khc nhau. iu ny cho php cung cp cc dch v c tc bt khc nhau qua cc knh trc giao vi nhau.

3.4.3. Cu trc hoa tiu


Qu trnh tch sng nht qun c s tr gip ca k hiu hoa tiu c p dng khng ch vi ng xung m vi c ng ln. Cc k hiu hoa tiu trong ng xung c ghp theo thi gian vi cc k hiu s liu gim thiu tr cho TPC v n gin ha qu trnh thu trong UE. K hiu hoa tiu s dng cho cc knh ring ghp theo thi gian trong ng xung cng c hiu qu trong qu trnh iu chnh cng sut pht (TPC ) nhanh ng xung. Mt khc, i vi ng ln cc k hiu s liu c ghp vung pha (I/Q) vi cc k hiu hoa tiu. Hay ni cch khc, chng c iu ch BPSK v c kt hp hai trng thi pha 0 v /2. iu ny lm cho cc qu trnh truyn dn tc bin thin ng ln c lin tc v khng thay i bt thng. N cng gim thiu h s nh trong dng sng truyn dn v gim bt cc yu cu cho b khuych i pht trong UE i vi ng xung, CPICH c s dng gii iu ch cc knh chung cng c s dng gii iu ch cc knh ring. Cc k hiu hoa tiu ring c ghp trn cc knh ring cng l mt gii php hu hiu m bo kh nng m rng, kh nng ng dng cc anten thch nghi v cc cng ngh khc pht trin hn na. 3.4.4. Phng php truy nhp gi Khi m truyn gi tr thnh k thut then cht i vi cc dch v 3G th nhiu nghin cu khc nhau c tin hnh trn cc cng ngh truyn.W-CDMA chn gii php s dng h thng c kh nng chuyn i thch ng gia cc knh chung v cc knh ring theo lu lng s liu. Hnh 3.3 trnh by c ch truyn gi. Khi lng s liu cn truyn ln th vic n nh knh ring DPCH l hiu qu hn v cng sut s dng l thp nht nh qu trnh
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TPC. Ngc li, khi lng s liu cn truyn nh v lu lng thay i t bin th vic s dng mt knh chung s hiu qu hn. Trong phng php ny, h thng s chuyn i thch ng gia cc knh chung v cc knh ring theo lu lng s liu .

Hnh 3.3 Truyn gi tin thch ng theo cc knh chung v knh ring Cc phng php khc cng c s dng, bao gm phng php dng knh chia s (chung) ng xung, trong mt knh ng xung c chia s bi nhiu thu bao. Cc knh ring tc thp c gn vo knh chia s ng xung. Cc knh iu khin vt l (CCH) trn cc knh ring ny thc hin vic iu khin v ch ra thng tin cn gii m knh chia s. Knh chia s ng xung c tin cy truyn s liu tc cao ng xung mt cch hiu qu. 3.4.5. Cc m Turbo V cc m sa li, cc nghin cu tp trung vo vic ng dng cc m turbo vi thng tin di ng, cc m ny c xc nhn l c hiu sut sa li cao i vi cc qu trnh truyn dn tc tng i cao. 3.4.6. TPC i vi ng ln, TPC l mt chc nng cn thit chng li hiu ng xa-gn trong CDMA tri ph chui trc tip (DS-CDMA), t s cng sut tn hiu trn nhiu (SIR) da trn TPC c p dng. i vi ng xung, TPC p dng cng chu trnh nh i vi ng ln, qu trnh TPC cng nhanh th cng hiu qu trong vic ci thin hiu sut ng xung.
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3.4.7. Phn tp truyn dn Mt s cng ngh phn tp truyn dn c nghin cu v sau c p dng nng cao hiu sut gm: phng php phn tp anten pht chuyn mch thi gian (TSTD) v phn tp anten pht da trn m khi thi gian-khng gian (STTD) dng vng m trong khng s dng vng hi tip; v hai phng php ny dng vng kn trong c s dng vng hi tip. TSTD chuyn i anten pht trong mi khe, ngc li STTD ci thin hiu qu sa li nh vic ngu nhin ha cc li ti im thu bng cch m ha s liu ging nhau v gi ng thi chng ti hai anten pht. Dng vng kn, c p dng vi cc knh ring s lm gim nh hng ca pha inh bng cch iu chnh pha sng mang pht ra t hai anten theo tn hiu tham chiu phn hi t UE ti im thu.

3.5.

K THUT THU PHT SONG CNG (HAI CHIU ) PHN CHIA THEO THI GIAN (TDD) V K THUT THU PHT SONG CNG PHN CHIA THEO TN S (FDD)

Phng thc song cng trong W-CDMA l FDD. Tuy nhin, 3GPP pht trin cc ch tiu k thut ca W-CDMA ( tc l UTRA FDD) khng gii hn vi mt FDD. N cng pht trin cc ch tiu k thut cho TDD, UTRA TDD. Mt TDD c pht trin theo hng c nhiu c tnh chung vi FDD. Trong thc t, cc giao thc lp cao hn l ging nhau trong FDD v TDD. Cc thng s c bn lp 1 ca TDD cng ging nh trong FDD. V d nh tc chp, di khung, cc phng php iu ch v gii iu ch, v cc thng s k thut then cht khc cng ging nhau trong c hai mt. C hai ty chn lin quan n tc chp l 3,84 Mc/s v 1,28 Mc/s ( tc l 1/3 ca 3,84 Mc/s).

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KT LUN
Trc s bng n v nhu cu truyn thng khng dy c v s lng, cht lng v cc loi hnh dch v, cng ngh GSM ang c pht trin c th h tr v p ng. Tuy nhin, tc ca mng GSM hin thi vn cn qu chm v khng p ng c, iu ny i hi cc nh khai thc phi c c cng ngh truyn thng khng dy nhanh hn v tt hn. Vic s dng h thng chuyn mch knh tc cao (HSCSD) s nng c tc d liu trn mng GSM ln n 57.6KBps, tuy nhin cng ngh ny vn cha p ng thch ng yu cu v mt k thut. Gii php GPRS, EDGE trn mng GSM v sau nng cp ln W-CDMA l mt gii php kh thi v thch hp vi cc nc ang pht trin nh nc ta v c th tn dng c c s h tng mng GSM ng thi c qu u t tin ln 3G. Dch v v tuyn gi chung GPRS to ra tc cao ch yu nh vo s kt hp cc khe thi gian, tuy nhin k thut ny vn da trn phng thc iu ch GMSK nn hn ch tc truyn. Gii php dch v v tuyn gi chung nng cao EDGE khc phc c hn ch ny bng cch thay th phng thc iu ch GMSK bng 8PSK, iu ny gip nng cao tc ca mng GPRS ln 2 n 3 ln. Kh khn ch yu lin quan n cc k thut v tuyn trn my u cui do vic thay i k thut iu ch. Tuy nhin EDGE l vn hot ng da trn trn c s chuyn mch knh v chuyn mch gi hn ch tc 384KBps nn s kh khan trong vic ng dng cc dch v i hi vic chuyn mch linh ng hn v tc truyn d liu ln hn. Lc ny gii php a ra l nng cp ln h thng WCDMA. Vic nng cp cc h thng thng tin di ng ln th h ba c th p ng c cc yu cu hin ti. Trong tng lai, khi m cng ngh 3G khng p ng c yu cu th cng ngh thng tin di ng th h t l gii php tip theo vi tc ln ti 34Mbps. im mu cht trong thng tin di ng th h t l thay i phng php a truy cp kinh in bng cc phng php a truy cp cho hiu Trong khun kh ti em tm hiu c c im c bn ca qu trnh x l bng rng trong h thng W-CDMA , ng dng cc u im ca cng ngh ny trong thng tin di ng .

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Do kin thc cn hn hp nn trong n chc chn s khng trnh khi thiu st , em rt mong s gp ca cc thy c cng nh cc bn . Em xin chn thnh cm n thy L Quc Vng cng cc thy c trong ngnh in t vin thng Trng i hc Hng Hi gip em hon thnh n ny !

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THUT NG VIT TT
BS (Base Station): Trm gc BPSK (Binary Phase-Shift Keying ) : Kha dch pha nh phn CDMA ( Code Division Multiple Access): a truy nhp phn chia theo m DS (Direct Sequence): Chui trc tip DS-CDMA (Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access) DSSS (Direct Sequence Spreading Spectrum) : Tri ph theo chui trc tip.

EDGE (Enhanced Data rate for GSM Evolution):Tng tc truyn dn FEC (Forward Error Correction) : Hiu chnh li thun

FHSS (Frequency Hopping Spreading Spectrum): Tri ph theo nhy tn. FM (Frequency Modulation) : iu tn

FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) : a truy nhp phn chia theo m GMSK (Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying) GPRS (General Packet Radio Services) GSM (Global System for Mobile) HSCSD (Hight Speed Circuit Switched Data) cao. PN (Pseudo Noise) QPSK (Quadrature Phase Shift Keying) RF(Radio Frequency) SCH (sync channel): Knh ng b SNR (S/N) (Signal-To-Noise Ratio) SS (Spread Spectrum)
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: iu ch kha dch pha cc tiu . : Dch v v tuyn gi chung : H thng thng tin di ng ton cu : H thng chuyn mch knh tc

: M tri ph gi ngu nhin : iu ch pha vung gc :Tn s v tuyn (cao tn)

: T s tn hiu trn tp m : Tri ph

TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access) gian THSS (Time Hopping Spreading Spectrum)

: a truy nhp phn chia theo thi

: Tri ph theo nhy thi gian.

W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access): a truy nhp phn chia theo m bng rng

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